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Sample records for nif optics assembly

  1. Management Prestart Review Phase 1 for the NIF Optics Assembly Building (OAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoo, V

    2000-01-01

    A Management Prestart Review (MPR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Optics Assembly Building (OAB) was conducted from June, 2000, through October, 2000. This review was performed to determine readiness of the facility and management to transfer the facility from the construction to the commissioning and operations phase. This review process provides assurance that the appropriate line management is in place to effect the turnover. Completion and acceptance of this report constitutes a turnover of facility and equipment operational responsibility from the Beampath Infrastructure System Construction organization to the Assembly Installation and Refurbishment Operations (assembly equipment installation/activation and mechanical cleaning operations) and the Beampath Infrastructure System (BIS) Commissioning and Operations Organizations (conventional facility operations). The OAB MPR provides to the NIF Project Manager an independent, systematic assessment of: (1) Readiness of line management for the turnover to take place, (2) Completeness of the equipment and facility installation of the OAB, (3) Readiness of personnel to operate within the facility, and (4) Implementation and efficacy of key management control processes and procedures. The MPR process assures that the technical, cost, and schedule risk associated with the installation/activation of OAB special equipment, mechanical cleaning, and conventional facility operations within the OAB are evaluated and are acceptable. Specifically, the scope of the review addresses technical and operational attributes of the equipment and facility systems that have been determined to have significant project risk. This report implements the LLNL requirement that MPRs shall be conducted before all new facilities are brought into operation, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) ES and H Manual (M-010), Section 2.2.5, Pre-Start Reviews. The MPR process is an essential part of the ISM work authorization and

  2. NIF Target Assembly Metrology Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, E. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kroll, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dzenitis, E. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montesanti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Swisher, M. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Segraves, K. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Lord, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    During our inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we require cryogenic targets at the 1-cm scale to be fabricated, assembled, and metrologized to micron-level tolerances. During assembly of these ICF targets, there are physical dimensmetrology is completed using optical coordinate measurement machines that provide repeatable measurements with micron precision, while also allowing in-process data collection for absolute accuracy in assembly. To date, 51 targets have been assembled and metrologized, and 34 targets have been successfully fielded on NIF relying on these metrology data. In the near future, ignition experiments on NIF will require tighter tolerances and more demanding target assembly and metrology capability. Metrology methods, calculations, and uncertainty estimates will be discussed. Target diagnostic port alignment, target position, and capsule location results will be reviewed for the 2009 Energetics Campaign. The information is presented via control charts showing the effect of process improvements that were made during target production. Certain parameters, including capsule position, met the 2009 campaign specifications but will have much tighter requirements in the future. Finally, in order to meet these new requirements assembly process changes and metrology capability upgrades will be necessary.

  3. NIF optics phase gradient specfication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.; Auerbach, J.; Hunt, J.; Lawson, L.; Manes, K.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Trenholme, J.; Wegner, P.

    1997-01-01

    A root-mean-square (rms) phase gradient specification seems to allow a good connection between the NIP optics quality and focal spot requirements. Measurements on Beamlet optics individually, and as a chain, indicate they meet the assumptions necessary to use this specification, and that they have a typical rms phase gradient of ∼80 angstrom/cm. This may be sufficient for NIP to meet the proposed Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (SSMP) requirements of 80% of a high- power beam within a 200-250 micron diameter spot. Uncertainties include, especially, the scale length of the optics phase noise, the ability of the adaptive optic to correct against pump-induced distortions and optics noise, and the possibility of finding mitigation techniques against whole-beam self-focusing (e.g. a pre- correction optic). Further work is needed in these areas to better determine the NIF specifications. This memo is a written summary of a presentation on this topic given by W. Williams 24 April 1997 to NIP and LS ampersand T personnel

  4. NIF small optics laser damage test specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Damage Group is currently conducting tests on small optics samples supplied for initial evaluation of potential NIF suppliers. This document is meant to define the specification of laser-induced damage for small optics and the test methods used to collect the data. A rating system which will be applied for vendor selection is presented

  5. Automated optics inspection analysis for NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegelmeyer, Laura M., E-mail: kegelmeyer1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Clark, Raelyn; Leach, Richard R.; McGuigan, David; Kamm, Victoria Miller; Potter, Daniel; Salmon, J. Thad; Senecal, Joshua; Conder, Alan; Nostrand, Mike; Whitman, Pamela K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-energy laser facility comprised of 192 beamlines that house thousands of optics. These optics guide, amplify and tightly focus light onto a tiny target for fusion ignition research and high energy density physics experiments. The condition of these optics is key to the economic, efficient and maximally energetic performance of the laser. Our goal, and novel achievement, is to find on the optics any imperfections while they are tens of microns in size, track them through time to see if they grow and if so, remove the optic and repair the single site so the entire optic can then be re-installed for further use on the laser. This paper gives an overview of the image analysis used for detecting, measuring, and tracking sites of interest on an optic while it is installed on the beamline via in situ inspection and after it has been removed for maintenance. In this way, the condition of each optic is monitored throughout the optic's lifetime. This overview paper will summarize key algorithms and technical developments for custom image analysis and processing and highlight recent improvements. (Associated papers will include more details on these issues.) We will also discuss the use of OI Analysis for daily operation of the NIF laser and its extension to inspection of NIF targets.

  6. Automated optics inspection analysis for NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegelmeyer, Laura M.; Clark, Raelyn; Leach, Richard R.; McGuigan, David; Kamm, Victoria Miller; Potter, Daniel; Salmon, J. Thad; Senecal, Joshua; Conder, Alan; Nostrand, Mike; Whitman, Pamela K.

    2012-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-energy laser facility comprised of 192 beamlines that house thousands of optics. These optics guide, amplify and tightly focus light onto a tiny target for fusion ignition research and high energy density physics experiments. The condition of these optics is key to the economic, efficient and maximally energetic performance of the laser. Our goal, and novel achievement, is to find on the optics any imperfections while they are tens of microns in size, track them through time to see if they grow and if so, remove the optic and repair the single site so the entire optic can then be re-installed for further use on the laser. This paper gives an overview of the image analysis used for detecting, measuring, and tracking sites of interest on an optic while it is installed on the beamline via in situ inspection and after it has been removed for maintenance. In this way, the condition of each optic is monitored throughout the optic's lifetime. This overview paper will summarize key algorithms and technical developments for custom image analysis and processing and highlight recent improvements. (Associated papers will include more details on these issues.) We will also discuss the use of OI Analysis for daily operation of the NIF laser and its extension to inspection of NIF targets.

  7. Behavioral Model of High Performance Camera for NIF Optics Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, B M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop software that will model the behavior of the high performance Spectral Instruments 1000 series Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera located in the Final Optics Damage Inspection (FODI) system on the National Ignition Facility. NIF's target chamber will be mounted with 48 Final Optics Assemblies (FOAs) to convert the laser light from infrared to ultraviolet and focus it precisely on the target. Following a NIF shot, the optical components of each FOA must be carefully inspected for damage by the FODI to ensure proper laser performance during subsequent experiments. Rapid image capture and complex image processing (to locate damage sites) will reduce shot turnaround time; thus increasing the total number of experiments NIF can conduct during its 30 year lifetime. Development of these rapid processes necessitates extensive offline software automation -- especially after the device has been deployed in the facility. Without access to the unique real device or an exact behavioral model, offline software testing is difficult. Furthermore, a software-based behavioral model allows for many instances to be running concurrently; this allows multiple developers to test their software at the same time. Thus it is beneficial to construct separate software that will exactly mimic the behavior and response of the real SI-1000 camera

  8. NIF optical specifications - the importance of the RMS gradient specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, J. M.; Cotton, C. T.; English, R. E.; Henesian, M. A.; Hunt, J. T.; Kelly, J. H.; Lawson, J. K.; Sacks, J. B.; Shoup, M. J.; Trenholme, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    The performance of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), especially in terms of laser focusability, will be determined by several key factors. One of these key factors is the optical specification for the thousands of large aperture optics that will comprise the 192 beamlines. We have previously reported on the importance of the specification of the power spectral density (PSD) on NIF performance. Recently, we have been studying the importance of long spatial wavelength (>33 mm) phase errors on focusability. We have concluded that the preferred metric for determining the impact of these long spatial wavelength phase errors is the rms phase gradient. In this paper, we outline the overall approach to NIF optical specifications, detail the impact of the rms phase gradient on NIF focusability, discuss its trade-off with the PSD in determining the spot size and review measurements of optics similar to those to be manufactured for NIF

  9. Precision Cleaning and Protection of Coated Optical Components for NIF Small Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Jim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The purpose of this procedure shall be to define the precision cleaning of finished, coated, small optical components for NIF at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. The term “small optical components” includes coated optics that are set into simple mounts, as well as coated, un-mounted optics.

  10. NIF Laser Line Replaceable Units (LRUs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D W

    2003-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed with its high value optical systems in cassettes called Line Replaceable Units (LRUs). Virtually all of the NIF's active components are assembled in one of the ∼4000 electrical and optical LRUs that serve between two and eight of NIF's 192 laser beam lines. Many of these LRUs are optomechanical assemblies that are roughly the size of a telephone booth. The primary design challenges for this hardware include meeting stringent mechanical precision, stability and cleanliness requirements. Pre-production units of each LRU type have been fielded on the first bundle of NIF and used to demonstrate that NIF meets its performance objectives. This presentation provides an overview of the NIF LRUs, their design and production plans for building out the remaining NIF bundles

  11. NIF-type iron-sulfur cluster assembly system is duplicated and distributed in the mitochondria and cytosol of Mastigamoeba balamuthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nývltová, Eva; Šuták, Robert; Harant, Karel; Šedinová, Miroslava; Hrdy, Ivan; Paces, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Tachezy, Jan

    2013-04-30

    In most eukaryotes, the mitochondrion is the main organelle for the formation of iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters. This function is mediated through the iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery, which was inherited from the α-proteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria. In Archamoebae, including pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and free-living Mastigamoeba balamuthi, the complex iron-sulfur cluster machinery has been replaced by an ε-proteobacterial nitrogen fixation (NIF) system consisting of two components: NifS (cysteine desulfurase) and NifU (scaffold protein). However, the cellular localization of the NIF system and the involvement of mitochondria in archamoebal FeS assembly are controversial. Here, we show that the genes for both NIF components are duplicated within the M. balamuthi genome. One paralog of each protein contains an amino-terminal extension that targets proteins to mitochondria (NifS-M and NifU-M), and the second paralog lacks a targeting signal, thereby reflecting the cytosolic form of the NIF machinery (NifS-C and NifU-C). The dual localization of the NIF system corresponds to the presence of FeS proteins in both cellular compartments, including detectable hydrogenase activity in Mastigamoeba cytosol and mitochondria. In contrast, E. histolytica possesses only single genes encoding NifS and NifU, respectively, and there is no evidence for the presence of the NIF machinery in its reduced mitochondria. Thus, M. balamuthi is unique among eukaryotes in that its FeS cluster formation is mediated through two most likely independent NIF machineries present in two cellular compartments.

  12. Automated optical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, John L.

    1995-08-01

    Automation and polymer science represent fundamental new technologies which can be directed toward realizing the goal of establishing a domestic, world-class, commercial optics business. Use of innovative optical designs using precision polymer optics will enable the US to play a vital role in the next generation of commercial optical products. The increased cost savings inherent in the utilization of optical-grade polymers outweighs almost every advantage of using glass for high volume situations. Optical designers must gain experience with combined refractive/diffractive designs and broaden their knowledge base regarding polymer technology beyond a cursory intellectual exercise. Implementation of a fully automated assembly system, combined with utilization of polymer optics, constitutes the type of integrated manufacturing process which will enable the US to successfully compete with the low-cost labor employed in the Far East, as well as to produce an equivalent product.

  13. Ultraviolet Light Generation and Transport in the Final Optics Assembly of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hackel, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Feit, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Parham, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kozlowski, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whitman, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-12

    The design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) includes a Final Optics Assembly (FOA) subsystem for ultraviolet (UV) light generation and transport for each of the 192 beamlines. Analytical and experimental work has been done to help understand and predict the performance of FOA.

  14. Optical Filter Assembly for Interplanetary Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yijiang; Hemmati, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based, narrow-band, high throughput optical filters are required for optical links from deep space. We report on the development of a tunable filter assembly that operates at telecommunication window of 1550 nanometers. Low insertion loss of 0.5 decibels and bandwidth of 90 picometers over a 2000 nanometers operational range of detectors has been achieved.

  15. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  16. Acoustic Longitudinal Field NIF Optic Feature Detection Map Using Time-Reversal & MUSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S K

    2006-02-09

    We developed an ultrasonic longitudinal field time-reversal and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) based detection algorithm for identifying and mapping flaws in fused silica NIF optics. The algorithm requires a fully multistatic data set, that is one with multiple, independently operated, spatially diverse transducers, each transmitter of which, in succession, launches a pulse into the optic and the scattered signal measured and recorded at every receiver. We have successfully localized engineered ''defects'' larger than 1 mm in an optic. We confirmed detection and localization of 3 mm and 5 mm features in experimental data, and a 0.5 mm in simulated data with sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. We present the theory, experimental results, and simulated results.

  17. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  18. Tunable optical assembly with vibration dampening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical assembly is formed by one or more piezoelectric fiber composite actuators having one or more optical fibers coupled thereto. The optical fiber(s) experiences strain when actuation voltage is applied to the actuator(s). Light passing through the optical fiber(s) is wavelength tuned by adjusting the actuation voltage.

  19. Assembly and maintenance of full scale NIF amplifiers in the amplifier module prototype laboratory (AMPLAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical assembly and maintenance of the prototype National Ignition Facility amplifiers in the Amplifier Module Prototype Laboratory (AMPLAB) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires specialized equipment designed to manipulate large and delicate amplifier components in a safe and clean manner. Observations made during the operation of this assembly and maintenance equipment in AMPLAB provide design guidance for similar tools being built for the National Ignition Facility. Fixtures used for amplifier frame installation, laser slab and flashlamp cassette assembly, transport, and installation, and in-situ blastshield exchange are presented. Examples include a vacuum slab gripper, slab handling clean crane, slab cassette assembly fixture, sealed transport vehicle for slab cassette movement between the cleanroom and amplifier, slab cassette transfer fixture between the cleanroom and transport vehicle, and equipment needed for frame assembly unit, blastshield, an d flashlamp cassette installation and removal. The use of these tools for amplifier assembly, system reconfiguration, reflector replacement, and recovery from an abnormal occurrence such as a flashlamp explosion is described. Observations are made on the design and operation of these tools and their contribution to the final design

  20. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F.; Ross, J. S.; Datte, P.; Moody, J.; Divol, L.; Jones, O.; Landen, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause “blanking” (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm{sup −2}. This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of “blanking” effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate “blanking.” Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10{sup 19} cm{sup −2} Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  1. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, G F; Ross, J S; Datte, P; Moody, J; Divol, L; Jones, O; Landen, O

    2016-11-01

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause "blanking" (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm -2 . This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of "blanking" effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate "blanking." Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10 19 cm -2 Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  2. Toward high throughput optical metamaterial assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jake; Ratna, Banahalli R

    2015-11-01

    Optical metamaterials have unique engineered optical properties. These properties arise from the careful organization of plasmonic elements. Transitioning these properties from laboratory experiments to functional materials may lead to disruptive technologies for controlling light. A significant issue impeding the realization of optical metamaterial devices is the need for robust and efficient assembly strategies to govern the order of the nanometer-sized elements while enabling macroscopic throughput. This mini-review critically highlights recent approaches and challenges in creating these artificial materials. As the ability to assemble optical metamaterials improves, new unforeseen opportunities may arise for revolutionary optical devices.

  3. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  4. Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic ‘lumped’ circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems.

  5. Fiber optical assembly for fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, II, Robert W.; Rubenstein, Richard; Piltch, Martin; Gray, Perry

    2010-12-07

    A system for analyzing a sample for the presence of an analyte in a sample. The system includes a sample holder for containing the sample; an excitation source, such as a laser, and at least one linear array radially disposed about the sample holder. Radiation from the excitation source is directed to the sample, and the radiation induces fluorescent light in the sample. Each linear array includes a plurality of fused silica optical fibers that receive the fluorescent light and transmits a fluorescent light signal from the first end to an optical end port of the linear array. An end port assembly having a photo-detector is optically coupled to the optical end port. The photo-detector detects the fluorescent light signal and converts the fluorescent light signal into an electrical signal.

  6. Optical matrix for nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, M.; Gonzaga O, A.

    1996-01-01

    In order to detect the presence of fuel rods, it was selected a reflection optical transducer, which provides a measurable electrical signal when the beam at a certain distance is interrupted then there is a reflection causing a excitation to the sensor that provides a change of state at the output of transducer. This step is coupled through an operational amplifier which drives the opto coupler circuit isolating this step of the interface and a personal computer. This work presents the description of components, designs, signal coupler and opto isolater circuit, interface circuit and tutorial assemble program. (Author)

  7. Optical alignment techniques for line-imaging velocity interferometry and line-imaging self-emulsion of targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Robert M.; Frogget, Brent C.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Tunnell, Thomas W.; Guyton, Robert L.; Reinbachs, Imants P.; Watts, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 69 feet. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. The orange alignment laser is introduced at the entrance to the two-level interferometer table and passes forward through the optical systems to the recording streak cameras. The red alignment laser is introduced in front of the recording streak cameras and passes in the reverse direction through all optical elements, out of the interferometer table, eventually reaching the target chamber center. Red laser wavelength is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of a special beamsplitter used to separate emission light from the Doppler-shifted interferometer light. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignments spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1- to 15-inch-diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-inch diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot

  8. Laser Science and Technology Program Annual Report-2002 NIF Programs Directorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, L; Chen, H L

    2003-01-01

    The Laser Science and Technology (LSandT) Program's mission is to develop advanced lasers, optics, materials technologies, and applications to solve problems and create new capabilities of importance to the nation and the Laboratory. A top, near-term priority is to provide technical support in the deployment and upgrade of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our other program activities synergistically develop technologies that are consistent with the goals of the NIF Directorate and develop state-of-the-art capabilities. The primary objectives of LSandT activities in 2002 have been fourfold--(a) to support deployment of hardware and to enhance laser and optics performance for NIF, (b) to develop high-energy petawatt laser science and technology for the Department of Energy (DOE), (c) to develop advanced solid-state laser systems and optical components for the Department of Defense (DoD), and (d) to invent, develop, and deliver improved concepts and hardware for other government agencies and industry. LSandT activities during 2002 focused on seven major areas: (1) NIF Project-LSandT led major advances in the deployment of NIF Final Optics Assembly (FOA) and the development of 30.1 optics processing and treatment technologies to enhance NIF's operations and performance capabilities. (2) Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP)-LSandT personnel continued development of ultrashort-pulse lasers and high-power, large-aperture optics for applications in SSP, extreme-field science and national defense. To enhance the high-energy petawatt (HEPW) capability in NIF, LSandT continued development of advanced compressor-grating and front-end laser technologies utilizing optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). (3) High-energy-density physics and inertial fusion energy-LSandT continued development of kW- to MW-class, diode-pumped, solid-state laser (DPSSL). (4) Department of Defense (DoD)-LSandT continued development of a 100 kw-class solid-state heat-capacity laser

  9. AN UPDATE ON THE STATUS OF THE NIF POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P A; Hulsey, S; Ullery, G T; Petersen, D E; Pendleton, D L; Ollis, C W; Newton, M A; Harwell, T; Cordoza, D; Hadovski, L

    2007-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Power Conditioning System provides the pulsed excitation required to drive flashlamps in the laser's optical amplifiers. Modular in design, each of the 192 Main Energy Storage Modules (MESMs) stores up to 2.2 MJ of electrical energy in its capacitor bank before delivering the energy to 20 pairs of flashlamps in a 400 (micro)s pulse (10% power points). The peak current of each MESM discharge is 0.5 MA. Production, installation, commissioning and operation of the NIF Power Conditioning continue to progress rapidly, with the goals of completing accelerated production and commissioning by early 2008, while maintaining an aggressive operation schedule. To date, more than 97% of the required modules have been assembled, shipped and installed in the facility, representing more that 380 MJ of stored energy available for driving NIF flashlamps. The MESMs have displayed outstanding reliability during daily, multiple-shift operations

  10. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements optics assembly building (OAB) SSDR 1.2.2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempel, P.; Hands, J.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements 'for the conventional building systems and subsystems of the Optics Assembly Building (OAB). These building system requirements are associated with housing and supporting the operational flow of personnel and materials throughout the OAB for preparing and repairing optical and mechanical components used in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser and Target Building (LTAB). This SSDR addresses the following subsystems associated with the OAB: * Structural systems for the building spaces and operational-support equipment and building- support equipment. * Architectural building features associated with housing the space, operational cleanliness, and functional operation of the facility. * Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems for maintaining a clean and thermally stable ambient environment within the facility. * Plumbing systems that provide potable water and sanitary facilities for the occupants and stormwater drainage for transporting rainwater. * Fire Protection systems that guard against fire damage to the facility and its contents. * Material handling equipment for transferring optical assemblies and other materials within building areas and to the LTAB. * Mechanical process piping systems for liquids and gases that provide cooling, cleaning, and other service to optical and mechanical components. * Electrical power and grounding systems that provide service to the building and equipment, including lighting distribution and communications systems for the facilities. * Instrumentation and control systems that ensure the safe operation of conventional facilities systems, such as those listed above. Generic design criteria, such as siting data, seismic requirements, utility availability, and other information that contributes to the OAB design, are not addressed in this document

  11. Assembly, alignment and test of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) optical assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonek, Gregory; Brown, Joshua J.; Andre, James E.; Chesbrough, Christian D.; Chrisp, Michael P.; Dalpiaz, Michael; Lennon, Joseph; Richards, B. C.; Clark, Kristin E.

    2017-08-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will carry four visible waveband, seven-element, refractive F/1.4 lenses, each with a 34 degree diagonal field of view. This paper describes the methods used for the assembly, alignment and test of the four flight optical assemblies. Prior to commencing the build of the four flight optical assemblies, a Risk Reduction Unit (RRU) was successfully assembled and tested [1]. The lessons learned from the RRU were applied to the build of the flight assemblies. The main modifications to the flight assemblies include the inking of the third lens element stray light mitigation, tighter alignment tolerances, and diamond turning for critical mechanical surfaces. Each of the optical assemblies was tested interferometrically and measured with a low coherence distance measuring interferometer (DMI) to predict the optimal shim thickness between the lens assembly and detector before -75°C environmental testing. In addition to individual test data, environmental test results from prior assemblies allow for the exploration of marginal performance differences between each of the optical assemblies.

  12. Optical orientation in self assembled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    We examined Zeeman splitting in a series of ln x Ga (1-x) As/GaAs self assembled quantum dots (SAQD's) with different pump polarisations. All these measurements were made in very low external magnetic fields where direct determination of the Zeeman splitting energy is impossible due to its small value in comparison to the photoluminescence linewidths. The use of a technique developed by M. J. Snelling allowed us to obtain the Zeeman splitting and hence the excitonic g-factors indirectly. We observed a linear low field splitting, becoming increasingly non-linear at higher fields. We attribute this non-linearity to field induced level mixing. It is believed these are the first low field measurements in these structures. A number of apparent nuclear effects in the Zeeman splitting measurements led us onto the examination of nuclear effects in these structures. The transverse and oblique Hanie effects then allowed us to obtain the sign of the electronic g-factors in two of our samples, for one sample, a (311) grown In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As/GaAs SAQD sample, we were able to ascertain the spin relaxation time, the maximum value of the nuclear field, and provide evidence of the existence of nuclear spin freezing in at least one of our samples. We have then used a novel technique investigated by D. J. Guerrier, to examine optically detected nuclear magnetic resonance in our samples. We believe this is the first such study on these structures. We could not ascertain the dipolar indium resonance signal, even though all other isotopes were seen. We have therefore suggested a number of possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the lack of an indium resonance signal. (author)

  13. A 3D Optical Metamaterial Made by Self-Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Vignolini, Silvia

    2011-10-24

    Optical metamaterials have unusual optical characteristics that arise from their periodic nanostructure. Their manufacture requires the assembly of 3D architectures with structure control on the 10-nm length scale. Such a 3D optical metamaterial, based on the replication of a self-assembled block copolymer into gold, is demonstrated. The resulting gold replica has a feature size that is two orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength of visible light. Its optical signature reveals an archetypal Pendry wire metamaterial with linear and circular dichroism. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A 3D Optical Metamaterial Made by Self-Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Vignolini, Silvia; Yufa, Nataliya A.; Cunha, Pedro S.; Guldin, Stefan; Rushkin, Ilia; Stefik, Morgan; Hur, Kahyun; Wiesner, Ulrich; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Steiner, Ullrich

    2011-01-01

    Optical metamaterials have unusual optical characteristics that arise from their periodic nanostructure. Their manufacture requires the assembly of 3D architectures with structure control on the 10-nm length scale. Such a 3D optical metamaterial, based on the replication of a self-assembled block copolymer into gold, is demonstrated. The resulting gold replica has a feature size that is two orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength of visible light. Its optical signature reveals an archetypal Pendry wire metamaterial with linear and circular dichroism. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano-Photonics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    freedoms) 3 (3) Carried out initial research work related to semiconductor membrane transfer printing. Based on the customer designed PDMS stamp...for optical characterization and membrane printing/assembly. The system has the following features: Micro-precision alignment with integrated 50 nm...a FL300-12 Automated Alignment System was acquired from Ficontec (USA) Corporation for optical characterization and membrane printing/assembly. The

  16. RT Self-assembly of Silica Nanoparticles on Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Lindoy, Lachlan; Huyang, George

    2013-01-01

    The room temperature deposition of self-assembling silica nanoparticles onto D-shaped optical fibres x201c;D-fibrex201d;), drawn from milled preforms fabricated by modified chemical vapor deposition, is studied and preliminary results reported here.......The room temperature deposition of self-assembling silica nanoparticles onto D-shaped optical fibres x201c;D-fibrex201d;), drawn from milled preforms fabricated by modified chemical vapor deposition, is studied and preliminary results reported here....

  17. Formation of a homocitrate-free iron-molybdenum cluster on NifEN: implications for the role of homocitrate in nitrogenase assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Aaron Wolfe; Blank, Michael Aaron; Yoshizawa, Janice Mariko; Lee, Chi Chung; Wiig, Jared Andrew; Hu, Yilin; Hodgson, Keith Owen; Hedman, Britt; Ribbe, Markus Walter

    2010-03-28

    Molybdenum (Mo)-dependent nitrogenase is a complex metalloprotein that catalyzes the biological reduction of dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia (NH(3)) at the molybdenum-iron cofactor (FeMoco) site of its molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein component. Here we report the formation of a homocitrate-free, iron-molybdenum ("FeMo") cluster on the biosynthetic scaffold of FeMoco, NifEN. Such a NifEN-associated "FeMo" cluster exhibits EPR features similar to those of the NifEN-associated, fully-complemented "FeMoco", which originate from the presence of Mo in both cluster species; however, "FeMo" cluster and "FeMoco" display different temperature-dependent changes in the line shape and the signal intensity of their respective EPR features, which reflect the impact of homocitrate on the redox properties of these clusters. XAS/EXAFS analysis reveals that the Mo centers in both "FeMo" cluster and "FeMoco" are present in a similar coordination environment, although Mo in "FeMo" cluster is more loosely coordinated as compared to that in "FeMoco" with respect to the Mo-O distances in the cluster, likely due to the absence of homocitrate that normally serves as an additional ligand for the Mo in the cluster. Subsequent biochemical investigation of the "FeMo" cluster not only facilitates the determination of the sequence of events in the mobilization of Mo and homocitrate during FeMoco maturation, but also permits the examination of the role of homocitrate in the transfer of FeMoco between NifEN and MoFe protein. Combined outcome of these studies establishes a platform for future structural analysis of the interactions between NifEN and MoFe protein, which will provide useful insights into the mechanism of cluster transfer between the two proteins.

  18. NIF unconverted light and its influence on DANTE measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Frederic; Suter, Larry; Landen, Otto; Munro, Dave; Regan, Sean; Kline, John

    2009-06-01

    NIF laser facility produces 1053 nm light and a fundamental requirement for NIF is to give up to 1.8 MJ of 351 nm light for target physics experiments. The 351 nm light is provided by frequency tripling the 1053 nm light in nonlinear crystals in the final optics assembly, just before the laser light enters the target chamber. Since this tripling process is not 100% efficient, unconverted light from the conversion process also enters the chamber. This unconverted light does not directly hit the target but it can strike target support structures at average intensities of few TW/cm2 where it can generate unwanted, background soft x-rays that are measured by the soft x-ray diagnostic DANTE installed on the NIF target chamber. This diagnostic quantifies the x-radiation intensity inside the hohlraum by measuring the x-ray flux coming from the target's laser entrance hole. Due to its centimeter wide field of view, it integrates x-ray emission from both the flux exiting a hohlraum laser entrance hole and from the target support structure irradiated by residual 1omega and 2omega unconverted light. This work gives quantitative evaluations of the unconverted light for the first time and the effects on DANTE measurements for the future NIF tuning experiment called "Shock timing." Emission spectra are significantly modified leading to an overestimation of radiative temperature during the foot of the laser pulse since background x-rays are predominant in first two DANTE channel measurements. Mitigations of these effects by coating silicon paddle with plastic, using a smaller collimator to reduce DANTE field of view or eliminating DANTE channels in the analysis have been investigated.

  19. Virtual commissioning of automated micro-optical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlette, Christian; Losch, Daniel; Haag, Sebastian; Zontar, Daniel; Roßmann, Jürgen; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution, we present a novel approach to enable virtual commissioning for process developers in micro-optical assembly. Our approach aims at supporting micro-optics experts to effectively develop assisted or fully automated assembly solutions without detailed prior experience in programming while at the same time enabling them to easily implement their own libraries of expert schemes and algorithms for handling optical components. Virtual commissioning is enabled by a 3D simulation and visualization system in which the functionalities and properties of automated systems are modeled, simulated and controlled based on multi-agent systems. For process development, our approach supports event-, state- and time-based visual programming techniques for the agents and allows for their kinematic motion simulation in combination with looped-in simulation results for the optical components. First results have been achieved for simply switching the agents to command the real hardware setup after successful process implementation and validation in the virtual environment. We evaluated and adapted our system to meet the requirements set by industrial partners-- laser manufacturers as well as hardware suppliers of assembly platforms. The concept is applied to the automated assembly of optical components for optically pumped semiconductor lasers and positioning of optical components for beam-shaping

  20. Engineering of automated assembly of beam-shaping optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Sinhoff, Volker; Müller, Tobias; Brecher, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Beam-shaping is essential for any kind of laser application. Assembly technologies for beam-shaping subassemblies are subject to intense research and development activities and their technical feasibility has been proven in recent years while economic viability requires more efficient engineering tools for process planning and production ramp up of complex assembly tasks for micro-optical systems. The work presented in this paper aims for significant reduction of process development and production ramp up times for the automated assembly of micro-optical subassemblies for beam-collimation and beam-tilting. The approach proposed bridges the gap between the product development phase and the realization of automation control through integration of established software tools such as optics simulation and CAD modeling as well as through introduction of novel software tools and methods to efficiently describe active alignment strategies. The focus of the paper is put on the methodological approach regarding the engineering of assembly processes for beam-shaping micro-optics and the formal representation of assembly objectives similar to representation in mechanical assemblies. Main topic of the paper is the engineering methodology for active alignment processes based on the classification of optical functions for beam-shaping optics and corresponding standardized measurement setups including adaptable alignment algorithms. The concepts are applied to industrial use-cases: (1) integrated collimation module for fast- and slow-axis and (2) beam-tilting subassembly consisting of a fast-axis collimator and micro-lens array. The paper concludes with an overview of current limitations as well as an outlook on the next development steps considering adhesive bonding processes.

  1. Construction of the NIFS campus information network, NIFS-LAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kato, Takeo; Nakamura, Osamu; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Reiko; Tsugawa, Kazuko; Kamimura, Tetsuo

    2000-10-01

    The advanced NIFS campus information network, NIFS-LAN, was designed and constructed as an informational infrastructure in 1996, 1997 and 1998 fiscal year. NIFS-LAN was composed of three autonomous clusters classified from research purpose; Research Information cluster, Large Helical Device Experiment cluster and Large-Scale Computer Simulation Research cluster. Many ATM(Asychronous Transfer Mode) switching systems and switching equipments were used for NIFS-LAN. Here, the outline of NIFS-LAN is described. (author)

  2. Opto-mechanical assembly procurement for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, W.; Simon, T.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of the small optics procurements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be in the form of completely assembled, tested, and cleaned subsystems. These subsystems will be integrated into the NIF at LLNL. To accomplish this task, the procurement packages will include, optical and mechanical drawings, acceptance test and cleanliness requirements. In January 1999, the first such integrated opto-mechanical assembly was received and evaluated at LLNL. With the successful completion of this important trial procurement, we were able to establish the viability of purchasing clean, ready to install, opto-mechanical assemblies from vendors within the optics industry. 32 vendors were chosen from our supplier database for quote, then five were chosen to purchase from. These five vendors represented a cross section of the optics industry. From a ''value'' catalog supplier (that did the whole job internally) to a partnership between three specialty companies, these vendors demonstrated they have the ingenuity and capability to deliver cost competitive, NIF-ready, opto- mechanical assemblies. This paper describes the vendor selection for this procurement, technical requirements including packaging, fabrication, coating, and cleanliness specifications, then testing and verification. It also gives real test results gathered from inspections performed at LLNL that show how our vendors scored on the various requirements. Keywords: Opto-Mechanical, assembly, NIF, packaging, shipping, specifications, procurement, MIL-STD-1246C, surface cleanliness

  3. Multi-sensor control for precise assembly of optical components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform an optical assembly accurately, a multi-sensor control strategy is developed which includes an attitude measurement system, a vision system, a loss measurement system and a force sensor. A 3-DOF attitude measuring method using linear variable differential transformers (LVDT is designed to adjust the relation of position and attitude between the spherical mirror and the resonator. A micro vision feedback system is set up to extract the light beam and the diaphragm, which can achieve the coarse positioning of the spherical mirror in the optical assembly process. A rapid self-correlation method is presented to analyze the spectrum signal for the fine positioning. In order to prevent the damage of the optical components and realize sealing of the resonator, a hybrid force-position control is constructed to control the contact force of the optical components. The experimental results show that the proposed multi-sensor control strategy succeeds in accomplishing the precise assembly of the optical components, which consists of parallel adjustment, macro coarse adjustment, macro approach, micro fine adjustment, micro approach and optical contact. Therefore, the results validate the multi-sensor control strategy.

  4. Environmentally responsive optical microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Kim, Philseok

    2016-01-05

    Microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies in which microactuators carrying designed surface properties to be revealed upon actuation are embedded in a layer of responsive materials. The microactuators in a microactuator array reversibly change their configuration in response to a change in the environment without requiring an external power source to switch their optical properties.

  5. The Self-Assembly of Nanogold for Optical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidetz, Robert A.

    2011-12-01

    Optical metamaterials are an emerging field that enables manipulation of light like never before. Producing optical metamaterials requires sub-wavelength building blocks. The focus here was to develop methods to produce building blocks for metamaterials from nanogold. Electron-beam lithography was used to define an aminosilane patterned chemical template in order to electrostatically self-assemble citrate-capped gold nanoparticles. Equilibrium self-assembly was achieved in 20 minutes by immersing chemical templates into gold nanoparticle solutions. The number of nanoparticles that self-assembled on an aminosilane dot was controlled by manipulating the diameters of the dots and nanoparticles. Adding salt to the nanoparticle solution enabled the nanoparticles to self-assemble in greater numbers on the same sized dot. However, the preparation of the nanoparticle solution containing salt was sensitive to spikes in the salt concentration which led to aggregation of the nanoparticles and non-specific deposition. Gold nanorods were also electrostatically self-assembled. Polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorods were patterned with limited success. A polyelectrolyte chemical template also patterned gold nanorods, but the gold nanorods preferred to pattern on the edges of the pattern. Ligand-exchanged gold nanorods displayed the best self-assembly, but suffered from slow kinetics. Self-assembled gold nanoparticles were cross-linked with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). The poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) allowed additional nanoparticles to pattern on top of the already patterned nanoparticles. Cross-linked nanoparticles were lifted-off of the substrate by sonication in a sodium hydroxide solution. The presence of van der Waals forces and/or amine bonding prevent the nanogold from lifting-off without sonication. A good-solvent evaporation process was used to self-assemble poly(styrene) coated gold nanoparticles into spherical microbead assemblies. The use of larger

  6. Optically controlled three-dimensional assembly of microfabricated building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Kelemen, Lorand; Palima, Darwin

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a system for constructing reconfigurable microstructures using multiple, real-time configurable counterpropagating-beam traps. We optically assemble geometrically complementary microstructures with complex three-dimensional (3D) topologies produced by two-photon polymerization....... This demonstrates utilization of controllable 3D optical traps for building hierarchical structures from microfabricated building blocks. Optical microassembly with translational and tip-tilt control in 3D achieved by dynamic multiple CB traps can potentially facilitate the construction of functional microdevices...... and may also lead to the future realization of optically actuated micromachines. Fabricating morphologically complex microstructures and then optically manipulating these archetypal building blocks can also be used to construct reconfigurable microenvironments that can aid in understanding cellular...

  7. Self-Assembled InAs Nanowires as Optical Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Floris

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subwavelength nanostructured surfaces are realized with self-assembled vertically-aligned InAs nanowires, and their functionalities as optical reflectors are investigated. In our system, polarization-resolved specular reflectance displays strong modulations as a function of incident photon energy and angle. An effective-medium model allows one to rationalize the experimental findings in the long wavelength regime, whereas numerical simulations fully reproduce the experimental outcomes in the entire frequency range. The impact of the refractive index of the medium surrounding the nanostructure assembly on the reflectance was estimated. In view of the present results, sensing schemes compatible with microfluidic technologies and routes to innovative nanowire-based optical elements are discussed.

  8. Status of NIF mirror technologies for completion of the NIF facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    The 1600 mirrors required for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are now coated with the last optics currently being installed. The combined surface area of the NIF mirrors is almost 450 square meters, roughly 3.4 times greater than the surface area of the two Keck primary mirrors. Additionally, the power handling specification of NIF mirrors is 19 orders of magnitude greater than that of the Keck mirrors. The NIF laser will be at least 40x greater energy than the previous LLNL fusion laser called NOVA. To manufacture these mirrors, a number of new technologies (electrolytic in-situ dressing, ion figuring, source stabilization) were used that were not available for previous fusion laser optics. Post deposition technologies designed to increase laser resistance (off-line laser conditioning, solarization, air knives) have also been utilized. This paper summarizes the differences in technologies used to manufacture NIF mirrors from those used for previous fusion lasers and examines potential future technologies that would enable higher fluence operations and extend lifetimes

  9. Fiber optic assembly and method of making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, D.P.; Beckman, T.M.

    1995-12-31

    There is provided an assembly having a light guiding medium sealed to a holder. Preferably the holder is a metal shell and a light guiding medium is an optical fiber of glass or sapphire whisker. The assembly includes a sealing medium which sealingly engages the metal holder to the fiber. In the formation of the assembly, the seal is essentially hermetic having a capability of minimizing leakage having a helium leak rate of less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cubic centimeters per second and high strength having a capability of withstanding pressures of 100,000 psi or greater. The features of the assembly are obtained by a specific preparation method and by selection of specific starting materials. The fiber is selected to have a sufficiently high coefficient of thermal expansion which minimizes strains in the component during fabrication, as a result of fabrication, and during use. The other components are selected to be of a material having compatible coefficients of thermal expansion (TEC) where the TEC of the holder is greater than or equal to the TEC of the sealing material. The TEC of the sealing material is in turn greater than or equal to the TEC of the fiber. It is preferred that the materials be selected so that their respective coefficients of thermal expansion are close as possible to one another and they may all be equal.

  10. Assembling optically active and nonactive metamaterials with chiral units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xiong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials constructed with chiral units can be either optically active or nonactive depending on the spatial configuration of the building blocks. For a class of chiral units, their effective induced electric and magnetic dipoles, which originate from the induced surface electric current upon illumination of incident light, can be collinear at the resonant frequency. This feature provides significant advantage in designing metamaterials. In this paper we concentrate on several examples. In one scenario, chiral units with opposite chiralities are used to construct the optically nonactive metamaterial structure. It turns out that with linearly polarized incident light, the pure electric or magnetic resonance (and accordingly negative permittivity or negative permeability can be selectively realized by tuning the polarization of incident light for 90°. Alternatively, units with the same chirality can be assembled as a chiral metamaterial by taking the advantage of the collinear induced electric and magnetic dipoles. It follows that for the circularly polarized incident light, negative refractive index can be realized. These examples demonstrate the unique approach to achieve certain optical properties by assembling chiral building blocks, which could be enlightening in designing metamaterials.

  11. Optical assembly of bio-hybrid micro-robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Álvaro; Landwerth, Shirin; Woerdemann, Mike; Alpmann, Christina; Buscher, Tim; Becker, Maike; Studer, Armido; Denz, Cornelia

    2015-04-01

    The combination of micro synthetic structures with bacterial flagella motors represents an actual trend for the construction of self-propelled micro-robots. The development of methods for fabrication of these bacteria-based robots is a first crucial step towards the realization of functional miniature and autonomous moving robots. We present a novel scheme based on optical trapping to fabricate living micro-robots. By using holographic optical tweezers that allow three-dimensional manipulation in real time, we are able to arrange the building blocks that constitute the micro-robot in a defined way. We demonstrate exemplarily that our method enables the controlled assembly of living micro-robots consisting of a rod-shaped prokaryotic bacterium and a single elongated zeolite L crystal, which are used as model of the biological and abiotic components, respectively. We present different proof-of-principle approaches for the site-selective attachment of the bacteria on the particle surface. The propulsion of the optically assembled micro-robot demonstrates the potential of the proposed method as a powerful strategy for the fabrication of bio-hybrid micro-robots.

  12. Fibre optic sensor on robot end effector for flexible assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, K.L.; Lau, W.S.; Choi, C.K.; Shan, Y.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fibre optic sensor system was constructed for use on robot end effectors for flexible assembly. The sensor detected the deviations between robot end effector and the workpiece. The signal was fed back to robot controller to shift the end effector until the centre of end effector and the centre of workpiece were aligned at the correct orientation. Then workpiece can be grasped symmetrically. Sensor fusion concept was used to guard against sensor system failure. Fuzzy linguistic variable and control rule concept were introduced in the sensor integration. The experimental setup for the sensor integrated system was shown. The accuracy was also discussed

  13. Directed assembly of hybrid nanostructures using optically resonant nanotweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, David [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This represents the final report for this project. Over the course of the project we have made significant progress in photonically driven nano-assembly including: (1) demonstrating the first direct optical tweezer based manipulation of proteins, (2) the ability to apply optical angular torques to microtubuals and other rod-shaped microparticles, (3) direct assembly of hybrid nanostructures comprising of polymeric nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes and, (4) the ability to drive biological reactions (specifically protein aggregation) that are thermodynamically unfavorable by applying localized optical work. These advancements are described in the list of papers provided in section 2.0 of the below. Summary details are provided in prior year annual reports. We have two additional papers which will be submitted shortly based on the work done under this award. An updated publication list will be provided to the program manager when those are accepted. In this report, we report on a new advancement made in the final project year, which uses the nanotweezer technology to perform direct measurements of particle-surface interactions. Briefly, these measurements are important for characterizing the stability and behavior of colloidal and nanoparticle suspensions and current techniques are limited in their ability to measure piconewton scale interaction forces on sub-micrometer particles due to signal detection limits and thermal noise. In this project year we developed a new technique called “Nanophotonic Force Microscopy” which uses the localized region of exponentially decaying, near-field, light to confine small particles close to a surface. From the statistical distribution of the light intensity scattered by the particle the technique maps out the potential well of the trap and directly quantify the repulsive force between the nanoparticle and the surface. The major advantage of the technique is that it can measure forces and energy wells below the thermal noise

  14. Mini-chamber, an advanced protection concept for NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.; Scott, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target debris and ablated near-target materials pose the primary threat to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) final optics debris shields, as well as a major challenge in future inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants. This work discusses a NIF 'mini-chamber,' designed to mitigate the debris threat. Although the NIF base-line design protects against debris using a frost-protected target positioner and refractory first-wall coatings, the mini-chamber provides important flexibility in three areas: debris-shield protection from beyond-design basis shots (i.e. heavy hohlraums, special diagnostics, shields); fielding of large experiments with significant surface ablation; and studying key ablation and gas-dynamics issues for liquid-wall IFE power plants. Key mini-chamber modeling results are presented, followed by discussion of equipment requirements for fielding a NIF mini-chamber. 7 refs., 3 figs

  15. Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly Performance and Integration of the Flight Focal Plane Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Dick; Byrd, Don; Christensen, Wynn; Henson, Tammy; Krumel, Les; Rappoport, William; Shen, Gon-Yen

    1999-01-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly (OA) has been fabricated, assembled, successfully performance tested, and integrated into the flight payload structure with the flight Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) integrated and aligned to it. This represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. The OA consists of an off-axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36 cm unobscured clear aperture, a wide-field-of-view (WFOV) of 1.82 along the direction of spacecraft motion and 1.38 across the direction of spacecraft motion. It also contains a comprehensive on-board radiometric calibration system. The OA is part of a multispectral pushbroom imaging sensor which employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 m. The OA achieves near diffraction-limited performance from visible to the long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. The two major design drivers for the OA are 80% enpixeled energy in the visible bands and radiometric stability. Enpixeled energy in the visible bands also drove the alignment of the FPA detectors to the OA image plane to a requirement of less than 20 m over the entire visible detector field of view (FOV). Radiometric stability requirements mandated a cold Lyot stop for stray light rejection and thermal background reduction. The Lyot stop is part of the FPA assembly and acts as the aperture stop for the imaging system. The alignment of the Lyot stop to the OA drove the centering and to some extent the tilt alignment requirements of the FPA to the OA

  16. Light-Directed Particle Patterning by Evaporative Optical Marangoni Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanakkottu, Subramanyan Namboodiri; Anyfantakis, Manos; Morel, Mathieu; Rudiuk, Sergii; Baigl, Damien

    2016-01-13

    Controlled particle deposition on surfaces is crucial for both exploiting collective properties of particles and their integration into devices. Most available methods depend on intrinsic properties of either the substrate or the particles to be deposited making them difficult to apply to complex, naturally occurring or industrial formulations. Here we describe a new strategy to pattern particles from an evaporating drop, regardless of inherent particle characteristics and suspension composition. We use light to generate Marangoni surface stresses resulting in flow patterns that accumulate particles at predefined positions. Using projected images, we generate a broad variety of complex patterns, including multiple spots, lines and letters. Strikingly, this method, which we call evaporative optical Marangoni assembly (eOMA), allows us to pattern particles regardless of their size or surface properties, in model suspensions as well as in complex, real-world formulations such as commercial coffee.

  17. Characterization of nifB, nifS, and nifU genes in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis: NifB is required for the vanadium-dependent nitrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, E M; Thiel, T

    1995-01-01

    Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a heterotrophic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium containing both a Mo-dependent nitrogenase encoded by the nif genes and V-dependent nitrogenase encoded by the vnf genes. The nifB, nifS, and nifU genes of A. variabilis were cloned, mapped, and partially sequenced. The fdxN gene was between nifB and nifS. Growth and acetylene reduction assays using wild-type and mutant strains indicated that the nifB product (NifB) was required for nitrogen fixation not only by...

  18. NIF diagnostic damage and design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, N.

    1999-01-01

    The NIF target environment is evaluated with respect to target and diagnostic debris and with respect to instrument survivability in the presence of target debris and radiation. Quantitative estimates are arrived at by extrapolating from Nova and Omega experience using simple scaling arguments. Specifically, we evaluate the closest distance of approach of various components of DIM-based diagnostics such as target mounted pinhole arrays, open detectors, filters, x-ray optics, and spectrometers. We also include constraints on achieving adequate signal-to-noise on x-ray diagnostics. Four of the most important conclusions are as follows: (1) The required full NIF stand-off distance for heavily filtered detectors (e.g. multi-keV x-ray and particle detectors) as determined by concerns of diagnostic debris and diagnostic survivability to debris and radiation is no more than 100 cm. (2) Target mounted pinhole arrays and slits mounted a few cm from chamber center at NIF will survive long enough to record data and should be an acceptable source of shrapnel debris. (3) DIM-based instrument stand-off distances are compatible with achieving the same photon statistics (or better with ongoing improvements in detector resolution and noise) than available with current Nova and Omega SIM- or TIM-based instrumentation. Section II reviews target and diagnostic debris with respect to final optics. Section III reviews debris and radiation with respect to all diagnostic components. The following laser scaling between Nova/Omega and NIF is used throughout unless otherwise specified: laser energy E = 100x, drive duration τ = 6x and hence for a given laser intensity or hohlraum temperature, target size r approximately √(E/τ) = 4x. The 100x increase in E accounts for the fact that many Nova shots were performed with only 20 kJ and all LLNL Omega shots were performed with only 15 kJ

  19. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Assemblies for Spaceflight Environments: Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2); and others will be included.

  20. Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Hybrid Burst Assembly Technique for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Muhammad Umaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS paradigm is perceived as an intermediate switching technology for future all-optical networks. Burst assembly that is the first process in OBS is the focus of this paper. In this paper, an intelligent hybrid burst assembly algorithm that is based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The new algorithm is evaluated against the traditional hybrid burst assembly algorithm and the fuzzy adaptive threshold (FAT burst assembly algorithm via simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the hybrid and the FAT algorithms in terms of burst end-to-end delay, packet end-to-end delay, and packet loss ratio.

  1. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  2. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S.; S.C. Sommer

    1999-01-01

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B

  3. February 2017 - NIF Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-13

    February was a very productive month with only 20 shot days on the calendar. There were 41 target shots performed for the HED, ICF, and the Discovery Science (DS) program. The DS program had a week dedicated to their experiments that was extraordinarily fruitful: 14 target shots were performed for five independent teams, each of whom had a unique experimental platform to field. The teams and the facility worked extraordinarily well to pull off this feat! Additionally, the facility developed high-energy laser operations on a demonstration quad to investigate taking NIF to a new level of performance, and the ICF program demonstrated a 40% increase in the yield from a capsule that had a new, 5-μm-diameter fill tube that apparently mitigates some of the issues that have affected implosions to date. Details follow below.

  4. Optomechanical considerations for the VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris I. Kaufman, John R. Celeste, Brent C. Frogget, Tony L. Lee, Brian J. GacGowan, Robert M. Malone, Edmund W. Ng, Tom W. Tunnell, Phillip W. Watts

    2006-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The velocity interferometer for any reflector measures shock velocities at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Our team designed two systems, one for a polar port orientation, and the other to accommodate two equatorial ports. The polar-oriented design requires a 48-m optical relay to move the light from inside the target chamber to a separately housed measurement and laser illumination station. The currently operational equatorial design requires a much shorter relay of 21 m. Both designs posed significant optomechanical challenges due to the long optical path length, large quantity of optical elements, and stringent NIF requirements. System design had to tightly control the use of lubricants and materials, especially those inside the vacuum chamber; tolerate earthquakes and radiation; and consider numerous other tolerance, alignment, and steering adjustment issues. To ensure compliance with NIF performance requirements, we conducted a finite element analysis

  5. Molecular evolution of the nif gene cluster carrying nifI1 and nifI2 genes in the Gram-positive phototrophic bacterium Heliobacterium chlorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkh-Amgalan, Jigjiddorj; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji

    2006-01-01

    A major nif cluster was detected in the strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive phototrophic bacterium Heliobacterium chlorum. The cluster consisted of 11 genes arranged within a 10 kb region in the order nifI1, nifI2, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, fdx, nifB and nifV. The phylogenetic position of Hbt. chlorum was the same in the NifH, NifD, NifK, NifE and NifN trees; Hbt. chlorum formed a cluster with Desulfitobacterium hafniense, the closest neighbour of heliobacteria based on the 16S rRNA phylogeny, and two species of the genus Geobacter belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria. Two nifI genes, known to occur in the nif clusters of methanogenic archaea between nifH and nifD, were found upstream of the nifH gene of Hbt. chlorum. The organization of the nif operon and the phylogeny of individual and concatenated gene products showed that the Hbt. chlorum nif operon carrying nifI genes upstream of the nifH gene was an intermediate between the nif operon with nifI downstream of nifH (group II and III of the nitrogenase classification) and the nif operon lacking nifI (group I). Thus, the phylogenetic position of Hbt. chlorum nitrogenase may reflect an evolutionary stage of a divergence of the two nitrogenase groups, with group I consisting of the aerobic diazotrophs and group II consisting of strictly anaerobic prokaryotes.

  6. Recent advancements in robotic micro-optical assembly at the Lockheed Martin Optical Payload Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, David; Larson, Thomas M.

    2017-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company Optical Payloads Center of Excellence is in process of standing up the Robotic Optical Assembly System (ROAS) capability at Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies in Colorado. This currently implemented Robotic Optical Assembly has enabled Lockheed Martin to create world-leading, ultra-lowSWAP photonic devices using a closed-loop control robot to precisely position and align micro-optics with a potential fill factor of >25 optics per square inch. This paper will discuss the anticipated applications and optical capability when ROAS is fully operational, as well as challenge the audience to update their "rules of thumb" and best practices when designing low-SWAP optical-mechanical systems that take advantage of Lockheed Martin's ROAS capability. This paper will reveal demonstrated optical pointing and stability performance achievable with ROAS and why we believe these optical specifications are relevant for the majority of anticipated applications. After a high level overview of the ROAS current state, this paper will focus in on recent results of the "Reworkable Micro-Optics Mounting IRAD". Results from this IRAD will correlate to the anticipated optical specifications required for relevant applications.

  7. Ultrasonic Testing of NIF Amplifier FAU Top Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinn, D.J.; Huber, R.D.; Haskins, J.J.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Souza, P.R.; Le, T.V.

    2002-01-01

    A key component in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser optic system is the amplifier frame assembly unit (FAU). The cast aluminum top plate that supports the FAU is required to withstand loads that would occur during an earthquake with a recurrence period of 1000 years. The stringent seismic requirements placed on the FAU top plate induced a study of the cast aluminum material used in the top plate. Ultrasonic testing was used to aid in characterizing the aluminum material used in the plates. This report documents the work performed using contact ultrasonic testing to characterize the FAU top plate material. The ultrasonic work reported here had 3 objectives: (1) inspect the plate material before cyclic testing conducted at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER); (2) determine the overall quality of individual plates; and (3) detect large defects in critical areas of individual plates. Section III, ''Pre-cyclic test inspection'', describes work performed in support of Objective 1. Section IV, ''Ultrasonic field measurements'', describes work performed in support of Objectives 2 and 3

  8. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The University of Maryland and and LLNL are investigating the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program Eagle Nebula has performed NIF shots to study models of pillar formation. The shots feature a new long-duration x-ray source, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 to 15 ns each to create a 30 to 60 ns output x-ray pulse. The source generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, a structure of dense plastic and foam mocking up a molecular cloud containing a dense core. Omega EP and NIF shots have validated the source concept, showing that earlier hohlraums do not compromise later ones by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect later beams. The NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and also showed evidence that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at the millimeter-wave BIMA and CARMA observatories. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Plasma Electrode Pockels Cells for the Beamlet and NIF lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, M.A.; Woods, B.; DeYoreo, J.; Atherton, J.

