Sample records for nigeria assessing progress

  1. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2012-September 2013.


    Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, and since 2003, Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction to 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government activated an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized 1) improving quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), 2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, 3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, 4) improving outbreak response, 5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and 6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During January-September 2013, 49 polio cases were reported from 26 local government areas (LGAs) in nine states in Nigeria, compared with 101 cases reported from 70 LGAs in 13 states during the same period in 2012. For all of 2012, a total of 122 cases were reported. No WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases have been reported since November 2012. For the first time ever, in 2013, no polio cases of any type have been detected in the northwest of Nigeria; however, transmission continues in Kano and states in the northeast. Despite considerable progress, 24 LGAs in 2012 and seven LGAs in 2013 reported two or more cases; WPV continues to circulate in eight LGAs that had cases in 2012. Efforts to interrupt transmission remain impeded by insecurity, anti-polio-vaccine sentiment, and chronically poor SIA implementation in selected areas. Improvement of SIA quality and effective outbreak response will be needed to interrupt WPV transmission in 2014.

  2. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Nigeria, January 2014-July 2015.

    Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Ticha, Johnson M; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Chevez, Ana Elena; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei-Wa; Burns, Cara C; Wassilak, Steven G F; Vertefeuille, John F


    Since the 1988 launch of global poliomyelitis eradication efforts, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free. Nigeria is one of only three countries, along with Afghanistan and Pakistan, where transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. During 2003-2013, northern Nigeria served as a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government launched a national polio eradication emergency plan to intensify efforts to interrupt WPV transmission. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2014-July 2015 and updates previous reports. No WPV cases have been reported to date in 2015, compared with a total of six cases reported during 2014. Onset of paralysis in the latest reported WPV type 1 (WPV1) case was July 24, 2014. Only one case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been reported to date in 2015, compared with 20 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2014. Pending final laboratory testing of 218 remaining specimens of 16,617 specimens collected since January 2015, Nigeria could be removed from the WHO list of polio-endemic countries in September 2015. Major remaining challenges to the national polio eradication program include sustaining political support and program funding in the absence of active WPV transmission, maintaining high levels of population immunity in hard-to-reach areas, and accessing children in security-compromised areas of the northeastern states.

  3. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2011-September 2012.


    In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) and, in 2012, declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. To date, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases reported worldwide in 2012 are at historically low levels. Nigeria is one of only three countries with uninterrupted WPV transmission (in addition to Pakistan and Afghanistan) and has been the origin of WPV imported into 25 previously polio-free countries since 2003. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2011-September 2012, as of October 30, 2012. The number of reported WPV cases increased from 21 in 2010 to 62 in 2011. During January-September 2012, a total of 99 WPV cases were reported, more than doubling from the 42 cases reported during the same period in 2011. During 2011, a total of 32 circulating vaccine-derived polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were confirmed; six cVDPV2 cases were confirmed during January-September 2012, compared with 18 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2011. Nigeria's 2012 Polio Eradication Emergency Plan includes senior government leadership oversight, new program management and strategic initiatives, an accountability framework, and a surge in human resources to address chronically missed children during supplemental immunization activities (SIAs).* In 2012, indicators of immunization campaign quality show modest improvements; available data indicate gaps in surveillance. Continuing WPV transmission in Nigeria poses an ongoing risk for WPV reintroduction and outbreaks in polio-free countries and is a major obstacle to achieving global eradication.

  4. An assessment of Nigeria urban youth music

    Nkechi M. Christopher


    Full Text Available Music embodies culture, expressing relevant features of a people’s life. Music is an integral aspect of African culture, occupying a special place in the celebration of birth and death and other events in-between. Indeed it is difficult to imagine life without music in traditional Nigerian society where all strata and age groups have their own music; a richness of life that urban communities failed to totally replicate, being that they are composites of ethno-linguistic fragments. Thus, the evolving youth popular music culture is significant in many respects, especially as it cuts across ethnic divides and provides entertainment for a group in heretofore largely ignored in Nigerian urban society. Its potentials, and its retrogressive potency, in national development require that popular culture be studied to ascertain the message and mindset of active and passive participants. This article summarises aspects of youth music in Nigeria as assessed by undergraduate students.

  5. Nigeria.

    Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

    Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

  6. Nigeria


    influenza, or bird flu , in a 22-year-old deceased female from Lagos. She is believed to be the first human to have died from the disease in Sub-Saharan...countries.71 A new strain of bird flu was detected in Nigeria in August 2008. 71 For



    Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabi...

  8. Auditor’s Risk Assessment of Independent Directors in Nigeria

    Salau Abdulmalik


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the external auditor’s risk assessment of independent directors in Nigeria. The study utilized data from 94 non-financial listed companies on the Nigerian Stock Exchange for the periods 2008-2013. The study used cross-sectional time-series feasible generalized least square regression, which account for heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation to test the influence independent non-executive director on auditor pricing decision in Nigeria. Our result indicates that the proportion of independent non-executive director has a positive relationship with audit fees, suggesting that this class of directors is priced high by the Nigerian auditors. These findings have both policy and practical implication on corporate governance. For instance, future regulatory reforms could consider collaborative board model instead of the insistence on more independent director presence in the boardroom.

  9. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria Educational Assessment System--Emerging Challenges

    Aworanti, Olatunde Awotokun


    This paper examines Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria educational assessment system with its emerging challenges. This is inevitable following the globalisation trend which has brought drastic changes in the world of technology. The essence of the paper is to describe the present status of ICT in the Nigeria educational…

  10. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Cletus Uche Eze


    Full Text Available Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation.


    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola


    Full Text Available Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabilistic risk assessment. The six categories of runway accident hazards are runway surface conditions, weather conditions, collision risk, aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures and human factors. The Fault Tree developed is a system of OR-gates and the weights for each hazard were derived through a domain/expert opinion. The estimated probability of occurrence of runway accident which is the top event of the Fault Tree model is 0.2624. Fault Tree Analysis; thus, identifies the most likely root causes of runway accident through importance measures. The results of the analysis show close relationship of runway accidents in Nigeria aviation sector with aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures, human factor, weather conditions and collision risk.

  12. An Assessment of Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP in Nigeria

    Adam Adem ANYEBE


    Full Text Available Poverty situation in Nigeria has become so serious that in 2013 there were as many as 112 million or 70.0% of the country’s population was living below poverty line. It has realized that poverty anywhere is a threat to peace, security and prosperity everywhere hence the conscious efforts by successive administrations in Nigeria to eradicate all forms of extreme poverty and hunger in a country. In spite of these efforts to eradicate absolute poverty in the country, poverty incidence has been on the rise. This study, therefore, attempted to assess NAPEP as a programme to eradicate extreme poverty in the country. Personal interviews and documents were employed in data collection. The data were analyzed using tables, simple percentages and spearman rank correlation. The study showed among others, that NAPEP as a programme targeted at eradicating extreme poverty has not been effective leading to a mixed bag of limited success and continuing challenges. It was therefore, recommended that the programme should be re-examined and possibly re-designed for effective performance instead of scrapping it.

  13. Assessment of Fish Biodiversity in Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Obe Bernardine Wuraola


    Full Text Available For the purpose of sustainable exploitation of the fishery resourcesof Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria, the fish biodiversity assessment was carried out. This was conducted by enumerating and identifying fish species composition, measuring the fish length, fish weight, assessing the fish abundance and biomass, determining the length-weight relationships and the length-frequency of the fishes. Altogether, 592 fishes were sampled comprising twenty-eight (28 species belonging to sixteen (16 families. The families identified included: Cichlidae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Channidae, Malapteruridae, Gymnarchidae, Bagridae, Mochokidae, Polypteridae, Pantodontidae,Schilbeidae, Anabantidae, Osteoglossidae, Characidae, Notopteridaeand Distichodontidae. The family Mormyridae was the most abundant with 163 members followed by Cichlidae with 161 members. The least represented family was Schilbeidae with only two (2 members. On the species level, Tilapia zillii had the greatest number of representation with seventy (70 members, followed by Oreochromis niloticus with fifty-eight (58 members.

  14. Assessment of some heavy elements in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria

    Butu, A.W


    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the levels of concentration and distribution of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn and Cu in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria which spanned to 35Km. The main source of data was the surface water from the lower and the upper regions of the dam. The samples were collected and prepared in the laboratory according to standard method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS technique was used to analyze the data. The results showed concentration of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Zn and Cu at various levels and the concentration of Ni below detectable level. The results also showed the distribution of these elements at lower and upper regions of Galma dam. The enrichment of these heavy elements in the dam could be explained by the loading of the dam with debris and effluents produced by various human activities within the dam catchment area through overland and base flows and the release of elements from geologic processes. The concentration of Pb, Cr and Fe were observed to be slightly above NIS and WHO standards for drinking water. To minimize pollution of the reserviour, it is strongly recommended that there should be reduction in levels of some unhealthy practices such as indiscriminate discharge of effluents like, engine oil, lubricants, used batteries, electric bulbs/fluorescent tubes, electronic and electrical appliances and high level use of chemicals on the farms are recommended to be discouraged.

  15. Assessment of the Implementation of the Reading Component of the English Language Curriculum for Basic Education in Nigeria

    Yusuf, Hanna Onyi


    This study assessed the implementation of the reading component of the Junior Secondary School English Language Curriculum for Basic Education in Nigeria. Ten (10) randomly selected public and private secondary schools from Kaduna metropolis in Kaduna State of Nigeria were used for the study. Among the factors assessed in relation to the…

  16. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi, E-mail: [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu [Demography and Population Studies Programme, The University of Witwatersrand Johannesburg (South Africa); Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche [Department of Archaeology and Tourism, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma [Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka (Nigeria); Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi [Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria)


    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes.

  17. Nigeria : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Main Text and Annexes

    World Bank


    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) for Nigeria reviews the procurement system in terms of: legal framework, public sector procurement of goods/works/consultants, procurement performance in Bank-financed projects, private sector procurement, trade practices, financial framework, and electronic commerce. The report consists of two volumes. The first volume contains a summary o...

  18. Nigeria : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 1. Summary of Findings and Recommendations

    World Bank


    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) for Nigeria reviews the procurement system in terms of: legal framework, public sector procurement of goods/works/consultants, procurement performance in Bank-financed projects, private sector procurement, trade practices, financial framework, and electronic commerce. The report consists of two volumes. The first volume contains a summary o...

  19. Employers Assessment of Work Ethics Required of University Business Education Graduates in South-South Nigeria

    Okoro, James


    This study examined the employers assessment of work ethics required of university Business Education graduates in south south Nigeria. One research question and three hypotheses guided the study. The design of this study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 318 identified employers of Business Education graduates in…

  20. Assessing Pupils' Progress in Science

    Slade, Peter


    Good assessment practice is a fundamental part of good teaching and learning. It puts learners at the heart of the process, helping them to recognise achievement and make progress, and enables teachers to shape and adapt their teaching to individual needs and aspirations. Over the past year, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) has…


    DIOHA M.O.


    Full Text Available The energy requirement of Nigeria is increasing exponentially with little projects available to carter for this increasing demand. The primary source of energy in the country which is fossil fuel creates environmental pollution and is also finite in nature. Hence, there is a serious need to look for other alternative ways to meet up with the energy requirement of the country. This paper analysed some of the economic and sustainability benefits for Nigeria by deploying and integrating wind energy into her energy mix. The study was done with the RETScreen Clean Energy software tool, designed by Natural Resources Canada. The study began with a brief review of the various wind energy resource assessment done previously in the country and Maiduguri town was selected as the area of study from the reviews. The technical and financial analyses of the study showed that if the project is implemented it will be beneficial to Maiduguri town and Nigeria in the long run. The process of electricity generation from 100 units of VESTAS V80 in Maiduguri yielded MWh 525,600 and saves about 202,881.6 tonnes of CO2. Without incentives, the financial analysis showed that the project is not financially viable with the equity payback greater than the project life. Key issues affecting the development of wind energy technology in Nigeria were also discussed.

  2. Progress in NTHMP Hazard Assessment

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Titov, V.V.; Mofjeld, H.O.; Venturato, A.J.; Simmons, R.S.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.; Eisner, R.K.; Hoirup, D.F.; Yanagi, B.S.; Yong, S.; Darienzo, M.; Priest, G.R.; Crawford, G.L.; Walsh, T.J.


    The Hazard Assessment component of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program has completed 22 modeling efforts covering 113 coastal communities with an estimated population of 1.2 million residents that are at risk. Twenty-three evacuation maps have also been completed. Important improvements in organizational structure have been made with the addition of two State geotechnical agency representatives to Steering Group membership, and progress has been made on other improvements suggested by program reviewers. ?? Springer 2005.

  3. Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria.

    Ayandiran, T A; Dahunsi, S O


    Toxicological evaluation of Clarias gariepinus from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria, was carried out in furtherance of studies on the environmental impacts of the bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were taken from three different (two polluted and one as control) sites. The effect of changes in monthly seasonal flow rate was assessed for the sites of study. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) and histological changes/lesions in various organs were evaluated as markers of pollution in the fish blood using standard methods. The result of the physicochemical properties of water from the sampling points revealed some of the values conforming to approved standards while others showed deviation. Significant differences were found in the blood and histological endpoints between the control and the polluted sites as well as between the two seasons evaluated across the sites. The public health implications of consuming this fish are fully discussed.

  4. Groundwater Quality Assessment near a Municipal Landfill, Lagos, Nigeria

    E.O. Longe


    Full Text Available The current research examined the level of groundwater contamination near a municipal landfill sitein Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Water quality parameters (physico-chemical andheavy metals of leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed. The mean concentrations of all measuredparameters except NO3G, PO4+ and CrG conform to the stipulated World Health Organization potable waterstandards and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Mean concentration values for TDS, DO,NH4+, SO4+, PO4+, NO3G and ClG are 9.17 mg LG1, 3.19 mg LG1, 0.22 mg LG1, 1.60 mg LG1, 10.73 mg LG1, 38.5mg LG1 and 7.80 mg LG1 respectively. The mean concentration values for Fe, Mn, Zn and Cr- in groundwatersamples are 0.07mg LG1, 0.08mg LG1, 0.08mg LG1 and 0.44mg LG1 respectively. The current results showinsignificant impact of the landfill operations on the groundwater resource. The existing soil stratigraphy atthe landfill site consisting of clay and silty clay is deduced to have significantly influenced natural attenuationof leachate into the groundwater resource. It is however observed that in the absence of a properly designedleachate collection system, uncontrolled accumulation of leachates at the base of the landfill pose potentialcontamination risk to groundwater resource in the very near future. The research recommends an upgrade ofthe solous landfill to a standard that would guarantee adequate protection of both the surface and thegroundwater resources in the locality.

  5. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in cosmetics in Nigeria.

    Nduka, John K; Odiba; Orisakwe, Orish E; Ukaebgu, Linda D; Sokaibe, Chinwetuto; Udowelle, Nnaemeka A


    Forty two different cosmetics were purchased from supermarkets and cosmetic shops within Unitsha Main Market and Eke-Awka markets in Anambra, Nigeria. Of the cosmetics, 16% were locally manufactured in Nigeria while 83.33% were imported into Nigeria. The cosmetics were ashed before digestion and filtration. The filtrates were assayed for lead, cadmium, manganese, nickel, chromium, mercury, and arsenic with atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 205 Å. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency were employed to explore the potential human health risk of heavy metals in cosmetics. About 61.91% of the cosmetic samples contained lead with concentration in the range of 0.10-42.12 mg/kg. Cadmium levels of the cosmetics ranged from 0.01 to 1.32 mg/kg, manganese from 0.02 to 67.65 mg/kg, nickel from 0.05 to 17.34 mg/kg, chromium from 0.11 to 9.81 mg/kg, mercury from 0.003 to 0.07 mg/kg, and arsenic from 0.002 to 0.005 mg/kg. Although the target hazard quotients and the hazard indices suggest a measure of safety, cosmetics may add to the body burden of potential toxic metals after chronic exposure.

  6. Nigeria's National Health Act: An assessment of health professionals' knowledge and perception

    Osahon Enabulele


    Full Text Available Background: Nigeria's National Health Act 2014 (NHA 2014 was signed into law on October 31, 2014. It provides a legal framework for the regulation, development, and management of Nigeria's Health System. This study assessed the knowledge and perception of the NHA 2014 by health professionals. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted in December 2015, in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. Data entry and analysis were done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (IBM SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA statistical software, with Pearson's Chi-square, which is used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at a P < 0.05. Results: The study population comprised 130 health professionals (medical doctors/dentists, nurses, pharmacists, laboratory scientists, and other health-related professionals in attendance at a medical conference. The respondents' age ranged from 21 to 75 years with a mean age of 44.53 ± 12.46 years. Medical practitioners accounted for 82.3% of the respondents. Although most (79.2% respondents had a good perception of the NHA 2014 with majority (86.2% claiming they were aware of the act, majority (73.8% exhibited poor knowledge of the act. A little more than half (53.1% of the respondents believed that the NHA 2014 will help to reduce strike actions in the health sector. Conclusion: Although health professionals in Nigeria have good awareness and perception of the NHA 2014, their knowledge of the Act is poor.

  7. Assessment of Noise and Associated Health Impacts at Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Godson R. E. E. Ana


    Full Text Available Background. Most schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, are located near major roads (mobile line sources. We conducted an initial assessment of noise levels and adverse noise-related health and learning effects. Methods. For this descriptive, cross-sectional study, four schools were selected randomly from eight participating in overall project. We administered 200 questionnaires, 50 per school, assessing health and learning-related outcomes. Noise levels (A-weighted decibels, dBA were measured with calibrated sound level meters. Traffic density was assessed for school with the highest measured dBA. Observational checklists assessed noise control parameters and building physical attributes. Results. Short-term, cross-sectional school-day noise levels ranged 68.3–84.7 dBA. Over 60% of respondents reported that vehicular traffic was major source of noise, and over 70% complained being disturbed by noise. Three schools reported tiredness, and one school lack of concentration, as the most prevalent noise-related health problems. Conclusion. Secondary school occupants in Ibadan, Nigeria were potentially affected by exposure to noise from mobile line sources.

  8. Modeling and preliminary assessment of crude oil contaminated soil in Ogoni (Nigeria)

    Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay


    In 2010, a severe contamination of soil and groundwater caused by the production and transportation of crude oil were detected in the Ogoni area, Federal Republic of Nigeria. A linear correlation between aliphatics and aromatics and the missing link between the degree of contamination and the depth of the soil samples indicate incomplete earlier remediation activities. 665 analyzed samples were mathematically reduced to 28 contamination patterns that can be distinguished by type and degree of pollution, environmentally assessed and visualized by a quasi 3-D model. Case studies taken from the Local Government Areas Eleme, Gokana, Khana, and Tai show the methodology and results.

  9. Assessment of disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns of health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria

    Ehijie F.O. Enato


    Full Text Available Few studies have systematically characterized drug-prescribing patterns, particularly at the primary care level in Nigeria, a country disproportionately burdened with disease. The aim of this study was to assess the disease profiles and drug-prescribing pattern in two health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. The medical records of 495 patients who attended a primary or secondary health care facility in Owan-East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between June and November 2009 were reviewed. Disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns were assessed. Data were analyzed based on the World Health Organization Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and core drug prescribing indicators. Five hundred and twelve clinical conditions were identified. Infectious disease was most prevalent (38.3%, followed by disorder of the alimentary tract (16.4%. Malaria was responsible for 55.6% of the infectious diseases seen, and 21.3% (109/512 of the total clinical conditions managed at the two health facilities during the study period. Consequently, anti-infective medications were the most frequently prescribed medicines (21.5%, followed by vitamins (18.2%. Use of artesunate monotherapy at both facilities (15.7%, and chloroquine at the primary health facility (24.9% were common. Paracetamol (41.8% and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (24.9% were the most frequently used analgesic/antipyretic. At the primary health care facility, dipyrone was used in 21.6% of cases. The core drug prescribing use indicators showed inappropriate prescribing, indicating poly-pharmacy, overuse of antibiotics and injectio. Inappropriate drug use patterns were identified at both health care facilities, especially with regard to the use of ineffective antimalarial drugs and the use of dipyrone.

  10. Assessment of Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence among Children Attending Care at a Tertiary Hospital in Southeastern Nigeria

    Cletus Akahara


    Full Text Available Background. Adherence is the strongest predictor of successful treatment outcome among children infected with HIV. Our aim was to assess the antiretroviral drugs adherence status of HIV-infected children attending care at a tertiary hospital in Southeastern Nigeria. Method. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 210 HIV-infected children attending care at a tertiary hospital in Southeastern Nigeria using self-report method of assessment. Optimal ART adherence is defined as patient taking not missing more than 1 dose of combined antiretroviral therapy medication in the preceding 2 weeks prior to the study. Result. A majority of the subjects 191 (91% had good adherence. There was a significant relationship between adherence and patient educational level (p=0.004, duration of treatment (p=0.001, drug administrator (p=0.005, and orphan status (p=0.001. The motivating factor for adherence was “not falling sick as before” while stigma was the most discouraging factor. Conclusion. The adherence level in this study was good. Stigma was an important reason given by patient/caregivers for nonadherence. There is need for concerted effort in addressing this barrier to improve adherence and prevent the emergence of drug resistance and treatment failure.

  11. Use of Portfolio Assessment Technique in Teaching Map Sketching and Location in Secondary School Geography in Jos, Nigeria

    Ugodulunwa, Christiana; Wakjissa, Sayita


    This study investigated the use of portfolio assessment technique in teaching map sketching and location in geography in Jos, Nigeria. It adopted a quasi-experimental design. Two schools were selected using a table of random numbers from a population of 51 schools in Jos South and assigned to each of experimental and control group. The…

  12. An expost economic assessment of the intervention against highly pathogenic avian influenza in Nigeria

    Mohamadou L. Fadiga


    Full Text Available This study assesses the intervention against avian influenza in Nigeria. It applied a simple compartmental model to define endemic and burn-out scenarios for the risk of spread of HPAI in Nigeria. It followed with the derivation of low and high mortality risks associated to each scenario. The estimated risk parameters were subsequently used to stochastically simulate the trajectory of the disease, had no intervention been carried out. Overall, the intervention costs US$ 41 million, which was yearly dis- bursed in various amounts over the 2006-2010 period. The key output variables (incremental net benefit, disease cost, and benefit cost ratio were estimated for each randomly drawn risk parameter. With a 12% annual discount rate, the results show that the intervention was economically justified under the endemic scenario with high mortality risk. On average, incremental benefit under this scenario amounted to US$ 63.7 million, incremental net benefit to US$27.2 million, and benefit cost ratio estimated to 1.75.

  13. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Irohibe Ifeoma


    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  14. Impact Assessment of Bank Consolidation on the Performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria

    Edirin Jeroh


    Full Text Available This study focuses on an impact assessment of the consolidation exercise on the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. While prior studies focused on the financial performance of banks (with emphasis on profitability, the main thrust of this study was on how the consolidation exercise had affected different areas of commercial banks in Nigeria other than profitability. Secondary data were sourced from the annual accounts and statistical bulletins of the CBN and SEC respectively for the relevant years. The data obtained were analysed by means of sensitivity analysis, in addition to the correlation and regression analyses. The results obtained show that the consolidation exercise had positive impact on the selected variables (Non Performing Loans, Liquidity Ratio, Bank Credit to Private Sector and Bank Capital To Asset Ratio for this study. Based on the above findings, we recommend among others that while efforts are made by the CBN to sustain the increased capital base of banks, a very sound corporate governance framework and effective risk management systems must be put in place to check the level of non-performing loans which seem to be predominant in the industry. The quality of bank credit to private sector and their recovery procedures should also be improved upon.

  15. Microbiological Assessment of Poultry Feeds within Ilorin, Nigeria

    Ismaila Olawale SULE


    Full Text Available The poultry feeds were obtained from 20 different poultry pens and their microbial contents were assessed. The antibiotics resistance patterns of the bacterial isolates were also determined. The bacterial count ranged from 5.0 × 103 to 1.76 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal count ranged from 3.5 × 104 to 1.9 × 105 cfu/g. The bacterial species isolated were Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus roseus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus hominis, while the fungal species isolated were Saccharomyces cerevisisae, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp., Humicola grisea, Aspergillus fumigatus, Hansenula sp. and Humicola fuscoatra. All the bacterial isolates were resistant to ceftazidime and cefuroxime and all the isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Ofloxacin produced the highest zone of inhibition, followed by gentamicin, and then erythromycin. The presence of some pathogenic microorganisms in the poultry feeds revealed high level of contaminations. It is recommended that poultry feeds should be made from good quality grains and it should be prevented from environmental or other contamination.

  16. Progress Maps. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    Masters, Geoff; Forster, Margaret

    A progress map describes the nature of development in an area of learning and thus serves as a frame of reference for monitoring individual growth. An essential feature of a progress map, which is an integral component of Developmental Assessment, is that it describes and illustrates developing competence. The first step in constructing a progress…

  17. Assessment of Mobile Health Nursing Intervention Knowledge among Community Health Nurses in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Titilayo, Odetola D; Okanlawon, F A


    Maternal mortality is high in Nigeria especially in rural areas due to knowledge deficit about expected care and labour process, socio-cultural belief, health care workers' attitude, physical and financial barriers to quality health care access. Mobile health (m-health) technology which is the use of mobile telecommunication devices in health care delivery reduces costs, improves care access, removes time and distance barriers and facilitates patient-provider communications needed to make appropriate health decisions. Previous studies empowering nurses with m-health knowledge resulted in improved uptake of health care services. There exists a literature dearth about knowledge and perception of nurses in Nigeria. This study became expedient to empower nurses working at the grassroots with the knowledge of m-health and assess the impact of educational training on their perception of its effectiveness. This quasi-experimental study carried out in four randomly selected LGAs across Oyo South Senatorial district involved participants at experimental (20 nurses) and control levels (27 nurses). A validated 25-item questionnaire explored nurses' perception, knowledge and perceived effectiveness of m-health in improving uptake of maternal health services in Nigeria among both groups before intervention. Intervention group nurses had a training equipping them with knowledge of m-health nursing intervention (MNHI) for a period of one week. Their perception, knowledge and perceived effectiveness were re-assessed at three-months and six-months after MHNI. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and repeated measures ANOVA at 5% significance level. In the EG, knowledge score significantly increased from 21.9±4.5 at baseline to 23.6±4.6 and 23.2±5.6 at three-month and six-month respectively while there was no significant difference in knowledge score among CG over the study period. A very significant difference was shown in the knowledge and perception of mobile health and its

  18. Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.

    Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N


    The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from 2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested.


    Michael AKPAN


    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM, Furniture (Fand Wood Carving (WC, including a Control (C wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV andInternational (WHO regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA statistics was used in data analysis.Results revealed that the measured environmentalparameters (air quality, soil and noise pollutions did notdiffer significantly (P<0.05 from the 3 industrial locations,but significant differences between the various locationsand control were obtained.

  20. Assessment of the Impact of Extension Services on Fish Farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Agbebi, F. O.


    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the impact of access to extension services on fish farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated the socio – economic characteristics of fish farmers, information disseminated to fish farmers, attributes of extension agents, and farmers’ access to extension services and farmers profitability. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the farmers and a sample size of 90 fish farmers was selected from the six local government selected. Analysis of data was carried out using frequency and percentage tables and Gross Margin analysis was used to determine the profitability of the farmers. There was relationship between farmers’ access to extension services and their profitability. It was recommended that extension agents should intensify their efforts in reaching farmers and passing useful information to them in order to increase farmers’ profitability.

  1. Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria

    Obiageli R. Ezeigbo; C. A. Ike-Amadi; C. Ibebuike; F. U. Okike-Osissiogu; N.G. Agomoh


    A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial ...

  2. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean


    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  3. Portfolios in Progress: Reevaluating Assessment.

    Spence, Sarah L.; Theriot, Billie


    Analyzes the adjustments and changes that have evolved from the inception of a pilot portfolio program through the fifth semester of its implementation in a developmental English class. The program allows for authentic, performance-based assessment and challenges students to assume more control of their writing. Asserts that the final portfolio…

  4. Learning Progressions that Support Formative Assessment Practices

    Alonzo, Alicia C.


    Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) lay out a comprehensive vision for the way that learning progressions (or other "road maps") might be used to inform and coordinate formative and summative purposes of assessment. As Black, Wilson, and others have been arguing for over a decade, the effective use of formative assessment has great potential to…

  5. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater quality in parts of the niger delta, Nigeria

    Amadi, P. A.; Ofoegbu, C. O.; Morrison, T.


    Detailed hydrogeochemical analysis of several samples of groundwater collected from parts of the Niger Delta, Nigeria has been carried out in an effort to assess the quality of groundwater in the area. Results obtained showed the groundwater in the area to be enriched in Na+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-, HCO{3/-}, and SO{4/-}. The concentration of these ions as well as such parameters as salinity, total hardness, and TDS are below the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water. The concentration of Ca++ was found to be higher than Mg++ except in some areas very close to the coast suggesting the encroachment of saltwater. This encroachment of saltwater is further indicated by the general increase in Cl- and a decreased in HCO{3/-} content towards the coast and Na/Cl ratios. On the basis of the present hydrogeochemical studies, five groundwater types have been recognized to occur in the area of study. These are (1) Sodium-Calcium-Magnesium-Bicarbonate type (Na-Ca-Mg-5HCO3), (2) Iron-Calcium-Bicarbonate type (Fe-Ca-4HCO3), (3) Sodium-Calcium-Magnesium-Sulfate type (Na - Ca - Mg - tfrac{5}{2}SO_4 ), (4) Iron-Chloride-Bicarbonate (Fe-Cl-HCO3), and (5) Magnesium-Chloride type (Mg-2Cl). The assemblage of groundwater types in the area shows that both compound and single groundwater types occur. The geochemical characteristics of the groundwaters are thought to be closely related to the peculiar geologic and hydrologic conditions that prevail in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.

  6. Assessment of gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry egg, a case study in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Hafis Odunlami; Peter Adebola Okuneye; Musekiku Adebayo Shittu; Ajani R. Sanusi; Issa Olalekan Eledgbede; Fatima Kies


    Gender has been seen as an important factor in the distribution and utilization of productive resources worldwide. In the agricultural sector, gender differential could influence the sourcing and efficient utilization of factors of production, particularly in the livestock sub-sector of the economy. This study assessed the gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry eggs production in Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondent po...

  7. Assessment of radiation exposure levels at Alaba e-waste dumpsite in comparison with municipal waste dumpsites in southwest Nigeria

    N.N. Jibiri; M.O. Isinkaye; H.A. Momoh


    Radiation exposures at the e-waste dumpsite around Alaba International Market, Lagos and three municipal waste dumpsites located in Ibadan and Ado Ekiti, southwest Nigeria were assessed by gamma ray spectroscopy using a highly shielded Canberra NaI (Tl) detector. Soil samples were collected for analysis at the municipal waste dumpsites for comparison with e-waste dumpsite. Samples were also collected at a location free from waste dumps to serve as control. The mean concentrations of 40K, 226R...

  8. Germination and Early Growth Assessment of Tamarindus indica L in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    Abubakar Gwaram Bello


    Full Text Available Germination and early growth assessment of Tamarindus indica L. were conducted to determine the suitable medium for germination and seedlings establishment of the species in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The viable seeds of the study species were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and boiling water for one hour and by soaking in water at room temperature for 12 hours. The treated seeds were placed in Petri dishes containing filter paper for germination assessment. The results indicated 68–95% germination of T. indica seeds within 3–19 days. Conc. H2SO4 treatment gave the highest germination percentage of 95%. T. indica seeds were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and sown into four (4 different potting mixtures for early growth assessment. Collar diameter, seedlings height, and leaf number were the parameters measured. Seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 had the highest seedlings height and leaf number, while the highest collar diameter was obtained from seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and poultry droppings (2 : 1. However, growing T. indica in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 after 30 minutes pretreatment was recommended.

  9. Assessing Student Progress in Field Practica.

    Ellison, Martha L.


    This article describes a sequential criterion-referenced assessment tool that can be used by social work students in field work and field instructors in evaluating student progress over a semester, a process benefiting both groups. The system provides students with periodic self-administered, self-scored tests. Development and sustained use of the…

  10. Assessment of Utilization of Internet Facilities Among Pre-Service Teachers in University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Oyeronke Olufunmilola OGUNLADE


    Full Text Available The use of the Internet can further equip teachers by providing them with the latest information on their discipline. The purpose of technology in teacher training is to provide pre-service teachers with the capability of integrating computer technologies into curriculum and instructional activities.This study therefore assessed the internet facilities among pre-service teachers in the University of Ilorin in Nigeria. The use of internet facilities based on gender was also examined. The instrument used was a questionnaire. All pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin were the population for the study. Some 150 students in 400 level were randomly sampled (89 males, 61 females. Frequency counts and percentage were used to answer three research questions while the independent t-test statistic was used to test the hypothesis. The results show that: 80% of the respondents had a positive attitude toward the use of internet facilities, 62% agreed that males were more internet literate; and there was no significant difference between male and female in the use of internet facilities. Based on the findings, it was recommended that training should be emphasized for pre-service teachers, female pre-service teachers should be encouraged to be part of change and pre-service teachers should learn to balance their time.

  11. Assessing Interventions Available to Internally Displaced Persons in Abia State, Nigeria

    Enwereji EE


    Full Text Available Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68% organizations to 43 (78.2% of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12% included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. Conclusion: The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

  12. Assessment of fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria

    M. A. Nwachokor


    Full Text Available The study assessed the fertility status of Ferric Acrisols in the humid area of Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to provide data on the physical and chemical properties of the soils and to identify any constraints inherent in them that could adversely affect their productivity. Subsequently, appropriate measures to adequately ameliorate the constraints were recommended so as to enhance the fertility status and the overall productive potentials of the soils for upland crops. Among the fertility constraints identified were low effective cation exchange capacity and soil acidification. In addition, the clayey texture of the subsoil made these soils susceptible to erosion as well as caused harvesting difficulties. Liming was recommended to ameliorate the acidity constraints. Liming together with incorporation of organic materials into the soils were the measures needed to enhance their effective cation exchange capacity. Soil erosion control was to be given high priority especially by maintaining adequate surface cover and ensuring that tillage was limited to only when soil was drier than the plastic limit.

  13. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Selected Inland Valley Agro-ecosystems for Irrigation in Southwest Nigeria

    Olatunji S Aboyeji


    Full Text Available The study assessed the quality of groundwater of 6 inland valley (IV agro-ecosystems with a view to establishing their characteristics for cropping in the derived savannah of southwest Nigeria. Water samples were collected in piezometers during the rainy and dry seasons and analysed for physicochemical and heavy metal properties. Major water quality indices and comparison with stipulated standards were used to determine the usability of the waters for irrigation. The study showed that the waters were generally neutral to slightly alkaline, with the dominance structure of the major cations and anions in the order of Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ and Cl- > SO42- > HCO3- > CO3. The concentration of heavy metals was generally within the recommended limits for most crops grown in the study area. Major water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, total dissolved solids, permeability index, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly’s ratio and residual sodium bicarbonate are generally within the levels acceptable for crop irrigation. Kruskal-Wallis H test (two-tailed showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the water quality parameters/indices between the inland valley sites, P = 0.935. The groundwater of inland valley agro-ecosystems of the study area is generally suitable for agricultural utilisation.DOI:

  14. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    Omoniyi Matthew Isinkaye


    Full Text Available Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions.

  15. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria.

    Isinkaye, Omoniyi Matthew; Jibiri, Nnamdi N; Olomide, Adebowale A


    Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl) detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions.

  16. Basil (Ocimum basilicum Genetic Variability and Viral Disease Assessment in Nigeria

    O.D. Ojo


    Full Text Available The study aims at assessing Basil’s genetic phenotypic variability and viral disease incidence in Nigeria for sustainable pathological interventions. Basil (Ocimum basilicum is important for it’s medicinal and nutritive value. It is highly adaptable as a potential crop in the tropics and could therefore enhance the food security of sub Saharan Africa nations. Germplasm seed evaluation and characterization was therefore carried out from the nationwide National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT seed collection survey to expand NIHORT basil genetic base. The field layout was completely randomized design with five replications. The treatments were: O. basilicum, O. gratissimum and the local basil. Treatments were randomly allocated per replication. There were significant phenotypic differences in the O. basilicum variety. These differences were observed in the plant coloration ranging from deep to light purple coloration of stem, leaf, leaf vein and petiole. Our observations also revealed for the first time significant tolerance to Venial Mottle Mosaic Virus (VMMV in the purple colored compared to the green O. basilicum in the early stages of growth till 50% anthesis. This is the first report of this observation in the African continent. Tolerance to VMMV symptoms increased significantly (LSD 5% with purplish coloration. We concluded that inducement of purplish coloration in Basil through breeding might improve tolerance to VMMV and thereby increase market value of Basil with sustainable pathological interventions.

  17. Assessment of use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in anambra state, Nigeria

    E.N. Ajani


    Full Text Available The study assessed the use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected by the use of interview schedule from a sample of 60 respondents. Percentage, mean score and standard deviation were used for analyzing data collected for the study. Results revealed that the farmers were using indigenous technologies such as baskets, aerial (over fire in the kitchen, bare floors, among others in storing maize. The respondents indicated that they stored maize cobs undehusked in order to overcome wastage and obtained information about indigenous storage of maize from parents and fellow farmers. Major problems militating against effective storage of maize include: attack of pests such as rodents and weevils, diseases, termite attack and use of poor quality storage materials. The respondents indicated that use of materials free from termite, clearing of surroundings against fire disaster; use of durable materials treated with insecticides will help to solve the problems. The study recommends that provision of appropriate and affordable storage structures should be made available to the maize farmers in order to avoid wasting of the produce under storage. This will help to ensure food security among rural farm households.

  18. Assessment of Farm Household Food Security and Consumption Indices in Nigeria

    Ojeleye, O. A.


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess farm households’ food security and consumption indices. The study was conducted in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Data used for this study was collected from a total of 244 farm households with the use of structured questionnaire using a multistage random and purposive sampling technique. The main tools of analysis for this study include descriptive statistics and food security index. The study shows that about one third of the rural farm households sampled was food insecure and that the average farm size of the farm households was 2.05ha as food secure and insecure households cultivate 2.09ha and 1.96ha respectively. Average farm and non-farm income were $1,130.7 and $810.3 per annum respectively as household daily calorie consumed was found to exceed household daily calorie requirement. The food security indices for the food secure and insecure households were found to be 1.462 and 0.852 respectively. Large family size was found to lower available calorie intake of households. The study recommends the need for family planning education and policy frames to increase household farm size.

  19. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria

    O. B. Banjoko


    Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

  20.  Autosplenectomy of Sickle Cell Disease in Zaria, Nigeria: An Ultrasonographic Assessment

    Mohammed Sirajo Aminu


    Full Text Available  Objectives: During infancy and early childhood, the spleencommonly enlarges in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, and it thereafter undergoes progressive atrophy due to repeated episodes of vaso-occlusion and infarction, leading to autosplenectomy in adult life. However, this may not always be the case as some studies have reported splenomegaly persisting into adult life. This study aims to determine and review the prevalence of autosplenectomy by abdominal ultrasonography in sickle cell anemic patients in Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: An ex-post-facto cross study of 74 subjects was carried out between May to July in 2010. Hematological parameters were determined by an analyzer while B mode Ultrasonography was used to determine the craniocaudal length of the spleen, if visualized.Results: The mean age of the sickle cell subjects was 23.2 ±5.3 years, while that of the controls was 22.7±12.4 years. Of the 74 sickle cell subjects, 55.4�0were females; while of the 20 controls,50�0were females. Forty one subjects (55.4�20had autosplenectomy and a significant difference existed in the mean splenic size compared with the control (p<0.0001. Only 3 (4.05�20subjects had splenomegaly, while 23 (31�20had a shrunken spleen.Conclusion: Anatomical autosplenectomy is not an uncommon finding in SCA patients. This may be related to inadequate clinical care due to the lack of good health education, ignorance, poverty, and poor standard of care, as well as the lack of newer therapeutic agents.

  1. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

    JE Eyo


    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  2. Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Umar, AdamuMadu


    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the non-beneficiaries. Adoption rate of off-farm technologies (agricultural marketing and financial management was also large. The adoption rate for the all the technologies was significant at p = 0.05, except for fish feed formulation, Cold storage, marketing and fish smoking. Yields among respondents have increased significantly due to adoption of proven technologies. The increase was higher among crop farmers (59.38% followed by livestock farmers (48.75%. The increase in yields across all the enterprises has exceeded the set target of 20% increase except for fish production (11.25% and Agro-forestry (6.88%. The increase was more among the beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries. It can be concluded that project did not only influence the beneficiaries to adopt technologies for the purpose of improving their socio-economic status but it has also influenced the non-beneficiaries living in Fadama III communities to adopt technologies. Fadama III needs to harmonize existing approaches and need to use complementary systems rather than conflicting ones.

  3. Assessment of knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria

    Achor Justin U


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing public and professional awareness of autism spectrum disorders with early recognition, diagnosis and interventions that are known to improve prognosis. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses who are members of multidisciplinary teams that care for such children may be a major barrier to early interventions that could improve quality of life and prognosis in childhood autism. Factors that influence knowledge about childhood autism among these nurses are not known. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods Forty specialist paediatric and forty psychiatric nurses, making a total sample of eighty, were randomly selected from all the health care facilities in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire were administered to them and the study was a point survey. Results The total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire among the nurses that participated in the study was 12.56 ± 3.23 out of a total of 19 possible. The mean score for the paediatric nurses was 11.78 ± 3.64 while psychiatric nurses had mean score of 13.35 ± 2.58. The mean scores in Domain 1 were 6.17 ± 1.75 for the paediatric nurses and 6.52 ± 1.43 for the psychiatric nurses. The mean scores in Domain 2 were 0.65 ± 0.48 for the paediatric nurses and 0.80 ± 0.41 for the psychiatric nurses. Domain 3 showed mean scores of 1.97 ± 1.25 for the paediatric nurses while psychiatric nurses scored 2.62 ± 1.23. Domain 4 yielded the mean scores of 2.97 ± 1.54 and 3.42 ± 0.98 for the paediatric and psychiatric nurses respectively. There was significant relationship between the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire for the two groups and the area of specialisation of

  4. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wright, Jim [Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Aondoakaa, Stephen [Geography and Environmental Management, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria); School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hossain, Rifat [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); Bartram, Jamie, E-mail: [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States)


    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban–rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban–rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban–rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban

  5. An Assessment of Business Competencies Needed by Business Education Students for Entrepreneurial Development in Nigeria

    Binuomote, M. O.; Okoli, B. E.


    The paper examined the business competencies required by business education students for entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. To achieve the objective, two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Survey design was adopted for the study. The population comprised 6002 business education students. Six hundred…

  6. A Study of E-Readiness Assessment: The Case of Three Universities in Nigeria

    Eweni, Samuel O.


    This study investigated the readiness of three higher educational institutions in Nigeria in their attempt to introduce and maintain technology-driven services to students, faculty, and support staff. The prerequisites for participation in the digital, networked economy include the affordable ICT, reliable electric supply, reliable and up-to-date…

  7. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere


    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  8. The development of poultry farms risk assessment tool for avian influenza in Imo State, Nigeria.

    Obinani, Chidi; Onweagba, Anthony; Lloyd, Linda; Ross, Micheal; Troisi, Cathrine; Ohazurika, Nathaniel; Chukwu, Andrew O


    This study validated the content of a questionnaire that will be used for risk stratification in poultry farms in Imo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was developed from avian influenza risk domains peculiar to poultry farms in Nigeria. The questionnaire was verified and modified by a group of five experts with research interest in Nigeria's poultry industry and avian influenza prevention. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 poultry farms selected from Imo State, Nigeria. The same poultry farms were visited one week after they completed the questionnaires for on-site observation. Agreement between survey and observation results was analyzed using the kappa statistic and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect; internal consistency of the survey was also computed. The mean kappa statistic for agreement between the survey and observations (validation) ranged from 0.06 to 1, poor to nearly perfect agreement. Eight questions showed poor agreement, four had a fair agreement, two items had moderate agreement, nineteen survey questions had substantial agreement and ten questions had nearly perfect agreement. Out of the 43 items in the questionnaire, 32 items were considered validated with coefficient alpha >0.70.

  9. Assessing Principals' Quality Assurance Strategies in Osun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    Fasasi, Yunus Adebunmi; Oyeniran, Saheed


    This paper examined principals' quality assurance strategies in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 male and 10 female principals, and 190 male and190 female teachers. "Secondary School Principal Quality Assurance…

  10. Assessing Learners' Satisfication towards Support Services Delivery in National Open University Nigeria: Implications for Counselling Services

    Okopi, Fidel; Ofole, Ndidi


    This study aims at determining the level of students' satisfaction of learner support services in the study centres of NOUN--National Open University of Nigeria and whether the support services offered at the study centres have significant influence on the level of students' satisfaction. A descriptive survey of ex-post facto research design was…

  11. Comparative assessment of two Artemisinin based combination Therapies in the treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria among University students in Nigeria

    Okonta Matthew J


    Full Text Available Background: In line with the recommendation of artemisininbased combination therapy (ACT by WHO in the effective treatment of uncomplicated malaria, African nations including Nigeria changed their malaria treatment policy to combination therapies. To date, about 15 African nations adopted artesunate /amodiaquine (AA as their first line agent while Nigeria adopted artemether /lumefantrine (AL. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the treatment outcome among patients treated with AA to those treated with AL for acute uncomplicated malaria. Method: The study was conducted at Nnamdi Azikiwe University campuses using quantitative methods. Two hundered and ninety six patients were randomly allocated to one of two treatment group- AA and AL with 148 patients per group. All the patients were educated about the drugs and adherence. Adherence and treatment outcomes including parasite clearance and the drugs’ effects on biochemical parameters among others were assessed by follow up visits on third, seventh, fourteenth and twenty eighth-day post treatment. Data were analysed using Cox Regression model on SPSS 17.0. Result: Both drugs were well adhered to and tolerated. One case of Steven Johnson-like reaction was observed with AL. Fever resolution and parasite clearance was similar in both groups with adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR by day 28 for AL and AA being 70.3% and 85.1% respectively. Conclusion: Our findings is in favour of higher efficacy of AA with respect to their ACPR. More controlled studies will be needed to ascertain the adoption of AL as first line drug in malaria treatment in Nigeria.

  12. Quantitative Assessment of Cost and Time Implication of Susceptibility of Building Elements to Variation in Nigeria

    Solomon Olusola Babatunde


    Full Text Available A number of research studies have been carried out on the causes and effects of variation on construction project delivery, thereby taking for granted the susceptibility of building elements to variations. This formed the basis of this paper with a view to assessing the cost and time implications of the susceptibility of each building element to variation during construction process in Nigeria. Archival record comprises contract drawings, original bill of quantities, addendum and reduction bill of quantities, and minutes of site meetings among others were used to extract data relating to initial cost, final construction cost, estimated period, final completion period of each building element attributed to variations. The data obtained were analyzed using statistical methods of average, percentage, regression analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The study identified the building elements having greater than 20% of cost overrun due to variation as earthwork and fillings, frame, windows and external doors, fittings and furnishings, water installation, and external services. The study further identified the building elements having greater than 25% time overrun due to variation as earthwork and fillings, block work (at substructure, upper floors, external walls, wall finishing among others. The results of ANOVA and regression analysis on the building elements cost and time were used to establish models. Thus, the established models are: AFC= 981690 + 1.033AIC; and AFCO= 608390.865 +1.310AIC to predict the average final cost of each building element, and the average final cost overrun of each building element due to variation respectively, where AFC= Average Final Cost, AIC= Average Initial Cost, and AFCO= Average Final Cost Overrun. Also, the study established the model: Y = 1.379(X – 0.251 for predicting the average actual completion period of each building element, where Y= Average Actual Completion Period, and X= Average Estimated Period

  13. Water quality assessment of the Asata River catchment area in Enugu Metropolis, Southeast Nigeria

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle


    Hydrogeochemical mapping of the Asata River Catchment area in the Enugu metropolis, southeast Nigeria was carried out in order to assess the quality of the surface and groundwater and based on the analyses of the hydrogeochemical data, establish the level of chemical contaminations which inhibit the availability of potable water in the area. Forty (40) water samples comprising five (5) springs, nineteen (19) surface (streams/rivers) and sixteen (16) groundwater (well/borehole) samples were collected and analysed for the presence and degree of contamination of nine (9) major chemical contaminants. Hydrochemical analyses indicate that Electrical Conductivity (EC) which has a linear relationship with Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) ranges between 015 and 887 μS/cm, pH between 4.4 and 8.3, nitrate (NO3-) ranges between 40 and 130 mg/l and chloride (Cl-) between 7 and 130 mg/l. The concentrations of the dissolved chemical constituents defined the pollution trend and the rate of dispersion of contaminants. The degree of contaminants followed a simple trend, where the level of contamination of the dissolved chemical constituents is least in sampled spring water, with measured chemical constituents of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- range from 15 to 354 μS/cm; 6.4-6.5; 4.0-70 mg/l and 8-36 mg/l, respectively. However, the value of the measured chemical constituent of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- gradually increases down the stream in both the surface (63-354 μS/cm; 4.5-7.7; 7.1-110 mg/l; 8-41 mg/l) and groundwater (56-531 μS/cm; 4.5-7.5; 40-130 mg/l; 7-130 mg/l), respectively. Noticeable peaks in contamination levels characterised sections of the study area where human population or their activities is highest. The result of the hydrogeochemical mapping indicate that Enugu coal mine operation, the industrial activities, fertilizer applied to plants cultivated on river banks and domestic human wastes which are indiscriminately dumped along river channels are the major sources of chemical

  14. Guidelines on How to Read a Physics Textbook and the Assessment of the Readability of Recommended Physics Textbooks in Secondary Schools in Osun State of Nigeria

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi


    This study assessed the readability of the four recommended physics textbooks in senior secondary schools in Osun State of Nigeria. A total of 25 physics teachers and 300 senior secondary three (SS3) physics students were randomly selected in the 12 secondary schools used for the study. A survey design was used for the study. Results showed that…

  15. Early Growth Assessment of Selected Exotic and Indigenous Tree Species in Nigeria


    Background and Purpose: Nigeria is greatly endowed with numerous tree species of which majority of them are native while few are exotic. Report shows that high percentage of man-made forests in the country is dominated with exotic species. This culminated from the assumption that exotic trees are fast growing. However, this study investigated the growth of indigenous trees in tandem with that of exotic species with a purpose to clarify the assumption about the growth and conservation of indig...

