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Sample records for nicotine chewing gum

  1. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Aslani; Sahar Rafiei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Materials and Methods: Nicotine, sugar, liquid...

  2. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rafiei, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Nicotine, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, different sweetening and taste-masking agents, and a flavoring agent were added to the gum bases at appropriate temperature. The medicated gums were cut into pieces of suitable size and coated by acacia aqueous solution (2% w/v), sugar dusting, followed by acacia-sugar-calcium carbonate until a smooth surface was produced. The gums' weight variation and content uniformity were determined. The release of nicotine was studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using a mastication device which simulated the mastication of chewing gum in human. The Latin Square design was used for the evaluation of organoleptic characteristics of the formulations at different stages of development. Most formulations released 79-83% of their nicotine content within 20 min. Nicotine-containing sugar-coated gums in which aspartame as sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as flavoring agents were incorporated (i.e. formulations F(19-SC) and F(20-SC), respectively) had optimal chewing hardness, adhering to teeth, and plumpness characteristics, as well as the most pleasant taste and highest acceptability to smokers. Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  3. Effect of urinary pH and nicotine excretion rate on plasma nicotine during cigarette smoking and chewing nicotine gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, C.; Russell, M. A. H.

    1978-01-01

    1 Plasma nicotine levels produced by chewing nicotine gum were compared with those obtained by cigarette smoking under conditions of controlled urinary pH. 2 Although absorption was slower, plasma levels comparable to cigarette smoking were built up on 4 mg (but not 2 mg) nicotine gum. 3 Urinary excretion of nicotine was influenced markedly by pH and the rate of urine flow. 4 Plasma nicotine was higher under alkaline compared to acidic conditions (P < 0.001) but the rate of urinary nicotine excretion appeared to have little effect on the plasma level.

  4. Nicotine chewing gum (2 mg, 4 mg) and cigarette smoking: comparative effects upon vigilance and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A C; Winder, G

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen male smokers, abstinent the morning before testing, were assessed under four conditions: placebo chewing gum, 2 mg nicotine chewing gum, 4 mg nicotine gum, and cigarette smoking. Placebo gum was administered in the cigarette condition, while sham smoking occurred in the gum conditions. Pre-drug administration and post-drug difference scores were calculated for each assessment measure: rapid visual information processing (RVIP), memory for new information, and heart rate. Nicotine raised heart rate in a significant monotonic dose-related manner (P less than 0.001): placebo +0.2; 2 mg gum +5.1; 4 mg gum +9.8; cigarette +17.5 bpm. Rapid visual information processing target detections were also significantly related to dose (P less than 0.01), with this increased vigilance significant under 4 mg nicotine gum and cigarette smoking. Memory task performance was not significantly affected. Self-reported feelings of alertness/energy were higher while smoking than under placebo or 4 mg gum. Complaints about the taste of the 4 mg nicotine gum were frequent.

  5. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  6. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroea Geoffrey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C and human saliva (D. Methods Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*, red-green (a and yellow-blue (b. Results Medicated chewing gums (A and B removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. Conclusion The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking.

  7. Effects of nicotine gum on psychomotor performance in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, I; Kerr, J S; Sherwood, N

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nicotine on human performance. In the first study six smokers, who had been allowed to smoke normally prior to testing, completed a battery of psychometric tests (choice reaction time, memory scanning, tracking and flicker fusion threshold) at set points over 4 h after chewing 0, 2, or 4 mg nicotine polacrilex gum. A second study followed a similar design, but used five non-smoker volunteers who were required to chew only the 0 or 2 mg nicotine gum. Blood nicotine levels following the gum were measured in all subjects. The results indicate that additional nicotine improved both the speed and accuracy of motor activity among the smokers, but did not enhance central cognitive processes. No drug effects were found in the non-smoker study.

  8. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael; Hasler-Nguyen, Nathalie; Saroea, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B) on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whi...

  9. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences.

  10. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and..., Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.615 Chewing gum base. The food additive chewing gum base... substances listed in paragraph (a) of this section, chewing gum base may also include substances generally...

  11. Gummed-up memory: Chewing gum impairs short-term recall

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity...

  12. Herbal-caffeinated chewing gum, but not bubble gum, improves aspects of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matthew G

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that standard chewing gum can affect aspects of both attention and memory. The present study examined the effects of Think Gum®, a caffeinated-herbal chewing gum, on both concentration and memory using a series of paper-based and online testing. Compared to standard chewing gum and a no-gum control, chewing caffeinated-herbal gum during testing improved aspects of memory, but did not affect concentration. The findings suggest that caffeinated-herbal chewing gum is an effective memory aid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An investigation into the effects of nicotine gum on short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S; Fox, P

    1998-12-01

    Using a between-subjects 2x2x2 factorial design, 60 smokers and 60 non-smokers (equal number of males and females) performed a short-term memory task requiring delayed free recall of a visually presented supraspan word list. Using a double-blind procedure, half the subjects chewed nicotine gum and the other half chewed placebo gum prior to performing the memory task. Results support previous research findings which show that nicotine significantly improves short-term memory. Sex differences were also investigated, but findings showed no significant differences between male and female subjects. Methodological considerations are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  14. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.

  15. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: the independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2008-05-01

    Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing gum induced context-dependent memory effect. At learning and/or recall, participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context-dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect. This is found despite participants' subjective ratings indicating a perceived change in state following administration of flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips. Additionally, some preliminary evidence for a non-additive facilitative effect of receiving gum or flavour at either learning and/or recall is reported. The findings raise further concerns regarding the robustness of the previously reported context-dependent memory effect with chewing gum.

  16. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kate; Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in post-task self-rated alertness scores. The declines in both performance and subjective alertness were attenuated in the chewing-gum group. In particular, correct RTs were significantly shorter following the chewing of gum in the latter stages of the task. Additionally, the gradients of decline for target detection and incline for correct RTs were both attenuated for the chewing-gum group. These findings are consistent with the data of Tucha and Simpson (2011), Appetite, 56, 299-301, who showed beneficial effects of chewing gum in the latter stages of a 30 min visual attention task, and extend their data to a task that necessitates the continuous updating of order memory. It is noteworthy that our data contradict the claim (Kozlov, Hughes, & Jones, 2012, Q. J. Exp. Psychology, 65, 501-513) that chewing gum negatively impacts short-term memory task performance. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jess R; Bezance, Jessica B; Zellaby, Ella; Aggleton, John P

    2004-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether chewing spearmint gum can affect the initial learning or subsequent recall of a word list. Comparing those participants in Experiment 1 who chewed gum at the learning or the recall phases showed that chewing gum at initial learning was associated with superior recall. In addition, chewing gum led to context-dependent effects as a switch between gum and no gum (or no gum and gum) between learning and recall led to poorer performance. Experiment 2 provided evidence that sucking gum was sufficient to induce some of the same effects as chewing.

  18. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: The independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing-gum induced context-dependent memory effect (Baker et al, 2004). At learning and/or recall participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect. This is found despite participants’ su...

  19. Phytase application in chewing gum - A technical assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    either prior to ingestion, i.e. in the food, or post ingestion, i.e. in the human gastrointestinal tract. We have assessed the technical aspects of formulation and release of phytase added to chewing gum as a delivery vehicle. Phytases from Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli incorporated into chewing...... gum were released quantitatively upon chewing and retained phytase activity (50-80% of the enzyme activity added was released within 10 minutes). Initial evaluations of phytase chewing gum shelf life showed good stability after 48 days of storage of the chewing gum at ambient conditions....

  20. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution.

  1. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  2. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  3. Gum chewing and cognition : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, L.I.; Koerts, J.

    In recent years, there was a debate about the effects of gum chewing on various aspects of cognitive functioning. In this review, the results of previous studies are presented and summarized. There is a clear indication that gum chewing can improve various aspects of cognitive functioning including

  4. Brief Report: Gum Chewing Affects Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…

  5. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory effects: a re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Christopher; Johnson, Andrew J

    2007-03-01

    Two experiments re-examined whether chewing spearmint gum affects initial word learning and/or immediate recall for a word list. Both experiments failed to show effects of chewing gum at learning or recall, nor did they suggest that chewing gum produces a context-dependent memory effect. This was true when extraneous contextual cues at learning and recall were minimised (Experiment 2). Together, the data are inconsistent with [Wilkinson, L., Scholey, A. & Wesnes, K. (2002). Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers. Appetite, 38, 235-236.] claim that chewing gum aids immediate recall of visually presented words. Our results are consistent with [Baker, J. R., Bezance, J. B., Zellaby, E. & Aggleton, J. P. (2004). Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory. Appetite, 43, 207-210.] finding that chewing gum of itself is not a sufficient condition to provoke context-dependent learning with immediate testing.

  6. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior.WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum, sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum, and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum. Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored.We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum.These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.

  7. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and

  8. Effect of gum hardness on chewing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, O; Bishop, B; McCall, W

    1986-06-01

    Chewing rhythms are set by a putative central pattern generator whose output is influenced by sensory feedback. In this study we assessed how an altered feedback imposed by changing the hardness of a gum bolus modifies the timing of chewing, the maximal gape, and the activity in the masseter muscle on the chewing side. Ten adult subjects with no orofacial dysfunction chewed a standard piece of soft or hard gum for at least 3 min in random order. Vertical jaw movements were recorded with a kinesiograph and activity of the masseter muscle was recorded and integrated from surface EMG electrodes. The subjects sat in a dental chair and viewed a video lecture to distract their attention from chewing; they were instructed to chew on the right molars. Cycle-by-cycle analysis showed that 9 of the 10 subjects chewed the hard gum more slowly than the soft with no significant change in gape. The increases in cycle duration were due to changes in the duration of the opening and occlusal phases. The duration of closing was not significantly changed even though the duration and level of masseter activity were both significantly increased. We conclude that gum hardness by altering proprioceptive feedback modifies the output of the masticatory central pattern generator in such a way that the temporal aspects of chewing and the output of the masseteric motor pool are affected.

  9. Masticatory performance alters stress relief effect of gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Matsuka, Yoshizo

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of gum chewing on the response to psychological stress induced by a calculation task and investigated the relationship between this response and masticatory performance. Nineteen healthy adult volunteers without dental problems undertook the Uchida-Kraepelin (UK) test (30 min of reiterating additions of one-digit numbers). Before and immediately after the test, saliva samples were collected from the sublingual area of the participants. Three min after the UK test, the participants were made to chew flavorless gum for 3 min, and the final saliva samples were collected 10 min after the UK test. The experiment was performed without gum chewing on a different day. Masticatory performance was evaluated using color-changing chewing gum. Salivary CgA levels at immediately and 10 min after the UK test were compared with and without gum chewing condition. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant interaction between gum chewing condition and changes in CgA levels during post 10 min UK test period. A significant correlation was found between changes in CgA levels and masticatory performance in all participants. Our results indicate that gum chewing may relieve stress responses; however, high masticatory performance is required to achieve this effect. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gum chewing affects academic performance in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewing gum may have an impact on improved memory during specific tasks of recognition and sustained attention. Research objective was to determine the effect of gum chewing on standardized test scores and math class grades of eighth grade students. Four math classes, 108 students, were randomized i...