    1994-05-01

    We describe Plasma Electrode Pockels Cells (PEPC) for the Beamlet laser and the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser. These PEPCs, together with passive polarizers, function as large aperture (> 35 x 35 cm 2 ) optical switches enabling the design of high-energy (> 5 kJ), multipass laser amplifiers. In a PEPC, plasma discharges form on both sides of a thin (1 cm) electro-optic crystal (KDP). These plasma discharges produce highly conductive and transparent electrodes that facilitate rapid (< 100 ns) and uniform charging of the KDP up to the half-wave voltage (17 kV) and back to zero volts. We discuss the operating principles, design, and optical performance of the Beamlet PEPC and briefly discuss our plans to extend PEPC technology for the NIF

  10. NIF Maintenance Plan March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wonterghem, Bruno M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Ensuring the reliability of the NIF, including its support systems and utilities, is essential to ensuring the availability of the NIF in its support of laser operations. This document identifies the policies and procedures necessary to perform and support the maintenance of the NIF’s systems. These systems are all encompassing and include the facility, beampath, Line Replaceable Units (LRUs), Safety Interlock System (SIS), and diagnostics and utilities that create the environments within the beampath consisting of vacuum, argon, or clean dry air.

  11. Improving the goat long-read assembly with optical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reference genome assemblies provide important context in genetics by standardizing the order of genes and providing a universal set of coordinates for individual nucleotides. Often due to the high complexity of genic regions and higher copy number of genes involved in immune function, immunity-relat...

  12. Optical Properties of the Self-Assembling Polymeric Colloidal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mocanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, optical materials have gained much interest due to the high number of possible applications involving path or intensity control and filtering of light. The continuous emerging technology in the field of electrooptical devices or medical applications allowed the development of new innovative cost effective processes to obtain optical materials suited for future applications such as hybrid/polymeric solar cells, lasers, polymeric optical fibers, and chemo- and biosensing devices. Considering the above, the aim of this review is to present recent studies in the field of photonic crystals involving the use of polymeric materials.

  13. Optical constants and self-assembly of phenylene ethynylene oligomer monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, E.; Walzer, Karsten; Less, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the self-assembly on gold surfaces of 1,4-ethynylphenyl-4'-ethynylphenyl-2'-nitro-1-benzenedithiolate (EP2NO(2)), a substituted phenylene ethynylene trimer with applications in molecular electronics. We develop an ellipsometric technique to measure the optical constants...... of these self-assembled monolayers, and we also use attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to confirm the structure of the films....

  14. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  15. Construction and actuation of a microscopic gear assembly formed using optical tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Dae; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of micrometer-sized parts is an important manufacturing process; any development in it could potentially change the current manufacturing practices for micrometer-scale devices. Due to the lack of reliable microassembly techniques, these devices are often manufactured using silicon, which includes etching and depositions with little use of assembly processes. The result is the requirement of specialized manufacturing conditions with hazardous byproducts and limited applications where only simple mechanisms are allowed. Optical tweezers are non-contact type manipulators that are very suitable for assembling microparts and solve one of the most difficult problems for microassembly, which is the sticking of the physical manipulator to the micropart. Although contact type manipulators can be surface modified to be non-sticky, this involves extra preprocessing—optical tweezers do not require such additional efforts. The weakness of using optical tweezers is that the permanent assembly of parts is not possible as only very small forces can be applied. We introduce an advanced microassembly environment with the combined use of optical tweezers and a motorized microtip, where the former is used to position two parts and the latter is used to introduce deformation in the parts so that they form a strongly fitted assembly. (paper)

  16. Target diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.W.; Derzon, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    A review of recent progress on the design of a diagnostic system proposed for ignition target experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of optical, x-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron diagnostics that enable measurements of the performance of both direct and indirect driven NIF targets. The philosophy used in designing all of the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurement of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the operation of the NIF target. A unique feature of these diagnostics is that they are being designed to be capable of operating, in the high radiation, EMP, and debris backgrounds expected on the NIF facility. The diagnostic system proposed can be categorized into three broad areas: laser characterization, hohlraum characterization, and capsule performance diagnostics. The operating principles of a representative instrument from each class of diagnostic employed in this package will be summarized and illustrated with data obtained in recent prototype diagnostic tests

  17. Ultra Low Loss Optical Fiber Cable Assemblies. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-07

    AND CABLE ASSEMBLY TEST PLAN I Part 1: CABLE TEST PLAN for U. S. ARMY CORADCOM Fort Monmouth, New Jersey 9~Contract # DA -A B07-78-C-29ZZ * Prepared by...VICES$ 1TEST OArg sMATED UTZx ccwITE I INSERTION LOSS £P40,,T PdA. "AT1 NO. ’we Uva ITS R.H. REQUECZ=ENT: The insertion loss of a mated =ai.r of...16(m separation between the rear of the con- nectar and the first turn on the mandrel. After which the plug and receptacle were mated, the mounting

  18. Performance of the NIF prototype beamlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wonterghem, B.M.; Murray, J.R.; Speck, D.R.; Campbell, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Beamlet is a full scale single beam prototype laser system, built to demonstrate the laser technology and performance of the 192 beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) fusion laser driver. Both laser systems apply multipass amplifier architectures. By passing the beam four times through the large aperture amplifier sections, the small signal gain during the first few passes is used efficiently to reduce expensive staged amplifier chains. The beamlet prototype laser integrates results of development programs for large aperture components: large aperture optical switch, polarizers, 2 x 2 multisegment amplifiers and new pulse generation and pre-amplification techniques. The authors report on performance test results of the recently completed 1 ω-laser section of Beamlet

  19. Fiber optic coupled multipass gas minicell, design assembly thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Bora, Mihail; Engel, Michael A.; McCarrick, James F.; Moran, Bryan D.

    2016-01-12

    A method directs a gas of interest into a minicell and uses an emitting laser to produce laser emission light that is directed into the minicell and onto the gas of interest. The laser emission light is reflected within the cell to make multipasses through the gas of interest. After the multipasses through the gas of interest the laser light is analyzed to produces gas spectroscopy data. The minicell receives the gas of interest and a transmitting optic connected to the minicell that directs a beam into the minicell and onto the gas of interest. A receiving optic connected to the minicell receives the beam from the gas of interest and directs the beam to an analyzer that produces gas spectroscopy data.

  20. Final report for NIF chamber dynamics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, A; Peterson, P F; Scott, J M

    1998-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8 MJ, 192 laser beam facility, will have anticipated fusion yields of up to 20 MJ from D-T pellets encased in a gold hohlraum target. The energy emitted from the target in the form of x rays, neutrons, target debris kinetic energy, and target shrapnel will be contained in a 5 m. radius spherical target chamber. various diagnostics will be stationed around the target at varying distances from the target. During each shot, the target will emit x rays that will vaporize nearby target facing surfaces including those of the diagnostics, the target positioner, and other chamber structures. This ablated vapor will be transported throughout the chamber, and will eventually condense and deposit on surfaces in the chamber, including the final optics debris shields. The research at the University of California at Berkeley relates primarily to the NIF chamber dynamics. The key design issues are the ablation of the chamber structures, transport of the vapor through the chamber and the condensation or deposition processes of those vaporized materials. An understanding of these processes is essential in developing a concept for protecting the fina optics debris shields from an excessive coating (> 10 A) of target debris and ablated material, thereby prolonging their lifetime between change-outs. At Berkeley, we have studied the physical issues of the ablation process and the effects of varying materials, the condensation process of the vaporized material, and design schemes that can lower the threat posed to the debris shields by these processes. The work or portions of the work completed this year have been published in several papers and a dissertation [l-5

  1. Self-Assembled Polyelectrolyte Nanoparticles as Fluorophore-Free Contrast Agents for Multicolor Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Hye Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe the fabrication of self-assembled polyelectrolyte nanoparticles that provide a multicolor optical imaging modality. Poly(γ-glutamic acid(γ-PGA formed self-assembled nanoparticles through electrostatic interactions with two different cationic polymers: poly(L-lysine(PLL and chitosan. The self-assembled γ-PGA/PLL and γ-PGA/chitosan nanoparticles were crosslinked by glutaraldehyde. Crosslinking of the ionic self-assembled nanoparticles with glutaraldehyde not only stabilized the nanoparticles but also generated a strong autofluorescence signal. Fluorescent Schiff base bonds (C=N and double bonds (C=C were generated simultaneously by crosslinking of the amine moiety of the cationic polyelectrolytes with monomeric glutaraldehyde or with polymeric glutaraldehyde. The unique optical properties of the nanoparticles that resulted from the crosslinking by glutaraldehyde were analyzed using UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. We observed that the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles could be regulated by adjusting the crosslinker concentration and the reaction time. The nanoparticles also exhibited high performance in the labeling and monitoring of therapeutic immune cells (macrophages and dendritic cells. These self-assembled nanoparticles are expected to be a promising multicolor optical imaging contrast agent for the labeling, detection, and monitoring of cells.

  2. The genome of Paenibacillus sabinae T27 provides insight into evolution, organization and functional elucidation of nif and nif-like genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Deng, Zhiping; Liu, Zhanzhi; Yan, Yongliang; Wang, Tianshu; Xie, Jianbo; Lin, Min; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Sanfeng

    2014-08-27

    Most biological nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by the molybdenum nitrogenase. This enzyme is a complex which contains the MoFe protein encoded by nifDK and the Fe protein encoded by nifH. In addition to nifHDK, nifHDK-like genes were found in some Archaea and Firmicutes, but their function is unclear. We sequenced the genome of Paenibacillus sabinae T27. A total of 4,793 open reading frames were predicted from its 5.27 Mb genome. The genome of P. sabinae T27 contains fifteen nitrogen fixation (nif) genes, including three nifH, one nifD, one nifK, four nifB, two nifE, two nifN, one nifX and one nifV. Of the 15 nif genes, eight nif genes (nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX and nifV) and two non-nif genes (orf1 and hesA) form a complete nif gene cluster. In addition to the nif genes, there are nitrogenase-like genes, including two nifH-like genes and five pairs of nifDK-like genes. IS elements on the flanking regions of nif and nif-like genes imply that these genes might have been obtained by horizontal gene transfer. Phylogenies of the concatenated 8 nif gene (nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX and nifV) products suggest that P. sabinae T27 is closely related to Frankia. RT-PCR analysis showed that the complete nif gene cluster is organized as an operon. We demonstrated that the complete nif gene cluster under the control of σ70-dependent promoter enabled Escherichia coli JM109 to fix nitrogen. Also, here for the first time we demonstrated that unlike nif genes, the transcriptions of nifHDK-like genes were not regulated by ammonium and oxygen, and nifH-like or nifD-like gene could not restore the nitrogenase activity of Klebsiella pneumonia nifH- and nifD- mutant strains, respectively, suggesting that nifHDK-like genes were not involved in nitrogen fixation. Our data and analysis reveal the contents and distribution of nif and nif-like genes and contribute to the study of evolutionary history of nitrogen fixation in Paenibacillus. For the first time we

  3. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) September 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkenny, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, P. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, D. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Caggiano, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dewald, E. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsing, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kalantar, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kauffman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaughnessy, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelton, R. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yeamans, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Batha, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grim, G. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Herrmann, H. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Merrill, F. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leeper, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edgell, D. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glebov, V. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Regan, S. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gatu-Johnson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Petrasso, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rindernecht, H. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cooper, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ruiz, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-05

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign NIF had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole US ICF community. A plan for a limited of NIF Diagnostics was documented by the Joint Central Diagnostic Team in the NIF Conceptual Design Report in 1994. These diagnostics and many more were installed diagnostics by two decades later. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by the function of the diagnostics, namely target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation and burn. A comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova’s in 1999. NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s and the NIF diagnostic suite incorporates some scientific innovation compared to Nova and OMEGA namely one much higher speed x-ray imager. Directions for future NIF diagnostics are discussed.

  4. Vibration Monitoring Using Fiber Optic Sensors in a Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Cooled Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben De Pauw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fuel assembly vibrations in nuclear reactor cores should be avoided in order not to compromise the lifetime of the assembly and in order to prevent the occurrence of safety hazards. This issue is particularly relevant to new reactor designs that use liquid metal coolants, such as, for example, a molten lead-bismuth eutectic. The flow of molten heavy metal around and through the fuel assembly may cause the latter to vibrate and hence suffer degradation as a result of, for example, fretting wear or mechanical fatigue. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of optical fiber sensors to measure the fuel assembly vibration in a lead-bismuth eutectic cooled installation which can be used as input to assess vibration-related safety hazards. We show that the vibration characteristics of the fuel pins in the fuel assembly can be experimentally determined with minimal intrusiveness and with high precision owing to the small dimensions and properties of the sensors. In particular, we were able to record local strain level differences of about 0.2 μϵ allowing us to reliably estimate the vibration amplitudes and modal parameters of the fuel assembly based on optical fiber sensor readings during different stages of the operation of the facility, including the onset of the coolant circulation and steady-state operation.

  5. Toolchain concept for the automated assembly of micro-optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Müller, Tobias; Brecher, Christian

    2014-05-01

    In micro-optical assembly, the mastering of the steps of passive and active alignment, bonding, and part feeding as well as their interdependencies are crucial to the success of an automation solution. Process development is therefore complex and time consuming. Separation of assembly process planning and assembly execution decouples both phases so that production and process development can take place in parallel and even in spatially separated stations. The work presented in this paper refines the concept of flexible assembly systems by separating the phases of assembly process planning and assembly execution by providing a dedicated process development platform on the one hand and by providing automatisms regarding the transfer from the development platform into industrial production on the other. For this purpose, two key concepts are being developed by the research carried out at Fraunhofer IPT. The paper introduces the overall approach and formalisms as well as a form of notation based on part lists, product features and key characteristics and it shows industrial use cases the approach has been applied to. Key characteristics are constraints on spatial relations and they are expressed in terms of optical functions or geometric constraints which need to be fulfilled. In the paper, special attention is paid to the illustration of the end-user perspective.

  6. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements final optics assembly subsystem SSDR 1.8.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.

    1996-01-01

    This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Final Optic Assembly (FOA). The FOA (WBS 1.8.7) as part of the Target Experimental System (1.8) includes vacuum windows, frequency conversion crystals, focus lens, debris shields and supporting mechanical equipment

  7. Vision feedback driven automated assembly of photopolymerized structures by parallel optical trapping and manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan Ryberg; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate how optical trapping and manipulation can be used to assemble microstructures. The microstructures we show being automatically recognized and manipulated are produced using the two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique with submicron resolution. In this work, we show identical shape...

  8. Study of light transmission through optical fiber-to-fiber connector assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.; Gutowski, M.; Adams, M.; Solomon, J.

    1998-01-01

    Optical fiber-to-fiber connectors are now being used widely in particle tracking detectors. We describe the properties of the connectors, their production, and measurements of the light transmission through the gap of the connector assembly. We studied light transmission for various types of connectors illuminated by several different light sources. The light transmission was found to be dependent on the angular distribution of the light rays passing through a connector assembly. Two arrangements were studied, a point source and a diffuse source. A green LED with a diffuser is believed to best reproduce the angular distributions of light in the real detector applications. We also studied the transmission as a function of the index of refraction of the optical couplants. The light transmission depends on the index of refraction of an optical couplant placed in the gap, and improves as it approaches the index of refraction of the fiber core. Light transmissions of 80%∼88% were obtained without any optical couplant in the connector gap and transmissions of 89%∼99% with various optical couplants. A Monte Carlo study using measured light distributions from a fiber end produced a reasonable agreement with the transmission measurements made on a connector assembly

  9. Study of light transmission through optical fiber-to-fiber connector assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.; Gutowski, M.; Adams, M.; Solomon, J.

    1998-01-01

    Optical fiber-to-fiber connectors are now being used widely in particle tracking detectors. We describe the properties of the connectors, their production, and measurements of the light transmission through the gap of the connector assembly. We studied light transmission for various types of connectors illuminated by several different light sources. The light transmission was found to be dependent on the angular distribution of the light rays passing through a connector assembly. Two arrangements were studied, a point source and a diffuse source. A green LED with a diffuser is believed to best reproduce the angular distributions of light in the real detector applications. We also studied the transmission as a function of the index of refraction of the optical couplants. The light transmission depends on the index of refraction of an optical couplant placed in the gap, and improves as it approaches the index of refraction of the fiber core. Light transmissions of 80%∼88% were obtained without any optical couplant in the connector gap and transmissions of 89%∼99% with various optical couplants. A Monte Carlo study using measured light distributions from a fiber end produced a reasonable agreement with the transmission measurements made on a connector assembly. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  10. Design and assembly of the optical modules for phase-2 of the NEMO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonora, E., E-mail: emanuele.leonora@ct.infn.it; Aiello, S.

    2013-10-11

    The NEMO collaboration team has undertaken a Phase-2 project, which aims at the realization and installation of a new infrastructure at the Capo Passero (Italy) deep-sea site at a depth of 3500 m. With this objective in mind, a fully equipped tower with 8-storey hosting two optical modules at each end is under construction. Following a well established procedure, 32 optical modules have been assembled. The optical module consists of a large area photomultiplier tube enclosed in a pressure resistant glass sphere with a diameter of 13 in. The photomultiplier is a R7081 type, produced by Hamamatsu, with a photocathode area with a diameter of 10 in. and 10 dynodes. Mechanical and optical contacts between the front of the photomultiplier tube and the glass surface are ensured by an optical bi-component silicone gel. A mu-metal cage is used to shield the photomultiplier against the influence of the Earth's magnetic field.

  11. National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, B

    2002-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has the mission of supporting Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science research in high-energy-density plasmas. To execute those missions, the facility must provide diagnostic instrumentation capable of observing and resolving in time events and radiation emissions characteristic of the plasmas of interest. The diagnostic instrumentation must conform to high standards of operability and reliability within the NIF environment. These exacting standards, together with the facility mission of supporting a diverse user base, has led to the need for a central organization charged with delivering diagnostic capability to the NIF. The National NIF Diagnostics Program (NNDP) has been set up under the aegis of the NIF Director to provide that organization authority and accountability to the wide user community for NIF. The funds necessary to perform the work of developing diagnostics for NIF will be allocated from the National NIF Diagnostics Program to the participating laboratories and organizations. The participating laboratories and organizations will design, build, and commission the diagnostics for NIF. Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize NIF Core Diagnostics Systems and Cryogenic Target Handing Systems, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems has been initiated and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National NIF Diagnostics Program Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope

  12. Implementation of ISO 10110 optics drawing standards for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, D. M.; English, R. E.; Wang, D. Y.

    1999-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project elected to implement ISO 10110 standard for the specifications of NIF optics drawings in 1996. More than 7,000 NIF large optics and 20,000 NIF small optics will be manufactured based on ISO 10110 indications. ISO 10110 standard meets many of the needs of the NIF optics specifications. It allows the optical engineer to quantify and clearly communicate the desired optical specifications. While no single drawing standard specifies all the requirements of high energy laser system, a combination of ISO 10110 standard with detailed notes make it possible to apply international drawing standards to the NIF laser system. This paper will briefly describe LLNL's interpretation and implementation of the ISO 10110 drawing standard, present some examples of NIF optics drawings, and discuss pros and cons of the indications from the perspective of this application. Emphasis will be given to the surface imperfection specifications, known as 5/, for the NIF optics

  13. Implementation of ISO 10110 optics drawing standards for the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Y.; English, R. Edward, Jr.; Aikens, David M.

    1999-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project elected to implement ISO 10110 standard for the specifications of NIF optics drawings in 1996. More than 7,000 NIF large optics and 20,000 NIF small optics will be manufactured based on ISO 10110 indications. ISO 10110 standard meets many of the needs of the NIF optics specifications. It allows the optical engineer to quantify and clearly communicate the desired optical specifications. While no single drawing standard specifies all the requirements of high energy laser system, a combination of ISO 10110 standard with detailed notes make it possible to apply international drawing standards to the NIF laser system. This paper will briefly describe LLNL's interpretation and implementation of the ISO 10110 drawing standard, present some examples of NIF optics drawings, and discuss pros and cons of the indications from the perspective of this application. Emphasis will be given to the surface imperfection specifications, known as 5/, for the NIF optics.

  14. Generation of microfluidic flow using an optically assembled and magnetically driven microrotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, J; Ghadiri, R; Ksouri, S I; Guo, Q; Gurevich, E L; Ostendorf, A

    2014-01-01

    The key components in microfluidic systems are micropumps, valves and mixers. Depending on the chosen technology, the realization of these microsystems often requires rotational and translational control of subcomponents. The manufacturing of such active components as well as the driving principle are still challenging tasks. A promising all-optical approach could be the combination of laser direct writing and actuation based on optical forces. However, when higher actuation velocities are required, optical driving might be too slow. Hence, a novel approach based on optical assembling of microfluidic structures and subsequent magnetic actuation is proposed. By applying the optical assembly of microspherical building blocks as the manufacturing method and magnetic actuation, a microrotor was successfully fabricated and tested within a microfluidic channel. The resulting fluid flow was characterized by introducing an optically levitated measuring probe particle. Finally, a freely moving tracer particle visualizes the generated flow. The tracer particle analysis shows average velocities of 0.4–0.5 µm s −1 achieved with the presented technology. (paper)

  15. Fiber Optic pH Sensor with Self-Assembled Polymer Multilayer Nanocoatings

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Li-Yang; Yin, Ming-Jie; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Albert, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A fiber-optic pH sensor based on a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) with electrostatic self-assembly multilayer sensing film is presented. The pH sensitive polymeric film, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was deposited on the circumference of the TFBG with the layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembly technique. The PDDA/PAA film exhibits a reduction in refractive index by swelling in different pH solutions. This effect results in wavelength s...

  16. NIF Periscope Wall Modal Study Comparison of Results for 2 FEA Models with 2 Modal Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eli, M W; Gerhard, M A; Lee, C L; Sommer, S C; Woehrle, T G

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes experimentally and numerically determined modal properties for one of the reinforced concrete end walls of the NIF Periscope Support Structure in Laser Bay 1. Two methods were used to determine these modal properties: (1) Computational finite-element analyses (modal extraction process); and (2) Experimental modal analysis based on measured test data. This report also includes experimentally determined modal properties for a prototype LM3/Polarizer line-replaceable unit (LRU) and a prototype PEPC LRU. Two important parameters, used during the design phase, are validated through testing [ref 1]. These parameters are the natural frequencies and modal damping (of the system in question) for the first several global modes of vibration. Experimental modal testing provides these modal values, along with the corresponding mode shapes. Another important parameter, the input excitation (expected during normal operation of the NIF laser system) [ref 1], can be verified by performing a series of ambient vibration measurements in the vicinity of the particular system (or subsystem) of interest. The topic of ambient input excitation will be covered in a separate report. Due to the large mass of the Periscope Pedestal, it is difficult to excite the entire series of Periscope Pedestal Walls all at once. It was decided that the experimental modal tests would be performed on just one Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1. Experimental modal properties for the Periscope End Wall have been used to validate and update the FE analyses. Results from the analyses and modal tests support the conclusion that the Periscope Pedestal will not exceed the stability budget, which is described in reference 1. The results of the modal tests for the Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1 have provided examples of modal properties that can be derived from future modal tests of the entire Periscope Assembly (excluding the LRU's). This next series of larger modal tests can be performed

  17. Completion of the Design of the Top End Optical Assembly for ATST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzian, Blaise; Barentine, J.

    2013-01-01

    L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS) Division has been selected by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to make the Top End Optical Assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) to operate at Haleakala, Maui. ATST will perform to a very high optical performance level in a difficult operational environment. The TEOA (including a 0.65-meter silicon carbide secondary mirror and support, mirror thermal management system, mirror positioning and fast tip-tilt system, field stop with thermally managed heat dump, Lyot stop, safety interlock and control system, and support frame) operates in the “hot spot” at the prime focus of the ATST, presenting unusual challenges. L-3 IOS has passed Critical Design Review of the TEOA. In this paper, we describe L-3 IOS success meeting technical challenges, including our solutions for optic fabrication, opto-mechanical positioning, rejected and stray light control, wavefront tip-tilt compensation, and thermal management and control.

  18. Energetics, kinetics, and pathway of SNARE folding and assembly revealed by optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli

    2017-07-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are universal molecular engines that drive membrane fusion. Particularly, synaptic SNAREs mediate fast calcium-triggered fusion of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles with plasma membranes for synaptic transmission, the basis of all thought and action. During membrane fusion, complementary SNAREs located on two apposed membranes (often called t- and v-SNAREs) join together to assemble into a parallel four-helix bundle, releasing the energy to overcome the energy barrier for fusion. A long-standing hypothesis suggests that SNAREs act like a zipper to draw the two membranes into proximity and thereby force them to fuse. However, a quantitative test of this SNARE zippering hypothesis was hindered by difficulties to determine the energetics and kinetics of SNARE assembly and to identify the relevant folding intermediates. Here, we first review different approaches that have been applied to study SNARE assembly and then focus on high-resolution optical tweezers. We summarize the folding energies, kinetics, and pathways of both wild-type and mutant SNARE complexes derived from this new approach. These results show that synaptic SNAREs assemble in four distinct stages with different functions: slow N-terminal domain association initiates SNARE assembly; a middle domain suspends and controls SNARE assembly; and rapid sequential zippering of the C-terminal domain and the linker domain directly drive membrane fusion. In addition, the kinetics and pathway of the stagewise assembly are shared by other SNARE complexes. These measurements prove the SNARE zippering hypothesis and suggest new mechanisms for SNARE assembly regulated by other proteins. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  19. Photonic Resins: Designing Optical Appearance via Block Copolymer Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong-Po; Jacucci, Gianni; Dundar, Feyza; Naik, Aditi; Fei, Hua-Feng; Vignolini, Silvia; Watkins, James J

    2018-03-27

    Despite a huge variety of methodologies having been proposed to produce photonic structures by self-assembly, the lack of an effective fabrication approach has hindered their practical uses. These approaches are typically limited by the poor control in both optical and mechanical properties. Here we report photonic thermosetting polymeric resins obtained through brush block copolymer (BBCP) self-assembly. We demonstrate that the control of the interplay between order and disorder in the obtained photonic structure offers a powerful tool box for designing the optical appearance of the polymer resins in terms of reflected wavelength and scattering properties. The obtained materials exhibit excellent mechanical properties with hardness up to 172 MPa and Young's modulus over 2.9 GPa, indicating great potential for practical uses as photonic coatings on a variety of surfaces.

  20. NIF Operations Management Plan, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wonterghem, Bruno M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    2014-01-30

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a key component of the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Stockpile Stewardship Program, whose purpose is to maintain the safety, reliability, and effectiveness of our nation’s nuclear stockpile without underground nuclear testing. The NIF is crucial to the Stockpile Stewardship Program because it is the only facility that can create the conditions of extreme temperature and pressure—conditions that exist only in stars or in exploding nuclear weapons—that are relevant to understanding how our modern nuclear weapons operate. As such, the NIF’s primary mission is to attain fusion ignition in the laboratory. Fusion ignition not only supports Stockpile Stewardship needs, but also provides the basis for future decisions about fusion’s potential as a long-term energy source. Additionally, NIF provides scientists with access to high-energy-density regimes that can yield new insight and understanding in the areas of astrophysics, hydrodynamics, material properties, plasma physics, and radiative properties. The use of the NIF to support the Stockpile Stewardship Program and the advancement of basic high-energy-density science understanding is planned and managed through program-level execution plans and NIF directorate-level management teams. An example of a plan is the National Ignition Campaign Execution Plan. The NIF Operations Management Plan provides an overview of the NIF Operations organization and describes how the NIF is supported by the LLNL infrastructure and how it is safely and responsibly managed and operated. Detailed information on NIF management of the organization is found in a series of supporting plans, policies, and procedures. A list of related acronyms can be found in Appendix A of this document. The purpose of this document is to provide a roadmap of how the NIF Operations organization functions. It provides a guide to understanding the

  1. Optical Fiber Array Assemblies for Space Flight on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jelanie; Matuszeski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Custom fiber optic bundle array assemblies developed by the Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center were an enabling technology for both the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and the Laser Ranging (LR) Investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) currently in operation. The unique assembly array designs provided considerable decrease in size and weight and met stringent system level requirements. This is the first time optical fiber array bundle assemblies were used in a high performance space flight application. This innovation was achieved using customized Diamond Switzerland AVIM optical connectors. For LOLA, a five fiber array was developed for the receiver telescope to maintain precise alignment for each of the 200/220 micron optical fibers collecting 1,064 nm wavelength light being reflected back from the moon. The array splits to five separate detectors replacing the need for multiple telescopes. An image illustration of the LOLA instrument can be found at the top of the figure. For the laser ranging, a seven-optical-fiber array of 400/440 micron fibers was developed to transmit light from behind the LR receiver telescope located on the end of the high gain antenna system (HGAS). The bundle was routed across two moving gimbals, down the HGAS boom arm, over a deployable mandrel and across the spacecraft to a detector on the LOLA instrument. The routing of the optical fiber bundle and its end locations is identified in the figure. The Laser Ranging array and bundle is currently accepting light at a wavelength of 532 nm sent to the moon from laser stations at Greenbelt MD and other stations around the world to gather precision ranging information from the Earth to the LRO spacecraft. The LR bundle assembly is capable of withstanding temperatures down to -55 C at the connectors, and 20,000 mechanical gimbal cycles at temperatures as cold as -20 C along the length of the seven-fiber bundle (that is packaged into the gimbals). The total

  2. Controlled expression of nif and isc iron-sulfur protein maturation components reveals target specificity and limited functional replacement between the two systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Patricia C; Johnson, Deborah C; Ragle, Brook E; Unciuleac, Mihaela-Carmen; Dean, Dennis R

    2007-04-01

    The nitrogen-fixing organism Azotobacter vinelandii contains at least two systems that catalyze formation of [Fe-S] clusters. One of these systems is encoded by nif genes, whose products supply [Fe-S] clusters required for maturation of nitrogenase. The other system is encoded by isc genes, whose products are required for maturation of [Fe-S] proteins that participate in general metabolic processes. The two systems are similar in that they include an enzyme for the mobilization of sulfur (NifS or IscS) and an assembly scaffold (NifU or IscU) upon which [Fe-S] clusters are formed. Normal cellular levels of the Nif system, which supplies [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of nitrogenase, cannot also supply [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of other cellular [Fe-S] proteins. Conversely, when produced at the normal physiological levels, the Isc system cannot supply [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of nitrogenase. In the present work we found that such target specificity for IscU can be overcome by elevated production of NifU. We also found that NifU, when expressed at normal levels, is able to partially replace the function of IscU if cells are cultured under low-oxygen-availability conditions. In contrast to the situation with IscU, we could not establish conditions in which the function of IscS could be replaced by NifS. We also found that elevated expression of the Isc components, as a result of deletion of the regulatory iscR gene, improved the capacity for nitrogen-fixing growth of strains deficient in either NifU or NifS.

  3. Beta-Sheet-Forming, Self-Assembled Peptide Nanomaterials towards Optical, Energy, and Healthcare Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjin; Kim, Jae Hong; Lee, Joon Seok; Park, Chan Beum

    2015-08-12

    Peptide self-assembly is an attractive route for the synthesis of intricate organic nanostructures that possess remarkable structural variety and biocompatibility. Recent studies on peptide-based, self-assembled materials have expanded beyond the construction of high-order architectures; they are now reporting new functional materials that have application in the emerging fields such as artificial photosynthesis and rechargeable batteries. Nevertheless, there have been few reviews particularly concentrating on such versatile, emerging applications. Herein, recent advances in the synthesis of self-assembled peptide nanomaterials (e.g., cross β-sheet-based amyloid nanostructures, peptide amphiphiles) are selectively reviewed and their new applications in diverse, interdisciplinary fields are described, ranging from optics and energy storage/conversion to healthcare. The applications of peptide-based self-assembled materials in unconventional fields are also highlighted, such as photoluminescent peptide nanostructures, artificial photosynthetic peptide nanomaterials, and lithium-ion battery components. The relation of such functional materials to the rapidly progressing biomedical applications of peptide self-assembly, which include biosensors/chips and regenerative medicine, are discussed. The combination of strategies shown in these applications would further promote the discovery of novel, functional, small materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. NIF/LMJ prototype amplifier mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.

    1996-10-01

    Amplifier prototypes for the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The prototype amplifier, which is an ensemble of modules from LLNL and Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, is cassette-based with bottom access for maintenance. A sealed maintenance transfer vehicle which moves optical cassettes between the amplifier and the assembly cleanroom, and a vacuum gripper which holds laser slabs during cassette assembly will also be tested. The prototype amplifier will be used to verify amplifier optical performance, thermal recovery time, and cleanliness of mechanical operations

  5. Light-enabled reversible self-assembly and tunable optical properties of stable hairy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihuang; Wang, Zewei; He, Yanjie; Yoon, Young Jun; Jung, Jaehan; Zhang, Guangzhao; Lin, Zhiqun

    2018-02-01

    The ability to dynamically organize functional nanoparticles (NPs) via the use of environmental triggers (temperature, pH, light, or solvent polarity) opens up important perspectives for rapid and convenient construction of a rich variety of complex assemblies and materials with new structures and functionalities. Here, we report an unconventional strategy for crafting stable hairy NPs with light-enabled reversible and reliable self-assembly and tunable optical properties. Central to our strategy is to judiciously design amphiphilic star-like diblock copolymers comprising inner hydrophilic blocks and outer hydrophobic photoresponsive blocks as nanoreactors to direct the synthesis of monodisperse plasmonic NPs intimately and permanently capped with photoresponsive polymers. The size and shape of hairy NPs can be precisely tailored by modulating the length of inner hydrophilic block of star-like diblock copolymers. The perpetual anchoring of photoresponsive polymers on the NP surface renders the attractive feature of self-assembly and disassembly of NPs on demand using light of different wavelengths, as revealed by tunable surface plasmon resonance absorption of NPs and the reversible transformation of NPs between their dispersed and aggregated states. The dye encapsulation/release studies manifested that such photoresponsive NPs may be exploited as smart guest molecule nanocarriers. By extension, the star-like block copolymer strategy enables the crafting of a family of stable stimuli-responsive NPs (e.g., temperature- or pH-sensitive polymer-capped magnetic, ferroelectric, upconversion, or semiconducting NPs) and their assemblies for fundamental research in self-assembly and crystallization kinetics of NPs as well as potential applications in optics, optoelectronics, magnetic technologies, sensory materials and devices, catalysis, nanotechnology, and biotechnology.

  6. FANTM, the First Article NIF Test Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMMON, JUD; HARJES, HENRY C.; MOORE, WILLIAM B.S.; SMITH, DAVID L.; WILSON, J. MICHAEL

    1999-01-01

    Designing and developing the 1.7 to 2.1-MJ Power Conditioning System (PCS), that will power the flashlamps of the main and power amplifiers for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) lasers, is one of several responsibilities assumed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in support of the NIF Project. Maxwell Physics International has been a partner in this process. The NIF is currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL). The test facility that has evolved over the last three years to satisfy the project requirements is called FANTM, for the First Article NIF Test Module. It was built at SNL and operated for about 17,000 shots to demonstrate component performance expectations over the lifetime of NIF. A few modules similar to the one shown in Fig. 1 will be used initially in the amplifier test phase of the project. The final full NIF system will require at least 192 of them in four capacitor bays. This paper briefly summarizes the final design of the FANTM facility and compares its performance with the predictions of circuit simulations for both normal operation and fault-mode response. Applying both the measured and modeled power pulse waveforms as input to a physics-based, semi-empirical amplifier gain code indicates that the 20-capacitor PCS can satisfy the NIF requirement for an average gain coefficient of 5.00 %/cm and can exceed 5.20 %/cm with 24 capacitors

  7. Near Field Intensity Trends of Main Laser Alignment Images in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R R; Beltsar, I; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Kamm, V M; Salmon, T; Wilhelmsen, K

    2015-01-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes 192 high-energy laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to potentially initiate a fusion reaction. NIF has been operational for six years; during that time, thousands of successful laser firings or shots have been executed. Critical instrument measurements and camera images are carefully recorded for each shot. The result is a massive and complex database or ‘big data’ archive that can be used to investigate the state of the laser system at any point in its history or to locate and track trends in the laser operation over time. In this study, the optical light throughput for more than 1600 NIF shots for each of the 192 main laser beams and 48 quads was measured over a three year period from January 2009 to October 2012. The purpose was to verify that the variation in the transmission of light through the optics over time performed within design expectations during this time period. Differences between average or integrated intensity from images recorded by the input sensor package (ISP) and by the output sensor package (OSP) in the NIF beam-line were examined. A metric is described for quantifying changes in the integrated intensity measurements and was used to view potential trends. Results are presented for the NIF input and output sensor package trends and changes over the three year time-frame.

  8. Color from hierarchy: Diverse optical properties of micron-sized spherical colloidal assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nicolas; Utech, Stefanie; England, Grant T; Shirman, Tanya; Phillips, Katherine R; Koay, Natalie; Burgess, Ian B; Kolle, Mathias; Weitz, David A; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Materials in nature are characterized by structural order over multiple length scales have evolved for maximum performance and multifunctionality, and are often produced by self-assembly processes. A striking example of this design principle is structural coloration, where interference, diffraction, and absorption effects result in vivid colors. Mimicking this emergence of complex effects from simple building blocks is a key challenge for man-made materials. Here, we show that a simple confined self-assembly process leads to a complex hierarchical geometry that displays a variety of optical effects. Colloidal crystallization in an emulsion droplet creates micron-sized superstructures, termed photonic balls. The curvature imposed by the emulsion droplet leads to frustrated crystallization. We observe spherical colloidal crystals with ordered, crystalline layers and a disordered core. This geometry produces multiple optical effects. The ordered layers give rise to structural color from Bragg diffraction with limited angular dependence and unusual transmission due to the curved nature of the individual crystals. The disordered core contributes nonresonant scattering that induces a macroscopically whitish appearance, which we mitigate by incorporating absorbing gold nanoparticles that suppress scattering and macroscopically purify the color. With increasing size of the constituent colloidal particles, grating diffraction effects dominate, which result from order along the crystal's curved surface and induce a vivid polychromatic appearance. The control of multiple optical effects induced by the hierarchical morphology in photonic balls paves the way to use them as building blocks for complex optical assemblies--potentially as more efficient mimics of structural color as it occurs in nature.

  9. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  10. Advances in NIF Shock Timing Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Harry

    2012-10-01

    Experiments are underway to tune the shock timing of capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments use a modified cryogenic hohlraum geometry designed to precisely match the performance of ignition hohlraums. The targets employ a re-entrant Au cone to provide optical access to multiple shocks as they propagate in the liquid deuterium-filled capsule interior. The strength and timing of all four shocks is diagnosed with VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector). Experiments are now routinely conducted in a mirrored keyhole geometry, which allows for simultaneous diagnosis of the shock timing at both the hohlraum pole and equator. Further modifications are being made to improve the surrogacy to ignition hohlraums by replacing the standard liquid deuterium (D2) capsule fill with a deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. These experiments will remove any possible surrogacy difference between D2 and DT as well as incorporate the physics of shock release from the ice layer, which is absent in current experiments. Experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulation are presented.

  11. Micro-vision servo control of a multi-axis alignment system for optical fiber assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weihai; Yu, Fei; Qu, Jianliang; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Jianbin

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a novel optical fiber assembly system featuring a multi-axis alignment function based on micro-vision feedback control. It consists of an active parallel alignment mechanism, a passive compensation mechanism, a micro-gripper and a micro-vision servo control system. The active parallel alignment part is a parallelogram-based design with remote-center-of-motion (RCM) function to achieve precise rotation without fatal lateral motion. The passive mechanism, with five degrees of freedom (5-DOF), is used to implement passive compensation for multi-axis errors. A specially designed 1-DOF micro-gripper mounted onto the active parallel alignment platform is adopted to grasp and rotate the optical fiber. A micro-vision system equipped with two charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is introduced to observe the small field of view and obtain multi-axis errors for servo feedback control. The two CCD cameras are installed in an orthogonal arrangement—thus the errors can be easily measured via the captured images. Meanwhile, a series of tracking and measurement algorithms based on specific features of the target objects are developed. Details of the force and displacement sensor information acquisition in the assembly experiment are also provided. An experiment demonstrates the validity of the proposed visual algorithm by achieving the task of eliminating errors and inserting an optical fiber to the U-groove accurately. (paper)

  12. Photoactuators for Direct Optical-to-Mechanical Energy Conversion: From Nanocomponent Assembly to Macroscopic Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Li, Zhe; Lan, Tian; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Photoactuators with integrated optical-to-mechanical energy conversion capacity have attracted growing research interest in the last few decades due to their unique features of remote control and their wide applications ranging from bionic robots, biomedical devices, and switches to motors. For the photoactuator design, the energy conversion route and structure assembly are two important parts, which directly affect the performance of the photoactuators. In particular, the architectural designs at the molecular, nano-, micro-, and macro- level, are found to play a significant role in accumulating molecular-scale strain/stress to macroscale strain/stress. Here, recent progress on photoactuators based on photochemical and photothermal effects is summarized, followed by a discussion of the important assembly strategies for the amplification of the photoresponsive components at nanoscale to macroscopic scale motions. The application advancement of current photoactuators is also presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Optical Properties of GaAs Quantum Dots Fabricated by Filling of Self-Assembled Nanoholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyn Ch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experimental results of the local droplet etching technique for the self-assembled formation of nanoholes and quantum rings on semiconductor surfaces are discussed. Dependent on the sample design and the process parameters, filling of nanoholes in AlGaAs generates strain-free GaAs quantum dots with either broadband optical emission or sharp photoluminescence (PL lines. Broadband emission is found for samples with completely filled flat holes, which have a very broad depth distribution. On the other hand, partly filling of deep holes yield highly uniform quantum dots with very sharp PL lines.

  14. Producing KDP and DKDP crystals for the NIF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, L. J.; Burnham, A. K.; Combs, R. C.; Couture, S. A.; De Yoreo, J. J.; Hawley-Fedder, R. A.; Montesant, R. C.; Robey, H. F.; Runkel, M.; Staggs, M.; Wegner, P. J.; Yan, M.; Zaitseva, N. P.

    1999-01-01

    The cost and physics requirements of the NIF have established two important roles for potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. 1. To extract more laser energy per unit of flashlamp light and laser glass, the NIF has adopted a multipass architecture as shown in Figure 1. Light is injected in the transport spatial filter, first traverses the power amplifiers, and then is directed to main amplifiers, where it makes four passes before being redirected through the power amplifiers towards the target. To enable the multipass of the main amplifiers, a KDP-containing Pockels cell rotates the polarization of the beam to make it either transmit through or reflect off a polarizer held at Brewster's angle within the main laser cavity. If transmitted, the light reflects off a mirror and makes another pass through the cavity. If reflected, it proceeds through the power amplifier to the target. the original seed crystal as the pyramid faces grow. Unfortunately, this pyramidal growth is very slow, and it takes about two years to grow a crystal to NIF size. To provide more programmatic flexibility and reduce costs in the long run, we have developed an alternative technology commonly called rapid growth. Through a combination of higher temperatures and higher supersaturation of the growth solution, a NIF-size boule can be grown in 1 to 2 months from a small ''point'' seed. However, growing boules of adequate size is not sufficient. Care must be taken to prevent inclusions of growth solution and incorporation of atomically substituted 2. Implosions for ICF work far better at shorter wavelengths due to less generation of hot electrons, which preheat the fuel and make it harder to compress. Compromising between optic lifetime and implosion efficiency, both Nova and the NIF operate at a tripled frequency of the 1053-nm fundamental frequency of a neodymium glass laser. This tripling is accomplished by two crystals, one made of KDP and one made of deuterated KDP (DKDP). The first

  15. Spectroscopic and functional characterization of iron-sulfur cluster-bound forms of Azotobacter vinelandii (Nif)IscA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapolelo, Daphne T; Zhang, Bo; Naik, Sunil G; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K

    2012-10-16

    The mechanism of [4Fe-4S] cluster assembly on A-type Fe-S cluster assembly proteins, in general, and the specific role of (Nif)IscA in the maturation of nitrogen fixation proteins are currently unknown. To address these questions, in vitro spectroscopic studies (UV-visible absorption/CD, resonance Raman and Mössbauer) have been used to investigate the mechanism of [4Fe-4S] cluster assembly on Azotobacter vinelandii(Nif)IscA, and the ability of (Nif)IscA to accept clusters from NifU and to donate clusters to the apo form of the nitrogenase Fe-protein. The results show that (Nif)IscA can rapidly and reversibly cycle between forms containing one [2Fe-2S](2+) and one [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster per homodimer via DTT-induced two-electron reductive coupling of two [2Fe-2S](2+) clusters and O(2)-induced [4Fe-4S](2+) oxidative cleavage. This unique type of cluster interconversion in response to cellular redox status and oxygen levels is likely to be important for the specific role of A-type proteins in the maturation of [4Fe-4S] cluster-containing proteins under aerobic growth or oxidative stress conditions. Only the [4Fe-4S](2+)-(Nif)IscA was competent for rapid activation of apo-nitrogenase Fe protein under anaerobic conditions. Apo-(Nif)IscA was shown to accept clusters from [4Fe-4S] cluster-bound NifU via rapid intact cluster transfer, indicating a potential role as a cluster carrier for delivery of clusters assembled on NifU. Overall the results support the proposal that A-type proteins can function as carrier proteins for clusters assembled on U-type proteins and suggest that they are likely to supply [2Fe-2S] clusters rather than [4Fe-4S] for the maturation of [4Fe-4S] cluster-containing proteins under aerobic or oxidative stress growth conditions.

  16. Optical spectroscopy of single, planar, self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Williams, R.L.; Lefebvre, J.; Lapointe, J.; Reimer, M.E.; Mckee, J.; Poole, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    We present optical spectra from numerous, single, self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots. More than 50 individual dots are studied that emit in the 1.1-1.6 mm wavelength range. The dots are of high optical quality as judged by the clean, single exciton emission line at low power, the resolution limited linewidth, and the brightness. Each dot exhibits similar trends in the power evolution spectra, despite large variations in height and diameter. The level splittings in the p -shell increase with decreasing height, which we interpret to be from dot elongation along the [01 anti 1] direction. The evolution of the spectra with increasing power agrees well with predictions from effective bond orbital calculations. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Collaborative Assembly Operation between Two Modular Robots Based on the Optical Position Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Su

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the cooperation between two master-slave modular robots. A cooperative robot system is set up with two modular robots and a dynamic optical meter-Optotrak. With Optotrak, the positions of the end effectors are measured as the optical position feedback, which is used to adjust the robots' end positions. A tri-layered motion controller is designed for the two cooperative robots. The RMRC control method is adopted to adjust the master robot to the desired position. With the kinematics constraints of the two robots including position and pose, joint velocity, and acceleration constraints, the two robots can cooperate well. A bolt and nut assembly experiment is executed to verify the methods.

  18. Color from hierarchy: Diverse optical properties of micron-sized spherical colloidal assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nicolas; Utech, Stefanie; England, Grant T.; Shirman, Tanya; Phillips, Katherine R.; Koay, Natalie; Burgess, Ian B.; Kolle, Mathias; Weitz, David A.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Materials in nature are characterized by structural order over multiple length scales have evolved for maximum performance and multifunctionality, and are often produced by self-assembly processes. A striking example of this design principle is structural coloration, where interference, diffraction, and absorption effects result in vivid colors. Mimicking this emergence of complex effects from simple building blocks is a key challenge for man-made materials. Here, we show that a simple confined self-assembly process leads to a complex hierarchical geometry that displays a variety of optical effects. Colloidal crystallization in an emulsion droplet creates micron-sized superstructures, termed photonic balls. The curvature imposed by the emulsion droplet leads to frustrated crystallization. We observe spherical colloidal crystals with ordered, crystalline layers and a disordered core. This geometry produces multiple optical effects. The ordered layers give rise to structural color from Bragg diffraction with limited angular dependence and unusual transmission due to the curved nature of the individual crystals. The disordered core contributes nonresonant scattering that induces a macroscopically whitish appearance, which we mitigate by incorporating absorbing gold nanoparticles that suppress scattering and macroscopically purify the color. With increasing size of the constituent colloidal particles, grating diffraction effects dominate, which result from order along the crystal’s curved surface and induce a vivid polychromatic appearance. The control of multiple optical effects induced by the hierarchical morphology in photonic balls paves the way to use them as building blocks for complex optical assemblies—potentially as more efficient mimics of structural color as it occurs in nature. PMID:26290583

  19. Spectroscopic and functional characterization of iron-bound forms of Azotobacter vinelandii (Nif)IscA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapolelo, Daphne T; Zhang, Bo; Naik, Sunil G; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K

    2012-10-16

    The ability of Azotobacter vinelandii(Nif)IscA to bind Fe has been investigated to assess the role of Fe-bound forms in NIF-specific Fe-S cluster biogenesis. (Nif)IscA is shown to bind one Fe(III) or one Fe(II) per homodimer and the spectroscopic and redox properties of both the Fe(III)- and Fe(II)-bound forms have been characterized using the UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, and variable-temperature magnetic circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance, Mössbauer and resonance Raman spectroscopies. The results reveal a rhombic intermediate-spin (S = 3/2) Fe(III) center (E/D = 0.33, D = 3.5 ± 1.5 cm(-1)) that is most likely 5-coordinate with two or three cysteinate ligands and a rhombic high spin (S = 2) Fe(II) center (E/D = 0.28, D = 7.6 cm(-1)) with properties similar to reduced rubredoxins or rubredoxin variants with three cysteinate and one or two oxygenic ligands. Iron-bound (Nif)IscA undergoes reversible redox cycling between the Fe(III)/Fe(II) forms with a midpoint potential of +36 ± 15 mV at pH 7.8 (versus NHE). l-Cysteine is effective in mediating release of free Fe(II) from both the Fe(II)- and Fe(III)-bound forms of (Nif)IscA. Fe(III)-bound (Nif)IscA was also shown to be a competent iron source for in vitro NifS-mediated [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly on the N-terminal domain of NifU, but the reaction occurs via cysteine-mediated release of free Fe(II) rather than direct iron transfer. The proposed roles of A-type proteins in storing Fe under aerobic growth conditions and serving as iron donors for cluster assembly on U-type scaffold proteins or maturation of biological [4Fe-4S] centers are discussed in light of these results.

  20. Supramolecular Nanocomposites Under Confinement: Chiral Optically Active Nanoparticle Assemblies and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peter; Yang, Sui; Bao, Wei; Salmeron, Miquel; Zhang, Xiang; Xu, Ting

    2015-03-01

    Block copolymer-based supramolecules provide a versatile platform to direct the self-assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) into precisely controlled nanostructures in bulk and thin film geometries. A supramolecule, PS-b-P4VP(PDP), composed of the small molecule 3-pentadecylphenol (PDP) hydrogen bonded to a diblock copolymer, polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP), was subjected to 2-D volume confinement in cylindrical anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane pores. TEM and 3-D TEM tomography reveal that the morphologies accessible by the supramolecule and supramolecule/NP composites, such as NP clusters, arrays, stacked rings, and single and double helical ribbons, are significantly different from those in the bulk or thin film. Furthermore, single molecule dark field scattering measurements demonstrate strong chiral optical response of single helical Au NP ribbon nanostructures in the near infrared wavelength regime. These studies demonstrate 2-D confinement to be an effective means to tailor self-assembled NP structure within supramolecule nanocomposites and pave the way for this assembly approach to be applied towards next generation chiral metamaterials and optoelectronic devices.

  1. Oxygen sensitivity of the nifLA promoter of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Q T; Wu, Q L; Ma, Z F; Shen, S C

    1986-01-01

    Oxygen sensitivity of the nifLA promoter of Klebsiella pneumoniae has been demonstrated. Studies on the oxygen regulation of nifB-lacZ and nifH-lacZ fusions in the presence of the nifLA operon, which contains either an intact or a deleted nifL gene, indicate that possibly both the nifL promoter and the nifL product are responsible for nif repression by oxygen.

  2. Summary of Disposable Debris Shields (DDS) Analysis for Development of Solid Debris Collection at NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaughnessy, D.A.; Moody, K.J.; Grant, P.M.; Lewis, L.A.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Lindvall, R.; Gostic, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Collection of solid debris from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is being developed both as a diagnostic tool and as a means for measuring nuclear reaction cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship Program and nuclear astrophysics. The concept is straightforward; following a NIF shot, the debris that is produced as a result of the capsule and hohlraum explosion would be collected and subsequently extracted from the chamber. The number of nuclear activations that occurred in the capsule would then be measured through a combination of radiation detection and radiochemical processing followed by mass spectrometry. Development of the catcher is challenging due to the complex environment of the NIF target chamber. The collector surface is first exposed to a large photon flux, followed by the debris wind that is produced. The material used in the catcher must be mechanically strong in order to withstand the large amount of energy it is exposed to, as well as be chemically compatible with the form and composition of the debris. In addition, the location of the catcher is equally important. If it is positioned too close to the center of the target chamber, it will be significantly ablated, which could interfere with the ability of the debris to reach the surface and stick. If it is too far away, the fraction of the debris cloud collected will be too small to result in a statistically significant measurement. Material, geometric configuration, and location must all be tested in order to design the optimal debris collection system for NIF. One of the first ideas regarding solid debris collection at NIF was to use the disposable debris shields (DDS), which are fielded over the final optics assemblies (FOA) 7 m away from the center of the target chamber. The DDS are meant to be replaced after a certain number of shots, and if the shields could be subsequently analyzed after removal, it would serve as a mechanism for fielding a relatively large collection area

  3. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements NIF site improvements SSDR 1.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempel, P.; Hands, J.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirements (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements associated with the NIF Project Site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Livermore, California. It identifies generic design conditions for all NIF Project facilities, including siting requirements associated with natural phenomena, and contains specific requirements for furnishing site-related infrastructure utilities and services to the NIF Project conventional facilities and experimental hardware systems. Three candidate sites were identified as potential locations for the NIF Project. However, LLNL has been identified by DOE as the preferred site because of closely related laser experimentation underway at LLNL, the ability to use existing interrelated infrastructure, and other reasons. Selection of a site other than LLNL will entail the acquisition of site improvements and infrastructure additional to those described in this document. This SSDR addresses only the improvements associated with the NIF Project site located at LLNL, including new work and relocation or demolition of existing facilities that interfere with the construction of new facilities. If the Record of Decision for the PEIS on Stockpile Stewardship and Management were to select another site, this SSDR would be revised to reflect the characteristics of the selected site. Other facilities and infrastructure needed to support operation of the NIF, such as those listed below, are existing and available at the LLNL site, and are not included in this SSDR. Office Building. Target Receiving and Inspection. General Assembly Building. Electro- Mechanical Shop. Warehousing and General Storage. Shipping and Receiving. General Stores. Medical Facilities. Cafeteria services. Service Station and Garage. Fire Station. Security and Badging Services

  4. Challenges to develop nitrogen-fixing cereals by direct nif-gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatti, Leonardo; Rubio, Luis M

    2014-08-01

    Some regions of the developing world suffer low cereal production yields due to low fertilizer inputs, among other factors. Biological N2 fixation, catalyzed by the prokaryotic enzyme nitrogenase, is an alternative to the use of synthetic N fertilizers. The molybdenum nitrogenase is an O2-labile metalloenzyme composed of the NifDK and NifH proteins, which biosyntheses require a number of nif gene products. A challenging strategy to increase cereal crop productivity in a scenario of low N fertilization is the direct transfer of nif genes into cereals. The sensitivity of nitrogenase to O2 and the apparent complexity of nitrogenase biosynthesis are the main barriers identified so far. Expression of active NifH requires the products of nifM, nifH, and possibly nifU and nifS, whereas active NifDK requires the products of nifH, nifD, nifK, nifB, nifE, nifN, and possibly nifU, nifS, nifQ, nifV, nafY, nifW and nifZ. Plastids and mitochondria are potential subcellular locations for nitrogenase. Both could provide the ATP and electrons required for nitrogenase to function but they differ in their internal O2 levels and their ability to incorporate ammonium into amino acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural Feasibility Analysis of a Robotically Assembled Very Large Aperture Optical Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, William Keats; Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of robotically constructing a very large aperture optical space telescope on-orbit. Since the largest engineering challenges are likely to reside in the design and assembly of the 150-m diameter primary reflector, this preliminary study focuses on this component. The same technology developed for construction of the primary would then be readily used for the smaller optical structures (secondary, tertiary, etc.). A reasonable set of ground and on-orbit loading scenarios are compiled from the literature and used to define the structural performance requirements and size the primary reflector. A surface precision analysis shows that active adjustment of the primary structure is required in order to meet stringent optical surface requirements. Two potential actuation strategies are discussed along with potential actuation devices at the current state of the art. The finding of this research effort indicate that successful technology development combined with further analysis will likely enable such a telescope to be built in the future.