  16. Assessment of Rural Farming Households WTP for Fertilizers and Agrochemicals in Kwawara State, Nigeria

    Ademoye Emmanuel Akinboboye, Fadipe; A.A., Adigun; Jubril Olayinka, Animashaun


    Given the specific geographic and spatial location of rural areas in developing countries, to bring agrochemical to the rural farming households, it is argued, may have to come at a cost over and above the normal price it is sold in market. To this end, this work focuses on the willingness of rural farming households to pay more than the mean average regional retail price for agrochemicals in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 100 ran...

  17. Wages or Other Conditions: A Critical Assessment of Factors in Workers Performance in Nigeria

    A. M. Ogaboh Agba


    Full Text Available The challenge of getting maximum performance from employees remain a perennial problem to managers in Nigeria. This challenge is aggravated by the great divide that exist among managers on which of the motivational factors stimulate workers the more into higher performance; while some tilt to monetary incentives; many more argue that non-monetary incentives are major motivating factors. Thus, this study is set to investigate factors that influence workers’ job performance in Nigeria. The study attempt to compare the influence of wages and other conditions service on employees’ performance. To achieve this objective, we elicited information from 300 respondents who were purposively sample from four organizations in some selected geo-political zones in Nigeria. Data collected were presented in graph, pie chart and bar chart. Findings reveal that, employee job performance are greatly influenced by regular and good wages; followed by conducive work environment, availability of internet facilities, good library, recognition/award, regular promotion, training opportunities, access to medical care and communication flow. We made the following recommendations among others, that managers of formal organizations should properly remunerate workers as well as provide conducive work environment for their employees. We posit that other least motivating factors as identified in this study should not ignore by managers, since each provide workers with a level of stimulant that propel them into maximum performance in work organization.

  18. Assessment of Office Education Operating Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    James Okoro


    Full Text Available This study assessed the office education operating competencies possessed by the university postgraduate business education students to handle entrepreneurship business challenges in Nigeria. One research question and five null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population and sample consisted of 388 business education graduates who are postgraduate students in universities in Nigeria. A 31-item structured questionnaire was validated and was also subjected to reliability which had internal consistency of 0.96 was used for data collection. The mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions while Z-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results revealed that the respondents are competent in office education operating skills such as ability to file documents properly, knowledge handling office machines, ability to take minutes during meeting, among others. However, the respondents are not competent in knowledge of insurance policy and can do approach.

  19. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    Orisakwe Orish


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance.

  20. Possible impact of climate change on meningitis in northwest Nigeria: an assessment using CMIP5 climate model simulations

    Abdussalam, Auwal; Monaghan, Andrew; Steinhoff, Daniel; Dukic, Vanja; Hayden, Mary; Hopson, Thomas; Thornes, John; Leckebusch, Gregor


    Meningitis remains a major health burden throughout Sahelian Africa, especially in heavily-populated northwest Nigeria. Cases exhibit strong sensitivity to intra- and inter-annual climate variability, peaking during the hot and dry boreal spring months, raising concern that future climate change may increase the incidence of meningitis in the region. The impact of future climate change on meningitis risk in northwest Nigeria is assessed by forcing an empirical model of meningitis with monthly simulations from an ensemble of thirteen statistically downscaled global climate model projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Experiment Phase 5 (CMIP5) for RCPs 2.6, 6.0 and 8.5 scenarios. The results suggest future temperature increases due to climate change has the potential to significantly increase meningitis cases in both the early and late 21st century, and to increase the length of the meningitis season in the late century. March cases may increase from 23 per 100,000 people for present day (1990-2005), to 29-30 per 100,000 (p<0.01) in the early century (2020-2035) and 31-42 per 100,000 (p<0.01) in the late century (2060-2075), the range being dependent on the emissions scenario. It is noteworthy that these results represent the climatological potential for increased cases due to climate change, as we assume current prevention and treatment strategies remain similar in the future.

  1. Science Framework for the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2010


    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and its reports are a key measure in informing the nation on how well the goal of scientific literacy for all students is being met. The "Science Framework for the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress" sets forth the design of the NAEP Science Assessment. The 2011 NAEP…

  2. Early Growth Assessment of Selected Exotic and Indigenous Tree Species in Nigeria

    Alfred Ossai Onefeli


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Nigeria is greatly endowed with numerous tree species of which majority of them are native while few are exotic. Report shows that high percentage of man-made forests in the country is dominated with exotic species. This culminated from the assumption that exotic trees are fast growing. However, this study investigated the growth of indigenous trees in tandem with that of exotic species with a purpose to clarify the assumption about the growth and conservation of indigenous species in natural forests. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the nursery unit of the Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Five (5 different one year old tree species seedlings were used for the study. Two of the species (Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea are exotic while the other three species (Khaya senegalensis, Khaya grandifolia and Afzelia africana are native to Nigeria. They were planted on the field in a completely random design and then replicated eight times. Data were collected every month on their height growth, collar diameter and leaf number. Data obtained were subsequently analyzed with ANOVA. Results and Conclusions: Results show that K. grandifolia (45.39 cm grew significantly better (p<0.05 in height than G. arborea (38.11 cm and T. grandis (22.36 cm, while A. africana (40.03 cm closely followed K. grandifolia. Based on the results, the selected indigenous species displayed promising potentials for conservation purpose. Hence, further research in this aspect is encouraged to confirm the findings.

  3. Assessment of the quality of tuberculosis surveillance data in six selected states in Southern Nigeria

    Ugochukwu U Onyeonoro


    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of TB program interventions, identify deficiencies, and inform policies and programs. These data are also used for advocacy, resource mobilization, and allocation, both nationally and internationally. This study is aimed at verifying the reliability of the data collated and submitted from the direct observation therapy strategy (DOTS facilities to the National TB Program (NTP in some selected states in Southern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 facilities providing TB services were purposively selected from six states in Southern Nigeria, based on the treatment success rate as reported in 2009. In each selected facility, the following records were reviewed for concordance: Patient treatment cards and facility TB register, facility TB register and facility laboratory register, facility TB register and local government area (LGA TB register, and LGA TB register and TB quarterly reports. Furthermore, a total of 273 patients were selected for interview to validate the information contained in the treatment cards. Results: Agreement between the data sources was relatively high, though higher in some states than the others. Agreement between patient treatment card and facility TB register, and facility TB register and laboratory register were 97% and 85%, respectively. The lowest concordance was observed between the facility TB register and the LGA TB register. All the patients interviewed confirmed the information as recorded in their treatment cards. Conclusion: The study revealed that NTP data in Southern Nigeria is fairly reliable; however, there are variations observed among the states and at various levels. This study underlines the need to improve TB surveillance data in some states, particularly at the facility and at the LGA levels.

  4. Assessment Of The Implementation Of The Reading Component Of The English Language Curriculum For Basic Education In Nigeria

    Hanna Onyi Yusuf


    Full Text Available This study assessed the implementation of the reading component of the Junior Secondary School English Language Curriculum for Basic Education in Nigeria. Ten (10 randomly selected public and private secondary schools from Kaduna metropolis in Kaduna State of Nigeria were used for the study. Among the factors assessed in relation to the implementation of the curriculum were: teachers variation of methods and the differences between school types in the implementation of reading component of the English Language curriculum. Thirty (30 English language teachers were involved in the study. Questionnaire and observation were the instruments used in gathering data. The data were analyzed, using frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation. The analysis of the data collected revealed that there was no significant difference in the implementation of the reading component of the English language curriculum in public and private schools. Teachers in both schools tended to have the same pattern of implementing the reading component of the English language curriculum. It was observed that the implementation of the reading component of the English language curriculum was not very effective from the classroom observation of the teachers. Teaching was teacher-centred. Students were passive and did not participate in class discussion. It was recommended that teachers should adopt learner centred approaches in teaching reading and students should be encouraged to participate actively in class discussions. For efficiency and effectiveness of the implementation of the reading component of the English curriculum, there should be continuity of the syllabus (from JS 1-3 and there should be checks and balances to ensure the successful delivery of the curriculum.

  5. Working towards an integrated land contamination management framework for Nigeria.

    Sam, Kabari; Coulon, Frédéric; Prpich, George


    Over the past five decades, Nigeria has developed a number of contaminated land legislations to address the damage caused primarily by oil and gas exploitation activities. Within these legislations exists elements of risk assessment and risk-based corrective action. Despite this progress, we argue that contaminated land management approaches in Nigeria need further development to be able to integrate new scientific information, and to address environmental, economic, and social values. By comparison, advanced contaminated land regimes in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States of America (USA) apply a number of integrative approaches (e.g. sustainability appraisal, liability regime, funding mechanisms, technology demonstration) that enable them to meet the environmental, economic, and social needs of their populations. In comparison, Nigerian governance lacks many of these mechanisms and management of contaminated land is ad hoc. In this paper we propose an integrated risk assessment framework for Nigeria that incorporates the principles of sustainability and stakeholder engagement into the decision-making processes for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management. The integrated approach relies on transparency to promote acceptance and build trust in institutions, and uses stakeholder engagement to address data deficiencies. We conclude this paper with a roadmap for how Nigeria might implement such an integrative approach into their existing contaminated land regulatory system, as well as identify a series of policy priorities that should be addressed.

  6. Developing and Assessing a Force and Motion Learning Progression

    Alonzo, Alicia C.; Steedle, Jeffrey T.


    Learning progressions are ordered descriptions of students' understanding of a given concept. In this paper, we describe the iterative process of developing a force and motion learning progression and associated assessment items. We report on a pair of studies designed to explore the diagnosis of students' learning progression levels. First, we…

  7. An Assessment of the State of Maintenance of Public Hospital Buildings in Southwest Nigeria

    Olumide Adenuga


    Full Text Available This study examines the state of maintenance of public hospitalbuildings in Southwest Nigeria, and in the process identifi es thesignifi cant difference(s in the operational state of Federal andState-owned public hospitals within the study area. In achievingthe aim, the study adopts a survey technique with a total of552 questionnaires, comprising 206 sampled maintenancestaff and 346 users of public hospitals. The survey covers 46public hospitals representing 40% of the total number of publichospitals existing in Southwest Nigeria. The 46 public hospitalsconsist of all the 11 Federal-owned hospitals and 35 randomlyselected State-owned. Data collected are analysed using theKendall Coeffi cient of Concordance and Pearson Chisquare. Thefi ndings of the study reveal that the state of maintenance of publichospital buildings is good. While the structure/fabric and physicalconditions are rated highly, the services are poorly rated. Thisstudy, which hypothesises that there is no difference in the stateof maintenance, fi nds statistical difference in the performance ofthe services. It recommends that Federal and State governmentsaddress neglect in the services sector and plan their maintenanceprogrammes more effectively.

  8. Constitutional Democracy and Caretaker Committee in Nigeria Local Government System: An Assessment

    Jude C Okafor


    Full Text Available The 1976 Local Government Reform among other landmark changes unified the local government system in Nigeria, and the 1979 constitution made local governments the third tier of government and provided for a system of local government by democratically elected councils. More recently, elected local government councils have been dissolved and replaced with Transition Committees or Caretaker Committees appointed by the Governors’ of their respective states. This paper therefore, examines the impact of the caretaker committees in Nigerian Local Government on the practice of constitutional democracy. The discussion is framed by the theoretical perspectives and Nigerian literature on local government and constitutional democracy, and by the recent phenomenal wave of dissolving elected local government councils and subsequent replacement with caretaker committees. Contrary to popular belief, that local government as the third tier of government has failed to achieve the objective for which it was created, this paper observes that party politics has been the bane of Nigerian local government since its inception, and that democratically elected local councils with political and financial autonomy are the major conditions for an effective and efficient multi-purpose local government system in Nigeria.

  9. Assessment of wind resource for possibility of small wind turbine installation in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Ajao Kajogbola Rasaq


    Full Text Available This work presents an evaluation of the wind characteristics of a particular location in University of Ilorin, Nigeria. The daily wind data for this location (lat. 8.48N, long. 4.67E at three different heights of 10 m, 20 m and 30 m were measured over a period of six months. Although there seems to be flashes of higher wind speed at H = 20 m due to not too far away trees having more leaves up there and causing occasional turbulence, consistent wind availability still occurs at H = 30 m. The mean wind speed obtained at H = 30 m was 5.5 m/h (2.5 m/s which is close to the cut-in wind speed of most modern commercially available small wind turbines. The results obtained ascertained that the wind speed increases with height that produces more power and the resulting wind profile may be useful in determining the type of wind turbine that may be suitable for this location. The adoption of wind energy technology will improve electricity supply, ensure greater energy mix and enhance the overall economic development in Nigeria.

  10. Assessment of the Economics and Resource-Use Efficiency of Rice Production in Ogun State, Nigeria

    A. Muhammad-Lawal


    Full Text Available Nigeria is a major importer of rice in the world with over 756 million USD annual expenditure on rice importation. This is probably due to insufficient domestic production occasioned by inefficient utilization of resources and other farm inputs. This study is therefore designed to estimate the costs and returns to rice production; and analyze resource use efficiency in rice production in Ogun State, Nigeria. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 120 rice farmers. Gross margin and regression analyses were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that an average small scale rice farmer realizes a gross margin of N 90, 634.35 per hectare. While farm size, labour and crop production systems account for 80.5% (coefficient of multiple determination, R2 of the changes in rice production, the study revealed that farm size, labour and seeds were grossly underutilized in rice production. The study therefore recommends the need for policy that would enhance increase in the allocation of land, seeds and labour in the production of rice.

  11. Regulating the Electricity Supply Industry in Nigeria. An Assessment of Consumer's Attitudes

    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju


    Full Text Available The power sector is critical to the development of any country and Nigeria is no exception, incessant power outrage has been the bane of economic development in the country. For the past three decades, the power sector of the country has been plagued by a lot of problems ranging from low power generation and distribution, decaying facilities most of which were commissioned before and shortly after the country’s independence. The interaction of the electric power industry with climate is manifested both in the effect that severe weather has on the power system and through the contribution of electric power to the production of greenhouse gas (GHG and other pollutants.The paper examines and provides answers to (i the nature of consumers’ attitudes towards power consumption and (ii suggest ways of informing the consumers on the need to conserve power when not in use. This study was carried out in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, south-west Nigeria. The findings show that 61 percent of electricity consumers’ agreed that rationing of electricity consumption would stabilized the electricity distribution, whereas 39 percent were not in agreement. The study also shows that about 90 percent of the consumers were not satisfied with the services being offered by the Government owned company, while the remaining 10 percent were satisfied. We suggest the authority take to prepaid method of electricity consumption and also intensify efforts to enlighten the public on the need to conserve power.

  12. Assessment of Field-Grown Cucurbit Crops and Weeds within Farms in South-West Nigeria for Viral Diseases

    Emily Ibitaiyewa AYO-JOHN


    Full Text Available Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops and weeds in selected locations in Ogun and Osun, in southwest Nigeria, in June, 2012. In all, 38 leaf samples were collected in Ogun state and 52 in Osun state from cucurbit crops and weeds. Leaf samples were tested against  Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV,Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV using Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All the fields surveyed had virus symptom incidences of 100% except for melon fields in Osun state with incidences of between 10 and 30%. In Ogun state, the occurrence of CMV was 5/31 (16.1% while MNSV was detected in Lagenaria siceraria and T. occidentalis and it occurred in 6.5% of the leaf samples. In Osun state, CMV was detected in watermelon, melon and weeds found in all locations surveyed. The occurrence of CMV was 9/38 (23.7% in the cucurbit crops and in 78.6% (11/14 of the weeds. PRSV and WMV also occurred in mixed infection with CMV in 7.1% respectively. CMV was the most widespread and prevalent virus infecting cucurbit crops and weeds.Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops

  13. Examining Progress across Time with Practical Assessments in Ensemble Settings

    Crochet, Lorrie S.; Green, Susan K.


    This article provides the rationale for effective music assessment that tracks individual progress across time and offers examples to illustrate assessment of a range of music-learning goals. Gauging progress across time helps students become more mastery-oriented, while showing more effort and positive attitudes. As instruction and assessment…

  14. Investigating the Link between Learning Progressions and Classroom Assessment

    Furtak, Erin Marie; Morrison, Deb; Kroog, Heidi


    An increasing number of researchers are calling for learning progressions to be used as interpretive frameworks for teachers conducting classroom assessment. The argument posits that by linking classroom assessments to learning progressions, teachers will have better resources to interpret and take instructional action on the basis of what…

  15. Assessment of Challenges in Developing Self-Instructional Course Materials at the National Open University of Nigeria

    Okonkwo, Charity Akuadi


    The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) is Nigeria's only university dedicated to providing education through the use of distance instructional methods. So far, however, the lack of availability and poor distribution of course materials, which underpin instructional delivery at NOUN, continue to be hindrances to achieving the university's…

  16. Assessment of Land Management Practices in Food Crops Production among Small Scale Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Abdulazeez, Muhammad-Lawal


    Full Text Available The study carried out an assessment of agricultural land management practices in food crops production among small scale farmers in Kwara Sate, Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the socio economic characteristics of crop farmers in Kwara State; ascertained the cropping patterns common among them; highlighted the soil conservation methods adopted by the farmers; examined the relationship between selected socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and their adoption of major agricultural land management practices; and investigated the constraints to adoption of sustainable agricultural practices among crop farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria A three stage random sampling technique was used in selecting a total of one hundred and forty four small scale food crops farmers. Descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression model and four point Likert-type scale were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that food crops production in Kwara State is dominated by middle aged men who are poorly educated and have poor access to agricultural extension services. Half of the respondents (48.60% adopted cereal-based cropping systems. 48.6% of the farmers adopted a minimum of three management practices. Crop rotation was mostly adopted by all the farmers while irrigation was the least adopted by only 29.3% of the respondents. Furthermore, the study revealed that farm size, age, education status, number of contacts with extension agents, household size and number of farm plots of the respondents were the significant factors affecting their adoption of land management practices. The study also revealed that the major constraints to the use of sustainable crop management practices among the farmers included inadequate supply of fertilizer, inadequacy of labour and credit, poor knowledge of improved agricultural practices, poor transportation, low produce prices and high cost of production. The study recommended the need for training

  17. Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria.

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Somorin, Yinka; Odutayo, Foluke I; Nwabekee, Stella U; Balogun, Afeez T; Krska, Rudolf


    An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB1=68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (pmycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs.

  18. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    Ujuju C


    Full Text Available Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Introduction: In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs. This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method: This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills; user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results: A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go

  19. Assessment of the Perception of Benefits of Organic Gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria

    Mustapha, S. B.


    Full Text Available The study examined the perception of benefits of organic gardening in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain information from 166 respondents through multi-stage random and purposive sampling techniques. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, percentage and mean scores. The study indicates that the respondents had perceived a relatively neutral (mean score = 2.87 socio-economic benefits of organic gardening. Nevertheless, they agreed (mean score = 3.84 with the ecological benefits or organic farming. The result, equally reports that the intension of conversion to organic farming was relatively neutral (mean score = 3.49. The most important constraint to organic gardening conversion was lack of knowledge and skills regarding organic gardening. Policy recommendations were made to include: the creation of awareness on the consequences of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides among others, and adequate government support for organic gardening in the study area.

  20. Geospatial Assessment and Monitoring of the Dynamics of Urban Expansion of Ogbomoso, South-Western Nigeria

    I.A. Jesuleye


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the dynamics of urban expansion along with the Landuse/Landcover changes in Ogbomoso North and South LGAs, Oyo State, Nigeria, using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Technology. Ogbomoso has witnessed remarkable expansion, growth and development of large infrastructural facilities such as highway/expressway, power stations as well as the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, the University Teaching Hospital Complex, modern markets, very many schools, a number of low cost housing estates, local authority offices, etc. This has therefore, resulted in loss of agricultural land, modification and alterations in the land use/land cover over time without any detailed and comprehensive evaluation of the changes. There is therefore, need for synoptic analyses of patterning, change and expansion at regional scales over time in the environment. LandSat imageries of 1990, 2000 and NigeriaSat-1 imagery of 2007 of the environment were subjected to supervised image classification using IDRISI Selva 17.0 software. Results obtained from classifications were cross-tabulated for change detection. The results reveal that water body appreciated from 1.2% (1990, 3.1% (2000 to 3.7% (2007. Built-up area appreciated from 6.4 to 20.3% (1990-2007. Arable land remained the largest land cover, with the value of 57.8% in 1990, 47.8% in 2000 and 62% in 2007. Compound Interest formula was used to determine the rate of urban expansion of Ogbomoso town and the expansion of the town was projected for the year 2020 and 2025. The average rate of urban expansion of Ogbomoso was found to be significantly high with a value of 8.92%.

  1. Assessing health and economic outcomes of interventions to reduce pregnancy-related mortality in Nigeria

    Erim Daniel O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. Results Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP. Conclusions Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization.

  2. Assessment of surface and groundwater quality for use in aquaculture in parts of northern Nigeria

    S. A. Arabi,


    Full Text Available In recent times, fish farming (aquaculture has become a major source of income and a substitute for beef in many homes all over Nigeria because a kilogram of fish is cheaper especially the so call ice-fish compare to same kilogram of beef. As a result, many people have embraced fish farming and while some aquaculturist have recorded loss, only few got it right especially at the initial stage of the fish farming business. Some fish farm had average fish weighing a kilogram while others have average weighing less than half a kilogram due to many factors ranging from contamination of pond water from pile up of feeding stuff at bottom of the pond to the use of ground or surface water whose constituents or chemically controlled parameters have adverse effects on harvest in aquaculture. This study was carried out to ascertain the worth or not of surface and groundwater from parts of northern Nigeria for fish farming. Thirty seven surface and groundwater samples were collected during the peak of dry season and analyzed for physicochemical parameter, major and minor elements that can have adverse effects on fish farming using model V-2000 multi-analyte photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, pH and conductivity meter. Some of the measurements were carried out in-situ, while others were carried out in the laboratory. Most of the samples (92% analyzed indicate that they can be used efficiently for aquaculture, only few were observed to have some adverse effects on the intended use and these include pH, salinity, sodium contents and residual sodium carbonate which are closely related to the pH of water samples analyzed. It can be summarized that the studied water samples are generally good for aquaculture.

  3. Night Sky Brightness Assessment in Nigeria Using Environmetric and GIS Technique

    Musa Garba Abdullahi


    Full Text Available High anthropogenic activities are rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is assumed to have global implications. In Nigeria, high anthropogenic activities rapidly increase above the standard of the threshold values especially the lighting sources. This increase due to the vastly growing of industries, residential and commercial uses and other sources such as street lighting in urban and semi-urban areas, which can make the night sky brightness in the area above the threshold set for polluted status. The study measures the night sky brightness at the most densely populated urban centers of Nigeria; to estimate and quantify the level of the night sky brightness from the sites nearby the cities of the planned research study. The research monitored the zenith sky brightness from November 2015 to March 2016 using Sky Quality Meter (SQM. However, typical values ranging from 20.14 to 22.00Mag.sqm /arc sec.2 were measured at different sites of the study area. This data recorded in the field was analyzed using Agglomerative Hierarchical Method via Ward’s Methods to cluster our data according to the pollution status of the areas. Result showed three clusters in which class 1 has low pollution; class 2 is moderate while class 3 has the high pollution status. The sites classified in class 3 are more polluted due to the high use of artificial light. However, geographical information system (GIS software was employed to confirm the results obtained from environ-metric technique and concluded that this result is confirmed to be the same. Hence, it illustrated that sites in cluster 1 have an excellent dark location that can be used to build optical observatory stations and other astronomical observations due to their dark sky.

  4. An Assessment of Nigerian Stakeholders’ the Perception of Environmental Offset as Mitigation Measures and Its’ Implication for Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria

    P.C. Mmom


    Full Text Available An important tool for sustainable development in any country is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, and an important component of EIA is impact mitigation. In most cases, certain unwanted impacts of development projects are left without mitigation thereby reducing the gains of such developments. Thus, emerging in current literature is the concept of Environmental offset which provides a leeway for residual impacts of development projects. This study therefore assesses the perception and level of application of the environmental offset strategy by EIA Practitioners and other stakeholders in the mitigation of negative environmental impacts of developments in the Niger Delta, Nigeria as that would have significant implication for sustainable development efforts in Nigeria. The study found out that there is negative perception among the host communities about the suitability of offset as mitigation measure. Even though the EIA practitioners considers Environmental offset as a viable option, its adoption has been marred by the misgiving of the local people. This misgiving could be attributed to the long period of neglect and abandonment which has led to abject poverty in the region and loss of confidence in any institutional frameworks. Thus, this study concludes that the drive towards sustainable Development in Nigeria would remain a mirage unless the local people are properly integrated in the scheme of things.

  5. Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification.

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin


    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested.

  6. Assessment of antimicrobial drug residues in beef in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.

    Omeiza, Gabriel K; Ajayi, Itopa E; Ode, Okwoche J


    Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi® test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where the residents rely heavily on beef as a source of protein. The administration of antibiotics close to the time of slaughter by marketers/herd owners and transporters was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher when compared with butchers and abattoir workers. The practice of administering antibiotics to animals close to the time of slaughter was believed to be profit-motivated. The research suggests that awareness campaigns amongst the stakeholders, the enactment of appropriate laws for the control of antibiotic use and the empowerment of veterinary public health practitioners in food regulatory agencies as some of the strategies which may positively reduce the risk of antimicrobial drug residues in food animals in Nigeria.

  7. Rural women farmers’ assessment of credit oriented self-help groups in Delta State, Nigeria

    Ofuoku Albert U.


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the perception of the rural woman about credit oriented self-help group in Delta State, Nigeria. A sample size of 110 respondents was used for the study and data were collected from them with the use of structured interview schedule and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression equation model as the lead equation. It was revealed that the women farmers subscribed to self-help groups in order to be able to have access to credit (mean = 3.78, information (mean = 3.55, extension services (mean = 3.45. The respondents were satisfied with their respective self-help groups. However, they had some challenges such as inadequate access to extension services (mean = 3.55 and lack of commitment by the leaders (mean = 3.22 and members (mean = 3.19. Educational level and frequency of extension contact of the respondents were found to influence their perception on self-help groups at 5% level of significance. It is recommended that governmental and non-governmental organizations, and university agricultural extension departments should carry out a campaign on workshops for these groups on commitment and extension agencies should diversify their focus to include selfhelp groups and activities.

  8. Assessment of water quality in Asa River (Nigeria) and its indigenous Clarias gariepinus fish.

    Kolawole, Olatunji M; Ajayi, Kolawole T; Olayemi, Albert B; Okoh, Anthony I


    Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and were analysed for comparative histological investigations and bacterial density in the liver and intestine in order to evaluate the impact of pollution on the aquatic biota. The water pH was found to range from 6.32 to 6.43 with a mean temperature range of 24.3 to 25.8 °C. Other physicochemical parameters monitored including total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values exceeded the recommended level for surface water quality. Results of bacteriological analyses including total heterotrophic count, total coliform and thermotolerant coliform counts revealed a high level of faecal pollution of the river. Histological investigations revealed no significant alterations in tissue structure, but a notable comparative distinction of higher bacterial density in the intestine and liver tissues of Clarias gariepinus from Asa River than in those collected from the control. It was inferred that the downstream Asa River is polluted and its aquatic biota is bacteriologically contaminated and unsafe for human and animal consumption.

  9. Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of photovoltaic systems for telecommunications in Nigeria

    Oparaku, O. U.


    Developing countries seeking relevance in the international community have to adopt programmes in order to achieve cost-effective economic growth. Telecommunications is one area where emphasis must be laid because of its impact on development. Since the power supply forms an essential part of any communication system it is important to chose the power supply option that has the lowest life-cycle cost. The life-cycle costs of several power supply alternatives to some telecommunication systems in Nigeria have been evaluated. A hybrid (Solar/Gen. Set) power supply option is shown to be cost-effective when compared with diesel generating systems powering telecommunication equipment and airconditioning loads. The cost of PV power supply option used for a celluphone system is about 10% of the cost of the alternative of daily battery replacement and haulage. The low teledensity in the country creates a need for bold initiatives to incorporate solar power in telecommunications network, particularly in the remote rural communities where conventional electricity is not only unavailable, but is unreliable and very costly to maintain.

  10. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake


    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  11. An assessment of food safety needs of restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

    Onyeneho, Sylvester N; Hedberg, Craig W


    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson's Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

  12. Soil Assessment along Toposequences in Rural Northern Nigeria: A Geomedical Approach

    Lena Hartmann


    Full Text Available Case numbers of endemic Ca-deficiency rickets (CDR have been reported to be alarmingly rising among children of subsistence farms in developing countries within the last 30 years. Fluoride toxicities in the environment are known to not be related to the disease. To investigate if, instead, CDR is caused by a nutrient deficiency in the environment, subsistence farms in an endemic CDR area near Kaduna, northern Nigeria, were investigated for bedrock, slope forms, soil types, and soil characteristics. The natural environment was investigated according to the World Reference Base, soil texture was analysed by pipette and sieving, and plant-available macronutrients were determined using barium-chloride or Ca-acetate-lactate extraction. The analyses showed that granite and slope deposits were the dominant parent materials. The typical slope forms and soil types were Lixisols and Acrisols on pediments, Fluvisols in river valleys, and Plinthosols and Acrisols on plains. Compared with West African background values, all of the soils had normal soil textures but were low in macronutrients. Comparisons to critical limits, however, showed that only the P concentrations were critically low, which are typical for savanna soils. A link between nutrient deficiency in soils and CDR in the Kaduna area was therefore considered unlikely.

  13. Performance Assessment of Lokoja Confluence Beach as a Tourist Site in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Samuel Oluwaseyi Olorunfemi


    Full Text Available Beach tourism is a global phenomenon mainly in coastal areas of countries with unique and favorable shorelines. However, certain inland waterways serve same purpose of beach tourism. This research (as its objectives exposes the condition of amenities, identifies associated socio-economic benefits and reveals problems confronting the Lokoja Confluence Beach in Kogi State, Nigeria. A survey design (with the aid of questionnaires and interview guide was employed to obtain data from tourists, managers of the Confluence Beach and government officials at the State Tourism Board. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select respondent tourists. Univariate analysis was employed to obtain relevant information from collated data. The research findings revealed the existence of a few functional amenities and some uncompleted facility projects; diverse economic benefits to residents; problems of petty crime, diversion of funds and poor sensitization. Recommendations include provision of supplementary funds by the three tiers of government, development of strategic policy on marketing/sensitization and provision of amenities for indoor games close to the beach front.

  14. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  15. The Household Cooking Sector in Nigeria: Environmental and Economic Sustainability Assessment

    Haruna Gujba


    Full Text Available This paper studies life cycle environmental impacts and costs of the household cooking sector in Nigeria from 2003 to 2030. Five scenarios are considered: business as usual, dominated by fuel wood stoves; low penetration of improved fuel wood and solar stoves, as planned by the government; high penetration of these stoves; increased use of fossil fuel stoves; and increased use of electric stoves. If business as usual (BAU continues, the environmental impacts would increase by up to four times and costs by up to five times, mainly because of high fuel wood consumption. Implementing the government’s plan to introduce improved fuel wood and solar stoves would yield no environmental advantages, as the proposed number of stoves is too low. A higher number of the advanced stoves would lead to significant improvements in some impacts but would worsen others so that some trade-offs are needed. From the economic perspective, the scenario with a high use of advanced stoves has the lowest total costs but its capital costs are three times higher than for BAU. The government should prioritise the introduction of advanced stoves to reduce health impact from indoor pollution and reduce pressures on biomass resources; however, this may require subsidies. Fossil fuel and electric stoves would also help to preserve biomass and reduce health impacts from indoor pollution but would lead to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil resources.

  16. Student Assessment of Quality of Access at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN

    Juliet Obhajajie Inegbedion


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted by Inegbedion, Adu and Ofulue from the National Open University of Nigeria. The study focused on the quality of access (admission and registration at NOUN from a student perspective. A survey design was used for the study while a multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the sample size. All the 78,555 registered students in all the 61 Study Centres of the University at the time of the study formed the population; out of which 3,060 students were sampled. The questionnaire instrument is the Institutional Internal QA Tools and Instrument developed by the African Council for Distance Education (ACDE as a regulatory mechanism. The data collected were analyzed using simple statistics. The result showed that 66% of the students confirmed that NOUN has published clear policies on the admission and registration of students. About 29.1% of the students were not satisfied with the transparency of the admission process. In conclusion, the study revealed high quality of access and some deficiencies in website and Internet connectivity.

  17. A comparative study: long and short term effect of a nutrition sensitive approach to delay the progression of HIV to AIDS among people living with HIV (PLWH in Nigeria

    AbrahamMainaji Amlogu


    Full Text Available Background:Malnutritionhas a negative impact on optimal immune function,thus increasing susceptibility to morbidity and mortality among HIV positive patients. Evidence indicates that the prevalence of macro and micronutrient deficiencies (particularly magnesium, selenium, zinc, and vitamin C has a negative impacton optimal immune function, through theprogressive depletion of CD4 T-lymphocyte cells, which therebyincreasessusceptibility to morbidity and mortality among PLWH.Objective:To assess the shortand longterm effectsof a nutrition sensitive intervention to delay the progression of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV to AIDS among people living with HIV in Abuja, Nigeria.Methods:A randomized control trial was carried out on 400 PLWH (adult, male and female of different religious background in Nigeria between January and December 2012. Out of these 400 participants, 100 were randomly selected for the pilot study, which took place over six months(January to June, 2012. The participants in the pilot study overlapped to form part of the scale-up participants (n 400 monitored from June to December 2012. The comparative effect of daily 354.92 kcal/d optimized meals consumed for six and twelve months was ascertained through the nutritional statusand biochemical indices of the study participants (n=100 pilot interventions,who wereand were not taking the intervention meal. The meal consisted of: Glycine max 50g(Soya bean; Pennisetum americanum 20g(Millet; Moringa oleifera 15g(Moringa; Daucus carota spp.sativa 15g(Carrot. Results: At the end of sixthmonth intervention, mean CD4 cell count (cell/mm3 for Pre-ART and ART Test groups increased by 6.31% and 12.12% respectively. Mean mid upper arm circumference (MUAC for Pre-ART and ART Test groups increased by 2.72% and 2.52% within the same period (n400. Comparatively, participants who overlapped from pilot to scale-up intervention (long term use, n100 were assessed for 12 months. Mean CD4 cell count (cell

  18. Assessment of knowledge of participants on basic molecular biology techniques after 5-day intensive molecular biology training workshops in Nigeria.

    Yisau, J I; Adagbada, A O; Bamidele, T; Fowora, M; Brai, B I C; Adebesin, O; Bamidele, M; Fesobi, T; Nwaokorie, F O; Ajayi, A; Smith, S I


    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), to improve the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel and academics in health, research, and educational facilities. Five-day molecular biology workshops were conducted annually between 2011 and 2014, with participants drawn from health, research facilities, and the academia. The courses consisted of theoretical and practical sessions. The impact of the workshops on knowledge and skill acquisition was evaluated by pre- and post-tests which consisted of 25 multiple choice and other questions. Sixty-five participants took part in the workshops. The mean knowledge of molecular biology as evaluated by the pre- and post-test assessments were 8.4 (95% CI 7.6-9.1) and 13.0 (95 CI 11.9-14.1), respectively. The mean post-test score was significantly greater than the mean pre-test score (p molecular biology workshop significantly increased the knowledge and skills of participants in molecular biology techniques. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  19. Assessment of Safety Management System Implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization: A Case Study of Nigeria Operators

    Kole Osaretin Uhuegho


    Full Text Available In this study survey data was used to assess employees’ perceptions of Safety Management System (SMS implementation in an Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO in the aviation industry. AMOs in Nigeria were used as a case study. Results show that over 80% of the population used for this study accord to the existence of plans to implement SMS. However, results indicated a lack of safety management education, training and motivation, which are key concepts that influence all the safety management implementation process. Furthermore, results reveal the lack of skills to analyze risk associated with identified hazard. Internal audit and safety investigation are the main means of safety performance monitoring within the AMO. Hypothetical test was conducted using Chi-square statistic. The results show that there is no significant relationship between the appointment of key personnel and management commitment within an AMO safety management system. Overall, the findings suggest that AMO need to do more to improve the implementation and understanding of SMS within the AMO.

  20. Enhancing leadership and governance competencies to strengthen health systems in Nigeria: assessment of organizational human resources development.

    Uneke, Chigozie J; Ezeoha, Abel E; Ndukwe, Chinwendu D; Oyibo, Patrick G; Onwe, Fri Day


    The lack of effective leadership and governance in the health sector has remained a major challenge in Nigeria and contributes to the failure of health systems and poor development of human resources. In this cross-sectional intervention study, leadership and governance competencies of policy makers were enhanced through a training workshop, and an assessment was conducted of organizational activities designed to promote evidence-informed leadership and governance to improve human resources for health (HRH). The training workshop increased the understanding of policy makers with regard to leadership and governance factors that ensure the functionality of health systems and improve human resources development, including policy guidance, intelligence and oversight, collaboration and coalition building, regulation, system design and accountability. Findings indicated that systems for human resources development exist in all participants' organizations, but the functionality of these systems was suboptimal. More systematic and standardized processes are required to improve competencies of leadership and governance for better human resources development in low-income settings.

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples around a phosphate fertilizer plant in Nigeria.

    Okeji, Mark C; Agwu, Kenneth K; Idigo, Felicitas U


    The radionuclides present in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plants in Nigeria were identified and their activity concentration determined to assess the potential radiation impact on the environment due to fertilizer production. The mean activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K radionuclides in phosphate ore samples were 616 ± 38.6, BDL (Below Detection Level) and 323.7 ± 57.5 Bq kg(-1) respectively. For the phosphogypsum, 334.8 ± 8.8, 4.0 ± 1.4, and 199.9 ± 9.3 Bq kg(-1) respectively and for soil samples range from 20.5 ± 7.3 to 175.7 ± 10.5 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 15.5 ± 1.5 to 50.4 ± 0.6 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 89.5 ± 8.1 to 316.1 ± 41.3 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was 71.4 nGy h(-1). The mean annual effective dose was 86 μSv.

  2. Assessment of sanitation levels of sources of water in Osun State Capital, Nigeria

    Felix A. Oginni


    Full Text Available A study of the physicochemical and bacteriological analysis including BOD and COD was carried out for sources of water in Oshogbo the Capital of the State of Osun. Seven water sampling areas were selected to cover the low, medium and high population density areas of the State Capital. Water samples were collected from five sources of water, namely, shallow well, borehole, stream, rain and river. Water samples were collected from the well, borehole and stream water sources from Dada Estate and Isale Oshun for low density population, Ayetoro, Ogo-Oluwa and Oke-Ayepe for medium density, and Oke-Bale and Igbona for high density population areas. Three sampling points were undertaken for the rain water source while River Oshun source at Isale-Oshun was the 25th water sampling point. A total of 25 water quality parameters were analyzed for each of the 25 water sources sampled using the facility at the Rural Water And Environmental Sanitation Agency, RUWESA in Osun State Government Secretariat in Abere. Results indicated that 8 of the water quality parameters, pH, Turbidity; Magnesium hardness, Free Chlorine, Nitrite, Bacteriological, BOD and COD were not within Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON permitted water quality standards and are of concern to sanitation of potable water in the State Capital. The level of each parameter differs from source to source as well as from level of population densities. The sources that were adjudged polluted were Ogo-Oluwa and Oke-Ayepe well sources; Ogo-Oluwa, Oke-Bale and Igbona stream sources Oke-Bale Rain source.R and the River source at Isale-Oshun. The polluted sources are all within the medium and high population density areas of the State Capital.


    YOADE Adewale Olufunlola


    Full Text Available Quality housing is the goal of all localities; such assurance reflects a community’s ability to respond to the needs of its citizens, as well as to accommodate growth and economic development. This paper focuses its study onhousing and neighbourhood quality condition in Ilesa, Nigeria.Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources.204 households were surveyed using multi-stage sampling. Information was obtained on basic socioeconomic, housing and environmental characteristics of the respondent‘s household. The study reveals that more than half 54.3% of the respondents have open drainage in their neighbourhood, 33.8% have covered/buried drainage while the remaining 11.9% have soak away in their buildings. The finding reveals that 45.6% of the respondents are inherited occupier if their building, 34.4% of them is tenancy while the remaining 20.0% are owner occupier. However, positive and direct relationship exists between income and housing type (p = 0.000; r = 0.711, educational attainment (p = 0.000; r = 0.647 and type of toilet (p =0.000; r = 0.556. It was recommended among others that there should be activation in the senses embraces the emergence of citizens who will be aware of their environmental problems, who will believe changes are not only possible but feasible, and who will have a keen desire to change and accept changes.The paper therefore concludes that if the trend continues sustainable development in the area will remain unattainable.

  4. Assessment of Rural Farming Households WTP for Fertilizers and Agrochemicals in Kwawara State, Nigeria

    Ademoye Emmanuel Akinboboye, Fadipe


    Full Text Available Given the specific geographic and spatial location of rural areas in developing countries, to bring agrochemical to the rural farming households, it is argued, may have to come at a cost over and above the normal price it is sold in market. To this end, this work focuses on the willingness of rural farming households to pay more than the mean average regional retail price for agrochemicals in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 100 randomly sampled in the two agricultural development zones (ADP in the study area. Descriptive statistics and the Logistic Binary Regression model were fitted to examine factors that influence respondents’ decision to pay more than the prevailing average prices for access to agrochemicals in the study area. Findings indicated a high level of awareness of agrochemical use and modal responses to quantities used include: fertilizers (41-50Kg/ha, herbicides (<10liters/ha, and pesticides (<10liters/ha on the cultivation of yam, cassava and maize, which were the dominant arable crops in the study area. About 90% of the respondents purchase agrochemicals from their personal savings and less than 10% of the respondents got their agrochemicals from other sources (governmental, developmental agencies, ADP and farmers’ cooperative. Furthermore, 88% (p<0.01 of the respondents indicate willingness to pay more than the current average price to have access to agrochemicals and the logistic regression reveals that level of education (P<0.01, had a positive relationship with respondents’ to willingness to pay more for agrochemicals in the study area. Recommendations were made towards encouraging expanded use of agrochemicals throughenhanced marketing strategies that will facilitate contact of marketing agents to prospective customers located in the rural communities.

  5. Microbiological assessment of indoor air of a teaching hospital in Nigeria

    Awosika SA; Olajubu FA; Amusa NA


    Objective:To investigate the quality of indoor air of different wards and units of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, to ascertain their contribution to infection rate in the hospital. Methods: The microbial quality of indoor air of nine wards/units of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria was conducted. Sedimentation technique using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media was employed and samplings were done twice daily, one in the morning shortly after cleaning and before influx of people/patients into the wards/units and the other in the evening when a lot of activities would have taken place in these wards. Isolates were identified according to standard methods. Results: Results showed that there was a statistically significant difference (χ²=6.016 7) in the bacteria population of the different sampling time whereas it was not so for fungi population (χ²= 0.285 7). Male medical ward (MMW) and male surgical general (MSG) recorded the highest bacterial and fungal growth while the operating theatre (OT) was almost free of microbial burden. The bacteria isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marscences while the fungi isolates included Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp., Candida albicans and Alternaria sp. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominantly isolated bacterium while Penicillium sp. was the most isolated fungus. Conclusions: Though most of the microbial isolates were potential and or opportunistic pathogens, there was no correlation between the isolates in this study and the surveillance report of nosocomial infection during the period of study, hence the contribution of the indoor air cannot be established. From the reduction noticed in the morning samples, stringent measures such as proper disinfection and regular cleaning, restriction of patient relatives’ movement in and out of the wards

  6. An Assessment of Records Management Practice in Selected Local Government Councils in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Bakare, Abdullahi A.


    Full Text Available What government does/fails to do is conveyed to the public largely by records and information of various types in the public service, without which there will be no government. When records are poorly managed, much time is involved in sorting and locating needed information from large volumes of records. The rate of records misplaced or lost from which useful information for decision making is usually obtained makes it difficult to provide concise and up-to-date records of both past and present operations, raising the challenge of effective record-keeping. Thus this study examined records management practices in selected local government councils in Ogun State, Nigeria, adopting the descriptive survey research method using questionnaires for data collection. Its population comprised 415 records of personnel in the selected councils, of which 208 were sampled using simple random technique. From the 208 copies of the questionnaire administered on the registry personnel, 150 copies were useable, with a 72.12% response rate. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. The results indicated a prevalence of paper as the dominant medium for recording/conveying information in the councils with most of these being either in active state, semi-active, and vital and were kept and maintained in the registry, while in-active records were kept in the records store. Storage facilities for record-keeping were insufficient. Security measures against unauthorized access to records were by restrictions and subject users to managerial clearance. The study concluded that council records were in chaos and recommended the formulation of coherent records management policy, adequate budgetary provision, and adequate finance.

  7. Electrical resistivity and geotechnical assessment of subgrade soils in southwestern part of Nigeria

    Adebisi, N. O.; Ariyo, S. O.; Sotikare, P. B.


    The subgrade soils in areas underlain by the slightly Migmatized to Non-migmatized Metasedimentary and Metaigneous rocks of Southwestern Nigeria have been considerably investigated. However, a serious research which employs electrical resistivity method for insight into the profile development, as well as estimation of resistance to deformation for predicting the stability of flexible highway pavements is yet to be carried out. In this study, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) were carried out after a reconnaissance survey based on stable and unstable locations on the road. Index and strength tests related to road construction were also carried out on bulk samples obtained from stable and failed (unstable) locations of the Ago-Iwoye/Ishara highway. Results show mostly three (3) layers in the profiles with H, HK, and HKH curve types. The subgrade soils below the stable locations have better vertical and interval variations in the resistivities (89-1095 Ωm) to a depth of 3.4 m as against those from the failed portions. Those from the stable locations also have higher specific gravity (2.72), low-medium plasticity and A-2-6 kaolinitic clayey soils with higher compacted density (2090 kg/m3) compared to subgrade soils from the failed locations. On the basis of Califonia Bearing Ratio (CBR), subgrade soils at stable locations have greater strength than those obtained from failed locations. Estimated resistance to deformation (R-value) and resilient modulus (MR) proved to be the overriding parameters for predicting the stability of the flexible highway pavements.

  8. An assessment of health practises among small-scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Jones A. Akangbe


    Full Text Available Objective. The study examines the personal health practices of small scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Primary data were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire which was distributed to 120 small scale farmers. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages were used, as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation and analysis for empirical analysis. Results. Results revealed that more than half (55% smoke cigarettes, about 48% drink alcohol to a very great extent, while the majority (64.5% indicated they have not been screened to know their HIV status. On a positive note, the results further show that the majority 70%, 53.3%, 80% and 73.3% indicated that they eat a balance diet, engage in physical activity, practice safer sex, and regularly visit a health care centre, respectively. It also revealed that 77% have not attended any training on healthy living. The results of PPMC showed that the health knowledge of respondents had significant (p<0.01 influence on practices like cigarette smoking, eating a balance diet and regular visits to a health care centre. Conclusion. It was concluded that health threatening practices such as cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol among the majority of the respondents, coupled with their lack of health knowledge from health professionals, contributes to the poor health status of respondents which eventually negatively influences the labour efficiency of farmers. It is recommended that farmers should endeavour to make use of health literacy programmes introduced to them at local government level, and that the government should provide more of these health literacy programmes.


    Kasim, L. S.


    Full Text Available Antiperspirants are astringent substances applied to the skin to reduce or prevent sweat. The process of sweating is an important, normal physiological process that enables us excretes excess water and salt from the body. However conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweat led to the need for control of sweat using antiperspirants, although antiperspirants are now used for cosmetic purposes in recent times. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of Aluminium (Al, which is the active ingredient in most antiperspirants and also to determine the presence and concentration of other metals such as Lead (Pb, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni, Zinc (Zn, and Copper (Cu. Ten (10 brands of antiperspirant samples marketed in Nigeria were purchased. All samples were pre-treated using acid digestion and the concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS(Perkin Elmer A Analyst 200.Germany. For all the antiperspirant samples analysed, metals such a Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu were not detected while the concentrations of Al and Pb found were between (0.624 – 2.416mg/L and (1.787 – 5.610mg/L respectively. In comparison to the standard permissible limits of aluminium in antiperspirants, the percentage of aluminium in all the samples analysed was within the standard permissible limit set by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Nine samples conformed to over the counter antiperspirants value while one conformed to a prescription antiperspirant value. However, the presence of lead metal in the antiperspirant samples may be a health risk to the consumers.