  11. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  12. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.

  13. Chewing gum: cognitive performance, mood, well-being, and associated physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Smith, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.

  14. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine is found in: Chewing tobacco Cigarettes E-cigarettes Liquid nicotine Nicotine gum (Nicorette) Nicotine patches (Habitrol, Nicoderm) Pipe tobacco Some insecticides Tobacco leaves Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  15. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K.; Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C..

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in p...

  16. Chewing gum benefits sustained attention in the absence of task degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Muneem, Mohammed; Miles, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the effect of chewing gum on sustained attention and associated changes in subjective alertness. In a within-participants design, 20 participants completed an extended version of the sustained attention response task (SART: Robertson et al., 1997), both with and without chewing gum. Self-rated measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were taken before and after the SART. Chewing gum was associated with improved attentional task performance. This finding was not contingent upon a general decrease in attentional performance and was apparent at all stages of the task. Subjective measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were higher following the chewing of gum. Changes in sustained attention co-varied with subjective alertness. The effects of chewing gum on attention and alertness are consistent with past literature and were not contingent on declines in attention. Additionally, we found evidence that gum-induced changes in self-rated alertness and attention are related. We found no support for the proposition that chewing gum can impair attention due to the division of resources.

  17. Chew on this: No support for facilitating effects of gum on spatial task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Ingo W; Gittler, Georg; Waldherr, Karin; Pietschnig, Jakob

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether chewing of gum facilitates spatial task performance in healthy participants, two behavioral experiments were performed. In the first experiment, spatial task performance of 349 men and women preceding and after treatment administration (saccharated chewing gum, sugar-free chewing gum, no chewing gum) was assessed using effect modeling by means of Item Response Theory. In the second experiment, another 100 participants were either administered sugar-free chewing gum or no chewing gum during spatial task performance. Effects of gum in the second study were assessed by standard means of data analysis. Results indicated no significant effects of either chewing gum or sugar on spatial task performance in either experiment. Our findings are consistent with recent studies investigating the influences of chewing gum on various memory functions, extending them by another measure of cognitive ability. Thus, further doubt is cast on enhancing effects of chewing gum on cognitive task performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of chewing gum and time-on-task on alertness and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A P; Smith, A P

    2012-07-01

    Chewing gum has been shown to reliably increase subjective alertness whereas the effects on attention are more variable. It has been suggested that chewing gum only enhances attention when the person has been performing a task for some time. The current research aimed to investigate if time-on-task trends enhancing effects of chewing gum could be observed in alertness and attention during and following chewing. Study 1 used tests of reported mood, including reported mood, and tests of attention (categoric search, focussed attention, simple reaction time, and vigilance). These tasks were performed shortly after the start of chewing. Study 2 examined effects of previous and current chewing on reported alertness and the attention tests. Study 1 showed that chewing gum increased reported alertness and hedonic tone and improved performance on the categoric search task. Chewing gum maintained reported alertness across sessions in study 2. In the first experimental session of study 2 gum improved categoric search performance, and during the second session gum broadened focus of attention and quickened vigilance reaction time. This effect on vigilance reaction time was moderated by time-on-task, with an initial negative effect being replaced by a positive effect. The results confirm the robust effect of chewing gum on reported alertness and show that changes in the effects of chewing gum on attention require further investigation. Future research may also determine underlying mechanisms for an alerting effect.

  19. Effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, heart rate, EEG and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Jacob, Tim J C; Smith, Andrew P

    2014-06-22

    Research has shown that chewing gum improves attention, although the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. This study investigated the effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, mood, heart rate and EEG. Participants completed a vigilance task four times; at baseline, with or without chewing gum, and twice post-chewing. EEG alpha and beta power at left frontal and temporal lobes, subjective mood and heart rate were assessed. Chewing gum shortened reaction time and increased the rate of hits, although hits fell during the second post-chewing task. Chewing gum heightened heart rate, but only during chewing. Gum also increased beta power at F7 and T3 immediately post-chewing, but not following the post-chewing tasks. The findings show that chewing gum affects several different indicators of alertness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of chewing gum resistance on immediate free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Sarah; Johnson, Andrew; Miles, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Effects of caffeine in chewing gum on mood and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research has shown that even small doses (attention tasks. Previous studies have given the caffeine in a variety of beverages or in capsules and it was of interest to see whether similar effects could be observed when the caffeine was given in gum. In addition, chewing gum has been shown to have behavioural effects and the present study extended our knowledge of this topic. To compare the effects of caffeinated gum (40 mg), placebo gum and no gum conditions on mood and attention. A double blind placebo controlled study was conducted with volunteers being randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Baseline measures of mood and attention were taken prior to chewing and a test session was then conducted. One hundred and eighteen young adults participated in the study. Caffeinated gum was associated with a more positive mood and better performance on tasks requiring sustained attention. The caffeine improved the speed of encoding of new information which is consistent with previous findings. Chewing placebo gum was also found to be associated with more positive mood, both shortly after chewing and at the end of the study. The implications of the present study are that chewing caffeinated gum has been shown to improve performance efficiency and mood by its alerting and energising effects. The profile of caffeine effects is what one would predict from the existing caffeine literature and such effects may be extremely beneficial in real-life situations. Prior chewing of placebo gum was associated with a more positive mood and this also confirms previous findings.

  2. In situ effect of CPP-ACP chewing gum upon erosive enamel loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Ribeiro Barros de ALENCAR

    Full Text Available Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI – Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII – Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII – No chewing gum (control. Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day. After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm. Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p0.05. Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.

  3. Process development for spray drying of sticky pharmaceuticals; case study of bioadhesive nicotine microparticles for compressed medicated chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Henrik Stillhof; Søgaard, Susanne Roslev

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying of pharmaceutical compounds with sticky properties is a challenging task and may require substantial time and resources. By including small-scale studies of single droplet drying kinetics a relatively high number of experiments with less material is allowed. This means one can constr...... chewing gum. By illustration of initial studies on single droplet drying kinetics, subsequent characterization of microparticles, and final characterization of compressed chewing gum this paper summarizes the entire development process....

  4. Design, formulation, and evaluation of ginger medicated chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Ginger chewing gum comprises admissible properties to be used as a modern drug delivery system due to its advantageous results in motion sickness. It passed all the specified tests for an acceptable chewing gum. Thus, it may be successfully produced to help GI problems.

  5. Dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    We conducted an Internet survey in 2004-2007 in 526 daily users of the nicotine gum, to assess use of, and dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers. We used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS-G), the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS-G) and the Fagerström Test (FTND-G). After 30 days, 155 participants (29%) indicated their gum use. Higher dependence on the gum predicted a lower chance of stopping using it at follow-up (odds ratio=0.36 for each standard deviation unit on CDS-G, p=0.001). More long-term (>3 months) than short-term (dependence on the gum than short-term users, as assessed with NDSS-Gum, CDS-Gum and FTND-Gum (all pdependence on the nicotine gum. Lower levels of dependence on the gum predicted cessation of gum use. However, long term use of the nicotine gum has no known serious adverse consequence, and may be beneficial if it prevents late relapse.

  6. The potential of dental-protective chewing gum in oral health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Kiet A; Milgrom, Peter; Rothen, Marilynn

    2008-05-01

    The authors provide an overview of chewing gum as a delivery vehicle for dental-protective agents, highlighting xylitol and its potential application in caries-prevention programs for children. The authors reviewed selected clinical investigations and previous reviews associated with chewing gum containing substances such as calcium, bicarbonate, carbamide, chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol and their effects on reducing caries. They searched the MEDLINE database by using the key words "dental caries," "oral health," "calcium," "bicarbonate," "carbamide," "chlorhexidine," "fluoride" and "xylitol." Chewing gum is being used as a delivery vehicle for substances such as calcium, bicarbonate, carbamide, chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol to improve oral health and reduce caries. These substances exhibit properties that are protective of the oral environment and mediate common oral diseases. The debate for advocating xylitol use in caries prevention is advancing; however, chewing gum use by young schoolchildren in the United States is hindered by choking hazard concerns and lack of specific xylitol dosing recommendations. The use of chewing gum containing dental-protective substances, particularly xylitol, in caries-prevention programs can reduce the tooth decay epidemic. Chewing gum use by children in the school setting should be reconsidered.

  7. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on w...

  8. Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these

  9. Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by chewing gum with added calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fan; Shen, Peiyan; Walker, Glenn D; Reynolds, Coralie; Yuan, Yi; Reynolds, Eric C

    2009-10-01

    Chewing sugar-free gum has been shown to promote enamel remineralization. Manufacturers are now adding calcium to the gum in an approach to further promote enamel remineralization. The aim of this study was to compare the remineralization efficacy of four sugar-free chewing gums, two containing added calcium, utilizing a double-blind, randomized, crossover in situ model. The sugar-free gums were: Trident Xtra Care, Orbit Professional, Orbit and Extra. Ten subjects wore removable palatal appliances with four human-enamel half-slab insets containing subsurface demineralized lesions. For four times a day for 14 consecutive days subjects chewed one of the chewing gums for 20min. After each treatment the enamel slabs were removed, paired with their respective demineralized control slabs, embedded, sectioned and mineral level determined by microradiography. After 1-week rest the subjects chewed another of the four gums and this was repeated until each subject had used the four gum products. Chewing with Trident Xtra Care resulted in significantly higher remineralization (20.67+/-1.05%) than chewing with Orbit Professional (12.43+/-0.64%), Orbit (9.27+/-0.59%) or Extra (9.32+/-0.35%). The form of added calcium in Trident Xtra Care was CPP-ACP and that in Orbit Professional calcium carbonate with added citric acid/citrate for increased calcium solubility. Although saliva analysis confirmed release of the citrate and calcium from the Orbit Professional gum the released calcium did not result in increased enamel remineralization over the normal sugar-free gums. These results highlight the importance of calcium ion bioavailability in the remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions in situ.

  10. Role of glucose in chewing gum-related facilitation of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Tunney, Richard J

    2004-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that chewing gum leads to cognitive benefits through improved delivery of glucose to the brain, by comparing the cognitive performance effects of gum and glucose administered separately and together. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests in a fully related 2 x 2 design, where one factor was Chewing Gum (gum vs. mint sweet) and the other factor was Glucose Co-administration (consuming a 25 g glucose drink vs. consuming water). For four tests (AVLT Immediate Recall, Digit Span, Spatial Span and Grammatical Transformation), beneficial effects of chewing and glucose were found, supporting the study hypothesis. However, on AVLT Delayed Recall, enhancement due to chewing gum was not paralleled by glucose enhancement, suggesting an alternative mechanism. The glucose delivery model is supported with respect to the cognitive domains: working memory, immediate episodic long-term memory and language-based attention and processing speed. However, some other mechanism is more likely to underlie the facilitatory effect of chewing gum on delayed episodic long-term memory.