  6. Sub–100-nm metafluorophores with digitally tunable optical properties self-assembled from DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woehrstein, Johannes B.; Strauss, Maximilian T.; Ong, Luvena L.; Wei, Bryan; Zhang, David Y.; Jungmann, Ralf; Yin, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy allows specific target detection down to the level of single molecules and has become an enabling tool in biological research. To transduce the biological information to an imageable signal, we have developed a variety of fluorescent probes, such as organic dyes or fluorescent proteins with different colors. Despite their success, a limitation on constructing small fluorescent probes is the lack of a general framework to achieve precise and programmable control of critical optical properties, such as color and brightness. To address this challenge, we introduce metafluorophores, which are constructed as DNA nanostructure–based fluorescent probes with digitally tunable optical properties. Each metafluorophore is composed of multiple organic fluorophores, organized in a spatially controlled fashion in a compact sub–100-nm architecture using a DNA nanostructure scaffold. Using DNA origami with a size of 90 × 60 nm2, substantially smaller than the optical diffraction limit, we constructed small fluorescent probes with digitally tunable brightness, color, and photostability and demonstrated a palette of 124 virtual colors. Using these probes as fluorescent barcodes, we implemented an assay for multiplexed quantification of nucleic acids. Additionally, we demonstrated the triggered in situ self-assembly of fluorescent DNA nanostructures with prescribed brightness upon initial hybridization to a nucleic acid target. PMID:28691083

  7. Progress making the top end optical assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzian, Blaise; Barentine, J.; Arendt, J.; Bader, S.; Danyo, G.; Heller, C.

    2012-09-01

    L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS) Division has been selected by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to design and produce the Top End Optical Assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) to operate at Haleakal', Maui. ATST will perform to a very high optical performance level in a difficult thermal environment. The TEOA, containing the 0.65-meter silicon carbide secondary mirror and support, mirror thermal management system, mirror positioning and fast tip-tilt system, field stop with thermally managed heat dump, thermally managed Lyot stop, safety interlock and control system, and support frame, operates in the "hot spot" at the prime focus of the ATST and so presents special challenges. In this paper, we describe progress in the L-3 technical approach to meeting these challenges, including silicon carbide off-axis mirror design, fabrication, and high accuracy figuring and polishing all within L-3; mirror support design; the design for stray light control; subsystems for opto-mechanical positioning and high accuracy absolute mirror orientation sensing; Lyot stop design; and thermal management of all design elements to remain close to ambient temperature despite the imposed solar irradiance load.

  8. A highly flexible platform for nanowire sensor assembly using a combination of optically induced and conventional dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Ho, Kai-Siang; Yang, Chin-Tien; Wang, Jung-Hao; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2014-06-02

    The number and position of assembled nanowires cannot be controlled using most nanowire sensor assembling methods. In this paper, we demonstrate a high-yield, highly flexible platform for nanowire sensor assembly using a combination of optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) and conventional dielectrophoresis (DEP). With the ODEP platform, optical images can be used as virtual electrodes to locally turn on a non-contact DEP force and manipulate a micron- or nano-scale substance suspended in fluid. Nanowires were first moved next to the previously deposited metal electrodes using optical images and, then, were attracted to and arranged in the gap between two electrodes through DEP forces generated by switching on alternating current signals to the metal electrodes. A single nanowire can be assembled within 24 seconds using this approach. In addition, the number of nanowires in a single nanowire sensor can be controlled, and the assembly of a single nanowire on each of the adjacent electrodes can also be achieved. The electrical properties of the assembled nanowires were characterized by IV curve measurement. Additionally, the contact resistance between the nanowires and electrodes and the stickiness between the nanowires and substrates were further investigated in this study.

  9. NIF ICCS network design and loading analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G; Bryant, R

    1998-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is housed within a large facility about the size of two football fields. The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is distributed throughout this facility and requires the integration of about 40,000 control points and over 500 video sources. This integration is provided by approximately 700 control computers distributed throughout the NIF facility and a network that provides the communication infrastructure. A main control room houses a set of seven computer consoles providing operator access and control of the various distributed front-end processors (FEPs). There are also remote workstations distributed within the facility that allow provide operator console functions while personnel are testing and troubleshooting throughout the facility. The operator workstations communicate with the FEPs which implement the localized control and monitoring functions. There are different types of FEPs for the various subsystems being controlled. This report describes the design of the NIF ICCS network and how it meets the traffic loads that will are expected and the requirements of the Sub-System Design Requirements (SSDR's). This document supersedes the earlier reports entitled Analysis of the National Ignition Facility Network, dated November 6, 1996 and The National Ignition Facility Digital Video and Control Network, dated July 9, 1996. For an overview of the ICCS, refer to the document NIF Integrated Computer Controls System Description (NIF-3738)

  10. Development of IFE target systems on the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Fagaly, R.L.; Bernat, T.; Meier, W.; Petzoldt, R.; Foreman, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Target Systems session of the Workshop on NIF Experiments for IFE developed a list of critical issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE) target systems, and considered the potential of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to help in the resolution of these issues and in the development of IFE target systems. This paper describes the IFE Target System issues, categorized into target fabrication issues and target transport issues, describes potential NIF IFE target systems experiments, considers the impact of these experiments on the NIF and discusses the development required before these experiments could be done. Most target systems issues must be resolved by development in the laboratory, not in the NIF, and some must be resolved before the NIF can be successful. However, experiments done in the NIF could play a valuable role in developing target systems for IFE. These experiments should have modest impact on the basic design of the NIF, but could require several hundred dedicated, high yield shots

  11. Layer-by-layer assembly of multicolored semiconductor quantum dots towards efficient blue, green, red and full color optical films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Li Qian; Di Xiaowei; Liu Zhiliang; Xu Gang

    2008-01-01

    Multicolored semiconductor quantum dots have shown great promise for construction of miniaturized light-emitting diodes with compact size, low weight and cost, and high luminescent efficiency. The unique size-dependent luminescent property of quantum dots offers the feasibility of constructing single-color or full-color output light-emitting diodes with one type of material. In this paper, we have demonstrated the facile fabrication of blue-, green-, red- and full-color-emitting semiconductor quantum dot optical films via a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The optical films were constructed by alternative deposition of different colored quantum dots with a series of oppositely charged species, in particular, the new use of cationic starch on glass substrates. Semiconductor ZnSe quantum dots exhibiting blue emission were deposited for fabrication of blue-emitting optical films, while semiconductor CdTe quantum dots with green and red emission were utilized for construction of green- and red-emitting optical films. The assembly of integrated blue, green and red semiconductor quantum dots resulted in full-color-emitting optical films. The luminescent optical films showed very bright emitting colors under UV irradiation, and displayed dense, smooth and efficient luminous features, showing brighter luminescence in comparison with their corresponding quantum dot aqueous colloid solutions. The assembled optical films provide the prospect of miniaturized light-emitting-diode applications.

  12. NIFS symposium: toward the research of fusion burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae

    1993-07-01

    NIFS symposium, entitled 'Toward the research of Fusion Burning Plasmas - Present status and Future Strategy' was held at NIFS on July 15th 1992. This NIFS symposium covers various topics related to burning plasma, e.g., JET DT experiment, Plan for DT experiment on TFTR as well as the future trends among researchers. To study the critical issues and trends of future research, a questionnaire was sent to about 100 researchers. This report presents such activities in the NIFS symposium. (author)

  13. Electrostatically self-assembled films containing II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles: Optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryajaya; Nabok, A.V.; Tsargorodskaya, A.; Hassan, A.K.; Davis, F.

    2008-01-01

    CdS and ZnS semiconducting colloid nanoparticles were deposited as thin films using the technique of electrostatic self-assembly. The process of alternative deposition of Poly-allylamine Hydrochloride (PAH) and CdS (or ZnS) layers were monitored with a novel optical method of total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). The fitting of TIRE spectra allowed the evaluation of the parameter (thickness, refractive index and extinction coefficients) of all consecutively deposited layers. I-V characteristics of the films obtained were studied in sandwich structures on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) conductive electrodes using the mercury probe technique. The presence of CdS (or ZnS) nanoparticles in the polyelectrolyte films leads to a switching behaviour, which may be attributed to the resonance electron tunneling via semiconducting nanoparticles

  14. Raman laser spectrometer optical head: qualification model assembly and integration verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, G.; Sanz-Palomino, M.; Moral, A. G.; Canora, C. P.; Belenguer, T.; Canchal, R.; Prieto, J. A. R.; Santiago, A.; Gordillo, C.; Escribano, D.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Rull, F.

    2017-08-01

    Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) is the Pasteur Payload instrument of the ExoMars mission, within the ESA's Aurora Exploration Programme, that will perform for the first time in an out planetary mission Raman spectroscopy. RLS is composed by SPU (Spectrometer Unit), iOH (Internal Optical Head), and ICEU (Instrument Control and Excitation Unit). iOH focuses the excitation laser on the samples (excitation path), and collects the Raman emission from the sample (collection path, composed on collimation system and filtering system). Its original design presented a high laser trace reaching to the detector, and although a certain level of laser trace was required for calibration purposes, the high level degrades the Signal to Noise Ratio confounding some Raman peaks. So, after the bread board campaign, some light design modifications were implemented in order to fix the desired amount of laser trace, and after the fabrication and the commitment of the commercial elements, the assembly and integration verification process was carried out. A brief description of the iOH design update for the engineering and qualification model (iOH EQM) as well as the assembly process are briefly described in this papers. In addition, the integration verification and the first functional tests, carried out with the RLS calibration target (CT), results are reported on.

  15. Optical oxygen sensing materials based on a novel dirhenium(I) complex assembled in mesoporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanhong; Li Bin; Cong Yan; Zhang Liming; Fan Di; Shi Linfang

    2011-01-01

    A new dirhenium(I) complex fac-[{Re(CO) 3 (4,7-dinonadecyl-1,10-phenanthro -line)} 2 (4,4'-bipyridyl)] (trifluoromethanesulfonate) 2 (denoted as D-Re(I) ) is assembled in MCM-41 and SBA-15 type mesoporous silica support. The emission peaks of D-Re(I) in D-Re(I)/MCM-41 and D-Re(I)/SBA-15 are observed at 522 and 517 nm, respectively. Their long excited lifetimes, which are of the order of microseconds, indicate the presence of phosphorescence emission arising from the metal to ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) transition. The luminescence intensities of D-Re(I)/MCM-41 and D-Re(I)/SBA-15 decrease remarkably with increase in the oxygen concentration, meaning that they can be used as optical oxygen sensing materials based on luminescence quenching. The ratios I 0 /I 100 of D-Re(I)/MCM-41 and D-Re(I)/SBA-15 are estimated to be 5.6 and 20.1, respectively. The obtained Stern-Volmer oxygen quenching plots of the mesoporous sensing materials could be fitted well to the two-site Demas model and Lehrer model. - Research highlights: → Dirhenium(I) complex assembled in mesoporous molecular sieves for oxygen sensor design. → Large α-diimine ligand L used to improve oxygen sensing properties. → High sensitivity (I 0 /I 100 ) up to 20.1.

  16. Fiber optic pH sensor with self-assembled polymer multilayer nanocoatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Li-Yang; Yin, Ming-Jie; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Albert, Jacques

    2013-01-24

    A fiber-optic pH sensor based on a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) with electrostatic self-assembly multilayer sensing film is presented. The pH sensitive polymeric film, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was deposited on the circumference of the TFBG with the layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembly technique. The PDDA/PAA film exhibits a reduction in refractive index by swelling in different pH solutions. This effect results in wavelength shifts and transmission changes in the spectrum of the TFBG. The peak amplitude of the dominant spectral fringes over a certain window of the transmission spectrum, obtained by FFT analysis, has a near-linear pH sensitivity of 117 arbitrary unit (a.u.)/pH unit and an accuracy of ±1 a.u. (in the range of pH 4.66 to pH 6.02). The thickness and surface morphology of the sensing multilayer film were characterized to investigate their effects on the sensor's performance. The dynamic response of the sensor also has been studied (10 s rise time and 18 s fall time for a sensor with six bilayers of PDDA/PAA).

  17. Intragenic complementation by the nifJ-coded protein of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, G; Zhu, J; Shah, V K; Shen, S C; Brill, W J

    1982-01-01

    A single mutation, nifC1005 (Jin et al. Sci. Sin. 23:108-118, 1980), located between nifH and nifJ in the nif cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae, genetically complemented mutations in each of the 17 known nif genes. This suggested that the mutation is located in a new nif gene. We showed by complementation analyses that only 3 of 12 nifJ mutations tested were complemented by nifC1005. Nitrogenase activity in cell extracts of the mutant with nifC1005 as well as NifJ- mutants was stimulated by th...

  18. Configuring NIF for direct drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimerl, D.; Rothenberg, J.; Key, M.

    1995-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a proposed 1.8 MJ laser facility for carrying out experiments in inertial confinement fusion, currently designed for indirect drive experiments. The direct drive approach is being pursued at the 30 kJ Omega facility at the University of Rochester. In this paper we discuss the modifications to the NIF laser that would be required for both indirect and direct drive experiments. A primary concern is the additional cost of adding direct drive capability to the facility

  19. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  20. The nif Gene Operon of the Methanogenic Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Peter S.; Blank, Carrine; Leigh, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation occurs in two domains, Archaea and Bacteria. We have characterized a nif (nitrogen fixation) gene cluster in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis. Sequence analysis revealed eight genes, six with sequence similarity to known nif genes and two with sequence similarity to glnB. The gene order, nifH, ORF105 (similar to glnB), ORF121 (similar to glnB), nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, and nifX, was the same as that found in part in other diazotrophic methanogens and except for the presence of the glnB-like genes, also resembled the order found in many members of the Bacteria. Using transposon insertion mutagenesis, we determined that an 8-kb region required for nitrogen fixation corresponded to the nif gene cluster. Northern analysis revealed the presence of either a single 7.6-kb nif mRNA transcript or 10 smaller mRNA species containing portions of the large transcript. Polar effects of transposon insertions demonstrated that all of these mRNAs arose from a single promoter region, where transcription initiated 80 bp 5′ to nifH. Distinctive features of the nif gene cluster include the presence of the six primary nif genes in a single operon, the placement of the two glnB-like genes within the cluster, the apparent physical separation of the cluster from any other nif genes that might be in the genome, the fragmentation pattern of the mRNA, and the regulation of expression by a repression mechanism described previously. Our study and others with methanogenic archaea reporting multiple mRNAs arising from gene clusters with only a single putative promoter sequence suggest that mRNA processing following transcription may be a common occurrence in methanogens. PMID:9515920

  1. Mutant Forms of the Azotobacter vinelandii Transcriptional Activator NifA Resistant to Inhibition by the NifL Regulatory Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Ramirez, Francisca; Little, Richard; Dixon, Ray

    2002-01-01

    The Azotobacter vinelandii σ54-dependent transcriptional activator protein NifA is regulated by the NifL protein in response to redox, carbon, and nitrogen status. Under conditions inappropriate for nitrogen fixation, NifL inhibits transcription activation by NifA through the formation of the NifL-NifA protein complex. NifL inhibits the ATPase activity of the central AAA+ domain of NifA required to drive open complex formation by σ54-RNA polymerase and may also inhibit the activator-polymeras...

  2. Hierarchical material models for fragmentation modeling in NIF-ALE-AMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A C; Masters, N D; Koniges, A E; Anderson, R W; Gunney, B T N; Wang, P; Becker, R; Dixit, P; Benson, D J

    2008-01-01

    Fragmentation is a fundamental process that naturally spans micro to macroscopic scales. Recent advances in algorithms, computer simulations, and hardware enable us to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes in a real simulation through a heterogeneous multiscale mathematical model. We apply this model to the problem of predicting how targets in the NIF chamber dismantle, so that optics and diagnostics can be protected from damage. The mechanics of the initial material fracture depend on the microscopic grain structure. In order to effectively simulate the fragmentation, this process must be modeled at the subgrain level with computationally expensive crystal plasticity models. However, there are not enough computational resources to model the entire NIF target at this microscopic scale. In order to accomplish these calculations, a hierarchical material model (HMM) is being developed. The HMM will allow fine-scale modeling of the initial fragmentation using computationally expensive crystal plasticity, while the elements at the mesoscale can use polycrystal models, and the macroscopic elements use analytical flow stress models. The HMM framework is built upon an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capability. We present progress in implementing the HMM in the NIF-ALE-AMR code. Additionally, we present test simulations relevant to NIF targets

  3. Hierarchical material models for fragmentation modeling in NIF-ALE-AMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A C; Masters, N D; Koniges, A E; Anderson, R W; Gunney, B T N; Wang, P; Becker, R [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Dixit, P; Benson, D J [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla. CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: fisher47@llnl.gov

    2008-05-15

    Fragmentation is a fundamental process that naturally spans micro to macroscopic scales. Recent advances in algorithms, computer simulations, and hardware enable us to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes in a real simulation through a heterogeneous multiscale mathematical model. We apply this model to the problem of predicting how targets in the NIF chamber dismantle, so that optics and diagnostics can be protected from damage. The mechanics of the initial material fracture depend on the microscopic grain structure. In order to effectively simulate the fragmentation, this process must be modeled at the subgrain level with computationally expensive crystal plasticity models. However, there are not enough computational resources to model the entire NIF target at this microscopic scale. In order to accomplish these calculations, a hierarchical material model (HMM) is being developed. The HMM will allow fine-scale modeling of the initial fragmentation using computationally expensive crystal plasticity, while the elements at the mesoscale can use polycrystal models, and the macroscopic elements use analytical flow stress models. The HMM framework is built upon an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capability. We present progress in implementing the HMM in the NIF-ALE-AMR code. Additionally, we present test simulations relevant to NIF targets.

  4. Assembly and alignment method for optimized spatial resolution of off-axis three-mirror fore optics of hyperspectral imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Jinsuk; Choi, Byungin; Lee, Jong-Ung; Kim, Yeonsoo; Kim, Hyunsook

    2017-08-21

    A fore optics for the hyperspectral spectrometer is designed, manufactured, assembled, and aligned. The optics has a telecentric off-axis three-mirror configuration with a field of view wider than 14 degrees and an f-number as small as 2.3. The primary mirror (M1) and the secondary mirror (M2) are axially symmetric aspheric surfaces to minimize the sensitivity. The tertiary mirror (M3) is a decentered aspheric surface to minimize the coma and astigmatism aberration. The M2 also has a hole for the slit to maintain the optical performance while maximizing the telecentricity. To ensure the spatial resolution performance of the optical system, an alignment procedure is established to assemble and align the entrance slit of the spectrometer to the rear end of the fore optics. It has a great advantage to confirm and maintain the alignment integrity of the fore optics module throughout the alignment procedure. To perform the alignment procedure successfully, the precision movement control requirements are calculated and applied. As a result, the alignment goal of the RMS wave front error (WFE) to be smaller than 90 nm at all fields is achieved.

  5. Comparisons of NIF convergent ablation simulations with radiograph data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R E; Hicks, D G; Meezan, N B; Koch, J A; Landen, O L

    2012-10-01

    A technique for comparing simulation results directly with radiograph data from backlit capsule implosion experiments will be discussed. Forward Abel transforms are applied to the kappa*rho profiles of the simulation. These provide the transmission ratio (optical depth) profiles of the simulation. Gaussian and top hat blurs are applied to the simulated transmission ratio profiles in order to account for the motion blurring and imaging slit resolution of the experimental measurement. Comparisons between the simulated transmission ratios and the radiograph data lineouts are iterated until a reasonable backlighter profile is obtained. This backlighter profile is combined with the blurred, simulated transmission ratios to obtain simulated intensity profiles that can be directly compared with the radiograph data. Examples will be shown from recent convergent ablation (backlit implosion) experiments at the NIF.

  6. An optimized routing algorithm for the automated assembly of standard multimode ribbon fibers in a full-mesh optical backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Vito; Guadagno, Gianluca; Ferrario, Maddalena; Fassi, Irene

    2018-03-01

    In this paper a parametric, modular and scalable algorithm allowing a fully automated assembly of a backplane fiber-optic interconnection circuit is presented. This approach guarantees the optimization of the optical fiber routing inside the backplane with respect to specific criteria (i.e. bending power losses), addressing both transmission performance and overall costs issues. Graph theory has been exploited to simplify the complexity of the NxN full-mesh backplane interconnection topology, firstly, into N independent sub-circuits and then, recursively, into a limited number of loops easier to be generated. Afterwards, the proposed algorithm selects a set of geometrical and architectural parameters whose optimization allows to identify the optimal fiber optic routing for each sub-circuit of the backplane. The topological and numerical information provided by the algorithm are then exploited to control a robot which performs the automated assembly of the backplane sub-circuits. The proposed routing algorithm can be extended to any array architecture and number of connections thanks to its modularity and scalability. Finally, the algorithm has been exploited for the automated assembly of an 8x8 optical backplane realized with standard multimode (MM) 12-fiber ribbons.

  7. Towards micro-assembly of hybrid MOEMS components on a reconfigurable silicon free-space micro-optical bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargiel, S; Gorecki, C; Rabenorosoa, K; Clévy, C; Lutz, P

    2010-01-01

    The 3D integration of hybrid chips is a viable approach for the micro-optical technologies to reduce the costs of assembly and packaging. In this paper a technology platform for the hybrid integration of MOEMS components on a reconfigurable silicon free-space micro-optical bench (FS-MOB) is presented. In this approach a desired optical component (e.g. micromirror, microlens) is integrated with a removable and adjustable silicon holder which can be manipulated, aligned and fixed in the precisely etched rail of the silicon baseplate by use of a robotic micro-assembly station. An active-based gripping system allows modification of the holder position on the baseplate with nanometre precision. The fabrication processes of the micromachined parts of the micro-optical bench, based on bulk micromachining of standard silicon wafer and SOI wafer, are described. The successful assembly of the holders, equipped with a micromirror and a refractive glass ball microlens, on the baseplate rail is demonstrated.

  8. Report on the B-Fields at NIF Workshop Held at LLNL October 12-13, 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, K. B.; Moody, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    A national ICF laboratory workshop on requirements for a magnetized target capability on NIF was held by NIF at LLNL on October 12 and 13, attended by experts from LLNL, SNL, LLE, LANL, GA, and NRL. Advocates for indirect drive (LLNL), magnetic (Z) drive (SNL), polar direct drive (LLE), and basic science needing applied B (many institutions) presented and discussed requirements for the magnetized target capabilities they would like to see. 30T capability was most frequently requested. A phased operation increasing the field in steps experimentally can be envisioned. The NIF management will take the inputs from the scientific community represented at the workshop and recommend pulse-powered magnet parameters for NIF that best meet the collective user requests. In parallel, LLNL will continue investigating magnets for future generations that might be powered by compact laser-B-field generators (Moody, Fujioka, Santos, Woolsey, Pollock). The NIF facility engineers will start to analyze compatibility of the recommended pulsed magnet parameters (size, field, rise time, materials) with NIF chamber constraints, diagnostic access, and final optics protection against debris in FY16. The objective of this assessment will be to develop a schedule for achieving an initial Bfield capability. Based on an initial assessment, room temperature magnetized gas capsules will be fielded on NIF first. Magnetized cryo-ice-layered targets will take longer (more compatibility issues). Magnetized wetted foam DT targets (Olson) may have somewhat fewer compatibility issues making them a more likely choice for the first cryo-ice-layered target fielded with applied Bz.

  9. On the design of the NIF Continuum Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, D. B.; MacPhee, A.; Ayers, J.; Galbraith, J.; Hardy, C. M.; Izumi, N.; Bradley, D. K.; Pickworth, L. A.; Bachmann, B.; Kozioziemski, B.; Landen, O.; Clark, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Nagel, S.; Bell, P. M.; Person, S.; Khater, H. Y.; Smith, C.; Kilkenny, J.

    2017-08-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), measurements of average ion temperature using DT neutron time of flight broadening and of DD neutrons do not show the same apparent temperature. Some of this may be due to time and space dependent temperature profiles in the imploding capsule which are not taken into account in the analysis. As such, we are attempting to measure the electron temperature by recording the free-free electron-ion scattering-spectrum from the tail of the Maxwellian temperature distribution. This will be accomplished with the new NIF Continuum Spectrometer (ConSpec) which spans the x-ray range of 20 keV to 30 keV (where any opacity corrections from the remaining mass of the ablator shell are negligible) and will be sensitive to temperatures between ˜ 3 keV and 6 keV. The optical design of the ConSpec is designed to be adaptable to an x-ray streak camera to record time resolved free-free electron continuum spectra for direct measurement of the dT/dt evolution across the burn width of a DT plasma. The spectrometer is a conically bent Bragg crystal in a focusing geometry that allows for the dispersion plane to be perpendicular to the spectrometer axis. Additionally, to address the spatial temperature dependence, both time integrated and time resolved pinhole and penumbral imaging will be provided along the same polar angle. The optical and mechanical design of the instrument is presented along with estimates for the dispersion, solid angle, photometric sensitivity, and performance.

  10. Comparison of the Three NIF Ablators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Clark, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haan, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yi, S. A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ralph, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weber, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on NIF have now been performed using three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) or CH, high density carbon (HDC, which we also refer to as diamond), and sputtered beryllium (Be). It has been appreciated for some time that each of these materials has specific advantages and disadvantages as an ICF ablator.[1-4] In light of experiments conducted on NIF in the last few years, how do these ablators compare? Given current understanding, is any ablator more or less likely to reach ignition on NIF? Has the understanding of their respective strengths and weaknesses changed since NIF experiments began? How are those strengths and weaknesses highlighted by implosion designs currently being tested or planned for testing soon? This document aims to address these questions by combining modern simulation results with a survey of the current experimental data base. More particularly, this document is meant to fulfill an L2 Milestone for FY17 to “Document our understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of CH, HDC, and Be designs.” Note that this document does not aim to recommend a down-selection of the current three ablator choices. It is intended only to gather and document the current understanding of the differences between these ablators and thereby inform the choices made in planning future implosion experiments. This document has two themes: (i) We report on a reanalysis project in which post-shot simulations were done on a common basis for layered shots using each ablator. This included data from keyholes, 2D ConA, and so forth, from each campaign, leading up to the layered shots. (“Keyholes” are shots dedicated to measuring the shock timing in a NIF target, as described in Ref. 5. “2DConAs” are backlit implosions in which the symmetry of the implosion is measured between about half and full convergence, as described in Ref. 6.) This set of common-basis postshot simulations is compared to

  11. Cooperative self-construction and enhanced optical absorption of nanoplates-assembled hierarchical Bi2WO6 flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengwei; Yu Jiaguo

    2008-01-01

    Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical multilayered flower-like assemblies are fabricated on a large scale by a simple hydrothermal method in the presence of polymeric poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Such 3D Bi 2 WO 6 assemblies are constructed from orderly arranged 2D layers, which are further composed of a large number of interconnected nanoplates with a mean side length of ca. 50 nm. The bimodal mesopores associated with such hierarchical assembly exhibit peak mesopore size of ca. 4 nm for the voids within a layer, and peak mesopore size of ca. 40 nm corresponding to the interspaces between stacked layers, respectively. The formation process is discussed on the basis of the results of time-dependent experiments, which support a novel 'coupled cooperative assembly and localized ripening' formation mechanism. More interestingly, we have noticed that the collective effect related to such hierarchical assembly induces a significantly enhanced optical absorbance in the UV-visible region. This work may shed some light on the design of complex architectures and exploitation of their potential applications. - Graphical abstract: Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical multilayered flower-like assemblies are fabricated on a large scale by a simple hydrothermal method in the presence of polymeric poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)

  12. Observation of self-assembled fluorescent beads by scanning near-field optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Jo, W.; Kim, Min-Gon; Kyu Park, Hyun; Hyun Chung, Bong

    2006-01-01

    Optical response and topography of fluorescent latex beads both on flat self-assembled monolayer and on a micron-patterned surface with poly(dimethylsiloxane) are studied. Scanning near-field optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy were utilized together for detecting fluorescence and imaging topography of the patterned latex beads, respectively. As a result, the micro-patterned latex beads where a specific chemical binding occurred show a strong signal, whereas no signals are observed in the case of nonspecific binding. With fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), it is convenient to measure fluorescence signal from the patterned beads allowing us to monitor the small balls of fluorescent latex

  13. Structural and optical studies of local disorder sensitivity in natural organic-inorganic self-assembled semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijaya Prakash, G; Pradeesh, K [Nanophotonics Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India); Ratnani, R; Saraswat, K [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, MDS University, Ajmer (India); Light, M E [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Baumberg, J J, E-mail: prakash@physics.iitd.ac.i [Nanophotonic Centre, Cavendish Laboratory, University Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-21

    The structural and optical spectra of two related lead iodide (PbI) based self-assembled hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductors are compared. During the synthesis, depending on the bridging of organic moiety intercalated between the PbI two-dimensional planes, different crystal structures are produced. These entirely different networks show different structural and optical features, including excitonic bandgaps. In particular, the modified organic environment of the excitons is sensitive to the local disorder both in single crystal and thin film forms. Such information is vital for incorporating these semiconductors into photonic device architectures.

  14. NIF: IFE applications, waste management and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Kirchner, F.R.; Miley, G.H.; Petra, M.

    1996-01-01

    Although many energy sources have been suggested for the future, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been demonstrated as scientifically feasible and deserves support for continued development. The National Ignition Facility (NIF), proposed by US DOE, is a next step in that direction. NIF would use ICF technology to achieve ignition and energy gain that would allow the development and continued support of national security and other civilian applications including inertial fusion energy power plants. NIF would also guarantee US leadership in dense plasma research. Four sites are being considered for NIF: LLNL, Los Alamos, Sandia, and two NTS sites. An environmental evaluation was performed which considered all impacts. This paper provides the results of the waste management analyses conducted on the proposed NIF sites. Overall, the proposed construction and operation of NIF should qualify it as a low-hazard, non-nuclear radiological facility with minor onsite and negligible offsite environmental impacts

  15. Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson R.E.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The NIF convergent ablation tuning effort is underway. In the early experiments, we have discovered that the design code simulations over-predict the capsule implosion velocity and shock flash ρr, but under-predict the hohlraum x-ray flux measurements. The apparent inconsistency between the x-ray flux and radiography data implies that there are important unexplained aspects of the hohlraum and/or capsule behavior.

  16. Current progress in NIF target concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Thoma, D.J.; Jacobson, L.A.; Hollis, R.V.; Barrera, J.; Mitchell, M.A.; Salazar, M.A.; Salzer, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Target concepts for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require progress in the art and science of target fabrication. Three distinct issues are addressed: beryllium fuel capsules, foam-buffered direct drive, and high-density gas-filled hohlraums. In all cases experiments on the existing Nova laser at LLNL are either in progress or planned for the near future to test the various concepts. Consequently, target fabrication must be able to deliver targets appropriate for each

  17. Results from neutron imaging of ICF experiments at NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F. E.; Danly, C. R.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    In 2011 a neutron imaging diagnostic was commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system has been used to collect neutron images to measure the size and shape of the burning DT plasma and the surrounding fuel assembly. The imaging technique uses a pinhole neutron aperture placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two-dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic collects two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically one image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons, and the other image measures the distribution of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core. Images have been collected for the majority of the experiments performed as part of the ignition campaign. Results from this data have been used to estimate a burn-averaged fuel assembly as well as providing performance metrics to gauge progress towards ignition. This data set and our interpretation are presented.

  18. Symbiotic Burkholderia Species Show Diverse Arrangements of nif/fix and nod Genes and Lack Typical High-Affinity Cytochrome cbb3 Oxidase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sofie E; Briscoe, Leah; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Agapakis, Christina M; de-Los Santos, Paulina Estrada; Seshadri, Rekha; Reeve, Wayne; Weinstock, George; O'Hara, Graham; Howieson, John G; Hirsch, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    Genome analysis of fourteen mimosoid and four papilionoid beta-rhizobia together with fourteen reference alpha-rhizobia for both nodulation (nod) and nitrogen-fixing (nif/fix) genes has shown phylogenetic congruence between 16S rRNA/MLSA (combined 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis) and nif/fix genes, indicating a free-living diazotrophic ancestry of the beta-rhizobia. However, deeper genomic analysis revealed a complex symbiosis acquisition history in the beta-rhizobia that clearly separates the mimosoid and papilionoid nodulating groups. Mimosoid-nodulating beta-rhizobia have nod genes tightly clustered in the nodBCIJHASU operon, whereas papilionoid-nodulating Burkholderia have nodUSDABC and nodIJ genes, although their arrangement is not canonical because the nod genes are subdivided by the insertion of nif and other genes. Furthermore, the papilionoid Burkholderia spp. contain duplications of several nod and nif genes. The Burkholderia nifHDKEN and fixABC genes are very closely related to those found in free-living diazotrophs. In contrast, nifA is highly divergent between both groups, but the papilionoid species nifA is more similar to alpha-rhizobia nifA than to other groups. Surprisingly, for all Burkholderia, the fixNOQP and fixGHIS genes required for cbb3 cytochrome oxidase production and assembly are missing. In contrast, symbiotic Cupriavidus strains have fixNOQPGHIS genes, revealing a divergence in the evolution of two distinct electron transport chains required for nitrogen fixation within the beta-rhizobia.

  19. Large optics for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baisden, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser with its 192 independent laser beams is not only the world's largest laser, it is also the largest optical system ever built. With its 192 independent laser beams, the NIF requires a total of 7648 large-aperture (meter-sized) optics. One of the many challenges in designing and building NIF has been to carry out the research and development on optical materials, optics design, and optics manufacturing and metrology technologies needed to achieve NIF's high output energies and precision beam quality. This paper describes the multiyear, multi-supplier, development effort that was undertaken to develop the advanced optical materials, coatings, fabrication technologies, and associated process improvements necessary to manufacture the wide range of NIF optics. The optics include neodymium-doped phosphate glass laser amplifiers; fused silica lenses, windows, and phase plates; mirrors and polarizers with multi-layer, high-reflectivity dielectric coatings deposited on BK7 substrates; and potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystal optics for fast optical switches, frequency conversion, and polarization rotation. Also included is a discussion of optical specifications and custom metrology and quality-assurance tools designed, built, and fielded at supplier sites to verify compliance with the stringent NIF specifications. In addition, a brief description of the ongoing program to improve the operational lifetime (i.e., damage resistance) of optics exposed to high fluence in the 351-nm (3ω) is provided.

  20. The expression of nifB gene from Herbaspirillum seropedicae is dependent upon the NifA and RpoN proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Fabiane G M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S; Yates, M Geoffrey; Wassem, Roseli; Steffens, Maria B R; Rigo, Liu U; Souza, Emanuel M

    2006-12-01

    The putative nifB promoter region of Herbaspirillum seropedicae contained two sequences homologous to NifA-binding site and a -24/-12 type promoter. A nifB::lacZ fusion was assayed in the backgrounds of both Escherichia coli and H. seropedicae. In E. coli, the expression of nifB::lacZ occurred only in the presence of functional rpoN and Klebsiella pneumoniae nifA genes. In addition, the integration host factor (IHF) stimulated the expression of the nifB::lacZ fusion in this background. In H. seropedicae, nifB expression occurred only in the absence of ammonium and under low levels of oxygen, and it was shown to be strictly dependent on NifA. DNA band shift experiments showed that purified K. pneumoniae RpoN and E. coli IHF proteins were capable of binding to the nifB promoter region, and in vivo dimethylsulfate footprinting showed that NifA binds to both NifA-binding sites. These results strongly suggest that the expression of the nifB promoter of H. seropedicae is dependent on the NifA and RpoN proteins and that the IHF protein stimulates NifA activation of nifB promoter.

  1. Functional organization of a single nif cluster in the mesophilic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ehlers

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesophilic methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 is able to utilize molecular nitrogen (N2 as its sole nitrogen source. We have identified and characterized a single nitrogen fixation (nif gene cluster in M. mazei Gö1 with an approximate length of 9 kbp. Sequence analysis revealed seven genes with sequence similarities to nifH, nifI1, nifI2, nifD, nifK, nifE and nifN, similar to other diazotrophic methanogens and certain bacteria such as Clostridium acetobutylicum, with the two glnB-like genes (nifI1 and nifI2 located between nifH and nifD. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences for the nitrogenase structural genes of M. mazei Gö1 showed that they are most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri nif2 genes, and also closely resemble those for the corresponding nif products of the gram-positive bacterium C. acetobutylicum. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription PCR analysis demonstrated that the M. mazei nif genes constitute an operon transcribed only under nitrogen starvation as a single 8 kb transcript. Sequence analysis revealed a palindromic sequence at the transcriptional start site in front of the M. mazei nifH gene, which may have a function in transcriptional regulation of the nif operon.

  2. Polarimetry of uncoupled light on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D; Moody, J D; Michel, P; Ralph, J E; Divol, L

    2014-11-01

    Polarimetry has been added to the full aperture backscatter diagnostic on the NIF. Wollaston prisms are used to sample a small region of a beam's backscatter, effectively separating it into two linear polarizations, one of which is parallel to the incident beam. A time-averaged measurement of each polarization is obtained by imaging the separated spots off of a scatter plate. Results have improved understanding of crossed beam energy transfer, glint, and sidescatter, and motivated plans to upgrade to a time-resolved polarimeter measuring the full Stokes vector.

  3. Polarimetry of uncoupled light on the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D., E-mail: turnbull2@llnl.gov; Moody, J. D.; Michel, P.; Ralph, J. E.; Divol, L. [National Ignition Facility and Photon Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Polarimetry has been added to the full aperture backscatter diagnostic on the NIF. Wollaston prisms are used to sample a small region of a beam's backscatter, effectively separating it into two linear polarizations, one of which is parallel to the incident beam. A time-averaged measurement of each polarization is obtained by imaging the separated spots off of a scatter plate. Results have improved understanding of crossed beam energy transfer, glint, and sidescatter, and motivated plans to upgrade to a time-resolved polarimeter measuring the full Stokes vector.

  4. Backscatter measurements for NIF ignition targets (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J D; Datte, P; Krauter, K; Bond, E; Michel, P A; Glenzer, S H; Divol, L; Niemann, C; Suter, L; Meezan, N; MacGowan, B J; Hibbard, R; London, R; Kilkenny, J; Wallace, R; Kline, J L; Knittel, K; Frieders, G; Golick, B; Ross, G; Widmann, K; Jackson, J; Vernon, S; Clancy, T

    2010-10-01

    Backscattered light via laser-plasma instabilities has been measured in early NIF hohlraum experiments on two beam quads using a suite of detectors. A full aperture backscatter system and near backscatter imager (NBI) instrument separately measure the stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattered light. Both instruments work in conjunction to determine the total backscattered power to an accuracy of ∼15%. In order to achieve the power accuracy we have added time-resolution to the NBI for the first time. This capability provides a temporally resolved spatial image of the backscatter which can be viewed as a movie.

  5. Breakthrough at NIF 'unlikely' in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2010-05-01

    Hopes of reaching a milestone in fusion research by the end of 2010 have dimmed following a US government report that plays down the chances of an early breakthrough and sharply criticizes management of the 4bn National Ignition Facility (NIF). In the report, officials from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) state that ignition - fusion's "break-even" point - is "unlikely" to occur at the laser-fusion lab this year and that "significant scientific and technical challenges" could delay or even prevent the facility from achieving ignition by 2012.

  6. Backscatter measurements for NIF ignition targets (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J. D.; Datte, P.; Krauter, K.; Bond, E.; Michel, P. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Divol, L.; Suter, L.; Meezan, N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Hibbard, R.; London, R.; Kilkenny, J.; Wallace, R.; Knittel, K.; Frieders, G.; Golick, B.; Ross, G.; Widmann, K.; Jackson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2010-10-15

    Backscattered light via laser-plasma instabilities has been measured in early NIF hohlraum experiments on two beam quads using a suite of detectors. A full aperture backscatter system and near backscatter imager (NBI) instrument separately measure the stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattered light. Both instruments work in conjunction to determine the total backscattered power to an accuracy of {approx}15%. In order to achieve the power accuracy we have added time-resolution to the NBI for the first time. This capability provides a temporally resolved spatial image of the backscatter which can be viewed as a movie.

  7. Backscatter measurements for NIF ignition targets (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J. D.; Datte, P.; Krauter, K.; Bond, E.; Michel, P. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Divol, L.; Suter, L.; Meezan, N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Hibbard, R.; London, R.; Kilkenny, J.; Wallace, R.; Knittel, K.; Frieders, G.; Golick, B.; Ross, G.; Widmann, K.; Jackson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Backscattered light via laser-plasma instabilities has been measured in early NIF hohlraum experiments on two beam quads using a suite of detectors. A full aperture backscatter system and near backscatter imager (NBI) instrument separately measure the stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattered light. Both instruments work in conjunction to determine the total backscattered power to an accuracy of ∼15%. In order to achieve the power accuracy we have added time-resolution to the NBI for the first time. This capability provides a temporally resolved spatial image of the backscatter which can be viewed as a movie.

  8. Stability analysis of directly driven Nif capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V.N.; Skupsky, S.; McKenty, P.W.; Delettrez, J.A.; Town, R.P.J. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Cherfils-Clerouin, C. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, DIF, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France)

    2000-07-01

    An analytical model is presented to study perturbation evolution at the ablation and inner surfaces of the imploding shell. The model describes the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor and Bell-Plesset instabilities. The initial conditions for the model are determined by using existing theories of laser imprint, ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, 'feed-out' and by performing a series of 2-D ORCHID simulations. The model and simulations show that the direct-drive cryogenic {alpha} = 3 NIF capsules remain intact during the implosion if laser nonuniformities are smoothed by 2-D SSD used in the current direct-drive target designs. (authors)

  9. DIM and diagnostic placement for NIF experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D.

    1999-01-01

    The input that has been provided on the NIF experiment setup sheets has allowed us to review the diagnostic and DIM placement as well as the baseline unconverted light management plan. We have done an iteration to identify common diagnostic lines of sight, and with additional requirements defined by specific experiments, we propose (1) a baseline plan for DIM placement requiring only five DIMs that may be moved between up to seven DIM ports, and (2) a modified baseline unconverted light management plan. We request additional input to identify primary vs. secondary diagnostics for each experiment definition

  10. Tests and calibration of NIF neutron time of flight detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Z A; Glebov, V Yu; Cruz, M; Duffy, T; Stoeckl, C; Roberts, S; Sangster, T C; Tommasini, R; Throop, A; Moran, M; Dauffy, L; Horsefield, C

    2008-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD(*) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 1x10(9) to 2x10(19). The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detector tests and calibration will be presented.

  11. Manufacturing of polymer optical waveguides using self-assembly effect on pre-conditioned 3D-thermoformed flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gerd-Albert; Wolfer, Tim; Zeitler, Jochen; Franke, Jörg; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2017-02-01

    Optical data communication is increasingly interesting for many applications in industrial processes. Therefore mass production is required to meet the requested price and lot sizes. Polymer optical waveguides show great promises to comply with price requirements while providing sufficient optical quality for short range data transmission. A high efficient fabrication technology using polymer materials could be able to create the essential backbone for 3D-optical data transmission in the future. The approach for high efficient fabrication technology of micro optics described in this paper is based on a self-assembly effect of fluids on preconditioned 3D-thermoformed polymer foils. Adjusting the surface energy on certain areas on the flexible substrate by flexographic printing mechanism is presented in this paper. With this technique conditioning lines made of silicone containing UV-varnish are printed on top of the foils and create gaps with the exposed substrate material in between. Subsequent fabrication processes are selected whether the preconditioned foil is coated with acrylate containing waveguide material prior or after the thermoforming process. Due to the different surface energy this material tends to dewet from the conditioning lines. It acts like regional barriers and sets the width of the arising waveguides. With this fabrication technology it is possible to produce multiple waveguides with a single coating process. The relevant printing process parameters that affect the quality of the generated waveguides are discussed and results of the produced waveguides with width ranging from 10 to 300 μm are shown.

  12. Investigation into the MgF2-NiF2, CaF2-NiF2, SrF2-NiF2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikrami, D.D.; Petrov, S.V.; Fedorov, P.P.; Ol'khovaya, L.A.; Luginina, A.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskikh Problem; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-01-01

    Using the methods of differential thermal and X-ray phase analyses the systems MgF 2 -NiF 2 , CaF 2 -NiF 2 , SrF 2 -NiF 2 have been studied. In the system SrF 2 -NiF 2 the only orthorhombic compounds SrNiF 4 (a=14.43; b=3.93; c=5.66 (+-0.01 A)) is formed. SrNiF 4 density constitutes: dsub(X-ray)=4.60+-0.01 g/cm 3 , dsub(exp.)=4.60+-0.03 g/cm 3 . Refraction indices are as follows SrNiF 4 :Ng=1.500; Nsub(m)=1.497; Nsub(p)=1.479. SrNiF 4 magnetic ordering temperature Tsub(N) approximately 100 K

  13. The neutron imaging diagnostic at NIF (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F E; Bower, D; Buckles, R; Clark, D D; Danly, C R; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Fatherley, V E; Fittinghoff, D N; Gallegos, R; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Loomis, E N; Lutz, S; Malone, R M; Martinson, D D; Mares, D; Morley, D J; Morgan, G L; Oertel, J A; Tregillis, I L; Volegov, P L; Weiss, P B; Wilde, C H; Wilson, D C

    2012-10-01

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  14. The neutron imaging diagnostic at NIF (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, F. E.; Clark, D. D.; Danly, C. R.; Drury, O. B.; Fatherley, V. E.; Gallegos, R.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Loomis, E. N.; Martinson, D. D.; Mares, D.; Morley, D. J.; Morgan, G. L.; Oertel, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilson, D. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Bower, D.; Dzenitis, J. M. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2012-10-15

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  15. Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudanyali, Onur; McLeod, Euan; Luo, Wei; Greenbaum, Alon; Coskun, Ahmet F.; Hennequin, Yves; Allier, Cédric P.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-03-01

    The direct observation of nanoscale objects is a challenging task for optical microscopy because the scattering from an individual nanoparticle is typically weak at optical wavelengths. Electron microscopy therefore remains one of the gold standard visualization methods for nanoparticles, despite its high cost, limited throughput and restricted field-of-view. Here, we describe a high-throughput, on-chip detection scheme that uses biocompatible wetting films to self-assemble aspheric liquid nanolenses around individual nanoparticles to enhance the contrast between the scattered and background light. We model the effect of the nanolens as a spatial phase mask centred on the particle and show that the holographic diffraction pattern of this effective phase mask allows detection of sub-100 nm particles across a large field-of-view of >20 mm2. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we report on-chip detection of individual polystyrene nanoparticles, adenoviruses and influenza A (H1N1) viral particles.

  16. Summary of the evidence file demonstrating completion of the NIF Project Completion Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynam, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-04

    This document summarizes the results of performance verification tests on NIF that demonstrate it has met its performance-related Project Completion Criteria (PCC). It includes measurements made on NIF with the NIF diagnostics, the calibration of these diagnostics and the supporting analyses that verify the NIF performance criteria have been met.

  17. Mutations in nif genes that cause Klebsiella pneumoniae to be derepressed for nitrogenase synthesis in the presence of ammonium.

    OpenAIRE

    MacNeil, D; Brill, W J

    1980-01-01

    Four Nif+ revertants from strains with polar insertions in nifL, were insensitive to ammonium and amino acid repression of nitrogenase synthesis. These strains have mutations located in or near the nifL region. The derepressed phenotype was dominant in a merodiploid containing a nif+ plasmid. These nif regulatory mutations also suppressed the Nif- phenotype of Gln- strains. Thus, regulation by fixed nitrogen (possible via glutamine synthetase) occurs on the nifLA operon but not on the other s...

  18. Partial characterization of nif genes from the bacterium Azospirillum amazonense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Potrich

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum amazonense revealed genomic organization patterns of the nitrogen fixation genes similar to those of the distantly related species A. brasilense. Our work suggests that A. brasilense nifHDK, nifENX, fixABC operons and nifA and glnB genes may be structurally homologous to the counterpart genes of A. amazonense. This is the first analysis revealing homology between A. brasilense nif genes and the A. amazonense genome. Sequence analysis of PCR amplification products revealed similarities between the amino acid sequences of the highly conserved nifD and glnB genes of A. amazonense and related genes of A. brasilense and other bacteria. However, the A. amazonense non-coding regions (the upstream activator sequence region and the region between the nifH and nifD genes differed from related regions of A. brasilense even in nitrogenase structural genes which are highly conserved among diazotrophic bacteria. The feasibility of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based PCR system for specific detection of A. amazonense was shown. Our results indicate that the PCR primers for 16S rDNA defined in this article are highly specific to A. amazonense and can distinguish this species from A. brasilense.

  19. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a User Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher; NIF Team

    2013-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has made significant progress towards operation as a user facility. Through June 2013, NIF conducted over 1200 experiments in support of ICF, HED science, and development of facility capabilities. The NIF laser has met or achieved all specifications and a wide variety of diagnostic and target fabrication capabilities are in place. A NIF User Group and associated Executive Board have been formed. Two User Group meetings have been conducted since formation of the User Group. NIF experiments in fundamental science have provided important new results. NIF ramp compression experiments have been conducted using diamond and iron, with EOS results obtained at pressures up to approximately 50 Mbar and 8 Mbar, respectively. Initial experiments in supernova hydrodynamics, the fundamental physics of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and equation of state in the Gbar pressure regime have also been conducted. This presentation will discuss the fundamental science program at NIF, including the proposal solicitation and scientific review processes and other aspects of user facility operation. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. National NIF Diagnostic Program Fiscal Year 2002 Second Quarter Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGowan, B

    2002-01-01

    Since October 2001 the development of the facility diagnostics for NIF has been funded by the NIF Director through the National NIF Diagnostic Program (NNDP). The current emphasis of the NNDP is on diagnostics for the early NIF quad scheduled to be available for experiment commissioning in FY03. During the past six months the NNDP has set in place processes for funding diagnostics, developing requirements for diagnostics, design reviews and monthly status reporting. Those processes are described in an interim management plan for diagnostics (National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Plan, NIF-008 13 15, April 2002) and a draft Program Execution Plan (Program Execution Plan for the National NlF Diagnostic Program, NIF-0072083, October 2001) and documents cited therein. Work has been funded at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bechtel Nevada at Los Alamos and Santa Barbara. There are no major technical risks with the early diagnostics. The main concerns relate to integration of the diagnostics into the facility, all such issues are being worked. This report is organized to show the schedule and budget status and a summary of Change Control Board actions for the past six months. The following sections then provide short descriptions of the status of each diagnostic. Where design reviews or requirements documents are cited, the documents are available on the Diagnostics file server or on request

  1. Endophytic Herbaspirillum seropedicae expresses nif genes in gramineous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncato-Maccari, Lauren D B; Ramos, Humberto J O; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Alquini, Yedo; Chubatsu, Leda S; Yates, Marshall G; Rigo, Liu U; Steffens, Maria Berenice R; Souza, Emanuel M

    2003-07-01

    Abstract The interactions between maize, sorghum, wheat and rice plants and Herbaspirillum seropedicae were examined microscopically following inoculation with the H. seropedicae LR15 strain, a Nif(+) (Pnif::gusA) mutant obtained by the insertion of a gusA-kanamycin cassette into the nifH gene of the H. seropedicae wild-type strain. The expression of the Pnif::gusA fusion was followed during the association of the diazotroph with the gramineous species. Histochemical analysis of seedlings of maize, sorghum, wheat and rice grown in vermiculite showed that strain LR15 colonized root surfaces and inner tissues. In early steps of the endophytic association, H. seropedicae colonized root exudation sites, such as axils of secondary roots and intercellular spaces of the root cortex; it then occupied the vascular tissue and there expressed nif genes. The expression of nif genes occurred in roots, stems and leaves as detected by the GUS reporter system. The expression of nif genes was also observed in bacterial colonies located in the external mucilaginous root material, 8 days after inoculation. Moreover, the colonization of plant tissue by H. seropedicae did not depend on the nitrogen-fixing ability, since similar numbers of cells were isolated from roots or shoots of the plants inoculated with Nif(+) or Nif(-) strains.

  2. Mounting for Fabrication, Metrology, and Assembly of Full Shell Grazing Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jacqueline M.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.

    2014-01-01

    Future x-ray telescopes will likely require lightweight mirrors to attain the large collecting areas needed to accomplish the science objectives. Understanding and demonstrating processes now is critical to achieving sub-arcsecond performance in the future. Consequently, designs not only of the mirrors but of fixtures for supporting them during fabrication, metrology, handling, assembly, and testing must be adequately modeled and verified. To this end, MSFC is using finite-element modeling to study the effects of mounting on full-shell grazing-incidence mirrors, during all processes leading to flight mirror assemblies. Here we report initial results of this study.

  3. Terbium to Quantum Dot FRET Bioconjugates for Clinical Diagnostics: Influence of Human Plasma on Optical and Assembly Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Hildebrandt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET from luminescent terbium complexes (LTC as donors to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs as acceptors allows extraordinary large FRET efficiencies due to the long Förster distances afforded. Moreover, time-gated detection permits an efficient suppression of autofluorescent background leading to sub-picomolar detection limits even within multiplexed detection formats. These characteristics make FRET-systems with LTC and QDs excellent candidates for clinical diagnostics. So far, such proofs of principle for highly sensitive multiplexed biosensing have only been performed under optimized buffer conditions and interactions between real-life clinical media such as human serum or plasma and LTC-QD-FRET-systems have not yet been taken into account. Here we present an extensive spectroscopic analysis of absorption, excitation and emission spectra along with the luminescence decay times of both the single components as well as the assembled FRET-systems in TRIS-buffer, TRIS-buffer with 2% bovine serum albumin, and fresh human plasma. Moreover, we evaluated homogeneous LTC-QD FRET assays in QD conjugates assembled with either the well-known, specific biotin-streptavidin biological interaction or, alternatively, the metal-affinity coordination of histidine to zinc. In the case of conjugates assembled with biotin-streptavidin no significant interference with the optical and binding properties occurs whereas the histidine-zinc system appears to be affected by human plasma.

  4. Theoretical Foundation for Electric-Dipole-Allowed Chiral-Specific Fluorescence Optical Rotary Dispersion (F-ORD) from Interfacial Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fengyuan; Ulcickas, James R W; Simpson, Garth J

    2016-11-03

    Fluorescence optical rotary dispersion (F-ORD) is proposed as a novel chiral-specific and interface-specific spectroscopic method. F-ORD measurements of uniaxial assemblies are predicted to be fully electric-dipole-allowed, with corresponding increases in sensitivity to chirality relative to chiral-specific measurements in isotropic assemblies that are commonly interpreted through coupling between electric and magnetic dynamic dipoles. Observations of strong chiral sensitivity in prior single-molecule fluorescence measurements of chiral interfacial molecules are in excellent qualitative agreement with the predictions of the F-ORD mechanism and challenging to otherwise explain. F-ORD may provide methods to suppress background fluorescence in studies of biological interfaces, as the detected signal requires both polar local order and interfacial chirality. In addition, the molecular-level descriptions of the mechanisms underpinning F-ORD may also potentially apply to aid in interpreting chiral-specific Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy measurements of uniaxially oriented assemblies, opening up opportunities for chiral-specific and interface-specific vibrational spectroscopy.