  10. Entomological assessment of yellow fever-epidemic risk indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010-2011.

    Agwu, Ekenma Julia; Igbinosa, Igho Benjamin; Isaac, Clement


    Yellow fever (YF) is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas. In the past, there have been pockets of YF outbreaks in Nigeria that resulted in preventable deaths. Surveillance efforts towards avoiding another outbreak have been put in place with the aim of early detection and control. However, risk indices relating to the density of immature YF-mosquito vectors are given little consideration even though it is the first step in curbing a possible outbreak. Immature collections from 1538 houses in Ega, Oju, Otukpoicho and Otukpo in Benue State were carried out in 2010 and 2011. Risk indices such as house index (HI), container index (CI) and Breteau index (BI) were estimated. Molecular detection of YF was carried out on randomly selected Aedes larvae and pupae. Overall, 431,381 mosquitoes were collected in and around house premises. Thirteen species were identified: Ae. aegypti (Linneaus), Ae. africanus (Theobald), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), Ae. cumminsii (Theobald), Ae. luteocephalus (Newstead), Ae. simpsoni s.l. (Theobald), Ae. vittatus (Bigot), Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. nili (Theobald), Cx. nebulosus Theobald, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Lutzia tigripes (Grandpre and Charmoy) and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald. The HI, CI and BI for Ae. aegypti were high in all the study locations, but low for Ae. lueteocephalus except in Ega. With 50 immature Aedes mosquitoes screened across locations, only Ae. aegypti from Ega were positive for YF. This study places Ega on a high alert of an impending YF outbreak. Thus, urgent steps to clear this area of potential mosquito sites are highly recommended.

  11. Assessment of Rice Market Competiveness Using Horizontal Price Transmission: Empirical Evidence from Southern Region of Nigeria

    S. B. Akpan


    Full Text Available The study examined the horizontal price transmission and market integration between the local and foreign rice market in the Southern region of Nigeria. The study used average monthly prices of local and foreign rice in the rural and urban markets from January 2005 to June 2014. The findings show that, prices of local and foreign rice in the rural and urban markets have constant exponential growth rate of 0.60%. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a strong positive relationship between prices of local and foreign rice in both rural and urban markets. The cross-product Granger causality test revealed bidirectional relationship between prices of local and foreign rice in the region. The results of the cross co-integration test revealed the presence of co-integration between prices of the two products. The coefficients of the price variable in the cross co-integration equations for the local and foreign rice markets converge to the law of one price which connotes instantaneous price adjustment and competitiveness. The result of the cross - product error correction model also confirmed the existence of the short run market integration between the two markets. The study established the fact that, price of local rice competes favorably with its foreign counter part and thus a perfect substitute especially in the rural area. Based on the finding, it is recommended that, short term policies should be used to intervene in the rice sub sector in the region. Policies aimed at boosting local production of rice should be encouraged, while value additions in the domestic produced rice should be pursuit vigorously.

  12. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site


    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

  13. Mapping and Assessment of Ethno-Medicinal Trees in Built Up Areas - University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Several urban tree species are important in ethno-medicine, especially in the developing tropical regions. Their assessment in urban landscapes is becoming an important issue. The study assessed and mapped the ethno-medicinal trees in the built up area land use type of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, with a view to examining their spatial variation in terms of composition and diversity between the residential and non-residential areas of the University Park. Materials and Methods: The study employed the use of geographic information system (ArcGIS 9.3 for the mapping. Built up area land use was subdivided into residential and non-residential where the ethno-medicinal trees were recorded, identified and enumerated. Global positioning system was used to determine the coordinates of each tree. The species composition and diversity were calculated and a comparison was made between the residential and non- residential land use types. The pattern of spread of the ethno-medicinal trees was determined by the nearest neighbour analysis. Results: A total of 37 ethno-medicinal trees species were found in the study area, while the species composition was 499 in the residential area and 438 in the non-residential area. Azadirachta indica was the highest (233 in composition. Ethno-medicinal tree species in the study area consist of 19 families of which Anacardiaceae, Rutaceae, Moraceae and Combretaceae were the highest. Species diversity was higher in the non-residential land use (2.698 than in the residential land use (2.222. Conclusion: The nearest neighbour analysis reveals that the z-score value was higher in the non-residential area (-23.06 than in the residential area (-0.30, but the pattern of distribution in both areas were clustered. The study recommended periodic monitoring and the assessment of ethno-medicinal trees in the study area for conservation purposes.

  14. Assessment of Metal Pollution of Soil and Diagnostic Species Associated with Oil Spills in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Paul O Fatoba


    Full Text Available An ecological impact assessment of crude-oil spills was carried out on the environment of an oil-rich community in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Samples of the topsoil (0−15 cm, subsoil (15−25 cm and the dominant species Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus were collected using the transect method from the point of spills. The samples were also collected from an unimpacted location (control. The samples were wet-digested and the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while the physico-chemical properties of the topsoil were determined by standard methods. The data were subjected to Student t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation analysis, and the models for pollution assessment were employed to assess the pollution status of the soil and plant species. The results showed that concentrations of Pb, Cu and Zn in the topsoil exceeded international standards at close proximity to point of spills (0−200 m, while Cd concentrations exceeded the international standard at all the locations. Only Cd exceeded the international standard in the subsoil. Contamination (Pi and integrated pollution (Pc indices of the topsoil showed reducing trends from the point of pollution, and locations at 0 m and 100 m exhibited high Pc, while those at 200 m showed moderate Pc by all metals. The levels of Pb and Cd in the diagnostic species exceeded the World Health Organization limits and the pollution load index (PLI portrayed severe contamination. In conclusion, the impact of crude-oil spills in the area was significant; soil remediation is important to avert ecological and human health disasters. Moreover, these findings will be useful for designing strategic measures for environmental control in the area. DOI:

  15. Writing Framework for the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2010


    The purpose of the 2011 NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) Writing Framework is to describe how the new NAEP Writing Assessment is designed to measure students' writing at grades 4, 8, and 12. As the ongoing national indicator of the academic achievement of students in the United States, NAEP regularly collects information on…

  16. Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria

    Obiageli R. Ezeigbo


    Full Text Available A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial diluting and then inoculating the soil samples on different growth media. Several microbiological and biochemical methods were applied in order to isolate and identify the microorganisms accustomed to the soil sample. An unpolluted farmland served as control. Results showed a decrease in microbial load of soil as distance approaches seepage area. The control has a total heterotrophic bacteria count of 22.3 x 106 CFU/ml which decreases towards the seepage area (4.1 x 106 CFU/ml. The total fungi count also decreases from the control (5.9 x 106 CFU/ml towards the seepage area (1.2 x 106 CFU/ml. Micococcus sp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were predominant in the seepage area up to 30m away from the seepage area. Other bacteria identified after this distance include Bacillus sp, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptomyces sp, Streptococcus sp and Staphylococcus aureus while the predominant fungi were Aspergillus niger and Mucor sp. The marked decrease of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the petroleum polluted area compared with the control (the unpolluted farmland shows the unsuitability of the soil for agricultural purpose, as full remediation has not taken place.

  17. Performance assessment task team progress report

    Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R. [and others


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, {open_quotes}Low-Level Waste Management{close_quotes}. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993.

  18. Research progress in dynamic security assessment


    Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

  19. Anthropometric evaluations and assessment of school furniture design in Nigeria: A case study of secondary schools in rural area of Odeda, Nigeria

    Adekunle Ibrahim Musa


    Full Text Available This study was carried out on 621 schoolboys with age range of 12-17 years in Junior and Senior Secondary Schools in Odeda area of Odeda local government in Ogun State, Nigeria. Different anthropometric data were collected from these boys. It was observed from the results that all anthropometric dimensions of the school children increase with their age. Moreover, there exists a little difference between mean values of different anthropometric dimensions between the boys of 12-13 years (2.9% to 8.8%, 14-15 years (1.3% to 9.9%, and 16-17 years (1.4% to 5.5%. But the said differences become much higher (16.2% to 42.4% when the same were compared between the children of 12 years and 17 years. Therefore, it can be said that the design of furniture for the children of 12 years will not match the children of 17 years. If single furniture is designed by considering dimensions of the children from 12 years to 17years, it will also not suit the children of all age groups. Therefore, in the present investigation, all the students have been divided into three combined age groups, e.g., 12-13 years, 14-15 years, and 16-17 years, and the percentile values (5th, 50th and 95th of anthropometric measures, which will be helpful for designing of the classroom furniture.

  20. Assessing the Effects of ‘Stand-alone’ Structuration of Land Administration System on Urban Land Delivery and Accessibility in Nigeria

    Akinbola Kazeem Bolayemi


    Full Text Available The efficiency and effectiveness of land administration system had been acknowledged to be premised on so many factors, arguably the chief of which, is the degree of mutuality, frictionlessness and bi-directionality in the interrelationship that exist amongst the various factors that are discharging arrays of tasks that these formal lands regulo-administrative machineries are saddled with. Undoubtedly, this simple conduct of affairs resultantly drives the formal lands delivery, hence it increases accessibility to urban lands by several categories of users in Nigeria, as thus the case globally. However, these interrelationships are absent among land administration and regulation systems in Nigeria. Hence, this study intends to assess the direct and possible indirect impacts that these interrelationships fallouts have on the formal delivery and accessibility of urban lands in Nigeria, Firstly, this was done by articulating the issues involved and calibrating them into constructs, then measuring them via the following score-cards, thus: myopism, non-ingenuity, disservice, eco-financial loss, distrust, trauma, anti-growth, death, market distortion and thriving informalisation focussing on the South Western Nigeria. Out of the total 586 individuals considered as the total population for the sample space, 120 individual qualified for the sample frame, upon which the structured questionnaires were distributed among land regulators, land administrators, independent land consultants and ultimate land users, essentially to have a fair and broad view of the issues inherent in this lands accessibility dilemma. 93 questionnaires were retrieved, out of which 87 questionnaires were valid, thus formed the basis upon which analyses were done, with emphasis on the 5 point Likert scale measurement usage, via both inferential and descriptive statistical tools. The results showed amongst other things, that unbridled relationship frictions had led to unwarranted role

  1. An assessment of serum prolactin levels among infertile women with galactorrhea attending a gynecological clinic North-West Nigeria

    Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu Ugwa


    Full Text Available Background: Galactorrhea is a common manifestation of hyperprolactinemia but may not always be present in women with hyperprolactinemia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the serum prolactin levels of infertile women presenting with galactorrhea and to determine the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia among them. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of serum prolactin levels of 63 female partners of infertile couples attending the gynecological clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu, Jigawa State, Nigeria, who were found to have galactorrhea from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. Ethical clearance was obtained. Solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum prolactin. Sociodemographic characteristics were determined. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. Absolute numbers and simple percentages were used to describe categorical variables. Similarly, quantitative variables were described using measures of central tendency (mean, median and measures of dispersion (range, standard deviation as appropriate. Results: The average age of the women was 27.9 ± 5.6 years. In half of the cases (50%, galactorrhea was associated with menstrual disturbances, mainly amenorrhea (23.3%. Although most (63.3% of the clients had normal serum prolactin level despite being galactorrheic, averagely there was a marked elevation in serum prolactin of as high as 40.3 ± 52.3 ng/mL. Conclusion: We conclude, therefore, that the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in this study was low when compared with other studies and that galactorrhea does not always indicate raised serum prolactin levels.

  2. Assessment of gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry egg, a case study in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Hafis Odunlami


    Full Text Available Gender has been seen as an important factor in the distribution and utilization of productive resources worldwide. In the agricultural sector, gender differential could influence the sourcing and efficient utilization of factors of production, particularly in the livestock sub-sector of the economy. This study assessed the gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry eggs production in Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondent poultry farmers. The first and second stages were the purposive selection of five Local Government Areas (LGAs reputed for poultry production and farm settlements in the state. The third stage involved a simple random sampling of 150 poultry farms consisting of 75 farms each managed by a male and a female Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA. The SFA revealed that for male management of poultry egg farms, labour input (p<0.01 and cost of medications (p<0.05 increased the poultry egg output. On the other hand, for female management, stock of birds (p<0.01, labour input (p<0.01 and feed cost (p<0.01 were the factors that increased poultry eggs output. The inefficiency model revealed that male farmers were more technically efficient (p<0.01 than female counterparts. Female managed poultry farms had less productivity (0.90 compared to males(1.22. However, 88.1% of male farms compared to 86.7% of female farms had economic efficiency ratios between 0.29 and 0.79. The study concluded that gender had impact on poultry farmers’ efficiency in the study area. The study therefore recommended that training should be organised for female managed farms while male managed farms should utilize less of cost intensive capital input.

  3. Systematic assessment of fault stability in the Northern Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria: Implication for hydrocarbon prospects and increased seismicities

    Adewole, E. O.; Healy, D.


    Accurate information on fault networks, the full stress tensor, and pore fluid pressures are required for quantifying the stability of structure-bound hydrocarbon prospects, carbon dioxide sequestration, and drilling prolific and safe wells, particularly fluid injections wells. Such information also provides essential data for a proper understanding of superinduced seismicities associated with areas of intensive hydrocarbon exploration and solid minerals mining activities. Pressure and stress data constrained from wells and seismic data in the Northern Niger Delta Basin (NNDB), Nigeria, have been analysed in the framework of fault stability indices by varying the maximum horizontal stress direction from 0° to 90°, evaluated at depths of 2 km, 3.5 km and 4 km. We have used fault dips and azimuths interpreted from high resolution 3D seismic data to calculate the predisposition of faults to failures in three faulting regimes (normal, pseudo-strike-slip and pseudo-thrust). The weighty decrease in the fault stability at 3.5 km depth from 1.2 MPa to 0.55 MPa demonstrates a reduction of the fault strength by high magnitude overpressures. Pore fluid pressures > 50 MPa have tendencies to increase the risk of faults to failure in the study area. Statistical analysis of stability indices (SI) indicates faults dipping 50°-60°, 80°-90°, and azimuths ranging 100°-110° are most favourably oriented for failure to take place, and thus likely to favour migrations of fluids given appropriate pressure and stress conditions in the dominant normal faulting regime of the NNDB. A few of the locally assessed stability of faults show varying results across faulting regimes. However, the near similarities of some model-based results in the faulting regimes explain the stability of subsurface structures are greatly influenced by the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) direction and magnitude of pore fluid pressures.

  4. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners to canine rabies in Wukari metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria.

    Ameh, Veronica O; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Umoh, Jarlath U


    Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using chi(2) analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti

  5. Blended Simulation Progress Testing for Assessment of Practice Readiness

    Smithburger, Pamela; Donihi, Amy Calabrese; Empey, Philip; Kobulinsky, Lawrence; Seybert, Amy; Waters, Thomas; Drab, Scott; Lutz, John; Farkas, Deborah; Meyer, Susan


    Objective. To design an assessment of practice readiness using blended-simulation progress testing. Design. A five-station, blended simulation assessment was developed to evaluate patient care outcomes in first- and third-year pharmacy (P1 and P3) students, as well as first-year postgraduate (PGY1) pharmacy residents. This assessment of practice readiness included knowledge and performance evaluations administered as a progress test. Assessment. Eighteen PGY1 residents, 108 P3 students, and 106 P1 students completed the assessment. P3 students scored significantly higher than P1 students across all evaluations. Third-year pharmacy students scored significantly lower than PGY1 residents in interprofessional communications and attitudes of ownership in a standardized colleague/mannequin model station, and in patient communication in a standardized patient station. Conclusion. Learners demonstrated evolving skills as they progressed through the curriculum. A blended simulation integrated progress test provides data for improvement of individual student clinical skills, informs curricular advancement, and aligns curricular content, process, and outcomes with accreditation standards.

  6. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere


    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  7. Assessment of regional progression of pulmonary emphysema with CT densitometry

    Bakker, M Els; Putter, Hein; Stolk, Jan;


    with general emphysema (general emphysema without phenotype PiZZ [non-PiZ] group) were scanned with CT at baseline and after 30 months. Densitometry was performed in 12 axial partitions of equal volumes. To indicate predominant location, craniocaudal locality was defined as the slope in the plot of densities......BACKGROUND: Lung densitometry is an effective method to assess overall progression of emphysema, but generally the location of the progression is not estimated. We hypothesized that progression of emphysema is the result of extension from affected areas toward less affected areas in the lung....... To test this hypothesis, a method was developed to assess emphysema severity at different levels in the lungs in order to estimate regional changes. METHODS: Fifty subjects with emphysema due to alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) [AATD deficiency of phenotype PiZZ (PiZ) group] and 16 subjects...

  8. An assessment of maternal, newborn and child health implementation studies in Nigeria: implications for evidence informed policymaking and practice

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke


    Full Text Available Background: The introduction of implementation science into maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH research has facilitated better methods to improve uptake of research findings into practices. With increase in implementation research related to MNCH world-wide, stronger scientific evidence are now available and have improved MNCH policies in many countries including Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to review MNCH implementation studies undertaken in Nigeria in order to understand the extent the evidence generated informed better policy. Methods: This study was a systematic review. A MEDLINE Entrez PubMed search was performed in August 2015 and implementation studies that investigated MNCH in Nigeria from 1966 to 2015 in relation to health policy were sought. Search key words included Nigeria, health policy,maternal, newborn, and child health. Only policy relevant studies that were implementation or intervention research which generated evidence to improve MNCH in Nigeria were eligible and were selected. Results: A total of 18 relevant studies that fulfilled the study inclusion criteria were identified out of 471 studies found. These studies generated high quality policy relevance evidence relating to task shifting, breastfeeding practices, maternal nutrition, childhood immunization, kangaroo mother care (KMC, prevention of maternal to child transmission of HIV, etc. These indicated significant improvements in maternal health outcomes in localities and health facilities where the studies were undertaken. Conclusion: There is a dire need for more implementation research related to MNCH in low income settings because the priority for improved MNCH outcome is not so much the development of new technologies but solving implementation issues, such as how to scale up and evaluate interventions within complex health systems.

  9. Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    James, Godstime Kadiri

    The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income

  10. Trends and Bioclimatic Assessment of Extreme Indices: Emerging Insights for Rainfall Derivative Crop Microinsurance in Central-West Nigeria

    Awolala, D. O.


    Scientific predictions have forecasted increasing economic losses by which farming households will be forced to consider new adaptation pathways to close the food gap and be income secure. Pro-poor adaptation planning decisions therefore must rely on location-specific details from systematic assessment of extreme climate indices to provide template for most suitable financial adaptation instruments. This paper examined critical loss point to water stress in maize production and risk-averse behaviour to extreme local climate in Central West Nigeria. Trends of extreme indices and bio-climatic assessment based on RClimDex for numerical weather predictions were carried out using a 3-decade time series daily observational climate data of the sub-humid region. The study reveals that the flowering and seed formation stage was identified as the most critical loss point when seed formation is a function of per unit soil water available for uptake. The sub-humid has a bi-modal rainfall pattern but faces longer dry spell with a fast disappearing mild climate measured by budyko evaporation of 80.1%. Radiation index of dryness of 1.394 confirms the region is rapidly becoming drier at an evaporation rate of 949 mm/year and rainfall deficit of 366 mm/year. Net primary production from rainfall is fast declining by 1634 g(DM)/m2/year. These conditions influenced by monthly rainfall uncertainties are associated with losses of standing crops because farmers are uncertain of rainfall probability distribution especially during most important vegetative stage. In a simulated warmer climate, an absolute dryness of months was observed compared with 4 dry months in a normal climate which explains triggers of food deficits and income losses. Positive coefficients of tropical nights (TR20), warm nights (TN90P) and warm days (TX90P), and the negative coefficient of cold days (TX10P) with time are significant at P<0.05. The increasing gradient of warm spell indicator (WSDI), the decreasing

  11. Continuous Assessment in Transforming University Education in Nigeria: Economic Equity to Meet Global Challenges

    Ekanem, Ekpenyong E.; Ekpiken, William E.


    Continuous assessment is an important management tool for transforming university education. Although this policy employed measurable criteria to retain students' interest and objectivity, most academic staff of Nigerian universities lack basic knowledge and skills in test construction and interpretation and are thus, ineffective in continuous…

  12. Assessing Affordances of Selected Cloud Computing Tools for Language Teacher Education in Nigeria

    Ofemile, Abdulmalik Yusuf


    This paper reports part of a study that hoped to understand Teacher Educators' (TE) assessment of the affordances of selected cloud computing tools ranked among the top 100 for the year 2010. Research has shown that ICT and by extension cloud computing has positive impacts on daily life and this informed the Nigerian government's policy to…

  13. Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.


    Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

  14. Nigeria. Spotlight.

    Lecky, M


    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, currently has no official population policy; however, recent news releases from the Federal Ministry of Information indicate that efforts to deal with rapid population growth may be forthcouming. Adequate census materials are lacking. In 1984 population size was estimated to be 88 million, and in 1983 the estimated crude birth rate was 48-51/1000, the estimated crude death rate was 16-18/1000, and the population growth rate was approximately 3.0%-3.5%. Other estimates for 1983 placed the infant mortality rate at 134 and life expectancy at 49 years. The total fertility rate observed in a 1981 World Fertility Study was 5.4, but this rate was questioned by investigators, who believe it is too low. World Bank projections, based on the assumption that fertility declines will begin soon, indicate that the population will reach 618 million before stabilizing toward the end of the 21st century. At the present time, only 6% of Nigeria's women of reproductive age use contraception, and most of these women contracept only for spacing purposes. Nigeria, which obtained independence in 1960, is plagued by internal strife between different ethnic groups. The northern region, populated by the Hausa is less developed economically than the southern region. The Ibo, who play a major role in the nation's commerical and government sectors, predominated in the the southeastern region, and the Yoruba are the most populous group in the southwestern region. 1/2 of the population if Muslim, 40% is Christian, and the remaining proportion practices traditional religions. During the 1960s, Nigeria derived 2/3 of it gross national product from agriculture, and especially from the export of cocoa, groundnuts, and palm oil. During the 1970s the economy changed markedly as the country began to exploit its oil reserves. By 1983, agriculture accounted for only 20% of the gross national product, and 98% of the country's total exports of US$11.3 billion

  15. Assessment of the Occurrence and Risks of Emerging Organic Pollutants (EOPs) in Ikpa River Basin Freshwater Ecosystem, Niger Delta-Nigeria.

    Inam, Edu; Offiong, Nnanake-Abasi; Kang, Suil; Yang, Paul; Essien, Joseph


    The levels of some emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) including endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products were quantified in surface water of a freshwater ecosystem, the Ikpa River Basin, Nigeria using liquid chromatography/high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, leachates and storm water samples collected from nearby dumpsites were also analysed to assess the effect on water quality. Seventeen compounds were detected at the nanogramme-per-litre levels and the ecological risks of selected compounds assessed based on predicted no-effect concentrations derived from comparison of toxicity data recorded for green algae, fish and invertebrate with the maximum measured environmental concentrations, to obtain risk quotients. Some of the compounds showed some level of widespread occurrence or persistence. Also, bisphenol A, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, triclocarban and triclosan were the most important EOPs detected in the study area that may pose detrimental effects to the aquatic organisms based on the outcome of the risk assessment.

  16. Opportunities for Collaborative Adaptive Management Progress: Integrating Stakeholder Assessments into Progress Measurement

    Jim Berkley


    There are differences among stakeholders in the indicators they consider as relevant to the assessment of progress. Elucidating these differences can provide useful information about system components and relationships that are important to public support of a CAM program and progress. One of the sources of differences in progress assessments among stakeholders comes from their diverse perceptions about the desired and current states of the social-ecological systems. Stakeholder behavior can be inconsistent between group and individual settings. Individually they may make plans, based on their assessments, that do not conform to the group plan because of their unique interests and preferences. The results of this study need to be further tested. The framework should be used through multiple cycles to determine whether the information gathered with this approach results in additional progress as compared with past approaches. In particular, it would be helpful to test whether gathering such information resulted in a decrease in stakeholders electing to go outside of the CAM process to get their needs met.

  17. Assessment of Microbiological Quality of Yogurt Sold By Street Vendors in Onitsha Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria

    Ifeanyi V. O.; Ihesiaba E. O.; Muomaife O. M.; Ikenga C.


    Four brands of yogurt sold by street vendors in Onitsha Metropolis, Anambra State, Eastern Nigeriia were sampled, the pH was determined and microbiological assessments were conducted in order to ascertain the total heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and yeast in the samples (A – D) during a seven day period. The results revealed that values of pH monitored varied from 3.69 – 4.50 while a total of five bacteria species belonging to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aur...

  18. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Nigeria

    Staples, D.; Steingass, H.; Nolfi, J.


    The market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture was studied. Information is presented on technical and economically feasible applications, and assessments of the business, government and financial climate for photovoltaic sales. It is concluded that the market for stand-alone systems will be large because of the availability of captial and the high premium placed on high reliability, low maintenance power systems. Various specific applications are described, mostly related to agriculture.

  19. Flood Vulnerable Area Assessment of Abakaliki Metropolis South-eastern Nigeria.

    Onwe R. M


    Full Text Available As a result of global warming, the climate change in Africa and Asia is predictably becoming more variable, and weather events expected to go more frequently extreme and severe. This includes increasing risk of drought and flooding in new areas. Inundation by extreme floods events is recorded every year worldwide. The potential consequences are profound increasing risk, particularly on environment and people in the less developed countries. Flooding cannot be totally avoided and maybe their occurrence will increase due to climate change. Absolute protection is both unachievable and unsustainable because of high costs and inherent uncertainties. Abilities to mitigate and or prevent flood disasters, cope with and recuperate from the effects have not been sufficiently taken into account nor developed. Communities within watershed or along the River system such as Abakaliki metropolis are mostly under threat of constant flooding menace. When flooding strike, the poor and socio-economically disadvantaged suffer the most and are least equipped to cope with impacts. Vulnerability assessment which many regions of the world recently commenced becomes the way forward. Assessing vulnerability and impacts requires and analysis of information on climate elements, such as temperature, rainfall and non-climatic data, such as situation on the soil, altitude and other characteristics of elements-at-risks indicators. This informs for a well thought-out monitoring (risk assessment, mitigation, coping strategies and adaptation measures which can be adopted by all the vulnerable stakeholders including Governments at all tiers.

  20. Nigeria using more condoms.


    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]"

  1. Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria

    T.T. Youngu


    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS providing information about primary and secondary schools, Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs’ vision of literacy for 15-24 year olds will be achieved. The development of geospatial database information system of primary and secondary schools for Garki and Wuse districts, Abuja, was embarked upon to provide timely, consistent and accurate information to decision makers for use in achieving this particular target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The delay in achievement of this target is not because governments in developing countries aren’t putting maximum effort, but because these governments are choosing to put the cart before the horse. Sustainable literacy level cannot be achieved without an effective framework charged with the collection, storage, query, analysis and management of the relevant data. What is needed is a system that provides government with data about all educational facilities within required proximity and determines availability of the required facilities. GIS is that decision making technology, which integrates ‘spatially referenced data’ with a problem solving environment. The method employed was to acquire both spatial and attribute data of every primary and secondary school in Garki and Wuse districts. The spatially referenced database was created using Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS 9.2 software. The database was queried and the results of the queries analyzed. The results showed that 60% of the schools didn’t have access to Internet. Twenty-one (21 percent had no

  2. Assessment of patients' wound-related pain experiences in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Obilor, Helen N; Adejumo, Prisca O; Ilesanmi, Rose E


    This study was necessitated by the international recognition of wound-related pain (WRP) as a must-address issue and patient-centred concerns. The aim of this study was to assess patients' WRP experiences at rest and in relation to dressing change. This descriptive study utilised a WRP questionnaire which incorporated a visual analogue scale of 0-10 for data collection. A total of 109 patients participated in this study; 95·4% of the participants experienced wound pain at rest and during performance of activities of daily living, which were moderate (47·1%) and severe (30·8%) in intensity. Also, 91·7% of the participants experienced wound dressing change-related pain, mostly as moderate (47·0%) and severe (28·0%) pain. The major factors that worsened WRP experiences were touch/handling, change in position/movement, wound cleansing, removal of dressings and usage of honey as a dressing agent, while the use of analgesic and brief rest between dressing change were considered the major strategies that can relieve WRP. WRP experiences have been reported by patients at rest, during performance of activities of daily living and at wound dressing change. A need to incorporate WRP assessment has been observed, which is vital in improving wound care outcome.

  3. Road Network Assessment inTrans-Amadi, Port Harcourt in Nigeria Using GIS

    Andrew Adesola Obafemi


    Full Text Available This study assessed the road network system of Trans-Amadi industrial layout using a Geographic Information System (GIS. Topographical map of scale 1:100000 and Google Earth, 2010 version were the sources for the acquisition of the data. A reconnaissance survey of the area was also done to assess the present situation and state of the road network. Both the topographical map and the imagery were geo-rectified in ArcGIS 9.2 and geographic data on roads and road junction were captured. Road junctions were digitized as points which are otherwise referred to as nodes while the roads as lines which are also called Arcs. Simple descriptive analysis was used to describe the road condition, pavements and types of the road network in the study. The connectivity level in the road network was determined with the use of Beta Index (BI. The road density was determined with respect to the road length per unit area. The road density was high (8.07 km-1 while the connectivity level of road network was also high (0.77. In terms of road condition, the analysis revealed that road length of 26.66 km (97.19 % was tarred and in good condition out of 27.43 km of total road length in the study. In terms of road types, the analysis showed that the total length of dualized road type was 6.14 km (22.38 % while 21.29 km (77.62 % were not dualized.

  4. Assessment of daytime physiologic comfort, its perception and coping strategies among people in tertiary institutions in Nigeria

    Oyenike Mary Eludoyin


    Full Text Available Adequate understanding of the extreme thermal condition is as important as that of the averages for planners and policy makers. A significant knowledge gap exists in the physiologic comfort in many developing countries, particularly in the tropical region where thermal stress can pose significant threat to life because of inadequate infrastructure. This study examines the hourly variations in the physiologic comfort of Nigeria using the effective temperature, temperature–humidity and relative strain indices (ETI, THI and RSI, respectively. It also examines the perceptions of a selected sample of Nigerians, and their coping strategies to extreme conditions of cold and heat stress. The results showed that physiologic comfort in Nigeria exhibits variations across the different latitudinal locations; shows seasonal variations and is affected by local geography. Perception of the comfortable climate exhibits variation based on the latitudinal location of the respondents but the coping strategies vary with the wealth of individuals. The study showed that physiologic discomfort is severe in many parts of Nigeria (especially in the climate regions outside the montane climate but the infrastructure to cope with the thermal stress is either poorly known or unaffordable for the majority of the people.

  5. A Critical Assessment of Ministerial Formation in Roman Catholic Seminaries in Nigeria in the Light of the Pastores Dabo Vobis: A Case Study of Claretian Institute, Owerri

    John Enyinnaya


    Full Text Available Since the last few decades, spiritual formation has been receiving attention in theological education literature. An increasing number of theological educators have observed how easily this important objective of ministerial formation gets crowded out by the academic and ministry emphases. Others have called attention to the problem of fragmentation pointing to the need for integration in the work theological institutions do. Thus, it has become common to hear institutions boast of how integrated their programmes are and how much emphasis they place on spiritual formation. It is, however, not that common to see studies dedicated to finding out how these claims are actually realized in practice. The purpose of this paper is to assess to what extent Roman Catholic Seminaries in Nigeria comply with the emphasis in the Pastores Dabo Vobis (PDV on spiritual formation. The PDV is the dominant Roman Catholic document on ministerial formation since Vatican II. The PDV has been influential in highlighting the importance of spiritual formation in theological education globally. The paper gives a brief overview of the PDV’s portrayal of ministerial formation and then examines one Roman Catholic Seminary in Nigeria (the Claretian Institute, Nekede, Owerri  to see to what extent spiritual formation is carried out amongst other objectives. The paper concludes with salient lessons other theological institutions can learn from Claretian Institute’s effort at provision of holistic and relevant theological preparation for ministers.

  6. Zooplankton-based assessment of the trophic state of a tropical forest river in Nigeria

    Imoobe T.O.T.


    Full Text Available In this study, we explore the usefulness of zooplankton as a tool for assessing the trophic status of a Nigerian forest river. The river was sampled monthly and investigated for water physico-chemistry and zooplankton community structure using basic statistical measurement of diversity indices to characterize the zooplankton fauna. The trophic sta­tus of the river evaluated from its physico-chemical parameters indicates that the river is oligotrophic. The zooplankton composition was typical of a tropical freshwater river, with a total of 40 species, made up of 16 rotifers, 12 cladocerans, and 12 copepods and their developing stages in the following order of dominance: Rotifera > Cladocera > Cyclopoida > Calanoida. There were strong correlations between the lake's trophic status and its zooplankton communities. The zoo­plankton community was dominated by numerous species of rotifers and crustaceans, which are typical of oligotrophic to mesotrophic systems, such species including Conochilus dossuarius and Synchaeta longipes. However, the most dominant zooplankton species in West African freshwater ecosystems, viz., Keratella tropica, Keratella quadrata, Brachionus angularis, Trichocerca pusilla, Filinia longiseta, Pompholyx sulcata, and Proales sp., and others that are indicator species of high trophic levels, were not recorded in the river. The river is very clear and can be used for all manner of recreational activities.

  7. Evaluation of Formation Damage and Assessment of Well Productivity of Oredo Field, Edo State, Nigeria

    Omotara O. Oluwagbenga


    Full Text Available Formation damage canincurconsiderable cost for remediation and deferred production. Thorough understanding of the formation damage mechanisms, stringent measures for its control and prevention, and effective and efficient treatments are the keys for optimum production strategies for oil and gas fields. WELL 4X was investigated in this study to properly diagnosed and evaluate productivity in OREDO FIELD and Bottom Hole Pressure survey was used from Bottom Hole Pressure analysis in addition to the information of the well production history and reservoir data available to determine and assess the extent of the formation damage in the well. The WELL 4X was stimulated using Acid Foam Diversion Techniques to enhance reservoir productivity and increase economic operations. The stimulation job done on the well showed a peak increase of production from 850 bbl/day to 3200 b/d before it declined to 2150 bbl/day, and finally maintained an average stabilized rate of 2000 bbl/day. It has to be established that the treatment method on WELL 4X using Acid Foam Diversion Techniques and the Bottom Hole Pressure survey conducted on the WELL 4X in OREDO FIELD is found to be efficient in the determination and evaluation of formation damage.

  8. Preliminary Assessment of Effects of Paint Industry Effluents on Local Groundwater Regime in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Olaoye, R. A.


    Full Text Available Although, groundwater constitutes a major source of water supply especially in developing countries, however wastes generated arising from industrial growth and further complication caused by its indiscriminate disposal have been a major risk to groundwater vulnerability. Hence in this study, preliminary impact assessment of wastewater discharged from paint industry on proximal groundwater regime was carried out. Representative groundwater and effluent samples were collected from locations within the study area, and analyzed in accordance to the American Public Health Association standard methods. The values of the measured concentration of the parameters were compared with regulatory standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Mn2+ , total Fe, Ca2+ , TDS, TSS, total hardness and SO4 2- were mostly higher than the permissible regulatory standards. Total alkalinity values were very low in all the groundwater samples, while the presence of E-coli across all the sampling points indicated wide spread pathogenic contamination. The results showed average lead concentration of 1.18 mg/l compared to the permissible level of 0.01 mg/l. Corresponding higher values of the physicochemical and biological parameters were observed in the discharged effluent samples. The observed high lead concentration have potential toxic consequences, and hence enforcement of localized waste minimization is recommended in order to promote waste recycling, and ensure adequate protection of public health and the environment.

  9. Assessment of Wastewater Discharge Impact from a Sewage Treatment Plant on Lagoon Water, Lagos, Nigeria

    Ezechiel Longe


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater discharge impact from the University of Lagos campus treatment plant on the lagoon system . In order to achieve this objective water samples were collected from nine sites and analyzed for different wastewater quality variables. The field survey was carried out between July and November in order to capture both the wet and dry seasons. Average removal efficiencies of measured parameters from treated effluents are 26% for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, 73% for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, 65.8% for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and 72% for Total Nitrogen (Total N for the wet season campaign. During the dry season average rem oval efficiencies of measured parameters are 54% for TDS, 54% for BOD, 39% for COD and 42% for Total N. These values are lower than values obtained for the wet season except for TDS. Most parameters in effluents exceeded the National Environmental Protection Regulations, Effluent Limitation standards for discharge into river bodies. Average concentrations of TDS, BOD and COD in lagoon water show higher concentrations than in the treated effluent and are above the regulatory requirements. The research recommends further study on the possible influence of water dynamics and sampling methods on water quality of the lagoon. The overall results from this research conclude that the lagoon is being polluted by effluents discharge from the university treatment plant thereby exposing the health of local residents who use it for recreation and for food production purposes.

  10. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria

    Braide Wesley


    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained from street vendors and shopping malls in major streets, motor parks and higher institutions in Owerri. The fruits were washed-out separately in 10 mL sterile distilled water to obtain suspensions which were assayed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, and fungal count and for specific pathogens. A count of 3.4×105-4.5×107 cfu/mL was obtained for TAPC, while total coliform and total fungal counts ranges from 2.4×104-2.2×106 and 5.0×102-3.6×105 cfu/mL respectively. Twelve bacterial and seven fungal spp were isolated. The apple fruits sold in major busy spots in Owerri are contaminated, the presence of Shigella spp, S. aureus, Salmonella and B. cereus which are known pathogens calls for concern. Education of fruit vendors on food hygiene, adequate packaging/covering of apple fruits on display for sale and washing of fruits before consumption is advanced.

  11. Assessment of Pollution Hazards of Shallow Well Water in Abeokuta and Environs, Southwest, Nigeria

    E. O. Orebiyi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Pollution of well water, either from point or non-point sources, has become a thing of health concern both in urban and rural areas. Approach: This study aim at assessing the pollution hazards of groundwater resource by sampling some shallow wells from urban and peri-urban area of Abeokuta. Collected samples were analyzed for water quality parameters using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: Static water level, color, turbidity, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Solids (TS, total hardness, cations {potassium (K sodium (Na, Calcium (Ca, magnesium (mg, Manganese (Mn, iron (Fe}, anions ﴾Chloride (Cl-, Nitrate (NO3, Sulphate (SO4, Phosphate (PO4}, heavy metals {lead (Pb, Zinc (Zn, Copper (Cu} and microbiological parameters {Bacteria count and Total Coliform count (TC}. Results: Results were subjected to statistical evaluations using SPSS 15.0 for descriptive statistics and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA. The mean values of TDS, TS, EC and PO4 were higher in well water collected from urban areas compared to peri-urban areas during wet season. It was also observed that during the dry season, TDS, TSS, TS, EC, Mg, Fe, Cl-, PO4 and total hardness were also higher in samples collected from urban areas relative to peri-urban well water samples. Conclusion: Water quality parameters such as Fe, Pb, NO3, EC, Bacteria count and total coliform have mean values greater than World Health Organization maximum permissible standards for drinking water. Elevated values of these parameters are of great concern to public health when the water from these wells is consumed by people without treatment.

  12. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Domestic and Irrigation Purposes in Yola, Adamawa State Northeastern Nigeria

    Hong, Aliyu Haliru


    Full Text Available To assess groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes in Yola Adamawa State during the peak of dry season, groundwater samples were collected for analysis from fifteen boreholes and five hands dug wells that cover twenty wards of the City. The area investigated falls within longitude 12o26' E and Latitude 9o16' N. The groundwater samples collected were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, multi – analyte photometer and flame photometer while interpretation of the results was done by Comparison with the World Health Organization (WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ guidelines for portable water. The pH values ranged from acidic to slightly alkaline 5.5 – 7.4, turbidity recorded 0 – 40NTU with four samples above the limit of 5NTU.TDS and EC recorded values ranged between 17 – 1200mg/l, 129 - 1600µs/cm with two samples each above stipulated limit. The concentrations of the cat ions (Ca, Mg, Na, and K are all found below the guideline of WHO and NSDWQ. Sulphate and bicarbonate recorded value range of 2 – 94.1mg/l and 11 – 630mg/l, which are also below the value of 100mg/l and 1000mg/l set by NSDWQ and WHO standards; however the recorded value of nitrate exceeded the specified limit of 50mg/l in seven water samples. Five water samples are classified as hard water based on the limit of 150mg/l and 500mg/l total hardness classification by the limit under consideration. The concentrations of heavy metals cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, manganese and iron were all found to exceed the WHO and NSDWQ standards. Iron concentration exceeded 0.3mg/l in seventeen water sample, manganese concentration exceeded 0.2mg/l and 0.05mg/l in twelve water samples, lead exceeded the limit of 0.01mg/l in seven water samples, also, chromium and cadmium exceeded limits of 0.05mg/l and 0.003mg/l in four and six water samples, copper exceeded set limit in only one sample while Nickel concentration

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment of Onyeama Coal Mine in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

    Ezemokwe, D.E


    Full Text Available Heavy-metal concentration levels in water, coal wastes, soil and background soil were determined with a view to assessing the degree of contamination and environmental impact due to coal mining activities around Onyeama coal mine. A total of 58 samples comprising 11 water, 11 coal wastes, 22 soils and 14 background soils were collected and analyzed. Various physico-chemical characteristics of water analyzed include pH, alkalinity, total hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS, sulphate, chloride, calcium and magnesium. Chemical analysis of water, coal wastes, soil and background soil samples were undertaken to determine concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Zn, As, Mn and Fe using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF and Pollution Index (PI results indicate significant enrichments of Cd, Pb and Ni in all the media examined compared with other elements studied. In water, the concentrations of Fe (3.13 mg/l, Cd (0.33 mg/l, Ni (1.30 mg/l, Cr (0.12 mg/l and As (0.07 mg/l exceeded the recommended values (1.0, 0.003, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.01mg/l respectively for potable water. In coal waste samples, Cd (2.52mg/kg is high with health risk level of 5. Cu (2.81mg/kg, Co (1.57 mg/kg and As (0.19 mg/kg moderately polluted the environment. In soil, high mean concentration levels are recorded for Cd (5.56 mg/kg and Pb (3.15 mg/kg, moderate to low levels for Cr (1.88 mg/kg, Cu (1.70 mg/kg, Co (0.44mg/kg, Mn (0.99mg/kg and As (0.16 mg/kg. Concentration of metals in the four media examined indicated that the level of pollution is in descending order as shown: soil medium >>>coal wastes medium >> water medium> background soil medium. Reference to World Health Organization standards, the observed trend in the concentration of the metals in the media, will pose health problems to humans and may impact adversely on the ecological, agricultural as well as underground water systems.

  14. Characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in parts of Akure, South-Western Nigeria

    H.O Nwankwoala


    Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from different parts of Akure town and analysed for various physico-chemical parameters using conventional field and laboratory techniques. The essence of the study is to evaluate the characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in the area. The pH values falls between 7.1 to 7.7, indicating that the ground water is neutral. The range of conductivity for the area is between 116 to 1000µS/cm with an average of 365µS/cm which met the WHO (2006 standard of 1000µS/cm for drinking water. The low levels of turbidity ranging from 1 to 2 NTU were obtained. The TDS concentrations range between 81 to 700 mg/l. The total hardness of water sampled range from 20.2 to 345.6mg/l. Sulphate ion concentration is between 2.5 to 23.2mg/l. Phosphate values ranges from 0.05 to 0.07mg/l in all locations, and average value of 0.12mg/l which are within the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water. Nitrate levels ranged from 1.13 to 2.91mg/l. The values of bicarbonates range from 28 to 88mg/l with a mean value of 43.9mg/l, as all locations are far below the W.H.O (2006 limit of 600mg/l. The concentration of calcium ranged from 12.3 to 92.2mg/l while the concentrations of magnesium ion ranged from 0.9 to 32.6mg/l with an average of 7.3gm/l and this is below the WHO limit for drinking water (150mg/l. The concentration of sodium ion (Na+ ranged from 1.067 to 8.696mg/l. The concentration of potassium also ranged from 7.537 to 51.881mg/l with a mean value of 19.098mg/l. Although there is no reference to WHO standards for the parameter, the relatively low values of potassium suggest the suitability of the analysed groundwater samples for drinking. The common form of iron in groundwater is the soluble ferrous ion Fe2+. The concentration of iron in the water samples ranged from <0.001 to 0.001mg/l showing a very low value of iron in all boreholes. Generally, results compare favourably with the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water

  15. Study Progress and Trends of Strategic Environmental Assessment in China

    Cai Chunmiao; Shang Jincheng


    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in China has developed rapidly since it was introduced into China in the 1990s.Chinese government promulgated the Environmental Impact As-sessment Law of China (hereinafter referred to as the EIA Law) in 2002.In this law, it is stipulated clearly that regional and sector plans should be assessed.Through investigating materials and ana-lyzing literatures, this article analyses the practical and academic study achievements of SEA in China that have been achieved since the EIA Law was implemented, probes into the current situation of the main level of SEA in China--plan EIA, then summarizes the development characteristics, and eventually, puts forward the development trends of SEA in China.The research conclusions can offer the foundations for comprehending systematically the progress of SEA in China.

  16. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    Okafor, Chinyelu B


    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  17. Assessment of the quality of antenatal care services provided by health workers using a mobile phone decision support application in northern Nigeria: a pre/post-intervention study.

    Marion McNabb

    Full Text Available Given the shortage of skilled healthcare providers in Nigeria, frontline community health extension workers (CHEWs are commonly tasked with providing maternal and child health services at primary health centers. In 2012, we introduced a mobile case management and decision support application in twenty primary health centers in northern Nigeria, and conducted a pre-test/post-test study to assess whether the introduction of the app had an effect on the quality of antenatal care services provided by this lower-level cadre.Using the CommCare mobile platform, the app dynamically guides CHEWs through antenatal care protocols and collects client data in real time. Thirteen health education audio clips are also embedded in the app for improving and standardizing client counseling. To detect changes in quality, we developed an evidence-based quality score consisting of 25 indicators, and conducted a total of 266 client exit interviews. We analyzed baseline and endline data to assess changes in the overall quality score as well as changes in the provision of key elements of antenatal care.Overall, the quality score increased from 13.3 at baseline to 17.2 at endline (p<0.0001, out of a total possible score of 25, with the most significant improvements related to health counseling, technical services provided, and quality of health education.These study results suggest that the introduction of a low-cost mobile case management and decision support application can spur behavior change and improve the quality of services provided by a lower level cadre of healthcare workers. Future research should employ a more rigorous experimental design to explore potential longer-term effects on client health outcomes.

  18. Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.

    Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S


    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in urban area, and by 2050, that proportion will increase to three quarters (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas.

  19. Underground water and pollution vulnerability assessment of lower Imo sedimentary basin of South-eastern Nigeria: A case study of Nwangele Local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria

    Onunkwo – A, A


    Full Text Available Water exploitation and population explosion are two major problems facing Nwangele Local Government. This study was therefore predicated on these problems to assess the underground water and pollution vulnerability of the study area. The method of study involves literature survey of previous work done in Imo River sedimentary basin and other works considered necessary for the study. A total of ten (10 vertical electricity soundings (VES was conducted for data generation using terrameter 300 SAS employing Schlumberger configuration. Aquifer (sands from boreholes within three (3 communities and ten (10 water samples were collected and used for statistical and geochemical analysis. The result shows that the lithology is made of sand, silt sand, clay and shale. Three (3 aquifer systems exits in the area confined, semi confined and unconfined aquifers, these occur as upper (33.5m, middle (82m and lower (102 to 115m aquifers. The lithology comprises 4 to 6 layers with water bearing bed occurring at the fifth layer. Average aquifer thickness measured 38 metres. Multiaquifer system exists in some localities. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 25.6m/day to 28.9m/day, transmissivity ranges from 450.842/day to 111.7m2/day while the storativity values ranges from 0.468 x 10-5 to 1.13 x 10-5, all indicate aquifer of good yield. Aquifer thickness ranges from 12.5 to 45m. The water chemistry is neutral, mildly acidic to mildly alkaline. The underground water is of calcium by carbonate type (CaHCO3 fresh and ideal for consumption, irrigation and laundry industry. None of the constituents fell short of WHO (1984 standard . Environmental pollution is only confined to upper aquifer. It is recommended that the three aquifer horizons can be tapped at the depth range of 18 to 102 metres. Multiple screen should be employed where there are more than one aquifer horizon. It is advisable that down the hole electric logging be conducted prior to the installation of

  20. Assessment of the risk status of pregnant women presenting for antenatal care in a rural health facility in Ebonyi State, South Eastern Nigeria

    Patrick Gold Oyibo


    Full Text Available Background: Nigeria has one of the worst maternal and child health indices globally. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the risk status of pregnant women presenting for antenatal care in a rural health facility in Ebonyi State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of pregnant women selected by systematic random sampling. The study instrument was a pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Result: The age range of the women in the study was 16-43 years. The mean age was 25.3 ± 1.3 years. According to the scoring system used, about one-fourth of the women (26% had a high risk pregnancy while about a tenth (9.1% had very high risk pregnancy. The vast majority of the women with at-risk pregnancies registered for antenatal care late: 58.9 % registered for antenatal care in the second trimester and 37.0 % registered for antenatal care in the third trimester of pregnancy. Of the women with an at-risk pregnancy, 79.5% had their last delivery at home and 67.1 % of them preferred to deliver at home in their current pregnancies. Conclusion: This study revealed that a substantial proportion of rural women with at-risk pregnancies go through their pregnancy period without significant modern antenatal care. The local government health department should intensify efforts through health enlightenment campaigns to educate rural pregnant women of the benefits of utilizing modern antenatal care services.