  11. Cardiovascular responses in humans to experimental chewing of gums of different consistencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farella, M; Bakke, M; Michelotti, A; Marotta, G; Martina, R

    1999-10-01

    Although the cardiovascular effects of exercise have been extensively investigated in man, little attention has been paid to such responses to jaw muscle activity. The aim here was to investigate the general cardiovascular effects of chewing activity in a single-blind, cross-over design. Ten healthy individuals performed one of the following chewing tasks in four separate sessions: chewing a very hard gum, chewing a moderately hard gum, chewing a soft gum, and "empty chewing" without a bolus. Unilateral chewing of gum or empty chewing was performed for 20 min on the participant's most convenient chewing side at a constant rate of 80 cycles/min. In each session, heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded together with electromyographic activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles on the chewing side. Ratings of perceived masticatory fatigue were recorded with visual analogue scales. The heart rate and blood pressure were significantly increased (ANOVA; p chewing tasks and the increases were, in parallel with the muscle activity, more pronounced the harder the gum. With the very hard gum, heart rate increased by up to 11 beats/min, the systolic blood pressure was 14 mmHg (1.9kPa) higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was 11 mmHg (1.5kPa) higher. The perceived fatigue was proportional to the level of muscle activity. After 10 min of recovery from exercise, heart rate and arterial blood pressures were slightly but still significantly elevated. The results demonstrate that chewing is associated with general circulatory effects proportional to the bolus resistance.

  12. Evidence against memorial facilitation and context-dependent memory effects through the chewing of gum

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment examined the prediction that chewing gum at learning and/or recall facilitated subsequent word recall. Chewing gum at learning significantly impaired recall, indicating that the chewing of gum has a detrimental impact upon initial word encoding. In addition, a context-dependent memory effect was reported for those participants who both learned and recalled in the absence of gum, however a context dependent effect was not found with chewing gum. The findings contradict previous ...

  13. Chewing gum benefits sustained attention in the absence of task degradation.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Muneem, M.; Miles, C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the effect of chewing gum on sustained attention and associated changes in subjective alertness. METHODS: In a within-participants design, 20 participants completed an extended version of the sustained attention response task (SART: Robertson et al., 1997), both with and without chewing gum. Self-rated measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were taken before and after the SART. RESULTS: Chewing gum was associated with improved attentional tas...

  14. Xylitol Chewing Gums on the Market: Do They Prevent Caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanzi, Abrar; Soderling, Eva; Varghese, Anisha; Honkala, Eino

    To measure the xylitol content in sugar-free chewing gums available on the market in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the Middle East, in order to identify those products that can provide the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention (6-7 g). Acid production from chewing gums was also measured in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-one chewing gums containing xylitol were identified and collected from the GCC market (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman). Xylitol was extracted and its concentration was analysed using a special enzymatic kit. The pH of extracts was measured during 30-min incubation with Streptococcus mutans. Changes in saliva and plaque pH were noted in four subjects after the consumption of highly concentrated xylitol gums. The xylitol content in grams was clearly mentioned only on one product's label. Twelve products stated the percentage of xylitol (3.5% to 35%). The rest did not specify the amount. The mean measured weight of one piece of gum was 1.67 ± 0.38 g. The mean measured xylitol content/piece was 0.33 ± 0.21 g. Xylitol content was 0.5 g in 5 products. None of the highly concentrated xylitol gums showed a pH drop in vitro or in vivo. One chewing gum, containing xylitol and glucose, resulted in a low pH level (xylitol chewing gums sold on the GCC market do not provide the consumers with the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention. Clear, accurate labeling is recommended.

  15. Evidence against memorial facilitation and context-dependent memory effects through the chewing of gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    The experiment examined the prediction that chewing gum at learning and/or recall facilitated subsequent word recall. Chewing gum at learning significantly impaired recall, indicating that the chewing of gum has a detrimental impact upon initial word encoding. In addition, a context-dependent memory effect was reported for those participants who both learned and recalled in the absence of gum; however, a context-dependent effect was not found with chewing gum. The findings contradict previous research.

  16. Chewing gum, occupational stress, work performance and wellbeing. An intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Chaplin, Katherine; Wadsworth, Emma

    2012-06-01

    An intervention study was carried out to examine the effects of chewing gum on occupational stress and related outcomes. 101 volunteers from Cardiff University completed the study. The results showed that chewing gum reduced stress (both at work and outside work), reduced fatigue, reduced anxiety and depression and led to a more positive mood. Chewing gum was also associated with perceptions of better performance (both at work and outside). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of excessive chewing gum use on headache frequency and severity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watemberg, Nathan; Matar, Manar; Har-Gil, Miki; Mahajnah, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gum-chewing is underreported as a headache precipitant in children and adolescents. We evaluated the influence of daily excessive gum-chewing in older children and teenagers with chronic headache, emphasizing the impact of habit discontinuation and its reintroduction. Patients with chronic headache and excessive gum-chewing were consecutively recruited and asked to fill questionnaire pertaining headache characteristics, potential triggers, family history of headaches, and gum-chewing habits. These individuals were classified into four groups depending on the number of daily hours of gum-chewing. All children discontinued chewing for 1 month, reintroduced the habit, and were reinterviewed after 2 to 4 weeks. Thirty patients (25 girls) were recruited. Median age was 16 years. Most had migraine-like headaches. Following gum-chewing discontinuation, 26 reported significant improvement, including headache resolution in 19. All 20 patients reinstituting the habit reported symptom relapse within days. Duration of headache before discontinuation and the number of daily hours of chewing had no influence on the response to habit discontinuation. Excessive daily gum-chewing may be associated with chronic headache and should get more attention in the medical literature. Physician and patient awareness of this association could have a meaningful impact on the quality of life of children and adolescents with chronic headache who chew gum excessively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may improve aspects of cognitive function and mood. There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress. It is important, therefore, to examine these two areas and to determine whether contextual factors (chewing habit, type of gum, and personality) modify such effects. The aims of the present study were: (i) to determine whether chewing gum improved mood and mental performance; (ii) to determine whether chewing gum had benefits in stressed individuals; and (iii) to determine whether chewing habit, type of gum and level of anxiety modified the effects of gum. A cross-over study involving 133 volunteers was carried out. Each volunteer carried out a test session when they were chewing gum and without gum, with order of gum conditions counterbalanced across subjects. Baseline sessions were conducted prior to each test session. Approximately half of the volunteers were tested in 75 dBA noise (the stress condition) and the rest in quiet. Volunteers were stratified on chewing habit and anxiety level. Approximately, half of the volunteers were given mint gum and half fruit gum. The volunteers rated their mood at the start and end of each session and had their heart rate monitored over the session. Saliva samples were taken to allow cortisol levels (good indicator of alertness and stress) to be assayed. During the session, volunteers carried out tasks measuring a range of cognitive functions (aspects of memory, selective and sustained attention, psychomotor speed and accuracy). Chewing gum was associated with greater alertness and a more positive mood. Reaction times were quicker in the gum condition, and this effect became bigger as the task became more difficult. Chewing gum also improved selective and sustained attention. Heart rate and cortisol levels were higher when chewing which confirms the alerting effect of chewing gum. Overall, the results suggest that chewing gum produces a number of benefits that are

  19. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...... and tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  20. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christrup, L L; Angelo, H R; Bonde, J; Kristensen, F; Rasmussen, S N

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum and tablets (p greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts.

  1. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami Nogourani, Maryam; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Kowsari Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2012-01-01

    Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women) healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1-3, and 3-6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (P salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  2. Nicotine Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine gum ... and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  3. Analysis of temporal variation in human masticatory cycles during gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Elizabeth A; Rothman, Edward D; Childers, David; Gerstner, Geoffrey E

    2013-10-01

    The study investigated modulation of fast and slow opening (FO, SO) and closing (FC, SC) chewing cycle phases using gum-chewing sequences in humans. Twenty-two healthy adult subjects participated by chewing gum for at least 20s on the right side and at least 20s on the left side while jaw movements were tracked with a 3D motion analysis system. Jaw movement data were digitized, and chewing cycle phases were identified and analysed for all chewing cycles in a complete sequence. All four chewing cycle phase durations were more variant than total cycle durations, a result found in other non-human primates. Significant negative correlations existed between the opening phases, SO and FO, and between the closing phases, SC and FC; however, there was less consistency in terms of which phases were negatively correlated both between subjects, and between chewing sides within subjects, compared with results reported in other species. The coordination of intra-cycle phases appears to be flexible and to follow complex rules during gum-chewing in humans. Alternatively, the observed intra-cycle phase relationships could simply reflect: (1) variation in jaw kinematics due to variation in how gum was handled by the tongue on a chew-by-chew basis in our experimental design or (2) by variation due to data sampling noise and/or how phases were defined and identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pressure production in oral vestibule during gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, M; Ono, T; Yoshinaka, M; Fujiwara, S; Yoshinaka, M; Maeda, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to record oral vestibule pressure (OVP) by the lip and cheek contraction during gum chewing, to examine the characteristics of these pressures and coordination between the OVP and jaw movement. The subjects were eight healthy adult men (mean age of 29·3 ± 3·3 years). An experimental plate that incorporated four pressure sensors on the midline of the upper jaw (Ch. 1), upper right canine (Ch. 2), upper right first molar (Ch. 3) and upper left first molar (Ch. 4) was used for measuring OVP. The right masseter electromyogram (EMG) was recorded simultaneously. Subjects chewed gum on the right side 20 times, and eight consecutive strokes were used for the analysis of the sequential order, maximal magnitude and duration of each OVP. Onset of OVP was observed at the molar on the non-chewing side (Ch. 4) before chewing side (Ch. 3), and offset was largely simultaneous at each site. On the chewing side (Chs. 1-3), OVP onset during the interval of EMG activity reached to the peak around the end of interval and offset in the duration of EMG activity. The maximal pressure was significantly larger at Chs. 1-3 than at Ch. 4, but no significant differences were observed in duration of pressure among each site. These results suggest that OVP is coordinated with jaw movement during gum chewing, and larger pressure is produced on the chewing side than on the non-chewing side. Our findings are quantitative indices for the evaluation of lip and cheek function during mastication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Gum chewing improves swallow frequency and latency in Parkinson patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Angela R; Somers, Stephanie M; Jog, Mandar S

    2010-04-13

    Reduced swallowing frequency affects secretion management in Parkinson disease (PD). Gum chewing increases saliva flow and swallow frequency. This study uses chewing gum to modify swallow frequency and latency between swallows in patients with PD. 1) Assess the frequency and latency of swallow at baseline (BL), during gum chewing (GC), and post gum chewing (PGC) for participants with PD (stage 2-4) nonsymptomatic for prandial dysphagia; and 2) assess carryover after gum is expectorated. Twenty participants were studied across 3 tasks, each of 5 minutes in duration: BL, GC, and PGC. Respiratory and laryngeal signals were continuously recorded using PowerLab (version 5.5.5; ADI Instruments, Castle Hill, Australia). Frequency and latency of swallow events were calculated. Differences (analysis of variance) are reported for frequency (p Parkinson disease. This study provides Class III evidence that chewing gum increases swallow frequency and decreases latency of swallowing in an experiment in patients with stage 2 to 4 Parkinson disease who are nonsymptomatic for significant prandial dysphagia.