  5. Fabrication of high-resolution reflective scale grating for an optical encoder using a patterned self-assembly process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Shanjin; Jiang, Weitao; Li, Xuan; Yu, Haoyu; Lei, Biao; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Chen, Bangdao; Liu, Hongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Steel tape scale grating of a reflective incremental linear encoder has a key impact on the measurement accuracy of the optical encoder. However, it is difficult for conventional manufacturing processes to fabricate scale grating with high-resolution grating strips, due to process and material problems. In this paper, self-assembly technology was employed to fabricate high-resolution steel tape scale grating for a reflective incremental linear encoder. Graphene oxide nanoparticles were adopted to form anti-reflective grating strips of steel tape scale grating. They were deposited in the tape, which had a hydrophobic and hydrophilic grating pattern when the dispersion of the nanoparticles evaporated. A standard lift-off process was employed to fabricate the hydrophobic grating strips on the steel tape. Simultaneously, the steel tape itself presents a hydrophilic property. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic grating pattern was thus obtained. In this study, octafluorocyclobutane was used to prepare the hydrophobic grating strips, due to its hydrophobic property. High-resolution graphene oxide steel tape scale grating with a pitch of 20 μ m was obtained through the self-assembly process. The photoelectric signals of the optical encoder containing the graphene oxide scale grating and conventional scale grating were tested under the same conditions. Comparison test results showed that the graphene oxide scale grating has a better performance in its amplitude and harmonic components than that of the conventional steel tape scale. A comparison experiment of position errors was also conducted, demonstrating an improvement in the positioning error of the graphene oxide scale grating. The comparison results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed self-assembly process to fabricate high-resolution graphene oxide scale grating for a reflective incremental linear encoder. (paper)

  6. An assessment of the 3D geometric surrogacy of shock timing diagnostic techniques for tuning experiments on the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, H F; Munro, D H; Spears, B K; Marinak, M M; Jones, O S; Patel, M V; Haan, S W; Salmonson, J D; Landen, O L [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Boehly, T R [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Nikroo, A [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)], E-mail: robey1@llnl.gov

    2008-05-15

    Ignition capsule implosions planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require a pulse shape with a carefully designed series of four steps, which launch a corresponding series of shocks through the ablator and DT ice shell. The relative timing of these shocks is critical for maintaining the DT fuel on a low adiabat. The current NIF specification requires that the timing of all four shocks be tuned to an accuracy of {<=} +/- 100ps. To meet these stringent requirements, dedicated tuning experiments are being planned to measure and adjust the shock timing on NIF. These tuning experiments will be performed in a modified hohlraum geometry, where a re-entrant Au cone is added to the standard NIF hohlraum to provide optical diagnostic (VISAR and SOP) access to the shocks as they break out of the ablator. This modified geometry is referred to as the 'keyhole' hohlraum and introduces a geometric difference between these tuning-experiments and the full ignition geometry. In order to assess the surrogacy of this modified geometry, 3D simulations using HYDRA [1] have been performed. The results from simulations of a quarter of the target geometry are presented. Comparisons of the hohlraum drive conditions and the resulting effect on the shock timing in the keyhole hohlraum are compared with the corresponding results for the standard ignition hohlraum.

  7. An assessment of the 3D geometric surrogacy of shock timing diagnostic techniques for tuning experiments on the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robey, H F; Munro, D H; Spears, B K; Marinak, M M; Jones, O S; Patel, M V; Haan, S W; Salmonson, J D; Landen, O L; Boehly, T R; Nikroo, A

    2008-01-01

    Ignition capsule implosions planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require a pulse shape with a carefully designed series of four steps, which launch a corresponding series of shocks through the ablator and DT ice shell. The relative timing of these shocks is critical for maintaining the DT fuel on a low adiabat. The current NIF specification requires that the timing of all four shocks be tuned to an accuracy of ≤ +/- 100ps. To meet these stringent requirements, dedicated tuning experiments are being planned to measure and adjust the shock timing on NIF. These tuning experiments will be performed in a modified hohlraum geometry, where a re-entrant Au cone is added to the standard NIF hohlraum to provide optical diagnostic (VISAR and SOP) access to the shocks as they break out of the ablator. This modified geometry is referred to as the 'keyhole' hohlraum and introduces a geometric difference between these tuning-experiments and the full ignition geometry. In order to assess the surrogacy of this modified geometry, 3D simulations using HYDRA [1] have been performed. The results from simulations of a quarter of the target geometry are presented. Comparisons of the hohlraum drive conditions and the resulting effect on the shock timing in the keyhole hohlraum are compared with the corresponding results for the standard ignition hohlraum

  8. Assembly and offset assignment scheme for self-similar traffic in optical burst switched networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muwonge, KB

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available at the Label Edge Router (LER) to buffer traffic in the electronic domain. Burst assembly and offset assignment schemes are implemented in a complementary manner to improve QoS of an OBS network. The authors show that OBS network performance is directly related...

  9. Purification and binding analysis of the nitrogen fixation regulatory NifA protein from Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.P. Passaglia

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available NifA protein activates transcription of nitrogen fixation operons by the alternative sigma54 holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase. This protein binds to a well-defined upstream activator sequence (UAS located at the -200/-100 position of nif promoters with the consensus motif TGT-N10-ACA. NifA of Azospirillum brasilense was purified in the form of a glutathione-S-transferase (GST-NifA fusion protein and proteolytic release of GST yielded inactive and partially soluble NifA. However, the purified NifA was able to induce the production of specific anti-A. brasilense NifA-antiserum that recognized NifA from A. brasilense but not from K. pneumoniae. Both GST-NifA and NifA expressed from the E. coli tac promoter are able to activate transcription from the nifHDK promoter but only in an A. brasilense background. In order to investigate the mechanism that regulates NifA binding capacity we have used E. coli total protein extracts expressing A. brasilense nifA in mobility shift assays. DNA fragments carrying the two overlapping, wild-type or mutated UAS motifs present in the nifH promoter region revealed a retarded band of related size. These data show that the binding activity present in the C-terminal domain of A. brasilense NifA protein is still functional even in the presence of oxygen.

  10. Self-Assembly of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials for Photonic Devices, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program targets the development of new highly anisotropic nonlinear optical nanocomposite materials for NASA and non-NASA applications in advanced photonic and...

  11. Target Diagnostics Supports NIF's Path to Ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, R.

    2011-01-01

    The physics requirements derived from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) experimental campaigns are leading to a wide variety of target diagnostics. Software development for the control and analysis of these diagnostics is included in the NIF Integrated Computer Control System, Diagnostic Control System and Data Visualization. These projects implement the configuration, controls, data analysis and visual representation of most of these diagnostics. To date, over 40 target diagnostics have been developed to support NIF experiments. In 2011 diagnostics were developed or enhanced to measure Ignition performance in a high neutron yield environment. Performance is optimized around four key variables: Adiabat (a) which is the strength and timing of four shocks delivered to the target, Velocity (V) of the imploding target, Mix (M) is the uniformity of the burn, and the Shape (S) of the imploding Deuterium Tritium (DT) hot spot. The diagnostics used to measure each of these parameters is shown in figure 1. Adiabat is measured using the Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) diagnostic consisting of three streak cameras. To provide for more accurate adiabat measurements the VISAR streak cameras were enhanced in FY11 with a ten comb fiducial signal controller to allow for post shot correction of the streak camera sweep non-linearity. Mix is measured by the Neutron Time of Flight (NTOF) and Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) diagnostics. To accommodate high neutron yield shots, NTOF diagnostic controls are being modified to use Mach Zehnder interferometer signals to allow the digitizers to be moved from near the target chamber to the neutron shielded diagnostic mezzanine. In December 2011 the first phase of RAGS diagnostic commissioning will be completed. This diagnostic will analyze the tracers that are added to NIF target capsules that undergo nuclear reactions during the shot. These gases are collected and purified for nuclear counting by

  12. Transport Simulations for Fast Ignition on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strozzi, D J; Tabak, M; Grote, D P; Cohen, B I; Shay, H D; Town, R J; Kemp, A J; Key, M

    2009-10-26

    We are designing a full hydro-scale cone-guided, indirect-drive FI coupling experiment, for NIF, with the ARC-FIDO short-pulse laser. Current rad-hydro designs with limited fuel jetting into cone tip are not yet adequate for ignition. Designs are improving. Electron beam transport simulations (implicit-PIC LSP) show: (1) Magnetic fields and smaller angular spreads increase coupling to ignition-relevant 'hot spot' (20 um radius); (2) Plastic CD (for a warm target) produces somewhat better coupling than pure D (cryogenic target) due to enhanced resistive B fields; and (3) The optimal T{sub hot} for this target is {approx} 1 MeV; coupling falls by 3x as T{sub hot} rises to 4 MeV.

  13. Evaporative Optical Marangoni Assembly: Tailoring the Three-Dimensional Morphology of Individual Deposits of Nanoparticles from Sessile Drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyfantakis, Manos; Varanakkottu, Subramanyan Namboodiri; Rudiuk, Sergii; Morel, Mathieu; Baigl, Damien

    2017-10-25

    We have recently devised the evaporative optical Marangoni assembly (eOMA), a novel and versatile interfacial flow-based method for directing the deposition of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) on solid substrates from evaporating sessile drops along desired patterns using shaped UV light. Here, we focus on a fixed UV spot irradiation resulting in a cylinder-like deposit of assembled particles and show how the geometrical features of the single deposit can be tailored in three dimensions by simply adjusting the optical conditions or the sample composition, in a quantitative and reproducible manner. Sessile drops containing cationic NPs and a photosensitive surfactant at various concentrations are allowed to evaporate under a single UV beam with a diameter much smaller than that of the drop. After complete evaporation, the geometrical characteristics of the NP deposits are precisely assessed using optical profilometry. We show that both the volume and the radial size of the light-directed NP deposit can be adjusted by varying the diameter or the intensity of the UV beam or alternatively by changing the concentration of the photosensitive surfactant. Notably, in all these cases, the deposits display an almost constant median height corresponding to a few layers of particles. Moreover, both the radial and the axial extent of the patterns are tuned by changing the NP concentration. These results are explained by the correlation among the strength of Marangoni flow, the particle trapping efficiency, and the volume of the deposit, and by the role of evaporation-driven flow in strongly controlling the deposit height. Finally, we extend the versatility of eOMA by demonstrating that NPs down to 30 nm in diameter can be effectively patterned on glass or polymeric substrates.

  14. National Ignition Facility quality assurance plan for laser materials and optical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1996-05-01

    Quality achievement is the responsibility of the line organizations of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. This subtier Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) applies to activities of the Laser Materials & Optical Technology (LM&OT) organization and its subcontractors. It responds to the NIF Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP, L-15958-2, NIF-95-499) and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C. This Plan is organized according to 10 Quality Assurance (QA) criteria and subelements of a management system as outlined in the NIF QAPP. This Plan describes how those QA requirements are met. This Plan is authorized by the Associate Project Leader for the LM&OT organization, who has assigned responsibility to the Optics QA engineer to maintain this plan, with the assistance of the NIF QA organization. This Plan governs quality-affecting activities associated with: design; procurement; fabrication; testing and acceptance; handling and storage; and installation of NIF Project optical components into mounts and subassemblies.

  15. NifH and NifD phylogenies: an evolutionary basis for understanding nitrogen fixation capabilities of methanotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Ricke, Peter; Liesack, Werner

    2004-05-01

    The ability to utilize dinitrogen as a nitrogen source is an important phenotypic trait in most currently known methanotrophic bacteria (MB). This trait is especially important for acidophilic MB, which inhabit acidic oligotrophic environments, highly depleted in available nitrogen compounds. Phylogenetically, acidophilic MB are most closely related to heterotrophic dinitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus BEIJERINCKIA: To further explore the phylogenetic linkage between these metabolically different organisms, the sequences of nifH and nifD gene fragments from acidophilic MB of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa, and from representatives of Beijerinckia, were determined. For reference, nifH and nifD sequences were also obtained from some type II MB of the alphaproteobacterial Methylosinus/Methylocystis group and from gammaproteobacterial type I MB. The trees constructed for the inferred amino acid sequences of nifH and nifD were highly congruent. The phylogenetic relationships among MB in the NifH and NifD trees also agreed well with the corresponding 16S rRNA-based phylogeny, except for two distinctive features. First, different methods used for phylogenetic analysis grouped the NifH and NifD sequences of strains of the gammaproteobacterial MB Methylococcus capsulatus within a clade mainly characterized by Alphaproteobacteria, including acidophilic MB and type II MB of the Methylosinus/Methylocystis group. From this and other genomic data from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, it is proposed that an ancient event of lateral gene transfer was responsible for this aberrant branching. Second, the identity values of NifH and NifD sequences between Methylocapsa acidiphila B2 and representatives of Beijerinckia were clearly higher (98.5 and 96.6 %, respectively) than would be expected from their 16S rRNA-based relationships. Possibly, these two bacteria originated from a common acidophilic dinitrogen-fixing ancestor, and were subject to similar evolutionary pressure

  16. Beam control and diagnostic functions in the NIF transport spatial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdener, F.R.; Ables, E.; Bliss, E.S.

    1996-10-01

    Beam control and diagnostic systems are required to align the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser prior to a shot as well as to provide diagnostics on 192 beam lines at shot time. A design that allows each beam's large spatial filter lenses to also serve as objective lenses for beam control and diagnostic sensor packages helps to accomplish the task at a reasonable cost. However, this approach also causes a high concentration of small optics near the pinhole plane of the transport spatial filter (TSF) at the output of each beam. This paper describes the optomechanical design in and near the central vacuum vessel of the TSF

  17. Optimization of the NIF ignition point design hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, D A; Hinkel, D E; Berger, R L; Divol, L; Dixit, S N; Edwards, M J; Haan, S W; Jones, O S; Lindl, J D; Meezan, N B; Michel, P A; Pollaine, S M; Suter, L J; Town, R P J; Bradley, P A

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for the start of NIF ignition experiments, we have designed a porfolio of targets that span the temperature range that is consistent with initial NIF operations: 300 eV, 285 eV, and 270 eV. Because these targets are quite complicated, we have developed a plan for choosing the optimum hohlraum for the first ignition attempt that is based on this portfolio of designs coupled with early NIF experiements using 96 beams. These early experiments will measure the laser plasma instabilities of the candidate designs and will demonstrate our ability to tune symmetry in these designs. These experimental results, coupled with the theory and simulations that went into the designs, will allow us to choose the optimal hohlraum for the first NIF ignition attempt

  18. Optimization of the NIF ignition point design hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berger, R. L.; Divol, L.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Jones, O. S.; Lindl, J. D.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P. A.; Pollaine, S. M.; Suter, L. J.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, P. A.

    2008-05-01

    In preparation for the start of NIF ignition experiments, we have designed a porfolio of targets that span the temperature range that is consistent with initial NIF operations: 300 eV, 285 eV, and 270 eV. Because these targets are quite complicated, we have developed a plan for choosing the optimum hohlraum for the first ignition attempt that is based on this portfolio of designs coupled with early NIF experiements using 96 beams. These early experiments will measure the laser plasma instabilities of the candidate designs and will demonstrate our ability to tune symmetry in these designs. These experimental results, coupled with the theory and simulations that went into the designs, will allow us to choose the optimal hohlraum for the first NIF ignition attempt.

  19. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 ... Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... rapidly expanding and is currently composed of over.

  20. NIFS contributions to 19th IAEA fusion energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    NIFS has presented 21 papers at the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (Lyon, France, 14-19 October 2002). The contributed papers are collected in this report. The 21 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. Challenges and Approach for Making the Top End Optical Assembly for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzian, Blaise; Barentine, J.; Hull, T.

    2012-01-01

    L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS) Division has been selected by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to make the Top End Optical Assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) to operate at Haleakala, Maui. ATST will perform to a very high optical performance level in a difficult thermal environment. The TEOA, containing the 0.65-meter silicon carbide secondary mirror and support, mirror thermal management system, mirror positioning and fast tip-tilt system, field stop with thermally managed heat dump, thermally managed Lyot stop, safety interlock and control system, and support frame, operates in the "hot spot” at the prime focus of the ATST and so presents special challenges. In this paper, we will describe the L-3 IOS technical approach to meet these challenges, including subsystems for opto-mechanical positioning, rejected and stray light control, wavefront tip-tilt compensation, and thermal management. Key words: ATST, TEOA, L-3 IOS, thermal management, silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, hexapods, solar astronomy

  2. Large optics for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisden, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser with its 192 independent laser beams is not only the world’s largest laser, it is also the largest optical system ever built. With its 192 independent laser beams, the NIF requires a total of 7648 large-aperture (meter-sized) optics. One of the many challenges in designing and building NIF has been to carry out the research and development on optical materials, optics design, and optics manufacturing and metrology technologies needed to achieve NIF’s high output energies and precision beam quality. This paper describes the multiyear, multi-supplier, development effort that was undertaken to develop the advanced optical materials, coatings, fabrication technologies, and associated process improvements necessary to manufacture the wide range of NIF optics. The optics include neodymium-doped phosphate glass laser amplifiers; fused silica lenses, windows, and phase plates; mirrors and polarizers with multi-layer, high-reflectivity dielectric coatings deposited on BK7 substrates; and potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystal optics for fast optical switches, frequency conversion, and polarization rotation. Also included is a discussion of optical specifications and custom metrology and quality-assurance tools designed, built, and fielded at supplier sites to verify compliance with the stringent NIF specifications. In addition, a brief description of the ongoing program to improve the operational lifetime (i.e., damage resistance) of optics exposed to high fluence in the 351-nm (3ω) is provided.

  3. Small Optics Laser Damage Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This specification defines the requirements and procedure for laser damage testing of coatings and bare surfaces designated for small optics in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  4. NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishler, B

    2011-03-18

    Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

  5. NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishler, B.

    2011-01-01

    Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

  6. Fault tolerance of the NIF power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.W.; Anderson, R.; Boyes, J.

    1995-01-01

    The tolerance of the circuit topology proposed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) power conditioning system to specific fault conditions is investigated. A new pulsed power circuit is proposed for the NIF which is simpler and less expensive than previous ICF systems. The inherent fault modes of the new circuit are different from the conventional approach, and must be understood to ensure adequate NIF system reliability. A test-bed which simulates the NIF capacitor module design was constructed to study the circuit design. Measurements from test-bed experiments with induced faults are compared with results from a detailed circuit model. The model is validated by the measurements and used to predict the behavior of the actual NIF module during faults. The model can be used to optimize fault tolerance of the NIF module through an appropriate distribution of circuit inductance and resistance. The experimental and modeling results are presented, and fault performance is compared with the ratings of pulsed power components. Areas are identified which require additional investigation

  7. Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis of Rhodobacter capsulatus NifF: Uncovering General Features of Nitrogen-fixation (nif-Flavodoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Pérez-Dorado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the crystal structure of NifF from Rhodobacter capsulatus and its homologues reported so far reflects the existence of unique structural features in nif flavodoxins: a leucine at the re face of the isoalloxazine, an eight-residue insertion at the C-terminus of the 50’s loop and a remarkable difference in the electrostatic potential surface with respect to non-nif flavodoxins. A phylogenetic study on 64 sequences from 52 bacterial species revealed four clusters, including different functional prototypes, correlating the previously defined as “short-chain” with the firmicutes flavodoxins and the “long-chain” with gram-negative species. The comparison of Rhodobacter NifF structure with other bacterial flavodoxin prototypes discloses the concurrence of specific features of these functional electron donors to nitrogenase.

  8. Structural and phylogenetic analysis of Rhodobacter capsulatus NifF: uncovering general features of nitrogen-fixation (nif)-flavodoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Bortolotti, Ana; Cortez, Néstor; Hermoso, Juan A

    2013-01-09

    Analysis of the crystal structure of NifF from Rhodobacter capsulatus and its homologues reported so far reflects the existence of unique structural features in nif flavodoxins: a leucine at the re face of the isoalloxazine, an eight-residue insertion at the C-terminus of the 50's loop and a remarkable difference in the electrostatic potential surface with respect to non-nif flavodoxins. A phylogenetic study on 64 sequences from 52 bacterial species revealed four clusters, including different functional prototypes, correlating the previously defined as "short-chain" with the firmicutes flavodoxins and the "long-chain" with gram-negative species. The comparison of Rhodobacter NifF structure with other bacterial flavodoxin prototypes discloses the concurrence of specific features of these functional electron donors to nitrogenase.

  9. Spectroscopic properties of a self-assembled zinc porphyrin tetramer I. Steady state optical spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yatskou, M.M.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Donker, H.; Schaafsma, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Aggregation of zinc mono-(4-pyridyl)-triphenylporphyrin (ZnPyP) in toluene and polystyrene/toluene mixtures has been investigated by steady-state optical spectroscopy. The Q-band absorption spectra, as well as the fluorescence spectra, show a temperature-dependent red shift as a result of ligation

  10. Programming Nanoparticles in Multiscale: Optically Modulated Assembly and Phase Switching of Silicon Nanoparticle Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Letian; Rho, Yoonsoo; Shou, Wan; Hong, Sukjoon; Kato, Kimihiko; Eliceiri, Matthew; Shi, Meng; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Pan, Heng; Carraro, Carlo; Qi, Dongfeng

    2018-03-27

    Manipulating and tuning nanoparticles by means of optical field interactions is of key interest for nanoscience and applications in electronics and photonics. We report scalable, direct, and optically modulated writing of nanoparticle patterns (size, number, and location) of high precision using a pulsed nanosecond laser. The complex nanoparticle arrangement is modulated by the laser pulse energy and polarization with the particle size ranging from 60 to 330 nm. Furthermore, we report fast cooling-rate induced phase switching of crystalline Si nanoparticles to the amorphous state. Such phase switching has usually been observed in compound phase change materials like GeSbTe. The ensuing modification of atomic structure leads to dielectric constant switching. Based on these effects, a multiscale laser-assisted method of fabricating Mie resonator arrays is proposed. The number of Mie resonators, as well as the resonance peaks and dielectric constants of selected resonators, can be programmed. The programmable light-matter interaction serves as a mechanism to fabricate optical metasurfaces, structural color, and multidimensional optical storage devices.

  11. Structural, optical and Carrier dynamics of self-assembled InGaN nanocolumns on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Devi, Pooja; Soto Rodriguez, P. E. D.; Jain, Rishabh; Jaggi, Neena; Sinha, R. K.; Kumar, Mahesh

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the morphological, structural, optical, electrical and carrier relaxation dynamic changes on the self-assembled grown InGaN nanocolumns (NCs) directly on p-Si(111) substrate at two different substrate temperature, namely 580 °C (A) and 500 °C (B). The emission wavelength of comparably low temperature (LT) grown NCs was red-shifted from 3.2eV to 2.4eV. First observations on the charge carrier dynamics of these directly grown NCs show comparable broad excited state absorption (ESA) for LT gown NCs, which manifest bi-exponential decay due to the radiative defects generated during the coalescence of these NCs.

  12. The presence of five nifH-like sequences in Clostridium pasteurianum: sequence divergence and transcription properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, S Z; Chen, J S; Johnson, J L

    1988-01-01

    The nifH gene encodes the iron protein (component II) of the nitrogenase complex. We have previously shown the presence in Clostridium pasteurianum of two nifH-like sequences in addition to the nifH1 gene which codes for a protein identical to the isolated iron protein. In the present study, we report that there are at least five nifH-like sequences in C. pasteurianum. DNA sequencing data indicate that the six nifH (nifH1) and nifH-like (nifH2, nifH3, nifH4, nifH5 and nifH6) sequences are not...

  13. The National Ignition Facility (NIF): A path to fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, Edward I.

    2008-01-01

    Fusion energy has long been considered a promising, clean, nearly inexhaustible source of energy. Power production by fusion micro-explosions of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets has been a long-term research goal since the invention of the first laser in 1960. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is poised to take the next important step in the journey by beginning experiments researching ICF ignition. Ignition on NIF will be the culmination of over 30 years of ICF research on high-powered laser systems such as the Nova laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester, as well as smaller systems around the world. NIF is a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility at LLNL that is more than 90% complete. The first cluster of 48 beams is operational in the laser bay, the second cluster is now being commissioned, and the beam path to the target chamber is being installed. The Project will be completed in 2009, and ignition experiments will start in 2010. When completed, NIF will produce up to 1.8 MJ of 0.35-μm light in highly shaped pulses required for ignition. It will have beam stability and control to higher precision than any other laser fusion facility. Experiments using one of the beams of NIF have demonstrated that NIF can meet its beam performance goals. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) has been established to manage the ignition effort on NIF. NIC has all of the research and development required to execute the ignition plan and to develop NIF into a fully operational facility. NIF will explore the ignition space, including direct drive, 2ω ignition, and fast ignition, to optimize target efficiency for developing fusion as an energy source. In addition to efficient target performance, fusion energy requires significant advances in high-repetition-rate lasers and fusion reactor technology. The Mercury laser at LLNL is a high-repetition-rate Nd-glass laser for fusion energy driver development. Mercury

  14. The national ignition facility (NIF) : A path to fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, E. I.

    2007-01-01

    Fusion energy has long been considered a promising clean, nearly inexhaustible source of energy. Power production by fusion micro-explosions of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets has been a long term research goal since the invention of the first laser in 1960. The NIF is poised to take the next important step in the journey by beginning experiments researching ICF ignition. Ignition on NIF will be the culmination of over thirty years of ICF research on high-powered laser systems such as the Nova laser at LLNL and the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester as well as smaller systems around the world. NIF is a 192 beam Nd-glass laser facility at LLNL that is more than 90% complete. The first cluster of 48 beams is operational in the laser bay, the second cluster is now being commissioned, and the beam path to the target chamber is being installed. The Project will be completed in 2009 and ignition experiments will start in 2010. When completed NIF will produce up to 1.8 MJ of 0.35 μm light in highly shaped pulses required for ignition. It will have beam stability and control to higher precision than any other laser fusion facility. Experiments using one of the beams of NIF have demonstrated that NIF can meet its beam performance goals. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) has been established to manage the ignition effort on NIF. NIC has all of the research and development required to execute the ignition plan and to develop NIF into a fully operational facility. NIF will explore the ignition space, including direct drive, 2ω ignition, and fast ignition, to optimize target efficiency for developing fusion as an energy source. In addition to efficient target performance, fusion energy requires significant advances in high repetition rate lasers and fusion reactor technology. The Mercury laser at LLNL is a high repetition rate Nd-glass laser for fusion energy driver development. Mercury uses state-o-the art technology such as ceramic laser slabs and light

  15. Optical Fiber Assemblies for Space Flight from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Photonics Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thoma, William Joe; LaRocca, Frank; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Day, Lance

    2009-01-01

    The Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in the Electrical Engineering Division of the Advanced Engineering and Technologies Directorate has been involved in the design, development, characterization, qualification, manufacturing, integration and anomaly analysis of optical fiber subsystems for over a decade. The group supports a variety of instrumentation across NASA and outside entities that build flight systems. Among the projects currently supported are: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Mars Science Laboratory, the James Webb Space Telescope, the Express Logistics Carrier for the International Space Station and the NASA Electronic Parts. and Packaging Program. A collection of the most pertinent information gathered during project support over the past year in regards to space flight performance of optical fiber components is presented here. The objective is to provide guidance for future space flight designs of instrumentation and communication systems.

  16. Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Skowronski, Lukasz; Trzcinski, Marek; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the influence of presence of Ni and Ge wetting layers as well as annealing on the permittivity of Ag films with thicknesses of 20, 35 and 65 nm. Most of the research on thin silver films deals with very small (wetting and capping material, post-process annealing). Our study, based on atomic force microscopy, ellipsometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, shows that utilizing a wetting layer is comparable to increasing the thickness of the silver film. Both operations decrease the roughness-to-thickness ratio, thus decreasing the scattering losses and both narrow the Lorentz-shaped interband transition peak. However, while increasing silver thickness increases absorption on the free carriers, the use of wetting layers influences the self-assembled internal structure of silver films in such a way, that the free carrier absorption decreases. Wetting layers also introduce additional contributions from effects like segregation or diffusion, which evolve in time and due to annealing.

  17. Self-assembly and optical properties of patterned ZnO nanodot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yijian; Zheng Maojun; Ma Li

    2007-01-01

    Patterned ZnO nanodot (ND) arrays and a ND-cavity microstructure were realized on an anodic alumina membrane (AAM) surface through a spin-coating sol-gel process, which benefits from the morphology and localized negative charge surface of AAM as well as the optimized sol concentration. The growth mechanism is believed to be a self-assembly process. This provides a simple approach to fabricate semiconductor quantum dot (QD) arrays and a QD-cavity system with its advantage in low cost and mass production. Strong ultra-violet emission, a multi-phonon process, and its special structure-related properties were observed in the patterned ZnO ND arrays

  18. Elaboration, structural, vibrational and optical investigation of a two-dimensional self-assembled organic–inorganic hybrid compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammak, T.; Boughzala, H.; Mlayah, A.; Abid, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of a hybrid organic/inorganic material with the formula (C 4 N 3 H 16 )Cl[CuCl 4 ] were elaborated and studied by X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence. The crystals consist of a self-assembled multilayer structure with a Pnam space group. The structure is built up from the staking of infinite two-dimensional layers of CuCl 6 corner-sharing octahedra, separated by organic (C 4 N 3 H 16 ) 3+ chains. Such a structure may be regarded as a multi quantum well system, in which CuCl 6 layers act as semiconductor wells and the organic molecules act as insulator barriers Furthermore, the room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed. For optical investigations, thin films have been prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the material. Optical absorption spectra shows characteristic absorptions of CuCl-based layered perovskite centered at 300 and 380 nm, whereas the photoluminescence spectra shows a bleu intense emission around 420 nm, associated to radiative recombination of confined excitons in the CuCl 6 Quantum wells.

  19. Diversity and Functional Analysis of the FeMo-Cofactor Maturase NifB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Arragain

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main hurdles to engineer nitrogenase in a non-diazotrophic host is achieving NifB activity. NifB is an extremely unstable and oxygen sensitive protein that catalyzes a low-potential SAM-radical dependent reaction. The product of NifB activity is called NifB-co, a complex [8Fe-9S-C] cluster that serves as obligate intermediate in the biosyntheses of the active-site cofactors of all known nitrogenases. Here we study the diversity and phylogeny of naturally occurring NifB proteins, their protein architecture and the functions of the distinct NifB domains in order to understand what defines a catalytically active NifB. Focus is on NifB from the thermophile Chlorobium tepidum (two-domain architecture, the hyperthermophile Methanocaldococcus infernus (single-domain architecture and the mesophile Klebsiella oxytoca (two-domain architecture, showing in silico characterization of their nitrogen fixation (nif gene clusters, conserved NifB motifs, and functionality. C. tepidum and M. infernus NifB were able to complement an Azotobacter vinelandii (ΔnifB mutant restoring the Nif+ phenotype and thus demonstrating their functionality in vivo. In addition, purified C. tepidum NifB exhibited activity in the in vitro NifB-dependent nitrogenase reconstitution assay. Intriguingly, changing the two-domain K. oxytoca NifB to single-domain by removal of the C-terminal NifX-like extension resulted in higher in vivo nitrogenase activity, demonstrating that this domain is not required for nitrogen fixation in mesophiles.

  20. Preliminary report: NIF laser bundle review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Larson, D.W.; Erlandson, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    As requested in the guidance memo 1 , this committe determined whether there are compelling reasons to recommend a change from the NIF CDR baseline laser. The baseline bundle design based on a tradeoff between cost and technical risk, which is replicated four times to create the required 192 beams. The baseline amplifier design uses bottom loading 1x4 slab and flashlamp cassettes for amplifier maintenance and large vacuum enclosures (2.5m high x 7m wide in cross-section for each of the two spatial filters in each of the four bundles. The laser beams are arranged in two laser bays configured in a u-shape around the target area. The entire bundle review effort was performed in a very short time (six weeks) and with limited resources (15 personnel part-time). This should be compared to the effort that produced the CDR design (12 months, 50 to 100 personnel). This committee considered three alternate bundle configurations (2x2, 4x2, and 4x4 bundles), and evaluated each bundle against the baseline design using the seven requested issues in the guidance memo: Cost; schedule; performance risk; maintainability/operability; hardware failure cost exposure; activation; and design flexibility. The issues were reviewed to identify differences between each alternate bundle configuration and the baseline

  1. NIF target fill, transport and insertion cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.

    1994-01-01

    A cryostat to support the fielding of a cryogenic target within the NIF is described. The present design is predicated upon fuel layer symmetry being achieved with the β layering process and modifications needed for other fuel symmetrization processes are discussed. These include the vertically differentially heated capsule with a uniform liquid layer stabilized by a surface tension gradient, foam supported liquid layers and solid D 2 or HD layers symmetrized by bulk irradiation from a laser source. The cold sinks to be incorporated in these techniques could, in principal, be cooled with the high pressure helium envisioned for the heat sink rings of the present design. Supplementary laser access would be provided for differential heating of the capsule for surface tension gradient stabilization of a liquid layer or bulk heating of a solid layer. The cryostat in each of these cases would look substantially the same as in the present case with the only significant differences being in the details of the design in the immediate vicinity of the target

  2. NIF laser bundle review. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Larson, D.W.; Erlandson, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    We performed additional bundle review effort subsequent to the completion of the preliminary report and are revising our original recommendations. We now recommend that the NIF baseline laser bundle size be changed to the 4x2 bundle configuration. There are several 4x2 bundle configurations that could be constructed at a cost similar to that of the baseline 4x12 (from $11M more to about $11M less than the baseline; unescalated, no contingency) and provide significant system improvements. We recommend that the building cost estimates (particularly for the in-line building options) be verified by an architect/engineer (A/E) firm knowledgeable about building design. If our cost estimates of the in-line building are accurate and therefore result in a change from the baseline U-shaped building layout, the acceptability of the in-line configuration must be reviewed from an operations viewpoint. We recommend that installation, operation, and maintenance of all laser components be reviewed to better determine the necessity of aisles, which add to the building cost significantly. The need for beam expansion must also be determined since it affects the type of bundle packing that can be used and increases the minimum laser bay width. The U-turn laser architecture (if proven viable) offers a reduction in building costs since this laser design is shorter than the baseline switched design and requires a shorter laser bay

  3. Optical transitions and electronic interactions in self-assembled cobalt-fullerene mixture films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Chvostová, Dagmar; Lavrentieva, Inna; Vacík, Jiří; Daskal, Y.; Barchuk, M.; Rafaja, D.; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 48 (2017), č. článku 485305. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015088; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : fullerene * cobalt * electronic interaction * optical absorption * mixture film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BO - Biophysics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics , supercond.); Biophysics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  4. Oxygen control of nif gene expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae depends on NifL reduction at the cytoplasmic membrane by electrons derived from the reduced quinone pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Roman; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2003-04-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae, the flavoprotein, NifL regulates NifA mediated transcriptional activation of the N2-fixation (nif) genes in response to molecular O2 and ammonium. We investigated the influence of membrane-bound oxidoreductases on nif-regulation by biochemical analysis of purified NifL and by monitoring NifA-mediated expression of nifH'-'lacZ reporter fusions in different mutant backgrounds. NifL-bound FAD-cofactor was reduced by NADH only in the presence of a redox-mediator or inside-out vesicles derived from anaerobically grown K. pneumoniae cells, indicating that in vivo NifL is reduced by electrons derived from membrane-bound oxidoreductases of the anaerobic respiratory chain. This mechanism is further supported by three lines of evidence: First, K. pneumoniae strains carrying null mutations of fdnG or nuoCD showed significantly reduced nif-induction under derepressing conditions, indicating that NifL inhibition of NifA was not relieved in the absence of formate dehydrogenase-N or NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. The same effect was observed in a heterologous Escherichia coli system carrying a ndh null allele (coding for NADH dehydrogenaseII). Second, studying nif-induction in K. pneumoniae revealed that during anaerobic growth in glycerol, under nitrogen-limitation, the presence of the terminal electron acceptor nitrate resulted in a significant decrease of nif-induction. The final line of evidence is that reduced quinone derivatives, dimethylnaphthoquinol and menadiol, are able to transfer electrons to the FAD-moiety of purified NifL. On the basis of these data, we postulate that under anaerobic and nitrogen-limited conditions, NifL inhibition of NifA activity is relieved by reduction of the FAD-cofactor by electrons derived from the reduced quinone pool, generated by anaerobic respiration, that favours membrane association of NifL. We further hypothesize that the quinol/quinone ratio is important for providing the signal to NifL.

  5. Tuning the optical properties of carbon nanotube solutions using amphiphilic self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael S.; Stupp, Samuel I.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2003-07-01

    Recently it has been shown that aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) encapsulated and polymer wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) fluoresce in the near infrared (NIR) in the regime of the E11 van Hove transitions for semiconducting SWNTs. For bundled SWNTs, fluorescence is observed to be quenched along with a shift and broadening of the absorbance spectrum. Here, we study two other commercially available surfactants, BRIJ-97 and Triton-X-100, by analysis of carbon nanotube fluorescence and absorptivity in the NIR. It is found that changing the surfactant alters the corresponding optical properties of the solubilized carbon nanotubes. The NIR absorbance spectra of BRIJ-97 and Triton-X-100 carbon nanotube solutions are also compared with the absorbance spectrum of NaCl destabilized SDS-SWNT solutions. By controlling the amount of NaCl added to an aqueous solution of SDS-SWNTs, the optical absorbance spectrum can be made to match that of BRIJ-97 and Triton-X-100 solutions. Lastly, a correlation is drawn between the amount of shift in the absorbance spectrum and the fluorescence intensity, independent of surfactant used. This shift and decrease in fluorescence intensity may be due to carbon nanotube bundling.

  6. Mesoporous Bragg reflectors: block-copolymer self-assembly leads to building blocks with well defined continuous pores and high control over optical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, S.

    2011-08-19

    Mesoporous distributed Bragg re ectors (MDBRs) exhibit porosity on the sub-optical length scale. This makes them ideally suited as sensing platforms in biology and chemistry as well as for light management in optoelectronic devices. Here we present a new fast forward route for the fabrication of MDBRs which relies on the self-assembling properties of the block copolymer poly(isoprene-block -ethylene oxide) (PI-b -PEO) in combination with sol-gel chemistry. The interplay between structure directing organic host and co-assembled inorganic guest allows the ne tuning of refractive index in the outcome material. The refractive index dierence between the high and low porosity layer can be as high as 0.4, with the optical interfaces being well dened. Following a 30 min annealing protocol after each layer deposition enables the fast and reliable stacking of MDBRs which exhibit a continuous TiO2 network with large accessible pores and high optical quality.

  7. National Ignition Facility (NIF) Control Network Design and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, R M; Carey, R W; Claybourn, R V; Pavel, G; Schaefer, W J

    2001-01-01

    The control network for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to meet the needs for common object request broker architecture (CORBA) inter-process communication, multicast video transport, device triggering, and general TCP/IP communication within the NIF facility. The network will interconnect approximately 650 systems, including the embedded controllers, front-end processors (FEPs), supervisory systems, and centralized servers involved in operation of the NIF. All systems are networked with Ethernet to serve the majority of communication needs, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is used to transport multicast video and synchronization triggers. CORBA software infra-structure provides location-independent communication services over TCP/IP between the application processes in the 15 supervisory and 300 FEP systems. Video images sampled from 500 video cameras at a 10-Hz frame rate will be multicast using direct ATM Application Programming Interface (API) communication from video FEPs to any selected operator console. The Ethernet and ATM control networks are used to broadcast two types of device triggers for last-second functions in a large number of FEPs, thus eliminating the need for a separate infrastructure for these functions. Analysis, design, modeling, and testing of the NIF network has been performed to provide confidence that the network design will meet NIF control requirements

  8. NIF conventional facilities construction health and safety plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, D W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to outline the minimum health and safety requirements to which all participating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and non-LLNL employees (excluding National Ignition Facility [NIF] specific contractors and subcontractors covered under the construction subcontract packages (e.g., CSP-9)-see Construction Safety Program for the National Ignition Facility [CSP] Section I.B. ''NIF Construction Contractors and Subcontractors'' for specifics) shall adhere to for preventing job-related injuries and illnesses during Conventional Facilities construction activities at the NIF Project. For the purpose of this Plan, the term ''LLNL and non-LLNL employees'' includes LLNL employees, LLNL Plant Operations staff and their contractors, supplemental labor, contract labor, labor-only contractors, vendors, DOE representatives, personnel matrixed/assigned from other National Laboratories, participating guests, and others such as visitors, students, consultants etc., performing on-site work or services in support of the NIF Project. Based upon an activity level determination explained in Section 1.2.18, in this document, these organizations or individuals may be required by site management to prepare their own NIF site-specific safety plan. LLNL employees will normally not be expected to prepare a site-specific safety plan. This Plan also outlines job-specific exposures and construction site safety activities with which LLNL and non-LLNL employees shall comply

  9. 2D optical photon echo spectroscopy of a self-assembled quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingerhut, Benjamin P.; Mukamel, Shaul; Richter, Marten; Luo, Jun-Wei; Zunger, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of two dimensional coherent photon echo (2D-PE) spectra of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD) in different charged states are presented revealing the coupling between the individual mono-exciton X q transitions and contributions of bi-excitons XX q . The information about the XX q states is crucial for various application scenarios of QDs, like e.g. highly efficient solar cells. The simulations rely on a microscopic description of the electronic structure by high-level atomistic many-body pseudopotential calculations. It is shown that asymmetric diagonal peak shapes and double cross-peaks are the result of XX q state contributions to the PE signal by analyzing the contributions of the individual pathways excited state emission, ground state bleach and excited state absorption. The results show that from the detuned X q and XX q contributions the bi-exciton binding energies of the XX q manifold are revealed in 2D-PE signals. (copyright 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Generating Bulk-Scale Ordered Optical Materials Using Shear-Assembly in Viscoelastic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris E. Finlayson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We review recent advances in the generation of photonics materials over large areas and volumes, using the paradigm of shear-induced ordering of composite polymer nanoparticles. The hard-core/soft-shell design of these particles produces quasi-solid “gum-like” media, with a viscoelastic ensemble response to applied shear, in marked contrast to the behavior seen in colloidal and granular systems. Applying an oscillatory shearing method to sub-micron spherical nanoparticles gives elastomeric photonic crystals (or “polymer opals” with intense tunable structural color. The further engineering of this shear-ordering using a controllable “roll-to-roll” process known as Bending Induced Oscillatory Shear (BIOS, together with the interchangeable nature of the base composite particles, opens potentially transformative possibilities for mass manufacture of nano-ordered materials, including advances in optical materials, photonics, and metamaterials/plasmonics.

  11. Evaulation of B4C as an ablator material for NIF capsules. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, A.K.; Alford, C.S.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Dittrich, T.R.; Wallace, R.J.; Honea, E.C.; King, C.M.; Steinman, D.

    1997-01-01

    Boron carbide (B 4 C) is examined as a potential fuel container and ablator for implosion capsules on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A capsule of pure B 4 C encasing a layer of solid DT implodes stably and ignites with anticipated NIF x-ray drives, producing 18 MJ of energy. Thin films of B 4 C were found to be resistant to oxidation and modestly transmitting in the infrared (IR), possibly enabling IR fuel characterization and enhancement for thin permeation barriers but not for full-thickness capsules. Polystyrene mandrels 0.5 mm in diameter were successfully coated with 0.15-2.0 micrometers of B 4 C. Thickness estimated from optical density agreed well with those measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The B 4 C microstructure was columnar but finer than for Be made at the same conditions. B 4 C is a very strong material, with a fiber tensile strength capable of holding NIF fill pressures at room temperature, but it is also very brittle, and microscopic flaws or grain structure may limit the noncryogenic fill pressure. Argon (Ar) permeation rates were measured for a few capsules that had been further coated with 5 micrometers of plasma polymer. The B 4 C coatings tended to crack under tensile load. Some shells filled more slowly than they leaked, suggesting that the cracks open and close under opposite pressure loading. As observed earlier for Ti coatings, 0.15-micrometer layers of B 4 C had better gas retention properties than 2-micrometer layers, possibly because of fewer cracks. Permeation and fill strength issues for capsules with a full ablator thickness of B 4 C are unresolved. 21 refs., 6 figs

  12. Physical and genetic map of the major nif gene cluster from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, M R; Brigle, K E; Bennett, L T; Setterquist, R A; Wilson, M S; Cash, V L; Beynon, J; Newton, W E; Dean, D R

    1989-01-01

    Determination of a 28,793-base-pair DNA sequence of a region from the Azotobacter vinelandii genome that includes and flanks the nitrogenase structural gene region was completed. This information was used to revise the previously proposed organization of the major nif cluster. The major nif cluster from A. vinelandii encodes 15 nif-specific genes whose products bear significant structural identity to the corresponding nif-specific gene products from Klebsiella pneumoniae. These genes include ...

  13. Auxins upregulate nif and fix genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    In a recent publication we analyzed the global effects triggered by IAA overproduction in S. meliloti RD64 under free-living conditions by comparing the gene expression pattern of wild type 1021 with that of RD64 and 1021 treated with IAA and other four chemically or functionally related molecules. Among the genes differentially expressed in RD64 and IAA-treated 1021 cells we found two genes of pho operon, phoT and phoC. Based on this finding we examined the mechanisms for mineral P solubilization in RD64 and the potential ability of this strain to improve Medicago growth under P-starved conditions. Here, we further analyze the expression profiles obtained in microarray analysis and evaluate the specificity and the extent of overlap between all treatments. Venn diagrams indicated that IAA- and 2,4-D-regulated genes were closely related. Furthermore, most differentially expressed genes from pSymA were induced in 1021 cells treated with 2,4-D, ICA, IND and Trp as compared to the untreated 1021 cells. RT-PCR analysis was employed to analyze the differential expression patterns of nitrogen fixation genes under free-living and symbiotic conditions. Under symbiotic condition, the relative expression levels of nif and fix genes were significantly induced in Mt- RD64 plants and in Mt-1021 plants treated with IAA and 2,4-D whereas they were unchanged or repressed in Mt-1021 plants treated with the other selected compounds when compared to the untreated Mt-1021 plants. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  14. Wave function analysis of type-II self-assembled quantum dot structures using magneto-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Marcio Peron Franco de; Nakaema, Marcelo K.K.; Gomes, Paulo F.; Iikawa, Fernando; Brasil, Maria Jose S.P.; Bortoleto, Jose Roberto R.; Cotta, Monica A.; Ribeiro, Evaldo; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Marques, Gilmar E.; Bittencourt, A.C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Recently, self-assembled quantum dots have attracted considerable attention for their potential for device applications. Type II interface, in particular, present interesting properties due to the space separation of the carriers. One of the carriers is confined at the lower band gap layer and the other remains at the barrier layers and is only localized by the Coulomb attraction. An essential information for using type II quantum wells and quantum dots on technological applications is the localization of the carrier wave function, which is an experimentally difficult parameter to be measured. Some techniques have been proposed to map the wave functions in quantum dots such as magneto-tunneling spectroscopy and near- field scanning optical microscopy. These techniques involve however a very complex experimental apparatus and sample processing. The magneto-exciton transition can be used as an alternative tool to investigate the exciton wave function distribution, since this distribution has a strong influence on the diamagnetic shift and Zeeman splitting. In this work, we present magneto-optical studies of In P/GaAs type II self-assembled quantum dots, where the electron is strongly confined at the In P, while the hole is weakly localized at the GaAs barrier due to the Coulombic attraction from the electrons. This scenery is very distinct from type I systems. The weaker hole confinement should alter the valence band mixing resulting in a different valence band contribution on the Zeeman splitting as compared to type I systems. Based on the results of the magneto-exciton emission from the wetting layer and from the individual dots, we obtained interesting results concerning the wave function distribution in our system. We discuss the localization of the hole wave function along the growth direction based on the measured Zeeman splitting and the in-plane wave function distribution, based on the observed diamagnetic shift. A remarkable result is that the

  15. The fabrication and enhanced nonlinear optical properties of electrostatic self-assembled film containing water-soluble chiral polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang Qiuyun, E-mail: qyouyang7823@yahoo.cn [College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen Yujin; Li Chunyan [College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ultra-thin film containing the chiral PPV and oligo-thiophene derivatives was fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The third-order NLO properties were studied of the ultra-thin film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reverse saturable absorption and self-defocusing were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nonlinear optical mechanism was discussed. - Abstract: An ultra-thin film containing a water-soluble chiral PPV derivative and oligo-thiophene derivative was fabricated through the electrostatic self-assembly technique. The PPV and thiophene derivatives are poly{l_brace}(2,5-bis(3-bromotrimethylammoniopropoxy)-phenylene-1,4-divinylene) -alt-1,4-(2,5-bis((3-hydroxy-2-(S)-methyl)propoxy)phenylenevinylene) (BHP-PPV) and 4 Prime ,3 Double-Prime -dipentyl-5,2 Prime :5 Prime ,2 Double-Prime :5 Double-Prime ,2 Double-Prime Prime -quaterthiophene-2,5 Double-Prime Prime -dicarboxylic acid (QTDA), respectively. The circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of BHP-PPV cast film on quartz substrate proved the chirality of BHP-PPV. The UV-vis spectra showed a continuous deposition process of BHP-PPV and QTDA. The film structure was characterized by small angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of BHP-PPV/QTDA ultra-thin film with different number of bilayers were investigated by the Z-scan technique with 8 ns laser pulse at 532 nm. The Z-scan experimental data were analyzed with the double-sided film Z-scan theory. The BHP-PPV/QTDA film exhibits enhanced reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and self-defocusing effects, which may be attributed to the conjugated strength, chirality and well-ordered film structure. The chirality may lead to the RSA of BHP-PPV/QTDA film contrary to the SA of the other electrostatic self-assembled films without chiral units. The self-defocusing effect should be due to the thermal effect.

  16. Overview of the gamma reaction history diagnostic for the national ignition facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ho; Evans, Scott C.; Herrmann, Hans W.; Mack, Joseph M.; Young, Carl S.; Malone, Robert M.; Cox, Brian C.; Frogget, Brent C.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Tunnell, Thomas W.; Tibbitts, Aric; Palagi, Martin J.; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has a need for measuring gamma radiation as part of a nuclear diagnostic program. A new gamma-detection diagnostic uses 900 off-axis parabolic mirrors to rel ay Cherenkov light from a volume of pressurized gas. This non imaging optical system has the high-speed detector placed at a stop position with the Cherenkov light delayed until after the prompt gammas have passed through the detector. Because of the wavelength range (250 to 700 nm), the optical element surface finish was a key design constraint. A cluster of four channels (each set to a different gas pressure) will collect the time histories for different energy ranges of gammas.

  17. Research Performance Progress Report: Diverging Supernova Explosion Experiments on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plewa, Tomasz [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2016-10-25

    The aim of this project was to design a series of blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments of this kind are relevant to mixing in core-collapse supernovae (ccSNe) and have the potential to address previously unanswered questions in high-energy density physics (HEDP) and astrophysics. The unmatched laser power of the NIF laser offers a unique chance to observe and study “new physics” like the mass extensions observed in HEDP RT experiments performed on the Omega laser [1], which might be linked to self-generated magnetic fields [2] and so far could not be reproduced by numerical simulations. Moreover, NIF is currently the only facility that offers the possibility to execute a diverging RT experiment, which would allow to observe processes such as inter-shell penetration via turbulent mixing and shock-proximity effects (distortion of the shock by RT spikes).

  18. Applied superconductivity and cryogenic research activities in NIFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, T.; Sagara, A.; Imagawa, S.; Yamada, S.; Takahata, K.; Yanagi, N.; Chikaraishi, H.; Maekawa, R.; Iwamoto, A.; Hamaguchi, S.; Sato, M.; Noda, N.; Yamauchi, K.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.

    2006-01-01

    Since the foundation of National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in 1989, the primary mission of the applied superconductivity and cryogenic researches has been focused on the development of the large helical device (LHD): the largest fusion experimental apparatus exclusively utilizing superconducting technologies. The applied superconductivity and cryogenics group in NIFS was organized to be responsible for this activity. As a result of extensive research activities, the construction of LHD was completed in 1997. Since then, the LHD superconducting system has been demonstrating high availability of more than 97% during eight years operation and it keeps proving high reliability of large-scale superconducting systems. This paper describes the extensive activities of the applied superconductivity and cryogenic researches in NIFS during and after the development of LHD and the fundamental researches that aim at realizing a helical-type fusion reactor

  19. Capsule physics comparison of different ablators for NIF implosion designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel; Kritcher, Andrea; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Haan, Steven; Ralph, Joseph; Weber, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the Naitonal Ignition Facility (NIF) have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) plastic, high density carbon (HDC), and beryllium. How do these different ablator choices compare in current and future implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This talk compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and proposed future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. National Ignition Facility system design requirements NIF integrated computer controls SDR004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, E.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the NIF Integrated Computer Control System. The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is covered in NIF WBS element 1.5. This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in the NIF Functional Requirements/Primary Criteria, and is supported by subsystem design requirements documents for each major ICCS Subsystem

  1. National Ignition Facility (NIF) FY2015 Facility Use Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folta, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wisoff, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Major features of the FY2015 NIF Use Plan include: • Performing a record number of layered DT experiments with 28 planned compared with 15 in FY2014. Executing the first plutonium experiments on the NIF in support of the Science Campaigns. • Over 300 targets shots, a 57% increase compared to FY14. This is a stretch goal defined in the 120-Day Study document, and relies upon the success of many shot-rate improvement actions, as well as on the distribution of shot type selected by the users. While the Plan is consistent with this goal, the increased proportion of layered DT experiments described above reduces the margin against this goal. • Commissioning of initial ARC capability, which will support both SSP-HED and SSPICF programs. • Increase in days allocated to Discovery Science to a level that supports an ongoing program for academic use of NIF and an annual solicitation for new proposals. • Six Facility Maintenance and Reconfiguration (FM&R) periods totaling 30 days dedicated to major facility maintenance and modifications. • Utilization of the NIF Facility Advisory Schedule Committee (FASC) to provide stakeholder review and feedback on the NIF schedule. The Use Plan assumes a total FY2015 LLNL NIF Operations funding in MTE 10.7 of $229.465M and in MTE 10.3 of 47.0M. This Use Plan will be revised in the event of significant changes to the FY2015 funding or if NNSA provides FY2016 budget guidance significantly reduced compared to FY2015.

  2. Progress towards polar-drive ignition for the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, R. L.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Casey, D. T.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Frenje, J. A.; Froula, D. H.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Kessler, T. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Li, C. K.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Nilson, P. M.; Padalino, S. J.; Petrasso, R. D.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Short, R. W.; Shvydky, A.; Skupsky, S.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2013-11-01

    The University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) performs direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. LLE's Omega Laser Facility is used to study direct-drive ICF ignition concepts, developing an understanding of the underlying physics that feeds into the design of ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The baseline symmetric-illumination, direct-drive-ignition target design consists of a 1.5 MJ multiple-picket laser pulse that generates four shock waves (similar to the NIF baseline indirect-drive design) and is predicted to produce a one-dimensional (1D) gain of 48. LLE has developed the polar-drive (PD) illumination concept (for NIF beams in the x-ray-drive configuration) to allow the pursuit of direct-drive ignition without significant reconfiguration of the beam paths on the NIF. Some less-invasive changes in the NIF infrastructure will be required, including new phase plates, polarization rotators, and a PD-specific beam-smoothing front end. A suite of PD ignition designs with implosion velocities from 3.5 to 4.3 × 107 cm s-1 are predicted to have significant 2D gains (Collins et al 2012 Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 57 155). Verification of the physics basis of these simulations is a major thrust of direct-drive implosion experiments on both OMEGA and the NIF. Many physics issues are being examined with symmetric beam irradiation on OMEGA, varying the implosion parameters over a wide region of design space. Cryogenic deuterium-tritium target experiments with symmetric irradiation have produced areal densities of ˜0.3 g cm-2, ion temperatures over 3 keV, and neutron yields in excess of 20% of the ‘clean’ 1D predicted value. The inferred Lawson criterion figure of merit (Betti R. et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 058102) has increased from 1.7 atm s (IAEA 2010) to 2.6 atm s.