  1. Assessment of biosecurity measures against highly pathogenic avian influenza risks in small-scale commercial farms and free-range poultry flocks in the northcentral Nigeria.

    Alhaji, N B; Odetokun, I A


    There is considerable global concern over the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) that has affected domestic poultry flocks in Nigeria and other parts of the world. There have been little investigations on the proposition that free-range flocks are potentially at higher risk of HPAI than confined small-scale commercial enterprises. The objective is to analyse the biosecurity measures instituted in the small-scale commercial poultry farms and established free-range bird flocks owned by households in the rural areas and qualitatively assess the risk status at the two levels of poultry management systems in northcentral Nigeria. We used data collected through questionnaire administration to farms and flock owners and subjected them to a traffic light system model to test for relative risks of HPAI infection based on the biosecurity measures put in place at the farm and flock levels. The results indicate that free-range flocks are at lower risk compared to small-scale commercial operations. These findings are plausible as birds from free-range flocks have more opportunities to contact wild bird reservoirs of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains than small-scale commercial poultry, thus providing them with constant challenge and maintenance of flock immunity. The development of efficient and effective biosecurity measures against poultry diseases on small-scale commercial farms requires adequate placement of barriers to provide segregation, cleaning and disinfection, while concerted community-led sanitary measures are required for free-range poultry flocks in the developing topical and subtropical economies.

  2. Analysis of Settlement Expansion and Urban Growth Modelling Using Geoinformation for Assessing Potential Impacts of Urbanization on Climate in Abuja City, Nigeria

    Mahmoud Ibrahim Mahmoud


    Full Text Available This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of settlement expansion in Abuja, Nigeria, one of West Africa’s fastest developing cities, using geoinformation and ancillary datasets. Three epochs of Land-use Land-cover (LULC maps for 1986, 2001 and 2014 were derived from Landsat images using support vector machines (SVM. Accuracy assessment (AA of the LULC maps based on the pixel count resulted in overall accuracy of 82%, 92% and 92%, while the AA derived from the error adjusted area (EAA method stood at 69%, 91% and 91% for 1986, 2001 and 2014, respectively. Two major techniques for detecting changes in the LULC epochs involved the use of binary maps as well as a post-classification comparison approach. Quantitative spatiotemporal analysis was conducted to detect LULC changes with specific focus on the settlement development pattern of Abuja, the federal capital city (FCC of Nigeria. Logical transitions to the urban category were modelled for predicting future scenarios for the year 2050 using the embedded land change modeler (LCM in the IDRISI package. Based on the EAA, the result showed that urban areas increased by more than 11% between 1986 and 2001. In contrast, this value rose to 17% between 2001 and 2014. The LCM model projected LULC changes that showed a growing trend in settlement expansion, which might take over allotted spaces for green areas and agricultural land if stringent development policies and enforcement measures are not implemented. In conclusion, integrating geospatial technologies with ancillary datasets offered improved understanding of how urbanization processes such as increased imperviousness of such a magnitude could influence the urban microclimate through the alteration of natural land surface temperature. Urban expansion could also lead to increased surface runoff as well as changes in drainage geography leading to urban floods.

  3. Assessment of Challenges in Developing Self-Instructional Course Materials at the National Open University of Nigeria

    Charity Akuadi Okonkwo


    Full Text Available The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN is Nigeria’s only university dedicated to providing education through the use of distance instructional methods. So far, however, the lack of availability and poor distribution of course materials, which underpin instructional delivery at NOUN, continue to be hindrances to achieving the university’s vision and mission. There are delays and difficulties in developing and distributing materials to students and Study Centres. Many pioneer students cannot graduate because of this challenge. This paper examines the process of developing self-instructional course materials at NOUN. It reflects on the challenges associated with the quantity, quality, and timely production of course materials, labelled “the hills, the wills, and the skills” obstacles. The paper concludes that there is a need for better professional development in order to provide efficient ODL delivery.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O


    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (Pquantitative impact). Highest sero-prevalence of 25.3% was observed in Northern agro-ecological zone, while lowest of 6.2% was in Eastern zone. Pastoralists in the age groups 51-60 and 61-70 years were more likely (OR 13.07; 95% CI: 3.21, 53.12 and OR 7.10; 95% CI: 1.77, 28.33, respectively) to have satisfactory information/awareness on CBPP and lowland transhumance pastoralists were more likely (OR 5.21; 95% CI: 2.01, 13.54) to have satisfactory information. Socio-cultural activities of extensive husbandry system was six times more likely (OR 5.79; 95% CI: 2.55, 13.13) to be satisfactory practice that influenced CBPP occurrence in herds, while

  5. Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Mapping of the Landuse Landcover Dynamics in The Central Forest Belt of Southwestern Nigeria

    R.O. Oyinloye


    Full Text Available The study examined the Landuse and Landcover (LULC dynamics of the central cocoa cultivation area of southwestern Nigeria between 1972 and 2002 using remotely sensed multi-temporal datasets. The datasets are Landsat 1972, 1986, 1991 and 2002 imageries. The datasets were each subjected to supervised classification techniques employing the maximum likelihood classifier using ILWIS software. This implies that field observation for identification and completion of ambiguous features and other details supported by GPS locations was carried out. Seven dominant classes of feature: agro-forest/light forest, built-up area, exposed rock surfaces/bare land, forest reserve, shrub and arable land, ridge forest and water body were identified. A time series analysis of the LULC changes was carried out to provide the necessary understanding of the changes required for policy formulation and decision-making with respect to cocoa production, forest reserve management and landuse planning, control, coordination and budgeting while being mindful of environmental conservation. This indispensable geo-information is yet lacking in the cocoa growing belt of southwestern Nigeria. ArcView software was used to prepare the corresponding time series LULC maps of the study area. The study showed that the forest reserves within the study area reduced at an average rate of 2.78% per year while agro-forest/light forest reduced to 46.39% (i.e., at an average rate of 1.55% per year and, shrub and arable land increased by 323.06% (i.e., at an average rate of 10.77% per year for food production farming to feed the rapidly increasing population between 1972 and 2002.

  6. Suicidal ideation: Are refugees more at risk compared to host population? Findings from a preliminary assessment in a refugee community in Nigeria.

    Akinyemi, O O; Atilola, O; Soyannwo, T


    Among the serious mental health problems that may be associated with being a refugee is suicidal behavior. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among African refugees in Oru-Ijebu Nigeria. Suicidal ideation was assessed using appropriate section in the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview while the brief version of the WHO Quality of Life was used to assess quality of life as a clinical variable. Study involved 444 refugees and 527 non-refugee member of host community. Result showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the refugees than the non-refugee comparison group (27.3% vs. 17.3%; prefugees compared with their non-refugee members of same community. Quality of life was the only factor independently associated with suicidal ideations among refugees. In conclusion, the study shows that the prevalence of suicidal ideation is significantly higher among the refugees than the non-refugee members of the host community and calls for innovative ways of extending mental health services to refugees at the study site.

  7. Data collection and assessment of commonly consumed foods and recipes in six geo-political zones in Nigeria: important for the development of a National Food Composition Database and Dietary Assessment.

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Sanusi, Rasaki A; Udenta, Elizabeth A; Williams, Ima O; Anigo, Kola M; Chibuzo, Elizabeth C; Aliyu, Hassan M; Ekpe, Onot O; Davidson, Gloria I


    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to collect and assess commonly consumed foods/recipes from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria for the production of food composition database (FCDB) for dietary assessment. Communities used were selected using a multi-stage sampling plan. Focus group discussions, interviews, recipe documentation, food preparations and literature reviews were employed. Qualitative methods were used to analyse and present data. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis was used to evaluate the project. A total of 322 recipes were collected out of which 110 were soups. Food consumption patterns across the geographical zones were found to be changing. Variations in recipes and methods of preparation of similar foods were observed. Factors to be considered in the development of a country-specific FCDB were identified. There were challenges with the use of values reported in literature for Nigerian foods. The study justifies the need for a country-specific FCDB that will include traditional recipes.

  8. [Adult Education in Nigeria.

    Odokara, Elijah O.

    Focusing on eastern Nigeria, these studies describe educational planning to combat anomia (uncertainty and despair) in war-ravaged rural areas; the role of the University of Nigeria in social action, womens education, young farmers' clubs, and other activities aimed at postwar reconstruction; a proposal for improving family life education for…

  9. Obstetric Knowledge of Nurse-Educators in Nigeria: Levels, Regional Differentials and Their Implications for Maternal Health Delivery

    Mohammed, Salisu Ishaku; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Oginni, Ayodeji Babatunde; Tukur, Jamilu; Adoyi, Gloria


    Objective: To assess the knowledge of nurse-midwife educators on the major causes of maternal mortality in Nigeria. Setting: Schools of nursing and midwifery in Nigeria. Method: A total of 292 educators from 171 schools of nursing and midwifery in Nigeria were surveyed for their knowledge of the major causes of maternal mortality as a prelude to…

  10. Satellite imagery technology in public health: analysis of site catchment areas for assessment of poliovirus circulation in Nigeria and Niger.

    Takane, Marina; Yabe, Shizu; Tateshita, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Hino, Akihiko; Isono, Kazuo; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Diop, Ousmane M; Tadono, Takeo


    Environmental surveillance supplements the surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis by monitoring wastewater for poliovirus circulation. Building on previous work, we analysed wastewater flow to optimise selection and placement of sampling sites with higher digital surface model (DSM) resolution. The newly developed 5-m mesh DSM from the panchromatic, remote-sensing instruments for stereo mapping on-board the Japanese advanced land observing satellite was used to estimate catchment areas and flow of sewage water based on terrain topography. Optimal sampling sites for environmental surveillance were identified to maximise sensitivity to poliovirus circulation. Population data were overlaid to prioritise selection of catchment areas with dense populations. The results for Kano City, Nigeria were compared with an analysis based on existing 30- and 90-m mesh digital elevation model (DEM). Analysis based on 5-m mesh DSM was also conducted for three cities in Niger to prioritise the selection of new sites. The analysis demonstrated the feasibility of using DSMs to estimate catchment areas and population size for programme planning and outbreak response with respect to polio. Alternative sampling points in Kano City that would cover a greater population size have been identified and potential sampling sites in Niger are proposed. Comparison with lower-resolution DEMs suggests that the use of a 5-m mesh DSMs would be useful where the terrain is flat or includes small-scale topographic changes not captured by 30-m data searches.

  11. Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Field from Overhead High Voltage Transmission Lines in a City in South Western Nigeria

    Ponnle Akinlolu


    Full Text Available The increase in electricity consumption, population, and land use has now forced high voltage transmission lines (HVTLs either to pass or be installed around or through urban cities. This increases the level of human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation as this field produced around the HVTLs extends outwards covering some distance. This may cause a number of health hazards. It is even dangerous to a human who touch any metallic object in proximity of the HVTL, as it may have an appreciable voltage induced on it due to inductive, capacitive or resistive interference from the line. This paper evaluates the magnetic field produced at mid-span by a 132kV, and a 330kV, 50Hz adjacent HVTLs with horizontal and vertical configuration in Akure, a city in South Western Nigeria using analytical method from electromagnetic field theory. This is then compared to the recommended standard limit of public exposure to magnetic field. The results of the computation showed that currently, the general public exposure to the magnetic field along the HVTLs is safe. However, right of way (ROW along the power lines is being violated as buildings and work places exist within the ROW.

  12. Radiological risk assessment of natural radionuclides in sand collected from some beaches along the coastline of southwestern Nigeria.

    Ademola, J A; Nwafor, C O


    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively, were 12.5 ± 3.3, 25.8 ± 4.7 and 153.9 ± 18.5 Bq kg(-1) for Suntan Beach, 13.1 ± 3.1, 23.9 ± 4.5 and 219.9 ± 33.9 Bq kg(-1) for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.2 ± 3.2, 26.3 ± 3.8 and 149.0 ± 19.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.8 ± 3.1, 29.7 ± 4.0, 28.2 ± 3.3 nGy h(-1), respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.034 ± 0.004, 0.036 ± 0.005, 0.035 ± 0.004 mSv y(-1), which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1) recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction.

  13. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam


    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  14. Schistosomiasis: assessment of the sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of serological methods for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Nigeria.

    Thomas, V; Ogunba, E O; Fabiyi, A


    Three groups of sera were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), complement fixation (CF) and counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE) techniques; 56 (10.1%) of 554 sera from Nigerians were anticomplementary and so could not be tested by the CF. Crude antigen extract of adult Schistosoma mansoni was used in the CF and CCIE tests and cercarial antigen in the IFA test. IFA was the most sensitive test and CF the most specific. The reproducibility of both these tests was good. The CCIE was the least sensitive and specific, and its reproducibility was poor. The IFA test was the most suitable for Nigerian conditions. Cross-reactions to S. haematobium antibodies were consistently present in all three tests and it was not possible to differentiate serologically S. mansoni from S. haemotobium. The interpretations of the results presented some difficulties because of the frequency of cross-reactions and false-positives, but the data fell within the infection prevalence rate of 50% reported earlier from south-western Nigeria. The IFA test was more specific and is considered ideal for serodiagnosis.

  15. Assessing the Courts in Russia: Parameters of Progress under Putin

    Peter H. Solomon


    Full Text Available The Soviet legacy included courts that were dependent and weak, and whose reform had only just begun. The Yeltsin era witnessed considerable progress in making judges more independent and powerful, but the efforts were seriously constrained by budgetary shortcomings and paralysis in the legislative approval of needed procedural changes. As we shall see, the Putin administration overcame both of these obstacles and at the same time began addressing the thorny question of how to make courts and judges accountable without undue harm to their independence. It also started to address the scepticism about the courts among a significant part of the public, through efforts to improve media coverage, make information about courts more available, and make courts user friendly. While praiseworthy and bound to improve the reality and the perception of the administration of justice overall, these initiatives did not end attempts to exert influence on judges and case outcomes by powerful people (in the public and private sectors or the mechanisms that facilitated their efforts. This essay begins by identifying criteria for assessing the quality of the administration of justice in any country, including in the post-soviet world and suggesting specific markers (usually qualitative connected to each of the criteria developed above. Then, the essay provides an account of relevant policy initiatives in judicial reform undertaken first under Yeltsin and then in the Putin years. The essay goes to provide an assessment of the state of the courts in the Russian federation in 2007 in the light of the criteria and markers supplied in the first section. It concludes with a look to the future, and the identification of crucial markers of change for the post-Putin era.

  16. Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter


    Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ≈ TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

  17. Assessment of knowledge and practice of nutritional and life style risk factors associated with cancer among hospital workers at two university teaching hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria.

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Aderounmu, A O; Lomuwagun, A F; Owolabi, O O; Fadiora, A O; Asa, S S; Bamiwuye, S O; Ihedioha, O D


    The objectives of this study were to assess both the predisposing and precipitating risk factors in the aetiology of any form of cancer among hospital workers at two teaching Hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria. Pre-tested and modified questionnaires were administered to 250 respondents. One hundred and seventy questionnaires were duly filled and completed. Less than 9% of the respondents consumed fruits and vegetables on a daily basis; while the highest percentage (65%) regularly consumed butter/margarine, followed with consumption of red meat. Twenty nine percent (29%) from both locations were classified as overweight and obese. Half did physical exercise twice a week. Of the 168 respondents. 34 (20.2%) did meet the criteria for completely emptying their bowels within a specified time of three minutes. It is concluded that whilst predisposing risk factors do not pose a threat to the onset of any form of cancer among respondents, precipitating factors are real major factors that need to be addressed through information, education and communication (I.E.C). Such an I.E.C. should be geared towards promotion of healthy eating and life style strategies. Alter all, 'the first step in cancer prevention is knowing the risk profile'.

  18. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.


    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  19. Assessing Factors that affect Childbirth Choices of People living positively with HIV/AIDS in Abia State of Nigeria

    Ezinne E. Enwereji


    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor interpersonal relationships with women especially those living positively with HIV/AIDS can make them take risks that would expose their new born and others to infection during childbirth. The factors that influence childbirth choices of people living positively with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA deserve attention. Sometimes, women, especially PLWHA, for several reasons, resort to the use of other health care services instead of the general hospitals equipped for ante-natal care (ANC. This study aims to identify factors and conditions that determine childbirth choices of PLWHA in the Abia State of Nigeria.Methods:A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out using a total sample of 96 PLWHA who attend meetings with the network of PLWHA and also a purposive convenience sample of 45 health workers. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussions and interview guides. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using simple percentages.Results: There was a low patronage for hospital services. A total of 79 (82% PLWHA did not use hospital services due to the lack of confidentiality. In total, 61 (64% PLWHA had their childbirth with Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs at home. Embarrassment, rejection, interpersonal conflicts with health workers, non-confidentiality, cultural stigma and stigmatization were among the factors that encouraged childbirth choices. On the whole, 82 (85% of the PLWHA discontinued ANC services because of stigmatization.Conclusion: Poor interpersonal relationships between health workers and PLWHA facilitated PLWHA childbirth choices more than other factors. PLWHA and health workers termed management of belligerent tendencies against each other as their greatest concern. Therefore, concerted effort is needed to improve health workers/PLWHA relationship in hospitals. This would minimize factors and/or conditions that encourage HIV infection. Exposing PLWHA to factors that influence

  20. An Assessment of the Academic Achievement of Students in Two Modes of Part-time Programme in Nigeria

    Kola Adeyemi


    Full Text Available This study analyses the academic achievement of students enrolled in part-times studies at on-campus and outreach centres at three dual-mode Nigerian universities, during the 1996/97 to 1998/ 99 academic years. Research subjects in this study were examination and record officers employed by on-campus and outreach institutions. A checklist was prepared to collect students’ grades; these checklists were then transcribed into grade points (GPAs for data collection purposes. Simple percentage mean (x and t-test statistic were used for data analysis. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders to add qualitative context to the quantitative data collected. This study shows that there was significant difference in the academic performance of students enrolled in the on-campus versus outreach-based, part-time programmes in selected disciplines. Also the average mean (x performance of students enrolled in the on-campus programme was higher than those students enrolled in the outreach centres. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the government provide adequate funding to increase access individuals seeking higher education in Nigeria. The establishment of functional Open University system is also recommended to provide students with distant learning opportunities and likewise increase access. Several quality improvements are likewise recommended: the use of modern information technology for instructional delivery, recruitment of skilled teachers, improved teaching/ learning facilities, and strict adherence to standardized student admission requirements as specified by the National Universities Commission (NUC. We wrap up with practical suggestions, such as providing orientation sessions for outreach students to learn practical skills such as how to access library materials.

  1. Assessment of the Chemical Characteristics of a Spring Water Source at Ife-Owutu, Ezinihite-Mbaise, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Ibeneme, S.I.


    Full Text Available The chemical characteristics of the Giri Giri Nwanjoku Spring in Owutu Ezinihitte-Mbaise, South Eastern Nigeria was investigated to carefully determine some basic geochemical constituents of the water sourcewith a view to identifying those constituents whose concentrations are unacceptably high, compared with the maximum permissible level of a regulatory body and as such determine its wholesome portability for diverse usage. The resultant data conform to the Nigerian Industrial Standard (2007 and the World Health Organization (2006 Standard. The water source is generally neutral with an average pH of 6.85. However, the samples gave an average Calcium and Magnesium ion concentrations of 3.205mg/l and 0.82mg/l respectively and an average hardness (as CaCO3 of 11.375mg/l, indicating that the water is relatively soft. The Stiff and Schoeller plots show at a glance the spatial variations of the chemical constituents of the spring with Tri-oxo-carbonate and Calcium dominating. From the Box and Whisker plot, the greater amount of the cations and anions lie within the second quarter of the box ranging from 0.01meq/l to 0.05meq/l indicating similarity in origin. The Piper trilinear diagram reveals an alkaline earth and weak acid group predominantly the Tri-oxo-carbonate and as suchclassified as Ca-(Mg-Na-HCO3 water facies which indicates portability. The Sodium Absorption Ratio (SARand Percentage Sodium (%Na values of 0.27 and 34.20% respectively show that the water is good for Agricultural use. The Pollution Index (PI value of 0.6 (which is less than the critical value of unity shows thatthe spring water is not polluted. For industrial use, the Saturation Index (SI value of -3.41 reveals that the water may lead to moderate corrosion if not properly treated.

  2. Assessment of Pregnancy Status, Malaria Knowledge and Malaria Fever Morbidity among Women of Reproductive Ages in Nigeria.

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale


    Full Text Available Malaria is one the major health problem in Nigeria. During pregnancy, it poses serious threat to the survival of both unborn foetus and the mothers. This study determined the effect of adequate malaria knowledge and pregnancy status of women on use of mosquito nets and reported malaria fever morbidity.The data were collected during the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS from 4632 women. Data analyses were carried out with descriptive statistics and Seemingly Unrelated Bivariate Probit regression.Results show that 13.19% of the women were pregnant, of which about one-third slept under mosquito nets. Also, 25.26% reported malaria associated fever in the previous two weeks to the time of interview, while 78.28% correctly answered that mosquitoes are responsible for malaria. Knowledge on malaria prevention was low with 55.70% and 14.93% indicating sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN, respectively. Probability of sleeping under mosquito nets significantly increased with knowing that sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN could prevent malaria while it decreased with having fever, age, urban residence and knowing that use of mosquito spray and coil can prevent malaria. The probability of having fever increased significantly with household size, being pregnant and age at first birth but decreased with age, knowing that sleeping under ITN, cutting grasses and closing door/windows would prevent malaria.Use of mosquito nets among the women was low. Also, efforts to enhance their knowledge on malaria prevention and ensuring adequate access to mosquito nets especially for pregnant women would curtail the impact of malaria.

  3. Learning Progressions: Tools for Assessment and Instruction for All Learners. Technical Report #1307

    Sáez, Leilani; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald


    Conceptually, learning progressions hold promise for improving assessment and instruction by precisely outlining what students know and don't know at particular stages of knowledge and skill development. Based upon a synthesis of the literature, a rationale for the use of learning progressions maps to clarify how learning progresses in…

  4. 75 FR 6012 - National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading


    ... National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education... Reading. SUMMARY: The National Assessment Governing Board is soliciting public comment and recommendations... Progress (NAEP) in reading. These achievement levels definitions describe the reading skills and...

  5. Assessment of Markers of Antimalarial Drug Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Chimere Obiora Agomo

    Full Text Available The use of antimalarial drugs for prevention and treatment is a major strategy in the prevention of malaria in pregnancy. Although sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is currently recommended for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Nigeria, previously used drugs for prophylaxis such as chloroquine (CQ and pyrimethamine are accessible as they are purchased over the counter. This study describes the markers of absence or presence of resistance to quinoline (Pfcrt and Pfmdr 1 and type 1 antifolate antimalarial medicines (Pfdhfr.Plasmodium falciparum-positive dried blood spots from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics for the first time during current pregnancy were investigated for the presence of mutations at codons 72-76 of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt gene by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR using haplotype-specific probes. PCR followed by sequence analysis was used to identify mutations at codons 86, 184, 1034, 1042 and 1246 of P. falciparum multi-drug resistance-1 (Pfmdr1 gene; and codons 16, 50, 51, 59, 108, 140 and 164 of Pfdhfr gene.Two haplotypes of Pfcrt (n = 54 were observed: CVMNK 13(24.2% and CVIET 41 (75.9% of the samples. The SVMNT haplotype was absent in this population. The Pfmdr1 (n = 28 haplotypes were NYSND 15(53.6%, YYSND 5(17.9%, NFSND 6(21.4% and YFSND 2(7.1%. The Pfdhfr (n = 15 were ACNCSVI 4(26.7%, and ACICNSVI 1(6.7% and ACIRNVI 10 (66.7%. The rate of occurrence of Pfcrt 76T, Pfdhfr108N, Pfmdr186Y and 184F were 75.9%, 73.3%, 25% and 28.1% respectively. The Pfmdr1 86Y was associated with low parasitaemia (median = 71 parasites/μl, P = 0.024 while Pfcrt 76T was associated with young maternal age (mean 24.1 ± 4.5 years; P = 0.006. The median parasitaemia were similar (P>0.05 in wild and mutant strains of Pfcrt 76, Pfmdr1 184 and Pfdhfr 108. There was no association between gravidity or gestational age of the women and presence of mutations in the Pfcrt

  6. The burden of non-communicable diseases in Nigeria; in the context of globalization.

    Maiyaki, Musa Baba; Garbati, Musa Abubakar


    This paper highlights the tenets of globalization and how its elements have spread to sub-Saharan Africa, and Nigeria in particular. It assesses the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Nigeria and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on NCDs in Nigeria. It assesses the Nigerian dimension of the relationship between the risk factors of NCDs and globalization. Appropriate recommendations on tackling the burden of NCDs in Nigeria based on cost-effective, culturally sensitive, and evidence-based interventions are highlighted.

  7. Are We There Yet? Using Rubrics to Support Progress toward Proficiency and Model Formative Assessment

    Kinne, Lenore J.; Hasenbank, Jon F.; Coffey, David


    Classroom assessment, especially formative assessment, is one of the most challenging areas for new teachers, so it is imperative that teacher educators model effective classroom assessment practices. This article describes the use of rubrics in formative assessment, to support candidates in their progress toward mastery of course outcomes and to…

  8. Nigeria Mission Performance Reporting System

    US Agency for International Development — The Performance Reporting System (PRS) is a reporting system that enables USAID/Nigeria Implementing Partners to report their performance data and USAID/Nigeria...

  9. Evaluation of the Contribution of Construction Professionals in Budgeting for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

    Akintayo Opawole


    Full Text Available Researchers are of the opinion that the low implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria could be correlated to the level of involvement of construction professionals in the budgeting process at macro-level. Though this assertion presently lacks empirical justification, the objective of this study seeks to quantitatively establish this linkage. In order to achieve this, sixteen (16 core budgeting and procurement processes were identified in literature. Furthermore, respondents involved in the study were architects, quantity surveyors, builders, town planners, estate surveyors, engineers (civil, mechanical and electrical, accountants and economists in the public service of Osun State. The fact that infrastructure financing depends majorly on budgetary financing in Osun State provided the justification for choice of the State for the study. Data analysis was through percentage and mean. The study indicates adequate contribution in activities involving post-budgetary process and only progressive trend in pre-budgetary process especially technical and cost evaluation of infrastructure projects and review and approval of budgets for infrastructure projects. Moreover, budgeting process for infrastructure development in Nigeria indicated that majority of projects budgeted for execution lack adequate technical evaluation and cost assessment as a result of inadequate professional involvement. This could be adduced a significant problem of implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria. The study provides information on key areas where public policy makers can appropriate construction professionals’ inputs to prepare realistic budget for infrastructure development in developing economy.

  10. Food security and poverty alleviation under the National Special Programme for Food Security: a preliminary socio-economic assessment of Yamama Lake, Kebbi state, Nigeria

    Alamu, S.O.; Abiodun, J.A.; J. W. Miller


    The World Food Summit in its meeting in Rome in 1999 estimated that 790 million people in the developing world do not have enough food to eat. This is more than the total populations of North America and Europe combined. Nigeria is one of the developing countries affected by hunger, deprivation and abject poverty by its citizenry inspite of its enormous natural and human resources. To reduce poverty and increase food supplies to the masses the Federal Government of Nigeria embarked on a progr...

  11. Assessment of metallic pollution status of surface water and aquatic macrophytes of earthen dams in Ilorin, north-central of Nigeria as indicators of environmental health

    Clement O. Ogunkunle


    Full Text Available The functional quality of an aquatic ecosystem is a reflection of the health of the environment. Therefore, the present study evaluates the trace metal contamination (Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn of water and aquatic macrophytes in Asa, Agba, Unilorin and Sobi (Moro earthen dams, north-central Nigeria to evaluate the level of anthropogenic impact on the immediate environment. The concentrations of trace metals in samples of water and available macrophytes from the earthen dams were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Trace metal contamination of surface water in the earthen dams was assessed using metal index (MPI and metal pollution index (HPI. The biological accumulation factor of trace metals in the aquatic macrophytes was extrapolated from trace metal concentrations in the water and macrophyte samples. The results of the MPI revealed gross metal contamination of the surface water by Pb and Cd (>6.0 for both metals in the four earthen dams; while Agba and Sobi dams were slightly contaminated by Ni (MPIs = 1.43 and 1.14 respectively. All the earthen dams were considered safe from Mn contamination (MPI  100, but Asa dam (HPI = 2682.4 was the most contaminated. The biological accumulation factor of Mn in the macrophytes indicated Ceratophyllum demersum, Pycreus lanceolatus and Pistia stratiotes as moderate accumulators of Mn, and can be used as bioindicators in monitoring Mn pollution of aquatic ecosystem. The obtained results in this study showed that the earthen dams are polluted by Pb, Cd and Ni which pose human health risks to the inhabitants through drinking water.

  12. Heavy metals and health risk assessment of arable soils and food crops around Pb-Zn mining localities in Enyigba, southeastern Nigeria

    Obiora, Smart C.; Chukwu, Anthony; Davies, Theophilus C.


    This study determined the heavy metals concentration in arable soils and associated food crops around the Pb-Zn mines in Enyigba, Nigeria, and metal transfer factors were calculated. Air-dried samples of the soils and food crops were analyzed for 8 known nutritional and toxic heavy metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. Eighty seven percent of all the 20 sampled soils contain Pb in excess of the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) set by Canadian Environmental Quality Guideline (CCME) and European Union (EU) Standard, while Zn in thirty-one percent of the samples exceeded the CCME for MAC of 200 mg/kg. All the food crops, with the exception of yam tuber, contain Pb which exceeded the 0.43 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg MAC standards of EU and WHO/FAO respectively, with the leafy vegetables accumulating more Pb than the tubers. The metal transfer factors in the tubers and the leafy vegetables were in the order: Mo > Cu > Zn > Mn > As > Cd > Cr > Ni > Pb and Cd > Cu > Zn > Mn > Mo > As > Ni > Pb > Cr, respectively. Risk assessment studies revealed no health risk in surrounding populations for most of the heavy metals. However, Pb had a high health risk index (HRI) of 1.1 and 1.3, in adults and children, respectively for cassava tuber; Pb had HRI > 1 in lemon grass while Mn also had HRI > 1 in all the leafy vegetables for both adult and children. This high level of HRI for Pb and Mn is an indication that consumers of the food crops contaminated by these metals are at risk of health problems such as Alzheimers' disease and Manganism, associated with excessive intake of these metals. Further systematic monitoring of heavy metal fluxes in cultivable soils around the area of these mines is recommended.

  13. Roentgenologic assessment of spondylolisthesis. Pt. 2. An evaluation of progression

    Danielson, B.; Frennered, K.; Selvik, G.; Irstam, L.

    Different degrees of artificial L5-S1 spondylolisthesis were created using a lumbar specimen. Lateral radiographs were obtained of each, with the specimen tilted and/or rotated. The true spondylolisthesis was determined stereophotogrammetrically. The slip, measured on the radiographs, was calculated according to two methods modified from BOXALL et coll. (2). No significant difference in accuracy was found between these two methods. The difference in calculated slip between examinations needs to be at least 20 per cent of the sagittal length of L5 to be regarded as a true progression. A true progress of slip of less than 20 per cent is difficult to detect with statistical certainty.

  14. Assessing Progress in Mastery of Counseling Communication Skills

    A.J. Kuntze (Jeroen)


    textabstractDuring the last century the attention paid in higher education to the development of professional skills has progressively increased. In the first half of the last century the term ‘skill’ mainly referred to motor or technical actions, for instance driving a car or operating a machine (M

  15. Authentic Progress Assessment of Oral Language: Oral Portfolios.

    Yoshida, Yuichi

    Student testing in Japan is not effectively used. In many cases test results are used only for ranking and sorting students into whatever the designated purposes of the tests are. They are not focused on monitoring individual student progress. This is an especially inadequate approach for teaching oral communications courses. This paper proposes a…

  16. Assessing the Moral Relevance of Peace Education Contents in the Basic Education Social Studies Curricula for Effective Citizenship Participation in Nigeria

    Nwaubani, Okechukwu O,; Okafor, Ogochukwu Stella


    Social studies is a core subject at the basic education level in Nigeria which has the potentials of inculcating functional knowledge and desirable morals into pupils for effective citizenship participation through peaceful coexistence. However, despite this positive trend, the moral significance of peace education contents of the subject seem not…

  17. Piloting laboratory quality system management in six health facilities in Nigeria.

    Henry Mbah

    Full Text Available Achieving accreditation in laboratories is a challenge in Nigeria like in most African countries. Nigeria adopted the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory (Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (WHO/AFRO- SLIPTA in 2010. We report on FHI360 effort and progress in piloting WHO-AFRO recognition and accreditation preparedness in six health facility laboratories in five different states of Nigeria.Laboratory assessments were conducted at baseline, follow up and exit using the WHO/AFRO- SLIPTA checklist. From the total percentage score obtained, the quality status of laboratories were classified using a zero to five star rating, based on the WHO/AFRO quality improvement stepwise approach. Major interventions include advocacy, capacity building, mentorship and quality improvement projects.At baseline audit, two of the laboratories attained 1- star while the remaining four were at 0- star. At follow up audit one lab was at 1- star, two at 3-star and three at 4-star. At exit audit, four labs were at 4- star, one at 3-star and one at 2-star rating. One laboratory dropped a 'star' at exit audit, while others consistently improved. The two weakest elements at baseline; internal audit (4% and occurrence/incidence management (15% improved significantly, with an exit score of 76% and 81% respectively. The elements facility and safety was the major strength across board throughout the audit exercise.This effort resulted in measurable and positive impact on the laboratories. We recommend further improvement towards a formal international accreditation status and scale up of WHO/AFRO- SLIPTA implementation in Nigeria.

  18. National Assessment of Educational Progress Grade 12 Preparedness Research College Course Content Analysis Study: Final Report

    Educational Policy Improvement Center, 2014


    The National Assessment Governing Board is an independent, bipartisan organization that sets policy for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The Governing Board established the NAEP Program of 12th Grade Preparedness Research to assess what NAEP can report on the academic preparedness of 12th grade students entering college and…

  19. Quantitative muscle MRI as an assessment tool for monitoring disease progression in LGMD2I

    Willis, Tracey A; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Coombs, Anna;


    Outcome measures for clinical trials in neuromuscular diseases are typically based on physical assessments which are dependent on patient effort, combine the effort of different muscle groups, and may not be sensitive to progression over short trial periods in slow-progressing diseases. We hypoth...

  20. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site


    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  1. Mathematics Framework for the 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    Howe, Roger; Scheaffer, Richard; Lindquist, Mary


    This document contains the framework and a set of recommendations for the NAEP 2007 mathematics assessment, which will assess student achievement nationally and state-by-state, as well as in select urban districts, in grades 4 and 8. It includes descriptions of the mathematical content of the test, the types of test questions, and recommendations…

  2. Progress in human exposure assessment for biocidal products

    Hemmen, J.J. van


    An important shortcoming in our present knowledge required for risk assessment of biocidal products is the assessment of human exposure. This knowledge gap has been filled in a preliminary fashion with the TNsG on human exposure to biocidal products (available from the ECB website). Explicit User gu

  3. Cross institutional collaboration in assessment : a case on progress testing

    Van der Vleuten, CPM; Schuwirth, LWT; Muijtjens, AMM; Thoben, AJNM; Cohen-Schotanus, J; Van Boven, CPA


    The practice of assessment is governed by an interesting paradox. On the one hand good assessment requires substantial resources which may exceed the capacity of a single institution and we have reason to doubt the quality of our in-house examinations. On the other hand, our parsimonity with regard

  4. A Comparative Assessment of Computer Literacy of Private and Public Secondary School Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Osunwusi, Adeyinka Olumuyiwa; Abifarin, Michael Segun


    The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative assessment of computer literacy of private and public secondary school students. Although the definition of computer literacy varies widely, this study treated computer literacy in terms of access to, and use of, computers and the internet, basic knowledge and skills required to use computers and…

  5. Risk factor assessment tools for the prevention of periodontitis progression a systematic review

    Lang, Niklaus P.; Suvan, Jean E; Tonetti, Maurizio S


    OBJECTIVES (i) To identify characteristics of currently published patient-based tools used to assess levels of risk for periodontitis progression and (ii) systematically review the evidence documenting the use of patient-based risk assessment tools for predicting periodontitis progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS A systematic review was prepared on the basis of an electronic search of the literature supplemented with manually searching the relevant journals of the latest 5 years. Prospective ...

  6. Aligning Science Assessment Standards: New Mexico and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 021

    Timms, Michael; Schneider, Steven; Lee, Cindy; Rolfhus, Eric


    This policy research document is intended for New Mexico policymakers to use when examining possible changes to the state assessment's alignment with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The 2009 NAEP test is not yet in existence, so the purpose of this report is to give policymakers a head start in determining where they might,…

  7. Teaching and Learning: Using Digital Tools for Progressive Assessment

    Kastbjerg, Rita B.; Petersson, Eva; Lewis Brooks, Anthony


      Non-biased assessment becomes a reality when Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is implemented as a pedagogical tool to augment teacher practice and student learning. This paper details a study that was undertaken at a secondary school in Lithuania involving four educators and 200......) a change from an individual to a collaborative responsibility of assessment, (2) a change from an individual to a collective knowledge shaping, and (3) a change from a possibly weighted evaluation to a defined non-biased assessment outcome. Results from the study point to the potentials from CBT applied...... in education to address future augmented teacher - students' liaisons....

  8. Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)


    The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.


    Bamgbade, O A; Omoniyi, T E; Ewemoje, T A


    The gate-to-gate study aimed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with the production of vegetable oil and to proffer ways of improving and reducing some of the environmental impacts associated with the production system. This study compared the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of four scenarios; different transportation distances for palm kernel materials and different type of fuel used in the boiler. The LCIA was conducted using Gabi 6 and Tool for the Reduction and...

  10. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site


    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor`s organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of DOE`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES&H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems and new ES&H initiatives.

  11. Radiological safety assessment and determination of heavy metals in soil samples from some waste dumpsites in Lagos and Ogun state, south-western, Nigeria

    Augustine Kolapo Ademola


    Full Text Available Assessment of naturally occurring radionuclides and heavy metals in 5 major dumpsites around Lagos and Ogun State, Nigeria, was carried-out to determine the natural radionuclide and heavy metals in the dumpsites and to evaluate the hazards these may have on the public. Radionuclide concentrations were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI (Tl detector. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the soil samples were 23.1 ± 2.5, 35.1 ± 2.1 and 318.9 ± 27.4 Bq kg−1, respectively in Ojota, 32.1 ± 6.1, 44.2 ± 16.0 and 377.4 ± 9.0 Bq kg−1 in Ojo, 18.2 ± 4.8, 28.4 ± 3.1 and 340.9 ± 12.1 in Igando, 26.3 ± 9.0, 38.1 ± 1.1 and 531.1 ± 23.0 in Agbara and 15.3 ± 3.6, 22.3 ± 1.7 and 840.9 ± 42.0 in Ogijo, respectively. The results of 226Ra and 232Th are lower than the world average but higher for 40K (UNSCEAR, 2000. The analysis of the heavy metal concentrations indicated that there is presence of Cadmium, Zinc and Copper in high proportion. These metals are toxic and may cause severe problem with prolonged exposure. Monitoring the accumulation of these metals in soil samples is very important and the practice of cultivating the land for planting vegetables and legumes by farmers around the dumpsites must be discouraged to prevent the transportation of these toxic metals into human system.

  12. Management of Higher Education in a Period of Economic Recession: Alternate Revenue Resourcing for Higher Education in Nigeria.

    Aderinto, J. A.

    Higher education in Nigeria, until recently, has been one of the economic sectors that was accorded top priority funding. In the last few years, however, government support has been reduced. Data show that higher education in Nigeria has progressively suffered cuts in the allocation of funds. The roles of public finance (government) and that of…

  13. Measurement of natural radionuclides and dose assessment of granites from Ondo State, Nigeria; Mesure des radionucleides naturels et de l'evaluation de la dose de granits de l'Etat d'Ondo, Nigeria

    Ademola, J.A.; Ayeni, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)


    The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in fifty granite samples collected from five different quarry industries in Ondo State, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations for each industry ranged from 16.7(6.4) to 85.4(23.0), 62.4(10.1) to 113.6(7.6), and 1315(136) to 1551(84){sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The values in parenthesis are the standard deviations. When compared with results from some parts of the world, the {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th contents were lower, whereas the {sup 40}K content was similar. Using different approaches to estimate the potential radiological hazard of the samples, the results obtained were below the recommended maximum limits. This shows that the radiological hazards associated with the use of the granites examined in this study as building material are within the acceptable limit. (authors)

  14. Mathematics Framework for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    Howe, Roger; Scheaffer, Richard; Lindquist, Mary; Philip, Frank; Halbrook, Arthur


    This document contains the framework and a set of recommendations for the 2005 NAEP mathematics assessment. It includes descriptions of the mathematical content of the test, the types of test questions, and recommendations for administration of the test. In broad terms, this framework attempts to answer the question: What mathematics should be…

  15. Biometric and Intelligent Self-Assessment of Student Progress System

    Kaklauskas, A.; Zavadskas, E. K.; Pruskus, V.; Vlasenko, A.; Seniut, M.; Kaklauskas, G.; Matuliauskaite, A.; Gribniak, V.


    All distance learning participants (students, professors, instructors, mentors, tutors and the rest) would like to know how well the students have assimilated the study materials being taught. The analysis and assessment of the knowledge students have acquired over a semester are an integral part of the independent studies process at the most…

  16. Assessment of competence and progressive independence in postgraduate clinical training.

    Dijksterhuis, M.G.; Voorhuis, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Cate, O.T.J. ten; Braat, D.D.M.; Scheele, F.


    CONTEXT: At present, competency-based, outcome-focused training is gradually replacing more traditional master-apprentice teaching in postgraduate training. This change requires a different approach to the assessment of clinical competence, especially given the decisions that must be made about the

  17. Assessing and Monitoring Student Progress in an E-Learning Personnel Preparation Environment.

    Meyen, Edward L.; Aust, Ronald J.; Bui, Yvonne N.; Isaacson, Robert


    Discussion of e-learning in special education personnel preparation focuses on student assessment in e-learning environments. It includes a review of the literature, lessons learned by the authors from assessing student performance in e-learning environments, a literature perspective on electronic portfolios in monitoring student progress, and the…

  18. Optical Assessment of Vascular Disease Progression and Treatment

    Samuels, Joshua A.

    Vascular disease manifests itself in many different forms, including chronic ulcers which do not heal, impaired blood flow to the limbs, or damage to the natural reperfusion process. The current forms of assessing vascular disease are often subjective and provide incomplete knowledge about the tissue of interest. This work focused on developing non-invasive techniques to quantitatively evaluate three specific elements of vascular disease: diabetic ulcers, venous ulcers, and peripheral arterial disease. Diffuse Near Infrared Spectroscopy (DNIRS) was used to predict healing (82% positive predictive value) in diabetic ulcers after 4 weeks of assessment (sensitivity of 0.9 and specificity of 0.86; pulcers, using a low-frequency (20kHz), low intensity (ulcers compared to wounds which do not heal (p30 seconds) belonging to patients with PAD (pvascular health and the results obtained promise to develop new clinically relevant and quantitative techniques using non-invasive optical modalities.

  19. Thorium assessment study quarterly progress report, third quarter fiscal 1977

    Spiewak, I.; Bartine, D. E.; Burns, T. J.; Cleveland, J. C.; Thomas, W. E.; White, J. R.


    The objective of the program described is to contribute to the ongoing assessment of the potential role of thorium fuel cycles for alleviating safeguards concerns. Scenarios include (1) no fuel recycle permitted, (2) fuel recycle permitted only in secure regions (''energy parks'') with denatured (chemically non-separable) fuels only outside these regions, and (3) no limits on fuel recycle. A further objective is to provide nuclear mass balance data on HTGRs required by ERDA contractors for comparative cost-benefit studies.

  20. Prediction of progression of ultrasound assessed carotid artery athersclerosis


    Atherosclerosis is an important underlying cause of cardiovascular disease and death. According to the World Health Organization’s Global Burden of Disease Study, ischemic heart disease and stroke combined killed 12.9 million people in 2010, or one in four deaths worldwide. Ultrasound of the carotid arteries can be used to assess the burden of atherosclerosis by measurements of intima-media thickness (IMT) and total plaque area (TPA). Age, male gender, serum cholesterol, blood pressure and...

  1. Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

    Victor, U J Nwankwo; Dada, S S; Onugba, A A; Ushie, P


    The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in \\mu W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in metre). The minimum average power density from individual base station in the town was about 47\\mu W/sq m while the average maximum was about 1.5mW/sq m. Our result showed that average power density of a base station decreases with increase in distance (from base station) and that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance away. Our result (obtained signature of power density variation) was also compared with the 'expected' signature. It was found that radiation from external...

  2. An Assessment Of Plateau Environmental Protection And Sanitation Agency Pepsa As A Waste Management Institution In Jos City Nigeria.

    Ogboji Frederick Eche


    Full Text Available Abstract Municipal solid waste constitutes mans unwanted materials that need to be discarded. It is consisting of substances materials and objects considered as worthless or defective and of no value for human economic productive activities at a point in time. Apart from constituting an eye sore to urban environment it constitute health hazards and threatens the health of man and animals in the city. This research attempts an assessment of the performance of Plateau Environmental agency the research made use of both primary and secondary data. Data generated was analyzed using descriptive statistics while inferential technique of chi-square was used to test the research hypothesis. Results obtained shows that majority of the respondents were traders 34.3 with secondary education 36. Forty-five percent 45 of landuse type responsible for waste generation is residential that 42 of waste generated is mostly ashes. Majority of waste containers used are plastic 33 and that 52 of respondents are aware of PEPSA activities in their locations. A focus group discussion FGD shaded more light on the prospect and limitations of PEPSA. The research concludes that there is the need to overhaul methods of municipal solid waste collection and disposal in metropolitan Jos. Relevant recommendations were made in respect of the study area.

  3. Assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediment of Asunle stream of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Olutona, Godwin O; Oyekunle, John A O; Ogunfowokan, Aderemi O; Fatoki, Olalekan S


    Assessment of levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from the sediment of Asunle stream, an adjourning stream of the Obafemi Awolowo University dumpsite, has been carried out. Sediment samples were collected from the stream at six locations for a period of 8 months, composed of 4 months each of wet (May-Aug) and dry (Nov-Feb) seasons. Soxhlet extraction was employed for the isolation of all the target compounds from the sediment samples. Extracts were further subjected to multi-layer column chromatography employing different forms of silica gel. The prepared samples were analyzed using GC-MS. The overall mean concentrations of the total PBDEs ranged from 1.80 to 9.46 ng/g. The results showed that the concentrations of the PBDEs were slightly higher during the wet season than those during the dry season. In all the studied locations, BDE28, BDE47, BDE99, BDE100, BDE153, and BDE154 were detected in all the sediment samples at concentrations that ranged from 0.73 to 10.43 ng/g. Results of this study indicated that BDE153 was the major pollutant of the Asunle stream sediments.

  4. Assessing motivation in children using a progressive ratio task.

    Chelonis, John J; Gravelin, Claire R; Paule, Merle G


    The association of age and sex on the performance of a progressive ratio task was studied in 847 children, ages 4-14 years. Variations of this task have been used extensively with animals and to a lesser extent with humans to study factors that affect aspects of motivation. The participants in this study were required to press a response lever for nickel reinforcers during a 10 min period. One response was required to earn the first nickel and each subsequent nickel required an additional 10 more responses. Older children had a significantly higher breakpoint than younger children. This appeared to be mostly the result of older children having significantly shorter inter-response times than younger children. In addition, boys had significantly higher breakpoints than girls, especially at older ages. The results of this study illustrate that both age and sex influence the performance of this task and thus suggest that age and sex influence aspects of motivation in children. Further, characterization of performance of this task by humans facilitates comparisons with animal models and, thus, enhances its translational utility.

  5. Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical urban settlement of resident close to three dumpsites in South-south, Nigeria

    Uwumarongie-Ilori, E.G.


    Full Text Available Sequel to the increased installation of borehole in Benin City metropolis to meet domestic water need, some residents sunk borehole close to dumpsite. This study was conducted to assess the quality of water from three of such bore holes installed close to dumpsite. Physico-chemical analysis results obtained showed variation in concentration of parameters. The ranges of concentrations of the elements were as follows; pH (5.49 ± 0.05 to 5.78 ± 0.07, EC (136.33 ± 3.15 to 547.00 ± 8.19 µS/cm, temp (25.93 ± 0.42 to 26.57 ± 0.15°C, sulphide (0.70 ± 0.01 to 0.80 ± 0.06 mg/L, NH4-N (0.68 ± 0.05 to 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L, NO3-N (0.27 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.01 mg/L, COD (3.70 ± 0.02 to 5.26 ± 0.07 mg/L, BOD (2.73 ± 0.12 to 3.37 ± 0.15 mg/L, NO2-N (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.06 ± 0.08 mg/L. The parameters obtained showed that there is no underground seepage from leachate to borehole. This may be due to the depth of the borehole and the distance of the borehole from dumpsite which is estimated to be 100 m apart. The parameters detected were below the permissible limits recommended by WHO for drinking water.