  6. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established treatments. Further treatment options are needed since available treatments are often time consuming, expensive and limited regarding their external validity. Recent research demonstrated that gum chewing has beneficial effects on cognition including certain aspects of attention. Therefore, gum chewing may benefit children with ADHD in situations requiring particular cognitive efforts. In a crossover study, attentional functioning of 32 children with ADHD and 32 children without the condition was examined. All participants were assessed with chewing gum and without chewing gum. A computerized test was used for the assessment of vigilance and sustained attention. The findings of the present study suggest that gum chewing during task execution has detrimental effects on vigilance of both healthy children and children with ADHD. Sustained attention was not affected by gum chewing. Chewing gum, therefore, appears not to improve attentional performance in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-04-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The results revealed a significant main effect of time and a significant interaction between gum chewing and time. The findings suggest that gum chewing differentially affects attention performance. While gum chewing has detrimental effects on sustained attention in earlier stages of the task, beneficial effects on sustained attention were observed at later stages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluoride and urea chewing gums in an intra-oral experimental caries model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjogren, K; Ruben, J; Lingstrom, P; Lundberg, AB; Birkhed, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing fluoride (F) and urea in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Placebo chewing gums (without any active ingredient) and no gum served as controls. Fifteen subjects participated in a cross-over,

  9. Effect of Teucrium Polium-Containing Chewing Gum on Reducing Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Counts

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    Somayeh Khoramian Tusi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have reported the antibacterial effect of Teucrium polium extract. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of a chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 20 dental students were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group received a chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium, and the control group received a chewing gum without any plant extract. Each person chewed the gum for 20 minutes three times a day (after each meal for three weeks. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment before the use of the gums and one day after the final gum consumption. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR technique was employed to determine the bacterial level. The colonization rate of Streptococcus mutans was compared between the two groups by using t-test in SPSS, version 21. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of Streptococcus mutans counts before the intervention (P>0.05. The consumption of Teucrium polium extract-containing chewing gum in comparison with the placebo gum significantly diminished the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies (P=0.002. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium significantly lowered the colonization rate of Streptococcus mutans in human saliva.

  10. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

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    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  11. Properties of a color-changeable chewing gum used to evaluate masticatory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Yohei; Kanazawa, Manabu; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Uchida, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    To clarify the basic properties of a color-changeable chewing gum to determine its applicability to evaluations of masticatory performance under different types of dental status. Ten participants with natural dentition aged 26-30 years chewed gum that changes color during several chewing strokes over five repetitions. Changes in color were assessed using a colorimeter, and then L*, a*, and b* values in the CIELAB color system were quantified. Relationships between chewing progression and color changes were assessed using regression analysis and the reliability of color changes was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. We then measured 42 dentate participants (age, 22-31 years) and 47 complete denture wearers (age, 44-90 years) to determine the detectability of masticatory performance under two types of dental status. Regression between the number of chewing strokes and the difference between two colors was non-linear. The intraclass correlation coefficients were highest between 60 and 160 chewing strokes. Dentate and edentulous groups significantly differed (Wilcoxon rank sum test) and values were widely distributed within each group. The color of the chewing gum changed over a wide range, which was sufficient to evaluate the masticatory performance of individuals with natural dentition and those with complete dentures. Changes in the color values of the gum reliably reflected masticatory performance. These findings indicate that the color-changeable chewing gum will be useful for evaluating masticatory performance under any dental status. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gum chewing improves adolescents’ math performance in an SAT preparatory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of gum chewing on students’ performance in a preparatory course for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A total of 182 adolescents enrolled in an SAT preparatory class were randomized into one of two treatments: 1) gum chewing condition (G...

  13. Sugar-free chewing gum and dental caries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To appraise existing evidence for a therapeutic / anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum for patients. METHOD: 9 English and 2 Portuguese databases were searched using English and Portuguese keywords. Relevant articles in English, German, Portuguese and Spanish were included for review. Trials were excluded on lack of randomisation, control group, blinding and baseline data, drop out rate >33%, no statistical adjustment of baseline differences and no assessment of clinically important outcomes. Reviews were excluded on lack of information, article selection criteria, search strategy followed, search keywords, searched databases or lack of study-by-study critique tables. In cases of multiple reports from the same study, the report covering the longest period was included. Two reviewers independently reviewed and assessed the quality of accepted articles. RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were included for review. Thirty were excluded and 9 accepted. Of the 9 accepted, 2 trials of reasonable and good evidence value did not demonstrate any anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum. However, 7 articles, with 1 of strong, and 6 of good evidence value, demonstrated anti-cariogenic effects of chewing Sorbitol, Xylitol or Sorbitol/Xylitol gum. This effect can be ascribed to saliva stimulation through the chewing process, particularly when gum is used immediately after meals; the lack of sucrose and the inability of bacteria to metabolize polyols into acids. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that sugar-free chewing gum has a caries-reducing effect. Further well-designed randomised trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. The effect of chewing gum's flavor on salivary flow rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Nogourani, Maryam; Kowsari-Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini-Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2011-12-01

    Chewing sugar-free gums is a convenient way to increase salivary flow. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste) and mechanical (chewing) stimuli, and chewing gum can provide both of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five different flavors of sugar-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH. Fifteen dental students volunteered at the same time on six consecutive days, to collect one minute unstimulated saliva. After five minutes, while some volunteers continued to collect only unstimulated saliva, the others asked to start chewing one of the five flavored gums randomly. The flavors were spearmint, cinnamon, watermelon, strawberry, and apple. The whole saliva was collected over time periods of 0 - 1, 1 - 3, and 3 - 6 minutes, and the SFR and pH were also measured. The data were subjected to pair t-test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and Duncan tests. Compared to the unstimulated rate, all five different flavored gums significantly increased the SFR within six minutes. Although the flow rate peaked during the first minute of stimulation with all five products, it reduced gradually, but still remained above the unstimulated saliva, after six minutes. In the first minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest weight, yet, it only induced a significantly higher SFR compared to the cinnamon-flavored gums. During one to three minutes, strawberry and apple-flavored gums showed significantly higher SFR, respectively, compared to cinnamon-flavored gums. There were no significant differences in the flow rates elicited by each flavored gum through the three-to-six minute interval, although the spearmint-flavored gums induced slightly higher SFR. Only the spearmint and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased the salivary pH. Gum flavor can affect the SFR and special flavors may be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  15. Nasal nicotine solution: a potential aid to giving up smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Feyerabend, C; Fernö, O

    1983-01-01

    A nasal solution was developed containing 2 mg nicotine for use as a kind of liquid snuff. Its absorption was studied in three subjects. An average peak of plasma nicotine concentrations of 86.9 nmol/l (14.1 ng/ml) was reached seven and a half minutes after taking the solution. This compared with an average peak of 158.4 nmol/l (25.7 ng/ml) one and a half minutes after completing (but seven and a half minutes after starting) a middle tar cigarette (1.4 mg nicotine) and an average peak of 52.4 nmol/l (8.5 ng/ml) after chewing nicotine gum (2 mg nicotine) for 30 minutes. The more rapid and efficient absorption of nicotine from the nasal nicotine solution than from nicotine chewing gum suggests that it might prove a useful aid to giving up smoking. Nasal nicotine solution might be particularly useful in smokers for whom the gum is less suitable on account of dentures or peptic ulcers or who experience nausea and dyspeptic symptoms from the gum. PMID:6402202

  16. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  17. Rhythm and amplitude of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity during sleep in bruxers - comparison with gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinpei; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Mikami, Saki; Okada, Kazuki; Gotouda, Akihito; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) during sleep by comparing masseteric EMG (electromyogram) activities of RMMA with gum chewing. The parts of five or more consecutive phasic bursts in RMMA of 23 bruxers were analyzed. Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched pairs and Spearman's correlation coefficient by the rank test were used for statistical analysis. Root mean square value of RMMA phasic burst was smaller than that during gum chewing, but correlates to that of gum chewing. The cycle of RMMA was longer than that of gum chewing due to the longer burst duration of RMMA, and variation in the cycles of RMMA was wider. These findings suggest that the longer but smaller EMG burst in comparison with gum chewing is one of the characteristics of RMMA. The relation between size of RMMA phasic bursts and gum chewing is also suggested.

  18. Effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderling, Eva; ElSalhy, Mohamed; Honkala, Eino; Fontana, Margherita; Flannagan, Susan; Eckert, George; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Honkala, Sisko

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the salivary microbiota of children. The study was a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial. Healthy children used xylitol chewing gum (xylitol group, n = 35) or sorbitol chewing gum (control group, n = 38) for 5 weeks. The daily dose of xylitol/sorbitol was approximately 6 g/day. At baseline and at the end of the test period, unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated saliva were collected. The microbial composition of the saliva was assessed using human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM). Mutans streptococci (MS) were plate cultured. As judged by HOMIM results, no xylitol-induced changes in the salivary microbiota took place in the xylitol group. In the control group, Veillonella atypica showed a significant decrease (p = 0.0001). The xylitol gum chewing decreased viable counts of MS in both stimulated (p = 0.006) and unstimulated (p = 0.002) saliva, but similar effects were also seen in the control group. The use of xylitol gum decreased MS, in general, but did not change the salivary microbial composition. Short-term consumption of xylitol had no impact on the composition of the salivary microbiota, but resulted in a decrease in the levels of MS.

  19. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.

    1991-01-01

    Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free...... base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...