  3. Directed mutagenesis affects recombination in Azospirillum brasilense nif genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Nunes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the gene transfer/mutagenesis system for Azospirillum brasilense, gene-cartridge mutagenesis was used to replace the nifD gene with the Tn5 kanamycin resistance gene. The construct was transferred to A. brasilense by electrotransformation. Of the 12 colonies isolated using the suicide plasmid pSUP202 as vector, only four did not show vector integration into the chromosome. Nevertheless, all 12 colonies were deficient in acetylene reduction, indicating an Nif- phenotype. Four Nif- mutants were analyzed by Southern blot, using six different probes spanning the nif and Km r genes and the plasmid vector. Apparently, several recombination events occurred in the mutant genomes, probably caused mainly by gene disruption owing to the mutagenesis technique used: resistance gene-cartridge mutagenesis combined with electrotransformation.Com o objetivo de melhorar os sistemas de transferência gênica e mutagênese para Azospirillum brasilense, a técnica de mutagênese através do uso de um gene marcador ("gene-cartridge mutagenesis" foi utilizada para substituir a região genômica de A. brasilense correspondente ao gene nifD por um segmento de DNA do transposon Tn5 contendo o gene que confere resistência ao antibiótico canamicina. A construção foi transferida para a linhagem de A. brasilense por eletrotransformação. Doze colônias transformantes foram isoladas com o plasmídeo suicida pSUP202 servindo como vetor. Dessas, somente quatro não possuíam o vetor integrado no cromossomo da bactéria. Independentemente da integração ou não do vetor, as 12 colônias foram deficientes na redução do gás acetileno, evidenciando o fenótipo Nif -. Quatro mutantes Nif - foram analisados através da técnica de Southern blot, utilizando-se seis diferentes fragmentos contendo genes nif, de resistência à canamicina e do vetor como sondas. Os resultados sugerem a ocorrência de eventos recombinacionais variados no genoma dos mutantes. A

  4. Understanding the effects of packing and chemical terminations on the optical excitations of azobenzene-functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Caterina; Draxl, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    In a first-principles study based on many-body perturbation theory, we analyze the optical excitations of azobenzene-functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with increasing packing density and different terminations, considering for comparison the corresponding gas-phase molecules and dimers. Intermolecular coupling increases with the density of the chromophores independently of the functional groups. The intense π → π* resonance that triggers photo-isomerization is present in the spectra of isolated dimers and diluted SAMs, but it is almost completely washed out in tightly packed architectures. Intermolecular coupling is partially inhibited by mixing differently functionalized azobenzene derivatives, in particular when large groups are involved. In this way, the excitation band inducing the photo-isomerization process is partially preserved and the effects of dense packing partly counterbalanced. Our results suggest that a tailored design of azobenzene-functionalized SAMs which optimizes the interplay between the packing density of the chromophores and their termination can lead to significant improvements in the photo-switching efficiency of these systems.

  5. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer for time-resolved neutron measurements (MRSt) at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, C. E.; Frenje, J. A.; Wink, C. W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Lahmann, B.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Bionta, R.; Casey, D. T.; Khater, H. Y.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sorce, C.; Hares, J. D.; Siegmund, O. H. W.

    2017-10-01

    The next-generation Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer, called MRSt, will provide time-resolved measurements of the DT-neutron spectrum. These measurements will provide critical information about the time evolution of the fuel assembly, hot-spot formation, and nuclear burn in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The neutron spectrum in the energy range 12-16 MeV will be measured with high accuracy ( 5%), unprecedented energy resolution ( 100 keV) and, for the first time ever, time resolution ( 20 ps). An overview of the physics motivation, conceptual design for meeting these performance requirements, and the status of the offline tests for critical components will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL, and LLE.

  6. Response Time Measurements of the NIF DANTE XRD-31 X-Ray Diodes (Pre-print)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellinen, Don; Griffin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The XRD-31 is a fast, windowless X-ray vacuum photodiode developed by EG and G. It is currently the primary fast X-ray detector used to diagnose the X-rays on NIF and OMEGA on the multichannel DANTE spectrometer. The XRD-31 has a dynamic range of less than 1e-12 amps to more than 10 amps. A technique is described to measure the impulse response of the diodes to a 150 fs pulse of 200 nm laser light and a method to calculate the 'risetime' for a square pulse and compare it with the computed electron transit time from the photocathode to the anode. Measured response time for 5 XRD-31s assembled in early 2004 was 149.7 ps +-2.75 ps

  7. Modeling NIF experimental designs with adaptive mesh refinement and Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniges, A. E.; Anderson, R. W.; Wang, P.; Gunney, B. T. N.; Becker, R.; Eder, D. C.; MacGowan, B. J.; Schneider, M. B.

    2006-06-01

    Incorporation of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) into Lagrangian hydrodynamics algorithms allows for the creation of a highly powerful simulation tool effective for complex target designs with three-dimensional structure. We are developing an advanced modeling tool that includes AMR and traditional arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques. Our goal is the accurate prediction of vaporization, disintegration and fragmentation in National Ignition Facility (NIF) experimental target elements. Although our focus is on minimizing the generation of shrapnel in target designs and protecting the optics, the general techniques are applicable to modern advanced targets that include three-dimensional effects such as those associated with capsule fill tubes. Several essential computations in ordinary radiation hydrodynamics need to be redesigned in order to allow for AMR to work well with ALE, including algorithms associated with radiation transport. Additionally, for our goal of predicting fragmentation, we include elastic/plastic flow into our computations. We discuss the integration of these effects into a new ALE-AMR simulation code. Applications of this newly developed modeling tool as well as traditional ALE simulations in two and three dimensions are applied to NIF early-light target designs.

  8. Modeling NIF Experimental Designs with Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koniges, A E; Anderson, R W; Wang, P; Gunney, B N; Becker, R; Eder, D C; MacGowan, B J

    2005-01-01

    Incorporation of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) into Lagrangian hydrodynamics algorithms allows for the creation of a highly powerful simulation tool effective for complex target designs with three-dimensional structure. We are developing an advanced modeling tool that includes AMR and traditional arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques. Our goal is the accurate prediction of vaporization, disintegration and fragmentation in National Ignition Facility (NIF) experimental target elements. Although our focus is on minimizing the generation of shrapnel in target designs and protecting the optics, the general techniques are applicable to modern advanced targets that include three-dimensional effects such as those associated with capsule fill tubes. Several essential computations in ordinary radiation hydrodynamics need to be redesigned in order to allow for AMR to work well with ALE, including algorithms associated with radiation transport. Additionally, for our goal of predicting fragmentation, we include elastic/plastic flow into our computations. We discuss the integration of these effects into a new ALE-AMR simulation code. Applications of this newly developed modeling tool as well as traditional ALE simulations in two and three dimensions are applied to NIF early-light target designs

  9. Modeling Nif experimental designs with adaptive mesh refinement and Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koniges, A.E.; Anderson, R.W.; Wang, P.; Gunney, B.T.N.; Becker, R.; Eder, D.C.; MacGowan, B.J.; Schneider, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Incorporation of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) into Lagrangian hydrodynamics algorithms allows for the creation of a highly powerful simulation tool effective for complex target designs with three-dimensional structure. We are developing an advanced modeling tool that includes AMR and traditional arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques. Our goal is the accurate prediction of vaporization, disintegration and fragmentation in National Ignition Facility (NIF) experimental target elements. Although our focus is on minimizing the generation of shrapnel in target designs and protecting the optics, the general techniques are applicable to modern advanced targets that include three-dimensional effects such as those associated with capsule fill tubes. Several essential computations in ordinary radiation hydrodynamics need to be redesigned in order to allow for AMR to work well with ALE, including algorithms associated with radiation transport. Additionally, for our goal of predicting fragmentation, we include elastic/plastic flow into our computations. We discuss the integration of these effects into a new ALE-AMR simulation code. Applications of this newly developed modeling tool as well as traditional ALE simulations in two and three dimensions are applied to NIF early-light target designs. (authors)

  10. Cherenkov radiation conversion and collection considerations for a gamma bang time/reaction history diagnostic for the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W; Mack, Joseph M; Young, Carlton S; Malone, Robert M; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Horsfield, Colin J

    2008-10-01

    Bang time and reaction history measurements are fundamental components of diagnosing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions and will be essential contributors to diagnosing attempts at ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of fusion interaction rate without being compromised by Doppler spreading. Gamma-based gas Cherenkov detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to optical Cherenkov photons for collection by fast recording systems have been developed and fielded at Omega. These systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns. Bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF system design requirements. A comprehensive, validated numerical study of candidate systems is providing essential information needed to make a down selection based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF logistics. This paper presents basic design considerations arising from the two-step conversion process from gamma rays to relativistic electrons to UV/visible Cherenkov radiation.

  11. Cherenkov radiation conversion and collection considerations for a gamma bang time/reaction history diagnostic for the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Mack, Joseph M.; Young, Carlton S.; Malone, Robert M.; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Horsfield, Colin J.

    2008-01-01

    Bang time and reaction history measurements are fundamental components of diagnosing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions and will be essential contributors to diagnosing attempts at ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of fusion interaction rate without being compromised by Doppler spreading. Gamma-based gas Cherenkov detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to optical Cherenkov photons for collection by fast recording systems have been developed and fielded at Omega. These systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns. Bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF system design requirements. A comprehensive, validated numerical study of candidate systems is providing essential information needed to make a down selection based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF logistics. This paper presents basic design considerations arising from the two-step conversion process from γ rays to relativistic electrons to UV/visible Cherenkov radiation.

  12. Iron depletion affects nitrogenase activity and expression of nifH and nifA genes in Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosconi, Federico; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Platero, Raúl A; González, Cecilia; González, Marcela; Batista, Silvia; Gill, Paul R; Fabiano, Elena R

    2006-05-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium able to colonize the rhizosphere and the interior of several plants. As iron is a key element for nitrogen fixation, we examined the response of this microorganism to iron deficiency under nitrogen fixing conditions. We identified a H. seropedicae exbD gene that was induced in response to iron limitation and is involved in iron homeostasis. We found that an exbD mutant grown in iron-chelated medium is unable to fix nitrogen. Moreover, we provide evidence that expression of the nifH and nifA genes is iron dependent in a H. seropedicae genetic background.

  13. Narrow optical linewidths and spin pumping on charge-tunable close-to-surface self-assembled quantum dots in an ultrathin diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbl, Matthias C.; Söllner, Immo; Javadi, Alisa; Pregnolato, Tommaso; Schott, Rüdiger; Midolo, Leonardo; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Stobbe, Søren; Wieck, Andreas D.; Lodahl, Peter; Ludwig, Arne; Warburton, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate full charge control, narrow optical linewidths, and optical spin pumping on single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots embedded in a 162.5 -nm -thin diode structure. The quantum dots are just 88 nm from the top GaAs surface. We design and realize a p -i -n -i -n diode that allows single-electron charging of the quantum dots at close-to-zero applied bias. In operation, the current flow through the device is extremely small resulting in low noise. In resonance fluorescence, we measure optical linewidths below 2 μ eV , just a factor of 2 above the transform limit. Clear optical spin pumping is observed in a magnetic field of 0.5 T in the Faraday geometry. We present this design as ideal for securing the advantages of self-assembled quantum dots—highly coherent single-photon generation, ultrafast optical spin manipulation—in the thin diodes required in quantum nanophotonics and nanophononics applications.

  14. Role of conserved cysteine residues in Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marco A S; Baura, Valter A; Aquino, Bruno; Huergo, Luciano F; Kadowaki, Marco A S; Chubatsu, Leda S; Souza, Emanuel M; Dixon, Ray; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Wassem, Roseli; Monteiro, Rose A

    2009-01-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that associates with economically important crops. NifA protein, the transcriptional activator of nif genes in H. seropedicae, binds to nif promoters and, together with RNA polymerase-sigma(54) holoenzyme, catalyzes the formation of open complexes to allow transcription initiation. The activity of H. seropedicae NifA is controlled by ammonium and oxygen levels, but the mechanisms of such control are unknown. Oxygen sensitivity is attributed to a conserved motif of cysteine residues in NifA that spans the central AAA+ domain and the interdomain linker that connects the AAA+ domain to the C-terminal DNA binding domain. Here we mutagenized this conserved motif of cysteines and assayed the activity of mutant proteins in vivo. We also purified the mutant variants of NifA and tested their capacity to bind to the nifB promoter region. Chimeric proteins between H. seropedicae NifA, an oxygen-sensitive protein, and Azotobacter vinelandii NifA, an oxygen-tolerant protein, were constructed and showed that the oxygen response is conferred by the central AAA+ and C-terminal DNA binding domains of H. seropedicae NifA. We conclude that the conserved cysteine motif is essential for NifA activity, although single cysteine-to-serine mutants are still competent at binding DNA.

  15. The genome of Paenibacillus sabinae T27 provides insight into evolution, organization and functional elucidation of nif and nif-like genes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinxin; Deng, Zhiping; Liu, Zhanzhi; Yan, Yongliang; Wang, Tianshu; Xie, Jianbo; Lin, Min; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Sanfeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Most biological nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by the molybdenum nitrogenase. This enzyme is a complex which contains the MoFe protein encoded by nifDK and the Fe protein encoded by nifH. In addition to nifHDK, nifHDK-like genes were found in some Archaea and Firmicutes, but their function is unclear. Results We sequenced the genome of Paenibacillus sabinae T27. A total of 4,793 open reading frames were predicted from its 5.27 Mb genome. The genome of P. sabinae T27 contains fiftee...

  16. VTVH-MCD study of the Delta nifB Delta nifZ MoFe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Marcia S; Rupnik, Kresimir; Broach, Robyn B; Hu, Yilin; Fay, Aaron W; Ribbe, Markus W; Hales, Brian J

    2009-04-08

    NifZ is a member of a series of proteins associated with the maturation of the nitrogenase MoFe protein. An MCD spectroscopic study was undertaken on the Delta nifB Delta nifZ MoFe protein generated in the absence of both NifZ and NifB (deletion of NifB generates an apo-MoFe protein lacking the FeMo cofactor). Results presented here show that, in the absence of NifZ, only one of the two P-clusters of the MoFe protein is matured to the ultimate [8Fe-7S] structure. The other P-cluster site in the protein contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster pair, representing a P-cluster precursor that is electronically identical to the analogous clusters observed in the Delta nifH MoFe protein. These results suggest that the MoFe protein is synthesized in a stepwise fashion where NifZ is specifically required for the formation of the second P-cluster.

  17. User Interface Framework for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J M; Bowers, G A; Carey, R W; Daveler, S A; Herndon Ford, K B; Ho, J C; Lagin, L J; Lambert, C J; Mauvais, J; Stout, E A; West, S L

    2007-01-01

    A user interface (UI) framework supports the development of user interfaces to operate the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). [1] This framework simplifies UI development and ensures consistency for NIF operators. A comprehensive, layered collection of UIs in ICCS provides interaction with system-level processes, shot automation, and subsystem-specific devices. All user interfaces are written in Java, employing CORBA to interact with other ICCS components. ICCS developers use these frameworks to compose two major types of user interfaces: broadviews and control panels. Broadviews provide a visual representation of the NIF beamlines through interactive schematic drawings. Control panels provide status and control at a device level. The UI framework includes a suite of display components to standardize user interaction through data entry behaviors, common connection and threading mechanisms, and a common appearance. With these components, ICCS developers can more efficiently address usability issues in the facility when needed. The ICCS UI framework helps developers create consistent and easy-to-understand user interfaces for NIF operators

  18. Inkludering av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn i NIF-organisert idrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kristin Sisjord

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Norges Idrettsforbund og Olympiske og Paralympiske Komité (NIF har en uttalt målsetting om en åpen og inkluderende idrett. Hvordan kommer dette til uttrykk i den praktiske virksomheten? Denne artikkelen, som bygger på data fra en undersøkelse om likestilling og mangfold i den organiserte idretten (NIF, retter søkelyset mot arbeid med inklusjon av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn på ulike organisasjonsnivå i NIF: særforbund, idrettskretser og idrettslag. Datamaterialet er kvalitative intervju med representanter fra ulike organisasjonsnivå. Resultatene viser at NIFs overordnede politikk i varierende grad nedfelles i særforbundenes virksomhet, i idrettskretsene og i idrettslagene. Av særforbundene skiller Fotballforbundet og Klatreforbundet seg ut som aktive pådrivere i arbeidet med inkludering. Mange idrettslag oppfattet slike spørsmål som lite aktuelle i sitt rekrutteringsområde. Representanter for lag som hadde erfaring med inkludering og rekruttering av minoritetsungdom, tilkjennega varierte erfaringer og synspunkter.

  19. NIF Rugby High Foot Campaign from the design side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, J.-P.; Callahan, D. A.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Ralph, J. E.; Amendt, P.; Hinkel, D. E.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Ross, J. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Celliers, P.; Clouët, J.-F.; Dewald, E. L.; Kaiser, P.; Khan, S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Liberatore, S.; Marion, D.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Milovich, J. L.; Morice, O.; Pak, A. E.; Poujade, O.; Strozzi, D.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-01

    The NIF Rugby High Foot campaign results, with 8 shots to date, are compared with the 2D FCI2 design simulations. A special emphasis is placed on the predictive features and on those areas where some work is still required to achieve the best possible modelling of these MJ-class experiments.

  20. Advances in target design and fabrication for experiments on NIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrey K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to build target platforms for National Ignition Facility (NIF is a key feature in LANL's (Los Alamos National Laboratory Target Fabrication Program. We recently built and manufactured the first LANL targets to be fielded on NIF in March 2011. Experiments on NIF require precision component manufacturing and accurate knowledge of the materials used in the targets. The characterization of foams and aerogels, the Be ignition capsule, and machining unique components are of main material focus. One important characterization metric the physics' have determined is that the knowledge of density gradients in foams is important. We are making strides in not only locating these density gradients in aerogels and foams as a result of how they are manufactured and machined but also quantifying the density within the foam using 3D confocal micro x-ray fluorescence (μXRF imaging and 3D x-ray computed tomography (CT imaging. In addition, collaborative efforts between General Atomics (GA and LANL in the characterization of the NIF Ignition beryllium capsule have shown that the copper in the capsule migrates radially from the capsule center.

  1. Perspectives: Using Historical Documents To Think about NIF Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of using historical documents in the classroom is to generate and enhance discussion by providing a historical perspective for issues. Five documents are included in this packet and are to be used as a supplemental material for the National Issues Forum (NIF) topics. Issues raised include (1) an analysis of the documents and (2)…

  2. NIF ICCS Test Controller for Automated and Manual Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, J S

    2007-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is a large (1.5 MSLOC), hierarchical, distributed system that controls all aspects of the NIF laser [1]. The ICCS team delivers software updates to the NIF facility throughout the year to support shot operations and commissioning activities. In 2006, there were 48 releases of ICCS: 29 full releases, 19 patches. To ensure the quality of each delivery, thousands of manual and automated tests are performed using the ICCS Test Controller test infrastructure. The TestController system provides test inventory management, test planning, automated test execution and manual test logging, release testing summaries and test results search, all through a web browser interface. Automated tests include command line based frameworks server tests and Graphical User Interface (GUI) based Java tests. Manual tests are presented as a checklist-style web form to be completed by the tester. The results of all tests, automated and manual, are kept in a common repository that provides data to dynamic status reports. As part of the 3-stage ICCS release testing strategy, the TestController system helps plan, evaluate and track the readiness of each release to the NIF facility

  3. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert M, Malone; John R, Celesteb; Peter M, Celliers; Brent C, Froggeta; Robert L, Guyton; Morris I, Kaufman; Tony L, Lee; Brian J, MacGowan; Edmund W, Ng; Imants P, Reinbachs; Ronald B, Robinson; Lynn G, Seppala; Tom W, Tunnell; Phillip W, Watts

    2005-01-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1-5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber

  4. A concept to collect neutron and x-ray images on the same line of sight at NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, F. E., E-mail: fmerrill@lanl.gov; Danly, C. R.; Grim, G. P.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Neutron and x-ray images are collected at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the size and shape of inertial confinement fusion implosions. The x-ray images provide a measure of the size and shape of the hot region of the deuterium-tritium fuel while the neutron images provide a measure of the size and shape of the burning plasma. Although these two types of images are collected simultaneously, they are not collected along the same line of sight (LOS). One 14 MeV neutron image is collected on the NIF equator, and two x-ray images are collected along the polar axis and nearly perpendicular to the neutron imaging line of sight on the equator. Both measurements use pinhole apertures to form the images, but existing x-ray imaging provides time-resolved measurements while the neutron images are time-integrated. Detailed comparisons of the x-ray and neutron images can provide information on the fuel assembly, but these studies have been limited because the implosions are not azimuthally symmetric and the images are collected along different LOS. We have developed a conceptual design of a time-integrated x-ray imaging system that could be added to the existing neutron imaging LOS. This new system would allow these detailed studies, providing important information on the fuel assembly of future implosions. Here we present this conceptual design and the expected performance characteristics.

  5. A concept to collect neutron and x-ray images on the same line of sight at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F E; Danly, C R; Izumi, N; Jedlovec, D; Fittinghoff, D N; Grim, G P; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Volegov, P L; Wilde, C H

    2014-11-01

    Neutron and x-ray images are collected at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the size and shape of inertial confinement fusion implosions. The x-ray images provide a measure of the size and shape of the hot region of the deuterium-tritium fuel while the neutron images provide a measure of the size and shape of the burning plasma. Although these two types of images are collected simultaneously, they are not collected along the same line of sight (LOS). One 14 MeV neutron image is collected on the NIF equator, and two x-ray images are collected along the polar axis and nearly perpendicular to the neutron imaging line of sight on the equator. Both measurements use pinhole apertures to form the images, but existing x-ray imaging provides time-resolved measurements while the neutron images are time-integrated. Detailed comparisons of the x-ray and neutron images can provide information on the fuel assembly, but these studies have been limited because the implosions are not azimuthally symmetric and the images are collected along different LOS. We have developed a conceptual design of a time-integrated x-ray imaging system that could be added to the existing neutron imaging LOS. This new system would allow these detailed studies, providing important information on the fuel assembly of future implosions. Here we present this conceptual design and the expected performance characteristics.

  6. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhee, A. G., E-mail: macphee2@llnl.gov; Hatch, B. W.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Datte, P. S.; Landen, O. L.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K. W.; Rekow, V. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.; Hares, J. D. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Isis Building, Howbery Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BD (United Kingdom); Hassett, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Meadowcroft, A. L. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  7. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, A G; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L; Hares, J D; Hassett, J; Hatch, B W; Meadowcroft, A L; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Datte, P S; Landen, O L; Palmer, N E; Piston, K W; Rekow, V V; Hilsabeck, T J; Kilkenny, J D

    2016-11-01

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  8. Board-to-Board Free-Space Optical Interconnections Passing through Boards for a Bookshelf-Assembled Terabit-Per-Second-Class ATM Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, K; Yamamoto, T; Matsuo, S; Hino, S

    1998-05-10

    We propose free-space optical interconnections for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch. Thousands of arrayed optical beams, each having a rate of a few gigabits per second, propagate vertically to printed circuit boards, passing through some boards, and are connected to arbitrary transmitters and receivers on boards by polarization controllers and prism arrays. We describe a preliminary experiment using a 1-mm-pitch 2 x 2 beam-collimator array that uses vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes. These optical interconnections can be made quite stable in terms of mechanical shock and temperature fluctuation by the attachment of reinforcing frames to the boards and use of an autoalignment system.

  9. Thermal analysis of the large close packed amplifiers in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.L.; Mannell, G.T.

    1995-05-01

    Flashlamp pumping of the large aperture multi-segment NIF amplifiers will result in large amounts of energy being deposited as heat in the amplifier components. The magnitude of the heating and the nonuniform distribution result in a delay time between shots due to wavefront distortion and steering error. A NEF requirement is that the thermal wavefront recovery must occur in less than six hours. The principal cause of long-term wavefront distortion is the thermal gradient produced in the slab as heat diffuses from the edge cladding into the pumped volume. Thermal equilibrium is established through conduction, convection, and exchange of thermal radiation. Radiative exchange between glass components, such as flashlamps, blast shields, and laser slabs is especially effective because of the large surface areas of these components and the high emissivity of the glass. Free convection within the amplifier enclosure is also important but is on the order of a 10 to 20% effect compared to radiation for the major surfaces. To evaluate the NIF design, the amplifier was modeled to calculate the thermal response of a single laser element. The amplifier is cooled by flowing room-temperature air or nitrogen through the flashlamp cassettes. Active cooling of the flashlamps and blast shields serves two purposes; the energy deposited in these components can be removed before it is transferred to the amplifier optical components, and the cooled blast shield provides a large area heat sink for removal of the residual heat from the laser slabs. Approximately 50 to 60% of the flashlamp energy is deposited in the flashlamps and blast shields. Thus, cooling the flashlamp cassette is a very effective method for removing a substantial fraction of the energy without disturbing the optical elements of the system. Preliminary thermal analysis indicates that active cooling with flow rates of 10 CFM per flashlamp is sufficient to meet the six hour thermal equilibrium requirement

  10. Progress towards polar-drive ignition for the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Epstein, R.; Froula, D.H.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S.X.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Kessler, T.J.; Knauer, J.P.; Casey, D.T.; Frenje, J.A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) performs direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. LLE's Omega Laser Facility is used to study direct-drive ICF ignition concepts, developing an understanding of the underlying physics that feeds into the design of ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The baseline symmetric-illumination, direct-drive–ignition target design consists of a 1.5 MJ multiple-picket laser pulse that generates four shock waves (similar to the NIF baseline indirect-drive design) and is predicted to produce a one-dimensional (1D) gain of 48. LLE has developed the polar-drive (PD) illumination concept (for NIF beams in the x-ray–drive configuration) to allow the pursuit of direct-drive ignition without significant reconfiguration of the beam paths on the NIF. Some less-invasive changes in the NIF infrastructure will be required, including new phase plates, polarization rotators, and a PD-specific beam-smoothing front end. A suite of PD ignition designs with implosion velocities from 3.5 to 4.3 × 10 7 cm s −1 are predicted to have significant 2D gains (Collins et al 2012 Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 57 155). Verification of the physics basis of these simulations is a major thrust of direct-drive implosion experiments on both OMEGA and the NIF. Many physics issues are being examined with symmetric beam irradiation on OMEGA, varying the implosion parameters over a wide region of design space. Cryogenic deuterium–tritium target experiments with symmetric irradiation have produced areal densities of ∼0.3 g cm −2 , ion temperatures over 3 keV, and neutron yields in excess of 20% of the ‘clean’ 1D predicted value. The inferred Lawson criterion figure of merit (Betti R. et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 058102) has increased from 1.7 atm s (IAEA 2010) to 2.6 atm s. (paper)

  11. Expression, purification, and functional analysis of the C-terminal domain of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rose A; Souza, Emanuel M; Geoffrey Yates, M; Steffens, M Berenice R; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S

    2003-02-01

    The Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA protein is responsible for nif gene expression. The C-terminal domain of the H. seropedicae NifA protein, fused to a His-Tag sequence (His-Tag-C-terminal), was over-expressed and purified by metal-affinity chromatography to yield a highly purified and active protein. Band-shift assays showed that the NifA His-Tag-C-terminal bound specifically to the H. seropedicae nifB promoter region in vitro. In vivo analysis showed that this protein inhibited the Central + C-terminal domains of NifA protein from activating the nifH promoter of K. pneumoniae in Escherichia coli, indicating that the protein must be bound to the NifA-binding site (UAS site) at the nifH promoter region to activate transcription. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  12. Uncertainty Detection for NIF Normal Pointing Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, A S; Law, C; Ferguson, S W

    2007-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory when completed in 2009, will deliver 192-beams aligned precisely at the center of the target chamber producing extreme energy densities and pressures. Video images of laser beams along the beam path are used by automatic alignment algorithms to determine the position of the beams for alignment purposes. However, noise and other optical effects may affect the accuracy of the calculated beam location. Realistic estimation of the uncertainty is necessary to assure that the beam is monitored within the clear optical path. When the uncertainty is above a certain threshold the automated alignment operation is suspended and control of the beam is transferred to a human operator. This work describes our effort to quantify the uncertainty of measurement of the most common alignment beam

  13. OptoZIF Drive: a 3D printed implant and assembly tool package for neural recording and optical stimulation in freely moving mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David S.; Schroeder, Joseph B.; Telian, Gregory I.; Zhang, Zhengyang; Sunil, Smrithi; Ritt, Jason T.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Behavioral neuroscience studies in freely moving rodents require small, light-weight implants to facilitate neural recording and stimulation. Our goal was to develop an integrated package of 3D printed parts and assembly aids for labs to rapidly fabricate, with minimal training, an implant that combines individually positionable microelectrodes, an optical fiber, zero insertion force (ZIF-clip) headstage connection, and secondary recording electrodes, e.g. for electromyography (EMG). Approach. Starting from previous implant designs that position recording electrodes using a control screw, we developed an implant where the main drive body, protective shell, and non-metal components of the microdrives are 3D printed in parallel. We compared alternative shapes and orientations of circuit boards for electrode connection to the headstage, in terms of their size, weight, and ease of wire insertion. We iteratively refined assembly methods, and integrated additional assembly aids into the 3D printed casing. Main results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the OptoZIF Drive by performing real time optogenetic feedback in behaving mice. A novel feature of the OptoZIF Drive is its vertical circuit board, which facilities direct ZIF-clip connection. This feature requires angled insertion of an optical fiber that still can exit the drive from the center of a ring of recording electrodes. We designed an innovative 2-part protective shell that can be installed during the implant surgery to facilitate making additional connections to the circuit board. We use this feature to show that facial EMG in mice can be used as a control signal to lock stimulation to the animal’s motion, with stable EMG signal over several months. To decrease assembly time, reduce assembly errors, and improve repeatability, we fabricate assembly aids including a drive holder, a drill guide, an implant fixture for microelectode ‘pinning’, and a gold plating fixture. Significance. The

  14. Sequencing and functional analysis of the nifENXorf1orf2 gene cluster of Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, G; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M; Yates, M G; Rigo, L U

    1999-12-01

    A 5.1-kb DNA fragment from the nifHDK region of H. seropedicae was isolated and sequenced. Sequence analysis showed the presence of nifENXorf1orf2 but nifTY were not present. No nif or consensus promoter was identified. Furthermore, orf1 expression occurred only under nitrogen-fixing conditions and no promoter activity was detected between nifK and nifE, suggesting that these genes are expressed from the upstream nifH promoter and are parts of a unique nif operon. Mutagenesis studies indicate that nifN was essential for nitrogenase activity whereas nifXorf1orf2 were not. High homology between the C-terminal region of the NifX and NifB proteins from H. seropedicae was observed. Since the NifX and NifY proteins are important for FeMo cofactor (FeMoco) synthesis, we propose that alternative proteins with similar activities exist in H. seropedicae.

  15. Orchestrating Shots for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathisen, D G; Bettenhausen, R C; Beeler, R G; Bowers, G A; Carey, R W; Casavant, D D; Cline, B D; Demaret, R D; Domyancic, D M; Elko, S D; Fisher, J M; Krammen, J E; Lagin, L J; Ludwigsen, A P; Patterson, R W; Sanchez, R J; Stout, E A

    2005-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8 Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultra-violet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. When completed, NIF will be the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing an international center to study inertial confinement fusion and physics of matter at extreme densities and pressures. The NIF is operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is a layered architecture of over 700 lower-level front-end processors attached to nearly 60,000 control points and coordinated by higher-level supervisory subsystems in the main control room. A shot automation framework has been developed and deployed during the past year to orchestrate and automate shots performed at the NIF using the ICCS. The Shot Automation framework is designed to automate 4-8 hour shot sequences, that includes deriving shot goals from an experiment definition, set up of the laser and diagnostics, automatic alignment of laser beams, and a countdown to charge and fire the lasers. These sequences consist of set of preparatory verification shots, leading to amplified system shots followed by post-shot analysis and archiving. The framework provides for a flexible, model-based work-flow execution, driven by scripted automation called macro steps. The shot director software is the orchestrating component of a very flexible automation layer which allows us to define, coordinate and reuse simpler automation sequences. This software provides a restricted set of shot life cycle state transitions to 26 collaboration supervisors that automate 8-laser beams (bundle) and a common set of shared resources. Each collaboration supervisor commands approximately 10 subsystem shot supervisors that perform automated control and status verification

  16. Alternative irradiation schemes for NIF and LMJ hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgade, Jean-Luc; Bowen, Christopher; Gauthier, Pascal; Landen, Otto

    2018-02-01

    We explore two alternative irradiation schemes for the large (‘outer’) and small (‘inner’) angle beams that currently illuminate National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Laser Mégajoule cavities. In the first, while the outer laser beams enter through the usual end laser entrance holes (LEH), the inner beams enter through slots along the cavity axis wall, illuminating the back wall of the cavity. This avoids the current interaction of the inner laser beams with the gold wall bubbles generated by the outer beams, which leads to large time-dependent changes in drive symmetry. Another scheme potentially useful for NIF uses only the outer beams. The radiative losses through the slots or from the use of outer beams only are compensated by using a smaller cavity and LEH.

  17. Pr6O11 micro-spherical nano-assemblies: Microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, Shafquat; Shivashankar, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of Pr 6 O 11 microspheres self-assembled from ultra-small nanocrystals formed by the microwave irradiation of a solution of a salt of Pr in ethylene glycol (EG). The as-prepared product consists of microspheres measuring 200 to 500 nm in diameter and made of 6 O 11 microspheres assembled from ultra-small nanocrystals were synthesized. • As-prepared microspheres are covered by ethylene glycol as shown by IR analysis. • Role of temperature and pressure on self-assembly studied. • Luminescence emission behaviour of as-prepared and annealed products studied

  18. Diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (nifH) from ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-12-01

    The diversity of bacterial nitrogenase genes (nifH) and their mRNA transcription in ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) were examined. DNA and RNA were extracted from surface-sterilized and non-sterilized Corsican pine roots colonized by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Suillus variegatus and Tomentellopsis submollis. DNA-derived nifH polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained from all samples, but only a few reverse transcription PCRs for nifH mRNA were successful, suggesting that nitrogenase genes were not always transcribed. Several different nifH sequences were detected and the bacteria actively transcribing nifH were different from those whose genes were detected through DNA-based PCR. Putative nitrogenase amino acid sequences revealed that more than half of the nifH products were derived from methylotrophic bacteria, such as Methylocella spp. The next most frequent sequence types were similar to those from Burkholderia.

  19. Inter-domain cross-talk controls the NifA protein activity of Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, R A; de Souza, E M; Wassem, R; Yates, M G; Pedrosa, F O; Chubatsu, L S

    2001-11-09

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotroph, which colonizes sugar cane, wheat, rice and maize. The activity of NifA, a transcriptional activator of nif genes in H. seropedicae, is controlled by ammonium ions through a mechanism involving its N-terminal domain. Here we show that this domain interacts specifically in vitro with the N-truncated NifA protein, as revealed by protection against proteolysis, and this interaction caused an inhibitory effect on both the ATPase and DNA-binding activities of the N-truncated NifA protein. We suggest that the N-terminal domain inhibits NifA-dependent transcriptional activation by an inter-domain cross-talk between the catalytic domain of the NifA protein and its regulatory N-terminal domain in response to fixed nitrogen.

  20. Control of autogenous activation of Herbaspirillum seropedicae nifA promoter by the IHF protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassem, Roseli; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Yates, Marshall G; Rego, Fabiane G M; Chubatsu, Leda S; Rigo, Liu U; Souza, Emanuel M

    2002-07-02

    Analysis of the expression of the Herbaspirillum seropedicae nifA promoter in Escherichia coli and Herbaspirillum seropedicae, showed that nifA expression is primarily dependent on NtrC but also required NifA for maximal expression under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Deletion of the IHF (integration host factor)-binding site produced a promoter with two-fold higher activity than the native promoter in the H. seropedicae wild-type strain but not in a nifA strain, indicating that IHF controls NifA auto-activation. IHF is apparently required to prevent overexpression of the NifA protein via auto-activation under nitrogen-fixing conditions in H. seropedicae.

  1. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  2. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL Presentation to: IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science...Conference C. J. Keane Director, NIF User Office June 21, 2013 1491978-1-4673-5168-3/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  3. Song decrystallization in adult zebra finches does not require the song nucleus NIf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arani; Mooney, Richard

    2009-08-01

    In adult male zebra finches, transecting the vocal nerve causes previously stable (i.e., crystallized) song to slowly degrade, presumably because of the resulting distortion in auditory feedback. How and where distorted feedback interacts with song motor networks to induce this process of song decrystallization remains unknown. The song premotor nucleus HVC is a potential site where auditory feedback signals could interact with song motor commands. Although the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf) appears to be the primary auditory input to HVC, NIf lesions made in adult zebra finches do not trigger song decrystallization. One possibility is that NIf lesions do not interfere with song maintenance, but do compromise the adult zebra finch's ability to express renewed vocal plasticity in response to feedback perturbations. To test this idea, we bilaterally lesioned NIf and then transected the vocal nerve in adult male zebra finches. We found that bilateral NIf lesions did not prevent nerve section-induced song decrystallization. To test the extent to which the NIf lesions disrupted auditory processing in the song system, we made in vivo extracellular recordings in HVC and a downstream anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in NIf-lesioned birds. We found strong and selective auditory responses to the playback of the birds' own song persisted in HVC and the AFP following NIf lesions. These findings suggest that auditory inputs to the song system other than NIf, such as the caudal mesopallium, could act as a source of auditory feedback signals to the song motor network.

  4. Measurement of Fluorescence in a Rhodamine-123 Doped Self-Assembled “Giant” Mesostructured Silica Sphere Using a Smartphone as Optical Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Petermann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The blue OLED emission from a mobile phone was characterised, revealing a sharp emission band centred at λ = 445 nm with a 3dB bandwidth Δλ ~ 20 nm. It was used to excite Rhodamine 123 doped within a “giant” mesostructured silica sphere during fabrication through evaporative self-assembly of silica nanoparticles. Fluorescence was able to be detected using a standard optical microscope fitted with a green transmission pass filter and cooled CCD and with 1 ms exposure time demonstrating the potential of mobile platforms as the basis for portable diagnostics in the field.

  5. Optoacoustic response from graphene-based solutions embedded in optical phantoms by using 905-nm high-power diode-laser assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Luca; Gallego, Daniel C.; Gawali, Sandeep Babu; Dadrasnia, Ehsan; Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; González, Marta; Carpintero, Guillermo; Osiński, Marek; Lamela, Horacio

    2016-03-01

    During the last two decades, optoacoustic imaging has been developed as a novel biomedical imaging technique based on the generation of ultrasound waves by means of laser light. In this work, we investigate the optoacoustic response from graphene-based solutions by using a compact and cost-effective system based on an assembly of several 905-nm pulsed high-power diode lasers coupled to a bundle of 200-μm diameter- core optical fibers. The coupled light is conveyed into a lens system and focused on an absorber consisting of graphene-based nanomaterials (graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and reduced graphene-oxide/gold-nanoparticle hybrid, respectively) diluted in ethanol and hosted in slightly scattering optical phantoms. The high absorption of these graphene-based solutions suggests their potential future use in optoacoustic applications as contrast agents.

  6. Structural and optical characterization of self-assembled Ge nanocrystal layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, S.; Buters, F.; Dohnalova, K.; Wosinski, L.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2014-01-01

    We present a structural and optical study of solid-state dispersions of Ge nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Structural analysis shows the presence of nanocrystalline germanium inclusions embedded in an amorphous matrix of Si-rich SiO2. Optical characterization

  7. The NIF LinkOut broker: a web resource to facilitate federated data integration using NCBI identifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Luis; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Martone, Maryann E; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the NIF LinkOut Broker (NLB) that has been built as part of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project. The NLB is designed to coordinate the assembly of links to neuroscience information items (e.g., experimental data, knowledge bases, and software tools) that are (1) accessible via the Web, and (2) related to entries in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI's) Entrez system. The NLB collects these links from each resource and passes them to the NCBI which incorporates them into its Entrez LinkOut service. In this way, an Entrez user looking at a specific Entrez entry can LinkOut directly to related neuroscience information. The information stored in the NLB can also be utilized in other ways. A second approach, which is operational on a pilot basis, is for the NLB Web server to create dynamically its own Web page of LinkOut links for each NCBI identifier in the NLB database. This approach can allow other resources (in addition to the NCBI Entrez) to LinkOut to related neuroscience information. The paper describes the current NLB system and discusses certain design issues that arose during its implementation.

  8. Rocket Assembly and Checkout Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Integrates, tests, and calibrates scientific instruments flown on sounding rocket payloads. The scientific instruments are assembled on an optical bench;...

  9. FY17 NIF Performance Quad Campaign: laser performance results and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nicola, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mennerat, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Widmayer, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-09

    The FY17 NIF Performance Quad Campaign exercised a single quad of NIF (Q45T) at elevated energy to assess the impact of recent improvements to the infrared (1ω) and ultraviolet (3ω) section of the laser on integrated performance.

  10. Magnetic Fields on the National Ignition Facility (MagNIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, D.; Folta, J.

    2016-01-01

    A magnetized target capability on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been investigated. Stakeholders' needs and project feasibility analysis were considered in order to down-select from a wide variety of different potential magnetic field magnitudes and volumes. From the large range of different target platforms, laser configurations, and diagnostics configurations of interest to the stakeholders, the gas-pipe platform has been selected for the first round of magnetized target experiments. Gas pipe targets are routinely shot on the NIF and provide unique value for external collaborators. High-level project goals have been established including an experimentally relevant 20Tesla magnetic field magnitude. The field will be achieved using pulsed power-driven coils. A system architecture has been proposed. The pulsed power drive system will be located in the NIF target bay. This decision provides improved maintainability and mitigates equipment safety risks associated with explosive failure of the drive capacitor. High-level and first-level subsystem requirements have been established. Requirements have been included for two distinct coil designs - full solenoid and quasi-Helmholtz. A Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) has been performed and documented. Additional requirements have been derived from the mitigations included in the FMEA document. A project plan is proposed. The plan includes a first phase of electromagnetic simulations to assess whether the design will meet performance requirements, then a second phase of risk mitigation projects to address the areas of highest technical risk. The duration from project kickoff to the first magnetized target shot is approximately 29 months.

  11. Magnetic Fields on the National Ignition Facility (MagNIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Folta, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-12

    A magnetized target capability on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been investigated. Stakeholders’ needs and project feasibility analysis were considered in order to down-select from a wide variety of different potential magnetic field magnitudes and volumes. From the large range of different target platforms, laser configurations, and diagnostics configurations of interest to the stakeholders, the gas-pipe platform has been selected for the first round of magnetized target experiments. Gas pipe targets are routinely shot on the NIF and provide unique value for external collaborators. High-level project goals have been established including an experimentally relevant 20Tesla magnetic field magnitude. The field will be achieved using pulsed power-driven coils. A system architecture has been proposed. The pulsed power drive system will be located in the NIF target bay. This decision provides improved maintainability and mitigates equipment safety risks associated with explosive failure of the drive capacitor. High-level and first-level subsystem requirements have been established. Requirements have been included for two distinct coil designs – full solenoid and quasi-Helmholtz. A Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) has been performed and documented. Additional requirements have been derived from the mitigations included in the FMEA document. A project plan is proposed. The plan includes a first phase of electromagnetic simulations to assess whether the design will meet performance requirements, then a second phase of risk mitigation projects to address the areas of highest technical risk. The duration from project kickoff to the first magnetized target shot is approximately 29 months.

  12. Towards understanding the nitrogen signal transduction for nif gene expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöer, Jens; Thummer, Robert; Ullrich, Heike; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2008-12-01

    In the diazotroph Klebsiella pneumoniae, the nitrogen sensory protein GlnK mediates the cellular nitrogen status towards the NifL/NifA system that regulates transcription of the nitrogen fixation genes in response to ammonium and molecular oxygen. To identify amino acids of GlnK essential for this signal transduction by protein-protein interaction, we performed random point mutagenesis by PCR amplification under conditions of reduced Taq polymerase fidelity. Three thousand two hundred mutated glnK genes were screened to identify those that would no longer complement a K. pneumoniaeDeltaglnK strain for growth under nitrogen fixing conditions. Twenty-four candidates resulting in a Nif(-) phenotype were identified, carrying 1-11 amino acid changes in GlnK. Based on these findings, as well as structural data, several single mutations were introduced into glnK by site-directed mutagenesis, and the Nif phenotype and the respective effects on NifA-mediated nif gene induction was monitored in K. pneumoniae using a chromosomal nifK'-'lacZ fusion. Single amino acid changes resulting in significant nif gene inhibition under nitrogen limiting conditions were located within the highly conserved T-loop (A43G, A49T and N54D), the body of the protein (G87V and K79E) and in the C-terminal region (I100M, R103S, E106Q and D108G). Complex formation analyses between GlnK (wild-type or derivatives) and NifL or NifA in response to 2-oxoglutarate indicated that: (a) besides the T-loop, the C-terminal region of GlnK is essential for the interaction with NifL and NifA and (b) GlnK binds both proteins in the absence of 2-oxoglutarate, whereas, in the presence of 2-oxoglutarate, NifA is released but NifL remains bound to GlnK.

  13. FABRICATION OF WINDOW SADDLES FOR NIF CRYOGENIC HOHLRAUMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GIRALDEZ, E; KAAE, J.L

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 A planar diagnostic viewing port attached to the cylindrical wall of the NIF cryogenic hohlraum requires a saddle-like transition piece. While the basic design of this window saddle is straightforward, its fabrication is not, given the scale and precision of the component. They solved the problem through the use of a two segment copper mandrel to electroform the gold window saddle. The segments were micro-machined using a combination of single-point diamond turning and single point diamond milling. These processes as well as the electroplating conditions, final machining and mandrel removal are described in this paper

  14. 3(omega) Power Balance Procedure on the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, S; Jones, O; Speck, D R; Munro, D; Lerche, R; Salmon, T; Bliss, E; Gates, A; Boyd, B; Auerbach, J; Williams, W; Saroyan, A; Kalantar, D; MacGowan, B; Zacharias, R; Hayman, C; Sacks, R

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the detailed NIF full system shot procedure to obtain 8% power balance as specified by the SDR002 3.2.1.04. Because the 48 quads of the NIF will be set up over a period of five years, obtaining power balance will naturally be accomplished in two steps. First, as each quad is brought online, the four laser beams within each quad will be tuned by setting the PABTS splitter ratios so that each beam will give the same laser power on target during low energy square pulse shots. During the quad activation period all of the technical tools and procedures will be developed that are needed for attaining full laser power balance. After the initial settings of the 48 PABTS, if no other tuning is done the overall NIF power balance is expected to be about <15%. In the second step, an iteration procedure with approximately 18 full laser system shots will be needed to obtain 8% power balance by tuning out the remaining systematic differences among the quads to an acceptable small difference of 2% rms (at 3ω). This rms difference is smaller than the expected variation of the injection energy or the amplifier gain, and is also of the same order as the laser energy diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, 8% power balance will require a number of precision measurements that will need accurate calibrations combined with a laser performance model that accounts and corrects for variations of the injection energy and the amplifier gain. This document is intended to specify the procedure and the flow-down of requirements from the system design requirement of 8% power balance. It is further intended to help guide the laser shot planning, the laser controls, and the laser performance operations model groups. It should provide input relevant to power balance tuning for the development of an operations model that includes post-shot analysis (as described in NIF-0046491), shot planning (as described in this memo), and pre-shot analysis

  15. Status Update: Modeling Energy Balance in NIF Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-22

    We have developed a standardized methodology to model hohlraum drive in NIF experiments. We compare simulation results to experiments by 1) comparing hohlraum xray fluxes and 2) comparing capsule metrics, such as bang times. Long-pulse, high gas-fill hohlraums require a 20-28% reduction in simulated drive and inclusion of ~15% backscatter to match experiment through (1) and (2). Short-pulse, low fill or near-vacuum hohlraums require a 10% reduction in simulated drive to match experiment through (2); no reduction through (1). Ongoing work focuses on physical model modifications to improve these matches.

  16. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the issue of nonproliferation. Final study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-19

    NIF, the next step proposed by DOE in a progression of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facilities, is expected to reach the goal of ICF capsule ignition in the laboratory. This report is in response to a request of a Congressman that DOE resolve the question of whether NIF will aid or hinder U.S. nonproliferation efforts. Both technical and policy aspects are addressed, and public participation was part of the decision process. Since the technical proliferation concerns at NIF are manageable and can be made acceptable, and NIF can contribute positively to U.S. arms control and nonproliferation policy goals, it is concluded that NIF supports the nuclear nonproliferation objectives of the United States.

  17. Tests and Calibration of the NIF Neutron Time of Flight Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Cruz, M.; Duffy, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T.C.; Tommasini, R.; Throop, A; Moran, M.; Dauffy, L.; Horsefield, C.

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Neutron Time of Flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD (D = deuterium, T = tritium, H = hydrogen) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 10 9 to 2 x 10 19 . The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 m and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detectors tests and calibration will be presented

  18. IFE chamber technology testing program in NIF and chamber development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Issues concerning chamber technology testing program in NIF involving: criteria for evaluation/prioritization of experiments, engineering scaling requirements for test article design and material selection and R and D plan prior to NIF testing were addressed in this paper. In order to maximize the benefits of testing program in NIF, the testing in NIF should provide the experimental data relevant to DEMO design choice or to DEMO design predictive capability by utilizing engineering scaling test article designs. Test plans were developed for 2 promising chamber design concepts. Early testing in non-fusion/non-ignition prior to testing in ignition facility serves a critical role in chamber R and D test plans in order to reduce the risks and costs of the more complex experiments in NIF

  19. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the issue of nonproliferation. Final study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    NIF, the next step proposed by DOE in a progression of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facilities, is expected to reach the goal of ICF capsule ignition in the laboratory. This report is in response to a request of a Congressman that DOE resolve the question of whether NIF will aid or hinder U.S. nonproliferation efforts. Both technical and policy aspects are addressed, and public participation was part of the decision process. Since the technical proliferation concerns at NIF are manageable and can be made acceptable, and NIF can contribute positively to U.S. arms control and nonproliferation policy goals, it is concluded that NIF supports the nuclear nonproliferation objectives of the United States

  20. Interaction of an IHF-like protein with the Rhizobium etli nifA promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhassine, Traki; Fauvart, Maarten; Vanderleyden, Jos; Michiels, Jan

    2007-06-01

    The nifA gene fulfills an essential role in the regulation of nitrogen fixation genes in Rhizobium etli. Transcription analysis of the nifA gene, assessed using promoter deletions, indicated an oxygen-independent expression, threefold higher during symbiosis as compared with free-living conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using those nifA promoter deletion fragments, which were actively transcribed, demonstrated the specific interaction with R. etli cellular protein(s) resulting in the formation of two DNA-protein complexes. An interacting protein was purified by liquid chromatography on Heparin Sepharose and Mono S columns. The purified 12 kDa R. etli protein cross-reacted with antibodies directed against Escherichia coli integration host factor (IHF). Furthermore, purified E. coli IHF was able to specifically bind to the R. etli nifA promoter region. These results point to an as yet undisclosed function of IHF in the regulation of R. etli nifA expression.

  1. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  2. Effects of annealing temperature and duration on the morphological and optical evolution of self-assembled Pt nanostructures on c-plane sapphire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Mao; Li, Ming-Yu; Kunwar, Sundar; Pandey, Puran; Zhang, Quanzhen; Lee, Jihoon

    2017-01-01

    Metallic nanostructures (NSs) have been widely adapted in various applications and their physical, chemical, optical and catalytic properties are strongly dependent on their surface morphologies. In this work, the morphological and optical evolution of self-assembled Pt nanostructures on c-plane sapphire (0001) is demonstrated by the control of annealing temperature and dwelling duration with the distinct thickness of Pt films. The formation of Pt NSs is led by the surface diffusion, agglomeration and surface and interface energy minimization of Pt thin films, which relies on the growth parameters such as system temperature, film thickness and annealing duration. The Pt layer of 10 nm shows the formation of overlaying NPs below 650°C and isolated Pt nanoparticles above 700°C based on the enhanced surface diffusion and Volmer-Weber growth model whereas larger wiggly nanostructures are formed with 20 nm thick Pt layers based on the coalescence growth model. The morphologies of Pt nanostructures demonstrate a sharp distinction depending on the growth parameters applied. By the control of dwelling duration, the gradual transition from dense Pt nanoparticles to networks-like and large clusters is observed as correlated to the Rayleigh instability and Ostwald ripening. The various Pt NSs show a significant distinction in the reflectance spectra depending on the morphology evolution: i.e. the enhancement in UV-visible and NIR regions and the related optical properties are discussed in conjunction with the Pt NSs morphology and the surface coverage.

  3. A HIGH CURRENT, HIGH VOLTAGE SOLID-STATE PULSE GENERATOR FOR THE NIF PLASMA ELECTRODE POCKELS CELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P A; Barbosa, F; Cook, E G; Hickman, B C; Akana, G L; Brooksby, C A

    2007-01-01

    A high current, high voltage, all solid-state pulse modulator has been developed for use in the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) subsystem in the National Ignition Facility. The MOSFET-switched pulse generator, designed to be a more capable plug-in replacement for the thyratron-switched units currently deployed in NIF, offers unprecedented capabilities including burst-mode operation, pulse width agility and a steady-state pulse repetition frequency exceeding 1 Hz. Capable of delivering requisite fast risetime, 17 kV flattop pulses into a 6 (Omega) load, the pulser employs a modular architecture characteristic of the inductive adder technology, pioneered at LLNL for use in acceleration applications, which keeps primary voltages low (and well within the capabilities of existing FET technology), reduces fabrication costs and is amenable to rapid assembly and quick field repairs

  4. Regulation of nif expression in Methanococcus maripaludis: roles of the euryarchaeal repressor NrpR, 2-oxoglutarate, and two operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Thomas J; Wood, Gwendolyn E; Leigh, John A

    2005-02-18

    The methanogenic archaean Methanococcus maripaludis can use ammonia, alanine, or dinitrogen as a nitrogen source for growth. The euryarchaeal nitrogen repressor NrpR controls the expression of the nif (nitrogen fixation) operon, resulting in full repression with ammonia, intermediate repression with alanine, and derepression with dinitrogen. NrpR binds to two tandem operators in the nif promoter region, nifOR(1) and nifOR(2). Here we have undertaken both in vivo and in vitro approaches to study the way in which NrpR, nifOR(1), nifOR(2), and the effector 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) combine to regulate nif expression, leading to a comprehensive understanding of this archaeal regulatory system. We show that NrpR binds as a dimer to nifOR(1) and cooperatively as two dimers to both operators. Cooperative binding occurs only with both operators present. nifOR(1) has stronger binding and by itself can mediate the repression of nif transcription during growth on ammonia, unlike the weakly binding nifOR(2). However, nifOR(2) in combination with nifOR(1) is critical for intermediate repression during growth on alanine. Accordingly, NrpR binds to both operators together with higher affinity than to nifOR(1) alone. NrpR responds directly to 2OG, which weakens its binding to the operators. Hence, 2OG is an intracellular indicator of nitrogen deficiency and acts as an inducer of nif transcription via NrpR. This model is upheld by the recent finding (J. A. Dodsworth and J. A. Leigh, submitted for publication) in our laboratory that 2OG levels in M. maripaludis vary with growth on different nitrogen sources.

  5. NIF special equipment construction health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, R.H.

    1997-07-28

    The purpose of this plan is to identify how the construction and deployment activities of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Special Equipment (SE) will be safely executed. This plan includes an identification of (1) the safety-related responsibilities of the SE people and their interaction with other organizations involved; (2) safety related requirements, policies, and documentation; (3) a list of the potential hazards unique to SE systems and the mechanisms that will be implemented to control them to acceptable levels; (4) a summary of Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) training requirements; and (5) requirements of contractor safety plans that will be developed and used by all SE contractors participating in site activities. This plan is a subsidiary document to the NIF Construction Safety Program (CSP) and is intended to compliment the requirements stated therein with additional details specific to the safety needs of the SE construction-related activities. If a conflict arises between these two documents, the CSP will supersede. It is important to note that this plan does not list all of the potential hazards and their controls because the design and safety analysis process is still ongoing. Additional safety issues win be addressed in the Final Safety Analysis Report, Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs), and other plans and procedures as described in Section 3.0 of this plan.

  6. Analysis of NIF experiments with the minimal energy implosion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, B., E-mail: bcheng@lanl.gov; Kwan, T. J. T.; Wang, Y. M.; Merrill, F. E.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Cerjan, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We apply a recently developed analytical model of implosion and thermonuclear burn to fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility that used low-foot and high-foot laser pulse formats. Our theoretical predictions are consistent with the experimental data. Our studies, together with neutron image analysis, reveal that the adiabats of the cold fuel in both low-foot and high-foot experiments are similar. That is, the cold deuterium-tritium shells in those experiments are all in a high adiabat state at the time of peak implosion velocity. The major difference between low-foot and high-foot capsule experiments is the growth of the shock-induced instabilities developed at the material interfaces which lead to fuel mixing with ablator material. Furthermore, we have compared the NIF capsules performance with the ignition criteria and analyzed the alpha particle heating in the NIF experiments. Our analysis shows that alpha heating was appreciable only in the high-foot experiments.