  6. Assessing the Effectiveness of Land farming in the Remediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Mmom Prince Chinedu


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons pollution of soils has constituted environmental issues over the years. The biggest concern associated w ith hydrocarbon pollution in the environment is the risk to farmlands, fisheries and potable water supplies contamination. Several remediation techniques exist (Bioremediation and Non-bioremediation, which aim at reducing the hydrocarbon content of the polluted soil and water with their varying degrees of success. Thus land farming, one of the bioremediation remediation techniques is view ed as a more viable remediation options for hydrocarbon polluted soils. The study therefore was instituted to assess the effectiveness of land farming (Enhanced Natural Attenuation in the remediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites in the Niger Delta. Soil samples from ten (10 sites polluted and remediated sites in the Niger Delta; that is five (5 samples each from the swampy and well drained sites and subjected to Laboratory analysis. The results were further analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools of percentages, regression analysis and student t-test. The results of the soil analysis show 14.54 to 82.24% and 16.01 to 50.54% reductions in the TPH and PAH concentrations after land farming respectively. This shows high level of efficacy in the use of the Land farming as remediation technique. However, the efficacy varied between the swampy and well drained soils; reductions in the hydrocarbon levels of the soils in the water-logged or swamp areas were lower and slower than that of the well drained soils. This shows that the soil microbes were able to degrade the hydrocarbons faster in the well-drained soil probably because of the favourable soil conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrient. To ameliorate this problem, more effective way of bio-remediation for swamp area should be pursued like phyto-remediation; this is the use of higher plants to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated with recalcitrant organic

  7. Strategic Marketing of Made-in-Nigeria Goods and Consumer's Acceptance in Nigeria. An Empirical Analysis of Textile Products

    Ph. D. Sunday Abayomi Adebisi


    Full Text Available This study was conceived with the intention of the author to appraise and assess the viability, acceptability and challenges inherent with the marketability of product Made-in-Nigeria products among the Nigerian populace. Investigations were carried out on Textiles Consumers’ perceptions of the quality of Made-in-Nigeria products; possible motivation behind Nigeria attitudes towards domestically produced textile products and relationship between consumer attitudes and satisfaction with product made-in-Nigeria. Survey study was carried out through questionnaire administration on 120 respondents; using purposive sampling technique to select the three popular markets in Lagos (Yaba, Oshodi and Eko to gather the required data for empirical analysis. The population of this study were the textile products consumers in Lagos State where Textiles customers were randomly sampled in each of these markets. Ordinary Least Square method (OLS, t-test, f-statistics, coefficient of determination (R2 and Durbin Watson Statistics were used to estimate the data. The results showed: (a significant relationship between product quality and desire to buy made-in-Nigeria at 0.05 level (r = .984, P<0.05; (b a significant, high positive relationship between the perceived cost of individual purchases and the satisfaction derived from made -in-Nigeria goods ( r = .961 and (c a correlation coefficient of 0.979, for cultural believes and buying behaviour of Nigerians. The results necessitated the formulation of required strategies for implementation in concluding the study

  8. Workability and Effectiveness of Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010: Intervention in the Nigeria Banking Sector Crisis

    Mmadu, R. A. O.


    Full Text Available The challenges and prospects of rescue interventions to corporate failures and the Banking Sector Crisis in Nigeria are the focus of this paper. In Nigeria, the impact of the global economic crisis shifted from the capital market to the banking sector where an estimated $10 billion of toxic assets were held by banks whose assets suffered capital erosion due to market collapse. This paper assesses the rescue intervention by the Central Bank of Nigeria through the Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria Act 2010 (AMCON Act and employs as a method, analytical exposition of the Act in this work. The paper finds that lack of corporate governance and incentive problems caused Nigeria's banking sector crisis. It argues that though the provisions of the AMCON Act are aimed at compelling corporate governance and international best practices, inherent weaknesses and inconsistencies with superior legislations leave a big question mark on its applicability and effectiveness. The paper calls for legislative rethink if Nigeria must prevent future failures in the banking sector and rebuild confidence in the investing public as well as in bank depositors.

  9. A Targeted Survey for Scrapie in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria

    Nwankiti, O. O.; Ikeh, E. I.; Arowolo, O. A.; Nwankiti, A. J.; M. O. Odugbo; T. Seuberlich


    Scrapie, a disease of sheep and goats with a progressive course and fatal outcome, has not been identified in Nigeria. Anecdotal scrapie reports by livestock workers abound. Livestock diseases like scrapie form huddles in livestock economics of countries. For 8 months we surveyed for scrapie targeting emergency/casualty slaughter sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. We clinically examined 510 sheep and 608 goats of local breeds, aged from 12 months to 5 years. In total 31 (5.10%) goats and no she...

  10. Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System

    M. Ahmad Chaudhry


    Full Text Available The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.

  11. 2002 progress report and public health assessment study



    Clean Air Hamilton focuses on improving air quality in the City by providing advice to City Council. The actions and activities of Clean Air Hamilton directly benefit residents. The activities relate to natural areas and corridors; reducing and managing waste; consuming less energy; changing our modes of transportation; land use issues in urban areas; and, personal health and well-being. The report includes an assessment of human health impacts caused by air pollution in Hamilton. It uses the most recent science and Hamilton air quality data as a basis. The results indicate that approximately 100 people die prematurely each year in Hamilton, while approximately 620 people require admission to hospitals for respiratory and cardiovascular problems related to exposure to pollutants. The second Upwind Downwind Conference was held in February 2002, sponsored by Clean Air Hamilton. All three levels of government view Clean Air Hamilton as a success. The City of Hamilton was awarded the prestigious 2000 Dubai International Award for Best Practices in Improving Living Environment as a result of Clean Air Hamilton's community process in local air quality improvement. 47 refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  12. Assessment Of Physico-Chemical Property Of Water Samples From Port Harcourt Bonny And Opobo Coastal Areas For Sustainable Coastal Tourism Development In Rivers State Nigeria.



    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance temperature colour turbidity conductivity PH alkalinity lead Pb Chromium Cr Cadmium Cd Ammonia BODs and Dissolved Oxygen. The results of the water samples were compared with World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard to determine the safety of the water for human consumption and tourism development. The study revealed that Port Harcourt site has more prospects for tourism development more than Opobo study site because the Ph alkalinity and BODs levels were lower than that of Opobo making the water safer except that the amount of dissolved oxygen was a little high in Opobo and turbidity was not detected in Opobo. The study revealed that Bonny water was very dense in appearance dark brown in colour highly turbid basic and with mean concentration of the heavy metals Lead chromium and cadmium higher than the recommended World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard and therefore not safe for drinking and swimming. Treated portable water should be provided for the people of Port Harcourt Opobo and Bonny especially people from Bonny area and development of tourism in the state to save the people and tourists from imminent danger of fecal contaminants and toxic substances.

  13. Impact Assessment of the Causes and Prevention of Farm Accidents on Mechanized Farms of North Central Zone/States of Nigeria

    J. K. Yohanna.


    Full Text Available Accidents occurring on mechanized farms have been a thing of concern to farmers and researchers both within and outside Nigeria. An investigation into the causes and prevention of farm accidents on mechanized farm was carried out in Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states that constitute the north central zone/states of Nigeria. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire designed and distributed to all the states mentioned. The questionnaire addressed demographic variables and issues linked directly with the types, causes and prevention of farm accidents. A total of 2283 tractors were available in the mechanized farms surveyed, while a total of 1014 constituted other farm machinery/equipment. Results show that 81.7% of accidents victims are male. About 45.5% of the accident victims were aged between 40years and above. About 33.96% of the minor accidents resulted in slight damage to equipment and machinery. Similarly 43.4% of accidents resulted in substantial loss in time, while about 22.64% of accidents resulted in medical attention. There was no attempt made to quantify the monetary terms of the cost of each accidents, as there was dearth of information. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with the previous studies both outside and inside Nigeria. Also, from this survey work, there was a problem of good record keeping in most of the establishment surveyed. It is therefore, recommended among other things that adequate training and retraining of tractors/machinery operators should be carried out periodically, to intimate operators on recent use of farm equipment due to environmental and human factors

  14. Nigeria: Current Issues


    confirmed the presence of H5N1 virus, which causes avian influenza, or bird flu , in a 22-year-old deceased female from Lagos. She is believed to al. 43 U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, “Fewer Bird Flu Outbreaks This Year,” Apr. 2, 2007. 44 U.S. State Department, “Nigeria,” Country

  15. The evidence base to select a method for assessing glaucomatous visual field progression.

    Ernest, Paul J G; Schouten, Jan S A G; Beckers, Henny J M; Hendrikse, Fred; Prins, Martin H; Webers, Carroll A B


    A large number of methods have been developed for assessing glaucomatous visual field progression, but their properties have not yet been systematically evaluated. In this systematic literature review, we summarize the evidence base for selecting a method by providing answers to ten relevant questions on the variety, validity and reproducibility of methods. In total, we found 301 different methods in 412 articles. The majority of studies (54%) used the Humphrey Field Analyzer. No data have been published about the reproducibility of methods. Although there is no gold standard to assess glaucomatous visual field progression, we found evidence on validity for 48 different methods. Some methods were less capable of distinguishing between progressive and nonprogressive patients. Choosing among twelve methods is supported by some evidence of their validity. These methods still differ in sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of test results within studies comparing several methods. In conclusion, the current evidence base is not perfect. A selection should be made from a limited number of methods, according to the clinical purpose of progression assessment. Methods that quantify the rate of visual field progression seem to be the most appropriate for guiding subsequent medical actions in individual patients. Future studies should investigate whether using one method to monitor patients is superior to another method in preventing loss of quality of life.

  16. Small Hydropower in Nigeria



    Nigeria is the most populaous black nation in the world. It has an area of 913,072 square kilometres. The country population is about 120 million. There are three major languages, Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo, although there is still more than 380 dialects in local languages. There are large number of household on the African continent that are unelectrified.In Nigeria about 70 million people remain literally in the dark without access to electricity. The majority of these numbers are in the rural areas. This workshop is apt in a number of ways. It is a joint effort between government, private sector, the academic and other practitioners in small hydro power station, it is also a promotion of business and industrial activities as well as development of renewable energy resources. I wish to commend the organizers of this workshop. The focus of the workshop is relevant to the agenda of the Federal Ministry of Power and Steel and aspirations of the Federal Government of Nigeria to provide regular and steady electricity to majority of Nigerians before the end of year 2001.

  17. Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment

    Chen, Jing

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all

  18. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance

    Arnold Ikedichi Okpani


    Full Text Available Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC. One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme.

  19. Research progress of motor function assessments and their clinical applications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Wei SHI


    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, clinically featured as progressive skeletal muscle atrophy with gradual loss of muscle strength and activity abilities, is the most common genetic muscular disease in children throughout the world. The core and continuous characteristic of DMD is motor dysfunction. Motor function assessments of DMD are now focusing on muscle strength, walking ability, range of motion and ability of activities, still without unified standards. Confirming the comprehensive, scientific, reasonable and accurate evaluation tools for DMD assessment is the premise of research in motor developmental rules of DMD, which will help to better understand the motor progress of DMD and to supply evidences for choosing treatment methods, confirming timing of intervention, assessing effect of treatments and designing rehabilitation plans. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.002

  20. Hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria - A review

    G O Emechebe


    Full Text Available Background:Hepatitis B virus infection is a pandemic and chronic infection may lead to chronic liver diseases which are often lethal. This review was done to assess the status of hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria. Materials and Method:Source of information was mainly from published works in Nigeria and elsewhere. The information was extracted over period of 5 months from May to December 2007. Result: Since over 30years when pioneer works were done in Nigeria to the recent tunes the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection has remained very high. In Nigeria, the transmission of hepatitis B virus occurs mainly during childhood and all the risk factors (like blood transfusion, sexual promiscuity, lower socioecomic status etc implicated elsewhere in the spread of the virus in the general population also play role in Nigeria. Conclusion: Reduction in the of hepatitis B virus infection could be achieved by public enlightenment campaign, mass immunization of the children and adults at risk while antiviral drugs and immunostimulatory therapy should be provided for those already infected.

  1. Assessing progression of clinical reasoning through virtual patients: An exploratory study.

    Forsberg, Elenita; Ziegert, Kristina; Hult, Håkan; Fors, Uno


    To avoid test-driven learning, there have been discussions regarding the use of more formative assessments in health care education to promote students' deep learning. Feedback is important in formative assessment, but many students ignore it; therefore, interventions should be introduced which stimulate them to reflect on the new knowledge. The aim for this study was to explore if Virtual Patient (VP)-based formative assessments, in connection with self-evaluations, had an impact on postgraduate pediatric nursing students' development of clinical reasoning abilities. Students' self-evaluations served as the basis for measuring progress. Data was analysed using deductive content analysis. The findings showed a clear progression of the clinical reasoning ability of the students. After the first assessment, the students described feelings of uncertainty and that their knowledge gaps were exposed. At the mid-course assessment the awareness of improved clinical reasoning was obvious and the students were more certain of knowing how to solve the VP cases. In the final assessment, self-efficacy was expressed. VP-based assessments, in connection with self-evaluations, early in the education resulted in a gain of students' own identification of the concept of clinical reasoning, awareness of what to focus on during clinical practice and visualised expected clinical competence.

  2. Insurance Market Activity and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria

    Philip Chimobi Omoke


    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to empirically assess insurance market activities in Nigeria withthe view to determining its impact on economic growth. The period of study was 1970- 2008, thestudy made use of insurance density measures (premium per capita as a measure for insurancemarket activity and real GDP for economic growth. It also employed control variables such asinflation and savings rate as other determinants ofgrowth. The Johansen cointegration and vectorerror correction approach was used to estimate therelationship between the variables. All thevariables used were stationary at first differenceand the result showed a long term relationshipexisting among the variables. The hallmark findingof this study is that the insurance sector did notreveal any positively and significant affect on economic growth in Nigeria within the period of study.The result shows a low insurance market activity inNigeria and that Nigerians have not fully embracethe insurance industry despite its importance to the growth of theeconomy.

  3. Exposure of dentists to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Cadmus, S.I.; Okoje, V.N.; Taiwo, B.O.; Soolingen, D. van


    To determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among dental patients and to assess dentists' risk for exposure, we conducted a study among dental patients at a large tertiary hospital in Nigeria, a country where tuberculosis is endemic. Ten (13%) of 78 sputum samples obtained we

  4. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant


    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization`s pursuit of continuous ES&H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site`s ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES&H excellence.

  5. Validation of the Learning Progression-based Assessment of Modern Genetics in a college context

    Todd, Amber; Romine, William L.


    Building upon a methodologically diverse research foundation, we adapted and validated the Learning Progression-based Assessment of Modern Genetics (LPA-MG) for college students' knowledge of the domain. Toward collecting valid learning progression-based measures in a college majors context, we redeveloped and content validated a majority of a previous version of the LPA-MG which was developed for high school students. Using a Rasch model calibrated on 316 students from 2 sections of majors introductory biology, we demonstrate the validity of this version and describe how college students' ideas of modern genetics are likely to change as the students progress from low to high understanding. We then utilize these findings to build theory around the connections college students at different levels of understanding make within and across the many ideas within the domain.

  6. China in Nigeria


    organization, has a branch office in Nigeria. 34 Not only is Chinese money flowing into Africa, but Chinese migrants are rushing there too. There is a wave...the Continent,” Journal of International Affairs 62, no. 2 (Spring 2009): 44, 51. 35 Giles Mohan and May Tan-Mullins, “Chinese Migrants in Africa... receptive to assistance from the world’s two largest powers. In the area of aid, tri-lateral cooperation (China, U.S., African countries) is gaining a

  7. Central retinal artery resistive index and optical coherence tomography in assessment of glaucoma progression

    Ahmed; F.Abdel; Ghany; Samer; M.Botros; Tamer; M.El-Raggal


    AIM: To assess the relation between central retinal artery(CRA) resistive index(RI) and retinal nerve fiber thickness measured by optical coherence tomography(OCT) in assessment of disease progress in cases of open angle glaucoma.METHODS: Twenty-three patients with diagnosed open angle glaucoma were included in this study. They were examined by colored duplex ultrasonography of CRA with estimation of RI of CRA and ophthalmic artery(OA)with estimation of CRA/OA RI ratio as well as OCT measurement of the average retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness in order to assess the disease progress.RESULTS: There was strong inverse relation between the increased RI in CRA as well as the increased CRA/OA RI ratio and the decrease in average RNFL thickness in cases of open angle glaucoma.CONCLUSION: Assessment of CRA RI can indirectly assess the vascular changes associated with glaucoma and can assess the degree of retinal atrophy helping in evaluating prognosis thus guiding the choice of treatment.

  8. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)


    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

  9. Exploring learning progressions of form-4 physics students in Hong Kong using assessment for learning strategies

    Vyas, Purvi Anand


    An emerging concept of Learning Progressions (LPs) has been becoming popular amongst science educators and researchers (Alonzo & Steedle, 2009). LPs can fulfill the recommendations of increased focus on student’s learning in science, and has the potential to align the curriculum, instructions and assessments, which have been assigned a prime importance in the majority of educational reforms worldwide (CDC, 2001; NRC, 2007 & 2012). This study aims to explore the LPs of form 4 secondary school ...

  10. Challenges in Assessing Progress in Multifunctional Operations: Experiences from a Provincial Reconstruction Team in Afghanistan


    these measures. Assessment of progress can thus be seen as a process consisting of monitoring and evaluation activities ( Sida , 2007). integration and understanding between the Swedish Armed Forces and SIDA at the domestic interagency level. Four participants said that the...military and SIDA personnel had been sent to the PRT with different mandates, objectives and cultures, without practical instructions on how to

  11. Nigeria: a federation gone wrong

    J.F. Kirsten


    Full Text Available Due to its size, large population, oil-based economy and geographical location in West Africa. Nigeria is regarded as an important state in Africa. The country is also one of the longest surviving federal states on the continent and therefore represents an ongoing experiment in federalism in the Third World. Since its independence in 1960, however, Nigeria has been devastated by chronic political instability. This article tries to address the issue why this is the case and to identify ethnic-religious diversity and successive military regimes as the most important sources for the mentioned political unrest. The course and nature of political instability in Nigeria is pul in historical context - a context which also include the secession attempt by Riafra as one of the tragic highlights in the past of Nigeria. In conclusion, the author speculates on ways and options as to how secession attempts can be prevented and a larger amount of national political stability be achieved.

  12. A wavelet-based structural damage assessment approach with progressively downloaded sensor data

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zhu, Songye


    This paper presents a wavelet-based on-line damage assessment approach based on the use of progressively transmitted multi-resolution sensor data. In extreme events like strong earthquakes, real-time retrieval of structural monitoring data and on-line damage assessment of civil infrastructures are crucial for emergency relief and disaster assistance efforts such as resource allocation and evacuation route arrangement. Due to the limited communication bandwidth available to data transmission during and immediately after major earthquakes, innovative methods for integrated sensor data transmission and on-line damage assessment are highly desired. The proposed approach utilizes a lifting scheme wavelet transform to generate multi-resolution sensor data, which are transmitted progressively in increasing resolution. Multi-resolution sensor data enable interactive on-line condition assessment of structural damages. To validate this concept, a hysteresis-based damage assessment method, proposed by Iwan for extreme-event use, is selected in this study. A sensitivity study on the hysteresis-based damage assessment method under varying data resolution levels was conducted using simulation data from a six-story steel braced frame building subjected to earthquake ground motion. The results of this study show that the proposed approach is capable of reducing the raw sensor data size by a significant amount while having a minor effect on the accuracy of hysteresis-based damage assessment. The proposed approach provides a valuable decision support tool for engineers and emergency response personnel who want to access the data in real time and perform on-line damage assessment in an efficient manner.

  13. Diagnosis and Prediction of CKD Progression by Assessment of Urinary Peptides

    Schanstra, Joost P.; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Argiles, Angel; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Beige, Joachim; Bilo, Henk J.G.; Chatzikyrkou, Christos; Dakna, Mohammed; Dawson, Jesse; Delles, Christian; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Husi, Holger; Jankowski, Joachim; Jerums, George; Kleefstra, Nanne; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Maahs, David M.; Menne, Jan; Mullen, William; Ortiz, Alberto; Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Ruggenenti, Piero; Rychlik, Ivan; Serra, Andreas L.; Siwy, Justyna; Snell-Bergeon, Janet; Spasovski, Goce; Staessen, Jan A.; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald; Vanholder, Raymond


    Progressive CKD is generally detected at a late stage by a sustained decline in eGFR and/or the presence of significant albuminuria. With the aim of early and improved risk stratification of patients with CKD, we studied urinary peptides in a large cross-sectional multicenter cohort of 1990 individuals, including 522 with follow-up data, using proteome analysis. We validated that a previously established multipeptide urinary biomarker classifier performed significantly better in detecting and predicting progression of CKD than the current clinical standard, urinary albumin. The classifier was also more sensitive for identifying patients with rapidly progressing CKD. Compared with the combination of baseline eGFR and albuminuria (area under the curve [AUC]=0.758), the addition of the multipeptide biomarker classifier significantly improved CKD risk prediction (AUC=0.831) as assessed by the net reclassification index (0.303±−0.065; P<0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.058±0.014; P<0.001). Correlation of individual urinary peptides with CKD stage and progression showed that the peptides that associated with CKD, irrespective of CKD stage or CKD progression, were either fragments of the major circulating proteins, suggesting failure of the glomerular filtration barrier sieving properties, or different collagen fragments, suggesting accumulation of intrarenal extracellular matrix. Furthermore, protein fragments associated with progression of CKD originated mostly from proteins related to inflammation and tissue repair. Results of this study suggest that urinary proteome analysis might significantly improve the current state of the art of CKD detection and outcome prediction and that identification of the urinary peptides allows insight into various ongoing pathophysiologic processes in CKD. PMID:25589610

  14. Assessment Of The Availability, Utilization And Management Of ICT Facilities In Teaching English Language In Secondary Schools In Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Hanna Onyi Yusuf


    Full Text Available The study investigated the availability, utilization and management of ICT facilities in teaching English language in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. A questionnaire titled “Availability, Utilization and Management of Information and Communication Technology in teaching English Language in Secondary Schools” (AUMICTSS was used for data collection. Twenty randomly selected secondary schools from Kaduna metropolis were used for the study. A total of 100 teachers participated by responding to the items on the questionnaire. The data collected was analysed using frequencies and percentages. The findings of the study revealed that there is a dearth of ICT facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna as there are only very few of such facilities available in most of the schools visited. It also revealed that most teachers were not competent in the use of these facilities as the management of these facilities requires training and re-training. It was recommended as a matter of urgency that government should provide more ICT facilities in schools and ensure the provision of electricity in every secondary school for optimal utilization of these facilities. Teachers should equally be trained and re-trained regularly in the use and management of ICT facilities for effective English Language curriculum delivery.

  15. Assessment of the post harvest knowledge of fruits and vegetable farmers in Garun Mallam L.G.A of Kano, Nigeria

    Muhammad, R.H


    Full Text Available A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among fruits and vegetable producers of Garun Mallam Local Governments Area of Kano State Nigeria. Information was obtained on the farmers post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables, i.e types of produce, time of harvesting, ways of cooling, packaging and transporting of their produce. All of the farmers have more than ten years of farming experience, harvesting was found to be done at no specific time, and none of the farmers was found to harvest at matured green stage. All of the farmers experienced post harvest losses, ranging from 20-50% of their harvest. Local baskets and bags were used in packaging produce, and transportation was carried out at anytime of the day in open pick-ups, Lorries and trucks. Results of the survey was analyzed and presented in percentages. It was concluded that the farmers lack general knowledge of postharvest handling despite their years of farming experience, therefore it was concluded that the lack of knowledge of post harvest could be responsible for the huge losses of fruits and vegetables in the country, intense enlightenment by concerned bodies like NSPRI, ADP, and KNADA was recommended to be intensified.

  16. Explaining socio-economic inequalities in immunization coverage in Nigeria.

    Ataguba, John E; Ojo, Kenneth O; Ichoku, Hyacinth E


    Globally, in 2013 over 6 million children younger than 5 years died from either an infectious cause or during the neonatal period. A large proportion of these deaths occurred in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunization is one way to reduce childhood morbidity and deaths. In Nigeria, however, although immunization is provided without a charge at public facilities, coverage remains low and deaths from vaccine preventable diseases are high. This article seeks to assess inequalities in full and partial immunization coverage in Nigeria. It also assesses inequality in the 'intensity' of immunization coverage and it explains the factors that account for disparities in child immunization coverage in the country. Using nationally representative data, this article shows that disparities exist in the coverage of immunization to the advantage of the rich. Also, factors such as mother's literacy, region and location of the child, and socio-economic status explain the disparities in immunization coverage in Nigeria. Apart from addressing these issues, the article notes the importance of addressing other social determinants of health to reduce the disparities in immunization coverage in the country. These should be in line with the social values of communities so as to ensure acceptability and compliance. We argue that any policy that addresses these issues will likely reduce disparities in immunization coverage and put Nigeria on the road to sustainable development.

  17. Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Yobe State, Nigeria: Examining Predictors and Barriers


    Objective: In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether women’s biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC) visits in Yobe State. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey ...

  18. Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops and Processed Products (Ogi) from Nigeria


    In Nigeria, maize, sorghum, and millet are very important cash crops. They are consumed on a daily basis in different processed forms in diverse cultural backgrounds. These crops are prone to fungi infestation, and subsequently may be contaminated with mycotoxins. A total of 363 samples comprising of maize (136), sorghum (110), millet (87), and ogi (30) were collected from randomly selected markets in four agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Samples were assessed for Fusarium mycotoxins contami...

  19. Ophthalmic manifestations of children with Down syndrome in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Adio AO; Wajuihian SO


    Adedayo Omobolanle Adio,1 Samuel Otabor Wajuihian21University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 2Department of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaAim: The aim of this study was to provide a profile of oculo-visual anomalies in children with Down syndrome (DS) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Methods: This comparative study assessed the visual functions of 120 children (42 DS and 78 developmentally normal children). The visual functions evaluated and...

  20. Improving Quality of Care in Primary Health-Care Facilities in Rural Nigeria

    Okoli Ugo; Eze-Ajoku Ezinne; Oludipe Modupe; Spieker Nicole; Ekezie Winifred; Ohiri Kelechi


    Background: Nigeria has a high population density but a weak health-care system. To improve the quality of care, 3 organizations carried out a quality improvement pilot intervention at the primary health-care level in selected rural areas. Objective: To assess the change in quality of care in primary health-care facilities in rural Nigeria following the provision of technical governance support and to document the successes and challenges encountered. Method: A total of 6 states were selected...

  1. Spinocerebellar ataxia type-7: Report of a family in Northwest Nigeria.

    Alkali, Nura Hamidu; Bwala, Sunday A; Alimi, Saeed A; Oyakhire, Shyngle I


    Spinocerebellar ataxia type-7 (SCA7) is a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat polyglutamine disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of the cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, and retina. Clinical features include progressive ataxia, visual loss, pyramidal weakness, sensory impairment, and dementia. Among the autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, SCA7 is relatively common in Scandinavia and South Africa but rare worldwide and is not previously reported in Nigeria. In this study, we describe a family in Katsina State, Northwest Nigeria, with nine individuals across three generations affected by the SCA7 phenotype. Analysis of DNA from proband and two affected relatives revealed 39 CAG repeat expansions in one allele of ataxin-7 in each.

  2. In-Season Assessment of Rabi Crop Progression and Condition from Multi Source Data

    Sahay, B.; Ramana, K. V.; Chandrsekar, K.; Biswal, A.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Rao, S. V. C. K.


    Timely and accurate information on periodic crop progress and condition is essential to an agricultural country like India. The current study has been carried out with the objective of monitoring the timelines of the sowing of rabi crops viz. wheat and mustard, their progression and condition assessment using data from multiple sources viz. a set of indices derived from remote sensing, meteorological parameters and crop simulation modeling. The study area consists of six districts with significant wheat and mustard crops namely Patiala, Bhiwani, Agra, Bharatpur, Morena and Rohtas, and has been done for three years (2008-09, 2012-13 and 2013-14). The methodology consists of analysis of multi-temporal AWiFS and MODIS datasets of historical and current seasons for the period October to March covering rabi season. Crop simulation for wheat was carried out using DSSAT-CERES crop growth model for assessing crop growth. The results were discussed in terms of crop progression, start-of-the-season and crop condition. As a future scope of this study, thermal indices can be incorporated for further refinement and the same can be extended to larger areas.


    Mary Gloria C. Njoku


    Full Text Available Exploring the state of Nigerian leadership, there is a clear indication that the nation is in distress and therefore needs a leader who would be able to get the best out of Nigerian followers and lead the nation to stability. This leader must be trustworthy, emotionally intelligent, firm, willing to suffer for the nation, focused on breaking down ethnic divide, and inspiring hope in the people. The leader must be capable of taking in varied information and solving complex problems effectively and efficiently. This paper adopts the concept of leadership as one that involves a social influence process, a leader/leaders and followers. This perspective is impacted by social psychological principles of social influence and clinical psychology socioemotional intelligence and will therefore discuss leadership for Nigeria from these perspectives.

  4. Inter-laboratory assessment of a harmonized zebrafish developmental toxicology assay - progress report on phase I.

    Gustafson, A-L; Stedman, D B; Ball, J; Hillegass, J M; Flood, A; Zhang, C X; Panzica-Kelly, J; Cao, J; Coburn, A; Enright, B P; Tornesi, M B; Hetheridge, M; Augustine-Rauch, K A


    This report provides a progress update of a consortium effort to develop a harmonized zebrafish developmental toxicity assay. Twenty non-proprietary compounds (10 animal teratogens and 10 animal non-teratogens) were evaluated blinded in 4 laboratories. Zebrafish embryos from pond-derived and cultivated strain wild types were exposed to the test compounds for 5 days and subsequently evaluated for lethality and morphological changes. Each of the testing laboratories achieved similar overall concordance to the animal data (60-70%). Subsequent optimization procedures to improve the overall concordance focused on compound formulation and test concentration adjustments, chorion permeation and number of replicates. These optimized procedures were integrated into a revised protocol and all compounds were retested in one lab using embryos from pond-derived zebrafish and achieved 85% total concordance. To further assess assay performance, a study of additional compounds is currently in progress at two laboratories using embryos from pond-derived and cultivated-strain wild type zebrafish.

  5. The Nation's Report Card: Writing 2011. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grades 8 and 12. NCES 2012-470

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2012


    This report presents results of the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in writing at grades 8 and 12. In this new national writing assessment sample, 24,100 eighth-graders and 28,100 twelfth-graders engaged with writing tasks and composed their responses on computer. The assessment tasks reflected writing situations common to…

  6. Assessing Progress towards Public Health, Human Rights, and International Development Goals Using Frontier Analysis.

    Luh, Jeanne; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie


    Indicators to measure progress towards achieving public health, human rights, and international development targets, such as 100% access to improved drinking water or zero maternal mortality ratio, generally focus on status (i.e., level of attainment or coverage) or trends in status (i.e., rates of change). However, these indicators do not account for different levels of development that countries experience, thus making it difficult to compare progress between countries. We describe a recently developed new use of frontier analysis and apply this method to calculate country performance indices in three areas: maternal mortality ratio, poverty headcount ratio, and primary school completion rate. Frontier analysis is used to identify the maximum achievable rates of change, defined by the historically best-performing countries, as a function of coverage level. Performance indices are calculated by comparing a country's rate of change against the maximum achievable rate at the same coverage level. A country's performance can be positive or negative, corresponding to progression or regression, respectively. The calculated performance indices allow countries to be compared against each other regardless of whether they have only begun to make progress or whether they have almost achieved the target. This paper is the first to use frontier analysis to determine the maximum achievable rates as a function of coverage level and to calculate performance indices for public health, human rights, and international development indicators. The method can be applied to multiple fields and settings, for example health targets such as cessation in smoking or specific vaccine immunizations, and offers both a new approach to analyze existing data and a new data source for consideration when assessing progress achieved.

  7. Development and Validation of the Learning Progression-Based Assessment of Modern Genetics in a High School Context

    Todd, Amber; Romine, William L.; Cook Whitt, Katahdin


    We describe the development, validation, and use of the "Learning Progression-Based Assessment of Modern Genetics" (LPA-MG) in a high school biology context. Items were constructed based on a current learning progression framework for genetics (Shea & Duncan, 2013; Todd & Kenyon, 2015). The 34-item instrument, which was tied to…

  8. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.


    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  9. Assessment of the Effect of Fungicide and Seed Rate on the Incidence of Leaf Blast (Magnaphorthe Grisea, On the Growth of Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica (L. P. BEAUV in North-eastern Nigeria

    Z. G. S. Turaki


    Full Text Available In 2007 a multilocational trial was conducted in a split-plot using randomized complete block University of Maiduguri and Gashua Farm station to assess the effects of fungicide and seed rate on the incidence of leaf blast (Magnaphorte grisea, on the growth and yield of foxtail millet in the Northeastern Nigeria. The results showed that the lowest disease incidence of 20.8% and 0.4% were recorded from 100% recorded significantly (P < 0.05 the highest disease incidence of 80.0% and 64.3% at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively. The highest plant height and panicle length were recorded from plants grown at fungicide seed treatment ranging from 80-100% at seed rate of 5.0kg/ha. The lowest plant height and panicle length were obtained from plants grown from the untreated seed tate of 12.5kg/ha and while the lowest grain yields were recorded from untreated seed rate of 5.0kg/h at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively.


    Nwizug-bee L. K.


    Full Text Available In Nigeria, belt of bituminous sand stretches to the East of Ijebu-Ode (Ogun State in the district of Siluko and Akotogbo, Okitipupa (Ondo Sate and Edo State. It covers a distance of approximately 110 km and lies in the upper cretaceous sequence of the Abeokuta formation in the eastern Dahomey Basin. Reserves of bituminous sand in Nigeria is estimated to be around 30- 40 billion barrels with a possibility to extract 3654 × 106 barrels. From the approximately 30-40 billion barrels of oil sand, Ogun State has more than 40% in reserve. However, this huge stock of oil sand in Nigeria is yet to be exploited. This article provides an assessment of technological solutions for the design and development of tar sand fields in Nigeria. Reserves of oil sand in Nigeria are the biggest in the whole of Africa

  11. Current Research and Professional Practice: Reports of Work in Progress into the Assessment of Young Language Learners.

    Rea-Dickins, Pauline


    Introduces articles that follow discussing research in progress on assessing foreign language learners at the elementary school levels. The articles describe contexts in Austria, Norway, and Italy. (Author/VWL)

  12. Assessment of nest fates of woodland songbirds in J. Clark Slayer National Wildlife Refuge : 2002 progress report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Progress report for the 2002 field season of a study to assess nest fates of woodland songbirds in J. Clark Slayer National Wildlife Refuge (JCSNWR), in northcentral...

  13. Appraisal of Construction Project Procurement Policies in Nigeria

    Bima Abubakar Muhammad


    Full Text Available The success of performance of public sector projects in Nigeria is tied to the impact of procurement strategy or policy used in providing the building. Procurement policies significantly influence the success of construction projects since they are designed to provide solutions to specific project needs or conditions. The Nigerian construction industry was analyzed with particular emphasis on public sector procurement. The general performance of public sector projects in Nigeria was broadly assessed and quite unfortunately the literature review has criticized public sector procurement in Nigeria of been inefficient for efficient project delivery. Equally the respondents to the survey data obtained from the questionnaire distributed and oral interview conducted suggest that projects are affected by the procurement strategy adopted for project delivery. A significant number of the questionnaire respondents believe that performance of projects could be improved using alternative or hybrid procurement strategies. Recommendations were proffered in order to mitigate or reduce completely the challenges and complexities faced by public project procurement schemes in Nigeria.

  14. Assessing the role of IL-35 in colorectal cancer progression and prognosis.

    Zeng, Jin-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi; Li, Tian-Yu; Liang, Yan-Fang; Wang, Hong-Mei; Bao, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Wang, Wan-Dang; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Kong, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Bin-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Dong; He, Long; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Cong-Yi; Xu, Jun-Fa


    Despite the recent realization of Interleukin (IL)-35 in tumorigenesis, its exact impact on colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and prognosis, however, is yet to be elucidated clearly. We thus in the present report conducted comparative analysis of IL-35 levels between CRC patients and matched control subjects. IL-35 is highly expressed in all CRC tissues, which can be detected in vast majority of colorectal cancer cells. IL-35 levels in CRC lysates and serum samples are highly correlated to the severity of malignancy and the clinical stage of tumor. Particularly, a significant reduction for serum IL-35 was noted in patients after surgical resection, indicating that IL-35 promotes CRC progression associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistic study demonstrated a significant correlation between serum IL-35 levels and the number of peripheral regulatory T (Treg) cells in CRC patients, suggesting that IL-35 implicates in CRC pathogenesis probably by inducing Treg cells, while cancer cell-derived IL-35 may also recruit Treg cells into the tumor microenvironment in favor of tumor growth. Together, our data support that IL-35 could be a valuable biomarker for assessing CRC progression and prognosis in clinical settings.

  15. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria

    Odiase Justice I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breast feeding (EBF has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. Methods Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2003. The 2003 NDHS was a multi-stage cluster sample survey of 7864 households. EBF rates were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using a backward stepwise multilevel logistic regression method. Results The average EBF rate among infants younger than 6 months of age was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.6%-21.1% but was only 7.1% in infants in their fifth month of age. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analyses revealed that the odds of EBF were higher in rich (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR = 1.15, CI = 0.28-6.69 and middle level (AOR = 2.45, CI = 1.06-5.68 households than poor households. Increasing infant age was associated with significantly less EBF (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.82. Mothers who had four or more antenatal visits were significantly more likely to engage in EBF (AOR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.04-7.01. Female infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than male infants (AOR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.03-4.39. Mothers who lived in the North Central geopolitical region were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies than those mothers who lived in other geopolitical regions. Conclusions The EBF rate in Nigeria is low and falls well short of the expected levels needed to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Antenatal care was strongly associated with an increased rate of EBF. Appropriate infant feeding practises are needed if Nigeria is to reach the child survival Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant mortality from about 100 deaths per 1000 live births to a target of 35 deaths per 1000 live

  16. Equity in Health Care Expenditure in Nigeria

    Olanrewaju Olaniyan


    Full Text Available Equity isone of the basic principles of health systems and features explicitly in theNigerian health financing policy. Despite acclaimed commitment to theimplementation of this policy through various pro-poor health programmes andinterventions, the level of inequity in health status and access to basichealth care interventions remain high. This paper examines the equity of healthcare expenditure by individuals in Nigeria. The paper evaluated equity in out-of-pocketspending( OOP for the country and separately for the six geopolitical zones ofthe country.The methodological framework rests onKakwani Progressivity Indices (KPIs, ReynoldSmolensky indices andconcentration indices (CIs using data from the 2004 Nigerian National LivingStandard Survey( NLSS collected by the National Bureau of Statistics. .The results reveal that health financing isregressive with the incidence disproportionately rest on poor households withabout 70% of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket paymentsby households. Poor households are prone to bear most of the expenses in theevent of any health shock. The catastrophic consequences thus push some intopoverty, and aggravate the poverty of others.The paper therefore suggests that thecountry’s health financingsystems must be designed not only to allow people to access services when theyare needed, but must also protect household, from financial catastrophe, byreducing OOP spending through risk pooling and prepayment schemes within thehealth system.Keywords:                            Equity, Health careexpenditure, Kakwani progressivity index, Nigeria.

  17. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.


    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

  18. Assessing learning progress and quality of teaching in large groups of students.

    Reumann, Matthias; Mohr, Matthias; Diez, Anke; Dössel, Olaf


    The classic tool of assessing learning progress are written tests and assignments. In large groups of students the workload often does not allow in depth evaluation during the course. Thus our aim was to modify the course to include active learning methods and student centered teaching. We changed the course structure only slightly and established new assessment methods like minute papers, short tests, mini-projects and a group project at the end of the semester. The focus was to monitor the learning progress during the course so that problematic issues could be addressed immediately. The year before the changes 26.76 % of the class failed the course with a grade average of 3.66 (Pass grade is 4.0/30 % of achievable marks). After introducing student centered teaching, only 14 % of students failed the course and the average grade was 3.01. Grades were also distributed more evenly with more students achieving better results. We have shown that even in large groups of students with > 100 participants student centered and active learning is possible. Although it requires a great work overhead on the behalf of the teaching staff, the quality of teaching and the motivation of the students is increased leading to a better learning environment.

  19. Understanding the Impact of Leadership in Nigeria

    Nichodemus O. Ejimabo


    Full Text Available This critical ethnographic study focused on identifying the leadership practices of past and present leaders involved in the operation of the Nigerian government, with emphasis on the Eastern Region. The author was committed and determined to discovering a pattern of meaning through its natural setting, was equally interested in the process rather than outcomes, in context rather than specific variables, and in discovery rather than confirmation in order to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the issues and problems associated with the leadership situation in the country. For clarity, the investigator used Northouse leadership approach to understand the leadership in the current Nigerian leadership situation. Twelve past and present leaders in the government operations of the Eastern Region of Nigeria participated in the study, and the leadership assessment instrument survey questionnaire was used to support the study. While the study showed a great need for change in leadership, the results of the study revealed that most of the leaders and policy makers in the Eastern Region of the country lack effective leadership skills for the positions they hold. The study also suggested some recommendations for improving the current leadership situation in Nigeria.

  20. Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe


    Full Text Available This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to address the Nigerian version of the global financial crisis. However, the right mix of these policies to avoid conflicts in the light of dampening effects of the global financial melt-down as well as the possible effects of the global financial crisis and macroeconomic fluctuations on economic development in Nigeria is of relevance..The direction and magnitude of relevant policy to stimulate increased government intervention, it was observed that there is the need for comparative dynamics of economies in order to return to the path of sustainable growth and development

  1. South-South, Nigeria

    Ovutor Owhoeli


    Full Text Available A total of 213 faecal samples were collected from four abattoirs and households to determine the prevalence of helminthes infections in exotic and indigenous goats in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. The study revealed that out of 153 exotic goats (Red Sokoto Capra hircus, 112 were infected with various species of gastrointestinal helminths; out of 60 indigenous goats (West African dwarf Capra hircus, 49 were also infected with various types of gastrointestinal helminths. The formol-ether concentration method was used to analyse the specimens. The study revealed that an overall prevalence of (75.5% was recorded, out of which 57 (76.0%, 55 (70.5%, and 49 (81.6% were recorded for exotic goat in the months of May–September, 2010, exotic goat in the months October 2010–February, 2011 and for indigenous goats, respectively. The overall prevalence amongst the infected animals was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Species of helminthes revealed from the study were, Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Chabertia, Trichuris, Ostertagia, Bunostomum, Trichostrongyloida, Ascaris, Tenia, Avitelina, Fasciola, Eurytrema, Gastrothylax, Schistosoma, and Dicrocoelium.

  2. Less Than Proficient A Review of the Draft Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    Gross, Paul R.


    The mission of this review is to appraise the new draft NAEP science framework and to determine whether it is up to snuff. This is an evaluation of the September 30, 2005, draft document, Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (Framework), developed for the National Assessment Governing Board. The criteria is…

  3. Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan

    Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud


    Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

  4. Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) Technique: CY 04 Year-end Progress Report

    J.L. Jones; W.Y. Yoon; K.J. Haskell; D.R. Norman; J.M. Zabriskie; J.W. Sterbentz; S.M. Watson; J.T. Johnson; B.D. Bennett; R.W. Watson; K. L. Folkman


    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), along with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), are developing an electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technology for the detection of smuggled nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This CY04 report describes the latest developments and progress with the development of the Pulsed, Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) nuclear material inspection ystem, such as: (1) the identification of an optimal range of electron beam energies for interrogation applications, (2) the development of a new “cabinet safe” electron accelerator (i.e., Varitron II) to assess “cabinet safe-type” operations, (3) the numerical and experimental validation responses of nuclear materials placed within selected cargo configurations, 4) the fabrication and utilization of Calibration Pallets for inspection technology performance verification, 5) the initial technology integration of basic radiographic “imaging/mapping” with induced neutron and gamma-ray detection, 6) the characterization of electron beam-generated photon sources for optimal performance, 7) the development of experimentallydetermined Receiver-Operator-Characterization curves, and 8) several other system component assessments. This project is supported by the Department of Homeland Security and is a technology component of the Science & Technology Active Interrogation Portfolio entitled “Photofission-based Nuclear Material Detection and Characterization.”

  5. Attenuation of treatment effect due to measurement variability in assessment of progression-free survival.

    Hong, S; Schmitt, N; Stone, A; Denne, J


    For normally distributed data analyzed with linear models, it is well known that measurement error on an independent variable leads to attenuation of the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. However, for time-to-event variables such as progression-free survival (PFS), the effect of the measurement variability in the underlying measurements defining the event is less well understood. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the impact of measurement variability in tumor assessment on the treatment effect hazard ratio for PFS and on the median PFS time, for different tumor assessment frequencies. Our results show that scan measurement variability can cause attenuation of the treatment effect (i.e. the hazard ratio is closer to one) and that the extent of attenuation may be increased with more frequent scan assessments. This attenuation leads to inflation of the type II error. Therefore, scan measurement variability should be minimized as far as possible in order to reveal a treatment effect that is closest to the truth. In disease settings where the measurement variability is shown to be large, consideration may be given to inflating the sample size of the study to maintain statistical power.

  6. Oral hygiene in primary schoolchildren in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Alakija, W


    Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use.

  7. Intersectional inequalities in immunization in India, 1992-93 to 2005-06: a progress assessment.

    Joe, William


    Immunization in India is marked with stark disparities across gender, caste, wealth and place of residence with severe shortfalls among those disadvantaged in more than one dimension. In this regard, an explicit recognition of intersectionality and intersectional inequalities has 2-fold relevance; one, being the pathway of health inequality and the other being its role as a deterrent of progress particularly at higher (better) levels of health. Against this backdrop, this study examines intersectional inequalities in immunization in India and also suggests a level-sensitive progress assessment method. The study uses group analogue of Gini coefficient for highlighting the magnitude of intersectional inequality and for comprehending its association with immunization level. The results unravel the plight of vulnerable intersectional groups and draw attention to disquieting shortfalls among female SCST (scheduled castes and tribes) children from rural areas. There is also some evidence to indicate leveraging among rural males in matters of immunization and it is further discerned that such gender advantage is greater among rural non-SCST community than the rural SCST group. In concluding, the study calls for intensive immunization planning to improve coverage among vulnerable communities in both rural and urban areas.

  8. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.


    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  9. Mineral-Resource Assessment of Northern Nye County, Nevada - A Progress Report

    Ludington, Steve; John, David A.; Muntean, John L.; Hanson, Andrew D.; Castor, Stephen B.; Henry, Christopher D.; Wintzer, Niki; Cline, Jean S.; Simon, Adam C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), which is a part of the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), have completed the first year of data collection and analysis in preparation for a new mineral- and energy-resource assessment of northern Nye County, Nevada. This report provides information about work completed before October 1, 2009. Existing data are being compiled, including geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral-deposit information. Field studies are underway, which are primarily designed to address issues raised during the review of existing information. In addition, new geochemical studies are in progress, including reanalyzing existing stream-sediment samples with modern methods, and analyzing metalliferous black shales.

  10. Assessing the Extent of Human Trafficking: Inherent Difficulties and Gradual Progress

    Dianne Scullion


    Full Text Available This article explores some of the key current research and statistical evidence available on the global scale of trafficking in human beings, and considers the assumption that the occurrence of trafficking is increasing. The value and limitations of this statistical data is identified, as is the relationship between the research base and the resulting legal and policy responses. This allows an assessment of whether there is a connection between the perceived problem and the responses to trafficking victims’ circumstances. It questions whether assumptions, generalisations and policies can be based around the available data and the responsibilities of individual countries, including the UK and the wider international community, in relation to the improvement of data collection. The article also considers signs of progress in terms of data collection and suggests further future improvements that need to be made to the approach taken.

  11. An evaluation of biosecurity compliance levels and assessment of associated risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection of live-bird-markets, Nigeria and Egypt.

    Fasanmi, Olubunmi G; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem U; Oladele-Bukola, Mutiu O; El-Tahawy, Abdelgawad S; Elbestawy, Ahmed R; Fasina, Folorunso O


    Live bird market (LBM) is integral component in the perpetuation of HPAI H5N1, while biosecurity is crucial and key to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Biosecurity compliance level and risk factor assessments in 155LBMs was evaluated in Nigeria and Egypt through the administration of a 68-item biosecurity checklist, scored based on the modifications of previous qualitative data, and analysed for degree of compliance. LBMs were scored as "complied with a biosecurity item" if they had good-very good scores (4). All scores were coded and analysed using descriptive statistics and risk or protective factors were determined using univariable and multivariable logistic regression at p≤0.05. Trading of wild birds and other animal in the LBMs (Odd Ratio (OR)=34.90; p=0.01) and claims of hand disinfection after slaughter (OR=31.16; p=0.03) were significant risk factors while mandatory routine disinfection of markets (OR=0.13; p≤0.00), fencing and gates for live bird market (OR=0.02; p≤0.01) and hand washing after slaughter (OR=0.41; p≤0.05) were protective factors for and against the infection of Nigerian and Egyptian LBMs with the HPAI H5N1 virus. Almost all the LBMs complied poorly with most of the variables in the checklist (p≤0.05), but pathways to improved biosecurity in the LBMs existed. We concluded that the LBM operators play a critical role in the disruption of transmission of H5N1 virus infection through improved biosecurity and participatory epidemiology and multidisciplinary approach is needed.