  20. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The

  1. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    release patterns, but with variations in the total amount released. Chewing gum formulated with cetirizine alone, demonstrated a release of 75% after 8 min of chewing. The presence of CDs resulted in increased cetirizine release. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that parameters with the most...... the statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated significance in the release (P

  2. Association between chewing-stimulated salivary flow under the effects of atropine and mixing ability assessed using a color-changeable chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Chieko; Kanazawa, Manabu; Hama, Yohei; Komagamine, Yuriko; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2017-10-01

    To assess the time course of chewing-stimulated salivary flow after oral atropine administration, and determine the association between chewing-stimulated salivary flow and mixing ability using color-changeable chewing gum in dentate adults. Ten healthy dentate adults were administered 1mg oral atropine to induce mouth dryness. The subjects' chewing-stimulated salivary flow was assessed using the Saxon test. They were then asked to rinse their mouth with tap water for 15s, and to chew on color-changeable chewing gum for 60s at a constant rate of 60 cycles per min. This procedure was performed before, and at 10-min intervals for up to 120min after the atropine administration. The experiment was repeated after 1 week. Steel's test was used to compare the chewing-stimulated salivary flow rates at each time point after atropine administration with the baseline value. The effect of the stimulated salivary flow rates on the degree of color change was analyzed using linear mixed effects models, with the stimulated salivary flow rates as fixed factors and subjects as the random factor. Chewing-stimulated salivary flow showed a significant decrease from 50 to 120min after oral atropine administration (Pchewing-stimulated salivary flow had a significant effect on the color change of the color-changeable chewing gum (Pchewing gum and chewing-stimulated salivary flow in dentate subjects. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chewing gum does not induce context-dependent memory when flavor is held constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Amy A; Sun, Justin; Golding, Abbe C; Prevost, Darius

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the effect of chewing gum on memory when flavor is held constant. Four separate groups of participants (total n=101) completed a word recall task. At learning and recall, participants either chewed a piece of gum or sucked a sweet. Each participant completed the memory task twice, once with abstract words and once with concrete words. A significant effect of word type (concrete vs. abstract) was found, however recall performance was not improved by matched oral activity at learning and recall. The results cast further doubt on the ability of chewing gum to induce context-dependent memory effects.

  4. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  5. The relative bioavailability of loratadine administered as a chewing gum formulation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr-Jensen, Lene; Damkier, Per; Bidstrup, Tanja Busk

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of loratadine and its active metabolite desloratadine after single-dose administration of loratadine as a conventional tablet, orally disintegrating tablet (smelt tablet) and a chewing gum formulation with and without...... of medicated chewing gum without collection of saliva and a 30-mg portion of medicated chewing gum with collection of saliva. Blood samples were taken at predefined sampling points 0-24 h after medication, and the plasma concentrations of loratadine and desloratadine were determined by high-performance liquid...... chromatography. Each study period was separated by a wash-out period of at least 7 days. RESULTS: The mean dose-corrected area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity AUC(0-infinity) for the chewing gum formulation was statistically significantly increased compared to the tablet...

  6. Effect of chewing gums containing the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on oral malodour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette K; Bardow, Allan; Jensdottir, Thorbjörg

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotic bacteria on oral malodour. The null hypothesis was that no difference would be displayed compared with placebo gums. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy young adults with self-reported malodorous morning breath completed...... this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The design included run-in and wash-out periods interspersed by two intervention periods of 14 days each. The subjects were instructed to chew one gum in the morning and one in the evening containing either two strains of probiotic lactobacilli (L...... lower in the probiotic group compared with the placebo group (p chewing...

  7. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches

  8. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis: comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, Casper P; Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Van Amerongen, Barbara M; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Valentijn, Robert M; Vos, Pieter F; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bezemer, Pieter D; ter Wee, Piet M

    2005-04-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White) and a xanthan gum-based artificial saliva (Xialine) in the management of xerostomia in chronic HD patients. Sixty-five HD patients participated in a 6-week crossover trial. The artificial saliva was rated significantly lower than the chewing gum for effectiveness, taste and a global assessment. No preference differences were found for gender and age, although older subjects rated the artificial saliva with a higher mark. Thirty-nine subjects (60%) preferred chewing gum, 15% (n=10) preferred the artificial saliva. Therefore, both chewing gum and artificial saliva could play an important role in the palliative care of xerostomia in HD patients.

  9. The release of vitamin C from chewing gum and its effects on supragingival calculus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingström, Peter; Fure, Solveig; Dinitzen, Bettina; Fritzne, Christina; Klefbom, Carin; Birkhed, Dowen

    2005-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate (i): whether vitamin C in chewing gum, alone or in combination with carbamide, influences calculus formation, and (ii) whether carbamide affects the release, stability and uptake of vitamin C in a chewing gum. In two test series (Series I and II), 30 subjects, all calculus formers, participated. They were instructed to chew on five (Series I) or 10 (Series II) pieces of gum per day for a period of 3 months. The chewing gums were: vitamin C (60 mg, Series I), non-vitamin C (Series I) and vitamin C + carbamide (30 mg + 30 mg, Series II). In both series, no gum was used as a negative control. Calculus formation was scored on three lingual sites on the six anterior mandibular teeth according to the Volpe-Manhold index. The effect on plaque and gingivitis was also determined. A significant reduction in the total calculus score was observed after the use of vitamin C (33%) and vitamin C + carbamide (12%) gums compared with no gum use; this reduction was most pronounced in the heavy calculus formers. A reduced amount of visible plaque was also observed after use of vitamin C and non-vitamin C gum, but only the vitamin C gum reduced the number of bleeding sites (37%). In a separate study, the release, stability and uptake of vitamin C were evaluated using the iodine titration method in both saliva and urine after exposure to the following gums: vitamin C + carbamide (30 mg + 30 mg) and vitamin C (30 mg). There was no indication that carbamide affected the release, stability or uptake of vitamin C when used in a chewing gum.

  10. Association between masticatory performance using a colour-changeable chewing gum and jaw movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komagamine, Y; Kanazawa, M; Minakuchi, S; Uchida, T; Sasaki, Y

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory performance as determined using a colour-changeable chewing gum and mandibular movements. Subjects comprised 45 fully dentate adults (23 men, 22 women; mean age, 28·1 years). The gum was chewed for a specified number of chewing strokes (20, 40, 60, 80, 120 or 160 strokes) without any instructions as to chewing side. A colourimeter was used to measure L*, a* and b* values (CIE-L*a*b* colour system) for the chewed gum, then the difference between two colours in the CIE-L*a*b* colour space (ΔE) for each number of chewing strokes was calculated according to a formula. Index of masticatory performance (ΔE60) for each subject was obtained using ΔE for 20, 40, 60, 80, 120 and 160 strokes. Mandibular movements were recorded using an opto-electric system with six degrees of freedom. Twelve parameters of mandibular movements relating to amplitude, duration, velocity and angle were computed for each cycle, and mean values for 10 cycles (from cycle 11 to 20) were calculated separately. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified maximum closing velocity and closing angle as predictors accounting for 18% of the variation in ΔE60. These results suggest that lower angles of approach to intercuspation and faster speed during closing duration are associated with colour changes in the colour-changeable chewing gum. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  12. Evaluation of accelerated stability test conditions for medicated chewing gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Lauretta; Conte, Ubaldo; Nhamias, Alain; Grenier, Pascal; Vergnault, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The overall stability of medicated chewing gums is investigated under different storage conditions. Active substances with different chemical stabilities in solid state are chosen as model drugs. The dosage form is a three layer tablet obtained by direct compression. The gum core contains the active ingredient while the external layers are formulated to prevent gum adhesion to the punches of the tableting machine. Two accelerated test conditions (40°C/75% RH and 30°C/65% RH) are performed for 6 months. Furthermore, a long-term stability test at room conditions is conducted to verify the predictability of the results obtained from the stress tests. Some drugs are stable in all the conditions tested, but other drugs, generally considered stable in solid dosage forms, have shown relevant stability problems particularly when stress test conditions are applied to this particular semi-solid dosage forms. For less stable drugs, the stress conditions of 40°C/75% RH are not always predictable of chewing gum stability at room temperature and may produce false negative; intermediate conditions, 30°C/65% RH, are more predictive for this purpose, the results of drug content found after 6 months at intermediate stress conditions and 12 months at room conditions are generally comparable. But the results obtained show that only long-term conditions stability tests gave consistent results. During aging, the semi solid nature of the gum base itself, may also influence the drug delivery rate during chewing and great attention should be given also to the dissolution stability.

  13. Effects of chewing gum on driving performance as evaluated by the STISIM driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ingyu; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Joo-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chewing gum on driving performance in a driving simulator. [Subjects] In total, 26 young licensed drivers participated. [Methods] The driving scenario was typical of an urban environment: a single-carriageway, two-way road consisting of a mix of curved and straight sections, with considerable levels of traffic, pedestrians, and parked cars. Mean distance driven above the speed limit, lane position, mean distance driven across the center line, and mean distance driven off the road were used as estimates of brake, accelerator, and steering control. The results were compared with those of a non-chewing gum control condition. [Results] The driving performance while chewing gum was significantly better: the mean distance driven above the speed limit was 26.61% shorter, and the mean distance driven off the road was 31.99% shorter. Lane position and mean distance driven across the center line did not differ significantly between the two conditions. [Conclusion] Chewing gum appears to enhance driving performance during a sustained attention driving task.

  14. Compatibility of chewing gum excipients with the amino acid L-cysteine and stability of the active substance in directly compressed chewing gum formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Alma; Björkqvist, Mikko; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Juppo, Anne Mari; Marvola, Martti; Sivén, Mia

    2008-09-01

    Using L-cysteine chewing gum to eliminate carcinogenic acetaldehyde in the mouth during smoking has recently been introduced. Besides its efficacy, optimal properties of the gum include stability of the formulation. However, only a limited number of studies exist on the compatibility of chewing gum excipients and stability of gum formulations. In this study we used the solid-state stability method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and isothermal microcalorimetry to investigate the interactions between L-cysteine (as a free base or as a salt) and excipients commonly used in gum. These excipients include xylitol, sorbitol, magnesium stearate, Pharmagum S, Every T Toco and Smily 2 Toco. The influence of temperature and relative humidity during a three-month storage period on gum formulation was also studied. Cysteine alone was stable at 25 degrees C/60% RH and 45 degrees C/75% RH whether stored in open or closed glass ambers. As a component of binary mixtures, cysteine base remained stable at lower temperature and humidity but the salt form was incompatible with all the studied excipients. The results obtained with the different methods corresponded with each other. At high temperature and humidity, excipient incompatibility with both forms of cysteine was obvious. Such sensitivity to heat and humidity during storage was also seen in studies on gum formulations. It was also found that cysteine is sensitive to high pressure and increase in temperature induced by compression. The results suggest that the final product should be well protected from temperature and humidity and, for example, cooling process before compression should be considered.

  15. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: (a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; (b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); (c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, the nicotine dependence syndrome scale, the cigarette dependence scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (≤3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the content of TiO2 nanoparticles in the coatings of chewing gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudefoi, William; Terrisse, Hélène; Popa, Aurelian Florin; Gautron, Eric; Humbert, Bernard; Ropers, Marie-Hélène

    2018-02-01

    Titanium dioxide is a metal oxide used as a white pigment in many food categories, including confectionery. Due to differences in the mass fraction of nanoparticles contained in TiO 2 , the estimated intakes of TiO 2 nanoparticles differ by a factor of 10 in the literature. To resolve this problem, a better estimation of the mass of nanoparticles present in food products is needed. In this study, we focused our efforts on chewing gum, which is one of the food products contributing most to the intake of TiO 2 . The coatings of four kinds of chewing gum, where the presence of TiO 2 was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, were extracted in aqueous phases. The extracts were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to establish their chemical composition, crystallinity and size distribution. The coatings of the four chewing gums differ chemically from each other, and more specifically the amount of TiO 2 varies from one coating to another. TiO 2 particles constitute the entire coating of some chewing gums, whereas for others, TiO 2 particles are embedded in an organic matrix and/or mixed with minerals like calcium carbonate, talc, or magnesium silicate. We found 1.1 ± 0.3 to 17.3 ± 0.9 mg TiO 2 particles per piece of chewing gum, with a mean diameter of 135 ± 42 nm. TiO 2 nanoparticles account for 19 ± 4% of all particles, which represents a mass fraction of 4.2 ± 0.1% on average. The intake of nanoparticles is thus highly dependent on the kind of chewing gum, with an estimated range extending from 0.04 ± 0.01 to 0.81 ± 0.04 mg of nano-TiO 2 per piece of chewing gum. These data should serve to refine the exposure scenario.