  7. Quality Control, Testing, and Deployment Results in the NIF ICCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J P; Casavant, D; Cline, B D; Gorvad, M R

    2001-01-01

    The strategy used to develop the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) calls for incremental cycles of construction and formal test to deliver a total of 1 million lines of code. Each incremental release takes four to six months to implement specific functionality and culminates when offline tests conducted in the ICCS Integration and Test Facility verify functional, performance, and interface requirements. Tests are then repeated on line to confirm integrated operation in dedicated laser laboratories or ultimately in the NIF. Test incidents along with other change requests are recorded and tracked to closure by the software change control board (SCCB). Annual independent audits advise management on software process improvements. Extensive experience has been gained by integrating controls in the prototype laser preamplifier laboratory. The control system installed in the preamplifier lab contains five of the ten planned supervisory subsystems and seven of sixteen planned front-end processors (FEPs). Beam alignment, timing, diagnosis and laser pulse amplification up to 20 joules was tested through an automated series of shots. Other laboratories have provided integrated testing of six additional FEPs. Process measurements including earned-value, product size, and defect densities provide software project controls and generate confidence that the control system will be successfully deployed

  8. OMEGA ICF experiments and preparations for direct drive on NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.; Bahr, R.E.; Betti, R.

    2001-01-01

    Direct-drive laser-fusion ignition experiments rely on detailed understanding and control of irradiation uniformity, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and target fabrication. LLE is investigating various theoretical aspects of a direct-drive NIF ignition target based on an 'all-DT' design: a spherical target of ∼3.4-mm diameter, 1 to 2 μm of CH wall thickness, and an ∼340-μm DT-ice layer near the triple point of DT (∼19 K). OMEGA experiments are designed to address the critical issues related to direct-drive laser fusion and to provide the necessary data to validate the predictive capability of LLE computer codes. The cryogenic targets to be used on OMEGA are hydrodynamically equivalent to those planned for the NIF. The current experimental studies on OMEGA address the essential components of direct-drive laser fusion: irradiation uniformity and laser imprinting, Rayleigh-Taylor growth and saturation, compressed core performance and shell fuel mixing, laser plasma interactions and their effect on target performance, and cryogenic target fabrication and handling. (author)

  9. Analysis of NIF experiments with the minimal energy implosion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Wang, Y. M.; Merrill, F. E.; Batha, S. H.; Cerjan, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    We apply a recently developed analytical model of implosion and thermonuclear burn to fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility that used low-foot and high-foot laser pulse formats. Our theoretical predictions are consistent with the experimental data. Our studies, together with neutron image analysis, reveal that the adiabats of the cold fuel in both low-foot and high-foot experiments are similar. That is, the cold deuterium-tritium shells in those experiments are all in a high adiabat state at the time of peak implosion velocity. The major difference between low-foot and high-foot capsule experiments is the growth of the shock-induced instabilities developed at the material interfaces which lead to fuel mixing with ablator material. Furthermore, we have compared the NIF capsules performance with the ignition criteria and analyzed the alpha particle heating in the NIF experiments. Our analysis shows that alpha heating was appreciable only in the high-foot experiments

  10. Science of NIF scale capsule development (activities for FY97)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, K.E.; Buckley, S.R.; Cook, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    The focus of this work is the production of 2-mm PαMS mandrels by microencapsulation for use as National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser targets. It is our findings thus far that the processing techniques used previously for the 0.5-mm and 1.0-mm targets are no longer useful for preparation of the larger targets for a few fundamental reasons. The driving force for sphericity (from the minimization of interracial energy) decreases as the radius of curvature increases. Simultaneously, the mechanical robustness /stability of the water-oil-water emulsion droplets decreases as the droplet size increases. The impact of these physical conditions and the possibilities of circumventing these limitations have been examined while attempting to meet the NIF shell power spectrum criteria. Identifying the key parameters in the transition (solidification) from a w-o-w droplet to a solid polymer shell has been understood implicitly to be the paramount goal. It is believed through the knowledge gained that it will be possible to minimize the deleterious forces and maximize shell sphericity. At this point it is believed that properties intrinsic to the polymer (i.e., PαMS) such as its solution behavior and evolution of film stresses control the overall shell sphericity

  11. Low fuel convergence path to ignition on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. J.; Molvig, Kim; Gianakon, T. A.; Woods, C. N.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Hsu, S. C.; Schmidt, D. W.; Dodd, E. S.; Zylstra, Alex; Scheiner, B.; McKenty, P.; Campbell, E. M.; Froula, D.; Betti, R.; Michel, T.

    2017-10-01

    A novel concept for achieving ignition on the NIF is proposed that obviates current issues plaguing single-shell high-convergence capsules. A large directly-driven Be shell is designed to robustly implode two nested internal shells by efficiently converting 1.7MJ of laser energy from a 6 ns, low intensity laser pulse, into a 1 ns dynamic pressure pulse to ignite and burn a central liquid DT core after a fuel convergence of only 9. The short, low intensity laser pulse mitigates LPI allowing more uniform laser drive of the target and eliminates hot e-, preheat and laser zooming issues. Preliminary rad-hydro simulations predict ignition initiation with 90% maximum inner shell velocity, before deceleration Rayleigh-Taylor growth can cause significant pusher shell mix into the compressed DT fuel. The gold inner pusher shell reduces pre-ignition radiation losses from the fuel allowing ignition to occur at 2.5keV. Further 2D simulations show that the short pulse design results in a spatially uniform kinetic drive that is tolerant to variations in laser cone power. A multi-pronged effort, in collaboration with LLE, is progressing to optimize this design for NIF's PDD laser configuration. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-FG02-051ER54810.

  12. NIF special equipment construction health and safety plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to identify how the construction and deployment activities of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Special Equipment (SE) will be safely executed. This plan includes an identification of (1) the safety-related responsibilities of the SE people and their interaction with other organizations involved; (2) safety related requirements, policies, and documentation; (3) a list of the potential hazards unique to SE systems and the mechanisms that will be implemented to control them to acceptable levels; (4) a summary of Environmental Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) training requirements; and (5) requirements of contractor safety plans that will be developed and used by all SE contractors participating in site activities. This plan is a subsidiary document to the NIF Construction Safety Program (CSP) and is intended to compliment the requirements stated therein with additional details specific to the safety needs of the SE construction-related activities. If a conflict arises between these two documents, the CSP will supersede. It is important to note that this plan does not list all of the potential hazards and their controls because the design and safety analysis process is still ongoing. Additional safety issues win be addressed in the Final Safety Analysis Report, Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs), and other plans and procedures as described in Section 3.0 of this plan

  13. Science of NIF scale capsule development (activities for FY97)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, K.E.; Buckley, S.R.; Cook, R.R.

    1997-11-12

    The focus of this work is the production of 2-mm P{alpha}MS mandrels by microencapsulation for use as National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser targets. It is our findings thus far that the processing techniques used previously for the 0.5-mm and 1.0-mm targets are no longer useful for preparation of the larger targets for a few fundamental reasons. The driving force for sphericity (from the minimization of interracial energy) decreases as the radius of curvature increases. Simultaneously, the mechanical robustness /stability of the water-oil-water emulsion droplets decreases as the droplet size increases. The impact of these physical conditions and the possibilities of circumventing these limitations have been examined while attempting to meet the NIF shell power spectrum criteria. Identifying the key parameters in the transition (solidification) from a w-o-w droplet to a solid polymer shell has been understood implicitly to be the paramount goal. It is believed through the knowledge gained that it will be possible to minimize the deleterious forces and maximize shell sphericity. At this point it is believed that properties intrinsic to the polymer (i.e., P{alpha}MS) such as its solution behavior and evolution of film stresses control the overall shell sphericity.

  14. Size dependence of the wavefunction of self-assembled InAs quantum dots from time-resolved optical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Stobbe, Søren; Nikolaev, Ivan S.

    2008-01-01

    and a theoretical model, we determine the striking dependence of the overlap of the electron and hole wavefunctions on the quantum dot size. We conclude that the optical quality is best for large quantum dots, which is important in order to optimally tailor quantum dot emitters for, e.g., quantum electrodynamics......The radiative and nonradiative decay rates of InAs quantum dots are measured by controlling the local density of optical states near an interface. From time-resolved measurements, we extract the oscillator strength and the quantum efficiency and their dependence on emission energy. From our results...

  15. Final report for NIF chamber dynamics studies. Final report (May 1997), Subcontract No. B291847

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.; Jin, H.; Scott, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8 MJ, 192 laser beam facility, will have anticipated fusion yields of up to 20 MJ from D-T pellets encased in a gold hohlraum target. The energy emitted from the target in the form of x rays, neutrons, target debris kinetic energy, and target shrapnel will be contained in a 5 m. radius spherical target chamber. Various diagnostics will be stationed around the target at varying distances from the target. During each shot, the target will emit x rays that will vaporize nearby target facing surfaces including those of the diagnostics, the target positioner, and other chamber structures. This ablated vapor will be transported throughout the chamber, and will eventually condense and deposit on surfaces in the chamber, including the final optics debris shields. The research at the University of California at Berkeley relates primarily to the NIF chamber dynamics. The key design issues are the ablation of the chamber structures, transport of the vapor through the chamber and the condensation or deposition processes of those vaporized materials. An understanding of these processes is essential in developing a concept for protecting the final optics debris shields from an excessive coating (> 10 Angstrom) of target debris and ablated material, thereby prolonging their lifetime between change- outs. At Berkeley, we have studied the physical issues of the ablation process and the effects of varying materials, the condensation process of the vaporized material, and design schemes that can lower the threat posed to the debris shields by these processes. In addition to the work described briefly above, we performed extensive analysis of the target-chamber thermal response to in- chamber CO 2 Cleaning and of work performed to model the behavior of silica vapor. The work completed this year has been published in several papers and a dissertation -6 This report provides a summary of the work completed this year, as well as copies of

  16. Nitrogenase activity of Herbaspirillum seropedicae grown under low iron levels requires the products of nifXorf1 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Giseli; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; de Souza, Emanuel M; Yates, M Geoffrey; Rigo, Liu Un

    2003-07-29

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae strains mutated in the nifX or orf1 genes showed 90% or 50% reduction in nitrogenase activity under low levels of iron or molybdenum respectively. Mutations in nifX or orf1 genes did not affect nif gene expression since a nifH::lacZ fusion was fully active in both mutants. nifX and the contiguous gene orf1 are essential for maximum nitrogen fixation under iron limitation and are probably involved in synthesis of nitrogenase iron or iron-molybdenum clusters.

  17. Studies on the roles of GlnK and GlnB in regulating Klebsiella pneumoniae NifL-dependent nitrogen control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arcondeguy, T.; van Heeswijk, W.C.; Merrick, M.

    1999-01-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae, nitrogen fixation (nif) genes are regulated in response to fixed nitrogen and oxygen. The activity of the nif-specific transcriptional activator NifA is modulated by NifL, which mediates both oxygen and nitrogen control. The signal transduction protein GlnK is required to

  18. Sequencing and promoter analysis of the nifENXorf3orf5fdxAnifQ operon from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potrich D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-kb DNA region containing the major cluster of nif genes has been isolated from the Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 genome. In this region three nif operons have been identified: nifHDKorf1Y, nifENXorf3orf5fdxAnifQ and orf2nifUSVorf4. The operons containing nifENX and nifUSV genes are separated from the structural nifHDKorf1Y operon by about 5 kb and 10 kb, respectively. The present study shows the sequence analysis of the 6045-bp DNA region containing the nifENX genes. The deduced amino acid sequences from the open reading frames were compared to the nif gene products of other diazotrophic bacteria and indicate the presence of seven ORFs, all reading in the same direction as that of the nifHDKorf1Y operon. Consensus sigma54 and NifA-binding sites are present only in the promoter region upstream of the nifE gene. This promoter is activated by NifA protein and is approximately two-times less active than the nifH promoter, as indicated by the ß-galactosidase assays. This result suggests the differential expression of the nif genes and their respective products in Azospirillum.

  19. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  20. Use of Zernike polynomials and interferometry in the optical design and assembly of large carbon-dioxide laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the need for non-raytracing schemes in the optical design and analysis of large carbon-dioxide lasers like the Gigawatt, Gemini, and Helios lasers currently operational at Los Alamos, and the Antares laser fusion system under construction. The scheme currently used at Los Alamos involves characterizing the various optical components with a Zernike polynomial set obtained by the digitization of experimentally produced interferograms of the components. A Fast Fourier Transform code then propagates the complex amplitude and phase of the beam through the whole system and computes the optical parameters of interest. The analysis scheme is illustrated through examples of the Gigawatt, Gemini, and Helios systems. A possible way of using the Zernike polynomials in optical design problems of this type is discussed. Comparisons between the computed values and experimentally obtained results are made and it is concluded that this appears to be a valid approach. As this is a review article, some previously published results are also used where relevant

  1. A comprehensive aligned nifH gene database: a multipurpose tool for studies of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaby, John Christian; Buckley, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    We describe a nitrogenase gene sequence database that facilitates analysis of the evolution and ecology of nitrogen-fixing organisms. The database contains 32 954 aligned nitrogenase nifH sequences linked to phylogenetic trees and associated sequence metadata. The database includes 185 linked multigene entries including full-length nifH, nifD, nifK and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. Evolutionary analyses enabled by the multigene entries support an ancient horizontal transfer of nitrogenase genes between Archaea and Bacteria and provide evidence that nifH has a different history of horizontal gene transfer from the nifDK enzyme core. Further analyses show that lineages in nitrogenase cluster I and cluster III have different rates of substitution within nifD, suggesting that nifD is under different selection pressure in these two lineages. Finally, we find that that the genetic divergence of nifH and 16S rRNA genes does not correlate well at sequence dissimilarity values used commonly to define microbial species, as stains having <3% sequence dissimilarity in their 16S rRNA genes can have up to 23% dissimilarity in nifH. The nifH database has a number of uses including phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses, the design and assessment of primers/probes and the evaluation of nitrogenase sequence diversity. Database URL: http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/buckley/nifh.htm.

  2. Synthesis, anion exchange, and delamination of Co-Al layered double hydroxide: assembly of the exfoliated nanosheet/polyanion composite films and magneto-optical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoping; Ma, Renzhi; Osada, Minoru; Iyi, Nobuo; Ebina, Yasuo; Takada, Kazunori; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2006-04-12

    This paper describes a systematic study on the synthesis, anion exchange, and delamination of Co-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), with the aim of achieving fabrication and clarifying the properties of LDH nanosheet/polyanion composite films. Co-Al-CO3 LDH hexagonal platelets of 4 mum in lateral size were synthesized by the urea method under optimized reaction conditions. The as-prepared CO3(2-)-LDH was converted to Cl- -LDH by treating with a NaCl-HCl mixed solution, retaining its high crystallinity and hexagonal platelike morphology. LDHs intercalated with a variety of anions (such as NO3-, ClO4-, acetate, lactate, dodecyl sulfate, and oleate) were further prepared from Cl- -LDH via an anion-exchange process employing corresponding salts. Exchanged products in various anion forms were found to show different delamination behaviors in formamide. Among them, best results were observed for NO3- -LDH in terms of the exfoliating degree and the quality of the exfoliated nanosheets. The delamination gave a pink transparent suspension containing well-defined nanosheets with lateral sizes of up to 2 microm. The resulting nanosheets were assembled layer-by-layer with an anionic polymer, poly(sodium styrene 4-sulfonate) (PSS), onto quartz glass substrates to produce composite films. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements revealed that the assembled multilayer films exhibited an interesting magneto-optical response.

  3. Federated access to heterogeneous information resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amarnath; Bug, William; Marenco, Luis; Qian, Xufei; Condit, Christopher; Rangarajan, Arun; Müller, Hans Michael; Miller, Perry L; Sanders, Brian; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Astakhov, Vadim; Shepherd, Gordon; Sternberg, Paul W; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-09-01

    The overarching goal of the NIF (Neuroscience Information Framework) project is to be a one-stop-shop for Neuroscience. This paper provides a technical overview of how the system is designed. The technical goal of the first version of the NIF system was to develop an information system that a neuroscientist can use to locate relevant information from a wide variety of information sources by simple keyword queries. Although the user would provide only keywords to retrieve information, the NIF system is designed to treat them as concepts whose meanings are interpreted by the system. Thus, a search for term should find a record containing synonyms of the term. The system is targeted to find information from web pages, publications, databases, web sites built upon databases, XML documents and any other modality in which such information may be published. We have designed a system to achieve this functionality. A central element in the system is an ontology called NIFSTD (for NIF Standard) constructed by amalgamating a number of known and newly developed ontologies. NIFSTD is used by our ontology management module, called OntoQuest to perform ontology-based search over data sources. The NIF architecture currently provides three different mechanisms for searching heterogeneous data sources including relational databases, web sites, XML documents and full text of publications. Version 1.0 of the NIF system is currently in beta test and may be accessed through http://nif.nih.gov.

  4. Kinetics of Nif gene expression in a nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza-Carrión, César; Jiménez-Vicente, Emilio; Navarro-Rodríguez, Mónica; Echavarri-Erasun, Carlos; Rubio, Luis M

    2014-02-01

    Nitrogen fixation is a tightly regulated trait. Switching from N2 fixation-repressing conditions to the N2-fixing state is carefully controlled in diazotrophic bacteria mainly because of the high energy demand that it imposes. By using quantitative real-time PCR and quantitative immunoblotting, we show here how nitrogen fixation (nif) gene expression develops in Azotobacter vinelandii upon derepression. Transient expression of the transcriptional activator-encoding gene, nifA, was followed by subsequent, longer-duration waves of expression of the nitrogenase biosynthetic and structural genes. Importantly, expression timing, expression levels, and NifA dependence varied greatly among the nif operons. Moreover, the exact concentrations of Nif proteins and their changes over time were determined for the first time. Nif protein concentrations were exquisitely balanced, with FeMo cofactor biosynthetic proteins accumulating at levels 50- to 100-fold lower than those of the structural proteins. Mutants lacking nitrogenase structural genes or impaired in FeMo cofactor biosynthesis showed overenhanced responses to derepression that were proportional to the degree of nitrogenase activity impairment, consistent with the existence of at least two negative-feedback regulatory mechanisms. The first such mechanism responded to the levels of fixed nitrogen, whereas the second mechanism appeared to respond to the levels of the mature NifDK component. Altogether, these findings provide a framework to engineer N2 fixation in nondiazotrophs.

  5. NifH- Harboring Bacterial Community Composition Across an Alaskan Permafrost Thaw Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ryan Penton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since nitrogen (N is often limiting in permafrost soils, we investigated the N2-fixing genetic potential and the inferred taxa harboring those genes by sequencing nifH gene fragments in samples taken along a permafrost thaw gradient in an Alaskan boreal soil. Samples from minimally, moderately and extensively thawed sites were taken to a depth of 79 cm to encompass zones above and below the depth of the water table. NifH reads were translated with frameshift correction and 112,476 sequences were clustered at 5% amino acid dissimilarity resulting in 1,631 OTUs. Sample depth in relation to water table depth was correlated to differences in the NifH sequence classes. NifH sequences most closely related to group I nifH-harboring Alpha- and Beta Proteobacteria were in higher abundance above water table depth while those related to group III nifH-harboring Delta and Gamma Proteobacteria were more abundant below. The most dominant below water table depth NifH sequences, comprising 1/3 of the total, were distantly related to Verrucomicrobia-Opitutaceae. Overall, these results suggest that permafrost thaw alters the class-level composition of N2-fixing communities in the thawed soil layers and that this distinction corresponds to the depth of the water table. These nifH data were also compared to nifH sequences obtained from a study at an Alaskan taiga site, and to those of other geographically distant, non-permafrost sites. The two Alaska sites were differentiated largely by changes in relative abundances of the same OTUs, whereas the non-Alaska sites were differentiated by the lack of many Alaskan OTUs, and the presence of unique halophilic, sulfate- and iron-reducing taxa in the Alaska sites.

  6. Enhanced oxygen consumption in Herbaspirillum seropedicae fnr mutants leads to increased NifA mediated transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Marcelo Bueno; Wassem, Roseli; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Dixon, Ray; Monteiro, Rose Adele

    2015-05-07

    Orthologous proteins of the Crp/Fnr family have been previously implicated in controlling expression and/or activity of the NifA transcriptional activator in some diazotrophs. This study aimed to address the role of three Fnr-like proteins from H. seropedicae SmR1 in controlling NifA activity and consequent NifA-mediated transcription activation. The activity of NifA-dependent transcriptional fusions (nifA::lacZ and nifB::lacZ) was analysed in a series of H. seropedicae fnr deletion mutant backgrounds. We found that combined deletions in both the fnr1 and fnr3 genes lead to higher expression of both the nifA and nifB genes and also an increased level of nifH transcripts. Expression profiles of nifB under different oxygen concentrations, together with oxygen consumption measurements suggest that the triple fnr mutant has higher respiratory activity when compared to the wild type, which we believe to be responsible for greater stability of the oxygen sensitive NifA protein. This conclusion was further substantiated by measuring the levels of NifA protein and its activity in fnr deletion strains in comparison with the wild-type. Fnr proteins are indirectly involved in controlling the activity of NifA in H. seropedicae, probably as a consequence of their influence on respiratory activity in relation to oxygen availability. Additionally we can suggest that there is some redundancy in the physiological function of the three Fnr paralogs in this organism, since altered respiration and effects on NifA activity are only observed in deletion strains lacking both fnr1 and fnr3.

  7. Fluorescence detection using optical waveguide collection device with high efficiency on assembly of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaowen; Ma, Zongmin; Qin, Li; Fu, Yueping; Shi, Yunbo; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan Jun

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a fluorescence waveguide excitation and collection (FWEC) method that allows for an excess of 45% collection efficiency of pump photons into optically detected magnetic resonance. The FWEC system used can collect fluorescence 96 times higher than the confocal system under spin manipulation with a microwave. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the FWEC system is improved 9 times compared with that of the confocal system. In addition, the increase in contrast observed using the FWEC system shows that the integration of the system is much improved with 3D printing technology. Thus, this research has a great potential application in subsequent magnetic detection and quantum optics.

  8. Structural and optical characterization of self-assembled Ge nanocrystal layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Saba; Buters, Frank; Dohnalova, Katerina; Wosinski, Lech; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2014-10-10

    We present a structural and optical study of solid-state dispersions of Ge nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Structural analysis shows the presence of nanocrystalline germanium inclusions embedded in an amorphous matrix of Si-rich SiO(2).Optical characterization reveals two prominent emission bands centered around 2.6 eV and 3.4 eV, and tunable by excitation energy. In addition, the lower energy band shows an excitation power-dependent blue shift of up to 0.3 eV. Decay dynamics of the observed emission contains fast (nanosecond) and slow (microseconds) components, indicating contributions of several relaxation channels. Based on these material characteristics, a possible microscopic origin of the individual emission bands is discussed.

  9. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  10. Optical and AFM study of electrostatically assembled films of CdS and ZnS colloid nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryajaya; Nabok, A.; Davis, F.; Hassan, A.; Higson, S.P.J.; Evans-Freeman, J.

    2008-01-01

    CdS and ZnS semiconducting colloid nanoparticles coated with the organic shell, containing either SO 3 - or NH 2 + groups, were prepared using the aqueous phase synthesis. The multilayer films of CdS (or ZnS) were deposited onto glass, quartz and silicon substrates using the technique of electrostatic self-assembly. The films produced were characterized with UV-vis spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. A substantial blue shift of the main absorption band with respect to the bulk materials was found for both CdS and ZnS films. The Efros equation in the effective mass approximation (EMA) theoretical model allowed the evaluation of the nanoparticle radius of 1.8 nm, which corresponds well to the ellipsometry results. AFM shows the formation of larger aggregates of nanoparticles on solid surfaces

  11. Atomic and Molecular Data Activities at NIFS in 2009 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, I.

    2011-01-01

    We open and maintain the NIFS atomic and molecular numerical databases. Numbers of data records increase to 476,048 in total (as of Aug. 23, 2011) and mainly new data are added for AMDIS (electron impact ionization, excitation, and recombination cross sections and rate coefficients) and CHART (charge transfer of atom - ion collisions cross sections) during last two years. A collaboration group has started for research on atomic and molecular processes in plasma using the Large Helical Device and we measure visible and extreme ultraviolet spectra of W and rare earth elements. We also organize a collaboration group with atomic physicists from Japanese universities for research on W to study atomic data, spectra and collisional-radiative models for W ions. (author)

  12. 3D Simulations of the ``Keyhole'' Hohlraum for Shock Timing on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H. F.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Jones, O. S.

    2007-11-01

    Ignition implosions planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require a pulse shape with a carefully designed series of steps, which launch a series of shocks through the ablator and DT fuel. The relative timing of these shocks must be tuned to better than +/- 100ps to maintain the DT fuel on a sufficiently low adiabat. To meet these requirements, pre-ignition tuning experiments using a modified hohlraum geometry are being planned. This modified geometry, known as the ``keyhole'' hohlraum, adds a re-entrant gold cone, which passes through the hohlraum and capsule walls, to provide an optical line-of-sight to directly measure the shocks as they break out of the ablator. In order to assess the surrogacy of this modified geometry, 3D simulations using HYDRA [1] have been performed. The drive conditions and the resulting effect on shock timing in the keyhole hohlraum will be compared with the corresponding results for the standard ignition hohlraum. [1] M.M. Marinak, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001).

  13. A plasma amplifier to combine multiple beams at NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, R. K.; Turnbull, D. P.; Chapman, T.; Wilks, S. C.; Rosen, M. D.; London, R. A.; Pickworth, L. A.; Colaitis, A.; Dunlop, W. H.; Poole, P.; Moody, J. D.; Strozzi, D. J.; Michel, P. A.; Divol, L.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Van Wonterghem, B. M.; Fournier, K. B.; Blue, B. E.

    2018-05-01

    Combining laser beams in a plasma is enabled by seeded stimulated Brillouin scattering which allows cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) to occur and re-distributes the energy between beams that cross with different incident angles and small differences in wavelength [Kirkwood et al. Phys. Plasmas 4, 1800 (1997)]. Indirect-drive implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Haynam et al. Appl. Opt. 46, 3276-3303 (2007)] have controlled drive symmetry by using plasma amplifiers to transfer energy between beams [Kirkwood et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 55, 103001 (2013); Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 020501 (2014); and Hurricane et al. Nature 506, 343-348 (2014)]. In this work, we show that the existing models are well enough validated by experiments to allow a design of a plasma beam combiner that, once optimized, is expected to produce a pulse of light in a single beam with the energy greatly enhanced over existing sources. The scheme combines up to 61 NIF beams with 120 kJ of available energy into a single f/20 beam with a 1 ns pulse duration and a 351 nm wavelength by both resonant and off-resonance CBET. Initial experiments are also described that have already succeeded in producing a 4 kJ, 1 ns pulse in a single beam by combination of up to eight incident pump beams containing <1.1 kJ/beam, which are maintained near resonance for CBET in a plasma that is formed by 60 pre-heating beams [Kirkwood et al., Nat. Phys. 14, 80 (2018)].

  14. Synthesis and optical properties of (GaAs)yGe5-2y alloys assembled from molecular building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P. E.; Wallace, P. M.; Xu, Chi; Poweleit, C. D.; Claflin, B.; Kouvetakis, J.; Menéndez, J.

    2017-09-01

    Monocrystalline alloys of GaAs and Ge with compositions (GaAs)yGe5-2y have been synthesized following a chemical vapor deposition approach that promotes the incorporation of Ga and As atoms as isolated donor-acceptor pairs. The structural and optical properties show distinct behavior relative to (GaAs)1-xGe2x counterparts produced by conventional routes. Strong band gap photoluminescence is observed in the 0.5-0.6 eV range for samples whose compositions approach the GaAsGe3 limit for isolated Ga-As pairs. In such samples, the Ge-like Raman modes appear at higher frequencies and are considerably narrower than those observed in samples with higher Ge concentrations. These results suggest that the growth mechanism may favor the formation of ordered phases comprising Ga-As-Ge3 tetrahedra. In contrast with the diamond-to-zincblende ordering transition previously reported for III-V-IV alloys, ordered structures built from Ga-As-Ge3 tetrahedra feature III-III and V-V pairs as third-nearest neighbors, and therefore both the III- and V-components are equally present in each of two fcc sublattices of the average diamond-like structure. These bonding arrangements likely lead to the observed optical response, indicating potential applications of these materials in mid-IR technologies integrated on Si.

  15. NIF: Impacts of chemical accidents and comparison of chemical/radiological accident approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Rhodes, M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The goals of the NIF are to (1) achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory for the first time by using inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology based on an advanced-design neodymium glass solid-state laser, and (2) conduct high-energy-density experiments in support of national security and civilian applications. The primary focus of this paper is worker-public health and safety issues associated with postulated chemical accidents during the operation of NIF. The key findings from the accident analysis will be presented. Although NIF chemical accidents will be emphasized, the important differences between chemical and radiological accident analysis approaches and the metrics for reporting results will be highlighted. These differences are common EIS facility and transportation accident assessments

  16. Molecular phylogeny, population genetics, and evolution of heterocystous cyanobacteria using nifH gene sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, P.; Singh, S. S.; Elster, Josef; Mishra, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 250, č. 3 (2013), s. 751-764 ISSN 0033-183X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : evolution * heterocystous cyanobacteria * nifH gene Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.171, year: 2013

  17. COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A.; PONTELANDOLFO, J.M.; CASTILLO, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES. Targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) need to be about 200 (micro)m thick and 2 mm in diameter. These dimensions are well beyond those currently fabricated on a routine basis. They have investigated fabrication of near NIF scale targets using the depolymerizable mandrel technique. Poly-alpha-methylstyrene (PAMS) mandrels, about 2 mm in diameter, of varying qualities were coated with as much as 125 (micro)m of glow discharge polymer (GDP). The surface finish of the final shells was examined using a variety of techniques. A clear dependence of the modal spectrum of final GDP shell on the quality of the initial PAMS mandrels was observed. isolated features were found to be the greatest cause for a shell not meeting the NIF standard

  18. Printed assemblies of GaAs photoelectrodes with decoupled optical and reactive interfaces for unassisted solar water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongseok; Young, James L.; Lim, Haneol; Klein, Walter E.; Chen, Huandong; Xi, Yuzhou; Gai, Boju; Deutsch, Todd G.; Yoon, Jongseung

    2017-03-01

    Despite their excellent photophysical properties and record-high solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, the high cost and limited stability of III-V compound semiconductors prohibit their practical application in solar-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting. Here we present a strategy for III-V photocatalysis that can circumvent these difficulties via printed assemblies of epitaxially grown compound semiconductors. A thin film stack of GaAs-based epitaxial materials is released from the growth wafer and printed onto a non-native transparent substrate to form an integrated photocatalytic electrode for solar hydrogen generation. The heterogeneously integrated electrode configuration together with specialized epitaxial design serve to decouple the material interfaces for illumination and electrocatalysis. Subsequently, this allows independent control and optimization of light absorption, carrier transport, charge transfer, and material stability. Using this approach, we construct a series-connected wireless tandem system of GaAs photoelectrodes and demonstrate 13.1% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of unassisted-mode water splitting.

  19. Effect of point mutations on Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, B.; Stefanello, A.A.; Oliveira, M.A.S.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Monteiro, R.A.; Chubatsu, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    NifA is the transcriptional activator of the nif genes in Proteobacteria. It is usually regulated by nitrogen and oxygen, allowing biological nitrogen fixation to occur under appropriate conditions. NifA proteins have a typical three-domain structure, including a regulatory N-terminal GAF domain, which is involved in control by fixed nitrogen and not strictly required for activity, a catalytic AAA+ central domain, which catalyzes open complex formation, and a C-terminal domain involved in DNA-binding. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a β-proteobacterium capable of colonizing Graminae of agricultural importance, NifA regulation by ammonium involves its N-terminal GAF domain and the signal transduction protein GlnK. When the GAF domain is removed, the protein can still activate nif genes transcription; however, ammonium regulation is lost. In this work, we generated eight constructs resulting in point mutations in H. seropedicae NifA and analyzed their effect on nifH transcription in Escherichia coli and H. seropedicae. Mutations K22V, T160E, M161V, L172R, and A215D resulted in inactive proteins. Mutations Q216I and S220I produced partially active proteins with activity control similar to wild-type NifA. However, mutation G25E, located in the GAF domain, resulted in an active protein that did not require GlnK for activity and was partially sensitive to ammonium. This suggested that G25E may affect the negative interaction between the N-terminal GAF domain and the catalytic central domain under high ammonium concentrations, thus rendering the protein constitutively active, or that G25E could lead to a conformational change comparable with that when GlnK interacts with the GAF domain

  20. Effect of point mutations on Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aquino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available NifA is the transcriptional activator of the nif genes in Proteobacteria. It is usually regulated by nitrogen and oxygen, allowing biological nitrogen fixation to occur under appropriate conditions. NifA proteins have a typical three-domain structure, including a regulatory N-terminal GAF domain, which is involved in control by fixed nitrogen and not strictly required for activity, a catalytic AAA+ central domain, which catalyzes open complex formation, and a C-terminal domain involved in DNA-binding. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a β-proteobacterium capable of colonizing Graminae of agricultural importance, NifA regulation by ammonium involves its N-terminal GAF domain and the signal transduction protein GlnK. When the GAF domain is removed, the protein can still activate nif genes transcription; however, ammonium regulation is lost. In this work, we generated eight constructs resulting in point mutations in H. seropedicae NifA and analyzed their effect on nifH transcription in Escherichia coli and H. seropedicae. Mutations K22V, T160E, M161V, L172R, and A215D resulted in inactive proteins. Mutations Q216I and S220I produced partially active proteins with activity control similar to wild-type NifA. However, mutation G25E, located in the GAF domain, resulted in an active protein that did not require GlnK for activity and was partially sensitive to ammonium. This suggested that G25E may affect the negative interaction between the N-terminal GAF domain and the catalytic central domain under high ammonium concentrations, thus rendering the protein constitutively active, or that G25E could lead to a conformational change comparable with that when GlnK interacts with the GAF domain.

  1. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Veenstra

    Full Text Available Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1, a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF, a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2 by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response.

  2. Effect of point mutations on Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, B.; Stefanello, A.A.; Oliveira, M.A.S.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Monteiro, R.A.; Chubatsu, L.S. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    NifA is the transcriptional activator of the nif genes in Proteobacteria. It is usually regulated by nitrogen and oxygen, allowing biological nitrogen fixation to occur under appropriate conditions. NifA proteins have a typical three-domain structure, including a regulatory N-terminal GAF domain, which is involved in control by fixed nitrogen and not strictly required for activity, a catalytic AAA+ central domain, which catalyzes open complex formation, and a C-terminal domain involved in DNA-binding. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a β-proteobacterium capable of colonizing Graminae of agricultural importance, NifA regulation by ammonium involves its N-terminal GAF domain and the signal transduction protein GlnK. When the GAF domain is removed, the protein can still activate nif genes transcription; however, ammonium regulation is lost. In this work, we generated eight constructs resulting in point mutations in H. seropedicae NifA and analyzed their effect on nifH transcription in Escherichia coli and H. seropedicae. Mutations K22V, T160E, M161V, L172R, and A215D resulted in inactive proteins. Mutations Q216I and S220I produced partially active proteins with activity control similar to wild-type NifA. However, mutation G25E, located in the GAF domain, resulted in an active protein that did not require GlnK for activity and was partially sensitive to ammonium. This suggested that G25E may affect the negative interaction between the N-terminal GAF domain and the catalytic central domain under high ammonium concentrations, thus rendering the protein constitutively active, or that G25E could lead to a conformational change comparable with that when GlnK interacts with the GAF domain.

  3. Advances in inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, Edward I.

    2010-01-01

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational and conducting experiments. NIF, the flagship facility of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, will achieve high-energy-density conditions never previously obtained in the laboratory-temperatures over 100 million K, densities of 1000 g/cm 3 , and pressures exceeding 100 billion atmospheres. Such conditions exist naturally only in the interiors of the stars and during thermonuclear burn. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. To date, the NIF laser has demonstrated all pulse shape, beam quality, energy, and other specifications required to meet the ignition challenge. On March 10, 2009, the NIF laser delivered 1.1 MJ of ultraviolet laser energy to target chamber center, approximately 30 times more energy than any previous facility. The ignition program at NIF is the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national collaboration for ignition experimentation with participation from General Atomics, LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on fusion as a viable energy option. A particular energy concept under investigation is the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy) scheme. The LIFE engine is inherently safe, minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, and can provide a sustainable carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This talk will describe NIF and its potential as a user facility and an experimental platform for high-energy-density science, NIC, and the LIFE approach for clean, sustainable energy.

  4. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Alexander A; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S

    2013-01-01

    Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1), a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF), a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2) by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response.

  5. Advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, E.

    2009-01-01

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational and conducting experiments. NIF, the flagship facility of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, will achieve high-energy-density conditions never previously obtained in the laboratory - temperatures over 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures exceeding 100 billion atmospheres. Such conditions exist naturally only in the interiors of the stars and during thermonuclear burn. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. To date, the NIF laser has demonstrated all pulse shape, beam quality, energy, and other specifications required to meet the ignition challenge. On March 10, 2009, the NIF laser delivered 1.1 MJ of ultraviolet laser energy to target chamber center, approximately 30 times more energy than any previous facility. The ignition program at NIF is the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national collaboration for ignition experimentation with participation from General Atomics, LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on fusion as a viable energy option. A particular energy concept under investigation is the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy) scheme. The LIFE engine is inherently safe, minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, and can provide a sustainable carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This talk will describe NIF and its potential as a user facility and an experimental platform for high-energy-density science, NIC, and the LIFE approach for clean, sustainable energy.

  6. Control of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA Activity by Ammonium Ions and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E. M.; Pedrosa, F. O.; Drummond, M.; Rigo, L. U.; Yates, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    The activity of a truncated form of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA in different genetic backgrounds showed that its regulatory domain is involved in nitrogen control but not in O2 sensitivity or Fe dependence. The model for nitrogen control involving PII could thus apply to the proteobacteria at large. NifA may have a role in controlling ADP-ribosylation of nitrogenase in Azospirillum brasilense. PMID:9882688

  7. Effect of point mutations on Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, B; Stefanello, A A; Oliveira, M A S; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M; Monteiro, R A; Chubatsu, L S

    2015-08-01

    NifA is the transcriptional activator of the nif genes in Proteobacteria. It is usually regulated by nitrogen and oxygen, allowing biological nitrogen fixation to occur under appropriate conditions. NifA proteins have a typical three-domain structure, including a regulatory N-terminal GAF domain, which is involved in control by fixed nitrogen and not strictly required for activity, a catalytic AAA+ central domain, which catalyzes open complex formation, and a C-terminal domain involved in DNA-binding. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a β-proteobacterium capable of colonizing Graminae of agricultural importance, NifA regulation by ammonium involves its N-terminal GAF domain and the signal transduction protein GlnK. When the GAF domain is removed, the protein can still activate nif genes transcription; however, ammonium regulation is lost. In this work, we generated eight constructs resulting in point mutations in H. seropedicae NifA and analyzed their effect on nifH transcription in Escherichia coli and H. seropedicae. Mutations K22V, T160E, M161V, L172R, and A215D resulted in inactive proteins. Mutations Q216I and S220I produced partially active proteins with activity control similar to wild-type NifA. However, mutation G25E, located in the GAF domain, resulted in an active protein that did not require GlnK for activity and was partially sensitive to ammonium. This suggested that G25E may affect the negative interaction between the N-terminal GAF domain and the catalytic central domain under high ammonium concentrations, thus rendering the protein constitutively active, or that G25E could lead to a conformational change comparable with that when GlnK interacts with the GAF domain.

  8. Thin and long silver nanowires self-assembled in ionic liquids as a soft template: electrical and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min-Hwa; Cho, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Youn-Soo; Lee, Eun-Jong; Kim, Jin-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Thin and long silver nanowires were successfully synthesized using the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted polyol method in the presence of ionic liquids, tetrapropylammonium chloride and tetrapropylammonium bromide, which served as soft template salts. The first step involved the formation of Ag nanoparticles with a diameter of 40 to 50 nm through the reduction of silver nitrate. At the growing stage, the Ag nanoparticles were converted into thin and long one-dimensional wires, with uniform diameters of 30 ± 3 nm and lengths of up to 50 μm. These Ag nanowires showed an electrical conductivity of 0.3 × 10(5) S/cm, while the sheet resistance of a two-dimensional percolating Ag nanowire network exhibited a value of 20 Ω/sq with an optical transmittance of 93% and a low haze value.

  9. Optical and structural investigations of self-assembled Ge/Si bi-layer containing Ge QDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samavati, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.samavati@yahoo.com [Ibn Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Othaman, Z., E-mail: zulothaman@gmail.com [Ibn Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Ghoshal, S.K.; Dousti, M.R. [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    We report the influence of Si spacer thickness variation (10–40 nm) on structural and optical properties of Ge quantum dots (QDs) in Ge/Si(1 0 0) bi-layer grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. AFM images reveal the spacer dependent width, height, root mean square roughness and number density of QDs vary in the range of ∼12–25 nm, ∼2–6 nm, ∼1.95–1.05 nm and ∼0.55×10{sup 11}–2.1×10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}, respectively. XRD patterns exhibit the presence of poly-oriented structures of Ge with preferred growth along (1 1 1) direction accompanied by a reduction in strain from 4.9% to 1.2% (estimated from Williamson–Hall plot) due to bi-layering. The room temperature luminescence displays strong blue–violet peak associated with a blue shift as much as 0.05 eV upon increasing the thickness of Si spacer. This shift is attributed to the quantum size effect, the material intermixing and the strain mediation. Raman spectra for both mono and bi-layer samples show intense Ge–Ge optical phonon mode that is shifted towards higher frequency. Furthermore, the first order features of Raman spectra affirm the occurrence of interfacial intermixing and phase formation during deposition. The excellent features of the results suggest that our systematic method may constitute a basis for the tunable growth of Ge QDs suitable in nanophotonics. - Highlights: • High quality bilayered hetero-structure Ge/Si using economic and easy rf magnetron sputtering fabrication method. • The role of phonon-confinement and strain relaxation mechanisms. • Influence of bilayering on evolutionary growth dynamics. • Band gap shift of visible PL upon bilayering.

  10. Abundance and genetic diversity of nifH gene sequences in anthropogenically affected Brazilian mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cassia; Cotta, Simone Raposo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Soares, Fábio Lino; Salles, Joana Falcão; Azevedo, João Lúcio; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2012-11-01

    Although mangroves represent ecosystems of global importance, the genetic diversity and abundance of functional genes that are key to their functioning scarcely have been explored. Here, we present a survey based on the nifH gene across transects of sediments of two mangrove systems located along the coast line of São Paulo state (Brazil) which differed by degree of disturbance, i.e., an oil-spill-affected and an unaffected mangrove. The diazotrophic communities were assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and clone libraries. The nifH gene abundance was similar across the two mangrove sediment systems, as evidenced by qPCR. However, the nifH-based PCR-DGGE profiles revealed clear differences between the mangroves. Moreover, shifts in the nifH gene diversities were noted along the land-sea transect within the previously oiled mangrove. The nifH gene diversity depicted the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria affiliated with a wide range of taxa, encompassing members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and also a group of anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. We also detected a unique mangrove-specific cluster of sequences denoted Mgv-nifH. Our results indicate that nitrogen-fixing bacterial guilds can be partially endemic to mangroves, and these communities are modulated by oil contamination, which has important implications for conservation strategies.

  11. Abundance and Genetic Diversity of nifH Gene Sequences in Anthropogenically Affected Brazilian Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cassia; Cotta, Simone Raposo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Soares, Fábio Lino; Salles, Joana Falcão; Azevedo, João Lúcio; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Although mangroves represent ecosystems of global importance, the genetic diversity and abundance of functional genes that are key to their functioning scarcely have been explored. Here, we present a survey based on the nifH gene across transects of sediments of two mangrove systems located along the coast line of São Paulo state (Brazil) which differed by degree of disturbance, i.e., an oil-spill-affected and an unaffected mangrove. The diazotrophic communities were assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and clone libraries. The nifH gene abundance was similar across the two mangrove sediment systems, as evidenced by qPCR. However, the nifH-based PCR-DGGE profiles revealed clear differences between the mangroves. Moreover, shifts in the nifH gene diversities were noted along the land-sea transect within the previously oiled mangrove. The nifH gene diversity depicted the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria affiliated with a wide range of taxa, encompassing members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and also a group of anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. We also detected a unique mangrove-specific cluster of sequences denoted Mgv-nifH. Our results indicate that nitrogen-fixing bacterial guilds can be partially endemic to mangroves, and these communities are modulated by oil contamination, which has important implications for conservation strategies. PMID:22941088

  12. Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gb s-1 directly modulated lasers and 40 Gb s-1 signal-regenerative amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, M; Hatori, N; Ishida, M; Ebe, H; Arakawa, Y; Akiyama, T; Otsubo, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakata, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent progress in the field of semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers with InAs-based self-assembled quantum dots in the active region for optical telecommunication. Based on our design in terms of the maximum bandwidth for high-speed modulation and p-type doping in quantum dots for high temperature stability, we realized temperature-insensitive 10 Gb s -1 laser diodes on a GaAs substrate at 1.3 μm. The output waveform at 10 Gb s -1 maintained a clear eye opening, average output power and extinction ratio without current adjustments from 20 deg. C to 70 deg. C. We developed ultrawide-band high-power amplifiers in the 1.5 μm wavelength region on an InP substrate. The amplifier showed ultrafast gain response under gain saturation, and enabled signal regeneration at 40 Gb s -1 by suppressing the '1'-level noise due to the beating between the signal and amplified spontaneous emission. We present our amplifier module with polarization diversity to enable a stable polarization-insensitive performance, and also, discuss prospects for polarization-insensitive quantum dots by the close stacking technique

  13. Structural, optical, and magnetic studies of manganese-doped zinc oxide hierarchical microspheres by self-assembly of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yao-Ming; Lou, Shi-Yun; Zhou, Shao-Min; Yuan, Rui-Jian; Zhu, Gong-Yu; Li, Ning

    2012-02-02

    In this study, a series of manganese [Mn]-doped zinc oxide [ZnO] hierarchical microspheres [HMSs] are prepared by hydrothermal method only using zinc acetate and manganese acetate as precursors and ethylene glycol as solvent. X-ray diffraction indicates that all of the as-obtained samples including the highest Mn (7 mol%) in the crystal lattice of ZnO have a pure phase (hexagonal wurtzite structure). A broad Raman spectrum from as-synthesized doping samples ranges from 500 to 600 cm-1, revealing the successful doping of paramagnetic Mn2+ ions in the host ZnO. Optical absorption analysis of the samples exhibits a blueshift in the absorption band edge with increasing dopant concentration, and corresponding photoluminescence spectra show that Mn doping suppresses both near-band edge UV emission and defect-related blue emission. In particular, magnetic measurements confirm robust room-temperature ferromagnetic behavior with a high Curie temperature exceeding 400 K, signifying that the as-formed Mn-doped ZnO HMSs will have immense potential in spintronic devices and spin-based electronic technologies.

  14. Expression of the nifA gene of Herbaspirillum seropedicae: role of the NtrC and NifA binding sites and of the -24/-12 promoter element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E M; Pedrosa, F O; Rigo, L U; Machado, H B; Yates, M G

    2000-06-01

    The nifA promoter of Herbaspirillum seropedicae contains potential NtrC, NifA and IHF binding sites together with a -12/-24 sigma(N)-dependent promoter. This region has now been investigated by deletion mutagenesis for the effect of NtrC and NifA on the expression of a nifA::lacZ fusion. A 5' end to the RNA was identified at position 641, 12 bp downstream from the -12/-24 promoter. Footprinting experiments showed that the G residues at positions -26 and -9 are hypermethylated, and that the region from -10 to +10 is partially melted under nitrogen-fixing conditions, confirming that this is the active nifA promoter. In H. seropedicae nifA expression from the sigma(N)-dependent promoter is repressed by fixed nitrogen but not by oxygen and is probably activated by the NtrC protein. NifA protein is apparently not essential for nifA expression but it can still bind the NifA upstream activating sequence.

  15. A rheo-optical apparatus for real time kinetic studies on shear-induced alignment of self-assembled soft matter with small sample volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiho, Ari; Ikkala, Olli

    2007-01-01

    In soft materials, self-assembled nanoscale structures can allow new functionalities but a general problem is to align such local structures aiming at monodomain overall order. In order to achieve shear alignment in a controlled manner, a novel type of rheo-optical apparatus has here been developed that allows small sample volumes and in situ monitoring of the alignment process during the shear. Both the amplitude and orientation angles of low level linear birefringence and dichroism are measured while the sample is subjected to large amplitude oscillatory shear flow. The apparatus is based on a commercial rheometer where we have constructed a flow cell that consists of two quartz teeth. The lower tooth can be set in oscillatory motion whereas the upper one is connected to the force transducers of the rheometer. A custom made cylindrical oven allows the operation of the flow cell at elevated temperatures up to 200 °C. Only a small sample volume is needed (from 9 to 25 mm3), which makes the apparatus suitable especially for studying new materials which are usually obtainable only in small quantities. Using this apparatus the flow alignment kinetics of a lamellar polystyrene-b-polyisoprene diblock copolymer is studied during shear under two different conditions which lead to parallel and perpendicular alignment of the lamellae. The open device geometry allows even combined optical/x-ray in situ characterization of the alignment process by combining small-angle x-ray scattering using concepts shown by Polushkin et al. [Macromolecules 36, 1421 (2003)].

  16. National Ignition Facility quality assurance plan for laser materials and optical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1996-05-01

    Quality achievement is the responsibility of the line organizations of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. This subtier Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) applies to activities of the Laser Materials ampersand Optical Technology (LM ampersand OT) organization and its subcontractors. It responds to the NIF Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP, L-15958-2, NIF-95-499) and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C. This Plan is organized according to 10 Quality Assurance (QA) criteria and subelements of a management system as outlined in the NIF QAPP. This Plan describes how those QA requirements are met. This Plan is authorized by the Associate Project Leader for the LM ampersand OT organization, who has assigned responsibility to the Optics QA engineer to maintain this plan, with the assistance of the NIF QA organization. This Plan governs quality-affecting activities associated with: design; procurement; fabrication; testing and acceptance; handling and storage; and installation of NIF Project optical components into mounts and subassemblies

  17. At the interface of the auditory and vocal motor systems: NIf and its role in vocal processing, production and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Brian; Vyssotski, Alexei; Hahnloser, Richard H R; Schmidt, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Communication between auditory and vocal motor nuclei is essential for vocal learning. In songbirds, the nucleus interfacialis of the nidopallium (NIf) is part of a sensorimotor loop, along with auditory nucleus avalanche (Av) and song system nucleus HVC, that links the auditory and song systems. Most of the auditory information comes through this sensorimotor loop, with the projection from NIf to HVC representing the largest single source of auditory information to the song system. In addition to providing the majority of HVC's auditory input, NIf is also the primary driver of spontaneous activity and premotor-like bursting during sleep in HVC. Like HVC and RA, two nuclei critical for song learning and production, NIf exhibits behavioral-state dependent auditory responses and strong motor bursts that precede song output. NIf also exhibits extended periods of fast gamma oscillations following vocal production. Based on the converging evidence from studies of physiology and functional connectivity it would be reasonable to expect NIf to play an important role in the learning, maintenance, and production of song. Surprisingly, however, lesions of NIf in adult zebra finches have no effect on song production or maintenance. Only the plastic song produced by juvenile zebra finches during the sensorimotor phase of song learning is affected by NIf lesions. In this review, we carefully examine what is known about NIf at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels. We reexamine conclusions drawn from previous studies in the light of our current understanding of the song system, and establish what can be said with certainty about NIf's involvement in song learning, maintenance, and production. Finally, we review recent theories of song learning integrating possible roles for NIf within these frameworks and suggest possible parallels between NIf and sensorimotor areas that form part of the neural circuitry for speech processing in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  18. 3D studies of the NIF symmetry tuning targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovich, J.; Jones, O.; Edwards, M.; Weber, S.; Dewald, E.; Landen, O.; Marinak, M.

    2009-11-01

    Minimizing radiation drive asymmetries is necessary for a successful ignition campaign. Since the ignition capsule symmetry is most sensitive to the foot (first 2 ns) and the peak of the laser pulse, two different targets will be fielded on the NIF: re-emit and symmetry capsules (Sym-Caps). The first measures the incoming flux asymmetries during the foot by observing the re-radiated flux of a high-Z ball in place of the ignition capsule. The Sym-Caps resemble the ignition target with the frozen DT layer replaced by an equivalent mass of ablator material, thus preserving the hydrodynamic implosion properties. By measuring the x-ray self-emission near peak compression the ignition capsule core shape can be tuned. Simulations with 2D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations codes omit 3D effects in the hohlraum such as diagnostic holes, capsule roughness, shot-to-shot variations caused by laser beam power imbalances and pointing errors. We study these effects by performing 3D simulations using HYDRA and found that tuning the laser pulse using a finite number of shots is not substantially compromised.

  19. First liquid-layer implosion experiments at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Alex

    2017-10-01

    Replacing the standard ice layer in an ignition design with a liquid layer allows fielding the target with a higher central vapor pressure, leading to reduced implosion convergence ratio (CR). At lower CR, the implosions are expected to be more robust to instabilities and asymmetries than standard ice-layer designs, and are also unique in that the hot spot can be primarily formed from material originating in the central fuel vapor. The first liquid-layer implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been performed by wicking the liquid fuel into a supporting foam that lines the inside surface of the capsule. A series of shots has been conducted between CR of 12 and 20 using a HDC ablator driven by a 3-shock pulse in a near-vacuum Au hohlraum. At the lowest CR the implosion performance is well predicted by 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics calculations. However, as the CR is increased the nominal simulations do not capture the experimentally observed trends. Data-based models suggest that the hot spot formation is unexpectedly suppressed at higher convergence. The data could be explained by reduced hydrodynamic coupling efficiency, or an anomalously enhanced thermal conductivity in the mixed DT/foam material. We show that the latter hypothesis can explain observed trends in several experimental metrics, including the yield, ion temperature, and burn duration. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA52396.

  20. Hot spot mix in ICF implosions on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tammy

    2016-10-01

    In the quest to achieve ignition through the inertial confinement fusion scheme, one of the critical challenges is to drive a symmetric implosion at high velocity without hydrodynamic instabilities becoming detrimental. These instabilities, primarily at the ablation front and the fuel-ablator interface, can cause mix of the higher-Z shell into the hot spot, resulting in increased radiation loss and thus reduced temperature and neutron yield. To quantify the level of mix, we developed a model that infers the level of hot spot contamination using the ratio of the enhanced x-ray production relative to the neutron yield. Applying this methodology to the full ensemble of indirect-drive National Ignition Facility (NIF) cryogenically layered DT implosions provides insight on the sensitivity of performance to the level of ablator-hot spot mix. In particular, the improvement seen with the High Foot design can be primarily attributed to a reduction in ablation-front instability mix that enabled the implosions to be pushed to higher velocity and performance. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.