  12. Multireader assessment as an alternative to reference assessment to improve the detection of radiographic progression in a large longitudinal cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (ESPOIR)

    Gandjbakhch, Frederique; Granger, Benjamin; Freund, Romain; Foltz, Violaine; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Devauchelle, Valerie; Afshar, Mona; Albert, Jean David; Bailly, Florian; Constant, Elodie; Biale, Lisa; Milin, Morgane; Couderc, Marion; Denarie, Delphine; Fradin, Anne; Martaille, Virginie; Pierreisnard, Audrey; Poursac, Nicolas; Saraux, Alain; Fautrel, Bruno


    Introduction Structural damage progression is a major outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Its evaluation and follow-up in trials should involve radiographic scoring by 1 or 2 readers (reference assessment), which is challenging in large longitudinal cohorts with multiple assessments. Objectives To compare the reproducibility of multireader and reference assessment to improve the feasibility of detecting radiographic progression in a large cohort of patients with early arthritis (ESPOIR). Methods We used 3 sessions to train 12 rheumatologists in radiographic scoring by the van der Heijde-modified Sharp score (SHS). Multireader scoring was based on 10 trained-reader assessments, each reader scoring a random sample of 1/5 of all available radiographs (for double scoring for each X-ray set) for patients included in the ESPOIR cohort with complete radiographic data at M0 and M60. Reference scoring was performed by 2 experienced readers. Scoring was performed blindly to clinical data, with radiographs in chronological order. We compared multireader and reference assessments by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for SHS and significant radiographic progression (SRP). Results The intrareader and inter-reader reproducibility for trained assessors increased during the training sessions (ICC 0.79 to 0.94 and 0.76 to 0.92), respectively. For the 524 patients included, agreement between multireader and reference assessment of SHS progression between M0 and M60 and SRP assessment were almost perfect, ICC (0.88 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93)) and (0.99 (95% CI 0.99 to 0.99)), respectively. Conclusions Multireader assessment of radiographic structural damage progression is comparable to reference assessment and could be used to improve the feasibility of radiographic scoring in large longitudinal cohort with numerous X-ray evaluations.

  13. A Targeted Survey for Scrapie in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria

    O. O. Nwankiti


    Full Text Available Scrapie, a disease of sheep and goats with a progressive course and fatal outcome, has not been identified in Nigeria. Anecdotal scrapie reports by livestock workers abound. Livestock diseases like scrapie form huddles in livestock economics of countries. For 8 months we surveyed for scrapie targeting emergency/casualty slaughter sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. We clinically examined 510 sheep and 608 goats of local breeds, aged from 12 months to 5 years. In total 31 (5.10% goats and no sheep were clinically suspicious for scrapie. Caudal brainstem tissues of suspect animals collected postmortem were analyzed for the disease specific form of the prion protein, PrPSc, using Bio-Rad’s TeSeE ELISA rapid test kit. No sample was positive for scrapie. Fluorescent antibody test for rabies and H&E staining on samples were carried out for differential diagnosis. These showed no pathological lesions indicative for neurological disease. While our findings do not exclude the presence of scrapie in Jos, we demonstrate that targeted sampling of small ruminants for neuroinfectious disease is feasible in developing countries, pointing to the possibility of implementing such a monitoring scheme in Nigeria to prevent economic losses in small ruminant livestock as scrapie caveats from endemic countries have shown.

  14. Nigeria Seeks Energy Investment from China

    Shan Wenge


    @@ Nigeria sent a delegation to China in mid-July to seek investment in the oil-enriched nation. Currently, Nigeria has granted the Chinese oil companies the permits of four oil fields while the Chinese side offered technical support in the energy cooperation field. In addition to the energy sector, Nigeria's invitation of investment this time also covers transportation, finance, telecommunications and manufacturing sector.

  15. Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.


    The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have

  16. Using chemical biology to assess and modulate mitochondria: progress and challenges

    Murphy, Michael P.


    Our understanding of the role of mitochondria in biomedical sciences has expanded considerably over the past decade. In addition to their well-known metabolic roles, mitochondrial are also central to signalling for various processes through the generation of signals such as ROS and metabolites that affect cellular homeostasis, as well as other processes such as cell death and inflammation. Thus, mitochondrial function and dysfunction are central to the health and fate of the cell. Consequently, there is considerable interest in better understanding and assessing the many roles of mitochondria. Furthermore, there is also a growing realization that mitochondrial are a promising drug target in a wide range of pathologies. The application of interdisciplinary approaches at the interface between chemistry and biology are opening up new opportunities to understand mitochondrial function and in assessing the role of the organelle in biology. This work and the experience thus gained are leading to the development of new classes of therapies. Here, we overview the progress that has been made to date on exploring the chemical biology of the organelle and then focus on future challenges and opportunities that face this rapidly developing field. PMID:28382206

  17. Energy Planning Policies With Environmental Considerations In Nigeria

    C. U. Ike, and S. S. N. Okeke


    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a fundamental change in the planning process for development in Nigeria. It is now recognized that the dimension of environment protection is of vital importance for sustainable development. From the comparative survey of available energy planning models, it was found that the environmental considerations are limited only to estimating the pollution load, thus sending false price signals to the technology market and leading to environmentally distorted policy decisions. The main focus of this research is a methodology for integrated energy sector planning, policy impact assessment, and policy mix analysis, incorporating the impact of environmental externality cost of energy supply and use into the planning process. The model aims at determining the least cost energy planning policy path for Nigeria with the least environmental damage.


    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju


    Full Text Available We examine the TQM Strategies and health care delivery in Nigeria, and the various means of measuring service quality. Nigeria continues to suffer outbreaks of various diseases cholera, malaria, cerebrospinal meningitis, measles, yellow fever, Bird flu e.t.c., all these diseases combine to cause high morbidity and mortality in the population. To assess the situation this paper looks at the relevant indicators like Annual Budgets by Government, Individual’s income, the role of Nigerian Medical Association (NMA and various health care agencies vested with the sole responsibility for elaborating standards for products and processes in Health care Delivery.The paper also examines the implication of Government Budget estimates on the Life expectancy of an average Nigerian. The findings necessitated the need for the government to seek support from WHO to assist in strengthening the health care system by advocating and providing technical support to health sector reforms.

  19. Assessment methods as effective tools for learning outcomes of students in senior secondary schools in Ila-Orangun, south western Nigeria

    Lamidi W.A


    Full Text Available Different methods of assessment on the students learning outcomes in Agricultural Science at five different secondary schools in Ila-Orangun, Osun State were studied. An arm of a class was used for each test; Continuous Assessment (CA and Conventional Method (CM were used for each arm. Students were taught during their normal school times for the maximum time of forty minutes thrice a week. There were ten objective questions weekly for each assessment of the students in the CA method for six weeks. The same questions were used throughout for all the schools, done simultaneously for CA. Also, sixty questions at once at the end of the sixth week for CM. Standard deviation and regression equations for the mean values were used in the analysis. The results show that CA could be adjudged to be better off than the CM because of its higher mean values in all the schools than the CM. The higher R2 values of 0.99 and 0.88 revealed stronger correlation between different methods of assessment and the targeted learners. The CA test should be used instead of CM; the CM does not make learners to gain much cognitive knowledge when compare with what CA does to students.

  20. Democracy and development in Nigeria

    Tolu Lawal


    Full Text Available Democracy and development are global phenomena. Every country in the world aspires and claims to be democratic. This is because of the role of the latter in developmental process. This paper examined the linkage between democracy and development in Nigeria, using ethics as the yardstick for democratic adherence. The paper adopted content analysis approach to source its data and concluded that democracy is an ingredient of development. It must therefore be sustained to evolve and ensure sustainable development.

  1. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Imported Frozen Fish Scomber scombrus Species Sold in Nigeria: A Case Study in Zaria Metropolis

    Abdullahi Abubakar


    Full Text Available This study assesses the likely health risks to human contamination of heavy metals from fish consumption. The analysis of the idea of fish destination and status (fishing area for heavy metals was determined by the assessment of its risk limits (daily intake of metal and health risk index. Variations in the accumulation of heavy metals concentrations were between various tissues/organs (skin, muscle, gills, liver, intestine, kidneys, brain, and bones across the batches of two fishing origins. Post hoc (Duncan multicomparison shows that there are significant differences (PHg>Pb>Cd>Ni and were above the recommended safety limits outlined by FAO/WHO. However, the consumer’s health risk with the consumption of fish muscles tissues shows that there are greater tendencies for cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure. Also consumption of Scomber scombrus species above the recommended daily intake (stated in this study might lead to ingestion of heavy metals at unacceptable concentrations.

  2. Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna


    Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…

  3. ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria

    Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary


    This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full…

  4. Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria

    Sampson, Melodi


    Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…

  5. A validity assessment of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™.

    Desiere, Sam; Vellema, Wytse; D'Haese, Marijke


    Development organisations need easy-to-use and quick-to-implement indicators to quantify poverty when requested to measure program impact. In this paper we assess the validity of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™, a country-specific indicator based on ten closed questions on directly observable household characteristics, by its compliance to the SMART criteria. Each response receives a pre-determined score, such that the sum of these scores can be converted into the likelihood the household is living below the poverty line. We focus on the PPI scorecard for Rwanda, which was validated using two national household surveys conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11. The PPI is Specific, Measurable, Available cost effectively, and Timely available. Yet, its Relevance depends on the way it is used. Although it accurately distinguishes poor from non-poor households, making it a useful reporting tool, its limited sensitivity to changes in poverty status restricts its usefulness for evaluating the impact of development projects.

  6. Effective social justice advocacy: a theory-of-change framework for assessing progress.

    Klugman, Barbara


    This article offers a theory-of-change framework for social justice advocacy. It describes broad outcome categories against which activists, donors and evaluators can assess progress (or lack thereof) in an ongoing manner: changes in organisational capacity, base of support, alliances, data and analysis from a social justice perspective, problem definition and potential policy options, visibility, public norms, and population level impacts. Using these for evaluation enables activists and donors to learn from and rethink their strategies as the political context and/or actors change over time. The paper presents a case study comparing factors that facilitated reproductive rights policy wins during the transition from apartheid to democracy in South Africa and factors that undermined their implementation in the post-apartheid period. It argues that after legal and policy victories had been won, failure to maintain strong organizations and continually rethink strategies contributed to the loss of government focus on and resources for implementation of new policies. By implication, evaluating effectiveness only by an actual policy change does not allow for ongoing learning to ensure appropriate strategies. It also fails to recognise that a policy win can be overturned and needs vigilant monitoring and advocacy for implementation. This means that funding and organising advocacy should seldom be undertaken as a short-term proposition. It also suggests that the building and maintenance of organisational and leadership capacity is as important as any other of the outcome categories in enabling success.

  7. Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility

    Smietanski, L.; Mitrega, J.; Frankowski, Z. [Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others


    The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland`s low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the repository.

  8. Changes in the timing of sexual initiation among young Muslim and Christian women in Nigeria.

    Agha, Sohail


    Sexual initiation during adolescence has important demographic and health consequences for a population, yet no systematic analysis of changes in the timing of sexual initiation has been conducted in Nigeria. Two rounds of national surveys conducted in 1990 and 2003 were used to examine changes in the timing of sexual initiation among female adolescents in Nigeria. Multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards models was used to assess changes in the risk of sexual initiation and to identify the correlates of first sex. Contrary to what has been reported in several Nigerian studies, there was no decline in age at first sex among Christian adolescents. Age at first sex did not change significantly for Christian adolescents, although premarital sex appears to have increased-primarily due to an increase in the age at marriage. Age at first sex did increase among Muslim women. Premarital sex remained low among Muslim women. A number of socioeconomic variables were associated with the timing of sexual initiation. Weekly exposure to the mass media was associated with earlier sexual initiation. The degree to which an environment was liberal or restrictive was a key determinant of the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. The findings also illustrate the important role of socioeconomic factors in determining the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. As secondary education increases in Northern Nigeria, additional increases in the age at sexual debut are likely among Muslim women. The study raises concerns about the influence of the mass media on the timing of first sex in Nigeria. The evidence of an absence of changes in the timing of sexual initiation among Christian women in more than a decade implies that programs which aim to delay the timing of sexual initiation in Southern Nigeria may have limited success. With age at marriage already high among Christian women, programs that focus on abstinence until marriage may also be pursuing an approach with


    O. O. Ayantobo


    Full Text Available Non-cancer hazard index for inhabitants exposed to heavy metals in surface and groundwater of the abandoned metal mine in Igun-Ijesha area were evaluated. A total of thirty-eight water samples were collected from surface and ground water sources in the study area between September 2012 and February 2013 and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Non-cancer risk assessments from possible exposure to heavy metals were evaluated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s human health risk assessment guidelines. Simple random sampling was used to administer questionnaires to investigate demographic characteristics and public health status of residents. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics and ANOVA using SPSS for Windows version 16. Results indicated elevated levels of Cadmium (Cd, Chromium (Cr, Copper (Cu, lead (Pb, Manganese (Mn, Nickel (Ni and Zinc (Zn ranging from 0.01-1.20, 0.05-0.52, 0.80-34.80, 0.09-4.30, 0.09-8.30, 0.05-3.94, 0.05-19.60 and 1.80-29.90 mg L-1 respectively which exceeded national recommended limits with few exceptions. Hazard Quotients (HQ and Hazard Index (HI of heavy metals were calculated and results greater than 1 indicate non-carcinogenic adverse health effects of the observed metals. A daily intake of water by the local residents could pose a potential health threat from long-term heavy-metal exposure. The risk assessment provided by this study can be beneficially used and applied for risk communication to avoid negative public health impact. Similarly, Water Safety quality assurance strategic plan should be developed to safeguard source, water and public health within the mining community.

  10. An update on oestrus synchronisation of goats in Nigeria

    B.O. Omontese


    Full Text Available This review is aimed at providing information on current status of oestrus synchronization as a management tool in goats in Nigeria. Oestrus synchronisation is a reproductive tool that enables goat farmers breed their animals within a short pre-determined period. The principle of oestrus synchronisation is chiefly the control of the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle and two basic mechanisms are employed. These include the use of prostaglandins or its analogues to shorten luteal life/induce premature luteolysis or the use of exogenous progesterone to prolong luteal life, thereby simulating the activity of natural progesterone produced by the corpus luteum. The latter is advantageous where the reproductive status of the flock is unknown. However, the former is easy to apply and only effective in cycling animals. Pharmaceutical products that have been employed in ES protocols in Nigeria include Lutalyse®, Estrumate®, EstroPLAN®, Fluorogestone acetate®, Sil-Oestrus®, Medroxyl-progesterone acetate®, Synchromate-B®, PMSG®, and more recently, the Controlled Internal Drug Release® (CIDR devices. Over the last three decades, many attempts have been made at assessing the response of goats to various oestrus synchronisation agents and protocols in Nigeria. However, the low availability of these pharmaceutical agents and cost preclude the widespread use of oestrus synchronisation technique in goat production. The inclusion of gonadotrophins in oestrus synchronisation protocols have been reported to improve oestrus responses in goats, while season has been reported to influence the efficiency of oestrus synchronisation programmes. Increasing the dose levels of exogenous hormones in oestrus synchronisation protocols has caused variable and sometimes inconsistent effects. The effects of combining the male stimulus with exogenous hormones, seasonal variation, extra-label use of products and short-term nutritional manipulation on oestrus responses in

  11. Collaboration between paediatric surgery and other medical specialties in Nigeria

    Philemon E Okoro


    Full Text Available Background: The quality of service and success of patient care and research in most fields of medicine depend on effective collaboration between different specialties. Paediatric surgery is a relatively young specialty in Nigeria and such collaborations are desirable. This survey assesses the nature and extent of collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire survey carried out in November 2008 among paediatric surgeons and their trainees practising in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed and retrieved either by hand or e-mailing. The responses were then collated and analysed using the SPSS 17.0. Results: Forty-seven respondents were included in the survey. Forty-five (95.7% respondents thought that there was inadequate collaboration and that there was a need for an increased collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties. Anaesthesia, paediatrics and radiology are among the specialties where collaborations were most required but not adequately received. Collaboration had been required from these specialties in areas of patient care, training and research. Reasons for inadequate collaboration included the paucity of avenues for inter-specialty communication and exchange of ideas 33 (70.3%, lack of awareness of the need for collaboration 32 (68.1%, tendency to apportion blames for bad outcome 13 (27.7%, and mutual suspicion 8 (17%. Conclusion: There is presently inadequate collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties in Nigeria. There is a need for more inter-specialty support, communication, and exchange of ideas in order to achieve desirable outcomes.

  12. Diet-induced mouse model of fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis reflecting clinical disease progression and methods of assessment.

    Clapper, Jason R; Hendricks, Michelle D; Gu, Guibao; Wittmer, Carrie; Dolman, Carrie S; Herich, John; Athanacio, Jennifer; Villescaz, Christiane; Ghosh, Soumitra S; Heilig, Joseph S; Lowe, Carolyn; Roth, Jonathan D


    Shortcomings of previously reported preclinical models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) include inadequate methods used to induce disease and assess liver pathology. We have developed a dietary model of NASH displaying features observed clinically and methods for objectively assessing disease progression. Mice fed a diet containing 40% fat (of which ∼18% was trans fat), 22% fructose, and 2% cholesterol developed three stages of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (steatosis, steatohepatitis with fibrosis, and cirrhosis) as assessed by histological and biochemical methods. Using digital pathology to reconstruct the left lateral and right medial lobes of the liver, we made comparisons between and within lobes to determine the uniformity of collagen deposition, which in turn informed experimental sampling methods for histological, biochemical, and gene expression analyses. Gene expression analyses conducted with animals stratified by disease severity led to the identification of several genes for which expression highly correlated with the histological assessment of fibrosis. Importantly, we have established a biopsy method allowing assessment of disease progression. Mice subjected to liver biopsy recovered well from the procedure compared with sham-operated controls with no apparent effect on liver function. Tissue obtained by biopsy was sufficient for gene and protein expression analyses, providing the opportunity to establish an objective method of assessing liver pathology before subjecting animals to treatment. The improved assessment techniques and the observation that mice fed the high-fat diet exhibit many clinically relevant characteristics of NASH establish a preclinical model for identifying pharmacological interventions with greater likelihood of translating to the clinic.

  13. The Role of Language Learning Progressions in Improved Instruction and Assessment of English Language Learners

    Bailey, Alison L.; Heritage, Margaret


    This article addresses theoretical and empirical issues relevant for the development and evaluation of language learning progressions. The authors explore how learning progressions aligned with new content standards can form a central basis of efforts to describe the English language needed in school contexts for learning, instruction, and…

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging for accelerated assessment of drug effect and prediction of subsequent radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: a study of patients receiving combined anakinra and methotrexate treatment

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Duer, Anne; Nielsen, H;


    OBJECTIVES: By MRI to assess the efficacy of addition of anakinra for controlling synovitis and stopping erosive progression in patients with clinically active RA despite receiving methotrexate, and to determine the predictive value of MRI for subsequent radiographic erosive progression. METHODS...... at 36 weeks. Baseline MRI synovitis and erosion scores, but no clinical/biochemical parameters, correlated significantly with subsequent erosive progression. CONCLUSION: Addition of anakinra did not significantly reduce MRI signs of synovitis, and most patients had progressive joint destruction...

  15. Assessments of natural radioactivity and determination of heavy metals in soil around industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria

    Augustine Kolapo Ademola


    Full Text Available The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in soil samples from industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl detector. The mean activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K was 3.0 ± 1.2, 33.3 ± 9.8 and 122.1 ± 20.6 Bqkg−1 , respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated to assess the hazards arising from the use of the soil sample in agriculture. All the calculated values were lower than the world average. The mean concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples were 33.6, 2.9, 3.8, 2.7, 48.9, 1,5, 34.5 and 0.8 mg l -1 for Cu, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb were higher than the natural permissible range in soil. Therefore, the government should discourage the use of the soil around dumpsites for planting because of the presence of heavy metals in the sites.


    Bolanle Kudirat Saliu


    Full Text Available Nigerian locally produced cheese from milk, commonly known as wara is highly nutritious and highly prone to attack by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Moist heat treatment and salting alone are the common methods used for processing. This study assessed the efficacy of these local processing methods in preserving the physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of wara. Samples were purchased from open markets in Ilorin; processed by boiling in water and with addition of salt; and stored at room temperature (28±2oC to mimic the local method. The samples were observed at 24 hrs interval for a period of 96 hrs, for changes in pH, color, odor and texture. Microbiological analysis was done following standard methods. The pH of most of the samples increased while the color, odor and texture deteriorated within 48 hrs of storage. The cheese samples were preserved most by boiling with salt. Many spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were isolated. The bacterial isolates were Lactobaccillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus feacalis, Aerobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella, Aerococcus, Micrococcus and Streptococcus spp.; while the fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Candida tropicalis, Rhizopus arrhizus, Penicillium and Mucor spp. Some of the microorganisms were eliminated during treatments, others survived while some contaminated the samples during storage. Though boiling of wara with salt was shown to improve its keeping quality compared to other methods studied, further treatments such as frying, drying, and roasting; as well as storage at low temperature may significantly increase the shelf life.

  17. Assessment o f Heavy Metal Contamination i n t he Abandoned Coal Wastes a t Okpara Mines i n Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

    Ezemokwe, D. E


    Full Text Available Twenty (20 samples taken from four large coal dumps from Okpara coal mines and twenty four (24 Soil samples from coal mine surroundings were used for this research. Impact of the coal dumps on soils and the environment were assessed by determination of the heavy metal concentrations such as Cadmium, Iron, Zinc, Copper, nickel, chromium, lead, arsenic, cobalt and manganese. Results revealed that all the heavy metals analyzed were present in all the samples. The heavy metal concentration sequence in coal wastes follows the order Fe > Ni > Cu> Mn > Cd > Pb > Co > Cr > Zn> As whereas the Enrichment Factor (EF shows Cd> Pb > Ni > Cu > As > Co > Zn > Cr> Fe > Mn. Results in this medium indicate high level of pollution by Cd and Pb with Health Risk Level (HRL of 3. Ni, Cu, Co and As moderately contaminated the environment. In the underlying Soil medium, the heavy metal concentration trend is in order Fe > Ni > Zn> Cd > Pb > Cr> Cu> Mn > Co > As and the (EF equivalent is in the order Cd > Pb > Ni > As > Zn > Co > Cr > Fe > Mn. Soil medium indicted high level of pollution by Cd and Pb with HRL of 5 and 4 respectively. Ni, As, Cu and Zn moderately polluted the environment. Co and Cu showed low level of pollution with HRL of 2.Soil PH ranged from 4.5 – 6.5 and averaged 5.01 indicating an acid nature. Generally, crops cannot grow or flourish in a polluted soil. Where some manage to grow, they may be poisonous enough to cause health problems to people consuming them.

  18. Assessment of some heavy metals in the tissues (gills, liver and muscle) of Clarias gariepinus from Calabar River, Cross River State, South-eastern Nigeria

    Akaninyene Paul Joseph; Victor Oscar Eyo; Andem BasseyAndem; Joseph Udo Idung


    Objective: To assess the pollution status of Calabar River in relation to the levels of heavy metal in the tissue of the African catfish [Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus)]. Methods: A total of 45 samples of C. gariepinus were purchased from fishermen on landing at Nsidung beach along Calabar River within three months (15 samples monthly) from June to August, 2014. The samples were then put into a cold box containing ice blocks immediately after buying from the fishermen. The fish samples were transported immediately to the Chemistry Laboratory, University of Calabar for digestion and heavy metal analysis. Portions of the muscle, gills and liver were removed from the fresh samples and oven dried at temperature of 120 °C to constant weight and digested using standard methods. The digested tissue portions were analyzed for lead, iron, manganese, cobalt, chromium and cadmium concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Mercury was not detected at all in the muscle, liver and gills of C. gariepinus. The mean ± SD of metals in liver of C. gariepinus were: (0.080 ± 0.014), (0.110 ± 0.014), (6.480 ± 1.279) and (0.295 ± 0.021) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the gills, heavy metals values were: (0.065 ± 0.021), (0.115 ± 0.035), (5.843 ± 0.558), and (0.345 ± 0.007) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the muscles, heavy metals values were (0.045 ± 0.021), (0.115 ± 0.353), (5.150 ± 1.075), and (0.187 ± 0.045) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. The general trend of metals accumulation in tissues of C. gariepinus showed a decreasing trend of Fe > Mn > Cr > Cd. Also, the metal accumulation in the three tissues showed a decreasing trend of liver > gills > muscle. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in the muscle, gills and liver of C. gariepinus were all below the World Health Organization acceptable range, and as such fishery resources from Calabar River are safe for consumption.

  19. Assessment of some heavy metals in the tissues (gills, liver and muscle of Clarias gariepinus from Calabar River, Cross River State, South-eastern Nigeria

    Akaninyene Paul Joseph


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the pollution status of Calabar River in relation to the levels of heavy metal in the tissue of the African catfish [Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus]. Methods: A total of 45 samples of C. gariepinus were purchased from fishermen on landing at Nsidung beach along Calabar River within three months (15 samples monthly from June to August, 2014. The samples were then put into a cold box containing ice blocks immediately after buying from the fishermen. The fish samples were transported immediately to the Chemistry Laboratory, University of Calabar for digestion and heavy metal analysis. Portions of the muscle, gills and liver were removed from the fresh samples and oven dried at temperature of 120 °C to constant weight and digested using standard methods. The digested tissue portions were analyzed for lead, iron, manganese, cobalt, chromium and cadmium concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Mercury was not detected at all in the muscle, liver and gills of C. gariepinus. The mean ± SD of metals in liver of C. gariepinus were: (0.080 ± 0.014, (0.110 ± 0.014, (6.480 ± 1.279 and (0.295 ± 0.021 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the gills, heavy metals values were: (0.065 ± 0.021, (0.115 ± 0.035, (5.843 ± 0.558, and (0.345 ± 0.007 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the muscles, heavy metals values were (0.045 ± 0.021, (0.115 ± 0.353, (5.150 ± 1.075, and (0.187 ± 0.045 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. The general trend of metals accumulation in tissues of C. gariepinus showed a decreasing trend of Fe > Mn > Cr > Cd. Also, the metal accumulation in the three tissues showed a decreasing trend of liver > gills > muscle. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in the muscle, gills and liver of C. gariepinus were all below the World Health Organization acceptable range, and as such fishery resources from Calabar River are safe for consumption.

  20. Infant Feeding among Women Attending an Immunisation Clinic at a Tertiary Health Institution in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Fatiregun, A. A.; Abegunde, V. O.


    Maternal characteristics can affect a mother's decision to breastfeed. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess maternal variables and infant feeding patterns among nursing mothers attending an immunisation clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 264 mothers who consecutively attended the immunisation clinic and met certain inclusion…

  1. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Odebode, Stella O.


    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

  2. Nutrient flows and balances in urban and peri-urban agroecosystems of Kano, Nigeria

    Abdulkadir, A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Agbenin, J.O.; Giller, K.E.


    Nutrient balances are useful indicators to assess the sustainability of farming systems. This study study investigates inflow and outflow of major nutrients in urban and periurban production systems in Kano, Nigeria. To this end, 16 households representing three different urban and peri-urban (UPA)

  3. Adapting on Demand Examination System in National Open University of Nigeria End of Semester Examination

    Okonkwo, Charity Akuadi


    Teaching-learning process is incomplete without effective and meaningful assessment of students learning outcomes. This applies to both conventional modes of education as well as to open and distance learning modes. So far, conduct of examinations at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), has been cumbersome and be-decked with "hydra…

  4. Literacy Teaching Method and Peace Building in Multi-Ethnic Communities of Nigeria

    Adelore, Omobola; Majaro-Majesty, Henry


    The challenge of peace building in Nigeria is increasing as communities continue to show adversary tendencies. This is happening even after many third party conflict transformation efforts have been expended to resolve and set a conducive climate for stakeholders to sustain peace. Some peace building assessment projects have indicated that the…

  5. Neurophysiological assessment of neural network plasticity and connectivity: Progress towards early functional biomarkers for disease interception therapies in Alzheimer's disease.

    Walsh, C; Drinkenburg, W H I M; Ahnaou, A


    Despite a great deal of research into Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the last 20 years, an effective treatment to halt or slow its progression has yet to be developed. With many aspects of the disease progression still to be elucidated, focus has shifted from reducing levels of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brains of AD patients towards tau, another pathology, which initiates much earlier in deeper brainstem networks and is thought to propagate via cell-to-cell processes prior to the onset of amyloid pathology and cognitive impairments. In-vitro, ex-vivo molecular biology/biochemistry read-outs, and various transgenic animal models have been developed, yet clinical failures have highlighted a clear disconnect and inadequate use of such animal models in translational research across species. AD pathology is now estimated to begin at least 10-20 years before clinical symptoms, and imaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers are leading the way in assessing the disease progression at a stage where neuronal damage has already occurred. Here, we emphasize the relevance of assessing early disruptions in network connectivity and plasticity that occur before neuropathological damage and progressive memory dysfunction, which can have high translational value for discovery of pre-symptomatic AD biomarkers and early mechanism-based disease interception therapeutics.

  6. Community Participation in Quality Assurance (CPQA): A Catalyst in Enhancing Quality Basic Education Service Delivery in Nigeria

    Sofoluwe, Abayomi Olumade; Akinsolu, Abiodun Olatoun


    Nigeria, like most developing countries is having challenges in reaching the Millennium Development Goals, Education for All and national education goals within the globally agreed timeframe of 2015. While the widespread progress in enrolment figure is laudable due to social demand for it, there are persistent challenges of exclusion,…


    Michael, O S


    The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comprehensive record of the History of dentistry in Nigeria. It is a must-read for every medical professional practicing in Nigeria and a worthy addition to every library.

  8. The usefulness of CorvisST Tonometry and the Ocular Response Analyzer to assess the progression of glaucoma

    Matsuura, Masato; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Murata, Hiroshi; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Asaoka, Ryo


    Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (CST) and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) measurements were carried out in 105 eyes of 69 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. All patients had axial length (AL), central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP) with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and eight visual fields (VF)s with the Humphrey Field Analyzer. VF progression was summarized using a time trend analysis of mean total deviation (mTD) and the association between mTD progression rate and a number of ocular parameters (including CST and ORA measurements) was assessed using mixed linear regression analysis. The optimal model of VF progression selected based on the corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) included ORA’s corneal hysteresis (CH) parameter as well as a number of CST measurements: mTD progression rate = 1.2-0.070 * mean GAT + 0.090 * CH-1.5 * highest concavity deformation amplitude with CST + 9.4 * A1 deformation amplitude with CST-0.05 * A2 length with CST (AICc = 125.8). Eyes with corneas that experience deep indentation at the maximum deformation, shallow indentation at the first applanation and wide indentation at the second applanation in the CST measurement are more likely to experience faster rates of VF progression.

  9. Audience Perception of Hate Speech and Foul Language in the Social Media in Nigeria: Implications for Morality and Law

    Terfa T. Alakali


    Full Text Available This paper examined the phenomenon of hate speech and foul language on social media platforms in Nigeria, and assessed their moral and legal consequences in the society and to journalism practice. It used both quantitative and qualitative methodology to investigate the phenomenon. In the first place, the paper employed the survey research methodology to sample 384 respondents using questionnaire and focus group discussion as instruments for data collection. Findings from the research indicate that promoting hate speech and foul language on social media have moral and legal consequences in the society and to journalism practice. Findings also show that although, the respondents understand that hate speech and foul language attract legal consequences, they do not know what obligations are created by law against perpetrators of hate speech and foul language in Nigeria. The paper therefore, adopted the qualitative, doctrinal and analytical methodology to discuss the legal consequences and obligations created against perpetrators of hate speech and foul language in Nigeria. The paper concluded based on the findings that hate speech and foul language is prevalent on social media platforms in Nigeria and that there are adequate legal provisions to curb the phenomenon in Nigeria. It recommends among others things that the Nigerian government and NGOs should sponsor monitoring projects like the UMATI in Kenya to better understand the use of hate speech and that monitoring agencies set up under the legal regime should adopt mechanisms to identify and remove hate speech content on social media platforms in Nigeria.

  10. An evaluation of molecular and clinical remission in rheumatoid arthritis by assessing radiographic progression


    Objectives. To determine whether molecular remission defined by a multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) score predicts a reduced risk of joint damage progression, and whether the MBDA score can augment existing classifications of remission. Methods. The study examined 271 visits for 163 RA patients in the Leiden Early Arthritis Cohort. The MBDA score and other variables from each visit were evaluated for prediction of progression [change in Sharp–van der Heijde Score (ΔSHS) >3] over the ens...

  11. Status and trends in global ecosystem services and natural capital: assessing progress towards Aichi Biodiversity Target 14

    Shepherd, E.; Milner-Gulland, EJ; Knight, AT; Ling, Ma; Darrah, S; Soesbergen, A. van; Burgess, ND


    The Convention on Biological Diversity uses six indicators to assess progress towards Aichi Biodiversity Target 14 (ecosystem services), leaving many elements of the target untracked. We identify 13 ecosystem services as directly essential for human well-being, and select a set of 21 datasets as indicators of the state of natural capital underpinning those services, the benefits derived from them, and distribution of access to those benefits. Analysis of these indicators supports previous con...

  12. Pattern and prevalence of neonatal thrombocytopenia in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Zaccheaus A Jeremiah


    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah1, Justina E Oburu21Hematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: In Port Harcourt, evidence-based guidelines for platelet transfusion therapy in neonatal patients are yet to be defined and the prevalence and pattern of neonatal thrombocytopenia has not yet been reported.Methods: Platelet counts of 132 neonatal patients admitted into the special care baby unit (SCBU at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital in Nigeria were assessed using the International Committee on Standards in Hematology (ICSH approved manual procedures for hemocytometry.6Study design: This is a cross sectional study carried out on neonates to determine the prevalence and pattern of neonatal thrombocytopenia.Results: The median platelet count of the neonates was 97.0 × 109/L (interquartile range [IQR] 50–152 while the mean age was 61.7 hours (range 1–336 hours. The overall prevalence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 53.0%. Mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count 51–100 × 109/L was found in 39.4% of the neonates, 12.1% had moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count 30–50 × 109/L, while severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <30 × 109/L was detected in 1.5% of the neonates. Of these, 84.84% of the cases occurred within 72 hours (early onset. The most common clinical diagnosis among the neonates was severe birth asphyxia (33.3%, followed by neonatal jaundice (19.7%, neonatal sepsis (16.7%, low birth weight (13.6%, anemia and bleeding (6.1%, and other clinical conditions (10.6%. There was no association between clinical diagnosis and thrombocytopenia (Fisher’s exact test = 10.643; P = 0.923.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of early onset neonatal thrombocytopenia

  13. “Think of it as a Challenge”: Problematizing Pedagogical Strategies for Progression When Assessing Web-based University Courses

    Anette Svensson


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse how a taxonomy-based course design can support students’ qualitative learning processes in online university courses. The paper presents a case study based on two online courses in comparative literature in Swedish and English. A document analysis has been applied to analyse the empirical material, which includes the syllabuses, study guides, and examination assignments connected to the courses. Socio-cultural aspects of learning processes, assessment and feedback, course design using a taxonomic structure (SOLO, and a progressive theory of literary studies (Langer’s theories of envisionment function as a framework. The results show that the examination assignments aim to further the students’ educational processes from stage 2 to stage 5 of the SOLO-taxonomy and, at the same time, through Langer’s four stances. While the course structure has a positive effect on the students’ general as well as literary progress, there are some pedagogical challenges with online teaching in literature that are discussed. In addition, the examination assignments could have been used as ways to strengthen the students’ socio-cultural learning. Furthermore, with little alterations, the examination assignments, which were all used as means of summative assessment, could also have been used formatively to assess the students’ progress.


    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O


    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic.

  15. Koranic education and militant Islam in Nigeria

    Winters, Clyde Ahmad


    In this article the author outlines and discusses the influence of Koranic schools, and their students ( almagiri) on the rise of fundamentalism and the spreading of militant Islam in Northern Nigeria. The author contends that while Islamic fundamentalism is the banner of both the Western-oriented Muslims and traditional Nigerian Muslims, it differs in expression in Northern Nigeria. The article shows that these differences result from the influence of the Koranic schools on the traditional teachers ( ulama) and their students on the one hand, and Western universities, Wahhabi Arabs, and Western-oriented teachers and their students on the other. The origins of the Koranic school curriculum in Nigeria, the training of traditional Muslim teachers, and the lifestyle of the students are discussed. The author shows how certain socialization patterns found in the Koranic schools and `almagiri' system seem congruent with the political attitudes and values stressed by spokesmen of militant Islamic sects in Northern Nigeria.

  16. Adult Education and Anomia in Rural Nigeria

    Odokara, E. O.


    Extracts from an article describing the efforts of the University of Nigeria to dispel post-civil war anomia among the rural population, and to direct various reconstruction and rehabilitation programs to rural areas. (Author/JB)

  17. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction

    Ling W


    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu31Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The fields of addiction medicine and addiction research have long sought an efficient yet comprehensive instrument to assess patient progress in treatment and recovery. Traditional tools are expensive, time consuming, complex, and based on topics that clinicians or researchers think are important. Thus, they typically do not provide patient-centered information that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of patients with substance use disorders. To improve our ability to understand patients’ progress in treatment from their perspectives, the authors and colleagues developed a patient-oriented assessment instrument that has considerable advantages over existing instruments: brevity, simplicity, ease of administration, orientation to the patient, and cost (none. The resulting Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA elicits patient responses that help the patient and the clinician quickly gauge patient progress in treatment and in recovery, according to the patients’ sense of what is important within four domains established by prior research. Patients provide both numerical responses and representative details on their substance use, health, lifestyle, and community. No software is required for data entry or scoring, and no formal training is required to administer the TEA. This article describes the development of the TEA and the initial phases of its application in clinical practice and in research.Keywords: substance use disorders, global treatment progress, brief instrument, patient-centered

  18. Chino Décor Construction Nigeria Ltd.

    You Wanlong


    @@ Q: What are the core industries of the investment of your company in Africa? A: In 1989 when I visited Africa for the first time, I went to Nigeria. In the coming decade, I struggled in Africa. I used to run a hotel; following, I struggled in the sphere of investment. Up to now, we have established the market strategy in Africa which bases on Nigeria.

  19. Eradicating Corruption in Public Office in Nigeria

    Wada Attah Ademu


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a model for dealing with the problem of corruption in Nigeria. It uses an analytical approach to explore the Singapore model of dealing with acts of corruption to serve as a model for Nigeria. Corruption is inimical to socio-economic development of any country where it is practised on any scale. This explains why all nations make efforts to minimize or eradicate corruption in their economies. Nigeria has been ranked among the most corrupt nations of the World by many international anti-corruption agencies. If other nations take measures to eradicate corruption from their economies because of its negative consequences, Nigeria cannot be an exception. Corruption has led to gross misuse of public funds in Nigeria and has caused untold hardship to her citizens via non-payments of people’s benefits and lack of provision of basic public utilities. To deal with corruption in Nigeria, various anti-corruption agencies were set up but the problem remains. This paper therefore recommends the Singapore model as a method of dealing with corruption in Nigeria. This model holds each sectional head responsible for any act of corruption in his/her unit if established. The government was strong and determined to deal with the transgressors; there was political will to tame corruption and therefore there was government support to the anti-corruption agencies. If this model is adopted and faithfully implemented, corruption could be eradicated from Nigeria. In addition, constitutional amendments that would update and clearly define acts that constitute corrupt practices as these acts manifest in various forms are necessary to facilitate interpretation and enforcement of anti-corruption laws.

  20. Nigeria: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back


    has repeatedly engaged in electoral malpractice resulting in allegations of mismanagement, voter fraud, and results manipulation. Consequently...Tolu Lawal, et al. “Governance Crisis and the Crisis of Leadership in Nigeria,” International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social...Governance Crisis and the Crisis of Leadership in Nigeria,” International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 7

  1. Food Security and Nutition trend in Nigeria


    Nigeria has a chequered history of food production, sustainability and food security. This paper discusses the food and nutrition situation of Nigeria, it highlights some of the socio-economic factors- price, income, employment, demography (population density) that has influenced the food consumption system (supply, distribution, consumption) and addresses some of the major issues that would arise therein. It was observed that more Nigerians live below the poverty line and are food insecure. ...

  2. Oil Politics and National Security in Nigeria


    Staff College Nigeria, January 23, 2008), 8. 4 Adam Groves, “ Shell and Society: Securing the Niger Delta,” International Relations, accessed July 8...Counterinsurgency.”39 They argue that Shell Nigeria’s adoption of a range of measures including social development were ineffective because some of the...taxes on cash crops grown in other parts of Nigeria (palm oil and cocoa in the south west, and groundnut/peanuts in the north), which meant that the

  3. Mothers' human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria

    Ezenwa BN


    Full Text Available Beatrice N Ezenwa,1 Mobolanle R Balogun,2 Ifeoma P Okafor2 1Department of Pediatrics, 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess mothers' HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi-Info™ version 7. Results: The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9% and HPV vaccines (19.7% among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P<0.05. There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9% and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%. Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines. Conclusion: Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers' knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization

  4. Nigeria needs to take responsibility for its IDPs

    Bagoni Alhaji Bukar


    Full Text Available There remain legal and policy challenges in assisting and protectinginternally displaced persons in Nigeria. The Government of Nigeria hasdrafted a national policy on IDPs but it has yet to be officially adopted.

  5. Assessing the progress of rehabilitation in patients with ACL reconstruction using the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form

    Leguizamon, J. H.; Braidot, A.; Catalfamo Formento, P.


    There are numerous assessment tools designed to provide information on the results of reconstructive surgery of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). They are also used for monitoring progress and facilitating clinical decision-making during the rehabilitation process. A brief summary of some existing tools specifically designed to evaluate knee ligament injuries is presented in this article. Then, one of those outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) was applied to a group of patients (N = 10) who had undergone surgery for ACL reconstruction. The patients attended the same physiotherapy service and followed a unified rehabilitation protocol. The assessment was performed twice: four and six months after surgery. The results showed an improvement in the rehabilitation of most patients tested (verified by a difference equal to or greater than 9 points on the IKDC outcome between measurements 1 and 2). The IKDC probed to be an instrument of quick and easy application. It provided quantitative data about the progress of rehabilitation and could be applied in everyday clinical physiotherapy practice. However, the results suggested considering the IKDC as one component of an evaluation kit to make decisions regarding the progress of the rehabilitation treatment.

  6. Geometric and electromyographic assessments in the evaluation of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis

    Cheung, J; Veldhuizen, AG; Halberts, JPK; Sluiter, WJ; Van Horn, [No Value


    Study Design. The natural history of patients with idiopathic scoliosis was analyzed radiographically and electromyographically in a prospective longitudinal study. Objectives. To identify changes in geometric variables and the sequence in which these changes occur during curve progression in the na

  7. Diagnosis and Prediction of CKD Progression by Assessment of Urinary Peptides

    Schanstra, Joost P.; Zuerbig, Petra; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Argiles, Angel; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beige, Joachim; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Chatzikyrkou, Christos; Dakna, Mohammed; Dawson, Jesse; Delles, Christian; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Husi, Holger; Jankowski, Joachim; Jerums, George; Kleefstra, Nanne; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Maahs, David M.; Menne, Jan; Mullen, William; Ortiz, Alberto; Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Ruggenenti, Piero; Rychlik, Ivan; Serra, Andreas L.; Siwy, Justyna; Snell-Bergeon, Janet; Spasovski, Goce; Staessen, Jan A.; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald; Vanholder, Raymond


    Progressive CKD is generally detected at a late stage by a sustained decline in eGFR and/or the presence of significant albuminuria. With the aim of early and improved risk stratification of patients with CKD, we studied urinary peptides in a large cross-sectional multicenter cohort of 1990 individu

  8. Intellectual Impairment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection in Southwestern Nigeria

    Taofiki A. Sunmonu


    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the intellectual performance of patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in southwestern Nigeria. We conducted a prospective study at Owo Federal Medical Center by using the adapted Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS. The raw scores were converted to standardized scores (z-scores and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. Fifty-eight HIV positive patients were recruited; 72% were in WHO stages 3 and 4. We detected a high rate of intellectual impairment in HIV positive patients and controls (63.8% and 10%, resp.; P<0.001. HIV positive patients performed worse throughout the subtests of both verbal and performance intelligence quotients. Presence of opportunistic infections was associated with worse performance in the similarities and digit symbol tests and performance and full scale scores. Lower body weight correlated with poor performance in different WAIS subtests. The high rate of advanced disease stage warrants measures aimed at earlier diagnosis and treatment. Assessment of neurocognitive performance at diagnosis may offer the opportunity to improve functioning in daily life and counteract disease progression.

  9. Divisive dividing: revenue allocation and unrest in Nigeria since the late colonial period

    David Aworawo


    them.  Some attempts have been made to analyse the issues mainly from the political economy perspective.   This article adopts the historical approach. It explores the changing patterns of revenue allocation in Nigeria and the response of the people to different prescribed formulas. In this way, it is possible to broadly assess the impact of revenue allocation on Nigeria’s political development. It is suggested that one of the best ways to address the revenue allocation crisis in Nigeria is to adopt a system that is fair and one that encourages industry. In this way, it would be possible to achieve a measure of contentment and attention can also be focused on how to produce and not just on how to share.KeyWords: Revenue Allocation, Political Instability, Unrest, Federalism, Nigeria

  10. The impacts of anthropogenic factors on the environment in Nigeria.

    Madu, Ignatius A


    Generally speaking, there has been a consensus on the primary drivers of anthropogenic induced environmental degradation. However, little progress has been made in determining the magnitude of the impacts, particularly in developing countries. This creates a lacuna that needs to be filled up. The purpose of this study therefore is to ascertain the degree of anthropogenic induced environmental impacts in Nigeria. To achieve the aim, fossil fuel consumption was used as a surrogate for carbon dioxide emissions while the magnitude of the impacts was determined by regression statistics and the STIRPAT model. The results show that only three variables, namely population, affluence and urbanization, were statistically significant and that the regression model accounts for 60% of the variation in the environmental impacts. However, population and affluence, which have ecological elasticities of 1.699 and 2.709, respectively, are the most important anthropogenic drivers of environmental impacts in Nigeria while urbanization, with an elasticity of -0.570, reduces the effect of the impacts. This implies that modernization brings about a reduction in environmental impacts. The paper therefore makes a significant contribution to knowledge by successfully testing the STIRPAT model in this part of the world and by being the first application of the model at political units below the regional or nation states.


    Ani Kelechi Johnmary


    Full Text Available Corruption is the direct or indirect act of violence aimed at exploiting unmerited gain and or advantage from a person, structure, institution or environment. In Nigeria, corruption has grown to an unquantifiable level. The major causes of corruption include absence of political will, progressive suppression of the culture of accountability, geometric societal poverty and negative socio-economic conditions as well as greed and the get-rich-quick syndrome etc. The paper presents the multi-dimensional phases of corruption in Nigeria and the salient mandate of the Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC as well as Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC. Unfortunately, the work reveal that the effectiveness of the above institutions and other corruption-watchdog setups has being watered-down by the negative push and pull effects of what is popularly known as the ‘Nigerian factor’. Finally, it argues that the most dangerous implications of corruption are the recurrence of social violence and the near-total collapse of ethical culture in every sector of the Nigerian national life, while recommending multidimensional transformative cultures of corruption management that must be collectively championed by the citizenry.

  12. Making instruction and assessment responsive to diverse students' progress: group-administered dynamic assessment in teaching mathematics.

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L


    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse.

  13. Toward a surface photoelectron diffractometer: A progress report on selected advances and an assessment

    Shirley, D.A [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Zheng, Yu; Petersen, B.L.; Hussain, Z.; Huff, W.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Barton, J.J. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Terminello, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    X-ray diffractometric determination of atomic structures in ordered bulk systems is highly automated and has wide application. By contrast, surface crystallography, whether based on photon or electron scattering, is still in a relatively early stage of development. A summary is given of recent selected highlights in efforts to make progress toward surface photoelectron diffractometry and holography by our Berkeley-Penn State group. It is concluded that an automated photoelectron diffractometer is practical and desirable.

  14. Assess progress being made for the KTeV electromagnetic calorimeter crystal order in France

    Childress, S. R.


    This report contains a record of our activities at the Quartz & Silice facility during this visit. Significant progress was achieved in illustrating the importance and practical application of particular measurements in characterizing crystal quality, and in understanding problems with crystal polishing techniques currently being used. Detailed discussions with Quartz & Silice personnel on these issues were held, as were discussions on current production and furnace growth cycle options which may significantly increase ingot production rates.

  15. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    Kohler Jillian C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments, and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the

  16. Progressive development of pulmonary hypertension leading to right ventricular hypertrophy assessed by echocardiography in rats.

    Kato, Yosuke; Iwase, Mitsunori; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Kawata, Natsuki; Yoshimori, Yukie; Hashimoto, Katsunori; Yokoi, Toyoharu; Noda, Akiko; Takagi, Kenzo; Koike, Yasuo; Nishizawa, Takao; Nishimura, Masahiko; Yokota, Mitsuhiro


    The present study aimed to evaluate the development of pulmonary hypertension by serial echocardiography, including measurements of pulmonary artery (PA) flow velocities, and correlate echocardiographic indices with pathological findings in rats administered monocrotaline (MCT). MCT (60 mg/kg body weight) or physiologic saline was administered to a total of 9 male Wistar rats at the age of 4 weeks (MCT group: n = 4, control group: n = 5, respectively). Echocardiography was performed serially until the age of 8 weeks. The ratio of right ventricular (RV) outflow tract dimensions to aortic dimensions increased progressively in the MCT group and became significantly greater than that of the control group after the age of 6 weeks. Peak PA velocity (Peak V) in the MCT group was significantly less than that of the control group at the ages of 7 and 8 weeks. The ratio of acceleration time to ejection time (AT/ET) in PA flow waveforms declined progressively and was significantly less than that of the control group after the age of 6 weeks. The ratio of RV weight to body weight (RVW/BW) in the MCT group was significantly greater than that of the control group. Both AT/ET ratio and Peak V were significantly inversely correlated with RVW/BW ratio. Furthermore, these echocardiographic findings were also significantly inversely correlated with the mean cross-sectional RV myocyte area. In conclusion, the progressive development of pulmonary hypertension leading to RV hypertrophy can be evaluated appropriately by echocardiography including PA flow Doppler indices in rats.