  17. Potential benefits of chewing gum for the delivery of oral therapeutics and its possible role in oral healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Maitra, Amarnath; Dodds, Michael W. J.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the years, chewing gum has developed from a candy towards an oral health-promoting nutraceutical. This review summarizes evidence for the oral health benefits of chewing gum, emphasizing identification of active ingredients in gum that facilitate prevention and removal of oral

  18. Mutanase-containing chewing gum: A new potential approach for prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Study on the effect of topically applied mutanase on plaque formation and caries in rats showed strong inhibition of dental caries. Furthermore, it has been shown that the presence of mutanase in dental plaque may affect the synthesis and structure of sticky, extracellular glucans. The Hypothesis: Mutanase can be easily added to gum base. After chewing of mutanase-containing chewing gum, the enzyme will be released into the oral cavity. Mutanase will hydrolyze sticky, extracellular glucans, e.g., mutan inhibiting cariogenic bacteria to cohere/adhere and form plaque. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The main challenge with this hypothesis is the source of mutanase. It can be obtained from Paenibacillus sp. MP-1 or Trichoderma harzianum F-340. Directly compressible medicated chewing gum bases can be used to avoid inactivation of mutanase during the manufacturing process.

  19. Effects of gum chewing on postoperative bowel motility after caesarean section: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y-P; Wang, W-J; Zhang, S-L; Dai, B; Ye, D-W

    2014-06-01

    Gum chewing has been reported to enhance bowel motility and reduce postoperative ileus (POI). However, the efficacy remains imprecise for women following caesarean section. To summarise and evaluate the current evidence for postoperative gum chewing on the recovery of bowel function following caesarean section. We searched studies from the following electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Cochrane Library from inception to 30 May 2013. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of women after caesarean section; these RCTs should compared gum chewing with no gum chewing and reported on at least one of the outcomes: time to flatus, time to bowel sound, time to passing stool and length of hospital stay (LOS). Study outcomes were presented as mean differences (for continuous data) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The risk of bias in the study results was assessed using the assessment tool from the Cochrane Handbook. Six RCTs including 939 women were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled results demonstrated that gum chewing is superior to no gum chewing with a reduction of 6.42 hours (95% CI -7.55 to -5.29) for time to first flatus, 3.62 hours (95% CI -6.41 to -0.83) for time to first bowel sound, 6.58 hours (95% CI -10.10 to -3.07) for time to first stool and 5.94 hours (95% CI -9.39 to -2.49) for LOS. In addition, no evidence emerged for any side effects caused by gum chewing. The current evidence suggests that gum chewing is associated with early recovery of bowel motility and shorter LOS for women after caesarean section. This safe and inexpensive intervention should be included in routine postoperative care following a caesarean section. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Effects of caffeinated chewing gum on muscle pain during submaximal isometric exercise in individuals with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Masataka; Kempka, Laura; Weatherby, Amy; Greenlee, Brennan; Mansion, Kimberly

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity is important to manage symptom of fibromyalgia (FM); however, individuals with FM typically experience augmented muscle pain during exercise. This study examined the effects of caffeinated chewing gum on exercise-induced muscle pain in individuals with FM. This study was conducted with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Twenty-three patients with FM completed a caffeine condition where they consumed a caffeinated chewing gum that contains 100mg of caffeine, and a placebo condition where they consumed a non-caffeinated chewing gum. They completed isometric handgrip exercise at 25% of their maximal strength for 3 min, and muscle pain rating (MPR) was recorded every 30s during exercise. Clinical pain severity was assessed in each condition using a pain questionnaire. The order of the two conditions was randomly determined. MPR increased during exercise, but caffeinated chewing gum did not attenuate the increase in MPR compared to placebo gum. Clinical pain severity was generally associated with the average MPR and the caffeine effects on MPR, calculated as difference in the average MPR between the two conditions. The results suggest that more symptomatic individuals with FM may experience greater exercise-induced muscle pain, but benefit more from caffeinated chewing gum to reduce exercise-induced muscle pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, R A F; Scherder, E J A; Visscher, C M; Gorissen, T; Yoshida, E; Lobbezoo, F

    2013-10-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital analysis algorithm was applied to a mixing ability test using two-coloured gum samples in a stepwise increased number of chewing cycles protocol (Experiment 1: n = 14; seven men, 19-63 years), a test-retest assessment (Experiment 2: n = 10; four men, 20-49 years) and compared to an established wax cubes mixing ability test (Experiment 3: n = 13; 0 men, 21-31 years). Data were analysed with repeated measures anova (Experiment 1), the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; Experiment 2) and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient (Experiment 3). The method was sensitive to increasing numbers of chewing cycles (F5,65 = 57·270, P = 0·000) and reliable in the test-retest (ICC value of 0·714, P = 0·004). There was no significant correlation between the two-coloured gum test and the wax cubes test. The two-coloured gum mixing ability test was able to adequately assess masticatory function and is recommended for use in a population of elderly persons with dementia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of Nicotine on Cognitive Performance in Non-smokers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotine was administered via chewing 4 mg nicotine gum for 15 minutes ... state examination MMSE), working memory (Two-back task, reaction time: 1 sec.) ... of the improvements increased significantly with decrease in baseline PS.

  3. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  4. Probiotic capsules and xylitol chewing gum to manage symptoms of pharyngitis: a randomized controlled factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Wingrove, Zoe; Mullee, Mark; Thomas, Tammy; Johnson, Sophie; Leydon, Gerry; Richards-Hall, Samantha; Williamson, Ian; Yao, Lily; Zhu, Shihua; Moore, Michael

    2017-12-18

    Reducing the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections is needed to limit the global threat of antibiotic resistance. We estimated the effectiveness of probiotics and xylitol for the management of pharyngitis. In this parallel-group factorial randomized controlled trial, participants in primary care (aged 3 years or older) with pharyngitis underwent randomization by nurses who provided sequential intervention packs. Pack contents for 3 kinds of material and advice were previously determined by computer-generated random numbers: no chewing gum, xylitol-based chewing gum (15% xylitol; 5 pieces daily) and sorbitol gum (5 pieces daily). Half of each group were also randomly assigned to receive either probiotic capsules (containing 24 × 10 9 colony-forming units of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or placebo. The primary outcome was mean self-reported severity of sore throat and difficulty swallowing (scale 0-6) in the first 3 days. We used multiple imputation to avoid the assumption that data were missing completely at random. A total of 1009 individuals consented, 934 completed the baseline assessment, and 689 provided complete data for the primary outcome. Probiotics were not effective in reducing the severity of symptoms: mean severity scores 2.75 with no probiotic and 2.78 with probiotic (adjusted difference -0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.24 to 0.24). Chewing gum was also ineffective: mean severity scores 2.73 without gum, 2.72 with sorbitol gum (adjusted difference 0.07, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.37) and 2.73 with xylitol gum (adjusted difference 0.01, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.30). None of the secondary outcomes differed significantly between groups, and no harms were reported. Neither probiotics nor advice to chew xylitol-based chewing gum was effective for managing pharyngitis. Trial registration: ISRCTN, no. ISRCTN51472596. © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  5. Short-term effect of chewing gums containing probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri on the levels of inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Derawi, Bilal; Keller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a chewing gum containing probiotic bacteria on gingival inflammation and the levels of selected inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy adults with moderate levels of gingival inflammation entered...... a double-blind placebo-controlled study design. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three parallel arms: Group A/P was given one active and one placebo gum daily, Group A/A received two active chewing gums, and Group P/P two placebo gums. The chewing gums contained two strains of Lactobacillus...... reuteri: ATCC 55730 and ATCC PTA 5289 (1 x 10(8) CFU/gum, respectively). The subjects were instructed to chew the gums for 10 min over the course of 2 weeks. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and GCF sampling were conducted at baseline and after 1, 2 and 4 weeks. The levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8...

  6. Behavioral economic substitutability of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Johnson, Patrick S; Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R

    2017-07-01

    The public health impact of e-cigarettes may depend on their substitutability for tobacco cigarettes. Dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes completed purchasing tasks in which they specified daily use levels under hypothetical conditions that varied the availability and price of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum (for those with nicotine gum experience). When either e-cigarettes or tobacco cigarettes were the only available commodity, as price per puff increased, purchasing decreased, revealing similar reinforcement profiles. When available concurrently, as the price of tobacco puffs increased, purchasing of tobacco puffs decreased while purchasing of fixed-price e-cigarette puffs increased. Among those with nicotine gum experience, when the price of tobacco puffs was closest to the actual market value of tobacco puffs, e-cigarette availability decreased median tobacco puff purchases by 44% compared to when tobacco was available alone. In contrast, nicotine gum availability caused no decrease in tobacco puff purchases. E-cigarettes may serve as a behavioral economic substitute for tobacco cigarettes, and may be a superior substitute compared to nicotine gum in their ability to decrease tobacco use. Although important questions remain regarding the health impacts of e-cigarettes, these data are consistent with the possibility that e-cigarettes may serve as smoking cessation/reduction aids.