  1. Wetted Foam Liquid DT Layer ICF Experiments at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Peterson, R. R.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Kline, J. L.; Bradley, P. A.; Yin, L.; Wilson, D. C.; Haines, B. M.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    A key physics issue in indirect-drive ICF relates to the understanding of the limitations on hot spot convergence ratio (CR), principally set by the hohlraum drive symmetry, the capsule mounting hardware (the ``tent''), and the capsule fill tube. An additional key physics issue relates to the complex process by which a hot spot must be dynamically formed from the inner ice surface in a DT ice-layer implosion. These physics issues have helped to motivate the development of a new liquid DT layer wetted foam platform at the NIF that provides an ability to form the hot spot from DT vapor and experimentally study and understand hot spot formation at a variety of CR's in the range of 12hot spot and the low adiabat cold fuel during the stagnation process and can allow for a fundamentally different (and potentially more robust) process of hot spot formation. This new experimental platform is currently being used in a series of experiments to discover a range of CR's at which DT layered implosions will have understandable performance - providing a sound basis from which to determine the requirements for ICF ignition. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  2. A trial to combine heterogeneous computer systems in NIFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, M.; Watanabe, K.; Ohdachi, S.; Matsunami, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sudo, S.; Okumura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Several computer systems in NIFS (the National Institute for Fusion Science) are involved in the operation of the LHD (Large Helical Device) for plasma experiments. Because these systems are independent of each other, it is burdensome to the programmers and the researchers to use several of them for one project. Currently, the programmers must write low-level data access routines for each system, then the researchers, after having learned these routines, can install the applications to retrieve the data on each system. In order to improve this situation, we have been developing a new system. This system employs two technologies, the signed applet and HORB, to combine the independent systems. These technologies were chosen for the following reasons: (1) The signed applet is an applet free from the general restrictions of applets, and can connect to any server and save the retrieved data to client machines; and (2) HORB is the Java-based ORB (Object Request Broker), the use of which makes it easy to build a Java-based, distributed environment. When the system is completed, it will allow users to obtain data from the above independent systems by means of ordinary Web browsers, without having to install additional applications

  3. The Ignition Physics Campaign on NIF: Status and Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    We have made significant progress in ICF implosion performance on NIF since the 2011 IFSA. Employing a 3-shock, high adiabat CH (“High-Foot”) design, total neutron yields have increased 10-fold to 6.3 x10 15 (a yield of ∼ 17 kJ, which is greater than the energy invested in the DT fuel ∼ 12kJ). At that level, the yield from alpha self-heating is essentially equivalent to the compression yield, indicating that we are close to the alpha self-heating regime. Low adiabat, 4-shock High Density Carbon (HDC) capsules have been imploded in conventional gas-filled hohlraums, and employing a 6 ns, 2-shock pulse, HDC capsules were imploded in near-vacuum hohlraums with overall coupling ∼ 98%. Both the 4- and 2-shock HDC capsules had very low mix and high yield over simulated performance. Rugby holraums have demonstrated uniform x-ray drive with minimal Cross Beam Energy Transfer (CBET), and we have made good progress in measuring and modelling growth of ablation front hydro instabilities. (paper)

  4. Progress towards monochromatic imaging of mix at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrala, G. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Krashenninnikova, N. S.; Tregillis, I. L.; Obrey, K.; Shah, R. C.; Hakel, P.; Kline, J. L.; Grim, G. P.; Schmitt, M. J.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Regan, S. P.; Barrios, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    Mix of non-hydrogenic (Z >1) material into the hydrogenic (D and T) ICF capsule fuel degrades implosion performance. The amount of degradation depends on the degree and the spatial distribution of mix. Experiments are underway at NIF to quantify the mix of shell material into fuel using directly driven capsules. CH or CD shells with various dopants, implanted at different depths in the shell are being used to change the amount of dopant mix. Spatially and spectrally resolved emission from the ionized dopants will be used to generate spatially and temporally dependent density and temperature maps of the ionized dopants that are mixed and heated in the core plasma. This information will be used to validate different mix models. This talk will describe the search for the appropriate dopant that gave a radiation spectrum that could be used to record images with the MMI diagnostic. This work is supported by US DOE/NNSA, performed at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  5. Exploring the universe through Discovery Science on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    New regimes of science are being experimentally studied at high energy density facilities around the world, spanning drive energies from microjoules to megajoules, and time scales from femtoseconds to microseconds. The ability to shock and ramp compress samples to very high pressures and densities allows new states of matter relevant to planetary and stellar interiors to be studied. Shock driven hydrodynamic instabilities evolving into turbulent flows relevant to the dynamics of exploding stars (such as supernovae), accreting compact objects (such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes), and planetary formation dynamics (relevant to the exoplanets) are being probed. The dynamics of magnetized plasmas relevant to astrophysics, both in collisional and collisionless systems, are starting to be studied. High temperature, high velocity interacting flows are being probed for evidence of astrophysical collisionless shock formation, the turbulent magnetic dynamo effect, magnetic reconnection, and particle acceleration. And new results from thermonuclear reactions in hot dense plasmas relevant to stellar and big bang nucleosynthesis are starting to emerge. A selection of examples of frontier research through NIF Discovery Science in the coming decade will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Quantifying design trade-offs of beryllium targets on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Kline, J. L.; Loomis, E. N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Shah, R. C.; Perry, T. S.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Batha, S. H.; MacLaren, S. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Masse, L. P.; Salmonson, J. D.; Tipton, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    An important determinant of target performance is implosion kinetic energy, which scales with the capsule size. The maximum achievable performance for a given laser is thus related to the largest capsule that can be imploded symmetrically, constrained by drive uniformity. A limiting factor for symmetric radiation drive is the ratio of hohlraum to capsule radii, or case-to-capsule ratio (CCR). For a fixed laser energy, a larger hohlraum allows for driving bigger capsules symmetrically at the cost of reduced peak radiation temperature (Tr). Beryllium ablators may thus allow for unique target design trade-offs due to their higher ablation efficiency at lower Tr. By utilizing larger hohlraum sizes than most modern NIF designs, beryllium capsules thus have the potential to operate in unique regions of the target design parameter space. We present design simulations of beryllium targets with a large CCR = 4.3 3.7 . These are scaled surrogates of large hohlraum low Tr beryllium targets, with the goal of quantifying symmetry tunability as a function of CCR. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52- 06NA25396, and by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Ultra High Mode Mix in NIF NIC Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robbie; Garbett, Warren

    2017-10-01

    This work re-examines a sub-set of the low adiabat implosions from the National Ignition Campaign in an effort to better understand potential phenomenological sources of `excess' mix observed experimentally. An extensive effort has been made to match both shock-timing and backlit radiography (Con-A) implosion data in an effort to reproduce the experimental conditions as accurately as possible. Notably a 30% reduction in ablation pressure at peak drive is required to match the experimental data. The reduced ablation pressure required to match the experimental data allows the ablator to decompress, in turn causing the DT ice-ablator interface to go Rayleigh-Taylor unstable early in the implosion acceleration phase. Post-processing the runs with various mix models indicates high-mode mix from the DT ice-ablator interface may penetrate deep into the hotspot. This work offers a potential explanation of why these low-adiabat implosions exhibited significantly higher levels of mix than expected from high-fidelity multi-dimensional simulations. Through this new understanding, a possible route forward for low-adiabat implosions on NIF is suggested.

  8. First Laser-Plasma Interaction and Hohlraum Experiments on NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewald, E L; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Suter, L J; Jones, O S; Schein, J; Froula, D; Divol, L; Campbell, K; Schneider, M S; McDonald, J W; Niemann, C; Mackinnon, A J

    2005-01-01

    Recently the first hohlraum experiments have been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in support of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. The effects of laser beam smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS) on the beam propagation in long scale gas-filled pipes has been studied at plasma scales as found in indirect drive gas filled ignition hohlraum designs. The long scale gas-filled target experiments have shown propagation over 7 mm of dense plasma without filamentation and beam break up when using full laser smoothing. Vacuum hohlraums have been irradiated with laser powers up to 6 TW, 1-9 ns pulse lengths and energies up to 17 kJ to activate several diagnostics, to study the hohlraum radiation temperature scaling with the laser power and hohlraum size, and to make contact with hohlraum experiments performed at the NOVA and Omega laser facilities. Subsequently, novel long laser pulse hohlraum experiments have tested models of hohlraum plasma filling and long pulse hohlraum radiation production. The validity of the plasma filling assessment in analytical models and in LASNEX calculations has been proven for the first time. The comparison of these results with modeling will be discussed

  9. Self-assembly of nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles: a new ratiometric UV-vis optical sensor for the highly sensitive and selective detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yudi; Wu, Lie; Jiang, Xiue

    2016-05-23

    Water-soluble nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (N-CNPs) prepared by the one-step hydrothermal treatment of uric acid were found to show ratiometric changes in their UV-vis spectra due to Hg(2+)-mediated self-assembly. For the first time, such a property was developed into a UV-vis optical sensor for detecting Hg(2+) in aqueous solutions with high sensitively and selectively (detection limit = 1.4 nM). More importantly, this novel sensor exhibits a higher linear sensitivity over a wider concentration range compared with the fluorescence sensor based on the same N-CNPs. This work opens an exciting new avenue to explore the use of carbon nanoparticles in constructing UV-vis optical sensors for the detection of metal ions and the use of carbon nanoparticles as a new building block to self-assemble into superlattices.

  10. Surface Contaminant Control Technologies to Improve Laser Damage Resistance of Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The large high-power solid lasers, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF of America and the Shenguang-III (SG-III laser facility of China, can output over 2.1 MJ laser pulse for the inertial confinement fusion (ICF experiments. Because of the enhancement of operating flux and the expansion of laser driver scale, the problem of contamination seriously influences their construction period and operation life. During irradiation by intense laser beams, the contaminants on the metallic surface of beam tubes can be transmitted to the optical surfaces and lead to damage of optical components. For the high-power solid-state laser facilities, contamination control focuses on the slab amplifiers, spatial filters, and final-optical assemblies. In this paper, an effective solution to control contaminations including the whole process of the laser driver is put forward to provide the safe operation of laser facilities, and the detailed technical methods of contamination control such as washing, cleanliness metrology, and cleanliness protecting are also introduced to reduce the probability of laser-induced damage of optics. The experimental results show that the cleanliness level of SG-III laser facility is much better to ensure that the laser facility can safely operate at high energy flux.

  11. Synthesis, transfer printing, electrical and optical properties, and applications of materials composed of self-assembled, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pint, Cary L.

    Super growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has emerged as a unique method for synthesizing self-assembled, pristine, aligned SWNT materials composed of ultra-long (millimeter-long) nanotubes. This thesis focuses on novel routes of synthesizing such self-assembled SWNTs and the challenges that arise in integrating this material into next-generation applications. First of all, this work provides unique insight into growth termination of aligned SWNTs, emphasizing the mechanism that inhibits the growth of infinitely long nanotubes. Exhaustive real-time growth studies, combined with ex-situ and in-situ TEM characterization emphasizes that Ostwald ripening and subsurface diffusion of catalyst particles play a key role in growth termination. As a result, rational steps to solving this problem can enhance growth, and may ultimately lead to the meter or kilometer-long SWNTs that are necessary for a number of applications. In addition, other novel synthesis routes are discussed, such as the ability to form macroscopic fibrils of SWNTs, called "flying carpets" from 40 nm thick substrates, and the ability to achieve supergrowth of SWNTs that are controllably doped with nitrogen. In the latter case, molecular heterojunctions of doped and undoped sections in a single strand of ultralong SWNTs are demonstrated Secondly, as supergrowth is conducted on alumina coated SiO2 substrates, any applications will require that one can transfer the SWNTs to host surfaces with minimal processing. This work demonstrates a unique contact transfer route by which both patterned arrays of SWNTs, or homogenous SWNT carpets, can be transferred to any host surface. In the first case, the SWNTs are grown vertically aligned, and transferred in patterns of horizontally aligned SWNT. This transfer process relies on simple water-vapor etching of amorphous carbons at the catalyst following growth, and strong van der Waals adhesion of the high surface-area SWNT to host surfaces (gecko effect

  12. IMAC fractionation in combination with LC-MS reveals H2B and NIF-1 peptides as potential bladder cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzi, Maria; Zoidakis, Jerome; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Zürbig, Petra; Katafigiotis, Ioannis; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Lazaris, Andreas; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Ploumidis, Achilles; Mischak, Harald; Mullen, William; Vlahou, Antonia

    2013-09-06

    Improvement in bladder cancer (BC) management requires more effective diagnosis and prognosis of disease recurrence and progression. Urinary biomarkers attract special interest because of the noninvasive means of urine collection. Proteomic analysis of urine entails the adoption of a fractionation methodology to reduce sample complexity. In this study, we applied immobilized metal affinity chromatography in combination with high-resolution LC-MS/MS for the discovery of native urinary peptides potentially associated with BC aggressiveness. This approach was employed toward urine samples from patients with invasive BC, noninvasive BC, and benign urogenital diseases. A total of 1845 peptides were identified, corresponding to a total of 638 precursor proteins. Specific enrichment for proteins involved in nucleosome assembly and for zinc-finger transcription factors was observed. The differential expression of two candidate biomarkers, histone H2B and NIF-1 (zinc finger 335) in BC, was verified in independent sets of urine samples by ELISA and by immunohistochemical analysis of BC tissue. The results collectively support changes in the expression of both of these proteins with tumor progression, suggesting their potential role as markers for discriminating BC stages. In addition, the data indicate a possible involvement of NIF-1 in BC progression, likely as a suppressor and through interactions with Sox9 and HoxA1.

  13. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. FANTM: The First Article NIF Test Module for the Laser Power Conditioning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammon, Jud; Harjes, Henry C.; Moore, William B.S.; Smith, David L.; Wilson, J. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Designing and developing the 1.7 to 2. 1-MJ Power Conditioning System (PCS) that powers the flashlamps for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL), is one of several responsibilities assumed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in support of the NIF Project. The test facility that has evolved over the last three years to satisfy the project requirements is called FANTM. It was built at SNL and has operated for about 17,000 shots to demonstrate component performance expectations over the lifetime of NIF. A few modules similar to the one shown in Fig. 1 will be used initially in the amplifier test phase of the project. The final till NIF system will require 192 of them (48 in each of four capacitor bays). This paper briefly summarizes the final design of the FANTM facility and compares its performance with the predictions of circuit simulations for both normal operation and fault-mode response. Applying both the measured and modeled power pulse waveforms as input to a physics-based, semi-empirical amplifier gain code indicates that the 20-capacitor PCS can satisfy the NIF requirement for an average gain coefficient of 5.00 %/cm and can exceed 5.20%/cm with 24 capacitors

  15. Lageos assembly operation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueger, J.

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines and constraints procedures for LAGEOS assembly, operation, and design performance are given. Special attention was given to thermal, optical, and dynamic analysis and testing. The operation procedures illustrate the interrelation and sequence of tasks in a flow diagram. The diagram also includes quality assurance functions for verification of operation tasks.

  16. Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Maney, R.T.; Montesanti, R.C.; Sheehan, L.M.; Barker, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Beamlet serves as a test bed for the proposed NIF laser design and components. Therefore, its optics are similar in size and quality to those proposed for the NIF. In general, the optics in the main laser cavity and transport section of Beamlet are larger and have higher damage thresholds than the optics manufactured for any of our previous laser systems. In addition, the quality of the Beamlet optical materials is higher, leading to better wavefront quality, higher optical transmission, and lower-intensity modulation of the output laser beam than, for example, that typically achieved on Nova. In this article, we discuss the properties and characteristics of the large-aperture optics used on Beamlet

  17. Integrated modeling of cryogenic layered highfoot experiments at the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A. L.; Hinkel, D. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Clark, D.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Döppner, T.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Haan, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Jones, O.; Landen, O.; Ma, T.; Meezan, N.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    Integrated radiation hydrodynamic modeling in two dimensions, including the hohlraum and capsule, of layered cryogenic HighFoot Deuterium-Tritium (DT) implosions on the NIF successfully predicts important data trends. The model consists of a semi-empirical fit to low mode asymmetries and radiation drive multipliers to match shock trajectories, one dimensional inflight radiography, and time of peak neutron production. Application of the model across the HighFoot shot series, over a range of powers, laser energies, laser wavelengths, and target thicknesses predicts the neutron yield to within a factor of two for most shots. The Deuterium-Deuterium ion temperatures and the DT down scattered ratios, ratio of (10–12)/(13–15) MeV neutrons, roughly agree with data at peak fuel velocities <340 km/s and deviate at higher peak velocities, potentially due to flows and neutron scattering differences stemming from 3D or capsule support tent effects. These calculations show a significant amount alpha heating, 1–2.5× for shots where the experimental yield is within a factor of two, which has been achieved by increasing the fuel kinetic energy. This level of alpha heating is consistent with a dynamic hot spot model that is matched to experimental data and as determined from scaling of the yield with peak fuel velocity. These calculations also show that low mode asymmetries become more important as the fuel velocity is increased, and that improving these low mode asymmetries can result in an increase in the yield by a factor of several.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic data of the PAS domain of the NifL protein from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hefti, M.H.; Hendle, J.; Enroth, C.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Tucker, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Azotobacter vinelandii NifL protein is a redox-sensing flavoprotein which inhibits the activity of the nitrogen-specific transcriptional activator NifA. The N-terminal PAS domain has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal

  19. Analysis of hohlraum energetics of the SG series and the NIF experiments with energy balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoli Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic energy balance model is applied to analyze the hohlraum energetics data from the Shenguang (SG series laser facilities and the National Ignition Facility (NIF experiments published in the past few years. The analysis shows that the overall hohlraum energetics data are in agreement with the energy balance model within 20% deviation. The 20% deviation might be caused by the diversity in hohlraum parameters, such as material, laser pulse, gas filling density, etc. In addition, the NIF's ignition target designs and our ignition target designs given by simulations are also in accordance with the energy balance model. This work confirms the value of the energy balance model for ignition target design and experimental data assessment, and demonstrates that the NIF energy is enough to achieve ignition if a 1D spherical radiation drive could be created, meanwhile both the laser plasma instabilities and hydrodynamic instabilities could be suppressed.

  20. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.

    2013-01-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  1. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  2. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Magoon, J; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M; Ulreich, J; Ashabranner, R C; Bionta, R M; Carpenter, A C; Felker, B; Khater, H Y; LePape, S; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Rygg, J R; Yeoman, M F; Zacharias, R; Leeper, R J; Fletcher, K; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J; Paguio, R

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  3. Interaction of GlnK with the GAF domain of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA mediates NH₄⁺-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marco A S; Aquino, Bruno; Bonatto, Ana Claudia; Huergo, Luciano F; Chubatsu, Leda S; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Dixon, Ray; Monteiro, Rose A

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen fixation in Herbaspirillum seropedicae is transcriptionally regulated by NifA, a σ(54) transcriptional activator with three structural domains: an N-terminal GAF domain, a catalytic AAA+ domain and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain. NifA is only active in H. seropedicae when cultures are grown in the absence of fixed nitrogen and at low oxygen tensions. There is evidence that the inactivation of NifA in response to fixed nitrogen is mediated by the regulatory GAF domain. However, the mechanism of NifA repression by the GAF domain, as well as the transduction of nitrogen status to NifA, is not understood. In order to study the regulation of NifA activity by fixed nitrogen independently of oxygen regulation, we constructed a chimeric protein containing the GAF domain of H. seropedicae NifA fused to the AAA+ and C-terminal domains of Azotobacter vinelandii NifA. This chimeric protein (NifAQ1) lacks the cysteine motif found in oxygen sensitive NifA proteins and is not oxygen responsive in vivo. Our results demonstrate that NifAQ1 responds to fixed nitrogen and requires GlnK protein for activity, a behavior similar to H. seropedicae NifA. In addition, protein footprinting analysis indicates that this response probably involves a protein-protein contact between the GAF domain and the GlnK protein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  5. The role of the NIF in the development of inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent decisions by DOE to proceed with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the first half of the Induction Systems Linac Experiments (ILSE) can provide the scientific basis for inertial fusion ignition and high-repetition heavy-ion driver physics, respectively. Both are critical to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). A conceptual design has been completed for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-microm-solid-state laser system, the NIF. The NIF will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security applications, and for IFE development. It will support science applications using high-power lasers. The demonstration of inertial fusion ignition and gain, along with the parallel demonstration of the feasibility of an efficient, high-repetition-rate driver, would provide the basis for a follow-on Engineering Test Facility (ETF) identified in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The ETF would provide an integrated testbed for the development and demonstration of the technologies needed for IFE power plants. In addition to target physics of ignition, the NIF will contribute important data on IFE target chamber issues, including neutron damage, activation, target debris clearing, operational experience in many areas prototypical to future IFE power plants, and an opportunity to provide tests of candidate low-cost IFE targets and injection systems. An overview of the NIF design and the target area environments relevant to conducting IFE experiments are described in Section 2. In providing this basic data for IFE, the NIF will provide confidence that an ETF can be successful in the integration of drivers, target chambers, and targets for IFE

  6. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E.I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The National Ignition Facility (NIF, a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF and high-energy-density science (HEDS, is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL. A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC, an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE. This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  7. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E. I.; Storm, E.

    2013-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density science (HEDS), is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  8. Progress on establishing guidelines for National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments to extend debris shield lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.; Eder, D.; Braun, D.; MacGowan, B.

    2002-01-01

    The survivability of the debris shields on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are a key factor for the affordable operation of the facility. The improvements required over Nova debris shields are described. Estimates of debris shield lifetimes in the presence of target emissions with 4-8 J/cm 2 laser fluences indicate lifetimes that may contribute unacceptably to operations costs for NIF. We are developing detailed suggested guidance for target and experiment designers for NIF to assist in minimizing the damage to, and therefore the cost of, maintaining NIF debris shields. The guidance suggests a target mass quantity that as particulate on the debris shields (300 mg) may be within current operating budgets. It also suggests the amount of material that should become shrapnel on a shot (10 mg). Finally, it suggests the level of non-volatile residue (NVR) that would threaten the sol-gel coatings on the debris shields (1 μg/cm 2 ). We review the experimentation on the Nova chamber that included measuring quantities of particulate on debris shields by element and capturing shrapnel pieces in aerogel samples mounted in the chamber. We also describe computations of X-ray emissions from a likely NIF target and the associated ablation expected from this X-ray exposure on supporting target hardware. We describe progress in assessing the benefits of a pre-shield and the possible impact on the guidance for target experiments on NIF. Plans for possible experimentation on Omega and other facilities to improve our understanding of target emissions and their impacts are discussed. Our discussion of planned future work provides a forum to invite possible collaboration with the IFE community

  9. Gamma Bang Time/Reaction History Diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Using 900 Off-axis Parabolic Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.W. Herrmann; R.M. Malone; W. Stoeffl; J.M. Mack; C.S. Young

    2008-01-01

    Gas Cherenkov detectors (GCD) have been used to convert fusion gamma into photons to achieve gamma bang time (GBT) and reaction history measurements. The GCD designed for Omega used Cassegrain reflector optics in order to fit inside a ten-inch manipulator. A novel design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using 90 o Off-Axis Parabolic (OAP) mirrors will increase light collection efficiency from fusion gammas and achieve minimum time dispersion. The broadband Cherenkov light (from 200 to 800 nm) is relayed into a high-speed detector using three parabolic mirrors. Because light is collected from many source planes throughout the CO2 gas volume, the detector is positioned at the stop position rather than an image position. The stop diameter and its position are independent of the light-generation location along the gas cell. The current design collects light from a 100-mm diameter by 500-mm-long gas volume. Optical ray tracings demonstrate how light can be collected from different angled trajectories of the Compton electrons as they fly through the CO2 gas volume. A cluster of four channels will allow for increased dynamic range as well as different gamma energy threshold sensitivities

  10. Testing a new NIF neutron time-of-flight detector with a bibenzyl scintillator on OMEGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C; Knauer, J P; Pruyne, A; Romanofsky, M; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M J; Stoeckl, C; Caggiano, J A; Carman, M L; Clancy, T J; Hatarik, R; McNaney, J; Zaitseva, N P

    2012-10-01

    A new neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector with a bibenzyl crystal as a scintillator has been designed and manufactured for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This detector will replace a nTOF20-Spec detector with an oxygenated xylene scintillator currently operational on the NIF to improve the areal-density measurements. In addition to areal density, the bibenzyl detector will measure the D-D and D-T neutron yield and the ion temperature of indirect- and direct-drive-implosion experiments. The design of the bibenzyl detector and results of tests on the OMEGA Laser System are presented.

  11. Charged-particle spectroscopy for diagnosing shock ρR and strength in NIF implosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M J-E; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G W; Dewald, E; Döppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S; Hicks, D G; Landen, O L; London, R; Mackinnon, A; Meezan, N; Prasad, R R; Ralph, J; Richardson, M; Rygg, J R; Sepke, S; Weber, S; Zacharias, R; Moses, E; Kilkenny, J; Nikroo, A; Sangster, T C; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C; Olson, R; Leeper, R J; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Wilson, D

    2012-10-01

    The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-(3)He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and (3)He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total ρR through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

  12. Bacteriophage Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Aksyuk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  13. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of gaseous fission products released from fuel assemblies stored in an fbr type reactor. Constitution; A cap provided with means capable of storing gas is adapted to amount to the assembly handling head, for example, by way of threading in a storage rack of spent fuel assemblies consisting of a bottom plate, a top plate and an assembly support mechanism. By previously eliminating the gas inside of the assembly and the cap in the storage rack, gaseous fission products upon loading, if released from fuel rods during storage, are stored in the cap and do not scatter in the storage rack. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  15. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Y. Nishikawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ54 co-factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL. A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH4Cl but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription.

  16. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, C.Y.; Araújo, L.M.; Kadowaki, M.A.S.; Monteiro, R.A.; Steffens, M.B.R.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Chubatsu, L.S. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-01-27

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes) in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ{sup 54} factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL). A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH{sub 4}Cl) but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription.

  17. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, C Y; Araújo, L M; Kadowaki, M A S; Monteiro, R A; Steffens, M B R; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M; Chubatsu, L S

    2012-02-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes) in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ(54) co-factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL). A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH(4)Cl) but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription.

  18. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, C.Y.; Araújo, L.M.; Kadowaki, M.A.S.; Monteiro, R.A.; Steffens, M.B.R.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Chubatsu, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes) in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ 54 factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL). A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH 4 Cl) but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription

  19. Transfer of sulfur from IscS to IscU during Fe/S cluster assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, H D; Silberg, J J; Hoff, K G; Vickery, L E

    2001-11-30

    The cysteine desulfurase enzymes NifS and IscS provide sulfur for the biosynthesis of Fe/S proteins. NifU and IscU have been proposed to serve as template or scaffold proteins in the initial Fe/S cluster assembly events, but the mechanism of sulfur transfer from NifS or IscS to NifU or IscU has not been elucidated. We have employed [(35)S]cysteine radiotracer studies to monitor sulfur transfer between IscS and IscU from Escherichia coli and have used direct binding measurements to investigate interactions between the proteins. IscS catalyzed transfer of (35)S from [(35)S]cysteine to IscU in the absence of additional thiol reagents, suggesting that transfer can occur directly and without involvement of an intermediate carrier. Surface plasmon resonance studies and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements further revealed that IscU binds to IscS with high affinity (K(d) approximately 2 microm) in support of a direct transfer mechanism. Transfer was inhibited by treatment of IscU with iodoacetamide, and (35)S was released by reducing reagents, suggesting that transfer of persulfide sulfur occurs to cysteinyl groups of IscU. A deletion mutant of IscS lacking C-terminal residues 376-413 (IscSDelta376-413) displayed cysteine desulfurase activity similar to the full-length protein but exhibited lower binding affinity for IscU, decreased ability to transfer (35)S to IscU, and reduced activity in assays of Fe/S cluster assembly on IscU. The findings with IscSDelta376-413 provide additional support for a mechanism of sulfur transfer involving a direct interaction between IscS and IscU and suggest that the C-terminal region of IscS may be important for binding IscU.

  20. Photometric flow injection determination of phosphate on a PDMS microchip using an optical detection system assembled with an organic light emitting diode and an organic photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    A compact photometric detector was constructed from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) based on a europium complex, europium(diben-zoylmethanato)3(bathophenanthroline) (Eu(DBM)3bath), as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) fabricated from a hetero-junction of two layers of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) as the photo-detector on a microchip prepared from poly(dimethylsiloxan) (PDMS) and was applied to the determination of phosphate. The OLED and the OPD were fabricated by a vapor deposition method on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate with the following layered structure; Glass (0.7 mm)/ITO (110 nm)/4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl amino]-biphenyl (α-NPD) (30 nm)/4,4'-di(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl (CBP): Eu(3+) (8 wt%, 30 nm)/bathocuproine (BCP) (30 nm)/aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) (25 nm)/magnesium and silver (MgAg) (100 nm)/Ag (10nm) and Glass (0.7 mm)/ITO (110 nm)/CuPc (35 nm)/C60 (50 nm)/BCP (10 nm)/Ag (50 nm), respectively. The OLED based on the europium complex emitted a sharp light at the wavelength of 612 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 8 nm. The performance of the photometric detector assembled was evaluated based on measurements of the absorbance of different concentrations of malachite green (MG) solutions for a batch system with 1cm long path length. The molar absorptive coefficient of the MG solution, calculated from the photocurrent of the OPD, was in good agreement with the value reported in the literature. A microchip with two inlets and one outlet U-shaped channel was prepared by a conventional photolithograph method. The OLED and the OPD were configured so as to face each other through the PDMS microchip in parallel in order to align the light axis of the OLED and the OPD with the flow cell (optical path length of 5mm), which was located at the end of outlet. For the determination of phosphate, an ion-association reaction between MG and a molybdenum-phosphate complex was utilized

  1. Nitrogen Fixation Aligns with nifH Abundance and Expression in Two Coral Trophic Functional Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Pogoreutz, Claudia

    2017-06-28

    Microbial nitrogen fixation (diazotrophy) is a functional trait widely associated with tropical reef-building (scleractinian) corals. While the integral role of nitrogen fixation in coral nutrient dynamics is recognized, its ecological significance across different coral functional groups remains yet to be evaluated. Here we set out to compare molecular and physiological patterns of diazotrophy (i.e., nifH gene abundance and expression as well as nitrogen fixation rates) in two coral families with contrasting trophic strategies: highly heterotrophic, free-living members of the family Fungiidae (Pleuractis granulosa, Ctenactis echinata), and mostly autotrophic coral holobionts with low heterotrophic capacity (Pocilloporidae: Pocillopora verrucosa, Stylophora pistillata). The Fungiidae exhibited low diazotroph abundance (based on nifH gene copy numbers) and activity (based on nifH gene expression and the absence of detectable nitrogen fixation rates). In contrast, the mostly autotrophic Pocilloporidae exhibited nifH gene copy numbers and gene expression two orders of magnitude higher than in the Fungiidae, which coincided with detectable nitrogen fixation activity. Based on these data, we suggest that nitrogen fixation compensates for the low heterotrophic nitrogen uptake in autotrophic corals. Consequently, the ecological importance of diazotrophy in coral holobionts may be determined by the trophic functional group of the host.

  2. Abundance and genetic diversity of nifH gene sequences in anthropogenically affected Brazilian mangrove sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cassia; Cotta, Simone Raposo; Dini Andreote, Francisco; Soares, Fabio Lino; Salles, Joana Falcao; Azevedo, Joao Lucio; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    Although mangroves represent ecosystems of global importance, the genetic diversity and abundance of functional genes that are key to their functioning scarcely have been explored. Here, we present a survey based on the nifH gene across transects of sediments of two mangrove systems located along

  3. Nitrogen Fixation Aligns with nifH Abundance and Expression in Two Coral Trophic Functional Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Pogoreutz, Claudia; Radecker, Nils; Cardenas, Anny; Gä rdes, Astrid; Wild, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial nitrogen fixation (diazotrophy) is a functional trait widely associated with tropical reef-building (scleractinian) corals. While the integral role of nitrogen fixation in coral nutrient dynamics is recognized, its ecological significance across different coral functional groups remains yet to be evaluated. Here we set out to compare molecular and physiological patterns of diazotrophy (i.e., nifH gene abundance and expression as well as nitrogen fixation rates) in two coral families with contrasting trophic strategies: highly heterotrophic, free-living members of the family Fungiidae (Pleuractis granulosa, Ctenactis echinata), and mostly autotrophic coral holobionts with low heterotrophic capacity (Pocilloporidae: Pocillopora verrucosa, Stylophora pistillata). The Fungiidae exhibited low diazotroph abundance (based on nifH gene copy numbers) and activity (based on nifH gene expression and the absence of detectable nitrogen fixation rates). In contrast, the mostly autotrophic Pocilloporidae exhibited nifH gene copy numbers and gene expression two orders of magnitude higher than in the Fungiidae, which coincided with detectable nitrogen fixation activity. Based on these data, we suggest that nitrogen fixation compensates for the low heterotrophic nitrogen uptake in autotrophic corals. Consequently, the ecological importance of diazotrophy in coral holobionts may be determined by the trophic functional group of the host.

  4. Differential accumulation of nif structural gene mRNA in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Jacobson, Marty; Ludwig, Marcus; Boyd, Eric S; Bryant, Donald A; Dean, Dennis R; Peters, John W

    2011-09-01

    Northern analysis was employed to investigate mRNA produced by mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii with defined deletions in the nif structural genes and in the intergenic noncoding regions. The results indicate that intergenic RNA secondary structures effect the differential accumulation of transcripts, supporting the high Fe protein-to-MoFe protein ratio required for optimal diazotrophic growth.

  5. Money and Politics: Who Owns Democracy? NIF Report on the Issues, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Issues Forums, Dayton, OH.

    National Issues Forums (NIF) bring together citizens to deliberate and make choices about challenging social and political issues of the day. These forums have addressed issues such as the economy, education, health care, foreign affairs, and crime. This report is an analysis of what happened in a forum on "Money and Politics" that took…

  6. In silico characterization and transcriptomic analysis of nif family genes from Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shilpi; Shrivastava, Alok Kumar

    2017-10-01

    In silico approaches in conjunction with morphology, nitrogenase activity, and qRT-PCR explore the impact of selected abiotic stressor such as arsenic, salt, cadmium, copper, and butachlor on nitrogen fixing (nif family) genes of diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. A total of 19 nif genes are present within the Anabaena genome that is involved in the process of nitrogen fixation. Docking studies revealed the interaction between these nif gene-encoded proteins and the selected abiotic stressors which were further validated through decreased heterocyst frequency, fragmentation of filaments, and downregulation of nitrogenase activity under these stresses indicating towards their toxic impact on nitrogen fixation potential of filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Another appealing finding of this study is even though having similar binding energy and similar interacting residues between arsenic/salt and copper/cadmium to nif-encoded proteins, arsenic and cadmium are more toxic than salt and copper for nitrogenase activity of Anabaena which is crucial for growth and yield of rice paddy and soil reclamation.

  7. NifI inhibits nitrogenase by competing with Fe protein for binding to the MoFe protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Leigh, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of substrate by nitrogenase requires direct electron transfer from the Fe protein to the MoFe protein. Inhibition of nitrogenase activity in Methanococcus maripaludis occurs when the regulatory protein NifI 1,2 binds the MoFe protein. This inhibition is relieved by 2-oxoglutarate. Here we present evidence that NifI 1,2 binding prevents association of the two nitrogenase components. Increasing amounts of Fe protein competed with NifI 1,2 , decreasing its inhibitory effect. NifI 1,2 prevented the co-purification of MoFe protein with a mutant form of the Fe protein that forms a stable complex with the MoFe protein, and NifI 1,2 was unable to bind to an AlF 4 - -stabilized Fe protein:MoFe protein complex. NifI 1,2 inhibited ATP- and MoFe protein-dependent oxidation of the Fe protein, and 2OG relieved this inhibition. These results support a model where NifI 1,2 competes with the Fe protein for binding to MoFe protein and prevents electron transfer

  8. Environment-Dependent Distribution of the Sediment nifH-Harboring Microbiota in the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinying; Li, Jing; Luan, Xiwu; Zhang, Yunbo; Gu, Guizhou; Xue, Rongrong; Zong, Mingyue; Klotz, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    The South China Sea (SCS), the largest marginal sea in the Western Pacific Ocean, is a huge oligotrophic water body with very limited influx of nitrogenous nutrients. This suggests that sediment microbial N2 fixation plays an important role in the production of bioavailable nitrogen. To test the molecular underpinning of this hypothesis, the diversity, abundance, biogeographical distribution, and community structure of the sediment diazotrophic microbiota were investigated at 12 sampling sites, including estuarine, coastal, offshore, deep-sea, and methane hydrate reservoirs or their prospective areas by targeting nifH and some other functional biomarker genes. Diverse and novel nifH sequences were obtained, significantly extending the evolutionary complexity of extant nifH genes. Statistical analyses indicate that sediment in situ temperature is the most significant environmental factor influencing the abundance, community structure, and spatial distribution of the sediment nifH-harboring microbial assemblages in the northern SCS (nSCS). The significantly positive correlation of the sediment pore water NH4+ concentration with the nifH gene abundance suggests that the nSCS sediment nifH-harboring microbiota is active in N2 fixation and NH4+ production. Several other environmental factors, including sediment pore water PO43− concentration, sediment organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus levels, etc., are also important in influencing the community structure, spatial distribution, or abundance of the nifH-harboring microbial assemblages. We also confirmed that the nifH genes encoded by archaeal diazotrophs in the ANME-2c subgroup occur exclusively in the deep-sea methane seep areas, providing for the possibility to develop ANME-2c nifH genes as a diagnostic tool for deep-sea methane hydrate reservoir discovery. PMID:23064334

  9. Testing and Quality Assurance of the Control System During NIF Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casavant, D.; Carey, R.; Cline, B.; Lagin, L.; Ludwigsen, P.; Reddi, U.; Van Arsdall, P.

    2003-01-01

    The strategy used to develop the National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System (NIF ICCS) calls for incremental cycles of construction and formal test to deliver nearly one million lines of code. Software releases that implement specific functionality are approved for deployment when offline tests conducted in the ICCS Integration and Test Facility verify functional, performance and interface requirements using test procedures derived from system requirements. At this stage of the project the controls team has delivered approximately 3/4 of the planned software by performing dozens of development and test cycles within offline test facilities and followed by online tests to confirm integrated operation in the NIF. Test incidents are recorded and tracked from development to successful deployment by the verification team, with hardware and software changes approved by the appropriate change control board. Project metrics are generated by the Software Quality Assurance manager and monitored by ICCS management. Test results are summarized and reported to responsible individuals and Project managers under a work authorization and permit process that assesses risk and evaluates control system upgrade readiness. NIF is well into the first phases of its laser commissioning program to characterize and operate the first four laser beams and target systems. The integrated control system has successfully fired over 100 coordinated shots into beam diagnostics and an initial set of target diagnostics in the 10-m diameter target chamber. Extensive experience has been gained by integrating controls in prototype laboratories and in the NIF. This paper will discuss NIF's software QC and QA processes, capabilities of offline test facilities, and metrics collection

  10. Testing and Quality Assurance of the Control System During NIF Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casavant, D; Carey, R; Cline, B; Lagin, L; Ludwigsen, P; Reddi, U; Van Arsdall, P

    2003-10-13

    The strategy used to develop the National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System (NIF ICCS) calls for incremental cycles of construction and formal test to deliver nearly one million lines of code. Software releases that implement specific functionality are approved for deployment when offline tests conducted in the ICCS Integration and Test Facility verify functional, performance and interface requirements using test procedures derived from system requirements. At this stage of the project the controls team has delivered approximately 3/4 of the planned software by performing dozens of development and test cycles within offline test facilities and followed by online tests to confirm integrated operation in the NIF. Test incidents are recorded and tracked from development to successful deployment by the verification team, with hardware and software changes approved by the appropriate change control board. Project metrics are generated by the Software Quality Assurance manager and monitored by ICCS management. Test results are summarized and reported to responsible individuals and Project managers under a work authorization and permit process that assesses risk and evaluates control system upgrade readiness. NIF is well into the first phases of its laser commissioning program to characterize and operate the first four laser beams and target systems. The integrated control system has successfully fired over 100 coordinated shots into beam diagnostics and an initial set of target diagnostics in the 10-m diameter target chamber. Extensive experience has been gained by integrating controls in prototype laboratories and in the NIF. This paper will discuss NIF's software QC and QA processes, capabilities of offline test facilities, and metrics collection.

  11. The NifA-RpoN regulon of Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A and its symbiotic activation by a novel LacI/GalR-family regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T Sullivan

    Full Text Available Mesorhizobium loti is the microsymbiont of Lotus species, including the model legume L. japonicus. M. loti differs from other rhizobia in that it contains two copies of the key nitrogen fixation regulatory gene nifA, nifA1 and nifA2, both of which are located on the symbiosis island ICEMlSym(R7A. M. loti R7A also contains two rpoN genes, rpoN1 located on the chromosome outside of ICEMlSym(R7A and rpoN2 that is located on ICEMlSym(R7A. The aims of the current work were to establish how nifA expression was activated in M. loti and to characterise the NifA-RpoN regulon. The nifA2 and rpoN2 genes were essential for nitrogen fixation whereas nifA1 and rpoN1 were dispensable. Expression of nifA2 was activated, possibly in response to an inositol derivative, by a novel regulator of the LacI/GalR family encoded by the fixV gene located upstream of nifA2. Other than the well-characterized nif/fix genes, most NifA2-regulated genes were not required for nitrogen fixation although they were strongly expressed in nodules. The NifA-regulated nifZ and fixU genes, along with nifQ which was not NifA-regulated, were required in M. loti for a fully effective symbiosis although they are not present in some other rhizobia. The NifA-regulated gene msi158 that encodes a porin was also required for a fully effective symbiosis. Several metabolic genes that lacked NifA-regulated promoters were strongly expressed in nodules in a NifA2-dependent manner but again mutants did not have an overt symbiotic phenotype. In summary, many genes encoded on ICEMlSym(R7A were strongly expressed in nodules but not free-living rhizobia, but were not essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It seems likely that some of these genes have functional homologues elsewhere in the genome and that bacteroid metabolism may be sufficiently plastic to adapt to loss of certain enzymatic functions.

  12. Sensorimotor nucleus NIf is necessary for auditory processing but not vocal motor output in the avian song system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Jessica A; Raksin, Jonathan N; Schmidt, Marc F

    2005-04-01

    Sensorimotor integration in the avian song system is crucial for both learning and maintenance of song, a vocal motor behavior. Although a number of song system areas demonstrate both sensory and motor characteristics, their exact roles in auditory and premotor processing are unclear. In particular, it is unknown whether input from the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which exhibits both sensory and premotor activity, is necessary for both auditory and premotor processing in its target, HVC. Here we show that bilateral NIf lesions result in long-term loss of HVC auditory activity but do not impair song production. NIf is thus a major source of auditory input to HVC, but an intact NIf is not necessary for motor output in adult zebra finches.

  13. Fnr is involved in oxygen control of Herbaspirillum seropedicae N-truncated NifA protein activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rose A; de Souza, Emanuel M; Yates, M Geoffrey; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Chubatsu, Leda S

    2003-03-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotroph belonging to the beta-subclass of the class Proteobacteria, which colonizes many members of the Gramineae. The activity of the NifA protein, a transcriptional activator of nif genes in H. seropedicae, is controlled by ammonium ions through its N-terminal domain and by oxygen through mechanisms that are not well understood. Here we report that the NifA protein of H. seropedicae is inactive and more susceptible to degradation in an fnr Escherichia coli background. Both effects correlate with oxygen exposure and iron deprivation. Our results suggest that the oxygen sensitivity and iron requirement for H. seropedicae NifA activity involve the Fnr protein.

  14. Vector assembly of colloids on monolayer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingxiang; Yang, Shenyu; Tsang, Boyce; Tu, Mei; Granick, Steve

    2017-06-01

    The key to spontaneous and directed assembly is to encode the desired assembly information to building blocks in a programmable and efficient way. In computer graphics, raster graphics encodes images on a single-pixel level, conferring fine details at the expense of large file sizes, whereas vector graphics encrypts shape information into vectors that allow small file sizes and operational transformations. Here, we adapt this raster/vector concept to a 2D colloidal system and realize `vector assembly' by manipulating particles on a colloidal monolayer substrate with optical tweezers. In contrast to raster assembly that assigns optical tweezers to each particle, vector assembly requires a minimal number of optical tweezers that allow operations like chain elongation and shortening. This vector approach enables simple uniform particles to form a vast collection of colloidal arenes and colloidenes, the spontaneous dissociation of which is achieved with precision and stage-by-stage complexity by simply removing the optical tweezers.

  15. Molybdenum x-ray absorption studies of the mutant Kp nifV of nitrogenase MO-FE protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidsness, M.K.; Smith, B.E.; Flood, A.C.; Garner, C.D.; Cramer, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The nifV mutant nitrogenase enzyme of Klebsiella pheumoniae exhibits altered substrate reducing activity. This nitrogenase mutant cannot fix N 2 in vivo but can reduce C 2 H 2 to C 2 H 4 . The nifV mutant enzyme differs further from the wild-type enzyme by CO inhibition of its H 2 evolution activity, up to 80%. The NifV - phenotype (NifV - Kp1) has been shown to be associated with the iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMoco) in the Mo Fe protein which is generally accepted as the site for substrate reduction. An X-Ray absorption study of the Mo site in this mutant may reveal a difference in its FeMoco structure. The authors report here a comparison of Mo X-Ray absorption data from the nitrogenase enzymes of the wild-type and NifV - strains in three different forms: (1) as isolated, (2) dye-oxidized, and (3) fixing enzyme systems. Mo edge structure of NifV - Kp1 and wild-type enzymes are nearly identical. Small shifts to higher energies are observed in the oxidized and fixing states. Mo EXAFS of NifV - Kp1 and wild-type in the ''as isolated'' state appear indistinguishable. Curve fitting results best describe the molybdenum in FeMoco as bound by 4-5 S atoms at 2.36 A ,3 Fe atoms at 2.69 A, and 0-2 O(N) atoms at 2.19 A. The spectral similarity of these results concerning the nifV mutant FeMoco structure is discussed

  16. Device for identifying fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Tetsuo; Miyazawa, Tatsuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately identify a symbol printed on a hanging tool at the upper part of a fuel assembly. Constitution: Optical fibers are bundled to prepare a detector which is disposed at a predetermined position on a hanging tool. This position is set by a guide. Thus, the light emitted from an illumination lamp arrives at the bottom of a groove printed on the upper surface of the tool, and is divided into a weak light reflected upwardly and a strong light reflected on the surface lower than the groove. When these lights are received by the optical fibers, the fibers corresponding to the grooved position become dark, and the fibers corresponding to the ungrooved position become bright. Since the fuel assembly is identified by the dark and bright of the optical fibers as symbols, different machining can be performed every fuel assembly on the upper surface of the tool. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. Directed-Assembly of Block Copolymers for Large-Scale, Three-Dimensional, Optical Metamaterials at Visible Wavelengths. Final LDRD Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiszpanski, Anna M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Metamaterials are composites with patterned subwavelength features where the choice of materials and subwavelength structuring bestows upon the metamaterials unique optical properties not found in nature, thereby enabling optical applications previously considered impossible. However, because the structure of optical metamaterials must be subwavelength, metamaterials operating at visible wavelengths require features on the order of 100 nm or smaller, and such resolution typically requires top-down lithographic fabrication techniques that are not easily scaled to device-relevant areas that are square centimeters in size. In this project, we developed a new fabrication route using block copolymers to make over large device-relevant areas optical metamaterials that operate at visible wavelengths. Our structures are smaller in size (sub-100 nm) and cover a larger area (cm2) than what has been achieved with traditional nanofabrication routes. To guide our experimental efforts, we developed an algorithm to calculate the expected optical properties (specifically the index of refraction) of such metamaterials that predicts that we can achieve surprisingly large changes in optical properties with small changes in metamaterials’ structure. In the course of our work, we also found that the ordered metal nanowires meshes produced by our scalable fabrication route for making optical metamaterials may also possibly act as transparent electrodes, which are needed in electrical displays and solar cells. We explored the ordered metal nanowires meshes’ utility for this application and developed design guidelines to aide our experimental efforts.

  18. Functional participation of a nifH-arsA2 chimeric fusion gene in arsenic reduction by Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Surobhi; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Gavini, Nara

    2008-01-01

    The NifH (dimer) and ArsA proteins are structural homologs and share common motifs like nucleotide-binding domains, signal transduction domains and also possible similar metal center ligands. Given the similarity between two proteins, we investigated if the NifH protein from Azotobacter vinelandii could functionally substitute for the ArsA1 half of the ArsA protein of Escherichia coli. The chimeric NifH-ArsA2 protein was expressed and detected in the E. coli strain by Western blotting. Growth comparisons of E. coli strains containing plasmids encoding for complete ArsA, partial ArsA (ArsA2) or chimeric ArsA (NifH-ArsA2) in media with increasing sodium arsenite concentrations (0-5 mM) showed that the chimeric NifH-ArsA2 could substitute for the ArsA. This functional complementation demonstrated the strong conservation of essential domains that have been maintained in NifH and ArsA even after their divergence to perform varied functions

  19. Organization of nif gene cluster in Frankia sp. EuIK1 strain, a symbiont of Elaeagnus umbellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang Jae; Kim, Ho Bang; Kim, Jitae; Kim, Won Jin; Lee, Hyoungseok; An, Chung Sun

    2012-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 20.5-kb genomic region harboring nif genes was determined and analyzed. The fragment was obtained from Frankia sp. EuIK1 strain, an indigenous symbiont of Elaeagnus umbellata. A total of 20 ORFs including 12 nif genes were identified and subjected to comparative analysis with the genome sequences of 3 Frankia strains representing diverse host plant specificities. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed highest levels of identity with orthologous genes from an Elaeagnus-infecting strain. The gene organization patterns around the nif gene clusters were well conserved among all 4 Frankia strains. However, characteristic features appeared in the location of the nifV gene for each Frankia strain, depending on the type of host plant. Sequence analysis was performed to determine the transcription units and suggested that there could be an independent operon starting from the nifW gene in the EuIK strain. Considering the organization patterns and their total extensions on the genome, we propose that the nif gene clusters remained stable despite genetic variations occurring in the Frankia genomes.

  20. Mesoporous Bragg reflectors: block-copolymer self-assembly leads to building blocks with well defined continuous pores and high control over optical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, S.; Kolle, M.; Stefik, M.; Wiesner, U.; Steiner, U.

    2011-01-01

    dened. Following a 30 min annealing protocol after each layer deposition enables the fast and reliable stacking of MDBRs which exhibit a continuous TiO2 network with large accessible pores and high optical quality.

  1. First Results from the South Pole Bang Time (SPBT) Diagnostic on the NIF*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Magoon, J.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J., III; Stoeckl, C.; Macphee, A.; Bradley, D. K.; Burns, S.; Celeste, J.; Eckart, M. J.; Jones, O. S.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kimbrough, J. R.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Parker, J.; Thomas, T.

    2011-10-01

    The south pole bang time (SPBT) x-ray diagnostic has been successfully fielded on the NIF. SPBT consists of chemical-vapor-deposition diamond detectors, with different filtrations, located 3 m directly below target chamber center, viewing the implosion through the hohlraum laser entrance hole. The diamond detectors are sensitive to both x rays and neutrons. HOPG crystal mirror monochromators increase the x-ray signal to background ratio. SPBT is designed to measure the x-ray bang time with an accuracy of a few tens of picoseconds. SPBT x-ray and neutron results from NIF implosions are presented along with timing and error analysis. *This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  2. Gain measurements on a prototype NIF/LMJ amplifier pump cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, M.D.; McCracken, R.; Erlandson, A.; Guenet, M.

    1996-12-01

    We are currently developing large-aperture amplifiers for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Laser Megajoules (LMJ) lasers. These multisegment amplifiers are of the flashlamp-pumped, Nd:Glass qW and are designed to propagate a nominally 36 cm square beam. The apertures within a particular amplifier bundle are arranged in a four-high by two-wide configuration and utilize two side lamp arrays and a central flashlamp array for pumping. The configuration is very similar to that used in the Beamlet laser, a single-beam prototype for the NIF/LMJ lasers, which has four apertures arranged in a two- high by two-wide configuration

  3. Sensitivity of Inferred Electron Temperature from X-ray Emission of NIF Cryogenic DT Implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, Michael [Univ. of Dallas, Irving, TX (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory seeks to achieve thermonuclear ignition through inertial confinement fusion. The accurate assessment of the performance of each implosion experiment is a crucial step. Here we report on work to derive a reliable electron temperature for the cryogenic deuteriumtritium implosions completed on the NIF using the xray signal from the Ross filter diagnostic. These Xrays are dominated by bremsstrahlung emission. By fitting the xray signal measured through each of the individual Ross filters, the source bremsstrahlung spectrum can be inferred, and an electron temperature of the implosion hot spot inferred. Currently, each filter is weighted equally in this analysis. We present work quantifying the errors with such a technique and the results from investigating the contribution of each filter to the overall accuracy of the temperature inference. Using this research, we also compare the inferred electron temperature against other measured implosion quantities to develop a more complete understanding of the hotspot physics.

  4. Precision Neutron Time-of-Flight Detectors Provide Insight into NIF Implosion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, David; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Moore, A. S.; Waltz, C. S.

    2017-10-01

    During inertial confinement fusion, higher-order moments of neutron time-of-flight (nToF) spectra can provide essential information for optimizing implosions. The nToF diagnostic suite at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was recently upgraded to include novel, quartz Cherenkov detectors. These detectors exploit the rapid Cherenkov radiation process, in contrast with conventional scintillator decay times, to provide high temporal-precision measurements that support higher-order moment analyses. Preliminary measurements have been made on the NIF during several implosions and initial results are presented here. Measured line-of-sight asymmetries, for example in ion temperatures, will be discussed. Finally, advanced detector optimization is shown to advance accessible physics, with possibilities for energy discrimination, gamma source identification, and further reduction in quartz response times. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Data Analysis of the Gated-LEH X-Ray Imaging Diagnostic at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Matthew; Chen, Hui

    2017-10-01

    The Gated Laser Entrance Hole (G-LEH) x-ray imaging diagnostic in use at the NIF offers a desirable combination of spatial and temporal resolution. By looking inside of NIF hohlraums with time resolution, G-LEH measures target features including LEH size and capsule size. A framework is presented for automated and systematic analysis of G-LEH images that measures several physical parameters of interest and their evolution over time. The results from these analyses enable comparisons with hohlraum models and allow model validation of LEH closure velocity and the extent of capsule blow-off. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Neutron peak velocity measurements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using novel quartz detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Gary; Eckart, Mark; Hartouni, Edward; Hatarik, Robert; Moore, Alastair; Root, Jaben; Sayre, Daniel; Schlossberg, David; Waltz, Cory

    2017-10-01

    In mid-2017 the NIF implemented quartz based neutron time-of-flight (nToF) detectors which have a faster and narrower impulse response function (IRF) relative to traditional scintillator detectors. In this presentation we report on comparisons between fusion neutron first moments as measured by quartz and scintillator based detectors using DT layered implosions at the NIF. We report on the change in precision presaged by the quartz converter and quantify the change in both in shot, line-of-site velocity variability. as well as, shot-to-shot variation. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734511-DRAFT.

  7. Laser coupling to reduced-scale targets at Nif Early Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, D.E.; Schneider, M.B.; Young, B.K.; Holder, J.P.; Langdon, A.B.; Bonanno, G.; Bower, D.E.; Bruns, H.C.; Campbell, K.M.; Celeste, J.R.; Compton, S.; Costa, R.L.; Dewald, E.L.; Dixit, S.N.; Eckart, M.J.; Eder, D.C.; Edwards, M.J.; Ellis, A.D.; Emig, J.A.; Froula, D.H.; Glenzer, S.H.; Hargrove, D.; Haynam, C.A.; Heeter, R.F.; Henesian, M.A.; Holtmeier, G.; James, D.L.; Jancaitis, K.S.; Kalantar, K.H.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Kauffman, R.L.; Kimbrough, J.; Kirkwood, R.K.; Koniges, A.E.; Landen, O.L.; Landon, M.; Lee, F.D.; MacGowan, B.J.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Manes, K.R.; Marshall, C.; May, M.J.; McDonald, J.W.; Menapace, J.; Moses, S.E.I.; Munro, D.H.; Murray, J.R.; Niemann, C.; Power, G.D.; Rekow, V.; Ruppe, J.A.; Schein, J.; Shepherd, R.; Singh, M.S.; Springer, P.T.; Still, C.H.; Suter, L.J.; Tietbohl, G.L.; Turner, R.E.; VanWonterghem, B.M.; Wallace, R.J.; Warrick, A.; Weber, F.; Wegner, P.J.; Williams, E.A.; Young, P.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Baldis, H.A. [California at Davis Univ., CA (United States); Pellinen, D.; Watts, P. [Bechtel Nevada Corporation, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Deposition of maximum laser energy into a small, high-Z enclosure in a short laser pulse creates a hot environment. Such targets were recently included in an experimental campaign using the first four of the 192 beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These targets demonstrate good laser coupling, reaching a radiation temperature of 340 eV. In addition, the Raman backscatter spectrum contains features consistent with Brillouin backscatter of Raman forward scatter. Also, NIF Early Light diagnostics indicate that 20% of the direct backscatter from these reduced-scale targets is in the polarization orthogonal to that of the incident light. (authors)

  8. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  9. NIF-Scale Hohlraum Asymmetry Studies Using Point-Projection Radiograph of Thin Shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollaine, S.; Bradley, D.; Landen, O.; Wallace, R.; Jones, O.