  17. Can Creativity Be Assessed? Towards an Evidence-Informed Framework for Assessing and Planning Progress in Creativity

    Blamires, Mike; Peterson, Andrew


    This article considers the role of constructions of creativity in the classroom and their consequences for learning and, in particular, for the assessment of creativity. Definitions of creativity are examined to identify key implications for supporting the development of children's creativity within the classroom. The implications of assessing…

  18. Can Creativity Be Assessed? Towards an Evidence-Informed Framework for Assessing and Planning Progress in Creativity

    Blamires, Mike; Peterson, Andrew


    This article considers the role of constructions of creativity in the classroom and their consequences for learning and, in particular, for the assessment of creativity. Definitions of creativity are examined to identify key implications for supporting the development of children's creativity within the classroom. The implications of…

  19. Assessment the Behavior of Seismic Designed Steel Moment Frames Subjected to Progressive Collapse

    Azlan Bin Adnan


    Full Text Available Recent investigations reveal that progressive collapse phenomenon is dominant behavior in the majority of steel structures. Although the design of buildings is based on the fact that they need to withstand all the loads exerted on the structure, failure occurs as a result of inadequate design and modeling techniques, particularly for abnormal and extreme loading conditions. Once one or more load bearing member is eliminated from the structure, progressive collapse, mainly in columns, will commence. By the time a column is eliminated from the structure as a result of a sudden motor vehicle strike or earthquake or fire or any other internal or external factor that could take one column out of the system, the weight of the building (gravity load will be distributed among other columns within the structure. Failure commences in the part of the structure that has lost a column unless other columns are designed appropriately against gravity loads and are capable of redistribution of additional loads imposed on them. Failure of vertical load bearing elements will continue until the stabilization of extra loading. Hence, this could lead to serious damage and collapse of the building which will lead to higher damage to the building than the primary damage. This research is based on the regulations conforming to the specifications of UFC guidelines and the structures have been modeled using SAP2000 (2012. In order to study the effects of the progressive collapse on the seismic design of special steel moment frames, SMRF, two 5-story and 15-storystructures are modeled in SAP2000 (2012. In order to have a better understanding of progressive collapse and obtain reliable results, Linear Static (LS, Nonlinear Static (NLS and Nonlinear Dynamic analyses (NLD procedure for single and 2 adjacent columns removal have been implemented in this study. Having a good perception of the possibility of progressive collapse involves incorporation of demand capacity ratio

  20. Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria; Evaluation radiologique de radionucleides naturels dans le sol collectes a l'interieur et autour des stations de compression des gaz dans le delta du Niger, Nigeria

    Ademola, J.A.; Atare, E.E. [University of Ibadan, Department of Physics, Ibadan (Nigeria)


    Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th varied from 30.1 +- 3.0 to 59.0 +- 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 +- 2.3 and 7.9 +- 3.7 to 10.9 +- 1.9, respectively. The {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 muSv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 muSv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

  1. An assessment of recent Iranian fertility trends using parity progression ratios

    Peter McDonald


    Full Text Available Background: In 2013 a draft population bill was introduced in the Iranian Parliament. Based on the presumption that fertility in Iran had fallen to a very low level, the bill proposed a wide range of pronatalist policies with the aim of increasing fertility to 2.5 births per woman. The draft law called for restrictions on the employment of women and young single people and inducements for women to marry in their late teens. New estimates of fertility, such as those provided in this paper, cast doubt upon the view that fertility had fallen to a very low level. In May 2014 a statement issued by the Supreme Leader provided guidelines for a more moderate approach to sustaining fertility at around the replacement level. Objective: To measure the trend in fertility in Iran, especially from 2000 onwards. Methods: Using the 2010 IDHS, the synthetic cohort parity progression ratio method is used to measure the fertility trend in Iran. Synthetic parity progressions are compared with real cohort parity progressions to examine the presence of tempo effects. Comparison is made with age-based measures from surveys, censuses, and the birth registration system. Results: This paper demonstrates that fertility in Iran was constant for the decade 2000-2009, at a level of around 1.8-2.0 births per woman. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence supporting a more moderate approach to sustaining fertility in Iran at around the replacement level. Comments: The paper demonstrates the advantages of parity-based measurement over age-based measurement when tempo effects may be involved.

  2. Progress and implications from the grazing lands Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) literature syntheses

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multiagency effort to quantify scientifically the environmental outcomes of conservation practices used by private landowners. Two syntheses of the scientific literature are underway, which will document the environmental outcomes of conservati...

  3. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  4. The Angle of Progression at Station 0 and in Magnetic Resonance and Transperineal Ultrasound Assessment

    D. Iliescu


    Full Text Available The transperineal ultrasound (TPU value of the angle of progression (AOP during fetal head engagement, at station 0, is a critical cut-off for current obstetrical practice, especially when intrapartum instrumental interventions are required. Still, controversial measurements were reported in previous high resolution imagistic studies. Our TPU and direct “gold-standard” magnetic resonance (MRI measurements confirm that station 0 corresponds to a 120° AOP, concordantly. Based on these findings, the fact that an AOP of 120° or greater was previously strongly associated with vaginal delivery may be due to the achievement of head engagement in labor.

  5. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  6. Present state, basic theories, methods and progresses of investigation and assessment on marine hazardous geology in China

    Li Peiying; Li Ping; Liu Lejun; Du Jun; Zhang Xiaolong; Wang Shengji


    The achievement progresses of investigation and studies on marine hazardous geology are summarized and presentsd in the late 20 century in China. The importance, research value and presentday studies of marine hazardous geology, a newly developing branch of geoscience, are well expatiated.Several often confused concepts and theories are explained and redefined here. The comment on the means of investigations, assessment of marine hazardous geology, as well as its evolution, innovation,existing questions and future tasks are also introduced and presented. The concepts of "hazard geology","geohazard", "map of marine hazard geology", "integrated evaluaton on seafloor stablity" are respectively discussed, including their definition, research objects, methods and contents. The types and classification of marine hazardous geology, principles and methods of marine hazardous geology map compilation, the assessment methods and models of marine hazardous geology environment and seafloor stability and so on are also discussed.

  7. Monitoring the progress of preschool children with autism enrolled in early intervention programmes: problems in cognitive assessment.

    Magiati, I; Howlin, P


    This report examines how conclusions about the progress of preschool children enrolled in early intervention programmes may be influenced by the use of different cognitive assessment tools. As part of a longitudinal treatment outcome study, 24 children with autism aged between 27 and 58 months were each tested on the Bayley, Merrill-Palmer and Vineland scales. Their performance on each of these tests was compared. Results showed that, while scores on the different tests were highly correlated, actual test scores varied considerably, with the Bayley tending to produce the lowest IQ scores and the Merrill-Palmer the highest. These findings have important implications, as it is evident that judgements about the effects of therapy may be significantly influenced by the selection of the tests for pre- and post-treatment assessments. Possible ways of collecting, recording and reporting test data, so as to avoid spurious conclusions about treatment effects, are discussed.

  8. Economical Utilization of Associated Gas in Nigeria

    Lukman Obayopo Alimi


    Full Text Available Oil production is often accompanied by associated natural gas as valuable by-product of oil processing. Large amount of this vital energy component is flared during these processes, mostly in developing countries. For a longer period of time more gas is flares in Nigeria than anywhere else in Africa and second to Russian in the world, with daily estimates of roughly 2.5 billion cubic feet. This is equivalent to around 40% of all Africa´s natural gas consumption, and annual financial loss to Nigeria is about 1.8 billion Euros. Gas flaring contributes to major environmental pollution problems, which affects oil producing areas of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. This research attempts to look into the environmental issues in the region and proposes possible solutions, with recommendations that will contribute to improve associated gas utilization. This study describes gas to liquid (GTL conversion technology as a sustainable option to utilize associated gas in Nigeria, and also evaluates the economic attractiveness of the process. This conversion technology could contribute to total elimination of gas flaring and reduces the overdependence on importation of refined products (petrol, diesel and kerosene from foreign countries into Nigeria.

  9. Can focusing on UPDRS Part II make assessments of Parkinson disease progression more efficient?

    Sampaio, Cristina


    Harrison et al. have attempted to validate Part II of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS II) as a medication-independent measure of disease progression. The authors collected cross-sectional data from a cohort of 888 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, and they found a robust association between UPDRS II scores and disease duration. Other variables considered were the patients' levodopa status, age at disease onset, and scores on UPDRS I, II and III. The results suggest that a single UPDRS II measurement might be a good indicator of progression at a given time point, irrespective of the current disease-related circumstances. This concept is attractive in its simplicity and patient-centeredness. However, this evidence came from a single-center, retrospective study, the statistical model was constructed using a nonvalidated surrogate as an independent variable, and no external replication was conducted. Until further confirmation, therefore, Harrison et al.'s proposal can only be considered to be a working hypothesis.

  10. Probability Assessment and Risk Management of Progressive Collapse in Strategic Buildings Facing Blast Loads

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh


    Full Text Available Nowadays, as a result of increased terrorist and bomb attacks throughout the globe in the vicinity of strategic buildings, designing these structures against impact loads, particularly the blast-related ones, has been taken into more consideration. The current procedure for designing the structure against an explosion is a design against the local failure of the current elements in the first step and then, in the next step, against local damage as well as tactful thinking to prevent this damage from spreading to other parts of the structure. The present research investigates the impacts of explosives, derived from probable terror–stricken scenarios inside and outside a strategic four-story steel building with a special moment frame system. Then, the resistive capacity of the damaged building (due to blast has been evaluated against the progressive collapse, and finally, the rate of the collapse risk and the reliability of the structure have been obtained by presenting a probable method. Thus, the vulnerable parts inside and outside the building are identified and safety measures have been determined, so that in case of no safety or excessive collapse risk- access to dangerous parts of the building could be reinforced or limited. Results show that progressive collapse probability and reliability of the building are 57% and 43% respectively.

  11. Parental practice of child car safety in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

    Ndu KI


    Full Text Available KI Ndu,1,* U Ekwochi,1,* DC Osuorah,2,* OC Ifediora,3 FO Amadi,1 IN Asinobi,1 OW Okenwa,1 JC Orjioke,1 FN Ogbuka,1 TO Ulasi4 1Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Engu, Nigeria; 2Child Survival Unit, Medical Research Council UK, The Gambia Unit, Fajara, Gambia; 3Griffiths University Medical School, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 4Department of Paediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Child safety restraints and seat belts are regarded as the most successful safety and cost-effective protective devices available to vehicle occupants, which have saved millions of lives. This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated the practice and use of child car restraints (CCRs among 458 purposively selected respondents resident in two local government areas in Enugu State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to parents of children attending private schools who owned a car. Chi-square and multivariate analyses were used to assess the determinants of the use of car restraints in children among respondents. In all, 56% and 45% of adults and children, respectively, used car restraints regularly. The awareness of child safety laws and actual use of age-appropriate CCRs among respondents was negatively and weakly correlated (r=–0.121, P=0.310. Only respondent’s use of seat belt during driving (P=0.001 and having being cautioned for non-use of CCRs (P=0.005 maintained significance as determinants of the use of CCRs in cars on multivariate analysis. The most frequent reasons given for the non-use of CCRs included the child being uncomfortable, 64 (31%; restraints not being important, 53 (26%, and restraints being too expensive, 32 (15%. Similarly, for irregular users, exceptions for non-use included the child being asleep (29%, inadequate number of CCRs (22%, and the child being sick (18

  12. An estimation of the incidence of noma in north-west Nigeria.

    Fieger, Alexander; Marck, Klaas W; Busch, Raymonde; Schmidt, Andreas


    Noma (cancrum oris, stomatitis gangrenosa) is a quickly spreading orofacial gangrene in children, caused by a combination of malnutrition, debilitation because of concomitant diseases (measles) and intraoral infections. The global incidence of noma in the world is uncertain. By comparing large numbers of noma patients and cleft lip patients in a large referral hospital for these disorders in Sokoto, Nigeria, we calculated the incidence of noma in north-west Nigeria as 6.4 per 1000 children. Extrapolation of this incidence to the developing countries bordering the Sahara Desert (the noma belt of the world) gives an incidence of 25,600 for that region and a global incidence of 30,000-40,000. Noma is a good biological parameter of extreme poverty, and hence a global monitoring system for noma can be justified. Though economic progress is the most effective preventive measure against noma, medical prevention by vaccination programmes against measles should be enhanced as well.

  13. Nigeria

    World Bank Group


    Principle 11 of the International Association of Deposit Insurers (IADI) Core Principles (CP 11) states that deposit insurers are required to have available to them all funding mechanisms necessary to ensure the prompt reimbursement of depositors’ claims. One of the Essential Criteria under CP 11 is that the size of the fund, the “fund reserve ratio”, should be based on “clear, consistent and well-developed criteria.” Currently, the Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) sets its reser...

  14. Nigeria


    importance in the world: as more en- ergy resources become available in the near future in Sub- Saharan Africa ( Mozambique , Uganda, expansion in South...any single country. At the same time, developments in the US domestic economy and en- This ACLED Country Report was compiled by Caitriona Dowd using

  15. Assessing psychological health and empowerment in women: the Personal Progress Scale Revised.

    Johnson, Dawn M; Worell, Judith; Chandler, Redonna K


    Empowerment is a primary outcome of many health interventions with women. Typical outcome measures, however focus exclusively on specific symptoms, neglecting the clinically important attitudes and behaviors associated with increased empowerment and well-being. Empowerment is conceptualized as enabling women to access skills and resources to cope more effectively with current as well as future stress and trauma. This study investigated a new measure of personal empowerment in women, the Personal Progress Scale-Revised (PPS-R). Results suggest that the PPS-R is a promising measure of empowerment in women, demonstrating excellent reliability and validity in diverse sample of women. Additionally, the PPS-R demonstrated preliminary utility with a subgroup of abused women, a vulnerable group of women for whom empowerment is a variable of high importance.

  16. Personality and Development of Crime in Nigeria

    Tenibiaje Dele Joseph


    Full Text Available The research was undertaken to investigate the differences in the personality traits of prison inmates and non- inmates and development of crime. The study was carried out in Nigerian Prisons located in five states in southwestern Nigeria. The sample comprised of 200 subjects made up of 121 inmates and 79 non-inmates. The non-inmates were the students of U niversity of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, public servants and nurses in Ekiti State, Nigeria, aged 17 to 45 years. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The result of the investigation showed that the inmates scored significantly high than the non-inmates in extroversion, neuroticism and psychoticism dimensions.

  17. Prevention of lassa Fever in Nigeria.

    Inegbenebor, Ute; Okosun, John; Inegbenebor, Josephine


    Although specific treatment is available for Lassa fever, early diagnosis is still difficult in most Nigerian primary and secondary health centers. This study was carried out to compare the case-fatality rates of Lassa fever and other medical diseases commonly seen in adult medical wards, to determine the community habits that make Lassa fever endemic in Edo Central District of Nigeria, with the aim of prescribing preventive measures for its control in Nigeria. The records of 908 inpatients in the adult medical wards of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua and responses from respondents interviewed by trained interviewers on their knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to Lassa fever were used for this study. The case-fatality rate of Lassa fever in this center was 28%. Cultural factors and habits were found to favor endemicity of Lassa fever in Edo Central District of Nigeria. Preventive measures were prescribed for families and communities.

  18. Progress with situation assessment and risk prediction in advanced driver assistance systems: A survey

    Rendon-Velez, E.; Horváth, I.; Opiyo, E.Z.


    In the field of automotive safety, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are receiving growing attention. Effective ADAS requires awareness of the actual driving situation, a reliable assessment of the risks, and making rapid decisions on assisting actions. This paper reviews the current progres

  19. [Progress in standard assessment on competency to stand trial of mentally disordered offenders].

    Chen, Xiao-Bing; Cai, Wei-Xiong


    Competency to stand trial relates directly to legal rights of the appraised individual as well as whether criminal procedure can be carried out smoothly. Foreign scholars have conducted a large number of theoretical researches, and developed a series of standardized evaluation tools. However, the assessment on competency to stand trial has mainly focused on medical criteria in China for a long time, and most cases were judged by forensic psychiatrists' experience. Recently, Chinese scholars have started the initial research on standardized evaluation. This paper reviews the notion of competency to stand trial, the evaluation criteria, and the assessment tools domestically and abroad. The main focus is on foreign assessment tools, which included three categories. First category includes checklist, self-report questionnaires and sentence-completion tasks. Second category is the interview-based instruments without criterion-based scoring. Last category is the interview-based instruments with criterion-based scoring. This literature may be helpful for further research and standardization on assessment tools of competency to stand trial of mentally disordered offenders.

  20. Incorporating the patient perspective into outcome assessment in rheumatoid arthritis - progress at OMERACT 7

    Kirwan, John R.; Hewlett, Sarah E.; Heiberg, Turid; Hughes, Rod A.; Carr, Maggie; Hehir, Maggie; Kvien, Tore K.; Minnock, Patricia; Newman, Stanton P.; Quest, Enid M.; Taal, Erik; Wale, Janney


    The Patient Perspective Workshop at OMERACT 7 addressed the question of assessing the outcomes of intervention in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the perspective of those who experience the disease. A particular emphasis at this workshop was placed on fatigue, but other areas included well-being, rea

  1. Exploring the use of molecular epidemiology to track bovine tuberculosis in Nigeria: an overview from 2002 to 2004.

    Cadmus, S I B; Gordon, S V; Hewinson, R G; Smith, N H


    Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Nigeria. While human to human transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is clearly of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic in Nigeria, the impact of Mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. Molecular epidemiology of M. bovis in Nigeria will increase our understanding of this endemic disease and provide tools to assess cattle-to-human transmission. Between 2002 and 2004, molecular techniques including spoligotyping, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing and deletion typing were used to track and analyze a sample of strains of the M. tuberculosis complex circulating in the cattle population in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. In all, 180 isolates were typed with a view to elucidating epidemiological information on circulating strains, occurrence of transborder transmission and molecular diversity of the M. bovis strains. Results obtained showed that 99% (178/180) of the isolates were M. bovis, while the remaining were M. tuberculosis and M. africanum. In all, strains of M. bovis had 34 different spoligotypes: strains with spoligotype pattern SB0944 (as designated by were the most common (46% of strains). This molecular type is also common in countries neighbouring Nigeria. Strains with this spoligotype pattern could be further divided into 40 different VNTR types. This analysis shows the value of simple molecular epidemiological techniques applied to strains of M. bovis and suggests that further epidemiological studies will shed more light on the transmission dynamics of bovine tuberculosis locally and across neighbouring African countries.

  2. Improving Maternal Care through a State-Wide Health Insurance Program: A Cost and Cost-Effectiveness Study in Rural Nigeria.

    Gabriela B Gomez

    Full Text Available While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI in rural Nigeria.We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program's scale up within the State's healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730. Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49.1, 95% credible

  3. Has Wild Poliovirus Been Eliminated from Nigeria?

    Famulare, Michael


    Wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) has not been seen anywhere since the last case of WPV3-associated paralysis in Nigeria in November 2012. At the time of writing, the most recent case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Nigeria occurred in July 2014, and WPV1 has not been seen in Africa since a case in Somalia in August 2014. No cases associated with circulating vaccine-derived type 2 poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been detected in Nigeria since November 2014. Has WPV1 been eliminated from Africa? Has WPV3 been eradicated globally? Has Nigeria interrupted cVDPV2 transmission? These questions are difficult because polio surveillance is based on paralysis and paralysis only occurs in a small fraction of infections. This report provides estimates for the probabilities of poliovirus elimination in Nigeria given available data as of March 31, 2015. It is based on a model of disease transmission that is built from historical polio incidence rates and is designed to represent the uncertainties in transmission dynamics and poliovirus detection that are fundamental to interpreting long time periods without cases. The model estimates that, as of March 31, 2015, the probability of WPV1 elimination in Nigeria is 84%, and that if WPV1 has not been eliminated, a new case will be detected with 99% probability by the end of 2015. The probability of WPV3 elimination (and thus global eradication) is > 99%. However, it is unlikely that the ongoing transmission of cVDPV2 has been interrupted; the probability of cVDPV2 elimination rises to 83% if no new cases are detected by April 2016.

  4. Economic Growth Factor in Nigeria: The Role of Global Trade

    Samuel Gowon Edoumiekumo


    Full Text Available The paper examines the contributions of international trade (proxied with export and import values to economic growth in Nigeria measured by real gross domestic product (RGDP. We used time series data obtained from CBN for a period of 27 years. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF test was used for the unit root test and the variables were stationary at levels I(0. Johansen’s co-integration test was also conducted to establish short and long run relationships between the two variables. The result shows two co-integrating equations which establish the existence of long run relationship among the variables. Ordinary Least Square statistical technique was used to assess the degree of influence the variables have on each other. The results show that positive relationship exists between the variables, RGDP, export and import. The export parameter is insignificant at 5 percent. The overall model is significant at 5 percent. Finally, we used Granger causality test to study the causality between the variables and realized a uni-directional relationship. Real GDP Granger cause export and import Granger cause RGDP and export. Nigeria needs to increase or diversify her export goods to enjoy more of the benefits of international trade. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  5. The Nation's Report Card: A First Look--2013 Mathematics and Reading. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 4 and 8. NCES 2014-451

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013


    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment measures students' knowledge and skills in mathematics and students' ability to apply their knowledge in problem-solving situations. At each grade, students responded to questions designed to measure what they know and can do across five mathematics content areas: number…

  6. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    Agaku Israel


    Full Text Available Abstract Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria.


    Daniel Eseme GBEREVBIE


    Full Text Available Governments exist among others to implement policies for the enhancement of the living standard of citizens. To accomplish this goal, public enterprises are established to provide goods and services. With the use of secondary data, the paper examines privatization policy in Nigeria. It observed government interference, lack of transparency and accountability as the major hindrances to the successful implementation of the policy. The paper therefore recommends that for privatization to achieve its goals, government should stop interfering in the implementation of the policy and appoint people of credible character to manage the implementing agency of privatization in Nigeria.

  8. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria.

    Smith, Daniel Jordan


    This article examines corruption in Nigeria's development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains.

  9. Integrating life cycle assessment into managing potential EHS risks of engineered nanomaterials: reviewing progress to date

    Walker, William C.; Bosso, Christopher J., E-mail: [Northeastern University, School of Public Policy and Urban Affairs (United States); Eckelman, Matthew [Northeastern University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Isaacs, Jacqueline A. [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (United States); Pourzahedi, Leila [Northeastern University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)


    The 2011 National Nanotechnology Initiative’s Environmental Health and Safety Research Strategy stressed the need for research to integrate life cycle considerations into risk management and, then, to better integrate risk assessment into decisionmaking on environmental, health, and safety (EHS) dimensions of nanomanufacturing. This paper reviews scholarly articles published 2010–2015 that in some way apply life cycle analysis to nanotechnology to assess the extent to which current research reflects the priorities lain out in the NNI report. As the NNI’s focus was primarily on the “responsible development of nanotechnology” we also focus our examination on the ways in which LCA, in concert with other methodologies, can provide utility to decision makers facing the challenge of implementing that broad goal. We explore some of the challenges and opportunities inherent in using LCA, a tool built to optimize manufacturing decisions, as a guide for policy formulation or tool for policy implementation.

  10. Hearing threshold of sawmillers in Kaduna, Nigeria

    Tijjani Sa'idu Abubakar


    Full Text Available Background: Hearing loss due to occupational noise exposure is a malady with millions of employees having occupational hearing loss (OHL worldwide though under-appreciated. The neglect of hearing loss, especially OHL has resulted in human and economic consequences worldwide. The WHO estimates a global burden of 1.06 million in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria is experiencing rapid industrial growth, and large number of workers are exposed to industrial noise. Prevention of noise-induced hearing loss is relatively simple and inexpensive. Aims and Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the pattern and prevalence of hearing loss among sawmillers at old Fanteka market, Kaduna. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of the hearing threshold of sawmillers at the old Fanteka market, Kaduna. Ethical clearance was obtained from both the Kaduna state Ministry of Health and the National Ear Care Centre, Kaduna. Questionnaires were duly completed and thereafter the participants had pure tone audiometry in a soundproof booth. Noise meter was used to measure the sound level at the workplace and machines. Pure tone average was calculated for both the left and right ear. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: One hundred and twenty sawmillers with age- and sex-matched controls were assessed. Subjects' age ranged between 20 and 62 years, mean age of 31.36 ± 11.33, whereas controls' age ranged between 20 and 70 years, mean age of 33.29 ± 7.40. All the subjects were males. Prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL was 26.7%. Conclusion: Noise level within the study site environment ranged from 85 to 105 dB. The prevalence of SNHL was 26.70%, moderate type 9–16.70% by pure tone average bilaterally.

  11. Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria

    Meurice Francois P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership. The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2006, which included the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers of children aged 12–23 months and vaccination coverage. Survey participants were selected following the World Health Organization's (WHO immunization coverage cluster survey design. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and maternal history. A child was said to be fully immunized if he or she had received all of the following vaccines: a dose of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG, three doses of oral polio (OPV, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT, three doses of hepatitis B (HB and one dose of measles by the time he or she was enrolled in the survey, i.e. between the ages of 12–23 months. Knowledge of the mothers was graded as satisfactory if mothers had at least a score of 3 out of a maximum of 5 points. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of full immunization status. Results Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 339 children (each mother had one eligible child were included in the survey. Most of the mothers (99.1% had very positive attitudes to immunization and > 55% were generally knowledgeable about symptoms of vaccine preventable diseases except for difficulty in breathing (as symptom of diphtheria. Two hundred and ninety-five mothers (87.0% had a satisfactory level of knowledge. Vaccination coverage against all the seven childhood vaccine preventable diseases was 61.9% although it

  12. Detailed Post-Soft Impact Progressive Damage Assessment for Hybrid Structure Jet Engines

    Siddens, Aaron; Bayandor, Javid; Celestina, Mark L.


    Currently, certification of engine designs for resistance to bird strike is reliant on physical tests. Predictive modeling of engine structural damage has mostly been limited to evaluation of individual forward section components, such as fan blades within a fixed frame of reference, to direct impact with a bird. Such models must be extended to include interactions among engine components under operating conditions to evaluate the full extent of engine damage. This paper presents the results of a study aim to develop a methodology for evaluating bird strike damage in advanced propulsion systems incorporating hybrid composite/metal structures. The initial degradation and failure of individual fan blades struck by a bird were investigated. Subsequent damage to other fan blades and engine components due to resultant violent fan assembly vibrations and fragmentation was further evaluated. Various modeling parameters for the bird and engine components were investigated to determine guidelines for accurately capturing initial damage and progressive failure of engine components. Then, a novel hybrid structure modeling approach was investigated and incorporated into the crashworthiness methodology. Such a tool is invaluable to the process of design, development, and certification of future advanced propulsion systems.

  13. Debt management and economic growth in Nigeria:performance,challenges and responsibilities

    Adeyemi Oludare Tolulope


    Full Text Available There is no one entity solely responsible for the debt crisis Nigeria found itself in by the early 1980s: not the Nigerian government, the banks, not the creditor governments. The increase in the Nigeria debt crises has been caused by a lot of factors that have forced their way into the country’s administration over the years. The major cause of Nigeria’s debt crises is the change in the economic fortune in the oil sector.One major obstacle for Nigeria’s economic development over the last two decades has been its crippling debt overhang. In April 2006, Nigeria ordered a final debt repayment to rich lending nations, completing Africa’s biggest debt relief deal.How do we assess the debt crisis in which Nigeria found itself? What are the lessons to be learned? Certainly, these are some of the most important questions to be studied as the country embarks with a clean slate with private and bilateral lenders after the long sought-after debt restructuring deal that came in April 2006.This paper analyzes the lessons to be learned from Nigeria’s debt history, looking especially at the phenomenon of oil-led spending and borrowing that occurred during 1986-2006. Its objective is to determine whether Nigeria received a higher credit-rating than its domestic and macroeconomic fundamentals would have otherwise justified due to its oil revenues, and whether the debt-repayment crisis arose because oil windfalls from the early 1980s were not used to retire its debt.

  14. Assesment of Perceived Academic and Incentive Needs of Senior Secondary School Biology Teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Ahmed, Mulkah Adebisi; Moradeyo, Ismail; Abimbola, Isaac Olakanmi


    The study investigated the Assessment of perceived academic and incentive needs of senior secondary school biology teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select two hundred and fifty (250) biology teachers from the three senatorial district of Kwara State. A questionnaire was prepared, validated and used…

  15. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.


    Data pertaining to wells and thermal aquifers and data interpretation methods are presented. Findings from a program of field measurements of water temperatures (mainly in South-Central Texas) and an assessment of hydrologic properties of three Cretaceous aquifers (in North-Central Texas) are included. Landsat lineaments and their pertinance to the localization of low-temperature geothermal resources are emphasized. Lineament data were compared to structural and stratigraphic features along the Balcones/Ouachita trend in Central Texas to test for correlations. (MHR)

  16. Progression of atrial fibrillation in the REgistry on Cardiac rhythm disORDers assessing the control of Atrial Fibrillation cohort

    De Vos, Cees B; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, A John;


    Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) may progress to persistent AF. We studied the clinical correlates and the effect of rhythm-control strategy on AF progression.......Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) may progress to persistent AF. We studied the clinical correlates and the effect of rhythm-control strategy on AF progression....

  17. Assessing progress and outcome of early intensive behavioral intervention for toddlers with autism.

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Dupere, Sally; Ahearn, William


    Intensive behavioral intervention for young children diagnosed with autism can produce large gains in social, cognitive, and language development. Although several studies have identified behaviors that are possible indicators of best outcome, changes in performance are typically measured using norm-referenced standardized scores referencing overall functioning level rather than via repeated observational measures of autism-specific deficits (i.e., social behavior). In the current study, 83 children with autism (CWA), aged 1, 2 and 3 years, and 58 same-aged typically developing children (TDC) were directly observed in the areas of cognitive skills, joint attention (JA), play, and stereotypic behavior using a measure called the Early Skills Assessment Tool (ESAT; MacDonald et al., 2006). CWA were assessed at entry into an EIBI program and again after 1 year of treatment. Changes in performance were compared pre- and post-treatment as well as to the normative data by age. Results indicate significant gains on the ESAT across all age groups with the greatest gains seen in the children who entered treatment prior to their second birthday. Increases were seen on direct measures of JA, play, imitation and language while decreases were seen in stereotypy regardless of level of performance at entry into EIBI. The ESAT, a direct measurement tool, served as a sensitive tool to measure changes in autism symptomatology following EIBI treatment.

  18. Assessing the HIV Care Continuum in Latin America: progress in clinical retention, cART use and viral suppression

    Rebeiro, Peter F; Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E; De Boni, Raquel B; Cortés, Claudia P; Rodriguez, Fernanda; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo; Pape, Jean W; Padgett, Denis; Hoces, Daniel; McGowan, Catherine C; Cahn, Pedro


    Introduction We assessed trends in HIV Care Continuum outcomes associated with delayed disease progression and reduced transmission within a large Latin American cohort over a decade: clinical retention, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use and viral suppression (VS). Methods Adults from Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology clinical cohorts in seven countries contributed data between 2003 and 2012. Retention was defined as two or more HIV care visits annually, >90 days apart. cART was defined as prescription of three or more antiretroviral agents annually. VS was defined as HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/mL at last measurement annually. cART and VS denominators were subjects with at least one visit annually. Multivariable modified Poisson regression was used to assess temporal trends and examine associations between age, sex, HIV transmission mode, cohort, calendar year and time in care. Results Among 18,799 individuals in retention analyses, 14,380 in cART analyses and 13,330 in VS analyses, differences existed between those meeting indicator definitions versus those not by most characteristics. Retention, cART and VS significantly improved from 2003 to 2012 (63 to 77%, 74 to 91% and 53 to 82%, respectively; p<0.05, each). Female sex (risk ratio (RR)=0.97 vs. males) and injection drug use as HIV transmission mode (RR=0.83 vs. male sexual contact with males (MSM)) were significantly associated with lower retention, but unrelated with cART or VS. MSM (RR=0.96) significantly decreased the probability of cART compared with heterosexual transmission. Conclusions HIV Care Continuum outcomes improved over time in Latin America, though disparities for vulnerable groups remain. Efforts must be made to increase retention, cART and VS, while engaging in additional research to sustain progress in these settings. PMID:27065108

  19. Assessing the HIV Care Continuum in Latin America: progress in clinical retention, cART use and viral suppression

    Peter F Rebeiro


    Full Text Available Introduction: We assessed trends in HIV Care Continuum outcomes associated with delayed disease progression and reduced transmission within a large Latin American cohort over a decade: clinical retention, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART use and viral suppression (VS. Methods: Adults from Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology clinical cohorts in seven countries contributed data between 2003 and 2012. Retention was defined as two or more HIV care visits annually, >90 days apart. cART was defined as prescription of three or more antiretroviral agents annually. VS was defined as HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/mL at last measurement annually. cART and VS denominators were subjects with at least one visit annually. Multivariable modified Poisson regression was used to assess temporal trends and examine associations between age, sex, HIV transmission mode, cohort, calendar year and time in care. Results: Among 18,799 individuals in retention analyses, 14,380 in cART analyses and 13,330 in VS analyses, differences existed between those meeting indicator definitions versus those not by most characteristics. Retention, cART and VS significantly improved from 2003 to 2012 (63 to 77%, 74 to 91% and 53 to 82%, respectively; p<0.05, each. Female sex (risk ratio (RR=0.97 vs. males and injection drug use as HIV transmission mode (RR=0.83 vs. male sexual contact with males (MSM were significantly associated with lower retention, but unrelated with cART or VS. MSM (RR=0.96 significantly decreased the probability of cART compared with heterosexual transmission. Conclusions: HIV Care Continuum outcomes improved over time in Latin America, though disparities for vulnerable groups remain. Efforts must be made to increase retention, cART and VS, while engaging in additional research to sustain progress in these settings.


    Ayo C. K.


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe massive examination leakages, demand for gratification by teachers, bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of examinations have become a global phenomenon. This menace has resulted to general fallen standards of education and Nigeria is no exception, particularly among developing nations. Consequent upon this, all Nigerian universities have resorted to conducting post-entrance “Post-JAMB” examination/screening because of lack of confidence in the conduct of the entrance examinations. This paper proposes a model for e-Examination in Nigeria where all applicants are subjected to online entrance examination as a way of curbing the irregularities as proposed by the Joint Admissions Matriculation Board (JAMB, the body saddled with the responsibility of conducting entrance examinations into all the Nigerian universities. This model was designed and tested in Covenant University, one of the private universities in Nigeria. There were 120 questions drawn from English (30, Mathematics (30, General Science (20, Commercial Courses (20, and Religion Knowledge (20, all for one hour duration. Questionnaires were administered to the applicants at the end of the examination to assess their level of ICT literacy, ease of use of the system and the difficulties encountered.Findings revealed that the system has the potentials to eliminate some of the problems that are associated with the traditional methods of examination such as impersonation and other forms of examination malpractices. The system is easy to use and candidates can get use to it with time. The timing of examination can be spaced without compromising the quality and integrity of the examination. However, much is still desired if the system were to be adopted on a national scale, particularly in terms of infrastructural and manpower development. Similarly, the quest for e-Examination can fast track the development of e-Learning facilities in the country with improved access to

  1. Nutritional Factors Associated with Anaemia in Pregnant Women in Northern Nigeria

    VanderJagt, Dorothy J.; Brock, Hugh S.; Melah, George S.; El-Nafaty, Aliyu U.; Crossey, Michael J.; Glew, Robert H


    This study was conducted to assess the relative contribution of iron, folate, and B12 deficiency to anaemia in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 146 pregnant women, who attended two antenatal clinics in Gombe, Nigeria, were recruited into the study. The majority (54%) of the women were in the third trimester. Blood samples were obtained for determination of haematocrit and for measurement of serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine...

  2. Media coverage of the Ebola virus disease in four widely circulated Nigerian newspapers: lessons from Nigeria

    Sam Smith; Stella Smith


    Background: The importance of the media in the coverage of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Nigeria and its implications (negative or positive) amongst the populace cannot be overemphasized.This study was conducted to assess the role of media in the Ebola reportage and its implication in creating awareness and stopping the spread amongst the populace. Methods: The nature and extent of media coverage about Ebola in four major national newspapers were examined. The four major national newspapers we...

  3. Fallow practices in West Africa: A comparative importance of phenomenon in Cameroon and Nigeria

    Nkamleu, Guy Blaise


    There is a clear need to understand the characteristics of fallow in order to seek appropriate alternatives. From a simultaneous study done in Cameroon and Nigeria, we assessed the specificity of fallow techniques in both countries and discovered that fallow practices remain important in traditional farming systems. Fallow is specifically applied in food crops and forest fields. There are less common in perennial fields and homegardens. Fallow practices remain the major land use technologies ...

  4. Institutional capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies and strategies in Nigeria:

    Adebayo, Kolawole; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rhoe, Valerie


    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR), Federal Ministry of Women affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) early in 2008. Two consultation workshops were also held, one for relevant staff in the ministries, parastat...

  5. Exposure to blood among mortuary workers in teaching hospitals in south-west Nigeria

    Ogunnowo, Babatunde; Anunobi, Charles; Onajole, Adebayo; Odeyemi,Kofoworola


    Background Mortuary workers like other health workers are exposed to blood borne pathogens at work. A baseline assessment is important to plan for programmes to safeguard the health of workers. The aim of this study is to determine exposure rates to blood among mortuary workers in teaching hospitals in South West Nigeria. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out between March and May 2008. All mortuary workers working in six (6) teaching hospitals, 80 in total were included...

  6. Assessing black progress: voting and citizenship rights, residency and housing, education.

    Farley, R


    Farley discusses progress US blacks have made in the areas of voting and citizenship rights, residency and housing, and education. A major goal of the civil rights movement was to permit blacks to influence the electoral process in the same manner as whites. Most important in this regard was the Voting Rights Act of 1965; the proportion of southern blacks casting ballots increased sharply since the early 1960s. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 outlawed racial segregation in public accommodations, but by the turn of the century, Jim Crow laws in southern states called for segregation in most public places. Common customs and government policy in the North resulted in similar segregation of blacks from whites. The Montgomery bus boycott and similar protests in dozens of other cities led to enactment of Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which proscribed such racial practices. By the late 1960s, blacks in all regions could use the same public accommodations as whites. In most metropolitan areas, de facto racial segregation persisted long after the laws were changed. Supreme Court decisions and local open-housing ordinances supported the right of blacks to live where they could afford. However the major change was the Fair Housing Act of 1968, which outlawed racial discrimination in the sale or rental of most housing units. The separation of blacks from whites did not end in the 1970s. Today, in areas which have large black populations, there are many central city neighborhoods and a few in the suburbs which are either all-black or are becoming exclusively black enclaves. Most other neighborhoods have no more than token black populations. Another major effort of civil rights organizations has been the upgrading of housing quality for blacks. By 1980, only 6% of the homes and apartments occupied by blacks lacked complete plumbing facilities (down from 50% in 1940). Unlike the modest changes in residential segregation, racial differences in housing quality have been

  7. Pervasive Computing Technologies to Continuously Assess Alzheimer’s Disease Progression and Intervention Efficacy

    Bayard E. Lyons


    Full Text Available Traditionally, assessment of functional and cognitive status of individuals with dementia occurs in brief clinic visits during which time clinicians extract a snapshot of recent changes in individuals’ health. Conventionally, this is done using various clinical assessment tools applied at the point of care and relies on patients’ and caregivers’ ability to accurately recall daily activity and trends in personal health. These practices suffer from the infrequency and generally short durations of visits. Since 2004, researchers at the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology (ORCATECH at the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU have been working on developing technologies to transform this model. ORCATECH researchers have developed a system of continuous in-home monitoring using pervasive computing technologies that make it possible to more accurately track activities and behaviors and measure relevant intra-individual changes. We have installed a system of strategically placed sensors in over 480 homes and have been collecting data for up to 8 years. Using this continuous in-home monitoring system ORCATECH researchers have collected data on multiple behaviors such as gait and mobility, sleep and activity patterns, medication adherence and computer use. Patterns of intra-individual variation detected in each of these areas are used to predict outcomes such as low mood, loneliness, and cognitive function. These methods have the potential to improve the quality of patient health data and in turn patient care especially related to cognitive decline. Furthermore, the continuous real-world nature of the data may improve the efficiency and ecological validity of clinical intervention studies.

  8. Education and Political Restructure in Nigeria

    Ayeni, Matthew Adedeji; Adeleye, Joseph Olusola


    To say that education is a potent factor in any political restructuring is an indisputable fact. For a meaningful political development to take place in any nation, especially like Nigeria. The place of education is never in doubt to influence positively those in the position of authority to ascertain what are needed to put in place for effective…

  9. Malaria treatment services in Nigeria: A review

    Benjamin SC Uzochukwu


    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major Public Health problem in Nigeria and causes death and illness in children and adults, especially pregnant women. Malaria case management remains a vital component of the malaria control strategies. This entails early diagnosis and prompt treatment with effective antimalarial medicines. The objectives of this review is to enable health professionals to understand the magnitude of malaria treatment services in Nigeria, to improve knowledge for rational malaria management within different health system contexts with a view to improving access to malaria treatment. The review therefore looks at the following areas: clinical disease and epidemiology; the burden of malaria in Nigeria; objectives of treatment; antimalarial treatment policy; malaria diagnosis, treatment strategies/ National responses; treatment sources. The review concludes that for improved malaria treatment services in Nigeria, there is an urgent need to develop adequate strategies that will ensure better access to medicines by getting evidence-based and effective medicines to the people who need them, whether by reducing their costs, promoting equity in access, improving their distribution, increasing their efficacy and acceptability, or slowing down the development of antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Family Quality of Life in Nigeria

    Ajuwon, P. M.; Brown, I.


    Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering the…

  11. Access to Information in Rural Nigeria.

    Aboyade, B. Olabimpe


    This paper focuses on intensified information transfer activities in rural areas of Nigeria: community development work, agricultural extension service, mass media (newspapers, television, radio, problems of communication), and the role of the library (reinforcing messages, repackaging information, acquiring specialized materials, coordinating…

  12. The State and Empowerment Policies in Nigeria

    Emmanuel Joseph Chukuma Duru


    Full Text Available Since independence in 1960, successive governments in Nigeria have come up with various poverty alleviation strategies aimed at empowering Nigerians in rural and urban areas. Several of these programmes not withstanding, poverty in Nigeria remains an issue of great concern as over 75 per cent of the citizens live below poverty line.This paper seeks to examine the constructions of empowerment in Nigeria's poverty alleviation programmes with particular focus on the Obasanjo regime's Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP. Methodologically, the paper utilizes predominantly secondary sources of data given its nature. And our findings reveal that poverty subsists in Nigeria despite all counter measures because the programmes and empowerment strategies so far adopted have remained remedial, and have fundamentally failed to address basic issues like enhancing the productive base of the society and youth empowerment. Thus, the paper concludes that poverty alleviation programmes can only make meaning when they seek a radical transformation of the society through qualitative and mass education both in rural and urban centres among other things.

  13. Gender Inequality in Academia: Evidences from Nigeria

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.


    Universities and other institutions of higher education in Nigeria see themselves as liberal and open-minded. They support social movements that encourage principles of democracy and social justice, yet their mode of governance is male dominated and patriarchal. This study, therefore, identified the causes of gender inequality in academia and the…

  14. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    Fatumo, Segun A; Adoga, Moses P; Ojo, Opeolu O; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi


    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

  15. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa


    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  16. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    Segun A Fatumo


    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

  17. The English Language of the Nigeria Police

    Chinwe, Udo Victoria


    In the present day Nigeria, the quality of the English language spoken by Nigerians, is perceived to have been deteriorating and needs urgent attention. The proliferation of books and articles in the recent years can be seen as the native outcrop of its received attention and recognition as a matter of discourse. Evidently, every profession,…

  18. Civil Society and Democratic Governance in Nigeria

    Ibitoye, M. O.


    Full Text Available It is quite intriguing that fifty-two years after Nigeria attained her nominal independence from her colonial masters and twelve years into her democratic dispensation following a protracted and most challenging struggle against a rapacious military hegemony, the dividends of good governance have largely eluded the majority who wallow in abject poverty in the midst of abundant resources. Thus, the current democratic experiment appears to be fraught with similar imperfections that plagued the past democratic attempts thereby making transformation a myth rather than reality in Nigeria. The dire need to institutionalize the culture of good governance in Nigeria so as to improve the quality of life of the Nigerian people informs the position of this study. Hence, civil society has been adopted as a veritable tool for achieving good governance. This paper, therefore, attempts to carry out a thorough exposition of civil society organization vis- a- vis its transformatory role as an arbiter to redeem the Nigeria society from imminent total collapse as the country is yet to arrive at the ultimate destination of democracy as the government of the people, duly elected by the people, in the service of the people.

  19. Revenue Allocation and Economic Development in Nigeria

    Dagwom Yohanna Dang


    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the impact of revenue allocation on economic development in Nigeria. Specifically, the study looks at how the various revenue allocations to the three tiers of government affect real gross domestic product (RGDP in Nigeria using time series data for the period 1993 to 2012. Error correction model (ECM and Pairwise Granger Causality test are used in analyzing the data. The study carries out test of stationarity of the variables using Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test and test of long-run relationship among the variables using Johansen Cointegration test. The study’s findings show that revenue allocations have significant causal relationship with economic development in Nigeria, with only revenue allocation to states having significant negative relationship. Unidirectional causality runs from revenue allocations to real GDP in Nigeria. All variables of the study are cointegrated and have a long-run relationship that 87.62% of the short-run disequilibrium is corrected yearly. The study recommends among others that more financial control and value for money audit should be carried out to minimize wastages and corruption in the states of the federation, so as to change the direction of influence of states’ revenue allocation on economic development.

  20. 'I have faith in science and in God': Common sense, cognitive polyphasia and attitudes to science in Nigeria.

    Falade, Bankole A; Bauer, Martin W


    This study, of modern common sense in Nigeria, combines questionnaires and interviews to examine the compatibility and incompatibility of religion and science. Nigeria is a large country with a complex diversity of religious, ethnic and cultural practices that condition the reception and elaboration of science in everyday life. We find evaluative attitudes to science structured as 'progress', 'fear' and 'mythical image'. Scientific knowledge and religiosity have a direct bearing on expectations of progress and feeling of fear and worry about science; mythical image is independent of this. Nigerians trust both scientific and religious authorities in contrast to other social actors. Many of the results are consistent with the hypothesis of cognitive polyphasia of scientific and religious knowing manifesting as a 'hierarchy', when one form is elevated over the other; 'parallelity', when both serve separate functions; and 'empowerment', where one enhances the other.

  1. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.


    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  2. Trust in Government: A Note from Nigeria

    Iroghama Paul Iroghama


    Full Text Available The relationship between trust in government and factors that accounts for Nigerians citizen trust in their government has been of interest due a dearth of literature on such issue. This study is an attempt to bridge the gap from a public policy perspective. One of the measures usually used in the literature to measure trust or distrust in government is perception of corruption, but there are other yardsticks with which to measure determinant of trust in government, such as economic performance or political participation. This study used a micro-level analysis of public opinion survey data (question by question to ascertain empirical linkages of political trust within Nigeria. To this end, Afrobarometer survey Round Four conducted in 2008 was used for the analyses. Descriptive statistics provide background information on the sample, while multivariate logistic regression using SPSS were used to model the citizens’ trust for government in Nigeria. This study revealed that political trust or trust in governments in Nigeria stems from a number of factors. These are economy performance, media, interest in public affairs, religious membership, political participation, interpersonal trust, lack of basic needs, and management of corruption. Furthermore, the variables that influence trust in government the most are interpersonal trust and government management of corruption issue. Those that reported interpersonal trust also reported that they have trust for the government. While those that believe the governments are fighting or managing corruption nicely have a tendency to trust in the government. Although this study does not claim to provide all the answer on political trust or trust in governments in Nigeria, its attempt is to bridge gap in the literature on the topic and to assist future research in the area, as nothing exist on the topic as the moment. It is hope the subject will forms a basis upon which further analytical work on political

  3. Management of Sickle Cell Disease: A Review for Physician Education in Nigeria (Sub-Saharan Africa

    Ademola Samson Adewoyin


    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD predominates in sub-Saharan Africa, East Mediterranean areas, Middle East, and India. Nigeria, being the most populous black nation in the world, bears its greatest burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The last few decades have witnessed remarkable scientific progress in the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of the disease. Improved clinical insights have heralded development and establishment of disease modifying interventions such as chronic blood transfusions, hydroxyurea therapy, and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Coupled with parallel improvements in general supportive, symptomatic, and preventive measures, current evidence reveals remarkable appreciation in quality of life among affected individuals in developed nations. Currently, in Nigeria and other West African states, treatment and control of SCD are largely suboptimal. Improved knowledge regarding SCD phenotypes and its comprehensive care among Nigerian physicians will enhance quality of care for affected persons. This paper therefore provides a review on the aetiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management of SCD in Nigeria, with a focus on its local patterns and peculiarities. Established treatment guidelines as appropriate in the Nigerian setting are proffered, as well as recommendations for improving care of affected persons.