  7. Evaluation of masticatory function after maxillectomy using a colour-changing chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Y; Ishida, S; Kobayashi, M; Hasegawa, T; Nibu, K; Komori, T

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the masticatory dysfunction after maxillectomy using a colour-changing chewing gum. Thirty-nine patients who underwent maxillectomy between January 2002 and May 2010 in the Department of Kobe University Hospital were recruited for this study. There were 20 male and 19 female subjects, with a median age of 73·3 years (range of 44-90) at the time of surgery. The intra-oral conditions after maxillectomy were classified by HS classification, and the masticatory function was evaluated by a colour-changing chewing gum and the results of a modified Sato's questionnaire. The scores of the colour-changing gum were closely correlated with the scores of the modified Sato's questionnaire (r = 0·661, P gum test masticatory dysfunction were the number of anchor teeth ≤2 and a soft palate defect. A colour-changing gum was found to be useful for evaluating the post-operative masticatory function, and it was important to conserve the anchor teeth and the soft palate to avoid masticatory dysfunction. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Effect of maltitol-containing chewing gum use on the composition of dental plaque microbiota in subjects with active dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Erica M; Kistler, James O; Moazzez, Rebecca; Thabuis, Clementine; Perreau, Caroline; Wade, William G

    2017-01-01

    Background : Sugar alcohols such as xylitol are incorporated in a number of oral hygiene products for their anti-cariogenic properties while chewing gum is known to be beneficial to oral hygiene. Objective : The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the dental plaque microbiota in patients with active caries before and after using a chewing gum supplemented with maltitol. Design : Forty subjects with active caries were randomly allocated to chew maltitol gum or gum base for two weeks. A healthy control group used gum base for two weeks. Plaque samples were collected before and after treatment and the microbiota analysed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results : A total of 773,547 sequences were obtained from 117 samples. There was no difference in structure of the bacterial communities between groups (AMOVA). There was a significant difference in community membership between groups, (AMOVA, p=0.009). There was a significant difference between the control group after treatment and the maltitol patient group after treatment (p<0.001). A. naeslundii HOT-176 and Actinomyces HOT-169 were significantly reduced following use of maltitol chewing gum in patients. Conclusions : This study has shown that chewing gum containing maltitol had minor effects on the composition of the plaque microbiome.

  9. Dose response of xylitol and sorbitol for epr retrospective dosimetry with applications to chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israelsson, A.; Gustafsson, H.; Lund, E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal in sweeteners xylitol and sorbitol for use in retrospective dosimetry. For both sweeteners and chewing gum, the signal changed at an interval of 1-84 d after irradiation with minimal changes after 4-8 d. A dependence on storage conditions was noticed and the exposure of the samples to light and humidity was therefore minimised. Both the xylitol and sorbitol signals showed linearity with dose in the measured dose interval, 0-20 Gy. The dose-response measurements for the chewing gum resulted in a decision threshold of 0.38 Gy and a detection limit of 0.78 Gy. A blind test illustrated the possibility of using chewing gums as a retrospective dosemeter with an uncertainty in the dose determination of 0.17 Gy (1 SD). (authors)

  10. Determination of trace elements in chewing gum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (Al, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na and Sr) were determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  11. Nicotine augmentation for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Massimo; Garavini, Alessandra; Biondi, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    The authors present a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to conventional treatments, which improved following nicotine augmentation administered as 4 mg chewing gum. The role of acetylcholine in the pathophysiology of OCD is not clear. The authors discuss the effect of nicotine on memory for actions.

  12. Effects of xylitol chewing gum on salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and presence of Streptococcus mutans in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribelles Llop, M; Guinot Jimeno, F; Mayné Acién, R; Bellet Dalmau, L J

    2010-03-01

    The first studies on the use of chewing gum in dentistry were done in the 1970s. The Turku Sugar Studies, carried out between 1970 and 1973, showed the excellent anticaries properties of xylitol chewing gums. Since then, many dentists, particularly in Scandinavian countries, have studied the role of chewing xylitol-sweetened chewing gums as another preventive strategy in the control of dental caries. To compare variations in salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and levels of Streptococcus mutans in baseline conditions and after chewing paraffin pellets or xylitol chewing gum in children between the ages of 6 and 12 years who eat lunch in a school canteen. The study sample consisted of 90 children divided into 2 study groups, and a control group. The children ate lunch at the canteen of the Escultor Ortells state school in the town of Vila-real (Castellón, Spain). The baseline data recorded in the first phase of the study were compared with the data recorded in the second phase, after 15 minutes of chewing xylitol- sweetened chewing gums or paraffin pellets, depending on the study group. Salivary flow rate was measured by collecting the stimulated saliva in a graduated beaker. Levels of pH were measured using a Cyberscan pH 110 pH meter (Eutech Instruments). CRT buffer strips and the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were used to measure buffering capacity and levels of S. mutans, respectively. The data obtained after sample collection were compared by means of a 1-way analysis of variance using the StatGraphics Plus statistical software package, version 5.0. Statistically significant differences were found (ppH, buffering capacity and levels of S. mutans were compared between the 3 groups. Comparison of salivary flow rates revealed no statistically significant differences (p>.05), though salivary flow rates were higher in the groups where gum was chewed. The effect of chewing is essential to the stimulation of salivary flow and the resulting recovery of

  13. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Raksha K; Bhat, Sham S; Ramdas, Shenoy Shailesh; Ballal, Shrinidhi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of chewing gum on the salivary pH and to compare the effect of chewing bicarbonate-containing sugar-free gum on salivary pH against that of standard sugar-free gum. The experiment was carried out on 30 volunteers aged 20-22 years (mean age = 21 years) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The test gum was sugar-free greenmint-flavored bicarbonate-containing gum and the standard control was sugar-free spearmint-flavored gum. The pH was measured immediately using pH strips. According to statistical analysis, the mean salivary pH of the bicarbonate gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.9713, 6.5667, 6.4267, 6.3867 and 6.3233 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes, but there was a significant difference in salivary pH from 5 to 20 minutes (p = 0.014). The mean salivary pH of the standard gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.8767, 6.6067, 6.4200, 6.4027 and 6.3000 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 5 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes. Thus, the higher salivary pH achieved with chewing bicarbonate gum compared with a standard sugar-free gum may have important oral health implications. How to cite this article: Ballal RK, Bhat SS, Ramdas SS, Ballal S. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):35-38.

  14. Differences in salivary flow rate and pH between chewing gum of xylitol and sucrose at 4, 5, and 6 grade of Inpres Toddopuli elementary school in Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Eva Chalid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chewing xylitol gum has been shown to be effective to produce of saliva between chewing sucrose gum. Other than, pH of saliva after  chewing xylitol gum is base and chewing sucrose gum is acid. Caries can be caused by various factors such as the large number of salivary flow, salivary acidity, etc. Then it needs to be known by chewing gum with xylitol and sucrose are most excellent to preventing caries in children. The aim of this research study was to determine the difference of salivary flow while chewing xylitol gum and bubble gum sucrose on Inpres Toddopuli elementary school in Makassar. The research is a qualitative research with quase experimental studies method, this type of design is pre- and post-test design with control group. Sample determined in accordance with the criteria of the sample is children aged 9-12 years old, has a superficial dental caries and caries media at least three teeth, another chewing gum does not consume about 60 minutes before the investigation, and ready to be research samples and ready to follow the instructions of researchers. After determining the sample then obtained 30 samples respectively at grades 4, 5, and 6. On first day, samples requested to chewing gum with xylitol and on the second day, chewing gum with sucrose each for 5 minutes after that saliva from samples collected on a centrifuge tube, then observed number of saliva and saliva acidity. The results obtained, showed that there are differences in the amount of salivary flow and acidity between  chewing gum with xylitol and sucrose, there is difference in amount of salivary flow (0.002 and for salivary pH value (0.000 which means the value of difference is significant. The research found that children who chewed xylitol gum can produce more saliva than chewed sucrose gum and sucrose gum had higher acidity than xylitol gum.

  15. Can school-based oral health education and a sugar-free chewing gum program improve oral health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from......'s oral hygiene; in certain circumstances children may benefit from using polyol-containing chewing gum in terms of reduced dental caries....

  16. Development of postcompressional textural tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of medicated chewing gum tablets with high drug loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hagbani, Turki; Nazzal, Sami

    2018-02-01

    Medicated chewing gum tablets (CGTs) represent a unique platform for drug delivery. Loading directly compressible gums with high concentrations of powdered medication, however, results in compacts with hybrid properties between a chewable gum and a brittle tablet. The aim of the present study was to develop textural tests that can identify the point at which CGTs begin to behave like a solid tablet upon drug incorporation. Curcumin (CUR) CGTs made with Health in gum were prepared with increasing CUR load from 0 to 100% and were characterized for their mechanical properties by a single-bite (knife) and a two-bite tests. From each test several parameters were extracted and correlated with drug loading. In the single-bite test, the change in the resistance of the compacts to plastic deformation was found to give a definitive guide on whether they behave as gums or tablets. A more in depth analysis of the impact of CUR loading on the chewability of the CGTs was provided by the two-bite test where CUR loading was found to have a nonlinear impact on the mechanical properties of compacts. An upper limit of 10% was found to yield compacts with gum-like properties, which were abolished at higher CUR loads. The textural test procedure outlined in this study are expected to assist those involved in the formulation of medicated gums for pharmaceutical applications in making an informed decision on the impact of drug loading on gum behavior before proceeding with clinical testing. There is a growing interest in utilizing medicated chewing gums for drug delivery, especially those made using directly compressible gum bases, such as Health in gum. Directly compressing a gum base with high amounts of solid drug powder, however, poses a challenge as it may result in compressed compacts with hybrid properties between a chewing gum and a hard tablet. Currently, official Pharmacopeias do not specify a testing procedure for the estimation of the mechanical and textural properties of

  17. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM USE OF XYLITOL CHEWING GUM AND MOLTITOL ORAL SPRAY ON SALIVARY STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND ORAL PLAQUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrakul, Kemthong; Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin; Vongsawan, Kutkao; Teerawongpairoj, Chayanid; Choongphong, Nachata; Panich, Tathata; Kaewvimonrat, Pravee

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of xylitol chewing gum and maltitol spray on the concentration of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and on the plaque index. Eighty-one second, third and fourth year dental and dental assistant students with a salivary MS concentration > 103 CFU/ml cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar were included in the study. The age range of subjects was 18-23 years. The participants were divided into 3 groups: control, xylitol chewing gum and maltitol spray groups. Each subject brushed their teeth with fluoridated toothpaste (1,000 ppm). Each subject in the xylitol chewing gum group was told to chew 2 pieces, 6 times a day (total xylitol dose=7.3 g/day) for 4 weeks. Each subject in the maltitol spray group was told to spray one puff twice daily (morning and evening) for 4 weeks. A dental examination and saliva samples to determine the salivary MS concentration were collected at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks after experiment initiation. The nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test was used to analyze differences among groups. The mean ages in the control, xylitol chewing gum and maltitol spray groups were 22±1, 20±1 and 20±1 years, respectively. The mean MS concentrations at the beginning of the study and after 2 weeks in the control, and xylitol chewing gum and moltitol oral spray groups were not significantly different from each other. There was a significantly lower MS concentration in the moltitol oral spray group than in the control group by 4 weeks (p=0.045) but no significant difference between the control group and the xylitol gum group by 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in the mean plaque index at baseline among the control group, the xylitol chewing gum group and the moltitol oral spray group. The plaque index was significantly lower in the xylitol chewing gum group than the control group (p=0.003) at 2 weeks but not 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in the mean