    2000-01-01

    Our current OMEGA experimental campaign is developing the thin shell diagnostic for use on NIF with the needed accuracy. The thin shell diagnostic has the advantage of linearity over alternative measurement techniques, so that low-order modes will not corrupt the measurement of high-order modes. Although our random measurement errors are adequate, we need to monitor beam balance and ensure that the thin shells have a uniform thickness

  10. Managing NIF safety equipment in a high neutron and gamma radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datte, Philip; Eckart, Mark; Jackson, Mark; Khater, Hesham; Manuel, Stacie; Newton, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility that supports the Inertial Confinement Fusion program. During the ignition experimental campaign, the NIF is expected to perform shots with varying fusion yield producing 14 MeV neutrons up to 20 MJ or 7.1 × 10(18) neutrons per shot and a maximum annual yield of 1,200 MJ. Several infrastructure support systems will be exposed to varying high yield shots over the facility's 30-y life span. In response to this potential exposure, analysis and testing of several facility safety systems have been conducted. A detailed MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) model has been developed for the NIF facility, and it includes most of the major structures inside the Target Bay. The model has been used in the simulation of expected neutron and gamma fluences throughout the Target Bay. Radiation susceptible components were identified and tested to fluences greater than 10(13) (n cm(-2)) for 14 MeV neutrons and γ-ray equivalent. The testing includes component irradiation using a 60Co gamma source and accelerator-based irradiation using 4- and 14- MeV neutron sources. The subsystem implementation in the facility is based on the fluence estimates after shielding and survivability guidelines derived from the dose maps and component tests results. This paper reports on the evaluation and implementation of mitigations for several infrastructure safety support systems, including video, oxygen monitoring, pressure monitors, water sensing systems, and access control interfaces found at the NIF.

  11. AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. N., E-mail: hall98@llnl.gov; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Zacharias, R.; Felker, B.; Holder, J. P.; Allen, F. V.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D.; Montesanti, R.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV–200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  12. Enhancing Ignition Probability and Fusion Yield in NIF Indirect Drive Targets with Applied Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. John; Logan, B. Grant; Ho, Darwin; Zimmerman, George; Rhodes, Mark; Blackfield, Donald; Hawkins, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Imposed magnetic fields of tens of Tesla that increase to greater than 10 kT (100 MGauss) under capsule compression may relax conditions for ignition and propagating burn in indirect-drive ICF targets. This may allow attainment of ignition, or at least significant fusion energy yields, in presently-performing ICF targets on the National Ignition Facility that today are sub-marginal for thermonuclear burn through adverse hydrodynamic conditions at stagnation. Results of detailed 2D radiation-hydrodynamic-burn simulations applied to NIF capsule implosions with low-mode shape perturbations and residual kinetic energy loss indicate that such compressed fields may increase the probability for ignition through range reduction of fusion alpha particles, suppression of electron heat conduction and stabilization of higher-mode RT instabilities. Optimum initial applied fields are around 50 T. Off-line testing has been performed of a hohlraum coil and pulsed power supply that could be integrated on NIF; axial fields of 58T were obtained. Given the full plasma structure at capsule stagnation may be governed by 3-D resistive MHD, the formation of closed magnetic field lines might further augment ignition prospects. Experiments are now required to assess the potential of applied magnetic fields to NIF ICF ignition and burn. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. ORGANIZATION OF THE nif GENES OF THE NONHETEROCYSTOUS CYANOBACTERIUM TRICHODESMIUM SP. IMS101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, Benny; Zani, Sabino; Chen, Yi-Bu; Mellon, Mark T; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2000-08-26

    An approximately 16-kb fragment of the Trichodesmium sp. IMS101 (a nonheterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium) "conventional"nif gene cluster was cloned and sequenced. The gene organization of the Trichodesmium and Anabaena variabilis vegetative (nif 2) nitrogenase gene clusters spanning the region from nif B to nif W are similar except for the absence of two open reading frames (ORF3 and ORF1) in Trichodesmium. The Trichodesmium nif EN genes encode a fused Nif EN polypeptide that does not appear to be processed into individual Nif E and Nif N polypeptides. Fused nif EN genes were previously found in the A. variabilis nif 2 genes, but we have found that fused nif EN genes are widespread in the nonheterocystous cyanobacteria. Although the gene organization of the nonheterocystous filamentous Trichodesmium nif gene cluster is very similar to that of the A. variabilis vegetative nif 2 gene cluster, phylogenetic analysis of nif sequences do not support close relatedness of Trichodesmium and A. variabilis vegetative (nif 2) nitrogenase genes.

  14. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  15. A Platform for X-Ray Thomson Scattering Measurements of Radiation Hydrodynamics Experiments on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Heath; Ma, Kevin; Belancourt, Patrick; MacDonald, Michael; Doeppner, Tilo; Keiter, Paul; Kuranz, Carolyn

    2017-10-01

    A recent experiment on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) radiographed the evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability under high and low drive cases. This experiment showed that under a high drive the growth rate of the RT instability is reduced relative to the low drive case. The high drive launches a radiative shock, increases the temperature of the post-shock region, and ablates the spikes, which reduces the RT growth rate. The plasma parameters must be measured to validate this claim. We present a target design for making X-Ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) measurements on radiation hydrodynamics experiments on NIF to measure the electron temperature of the shocked region in the above cases. Specifically, we show that a previously fielded NIF radiation hydrodynamics platform can be modified to allow sufficient signal and temperature resolution for XRTS measurements. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956 and the National Science Foundation through the Basic Plasma Science and Engineering program.

  16. The NIF DISCO Framework: facilitating automated integration of neuroscience content on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Luis; Wang, Rixin; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of DISCO, an extensible approach that supports integrative Web-based information dissemination. DISCO is a component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative that facilitates integrated access to diverse neuroscience resources via the Internet. DISCO facilitates the automated maintenance of several distinct capabilities using a collection of files 1) that are maintained locally by the developers of participating neuroscience resources and 2) that are "harvested" on a regular basis by a central DISCO server. This approach allows central NIF capabilities to be updated as each resource's content changes over time. DISCO currently supports the following capabilities: 1) resource descriptions, 2) "LinkOut" to a resource's data items from NCBI Entrez resources such as PubMed, 3) Web-based interoperation with a resource, 4) sharing a resource's lexicon and ontology, 5) sharing a resource's database schema, and 6) participation by the resource in neuroscience-related RSS news dissemination. The developers of a resource are free to choose which DISCO capabilities their resource will participate in. Although DISCO is used by NIF to facilitate neuroscience data integration, its capabilities have general applicability to other areas of research.

  17. An exploration of Lasnex designs to support the MShock campaign at NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolder, Barbara Gloria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-11

    In support of planned MShock experiments at NIF, Lasnex is being used to explore possible laser sources and halfraum designs that launch two shocks into an ablator - shock tube configuration. Two design features were investigated: (1) launching a two-component laser source consisting of an early pre-pulse separated in time from a later main pulse, to create two shocks, and (2) adding a liner on the inner surface of the gold wall of the halfraum, to delay or prevent gold stagnation on-axis and to preserve the effectiveness of the second laser pulse. The clearest indication of two shocks propagating in the shock tube occurred when the pre-pulse mimicked a direct drive, achieved by re-pointing the inner beam cones, and when a liner was used to ensure that the free-electron number density was below the critical density for NIF. Additional simulations (presented in the Appendix) that used the two-component laser source but focused on specific choices in laser-pulse design space, as proposed by Kirk Flippo for use in the first MShock experiments at NIF, also demonstrated the presence of two shocks.

  18. D2 and DT Liquid-Layer Target Shots on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Curtis [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alger, Ethan [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bhandarkar, Suhas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boehm, Kurt [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Braun, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Espinosaloza, Francisco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haid, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heredia, Ricardo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kline, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozioziemski, Bernard [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kroll, Jeremy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Malone, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nikroo, Abbas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Opsahl, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sater, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zylstra, Alex [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-22

    Experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using targets containing a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) fuel layer have, until recently, required that a high-quality layer of solid deuterium-tritium (herein referred to as an "ice-layer") be formed in the capsule. The development of a process to line the inner surface of a target capsule with a foam layer of a thickness that is typical of icelayers has resulted in the ability to field targets with liquid layers wetting the foam. Successful fielding of liquid-layer targets on NIF required not only a foam lined capsule, but also changes to the capsule filling process and the manner with which the inventory is maintained in the capsule. Additionally, changes to target heater power and the temperature drops across target components were required in order to achieve the desired range of shot temperatures. These changes, and the target's performance during four target shots on NIF will be discussed.

  19. Analysis of phylogeny and codon usage bias and relationship of GC content, amino acid composition with expression of the structural nif genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sunil Kanti; Kundu, Sudip; Das, Rabindranath; Roy, Sujit

    2016-08-01

    Bacteria and archaea have evolved with the ability to fix atmospheric dinitrogen in the form of ammonia, catalyzed by the nitrogenase enzyme complex which comprises three structural genes nifK, nifD and nifH. The nifK and nifD encodes for the beta and alpha subunits, respectively, of component 1, while nifH encodes for component 2 of nitrogenase. Phylogeny based on nifDHK have indicated that Cyanobacteria is closer to Proteobacteria alpha and gamma but not supported by the tree based on 16SrRNA. The evolutionary ancestor for the different trees was also different. The GC1 and GC2% analysis showed more consistency than GC3% which appeared to below for Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Euarchaeota while highest in Proteobacteria beta and clearly showed the proportional effect on the codon usage with a few exceptions. Few genes from Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria alpha and delta were found under mutational pressure. These nif genes with low and high GC3% from different classes of organisms showed similar expected number of codons. Distribution of the genes and codons, based on codon usage demonstrated opposite pattern for different orientation of mirror plane when compared with each other. Overall our results provide a comprehensive analysis on the evolutionary relationship of the three structural nif genes, nifK, nifD and nifH, respectively, in the context of codon usage bias, GC content relationship and amino acid composition of the encoded proteins and exploration of crucial statistical method for the analysis of positive data with non-constant variance to identify the shape factors of codon adaptation index.

  20. Molecular Ecology of nifH Genes and Transcripts Along a Chronosequence in Revegetated Areas of the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Bao, Jing-Ting; Li, Xin-Rong; Liu, Yu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The colonization and succession of diazotrophs are essential for the development of organic soil layers in desert. We examined the succession of diazotrophs in the well-established revegetated areas representing a chronosequence of 0 year (control), 22 years (restored artificially since 1981), 57 years (restored artificially since 1956), and more than 100 years (restored naturally) to determine the community assembly and active expression of diazotrophs. The pyrosequencing data revealed that Alphaproteobacteria-like diazotrophs predominated in the topsoil of our mobile dune site, while cyanobacterial diazotrophs predominated in the revegetated sites. The cyanobacterial diazotrophs were primarily composed of the heterocystous genera Anabaena, Calothrix, Cylindrospermum, Nodularia, Nostoc, Trichormus, and Mastigocladus. Almost all the nifH sequences belonged to the Cyanobacteria phylum (all the relative abundance values >99.1 %) at transcript level and all the active cyanobacterial diazotrophs distributed in the families Nostocaceae and Rivulariaceae. The most dominant active cyanobacterial genus was Cylindrospermum in all the samples. The rank abundance and community analyses demonstrated that most of the diazotrophic diversity originated from the "rare" species, and all the DNA-based diazotrophic libraries were richer and more diverse than their RNA-based counterparts in the revegetated sites. Significant differences in the diazotrophic community and their active population composition were observed among the four research sites. Samples from the 1981-revegetating site (predominated by cyanobacterial crusts) showed the highest nitrogenase activity, followed by samples from the naturally revegetating site (predominated by lichen crusts), the 1956-revegetating site (predominated by moss crusts), and the mobile dune site (without crusts). Collectively, our data highlight the importance of nitrogen fixation by the primary successional desert topsoil and suggest

  1. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hideaki; Sakai, Takao; Ishida, Tomio; Yokota, Norikatsu.

    1992-01-01

    The lower ends of a plurality of plate-like shape memory alloys are secured at the periphery of the upper inside of the handling head of a fuel assembly. As the shape memory alloy, a Cu-Zn alloy, a Ti-Pd alloy or a Fe-Ni alloy is used. When high temperature coolants flow out to the handling head, the shape memory alloy deforms by warping to the outer side more greatly toward the upper portion thereof with the temperature increase of the coolants. As the result, the shape of the flow channel of the coolants is changed so as to enlarge at the exit of the upper end of the fuel assembly. Then, the pressure loss of the coolants in the fuel assembly is decreased by the enlargement. Accordingly, the flow rate of the coolants in the fuel assembly is increased to lower the temperature of the coolants. Further, high temperature coolants and low temperature coolants are mixed sufficiently just above the fuel assembly. This can suppress the temperature fluctuation of the mixed coolants in the upper portion of the reactor core, thereby enabling to decrease a fatigue and failures of the structural components in the upper portion of the reactor core. (I.N.)

  2. Modeling for deformable mirrors and the adaptive optics optimization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henesian, M.A.; Haney, S.W.; Trenholme, J.B.; Thomas, M.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss aspects of adaptive optics optimization for large fusion laser systems such as the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. By way of example, we considered the discrete actuator deformable mirror and Hartmann sensor system used on the Beamlet laser. Beamlet is a single-aperture prototype of the 11-0-5 slab amplifier design for NIF, and so we expect similar optical distortion levels and deformable mirror correction requirements. We are now in the process of developing a numerically efficient object oriented C++ language implementation of our adaptive optics and wavefront sensor code, but this code is not yet operational. Results are based instead on the prototype algorithms, coded-up in an interpreted array processing computer language

  3. Regulation of nif gene expression and the energetics of N2 fixation over the diel cycle in a hot spring microbial mat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Jensen, Sheila I; Brecht, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, a prokaryotic, O(2)-inhibited process that reduces N(2) gas to biomass, is of paramount importance in biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen. We analyzed the levels of nif transcripts of Synechococcus ecotypes, NifH subunit and nitrogenase activity over the diel cycle...... in the microbial mat of an alkaline hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. The results showed a rise in nif transcripts in the evening, with a subsequent decline over the course of the night. In contrast, immunological data demonstrated that the level of the NifH polypeptide remained stable during the night...

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Optics Supply Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylord, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  7. Valve assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandling, M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved valve assembly, used for controlling the flow of radioactive slurry, is described. Radioactive contamination of the air during removal or replacement of the valve is prevented by sucking air from the atmosphere through a portion of the structure above the valve housing. (U.K.)

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Bassler, E.A.; Huckestein, E.A.; Salton, R.B.; Tower, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

  9. Design, installation, commissioning and operation of a beamlet monitor in the negative ion beam test stand at NIFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Brombin, M.; Cervaro, V.; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Molon, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G., E-mail: gianluigi.serianni@igi.cnr.it; Tollin, M.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) (Italy); De Muri, M. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) (Italy); INFN-LNL, v.le dell' Università 2, I-35020, Legnaro (PD) Italy (Italy); Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Muraro, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma (IFP-CNR) – Via Cozzi 53, 20125, Milano (Italy)

    2015-04-08

    In the framework of the accompanying activity for the development of the two neutral beam injectors for the ITER fusion experiment, an instrumented beam calorimeter is being designed at Consorzio RFX, to be used in the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A), with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The main components of the instrumented calorimeter are one-directional carbon-fibre-carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been used as a small-scale version of the entire calorimeter in the test stand of the neutral beam injectors of the LHD experiment, with the aim of characterising the beam features in various operating conditions. The extraction system of the NIFS test stand source was modified, by applying a mask to the first gridded electrode, in order to isolate only a subset of the beamlets, arranged in two 3×5 matrices, resembling the beamlet groups of the ITER beam sources. The present contribution gives a description of the design of the diagnostic system, including the numerical simulations of the expected thermal pattern. Moreover the dedicated thermocouple measurement system is presented. The beamlet monitor was successfully used for a full experimental campaign, during which the main parameters of the source, mainly the arc power and the grid voltages, were varied. This contribution describes the methods of fitting and data analysis applied to the infrared images of the camera to recover the beamlet optics characteristics, in order to quantify the response of the system to different operational conditions. Some results concerning the beamlet features are presented as a function of the source parameters.

  10. Design process for NIF laser alignment and beam diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grey, A., LLNL

    1998-06-09

    In a controller for an adaptive optic system designed to correct phase aberrations in a high power laser, the wavefront sensor is a discrete Hartmann-Shack design. It uses an army of lenslets (like a fly` s eye) to focus the laser into 77 spots on a CCD camera. Average local tilt of the wavefront across each lenslet changes the position of its focal spot. The system requires 0.1 pixel accuracy in determining the focal spot location. We determine a small area around each spot` s previous location. Within this area, we calculate the centroid of the light intensity in x and y. This calculation fails if the spot regions overlap. Especially during initial acquisition of a highly distorted beam, distinguishing overlapping spots is difficult. However, low resolution analysis of the overlapping spots allows the system to estimate their positions. With this estimate, it can use the deformable mirror to correct the beam enough so we can detect the spots using conventional image processing.

  11. Full aperture backscatter diagnostic for the NIF laser facility (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewall, Noel; Lewis, Izzy; Kirkwood, Robert; Moody, John; Celeste, John

    2001-01-01

    The current schemes for achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility require efficient coupling of energy from 192 laser beams to the deuterium--tritium fuel capsule. Each laser beam must propagate through a long scalelength plasma region before being converted to x rays (indirect drive) or being absorbed on the capsule (direct drive). Laser-plasma instabilities such as stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattering (SBS and SRS) will scatter a fraction of the incident laser energy out of the target leading to an overall reduction in the coupling efficiency. It is important to measure the character of this scattered light in order to understand it and to develop methods for reducing it to acceptable levels. We are designing a system called the full aperature backscatter diagnostic with the capability to measure the time-dependent amplitude and spectral content of the light which is backscattered through the incident beam focusing optic. The backscattered light will be collected over about 85% of the full beam aperture and separated into the SBS wavelength band (348--354 nm) and the SRS wavelength band (400--700 nm). Spectrometers coupled to streak cameras will provide time-resolved spectra for both scattered light components. The scattered light amplitude will be measured with fast and slow diodes. The entire system will be routinely calibrated. Analysis of the data will provide important information for reducing scattered power, achieving power balance, and finally achieving ignition

  12. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ASSEMBLY AND DYNAMICS OF GALAXIES. I. DETAILED REST-FRAME OPTICAL MORPHOLOGIES ON KILOPARSEC SCALE OF z ∼ 2 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Davies, R.; Shapley, A. E.; Erb, D. K.; Bouche, N.; Steidel, C. C.; Cresci, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present deep and high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope NIC2 F160W imaging at 1.6 μm of six z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies with existing near-infrared integral field spectroscopy from SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope. The unique combination of rest-frame optical imaging and nebular emission-line maps provides simultaneous insight into morphologies and dynamical properties. The overall rest-frame optical emission of the galaxies is characterized by shallow profiles in general (Sersic index n e ∼ 5 kpc. The morphologies are significantly clumpy and irregular, which we quantify through a non-parametric morphological approach, estimating the Gini (G), multiplicity (Ψ), and M 20 coefficients. The estimated strength of the rest-frame optical emission lines in the F160W bandpass indicates that the observed structure is not dominated by the morphology of line-emitting gas, and must reflect the underlying stellar mass distribution of the galaxies. The sizes and structural parameters in the rest-frame optical continuum and Hα emission reveal no significant differences, suggesting similar global distributions of the ongoing star formation and more evolved stellar population. While no strong correlations are observed between stellar population parameters and morphology within the NIC2/SINFONI sample itself, a consideration of the sample in the context of a broader range of z ∼ 2 galaxy types (K-selected quiescent, active galactic nucleus, and star forming; 24 μm selected dusty, infrared-luminous) indicates that these galaxies probe the high specific star formation rate and low stellar mass surface density part of the massive z ∼ 2 galaxy population, with correspondingly large effective radii, low Sersic indices, low G, and high Ψ and M 20 . The combined NIC2 and SINFONI data set yields insights of unprecedented detail into the nature of mass accretion at high redshift.

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel assembly used in a FBR type nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of fuel rods and a moderator guide member (water rod). A moderator exit opening/closing mechanism is formed at the upper portion of the moderator guide member for opening and closing a moderator exit. In the initial fuel charging operation cycle to the reactor, the moderator exit is closed by the moderator exit opening/closing mechanism. Then, voids are accumulated at the inner upper portion of the moderator guide member to harden spectrum and a great amount of plutonium is generated and accumulated in the fuel assembly. Further, in the fuel re-charging operation cycle, the moderator guide member is used having the moderator exit opened. In this case, voids are discharged from the moderator guide member to decrease the ratio, and the plutonium accumulated in the initial charging operation cycle is burnt. In this way, the fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  14. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mitsuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the corrosion rate and suppress the increase of radioactive corrosion products in reactor water of nuclear fuel assemblies for use in BWR type reactors having spacer springs made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloys. Constitution: Spacer rings made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloy are incorporated and used as fuel assemblies after applying treatment of dipping and maintaining at high temperature water followed by heating in steams. Since this can remove the nickel leaching into reactor water at the initial stage, Co-58 as the radioactive corrosion products in the reactor water can be reduced, and the operation at in-service inspection or repairement can be facilitated to improve the working efficiency of the nuclear power plant. The dipping time is desirably more than 10 hours and more desirably more than 30 hours. (Horiuchi, T. )

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  17. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  19. Comparison of plastic, high-density carbon, and beryllium as NIF ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    An effort is underway to compare the three principal ablators for National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions: plastic (CH), High Density Carbon (HDC), and beryllium (Be). This presentation will summarize the comparison and discuss in more detail the issues pertaining to hohlraum performance and symmetry. Several aspects of the hohlraum design are affected by the ablator properties, as the ablator constrains the first shock and determines the overall pulse length. HDC targets can utilize shorter pulse lengths due to the thinner, higher density shell, and should be less susceptible to late time wall motion. However, HDC requires a larger picket energy to ensure adequate melt, leading to increased late time wall movement. Be is intermediate to CH and HDC in both these regards, and has more ablated material in the hohlraum. These tradeoffs as well as other design choices for currently fielded campaigns are assessed in this work. To assess consistently the radiation drive and symmetry, integrated postshot simulations of the hohlraum and capsule were done for each design using the same methodology. The simulation results are compared to experimental data. Using this post-shot model, we make a projection of the relative plausible performance that can be achieved, while maintaining adequate symmetry, using the full NIF laser, i.e. 1.8 MJ/500 TW Full NIF Equivalent (FNE). The hydrodynamic stability of the different ablators is also an important consideration and will be presented for the current platforms and projection to FNE. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Observations Of The LCROSS Impact With NIFS On The Gemini North Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Katherine; Stephens, A. W.; Trujillo, C. A.; McDermid, R. M.; Woodward, C. E.; Walls, B. D.; Coulson, D. M.; Matulonis, A. C.; Ball, J. G.; Wooden, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted a permanently shadowed crater near the south pole of the Moon at 11:31 UTC 2009 October 09. Gemini, one of several telescopes in a coordinated network observing the impact, conducted observations using NIFS to obtain 3D K-band imaging spectroscopy to detect water ice in the ejected plume of material. The spectral slope of the NIFS data can constrain the grain size and height distribution as the plume evolves, measuring the total mass and the water ice concentration in the plume. These observations provided an engineering challenge for Gemini, including the need to track non-sidereal with constantly changing track rates and guide on small bright moon craters, in order to keep the impact site within the NIFS field-of-view. High quality images taken by GMOS-N, NIRI and the acquisition camera during engineering periods at specific lunar libration and illumination were also used by the LCROSS ground based observing team to supplement slit positioning and offset plans for other ground based observatories. LCROSS mission support and engineering has resulted in improved telescope functionality for non-sidereal targets, including the ability to upload and import target ephemerides directly into the TCS, starting in semester 2010B. In this poster we present the engineering results and observing improvements which will facilitate enhanced user capabilities of the Gemini telescopes arising from the intensive LCROSS support challenge. Gemini Observatory is operated by AURA, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the STFC (United Kingdom), the NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the ARC (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). In part this research was supported by NASA through contracts to SWRI and NSF grant AST-0706980 to the U

  1. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R

    2012-10-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  2. NIFS joint research meeting on plasma facing components, PSI, and heat/particle control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashina, T.

    1997-10-01

    The LHD collaboration has been started in 1996. Particle and heat control is one of the categories for the collaboration, and a few programs have been nominated in these two years. A joint research meeting on PFC, PSI, heat and particle meeting was held at NIFS on June 27, 1997, in which present status of these programs were reported. This is a collection of the notes and view graphs presented in this meeting. Brief reviews and research plan of each program are included in relation to divertor erosion and sputtering, impurity generation, hydrogen recycling, edge plasma structure, edge transport and its control, heat removal, particle exhaust, wall conditioning etc. (author)

  3. Science on high-energy lasers: From today to the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.W.; Petrasso, R.; Falcone, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents both a concise definition of the current capabilities of high energy lasers and a description of capabilities of the NIF (National Ignition Facility). Five scientific areas are discussed (Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics, Material Properties, Plasma Physics, Radiation Sources, and Radiative Properties). In these five areas we project a picture of the future based on investigations that are being carried on today. Even with this very conservative approach we find that the development of new higher energy lasers will make many extremely exciting areas accessible to us

  4. Damage sources for the NIF Grating Debris Shield (GDS) and methods for their mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, C. W.; Bude, J.; Miller, P. E.; Parham, T.; Whitman, P.; Monticelli, M.; Raman, R.; Cross, D.; Welday, B.; Ravizza, F.; Suratwala, T.; Davis, J.; Fischer, M.; Hawley, R.; Lee, H.; Matthews, M.; Norton, M.; Nostrand, M.; Vanblarcom, D.; Sommer, S.

    2017-11-01

    The primary sources of damage on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Grating Debris Shield (GDS) are attributed to two independent types of laser-induced particulates. The first comes from the eruptions of bulk damage in a disposable debris shield downstream of the GDS. The second particle source comes from stray light focusing on absorbing glass armor at higher than expected fluences. We show that the composition of the particles is secondary to the energetics of their delivery, such that particles from either source are essentially benign if they arrive at the GDS with low temperatures and velocities.

  5. THE UV–OPTICAL COLOR GRADIENTS IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.5 < z < 1.5: ORIGINS AND LINK TO GALAXY ASSEMBLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F. S.; Jiang, Dongfei; Li, Yao; Li, Dingpeng; Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Yesuf, Hassen M.; Barro, Guillermo; Fang, Jerome J.; Zheng, Xianzhong; Wang, Weichen; Mao, Shude

    2016-01-01

    The rest-frame UV–optical (i.e., NUV − B ) color index is sensitive to the low-level recent star formation and dust extinction, but it is insensitive to the metallicity. In this Letter, we have measured the rest-frame NUV − B color gradients in ∼1400 large ( r _e > 0.″18), nearly face-on ( b / a > 0.5) main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) between redshift 0.5 and 1.5 in the CANDELS/GOODS-S and UDS fields. With this sample, we study the origin of UV–optical color gradients in the SFGs at z ∼ 1 and discuss their link with the buildup of stellar mass. We find that the more massive, centrally compact, and more dust extinguished SFGs tend to have statistically more negative raw color gradients (redder centers) than the less massive, centrally diffuse, and less dusty SFGs. After correcting for dust reddening based on optical-spectral energy distribution fitting, the color gradients in the low-mass ( M _* 10"1"0"."5 M _⊙) SFGs still retain shallow negative color gradients. These findings imply that dust reddening is likely the principal cause of negative color gradients in the low-mass SFGs, while both increased central dust reddening and buildup of compact old bulges are likely the origins of negative color gradients in the high-mass SFGs. These findings also imply that at these redshifts the low-mass SFGs buildup their stellar masses in a self-similar way, while the high-mass SFGs grow inside out.

  6. Magnetic and optical holonomic manipulation of colloids, structures and topological defects in liquid crystals for characterization of mesoscale self-assembly and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Michael C. M.

    Colloidal systems find important applications ranging from fabrication of photonic crystals to direct probing of phenomena encountered in atomic crystals and glasses; topics of great interest for physicists exploring a broad range of scientific, industrial and biomedical fields. The ability to accurately control particles of mesoscale size in various liquid host media is usually accomplished through optical trapping methods, which suffer limitations intrinsic to trap laser intensity and force generation. Other limitations are due to colloid properties, such as optical absorptivity, and host properties, such as viscosity, opacity and structure. Therefore, alternative and/or novel methods of colloidal manipulation are of utmost importance in order to advance the state of the art in technical applications and fundamental science. In this thesis, I demonstrate a magnetic-optical holonomic control system to manipulate magnetic and optical colloids in liquid crystals and show that the elastic structure inherent to nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals may be used to assist in tweezing of particles in a manner impossible in other media. Furthermore, I demonstrate the utility of this manipulation in characterizing the structure and microrheology of liquid crystals, and elucidating the energetics and dynamics of colloids interacting with these structures. I also demonstrate the utility of liquid crystal systems as a table top model system to probe topological defects in a manner that may lead to insights into topologically related phenomena in other fields, such as early universe cosmology, sub-atomic and high energy systems, or Skrymionic structures. I explore the interaction of colloid surface anchoring with the structure inherent in cholesteric liquid crystals, and how this affects the periodic dynamics and localization metastability of spherical colloids undergoing a "falling" motion within the sample. These so called "metastable states" cause colloidal dynamics to

  7. Metrology for ITER Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.

    2006-01-01

    The overall dimensions of the ITER Tokamak and the particular assembly sequence preclude the use of conventional optical metrology, mechanical jigs and traditional dimensional control equipment, as used for the assembly of smaller, previous generation, fusion devices. This paper describes the state of the art of the capabilities of available metrology systems, with reference to the previous experience in Fusion engineering and in other industries. Two complementary procedures of transferring datum from the primary datum network on the bioshield to the secondary datum s inside the VV with the desired accuracy of about 0.1 mm is described, one method using the access directly through the ports and the other using transfer techniques, developed during the co-operation with ITER/EFDA. Another important task described is the development of a method for the rapid and easy measurement of the gaps between sectors, required for the production of the customised splice plates between them. The scope of the paper includes the evaluation of the composition and cost of the systems and team of technical staff required to meet the requirements of the assembly procedure. The results from a practical, full-scale demonstration of the methodologies used, using the proposed equipment, is described. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of achieving the necessary accuracies for the successful building of ITER. (author)

  8. National Ignition Facility Incorporates P2/E2 in Aqueous Parts Cleaning of Optics Hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, K

    2001-01-01

    When completed, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be the world's largest laser with experimental capabilities applicable to stockpile stewardship, energy research, science and astrophysics. As construction of the conventional facilities nears completion, operations supporting the installation of specialized laser equipment have come online. Playing a critical role in the precision cleaning of mechanical parts from the NIF beamline are three pieces of aqueous cleaning equipment. Housed in the Optics Assembly Building (OAB), adjacent to NIF's laser bay, are the large mechanical parts gross cleaner (LMPGC), the large mechanical parts precision cleaner (LMPPC), and the small mechanical parts gross and precision cleaner (SMPGPC). These aqueous units, designed and built by Sonic Systems, Inc., of Newtown, Pennsylvania, not only accommodate parts that vary greatly in size, weight, geometry, surface finish and material, but also produce cleaned parts that meet the stringent NIF cleanliness standards (MIL-STD-1246C Level 83 for particles and A/10 for non-volatile residue). Each unit was designed with extensive water- and energy-conserving features, and the technology used minimizes hazardous waste generation associated with solvent wipe cleaning, the traditional method for cleaning laser mechanical components. The LMPGC provides preliminary gross cleaning for large mechanical parts. Collection, filtration and reuse of the wash and primary rinse water in the LMPGC limit its routine discharge to the volume of the low-pressure, deionized secondary rinse. After an initial gross cleaning in the LMPGC, a large mechanical part goes to the LMPPC. This piece of equipment, unique because of its size, consists of four 2700-gallon tanks. Parts held securely on specialized metal pallets (jointly weighing up to 1500 pounds) move through the tanks on an automated system. Operators program all movement, speeds and process times to

  9. Concept of operations for channel characterization and simulation of coaxial transmission channels at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jr., Charles G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) executes experiments for inertial con nement fusion (ICF), world-class high energy density physics (HEDP), and critical national security missions. While the laser systems, target positioners, alignment systems, control systems, etc. enable the execution of such experiments, NIF’s utility would be greatly reduced without its suite of diagnostics. It would be e ectively “blind” to the incredible physics unleashed in its target chamber. Since NIF diagnostics are such an important part of its mission, the quality and reliability of the diagnostics, and of the data recorded from them, is crucial.

  10. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  11. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  12. Influence of the growth conditions on the optical and structural properties of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots for low As/In ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Samet; Suyolcu, Y. Eren [Advanced Technologies Research Unit: Nanotechnology, Graduate School of Sciences, Anadolu University, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey); Turan, Servet [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Anadolu University, Iki Eylul Campus, 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey); Aslan, Bulent, E-mail: bulentaslan@anadolu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Effects of systematically changed growth conditions on InAs/GaAs QDs were studied. • Growths were optimized for low As/In flux ratio to obtain well-resolved PL spectra. • XRD rocking curve signal fitting was used to analyze the samples. • XRD analysis reflects the overall tendency of the QD density and WL behavior. - Abstract: We report on the growth and characterization of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The influence of the systematically changed growth conditions on the opto-electronic and structural properties of the QDs were investigated. Combination of the amount of the deposited InAs, growth temperature and growth rate were optimized for low As/In flux ratio to obtain well-resolved ground and excited states in the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra. SEM and TEM techniques were also used for the characterization of QDs. The results were evaluated simply through the conservation of mass approximation and the x-ray diffraction measurements with fitted curves. The extracted InAs and wetting layer thicknesses were brought out that the XRD analysis reflects the overall tendency of the QD density change and WL behaviors in response to the changes in growth conditions.

  13. Lab-in-a-drop: controlled self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and quantum rods into polycrystalline nanostructures with desired optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, Alyona; Volkov, Yuri; Rogach, Andrey L; Baranov, Alexander V; Susha, Andrei S; Klinov, Dmitriy; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Cohen, Jacques H M; Nabiev, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Among the different nanometre-scale building blocks, colloidal nanocrystals are of special interest in construction of ordered assemblies to be used in optoelectronics, photonics and biosensing. It is important that the nanocrystal properties essential to allow the arrangement process, including their size, shape, surface protection, stabilization and charge, can be controlled along with the electronic structure of each nanocrystal. Here, we describe an operation of the 'lab-in-a-drop', droplets of the aqueous solutions of the water-solubilized CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots and quantum rods, in which a variety of nanostructures with desired properties may be produced. We show that, upon incubation and controlled evaporation of the solvent from the aqueous droplets of nanocrystals, one may produce either nanowires or polycrystalline dendrites of different morphologies and dimensions, depending on the nanocrystal shape and on the very narrow concentration and temperature specific ranges. Hence, the operation of this 'lab-in-a-drop' is controlled by external parameters providing the fluorescent nanostructures of desired size and morphology. Although a majority of the results presented here were obtained with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and rods, similar polycrystalline patterns may be produced in the aqueous suspensions of other nanocrystals

  14. National Ignition Facility design focuses on optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Atherton, L.J.; Paisner, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Sometime in the year 2002, scientists at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will focus 192 separate high-power ultraviolet laser beams onto a tiny capsule of deuterium and tritium, heating and compressing the material until it ignites and burns with a burst of fusion energy. The mission of NIF, which will contain the largest laser in the world, is to obtain fusion ignition and gain and to use inertial confinement fusion capabilities in nuclear weapons science experiments. The physics data provided by NIF experiments will help scientists ensure nuclear weapons reliability without the need for actual weapons tests; basic sciences such as astrophysics will also benefit. The facility faces stringent weapons-physics user requirements demanding peak pulse powers greater than 750 TW at 0.35 microm (only 500 TW is required for target ignition), pulse durations of 0.1 to 20 ns, beam steering on the order of several degrees, and target isolation from residual 1- and 0.5-microm radiation. Additional requirements include 50% fractional encircled beam energy in a 100-microm-diameter spot, with 95% encircled in a 200-microm spot. The weapons-effects community requires 1- and 0.5-microm light on target, beam steering to widely spaced targets, a target chamber accommodating oversized objects, well-shielded diagnostic areas, and elimination of stray light in the target chamber. The beamline design, amplifier configuration and requirements for optics are discussed here

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Azekura, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    In a reactor core of a heavy water moderated light water cooled pressure tube type reactor, no sufficient effects have been obtained for the transfer width to a negative side of void reactivity change in a region of a great void coefficient. Then, a moderation region divided into upper and lower two regions is disposed at the central portion of a fuel assembly. Coolants flown into the lower region can be discharged to the cooling region from an opening disposed at the upper end portion of the lower region. Light water flows from the lower region of the moderator region to the cooling region of the reactor core upper portion, to lower the void coefficient. As a result, the reactivity performance at low void coefficient, i.e., a void reaction rate is transferred to the negative side. Thus, this flattens the power distribution in the fuel assembly, increases the thermal margin and enables rapid operaiton and control of the reactor core, as well as contributes to the increase of fuel burnup ratio and reduction of the fuel cycle cost. (N.H.)

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Atsushi; Shimada, Hidemitsu; Aoyama, Motoo; Nakajima, Junjiro

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for an n x n lattice-like BWR type reactor, n is determined to 9 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 4.4% by weight or less. Alternatively, n is determined to 10 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 5.2% by weight or less. An average take-out burnup degree is determined to 39GWd/t or less, and the matrix is determined to 9 x 9 or more, or the average take-out burnup degree is determined to 51GWd/t, and the matrix is determined to 10 x 10 or more and the increase of the margin of the maximum power density obtained thereby is utilized for the compensation of the increase of distortion of power distribution due to decrease of the kinds of plutonium enrichment degree, thereby enabling to reduce the kind of the enrichment degree of MOX fuel rods to one. As a result, the manufacturing step for fuel pellets can be simplified to reduce the manufacturing cost for MOX fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  18. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  19. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 avril 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2016. Programme de travail 2017. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2017 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2018. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposées. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. Élections des vérifica...

  20. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  1. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  3. The effect of laser pulse shape variations on the adiabat of NIF capsule implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, H. F.; MacGowan, B. J.; Landen, O. L.; LaFortune, K. N.; Widmayer, C.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Ross, J. S.; Ralph, J.; LePape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Spears, B. K.; Haan, S. W.; Clark, D.; Lindl, J. D.; Edwards, M. J. [LLNL, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Indirectly driven capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] are being performed with the goal of compressing a layer of cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel to a sufficiently high areal density (ρR) to sustain the self-propagating burn wave that is required for fusion power gain greater than unity. These implosions are driven with a temporally shaped laser pulse that is carefully tailored to keep the DT fuel on a low adiabat (ratio of fuel pressure to the Fermi degenerate pressure). In this report, the impact of variations in the laser pulse shape (both intentionally and unintentionally imposed) on the in-flight implosion adiabat is examined by comparing the measured shot-to-shot variations in ρR from a large ensemble of DT-layered ignition target implosions on NIF spanning a two-year period. A strong sensitivity to variations in the early-time, low-power foot of the laser pulse is observed. It is shown that very small deviations (∼0.1% of the total pulse energy) in the first 2 ns of the laser pulse can decrease the measured ρR by 50%.

  4. Simulated impact of self-generated magnetic fields in the hot-spot of NIF implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partha, M. A.; Haan, S. W.; Koning, J.; Marinak, M. M.; Weber, C. R.; Clark, D. S.

    2016-10-01

    Deviations from sphericity in an imploded hot-spot result in magnetic fields generated by the Biermann battery effect. The magnetic field can reduce thermal conductivity, affect α transport, change instability growth, and cause magnetic pressure. Previous estimates of these effects have indicated that they are not of great consequence, but have suggested that they could plausibly affect NIF observables such as yield and ion temperature by 5-25%. Using the MHD capability in the Hydra code, we evaluated the impact of these processes in a post-shot model for a typical NIF implosion. Various implosion asymmetries were implemented, with the goal of surveying plausible implosion configurations to find the geometry in which the MHD effects were the most significant. Magnetic fields are estimated to approach 104 Tesla, and to affect conductivity locally by more than 50%, but global impact on observables is small in most cases. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.O.E. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Problems and Concerns Regarding Access Control System Construction in Radiation Facilities Based on the NIFS Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, T.; Inoue, N.; Sakuma, Y.; Motojima, O.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In 1998, access control system for the large helical device (LHD) experimental hall was constructed and put into operation at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Toki, Japan. Since then, the system has been continuously improved. It now controls access into the LHD controlled area through four entrances. The system has five turnstile gates and enables control of access at the four entrances. The system is always checking whether the shielding doors are open or closed at eight positions. The details pertaining to the construction of the system were reported at IRPA-10 held in Hiroshima, Japan, in 2000. Based on our construction experience of the NIFS access control system, we will discuss problems related to software and operational design of the system. We will also discuss some concerns regarding the use of the system in radiation facilities. The problems we will present concern, among other thing, individual registration, time control, turnstile control, interlock signal control, data aggregation and transactions, automatic and manual control, and emergency procedures. For example, in relation to the time control and turnstile control functions, we will discuss the gate-opening time interval for an access event, the timing of access data recording, date changing, turn bar control, double access, and access error handling. (author)

  6. IGNITOR, ITER and NIF in the Context of the World Effort on Fusion Burning Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizov, E.; Coppi, B.; Velikhov, E.

    2012-03-01

    As of last summer, the ITER program has been recognized as being directed at providing an ``International Platform for Fusion Technology.'' Then, the two experimental programs that have the explicit goal to approach ignition conditions with D-T plasmas are NIF and IGNITOR. NIF, the National Ignition Facility, is based on the inertial confinement principle using a laser system capable of delivering 1.6 MJ and is being operated in Livermore. IGNITOR will be operated by the Kurchatov Institute within the research center of Troitzk presently owned by Rosatom and involves a high level collaboration between Italy and Russia. For this, Ignitor has been defined as a Flagship Project by Italy and the construction of its core has been funded. The Ignitor design is based on the experimental results obtained by the high field line of experiments carried out at MIT, within the Alcator Program, and in Italy within the Frascati Torus Program. A wide set of experiments in Japan, on high density plasmas, in the US, Russia and Europe have produced plasma physics results and technology developments that have guided the evolution of the Ignitor design. The main theoretical plasma physics issues to be dealt with in connection with this program are discussed.

  7. Omega experiments and preparation for moderate-gain direct-drive experiments on Nif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mr Crory, R.L.; Bahr, R.E.; Boehly, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Direct-drive laser-fusion ignition experiments rely on detailed understanding and control of irradiation uniformity, Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and target fabrication. LLE is investigating various theoretical aspects of a direct-drive NIF ignition target based on an 'all-DT' design: a spherical target of ∼ 3.5 mm diameter, 1 to 2 μm if CH wall thickness, and a ∼ 350 μm DT-ice layer near the triple point of DT (μ19K). OMEGA experiments are designed to address the critical issues related to direct-drive laser fusion and to provide the necessary data to validate the predictive capability of LLE computer codes. The future cryogenic targets used on OMEGA are hydrodynamically equivalent to those planned for the NIF. The current experimental studies on OMEGA address all of the essential components of direct-drive laser fusion: irradiation uniformity and laser imprinting, Rayleigh-Taylor growth and saturation, compressed core performance and shell-fuel mixing, laser-plasma interactions and their effect on target performance, and cryogenic target fabrication and handling. (authors)

  8. Progress Toward Modeling Spectroscopic Signatures of Mix on Omega and NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Hsu, S. C.; Wysocki, F. J.; Cobble, J. A.; Murphy, T. J.

    2011-10-01

    Defect-induced mix processes may degrade the performance of ICF and ICF-like targets at Omega and NIF. An improved understanding of the relevant physics requires an experimental program built on a foundation of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations plus reliable synthetic diagnostic outputs. To that end, the Applications of Ignition (AoI) and Defect Implosion Experiment (DIME) efforts at LANL have focused on directly driven plastic capsules containing high-Z dopants and manufactured with an equatorial ``trench'' defect. One of the key diagnostic techniques for detecting and diagnosing the migration of dopant material into the hot core is Multi-Monochromatic X-ray Imaging (MMI). This talk will focus on recent efforts to model spectroscopic signatures of mix processes in AoI/DIME capsules via simulated MMI-type diagnostic instruments. It will also include data from recent Omega shots and calculations in support of Tier 1 experiments at NIF in FY2012. This work is supported by US DOE/NNSA, performed at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  9. High-resolution 3D simulations of NIF ignition targets performed on Sequoia with HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.; Koning, J. M.; Schroeder, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Developments in the multiphysics ICF code HYDRA enable it to perform large-scale simulations on the Sequoia machine at LLNL. With an aggregate computing power of 20 Petaflops, Sequoia offers an unprecedented capability to resolve the physical processes in NIF ignition targets for a more complete, consistent treatment of the sources of asymmetry. We describe modifications to HYDRA that enable it to scale to over one million processes on Sequoia. These include new options for replicating parts of the mesh over a subset of the processes, to avoid strong scaling limits. We consider results from a 3D full ignition capsule-only simulation performed using over one billion zones run on 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations through modes l = 200. We also report progress towards a high-resolution 3D integrated hohlraum simulation performed using 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations on the ignition capsule through modes l = 70. These aim for the most complete calculations yet of the interactions and overall impact of the various sources of asymmetry for NIF ignition targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Spectroscopic diagnostics of NIF ICF implosions using line ratios of Kr dopant in the ignition capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arati; Ouart, Nicholas; Giuiani, John; Clark, Robert; Schneider, Marilyn; Scott, Howard; Chen, Hui; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    X ray spectroscopy is used on the NIF to diagnose the plasma conditions in the ignition target in indirect drive ICF implosions. A platform is being developed at NIF where small traces of krypton are used as a dopant to the fuel gas for spectroscopic diagnostics using krypton line emissions. The fraction of krypton dopant was varied in the experiments and was selected so as not to perturb the implosion. Our goal is to use X-ray spectroscopy of dopant line ratios produced by the hot core that can provide a precise measurement of electron temperature. Simulations of the krypton spectra using a 1 in 104 atomic fraction of krypton in direct-drive exploding pusher with a range of electron temperatures and densities show discrepancies when different atomic models are used. We use our non-LTE atomic model with a detailed fine-structure level atomic structure and collisional-radiative rates to investigate the krypton spectra at the same conditions. Synthetic spectra are generated with a detailed multi-frequency radiation transport scheme from the emission regions of interest to analyze the experimental data with 0.02% Kr concentration and compare and contrast with the existing simulations at LLNL. Work supported by DOE/NNSA; Part of this work was also done under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Prediction of scaling physics laws for proton acceleration with extended parameter space of the NIF ARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutwala, Krish; Beg, Farhat; Mariscal, Derek; Wilks, Scott; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) laser at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's most energetic short-pulse laser. It comprises four beamlets, each of substantial energy ( 1.5 kJ), extended short-pulse duration (10-30 ps), and large focal spot (>=50% of energy in 150 µm spot). This allows ARC to achieve proton and light ion acceleration via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism, but it is yet unknown how proton beam characteristics scale with ARC-regime laser parameters. As theory has also not yet been validated for laser-generated protons at ARC-regime laser parameters, we attempt to formulate the scaling physics of proton beam characteristics as a function of laser energy, intensity, focal spot size, pulse length, target geometry, etc. through a review of relevant proton acceleration experiments from laser facilities across the world. These predicted scaling laws should then guide target design and future diagnostics for desired proton beam experiments on the NIF ARC. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LLNL LDRD program under tracking code 17-ERD-039.

  12. Long-duration planar direct-drive hydrodynamics experiments on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, A.; Mailliet, C.; Khan, S. F.; Martinez, D.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D.; Di Nicola, P.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Le Bel, E.; Igumenshchev, I.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Remington, B. A.; Masse, L.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The advent of high-power lasers facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the laser megajoule provide unique platforms to study the physics of turbulent mixing flows in high energy density plasmas. We report here on the commissioning of a novel planar direct-drive platform on the NIF, which allows the acceleration of targets during 30 ns. Planar plastic samples were directly irradiated by 300-450 kJ of UV laser light (351 nm) and a very good planarity of the laser drive is demonstrated. No detrimental effect of imprint is observed in the case of these thick plastic targets (300 μm), which is beneficial for future academic experiments requesting similar irradiation conditions. The long-duration direct-drive (DD) platform is thereafter harnessed to study the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in DD. The growth of two-dimensional pre-imposed perturbations is quantified through time-resolved face-on x-ray radiography and used as a benchmark for radiative hydrocode simulations. The ablative RTI is then quantified in its highly nonlinear stage starting from intentionally large 3D imprinted broadband modulations. Two generations of bubble mergers is observed for the first time in DD, as a result of the unprecedented long laser acceleration.

  13. Comparison of plastic, high density carbon, and beryllium as indirect drive NIF ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, A. L.; Clark, D.; Haan, S.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Hurricane, O. A.; Landen, O. L.; MacLaren, S. A.; Meezan, N. B.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J.; Thomas, C. A.; Town, R.; Edwards, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Detailed radiation hydrodynamic simulations calibrated to experimental data have been used to compare the relative strengths and weaknesses of three candidate indirect drive ablator materials now tested at the NIF: plastic, high density carbon or diamond, and beryllium. We apply a common simulation methodology to several currently fielded ablator platforms to benchmark the model and extrapolate designs to the full NIF envelope to compare on a more equal footing. This paper focuses on modeling of the hohlraum energetics which accurately reproduced measured changes in symmetry when changes to the hohlraum environment were made within a given platform. Calculations suggest that all three ablator materials can achieve a symmetric implosion at a capsule outer radius of ˜1100 μm, a laser energy of 1.8 MJ, and a DT ice mass of 185 μg. However, there is more uncertainty in the symmetry predictions for the plastic and beryllium designs. Scaled diamond designs had the most calculated margin for achieving symmetry and the highest fuel absorbed energy at the same scale compared to plastic or beryllium. A comparison of the relative hydrodynamic stability was made using ultra-high resolution capsule simulations and the two dimensional radiation fluxes described in this work [Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 25, 032703 (2018)]. These simulations, which include low and high mode perturbations, suggest that diamond is currently the most promising for achieving higher yields in the near future followed by plastic, and more data are required to understand beryllium.

  14. Status of Optical Coatings for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, C J; Weinzapfel, C; Rogowski, G T; Smith, D; Rigatti, A; Oliver, J; Taniguchi, J; Gunten, M von; Bevis, R; Smith, M; Ivan, V

    2001-01-01

    Optical coatings are a crucial part of the pulse trapping and extraction in the NIF multipass amplifiers. Coatings also steer the 192 beams from four linear arrays to four converging cones entering the target chamber. There are a total of 1600 physical vapor deposited coatings on NIF consisting of 576 mirrors within the multipass cavity, 192 polarizers that work in tandem with a Pockels cell to create an optical switch, and 832 transport mirrors. These optics are of sufficient size so that they are not aperture-limiting for the 40-cm x 40 cm beams over an incident range of 0 to 56.4 degrees. These coatings must withstand laser fluences up to 25 J/cm 2 at 1053 nm (1 ω) and 3-ns pulse length and are the 1ω fluence-limiting component on NIF. The coatings must have a minimal impact on the beam wavefront and phase to maintain beam focusability, minimize scattered loss, and minimize nonlinear damage mechanisms. This is achieved by specifications ranging from 99.5% and >99% for mirrors and polarizers, respectively, and T>98% for polarizers

  15. National Ingition Facility subsystem design requirements optics subsystems SSDR 1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystems Design Requirement (SSDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the subsystems design requirements for the major optical components. These optical components comprise those custom designed and fabricated for amplification and transport of the full aperture NIF beam and does not include those off-the-shelf components that may be part of other optical sub-systems (i.e. alignment or diagnostic systems). This document also describes the optical component processing requirements and the QA/damage testing necessary to ensure that the optical components meet or exceed the requirements

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    For improving the economy of a BWR type reactor by making the operation cycle longer, the fuel enrichment degree has to be increased further. However, this makes the subcriticality shallower in the upper portion of the reactor core, to bring about a possibility that the reactor shutdown becomes impossible. In the present invention, a portion of fuel rod is constituted as partial length fuel rods (P-fuel rods) in which the entire stack length in the effective portion is made shorter by reducing the concentration of fissionable materials in the axial portion. A plurality of moderator rods are disposed at least on one diagonal line of a fuel assembly and P-fuel rods are arranged at a position put between the moderator rods. This makes it possible to reactor shutdown and makes the axial power distribution satisfactory even if the fuel enrichment degree is increased. (T.M.)

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    As neutron irradiation progresses on a fuel assembly of an FBR type reactor, a strong force is exerted to cause ruptures if the arrangement of fuel elements is not displaced, whereas the fuel elements may be brought into direct contact with each other not by way of spacers to cause burning damages if the arrangement is displaced. In the present invention, the circumference of fuel elements arranged in a normal triangle lattice is surrounded by a wrapper tube having a hexagonal cross section, wire spacers are wound therearound, and deformable spacers are distributed to optional positions for fuel elements in the wrapper tube. Interaction between the fuel elements caused by irradiation is effectively absorbed, thereby enabling to delay the occurrence of the rupture and burning damages of the elements. (N.H.)

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto.

    1991-01-01

    In a fuel assembly in which spectral shift type moderator guide members are arranged, the moderator guide member has a flow channel resistance member, that provides flow resistance against the moderators, in the upstream of a moderator flowing channel, by which the ratio of removing coolants is set greater at the upstream than downstream. With such a constitution, the void distribution increasing upward in the channel box except for the portion of the moderator guide member is moderated by the increase of the area of the void region that expands downward in the guide member. Accordingly, the axial power distribution is flattened throughout the operation cycle and excess distortion is eliminated to improve the fuel integrity. (T.M.)

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataumi, Kazutoshi; Tajiri, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, a pellet to be loaded comprises an external layer of fissile materials containing burnable poisons and an internal layer of fissile materials not containing burnable poison. For example, there is provided a dual type pellet comprising an external layer made of UO 2 incorporated with Gd 2 O 3 at a predetermined concentration as the burnable poisons and an internal layer made of UO 2 not containing Gd 2 O 3 . The amount of the burnable poisons required for predetermined places is controlled by the thickness of the ring of the external layer. This can dissipate an unnecessary poisoning effect at the final stage of the combustion cycle. Further, since only one or a few kinds of powder mixture of the burnable poisons and the fissile materials is necessary, production and product control can be facilitated. (I.N.)

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Oyama, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a first group are disposed in a region in adjacent with a water rod having a large diameter (neutron moderator rod) disposed to the central portion of a fuel assembly. Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a second group are disposed to a region other than peripheral zone in adjacent with a channel box and corners positioned at an inner zone, in adjacent with the channel box. The average concentration of burnable poisons of the burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of the first group is made greater than that of the second group. With such a constitution, when the burnable poisons of the first group are burnt out, the burnable poisons of the second group are also burnt out at the same time. Accordingly, an amount of burnable poisons left unburnt at the final stage of the operation cycle is reduced, to improve the reactivity. This can improve the economical property. (I.N.)