  4. Progress and perspectives of quantitative structure-activity relationships used for ecological risk assessment of toxic organic compounds


    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), collec- tively referred to as (Q)SARs, play an important role in ecological risk assessment (ERA) of organic chemicals. (Q)SARs can fill the data gap for physical-chemical, environmental behavioral and ecotoxicological parameters of organic compounds; they can decrease experimental expenses and reduce the extent of experimental testing (especially animal testing); they can also be used to assess the uncertainty of the experimental data. With the development for several decades, (Q)SARs in envi- ronmental sciences show three features: application orientation, multidisciplinary integration, and in- telligence. Progress of (Q)SAR technology for ERA of toxic organic compounds, including endpoint selection and mathematic methods for establishing simple, transparent, easily interpretable and portable (Q)SAR models, is reviewed. The recent development on defining application domains and diagnosing outliers is summarized. Model characterization with respect to goodness-of-fit, stability and predictive power is specially presented. The purpose of the review is to promote the development of (Q)SARs orientated to ERA of organic chemicals.

  5. Progress and perspectives of quantitative structure-activity relationships used for ecological risk assessment of toxic organic compounds

    CHEN JingWen; LI XueHua; YU HaiYing; WANG YaNan; QIAO XianLiang


    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), collec-tively referred to as (Q)SARs, play an important role in ecological risk assessment (ERA) of organic chemicals. (Q)SARs can fill the data gap for physical-chemical, environmental behavioral and ecotoxicological parameters of organic compounds; they can decrease experimental expenses and reduce the extent of experimental testing (especially animal testing); they can also be used to assess the uncertainty of the experimental data. With the development for several decades, (Q)SARs in envi-ronmental sciences show three features: application orientation, multidisciplinary integration, and in-telligence. Progress of (Q)SAR technology for ERA of toxic organic compounds, including endpoint selection and mathematic methods for establishing simple, transparent, easily interpretable and portable (Q)SAR models, is reviewed. The recent development on defining application domains and diagnosing outliers is summarized. Model characterization with respect to goodness-of-fit, stability and predictive power is specially presented. The purpose of the review is to promote the development of (Q)SARs orientated to ERA of organic chemicals.

  6. Sequential chemical-biological processes for the treatment of industrial wastewaters: review of recent progresses and critical assessment.

    Guieysse, Benoit; Norvill, Zane N


    When direct wastewater biological treatment is unfeasible, a cost- and resource-efficient alternative to direct chemical treatment consists of combining biological treatment with a chemical pre-treatment aiming to convert the hazardous pollutants into more biodegradable compounds. Whereas the principles and advantages of sequential treatment have been demonstrated for a broad range of pollutants and process configurations, recent progresses (2011-present) in the field provide the basis for refining assessment of feasibility, costs, and environmental impacts. This paper thus reviews recent real wastewater demonstrations at pilot and full scale as well as new process configurations. It also discusses new insights on the potential impacts of microbial community dynamics on process feasibility, design and operation. Finally, it sheds light on a critical issue that has not yet been properly addressed in the field: integration requires complex and tailored optimization and, of paramount importance to full-scale application, is sensitive to uncertainty and variability in the inputs used for process design and operation. Future research is therefore critically needed to improve process control and better assess the real potential of sequential chemical-biological processes for industrial wastewater treatment.


    Money, Udih


    This paper is an opinion one that examined the significant role of entrepreneurship enlightenment in the creation and development of job in Nigeria. Entrepreneurship enlightenment that is continuous and reaching the citizens will help in the creation and development of job. It is viewed that entrepreneurship enlightenment is a giant stride towards creation and development of job in Nigeria. This paper also touches the challenges facing entrepreneurship development and job creation in Nigeria....

  8. Progress in pesticide and POPs hair analysis for the assessment of exposure.

    Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Tutudaki, Maria


    The present paper reviews the work that has been done in the field of pesticide and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) hair analysis during the last 15 years. It summarizes the compounds of interest, the methods of analyte extraction from the hair matrix, the analytical techniques employed and the results obtained. The most widely studied POPs are the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), the dibenzofurans (PCDFs) the co-planar biphenyls (co-PCBs) and total biphenyls (PCBs). The most widely studied pesticides are the organochlorine ones, like the hexachlorocyclohexanes and the DDTs, which nowadays are only found as environmental pollutants, some organophosphates, selected pyrethroids and the carbamate methomyl. The most widely applied technique was gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). Other detectors like the ECD in the case of organochlorine analysis and the NPD in the case of organophosphate analysis were also used. The presented data concern human and animal studies. The levels of DDTs detected in hair were between 19 and 400 ng/g, of co-PCBs 0.27 and 0.45 ng/g, of total PCBs 5-13 ng/g of PCDDs and PCDFs 0.1-10 pg/g of lindane 20-400 ng/g of HCHs 14-40 ng/g of diazinon 110-520 ng/g and of methomyl 900-1800 ng/g. These results strongly support the possibility of using hair as a suitable indicator for the assessment of long-term exposure to POPs and pesticides.

  9. Antioxidant vitamin levels among preschool children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sokoto, Nigeria

    Aghedo FI


    Full Text Available Festus I Aghedo,1 Resqua A Shehu,2 Rabiu A Umar,2 Mohammed N Jiya,3 Osaro Erhabor4 1Department of Haematology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria; 2Department of Biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 4Department of Haematology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria Objective: To assess antioxidant vitamin levels among preschool children with plasmodium malarial infection. Methods: We assessed antioxidant vitamin levels by using a standard procedure in 130 malaria-parasitized preschool children. Packed cell volume and parasite density were also evaluated. Forty healthy age- and gender-matched nonparasitized children were included as controls. Results: Plasmodium falciparum was the causative species in all subjects. The mean malaria parasitemia was 4529.45 ± 1237.5/µL. The mean antioxidant concentrations for vitamins A, C, and E among plasmodium-parasitized subjects were 33.15 ± 1.79 µg/dL, 0.51 ± 0.02 mg/dL, and 0.61 ± 0.02 mg/dL, respectively. The mean concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E among the non-malaria-parasitized controls were 69.72 ± 1.71 µg/dL, 1.25 ± 0.04 mg/dL, and 1.31 ± 0.04 mg/dL respectively. We observed that the mean antioxidant concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E were significantly lower among plasmodium-parasitized subjects compared with non-parasitized controls (P = 0.01. Malaria parasitemia correlated negatively with antioxidant concentrations and packed cell volume (r = -0.736 and -0.723, P = 0.001. We observed that the higher the level of parasitemia, the lower the antioxidant concentration. Conclusion: Our study has shown that the antioxidant levels in plasmodium-parasitized children in the North-West of Nigeria are low and that the more severe the malarial infection, the lower the antioxidant level and the

  10. An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria

    Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, USB; Ezenyeaku, CCK


    Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115–130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Bio...

  11. Assessment of disease progression in patients with transfusion-associated chronic hepatitis C using transient elastography

    Ryota Masuzaki; Ryosuke Tateishi; Haruhiko Yoshida; Toru Arano; Koji Uchino; Kenichiro Enooku; Eriko Goto


    AIM:To evaluate the relationship between liver stiffness and duration of infection in blood transfusion-associated hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS:Between December 2006 and June 2008,a total of 524 transfusion-associated HCV-RNA positive patients with or without HCC were enrolled.Liver stiffness was obtained noninvasively by using Fibroscan (Echosens,Paris,France).The date of blood transfusion was obtained by interview.Duration of infection was derived from the interval between the date of blood transfusion and the date of liver stiffness measurement (LSM).Patients were stratified into four groups based on the duration of infection (17-29 years; 30-39 years;40-49 years; and 50-70 years).The difference in liver stiffness between patients with and without HCC was assessed in each group.Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with liver stiffness.RESULTS:A total of 524 patients underwent LSM.Eight patients were excluded because of unsuccessful measurements.Thus 516 patients were included in the current analysis (225 with HCC and 291 without).The patients were 244 men and 272 women,with a mean age of 67.8 ± 9.5 years.The median liver stiffness was 14.3 kPa (25.8 in HCC group and 7.6 in nonHCC group).The patients who developed HCC in short duration of infection were male dominant,having lower platelet count,with a history of heavier alcohol consumption,showing higher liver stiffness,and receiving blood transfusion at an old age.Liver stiffness was positively correlated with duration of infection in patients without HCC (r =0.132,P =0.024) but not in patients with HCC (r =-0.103,P =0.123).Liver stiffness was significantly higher in patients with HCC than in those without in each duration group (P < 0.0001).The factors significantly associated with high liver stiffness in multiple regression were age at blood transfusion (P < 0.0001),duration of infection (P =0.0015),and

  12. Domestic violence against men in primary care in Nigeria.

    Dienye, Paul O; Gbeneol, Precious K


    Domestic violence against men is rare in Nigeria. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of domestic violence against men, the sociodemographic characteristics of victims, and the pattern of injury sustained in a primary care setting. This was a retrospective study over a period of 5 years in which all the medical records of patients were retrieved and information on domestic violence extracted from them and transferred to a data sheet. Those whose records were grossly deficient were excluded from the study. A total of 220,000 patients were seen of which 48 (22 per 100,000) were victims of domestic violence. There were only five married male victims with a prevalence of 0.0023%. The injuries observed were scratches, bruises, welts, and scalds. The primary care physician needs a high index of suspicion to be able to detect it.

  13. Public Investment and Output Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

    Aregbeyen Omo


    Full Text Available This study examined the direct/indirect long-run relationships and dynamic interactions between public investment (PI and output performance in Nigeria using annual data spanning 1970-2010. A macro-econometric model derived from Keynes’ income-expenditure framework was employed. The model was disaggregated into demand and supply sides to trace the direct and indirect effects of PI on aggregate output. The direct supply side effect was assessed using the magnitude of PI multiplier coefficient, while the indirect effect of PI on the demand side was evaluated with marginal propensity to consume, accelerator coefficient and import multiplier. The results showed relatively less strong direct effect of PI on aggregate output, while the indirect effects were stronger with the import multiplier being the most pronounced. This is attributed to declining capital expenditure, poor implementation and low quality of PI projects due to widespread corruption. By and large, we concluded that PI exerted considerable influence on aggregate output.

  14. Analysis and assessment of bridge health monitoring mass data—progress in research/development of "Structural Health Monitoring"

    LI AiQun; DING YouLiang; WANG Hao; GUO Tong


    The "Structural Health Monitoring" is a project supported by National Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No.50725828).To meet the urgent requirements of analysis and assessment of mass monitoring data of bridge environmental actions and structural responses,the monitoring of environmental actions and action effect modeling methods,dynamic performance monitoring and early warning methods,condition assessment and operation maintenance methods of key members are systematically studied in close combination with structural characteristics of long-span cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges.The paper reports the progress of the project as follows.(1) The environmental action modeling methods of long-span bridges are established based on monitoring data of temperature,sustained wind and typhoon.The action effect modeling methods are further developed in combination with the multi-scale baseline finite element modeling method for long-span bridges.(2) The identification methods of global dynamic characteristics and internal forces of cables and hangers for long-span cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges are proposed using the vibration monitoring data,on the basis of which the condition monitoring and early warning methods of bridges are developed using the environmental-condition-normalization technique.(3) The analysis methods for fatigue loading effect of welded details of steel box girder,temperature and traffic loading effect of expansion joint are presented based on long-term monitoring data of strain and beam-end displacement,on the basis of which the service performance assessment and remaining life prediction methods are developed.

  15. Political Leadership and Challenges of National Integration and Development in Nigeria: The Way Forward

    Akinbi Joseph Olukayode


    Full Text Available Concrete and genuine national integration and development have been elusive in Nigeria, which has been a thing of serious concern to scholars. The study interrogates why true integration and meaningful development have been elusive in the country? This constitutes the key problem of the study. The historical method of research and analysis was employed in the study as the paper under discussion covers the past, the present and likely implications on the future of the country. The major findings in the paper revealed various factors or challenges as been responsible for this abysmal state of affairsand which Nigerian political leaders have been battling with. The paper examines some of these challenges which among others include: the elusiveness of a national leader, corruption and mismanagement of material and human resources, lack of proper accountability on the part of Nigerian political leaders, the crushing economic depression which manifested in high cost of living, poverty, mass unemployment and dissatisfaction among the citizenry, problems of democratic consolidation, the Niger Delta environmental crisis, religious crisis and the recent Boko Haram scourge which had proved intractable for Nigerian government. The implication of the totality of all these factors has the effect of partly contributing to Nigeria perambulating at the same spot or even dancing backward rather than progressing, thereby making stability, true nation building, national integration and development elusive to the Nigerian nation. Recommendations proffered towards curbing the problems in the paper include: the need to learn from history, the need for improved electioneering culture, declaration of assets by political leaders to enhance accountability, respect for the secularity of Nigeria, creation of jobs and putting in place of people oriented programmes and the need for re-orientation of both leaders and followers in Nigeria.

  16. Poverty and maternal mortality in Nigeria: towards a more viable ethics of modern medical practice

    Lanre-Abass Bolatito A


    Full Text Available Abstract Poverty is often identified as a major barrier to human development. It is also a powerful brake on accelerated progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. Poverty is also a major cause of maternal mortality, as it prevents many women from getting proper and adequate medical attention due to their inability to afford good antenatal care. This Paper thus examines poverty as a threat to human existence, particularly women's health. It highlights the causes of maternal deaths in Nigeria by questioning the practice of medicine in this country, which falls short of the ethical principle of showing care. Since high levels of poverty limit access to quality health care and consequently human development, this paper suggests ways of reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria. It emphasizes the importance of care ethics, an ethical orientation that seeks to rectify the deficiencies of medical practice in Nigeria, notably the problem of poor reproductive health services. Care ethics as an ethical orientation, attends to the important aspects of our shared lives. It portrays the moral agent (in this context the physician as a self who is embedded in webs of relations with others (pregnant women. Also central to this ethical orientation is responsiveness in an interconnected network of needs, care and prevention of harm. This review concludes by stressing that many human relationships involve persons who are vulnerable, including pregnant women, dependent, ill and or frail, noting that the desirable moral response is that prescribed by care ethics, which thus has implications for the practice of medicine in Nigeria.

  17. Defining natural history: assessment of the ability of college students to aid in characterizing clinical progression of Niemann-Pick disease, type C.

    Jenny Shin

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Disease, type C (NPC is a fatal, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder. It is a rare disease with broad phenotypic spectrum and variable age of onset. These issues make it difficult to develop a universally accepted clinical outcome measure to assess urgently needed therapies. To this end, clinical investigators have defined emerging, disease severity scales. The average time from initial symptom to diagnosis is approximately 4 years. Further, some patients may not travel to specialized clinical centers even after diagnosis. We were therefore interested in investigating whether appropriately trained, community-based assessment of patient records could assist in defining disease progression using clinical severity scores. In this study we evolved a secure, step wise process to show that pre-existing medical records may be correctly assessed by non-clinical practitioners trained to quantify disease progression. Sixty-four undergraduate students at the University of Notre Dame were expertly trained in clinical disease assessment and recognition of major and minor symptoms of NPC. Seven clinical records, randomly selected from a total of thirty seven used to establish a leading clinical severity scale, were correctly assessed to show expected characteristics of linear disease progression. Student assessment of two new records donated by NPC families to our study also revealed linear progression of disease, but both showed accelerated disease progression, relative to the current severity scale, especially at the later stages. Together, these data suggest that college students may be trained in assessment of patient records, and thus provide insight into the natural history of a disease.

  18. Assessing the relevance of indicators in tracking social determinants and progress toward equitable population health in Brazil

    Davide Rasella


    Full Text Available Background: The importance of the social determinants of health (SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare have been widely recognized but not previously studied in the context of universal healthcare coverage (UHC in Brazil and other developing countries. Objective: To evaluate a set of proposed indicators of SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare – proposed by the SDH unit of the World Health Organization – with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in moving toward equitable population health and UHC in Brazil. Design: This study had a mixed methodology, combining a quantitative analysis of secondary data from governmental sources with a qualitative study comprising two focus group discussions and six key informant interviews. The set of indicators tested covered a broad range of dimensions classified by three different domains: environment quality; accountability and inclusion; and livelihood and skills. Indicators were stratified according to income quintiles, urbanization, race, and geographical region. Results: Overall, the indicators were adequate for tracking progress in terms of the SDH, equity, gender, and human rights in Brazil. Stratifications showed inequalities. The qualitative analysis revealed that many of the indicators were well known and already used by policymakers and health sector managers, whereas others were considered less useful in the Brazilian context. Conclusions: Monitoring and evaluation practices have been developed in Brazil, and the set of indicators assessed in this study could further improve these practices, especially from a health equity perspective. Socioeconomic inequalities have been reduced in Brazil in the last decade, but there is still much work to be done in relation to addressing the SDH.




    Full Text Available This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly on economic growth than their expenditureon transport and communication. Increased expenditure on all sectors was recommended especially on engineering construction. In addition policy modifications are needed to ensure that government expenditure on the transportation and communication sector achieve greater impacts on economic growth.

  20. Fasting Blood Glucose Profile among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

    I. O. Oluwayemi


    Full Text Available Background. Over the past two decades there has been an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in children. Baseline data is needed to assess the impact of changing lifestyles on Ado-Ekiti, a previously semiurban community in Southwest Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to assess the fasting blood glucose (FBG of adolescents in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study involving 628 adolescents from three different secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. With parental consent, volunteers completed a structured questionnaire, and an overnight FBG was measured. Results. There were 346 males and 282 females (male : female ratio = 1.2 : 1. Their ages ranged from 10 to 19 years (mean age: 14.2±1.7 years. Four hundred and forty-four (70.7% had normal FBG, while 180 (28.7% and 4 (0.6% had FBG in the prediabetic and diabetic range, respectively. Female gender, age group 10–14 years, and family history of obesity were significantly associated with impaired FBG (P value <0.001, <0.001, and 0.045, resp.. Conclusion. Impaired FBG is common among secondary school adolescents and it is more prevalent among younger female adolescents (10–14 years with positive family history of obesity.

  1. Characterization of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci in the clinical setting: a multicentre study in Nigeria

    Shittu Adebayo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The staphylococci are implicated in a variety of human infections; however, many clinical microbiology laboratories in Nigeria do not identify staphylococci (in particular coagulase negative staphylococci - CNS to the species level. Moreover, data from multi-centre assessment on antibiotic resistance and epidemiology of the staphylococci are not available in Nigeria. This study investigated 91 non-duplicate staphylococcal isolates obtained from the microbiology laboratories of eight hospitals in Nigeria during the period January to April 2010. Methods Identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the VITEK 2 system, detection of resistance genes by PCR, and molecular characterization was determined by SCCmec typing, spa and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Results All the isolates were susceptible to mupirocin, tigecycline, vancomycin and linezolid, but 72.5% of CNS and 82.3% of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to cotrimoxazole, while multiresistance was observed in 37 of the 40 CNS isolates. Untypeable SCCmec types (ccrC/Class A mec and ccr-negative/Class C2 mec gene complex in two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA were identified. Additionally, ccr-negative/Class A mec and ccr type 4/Class C2 mec gene complex was detected in one isolate each of S. sciuri and S. haemolyticus, respectively. The S. aureus isolates were classified into 21 spa types including two new types (t8987, t9008 among the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA isolates. Two (CC8-SCCmecnon-typeable and CC88-SCCmec IV and four (CC8-SCCmec III/IV/V; CC30-SCCmec II/III; CC88-SCCmec IV; and ST152-SCCmecnon-typeable MRSA clones were identified in Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria and South-West Nigeria, respectively. The proportion of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL-positive MSSA was high (44.4% and 56.3% of these strains were associated with sequence type (ST 152. Conclusions The identification of multiresistant mecA positive

  2. Implications of Research on Children's Learning for Standards and Assessment: A Proposed Learning Progression for Matter and the Atomic-Molecular Theory

    Smith, Carol L.; Wiser, Marianne; Anderson, Charles W.; Krajcik, Joseph


    The purpose of this article is to suggest ways of using research on children's reasoning and learning to elaborate on existing national standards and to improve large-scale and classroom assessments. The authors suggest that "learning progressions"--descriptions of successively more sophisticated ways of reasoning within a content domain based on…

  3. Examining the Technical Adequacy of Second-Grade Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System. Technical Report # 08-08

    Alonzo, Julie; Liu, Kimy; Tindal, Gerald


    This technical report describes the development of reading comprehension assessments designed for use as progress monitoring measures appropriate for 2nd Grade students. The creation, piloting, and technical adequacy of the measures are presented. The following are appended: (1) Item Specifications for MC [Multiple Choice] Comprehension - Passage…

  4. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina


    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  5. Geothermal resource assessment of Mt. Hood volcano, Oregon, Phase I study. Technical progress report No. 2, October 1, 1977--March 31, 1978

    Hull, D.A.


    Several phases of the Mt. Hood geothermal resource assessment project are nearing completion. Most of the field work has been completed for the geologic study, gravity survey, and water sampling portions of the project. Thermal modelling, water analyses, rock analyses and age dating, and preparation of a complete Bouguer gravity map are in progress.

  6. Correlation with neuropsychological assessment and SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative condition of unknown aetiology that produces an akinetic-rigid form of parkinsonism characterised by early falls, dementia and abnormalities of extraocular movements. The patterns of decreased regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in PSP compared with normal control have been insufficiently investigated and a limited number of studies have been performed. We evaluated clinical symptoms, functional neuroimaging study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and neuropsychological profiles in patients with PSP. Eleven patients with PSP diagnosed by the clinical criteria of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP (NINDS-SPSP) (mean age: 70.5{+-}5.6 years, educational period: 4.5{+-}4.7 years) and age-matched 10 healthy control subjects (mean age: 68.1{+-}4.5 years, educational period: 6.5{+-}4.1 years) participated in this study were participated. All patients were given a neurologic examination, brain MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. We concomittently evaluated several cognitive profiles using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, left middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus in the patients with PSP compared with age-matched healthy control (uncorrected p<0.01). On neuropsychological assessment, cognitive deficits on verbal and visual memory, word fluency and frontal executive functions were prominent in most patients with PSP compared with healthy control subjects. Our findings suggest that measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by perfusion SPECT and voxel-based SPM analysis with neuropsychological assessment are useful to understanding the correlation between perfusion deficits and abnormal cognitive profiles in patients with PSP.

  7. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: The MP-1 and MP-2 late phase melt progression experiments

    Tautges, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis Dept.


    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRs. As a part of an ongoing assessment program, MELCOR has been used to model the MP-1 and MP-2 experiments, which provided data for late-phase melt progression in PWR geometries. Core temperature predicted by MELCOR were within 250--500 K of measured data in both MP-1 and MP-2. Relocation in the debris bed and metallic crust regions of MP-2 was predicted accurately compared to PIE data. Temperature gradients in lower portions of the test bundle were not predicted well in both MP-1 and MP-2, due to the lack of modeling of the heat transfer path to the cooling jacket in those portions of the test bundles. Fifteen sensitivity studies were run on various core (COR), control volume hydrodynamics (CVH) and heat structures (HS) package parameters. No unexpected sensitivities were found, and in particular there were no sensitivities to reduced time step, finer nodalization or to computer platform. Calculations performed by the DEBRIS and TAC2D codes for MP-1 and MP-2 showed better agreement with measured data than those performed by MELCOR. This was expected, through, due to the fully 2-dimensional modeling used in the other codes.

  8. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.

    Okonta, Patrick I


    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  9. Institutional Framework for Consumers Protection in Nigeria

    Ekanem, E. E.


    Full Text Available This study examined the framework institutionalised for the protection of consumers in Nigeria. In particular, it x-rayed the administrative and regulatory mechanisms put in place for the protection of consumers and considered the attitude of the courts in matters affecting the consumers. It was evidenced from the study that there are several regulatory agencies, with functions sometimes overlapping, set up to advance the consumer's course. The effectiveness of these agencies is brought into scrutiny, as sometimes, their existence is hardly known to the consumers. The study exposed a general lacklustre approach of the courts in consumer protection cases and its adverse effect on the consumers. If the consumer is to take benefit of whatever legal framework institutionalised for his protection in Nigeria, some level of judicial activism are required.

  10. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria

    Patrick I Okonta


    Full Text Available The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  11. Roles for SOF in a Staggering Nigeria


    languages and approximately 350 ethno-linguistic groups, Nigeria can indubitably be dubbed a cultural patchwork. Three dominant groups, the Ibo , Yoruba...and Hausa, comprise 60 percent of the population.13 The Ibo and Yoruba mainly occupy the south of the country and are generally Christians. The...minorities, and twelve states of Yoruba and Ibo , or related confession.”14 Extreme poverty in the Northern states Poverty is what primarily

  12. Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria

    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei


    Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations...

  13. Dermatologic conditions in teenage adolescents in Nigeria

    Henshaw EB


    Full Text Available Eshan B Henshaw,1 Olayinka A Olasode,2 Evelyn E Ogedegbe,3 Imaobong Etuk4 1Dermatology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, 2Department of Dermatology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 3Cedarcrest Hospital, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria Background: Skin disorders are common in adolescents, and the impact on quality of life can be enormous, particularly when viewed against the backdrop of the visibility of skin diseases and the psychologically vulnerable period of adolescence. However, few studies have documented the magnitude of skin disorders in this subset of individuals. We therefore estimated the point prevalence and pattern of dermatologic conditions in adolescents attending various secondary schools in Calabar, Southern Nigeria. Methods: Using a structured questionnaire, relevant sociodemographic information was obtained from 1,447 teenage adolescents from eight secondary schools. Thereafter, a whole body examination was conducted to determine the presence and types of skin disorders seen. Results: Skin diseases were seen in 929 students. The point prevalence was higher in males (72.1% than in females (58.3%. Private schools had a higher prevalence than public schools. The six most common dermatoses were acne vulgaris, pityriasis versicolor, nevi, tinea, miliaria, and keloid/hypertrophic scars, and accounted for over 80% of the dermatoses seen. Conclusion: The point prevalence of dermatoses in senior secondary school adolescents was 64.2%. Although a large number of skin disorders were observed, only a handful accounted for a significant proportion of the diseases seen. This increases the ease of training community health workers in the recognition and treatment of common skin diseases. Age, race, and climatic factors are important determinants of skin diseases in adolescents in

  14. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.


    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  15. The Use of Adolescents as Domestic Servants in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Okafor, Emeka Emmanuel


    The use of adolescents as domestic servants has become prevalent in most urban centers in Nigeria. This study focused on adolescents who work as domestic househelps in urban centers with special reference to Ibadan, Nigeria. The main objective of the study is to examine their mode of recruitment, the nature of their work as well the impact of such…

  16. NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.


    The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

  17. Employablity Skills among Graduates of Estate Management in Nigeria

    Egbenta, Idu Robert


    There is wide claim that employers have a high level of dissatisfaction associated with graduates from Nigeria higher institutions of learning. This paper examines whether graduates of estate management in Nigeria higher institutions have employability skills for productive employment. The study randomly sampled 59 principal partners or heads of…

  18. Current molecular epidemiology of Lassa virus in Nigeria.

    Ehichioya, Deborah U; Hass, Meike; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Ehimuan, Jacqueline; Asogun, Danny A; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Kleinsteuber, Katja; Lelke, Michaela; ter Meulen, Jan; Akpede, George O; Omilabu, Sunday A; Günther, Stephan; Olschläger, Stephan


    Recent Lassa virus strains from Nigeria were completely or partially sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the predominance of lineage II and III strains, the existence of a previously undescribed (sub)lineage in Nigeria, and the directional spread of virus in the southern part of the country. The Bayesian analysis also provided estimates for divergence times within the Lassa virus clade.

  19. Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

    Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho


    In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…

  20. The Western Pennsylvania Educators Inter-Cultural Experience in Nigeria.

    Vold, Larry A.; Vold, Edwina

    The project selected 16 educators representing liberal arts faculty, education faculty, and public school teachers to train them about Africa. The training had three phases: (1) an on-campus program on African history, politics, economics, and geography, focusing on Nigeria; (2) six weeks in Nigeria, meeting with prominent educators, politicians,…




    Full Text Available Most of the road networks in the developing countries of Africa are in deplorable conditions. Nigeria being one of these countries is not an exception. The conditions of the roads in Nigeria were examined. The causes of these conditions of the roads in Nigeria were articulated and their effects to the citizen, government and theeconomy of the country were highlighted and solutions to these problems given in the form of recommendations that will remedy the situation. Some of the identified causes were; poor design and construction, poor maintenance of already built highways, use of low quality materials in construction, poor workmanship and poorsupervision of construction work and the plying of heavy traffic that were not meant for the road on the road. Some of the recommendations to remedy the situation are; Use of the appropriate design of the roads, avoiding unnecessary congestion of the roads with traffic especially heavy traffics that were not meant for the roads inthe first place, prompt maintenance of the roads, application of suitable construction material in the construction of the roads, applying appropriate tests to the soil in road construction, use of qualified engineering personnel in road construction and the application of sanctions for highway failures.

  2. Capital Market and Unemployment in Nigeria

    Bamidele M. Ilo


    Full Text Available This paper examines how the Nigerian capital market affects unemployment in Nigeria with a view to identifying how the market has been able to curtail unemployment over the years or otherwise. It employes annual series data from 1986 to 2012 on unemployment, market capitalization and other data obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria, Statistical Bulletin. The study adopts the Johansson cointegration vector error correction technique for data analysis. The result shows that unemployment has risen unabatedly since the adoption of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP with an average unemployment rate of 8.12 per cent for the period while market capitalization relative to the size the economy is 14.42 per cent. The analysis also shows that while, economic growth significantly curtails unemployment capital market development fails to limit unemployment. The stock market thus has grown over the years at the expense job creation in Nigeria. It is expected that efforts are geared towards efficient capital market development to enhance mobilization of funds for long term investments by firms and propel job creation along the value chain. The government should also focus on developing those labour intensive sectors of the economy while pursuing its economic growth policy.

  3. Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria

    Lincoln J Fry


    Full Text Available Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods : The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future.

  4. Pond Fish Culture Practices in Nigeria

    J.A. Akankali


    Full Text Available Pond fish culture practices in Nigeria was reviewed to refresh the minds of fish and other interested stake holders on some basic principles involved in pond fish culture. Fish pond system is the commonest agricultural techniques in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Profit making, job creation, provision of raw materials for several industries and increase in foreign exchange earnings are some benefits. However, loss of land and introduction some water borne diseases are some disadvantages in pond fish culture. This articles reviews the fish pond management processes, stocking of ponds, feeding of fish, types of culture, fish farming combined with other branches of agriculture, rearing of fish for purposes other than food, other fish culture, types of fish used for fish culture in central east Africa, general biology of the species of value in fish culture and suitable combinations of fish for stocking to reawaken the minds of individuals, companies and government on the need to develop pond fish culture in Nigeria.

  5. Global observed long-term changes in temperature and precipitation extremes: A review of progress and limitations in IPCC assessments and beyond

    Lisa V. Alexander


    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC first attempted a global assessment of long-term changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in its Third Assessment Report in 2001. While data quality and coverage were limited, the report still concluded that heavy precipitation events had increased and that there had been, very likely, a reduction in the frequency of extreme low temperatures and increases in the frequency of extreme high temperatures. That overall assessment had changed little by the time of the IPCC Special Report on Extremes (SREX in 2012 and the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 in 2013, but firmer statements could be added and more regional detail was possible. Despite some substantial progress throughout the IPCC Assessments in terms of temperature and precipitation extremes analyses, there remain major gaps particularly regarding data quality and availability, our ability to monitor these events consistently and our ability to apply the complex statistical methods required. Therefore this article focuses on the substantial progress that has taken place in the last decade, in addition to reviewing the new progress since IPCC AR5 while also addressing the challenges that still lie ahead.

  6. Folklore linked to pregnancy and birth in Nigeria.

    Okafor, C B


    As a part of a safe motherhood project implemented in eastern Nigeria between 1992 and 1996, in-house interviews were conducted with rural women and traditional birth attendants in the seven states of eastern Nigeria. The overall project was designed to contribute toward the reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity through the involvement of community leaders and women's organizations in women's health activities in rural Nigeria. It also focused on identifying and addressing some of the underlying cultural factors in maternal mortality and morbidity in Nigeria. Findings from the interview show that women in rural eastern Nigeria still hold many folklore beliefs about pregnancy and childbirth, and some of these beliefs lead to delay in the referral of complications to hospitals.

  7. Effect of Selected Procurement Systems on Building Project Performance in Nigeria

    Olugbenga Timothy Oladirin


    Full Text Available Every client at the beginning of any project aims at having value for the money spent via a quality structure delivered on time and within budget by the contractor. However, researches have shown that in most cases this aim is not met. Therefore, this study examines the effect of procurement systems on building project performance in Nigeria, with a view to assess their effect on cost and quality. The data for this study were collected with the aid of structured questionnaires which were administered to actors in the construction industry in Lagos state being the major hub of construction activities in Nigeria. The questionnaires were related to the variants of procurement systems common to the Nigerian construction industry. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics. The result revealed that the traditional system of procurement is the most adopted option in project execution in Nigeria. Meanwhile, design and build system performs better in cost, but lag construction management system in quality achievement. The study concluded that no procurement system is a do it all in that a procurement system may perform better than the other in an instant and fail in others as revealed in the findings. The study finally recommends that consultants and other stakeholders in the construction industry and particularly those in the building sector should be up to date as to be able to suitably advise clients when it comes to building procurement, and that before choosing a procurement system the main objective and even supporting objectives should be established

  8. Value Added Tax and price stability in Nigeria: A partial equilibrium analysis

    Marius Ikpe


    Full Text Available The economic impact of Value Added Tax (VAT that was implemented in Nigeria in 1994 has generated much debate in recent times, especially with respect to its effect on the level of aggregate prices. This study empirically examines the influence of VAT on price stability in Nigeria using partial equilibrium analysis. We introduced the VAT variable in the framework of a combination of structuralist, monetarist and fiscalist approaches to inflation modelling. The analysis was carried out by applying multiple regression analysis in static form to data for the 1994-2010 period. The results reveal that VAT exerts a strong upward pressure on price levels, most likely due to the burden of VAT on intermediate outputs. The study rules out the option of VAT exemptions for intermediate outputs as a solution, due to the difficulty in distinguishing between intermediate and final outputs. Instead, it recommends a detailed post-VAT cost-benefit analysis to assess the social desirability of VAT policy in Nigeria.

  9. Attitudes and Perceptions of Students to Open and Distance Learning in Nigeria

    David Olugbenga Ojo


    Full Text Available In the West African Region of Africa, the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN is the first full fledged university that operates in an exclusively open and distance learning (ODL mode of education. NOUN focuses mainly on open and distance teaching and learning system, and delivers its courses materials via print in conjunction with information and communication technology (ICT, when applicable. This ‘single mode’ of open education is different from the integration of distance learning system into the face- to- face teaching and learning system, which is more typical of conventional Universities in Nigeria and other parts of the world. Thus, NOUN reflects a novel development in the provision of higher education in Nigeria. This study assesses the attitudes and perceptions of distance teaching and learning by students enrolled in the NOUN and of the National Teachers’ Institute (NTI compared to their experiences at conventional universities. One hundred and twenty (n = 120 randomly selected NOUN and NTI students of NOUN were the subjects of the study. The Students’ Attitude and Perception Rating of Open and Distance Learning Institutions Inventory (SAPRODLII, developed by the researchers, was administered to the subjects to measure their attitudes and experiences. Results of the study showed that students generally have a positive perception and attitude towards ODL, compared to traditional forms of higher education.

  10. The universal basic education programme and the family life HIV education in Nigeria

    Roland Clement Abah


    Full Text Available The study assessed the capacity of the Universal Basic Education Programme in Nigeria to effectively implement the Family Life HIV Education Curriculum. Using descriptive statistics, the study has analysed and presented graphs and tables of various national and regional public primary school data from 2004 to 2008 to showcase trends of available capacity in the UBE programme. Pupil enrolment is gradually on the increase in Nigeria and even though the pupil/teacher ratio is inadequate, most of the teachers in the UBE programme are qualified. The total number of existing public primary schools, classrooms and qualified teachers are not equitably distributed in the various regions of the country. The study however concludes that the implementation of the FLHE curriculum through the UBE programme would have an impact on the fight against HIV based on the total number of primary schools, quality of teachers, and number of pupils. Family Life HIV Education is critical to the reversal of the HIV epidemic in Nigeria and should be implemented fully in all primary schools in the country.

  11. Impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on HIV prevention practices among traditional birth attendants in Nigeria.

    Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E


    Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.

  12. The Challenge of Liquid Transportation Fuels in Nigeria and the Emergence of the Nigerian Automotive Biofuel Programme

    Elijah I. Ohimain


    Full Text Available This study is aimed at assessing the challenge of liquid transportation fuel in Nigeria, which necessitated the entrance of the country into the biofuel race. The study found that despite being an important member of the organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC, Nigeria still suffers from fuel scarcities. Reasons for the short supply of refined petroleum products (particularly gasoline, diesel and aviation fuel in Nigeria include poor capacity utilization of the nation’s refineries, disruption of crude oil supply to the refineries and political instability in the Niger Delta region (Nigeria’s oil province. Nigeria now relies heavily on foreign nations for the supply of these fuels. The country spends substantial part of her foreign exchange on fuel importation. The Federal Government now wishes to reverse this trend by initiating the automotive biofuel programme. The Nigerian automotive biofuel programme involved the construction of 9 plants comprising of 4 sugarcane and 2 cassava bioethanol projects and 3 biodiesel projects. These projects would involve the investment of $1.27 billion into the Nigerian economy for the production of 445 million L of ethanol, 192 MW of green electricity and 120 million L of biodiesel annually

  13. Incidence and cost estimate of treating pediatric adverse drug reactions in Lagos, Nigeria

    Kazeem Adeola Oshikoya

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs may cause prolonged hospital admissions with high treatment costs. The burden of ADRs in children has never been evaluated in Nigeria. The incidence of pediatric ADRs and the estimated cost of treatment over an 18-month period were determined in this study. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective observational study on children admitted to the pediatric wards of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH in Nigeria, between July 2006 and December 2007. METHODS: Each patient was assessed for ADRs throughout admission. Medical and non-medical costs to the hospital and patient were estimated for each ADR by reviewing the medical and pharmacy bills, medical charts and diagnostic request forms and by interviewing the parents. Cost estimates were performed in 2007 naira (Nigeria currency from the perspectives of the hospital (government, service users (patients and society (bearers of the total costs attributable to treating ADRs. The total estimated cost was expressed in 2007 United States dollars (USD. RESULTS: Two thousand and four children were admitted during the study; 12 (0.6% were admitted because of ADRs and 23 (1.2% developed ADR(s during admission. Forty ADRs were suspected in these 35 patients and involved 53 medicines. Antibiotics (50% were the most suspected medicines. Approximately 1.83 million naira (USD 15,466.60 was expended to manage all the patients admitted due to ADRs. CONCLUSIONS: Treating pediatric ADRs was very expensive. Pediatric drug use policies in Nigeria need to be reviewed so as to discourage self-medication, polypharmacy prescription and sales of prescription medicines without prescription.

  14. The Effect of Agricultural Development Project (ADP on the Rural Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Umar Adamu Madu


    Full Text Available Majority of communities in Nigeria are rural dwellers and agrarian by occupation. Development strategy for a country whose rural population are mainly farmers cannot be achieved without first sustained growth in rural income and standard of living primarily from agriculture. It was based on this that the state wide Agricultural Development Project (ADP was established to raise productivity, income and standard of living of rural farmers in Nigeria. This study assesses the effect of the ADP activities on the wellbeing of the rural farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data for this study were collect on annual crop output, annual income, farm size, use of improved technology, access to credit among farmers, farmers’ training and rural infrastructure development. The data were sourced using structured questionnaire and personal interviews. The statistical analysis used to determine the effect to the project on the participating farmers include, descriptive statistics and comparability test for difference (T-test analysis. The results indicates that Adamawa ADP had positive and significant impact on rural farmers productivity, income, access to credit, standard of living as measured by assets ownership. However, the project did not have significant impact on the rural infrastructure, adoption of improved technologies and farm sizes, even though the change from before and after ADP activities was positive. The study recommends that much attention should be paid to the provision of rural infrastructure and the needed improved technologies. The study also recommends that the two tiers of government in Nigeria should adequately fund the project to efficiently cope with its responsibility of developing the rural sector.

  15. Knowledge and use of HIV counseling and testing services among young persons in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Ajuwon, Ademola J; Titiloye, Musibau; Oshiname, Frederick; Oyewole, Oyediran

    AIDS is a major public health problem in Nigeria. HIV counseling and testing (HCT) service is an important component of prevention and control programs. Little information is available about young persons' knowledge and use of HCT services in Nigeria. This study assessed knowledge of HIV/AIDS and use of HCT services among secondary school students and apprentices in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data were collected through 16 focus group discussions (FGD) and administration of a 36-item questionnaire to 1,281 randomly selected male and female secondary school students and apprentices aged 15-25 years. The respondents consisted of 54% apprentices and 46% students. Although virtually all respondents were aware of AIDS, only 15.8% of the sample had heard about HCT. Of those who were aware of HCT, 30.1% knew where to access the service. Students had superior knowledge of HCT than apprentices. Only 7% of those aware of HCT had ever taken the test. The percentage of those who had reportedly taken the test ranged from 11.3% of female apprentices to 6.3% of male students, 5.3% of female students, and 5.2% of male apprentices. The barriers identified by FGD participants to use of HCT services are fear of stigmatization, perceived exorbitant cost of testing, lack of knowledge of where HCT service are available, and belief that HCT is meant for only sexually active persons. However, 82.6% of the entire sample expressed the willingness to take HCT if it is provided free of charge, and there is a guarantee of confidentiality of results. Young persons have limited knowledge of HCT and under-utilize this service. Establishment of new HCT centers, promotion activities using the media, and peer education are recommended to increase uptake of this service among young persons in Nigeria.

  16. Building and Strengthening Infection Control Strategies to Prevent Tuberculosis - Nigeria, 2015.

    Dokubo, E Kainne; Odume, Bethrand; Lipke, Virginia; Muianga, Custodio; Onu, Eugene; Olutola, Ayodotun; Ukachukwu, Lucy; Igweike, Patricia; Chukwura, Nneka; Ubochioma, Emperor; Aniaku, Everistus; Ezeudu, Chinyere; Agboeze, Joseph; Iroh, Gabriel; Orji, Elvina; Godwin, Okezue; Raji, Hasiya Bello; Aboje, S A; Osakwe, Chijioke; Debem, Henry; Bello, Mustapha; Onotu, Dennis; Maloney, Susan


    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide, accounting for more than 1.5 million deaths in 2014, and is the leading cause of death among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Nigeria has the fourth highest annual number of TB cases among countries, with an estimated incidence of 322 per 100,000 population (1), and the second highest prevalence of HIV infection, with 3.4 million infected persons (2). In 2014, 100,000 incident TB cases and 78,000 TB deaths occurred among persons living with HIV infection in Nigeria (1). Nosocomial transmission is a significant source of TB infection in resource-limited settings (3), and persons with HIV infection and health care workers are at increased risk for TB infection because of their routine exposure to patients with TB in health care facilities (3-5). A lack of TB infection control in health care settings has resulted in outbreaks of TB and drug-resistant TB among patients and health care workers, leading to excess morbidity and mortality. In March 2015, in collaboration with the Nigeria Ministry of Health (MoH), CDC implemented a pilot initiative, aimed at increasing health care worker knowledge about TB infection control, assessing infection control measures in health facilities, and developing plans to address identified gaps. The approach resulted in substantial improvements in TB infection control practices at seven selected facilities, and scale-up of these measures across other facilities might lead to a reduction in TB transmission in Nigeria and globally.

  17. A pilot study for targeted surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Nigeria.

    Nwankiti, O O; Ikeh, E I; Asala, O; Seuberlich, T


    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), popularly known as 'mad cow disease', led to an epidemic in Europe that peaked in the mid-1990s. Its impact on developing countries, such as Nigeria, has not been fully established as information on livestock and surveillance has eluded those in charge of this task. The BSE risk to Nigeria's cattle population currently remains undetermined, which has resulted in international trade restrictions on commodities from the cattle population. This is mainly because of a lack of updated BSE risk assessments and disease surveillance data. To evaluate the feasibility of BSE surveillance in Nigeria, we carried out a pilot study targeting cattle that were presented for emergency or casualty slaughter. In total, 1551 cattle of local breeds, aged 24 months and above were clinically examined. Ataxia, recumbency and other neurological signs were topmost on our list of criteria. A total of 96 cattle, which correspond to 6.2%, presented clinical signs that supported a suspect of BSE. The caudal brainstem tissues of these animals were collected post-mortem and analysed for the disease-specific form of the prion protein using a rapid test approved by the International Animal Health Organization (OIE). None of the samples were positive for BSE. Although our findings do not exclude the presence of BSE in Nigeria, they do demonstrate that targeted sampling of clinically suspected cases of BSE is feasible in developing countries. In addition, these findings point to the possibility of implementing clinical monitoring schemes for BSE and potentially other diseases with grave economic and public health consequences.

  18. Assessment of baseline hemodynamic parameters within infarct progression areas in acute stroke patients using perfusion-weighted MRI

    Ritzenthaler, Thomas; Cho, Tae-Hee; Derex, Laurent; Nighoghossian, Norbert [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Cerebrovascular Unit, Hopital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, Bron (France); Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, Creatis-LRMN, UMR 5520-Inserm 630, Lyon (France); Wiart, Marlene; Berthezene, Yves [Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, Creatis-LRMN, UMR 5520-Inserm 630, Lyon (France); Berthiller, Julien [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pole Information Medicale Evaluation Recherche, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Oestergaard, Leif [University of Aarhus, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Hermier, Marc [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Neuroradiology Department, Hopital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, Lyon (France)


    The value of perfusion MRI for identifying the tissue at risk has been questioned. Our objective was to assess baseline perfusion-weighted imaging parameters within infarct progression areas. Patients with anterior circulation stroke without early reperfusion were included from a prospective MRI database. Sequential MRI examinations were performed on admission, 2-3 h (H2), 2-3 days (D2), and between 15 and 30 days after the initial MRI. Maps of baseline time-to-peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were calculated. Lesion extension areas were defined as pixels showing de novo lesions between each MRI and were generated by subtracting successive lesion masks: V{sub 0}, baseline diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion; V{sub 1}, lesion extension between baseline and H2 DWI; V{sub 2}, lesion extension from H2 to D2 DWI; and V{sub 3}, lesion extension from D2 DWI to final FLAIR. Repeated measures analysis was used to compare hemodynamic parameters within the baseline diffusion lesion and subsequent lesion extension areas. Thirty-two patients were included. Baseline perfusion parameters were significantly more impaired within the acute DWI lesion compared to lesion extension areas (TTP, p<0.0001; MTT, p<0.0001; CBF p<0.0001; CBV, p<0.0001). A significant decrease in MTT (p = 0.01) and TTP (p = 0.01) was found within successive lesion growth areas. A decreasing gradient of severity for TTP and MTT was observed within successive infarct growth areas. (orig.)

  19. Two Voices from Nigeria: Nigeria through the Literature of Chinua Achebe and Buchi Emecheta.

    Reese, Lyn

    This unit, designed for use in both history and English classes, uses excerpts from novels as a way to view Nigerian culture and history through the eyes of its people. The literature used comes primarily from the work of two of Nigeria's important novelists: Chinua Achebe and Buchi Emecheta. Both offer views from the Igbo culture of southeast…

  20. Is the trend of amputation in Nigeria changing? A review of 51 consecutives cases seen at Federal medical centre Ebute Metta, Lagos, Nigeria

    A A Dada


    Full Text Available Introduction: Many previous studies from Nigeria have recognized trauma and complications of management of musculo-skeletal conditions by traditional bone setters (TBS as the leading cause of amputation in Nigeria. However, of recent, a number of the studies are showing that diabetes gangrene which used to be an uncommon indication is becoming an important cause of extremity amputations. In view of the effect of amputation on the individual and the society and the success of well designed preventive programs, it is important that the indications for amputation be kept in constant view. The objective of this study is to draw attention to the increasing importance of diabetes gangrene as a leading cause of amputation in Nigeria. Patient and Methods: This is a three-year prospective study (October 2006 - September 2009 using observer- administered questionnaires after consents were obtained from all patients or proxy during the period of study. All recruited patients were followed up and evaluated after surgery to determine the outcome. The following data were obtained and analyzed - age, sex, amputation type, indication and use of prosthesis. Results: Fifty-one amputations were performed in fifty patients (37 males and 13 females. M.F = 2.8:1, age range 5 - 85 years, mean 47.6+/- S.D 20.7. Major limb amputations accounted for 35 cases (68.6 % with diabetes gangrene accounting for 23 cases (45% followed by Trauma accounting for 16 cases (31%. Wound infection was the commonest complication occurring in 16 cases (31.4%, Escherichia coli being the commonest causative organism. Only 6 patients (12% eventually used prosthesis and the mortality in this series was 8 patients (16%. Conclusion: Diabetic gangrene is the leading cause of amputation in this series. This is the first study in this environment to the best of the authors′ knowledge where diabetes gangrene will emerge the leading indication. A number of other reports from Nigeria in the last few