  18. Nicotine pharmacokinetic profiles of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2, cigarettes and nicotine gum in Japanese smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Patrick; Weitkunat, Rolf; Poux, Valerie; Lama, Nicola; Haziza, Christelle; Picavet, Patrick; Baker, Gizelle; Lüdicke, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Two open-label randomized cross-over studies in Japanese smokers investigated the single-use nicotine pharmacokinetic profile of the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, cigarettes (CC) and nicotine replacement therapy (Gum). In each study, one on the regular and one on the menthol variants of the THS and CC, both using Gum as reference, 62 subjects were randomized to four sequences: Sequence 1: THS - CC (n = 22); Sequence 2: CC - THS (n = 22); Sequence 3: THS - Gum (n = 9); Sequence 4: Gum - THS (n = 9). Plasma nicotine concentrations were measured in 16 blood samples collected over 24 h after single use. Maximal nicotine concentration (C max ) and area under the curve from start of product use to time of last quantifiable concentration (AUC 0-last ) were similar between THS and CC in both studies, with ratios varying from 88 to 104% for C max and from 96 to 98% for AUC 0-last . Urge-to-smoke total scores were comparable between THS and CC. The THS nicotine pharmacokinetic profile was close to CC, with similar levels of urge-to-smoke. This suggests that THS can satisfy smokers and be a viable alternative to cigarettes for adult smokers who want to continue using tobacco. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic assessment of electronic cigarettes, combustible cigarettes, and nicotine gum: implications for abuse liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Mitchell F; Campbell, Leanne R; Graff, Donald W; Jones, Bobbette A; Fant, Reginald V; Henningfield, Jack E

    2017-09-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are becoming popular alternatives for smokers, but there has been limited study of their abuse liability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse liability of three Vuse Solo ECs, ranging from 14 to 36 mg in nicotine content, relative to high- and low-abuse liability comparator products (usual brand combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, respectively) in a group of 45 EC-naïve smokers. Enrolled subjects' ratings of subjective effects and nicotine uptake over 6 h were used to measure abuse liability and pharmacokinetics following in-clinic use of each EC. Use of Vuse Solo resulted in subjective measures and nicotine uptake that were between those of combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, although generally closer to nicotine gum. Compared to combustible cigarettes, use of Vuse Solo resulted in significantly lower scores in measures of product liking, positive effects, and intent to use again. These pharmacodynamic findings were consistent with the pharmacokinetic data, showing that cigarettes produced substantially faster and higher levels of nicotine uptake as compared to Vuse Solo and nicotine gum. Vuse Solo resulted in more rapid initial uptake of nicotine compared to nicotine gum, but peak concentration and long-term extent of uptake were not different or were lower with Vuse. Collectively, these findings suggest that Vuse Solo likely has an abuse liability that is somewhat greater than nicotine gum but lower than cigarettes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02269514.

  20. Assessment of masticatory performance by means of a color-changeable chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowska, Agnieszka; Katzer, Lukasz; Ahlers, Marcus Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Previous research determined the relevance of masticatory performance with regard to nutritional status, cognitive functions, or stress management. In addition, the measurement of masticatory efficiency contributes to the evaluation of therapeutic successes within the stomatognathic system. However, the question remains unanswered as to what extent modern techniques are able to reproduce the subtle differences in masticatory efficiency within various patient groups. The purpose of this review is to provide an extensive summary of the evaluation of masticatory performance by means of a color-changeable chewing gum with regard to its clinical relevance and applicability. A general overview describing the various methods available for this task has already been published. This review focuses in depth on the research findings available on the technique of measuring masticatory performance by means of color-changeable chewing gum. Described are the mechanism and the differentiability of the color change and methods to evaluate the color changes. Subsequently, research on masticatory performance is conducted with regard to patient age groups, the impact of general diseases and the effect of prosthetic and surgical treatment. The studies indicate that color-changeable chewing gum is a valid and reliable method for the evaluation of masticatory function. Apart from other methods, in clinical practice this technique can enhance dental diagnostics as well as the assessment of therapy outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (pwomen (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effect of Probiotic Yogurt and Xylitol-Containing Chewing Gums on Salivary S Mutans Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Elnaz; Mazaheri, Romina; Tahmourespour, Arezoo

    In addition to improving gastrointestinal health and intestinal microflora, probiotic bacteria have been recently suggested to decrease cariogenic agents in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums on reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. This randomized clinical trial recruited 50 female students with over 10 5 colony forming units S. mutans per milliliter of their saliva. The participants were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive either probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 andBifidobacteriumbifidum ATCC 29521 (200 g daily) or xylitol-containing chewing gums (two gums three times daily after each meal; total xylitol content: 5.58 g daily) for three weeks. At baseline and one day, two weeks, and four weeks after the interventions, saliva samples were cultured on mitis-salivarius-bacitracin agar and salivary S. mutans counts were determined. Data were analyzed with independent t-tests, analysis of variance, and Fisher's least significant difference test. In both groups, S. mutans counts on the first day, second week, and fourth weeks after the intervention were significantly lower than baseline values (P yogurt consumers, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums seem to be as effective in reduction of salivary S. mutans levels. Their constant long-term consumption is thus recommended to prevent caries.

  3. Xylitol chewing gum and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, J M

    1995-02-01

    There is an extensive peer-reviewed literature on xylitol chewing gum as it pertains to effects on tooth decay in human subjects, on human dental plaque reduction, on inhibition of dental plaque acid production, on inhibition of the growth and metabolism of the mutans group of streptococci which are the prime causative agents of tooth decay, on reduction of tooth decay in experimental animals, and on xylitol's reported contribution to the remineralisation of teeth. The literature not only supports the conclusion that xylitol is non-cariogenic but it is now strongly suggestive that xylitol is caries inhibitory, that is, anti-cariogenic in human subjects, and it supplies reasonable mechanistic explanation(s).

  4. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, R.A.F.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Visscher, C.M.; Gorissen, T.; Yoshida, E.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital

  5. Effects of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol on the development of gingivitis and plaque: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keukenmeester, R S; Slot, D E; Rosema, N A M; Van Loveren, C; Van der Weijden, G A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol compared to the use of a gum base or no gum on gingivitis and plaque scores under both brushing and non-brushing circumstances. The design of the study was a four-group, double-blinded, randomized controlled study with a 3-week duration. In each group, the participants did not brush the teeth in the lower jaw designated to develop experimental gingivitis, while maintaining normal oral hygiene procedures in the upper jaw. After professional dental prophylaxis, the participants were allocated into one of four groups (xylitol, maltitol, gum base or no gum). Chewing gum was used five times a day for 10 min. 220 participants completed the study and provided evaluable data. The increase in bleeding on marginal probing (BOMP) and plaque scores (PS) in the non-brushed (lower) jaw with experimental gingivitis was significant in all groups (P xylitol and maltitol group was significantly lower. In the brushed upper jaw, no significant changes for BOMP were observed from the baseline to the end point of the study, and there were no significant differences in BOMP and PS between the groups. In circumstances where regular brushing is performed, no effect of chewing gum was observed on bleeding and plaque scores. In the absence of brushing, chewing xylitol or maltitol gum provided a significant inhibitory effect on gingivitis scores compared to chewing gum base. The difference when compared to the group not using gum was not significant. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The effect of CPP-ACP-propolis chewing gum on calcium and phosphate ion release on caries-active subjects’ saliva and the formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnamudhia, F.; Bachtiar, E. W.; Sahlan, M.; Soekanto, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of CPP-APP and propolis wax if they are combined in a chewing gum formulation, observed from the calcium and phosphate ion level released by CPP-ACP and the emphasis of Streptococcus mutans mass in the biofilm by propolis wax on caries-active subjects’ saliva. Chewing gum simulation was done in vitro on 25 caries-active subjects’ saliva using five concentrations of chewing gum (0% propolis + 0% CPP-ACP, 0% propolis + CPP-ACP, 2% propolis + CPP-ACP, 4% propolis + CPP-ACP, and 6% propolis + CPP-ACP) and was then tested using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer to analyze calcium ion levels, an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer to analyze phosphate ion levels, and a biofilm assay using crystal violet to analyze the decline in biofilm mass. After the chewing simulation, calcium ion levels on saliva+gum eluent increased significantly compared to the saliva control, with the highest calcium level released by CPP-ACP + 2% propolis chewing gum. There was an insignificant phosphate level change between the saliva control and saliva+gum eluent. There was also a significant decline of S. mutans biofilm mass in the saliva+gum eluent, mostly by the CPP-ACP chewing gum and CPP-ACP + 6% propolis. The CPP-ACP-propolis chewing gum simulation generated the largest increase in calcium and phosphate ion level and the largest decline in S. mutans biofilm mass.

  7. Switching between chewing-gum and no-gum at learning and retrieval does not accentuate error production in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, C.; Johnson, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments compared chewing gum to a no gum condition to examine further the finding (Anderson, Berry, Morse & Diotte, 2005) that switching flavour between learning and recall encourages error production independently of free recall. In order to encourage error production, participants in Experiment 1 were told to guess responses at recall, participants in Experiment 2 were required to recall categorised word lists and in Experiment 3 participants repeated the same learning-recall comb...

  8. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart J. F. Keijser

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis.Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165. One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA. Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism.Conclusion: The results showed that

  9. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, Bart J F; van den Broek, Tim J; Slot, Dagmar E; van Twillert, Lodewic; Kool, Jolanda; Thabuis, Clémentine; Ossendrijver, Michel; van der Weijden, Fridus A; Montijn, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself

  10. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, Bart J. F.; van den Broek, Tim J.; Slot, Dagmar E.; van Twillert, Lodewic; Kool, Jolanda; Thabuis, Clémentine; Ossendrijver, Michel; van der Weijden, Fridus A.; Montijn, Roy C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself

  11. [Preventive and therapeutic advantages of sugar-free chewing gums in orthodontics. A study conducted on practitioners and patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferney, Pauline; Clauss, François; Offner, Damien; Wagner, Delphine

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the level of knowledge in a cohort of oral health professionals and patients about preventive and therapeutic actions of sugar-free chewing gums. A forward-looking monocentric study of perception regarding the level of information about the effects of sugar-free chewing gums consumption was conducted on 135 young patients, from 11 to 17 years old, carriers of fixed orthodontic appliances and treated in the Department of Orthodontics in the Oral Medicine and Surgery Center of the University Hospitals of Strasbourg. Besides, 34 practitioners in the Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry were also included. Data were collected between May 2016 and July 2016. A specific questionnaire, using the adapted terminology and dealing with the same items was developed for each studied population. The majority of the individuals of both studied populations believe that the consumption of sugar-free chewing gum leads to a greater risk of orthodontic device unsticking or fracture and that it is not associated to a decrease of the orthodontic pain. Our results confirm the fact that the knowledge, mainly acquired in an empirical way, is against the data of the current literature. The evaluation of the level of knowledge demonstrated that there is a real lack of information about the preventive interests of the consumption of sugar-free chewing gums during orthodontic treatment. This study highlights the need for information campaigns and oral prevention in general population, as well as in healthcare professionals, concerning the preventive and analgesic interests of sugar-free chewing gums during orthodontic treatments. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  12. Effects of caffeine chewing gum on race performance and physiology in male and female cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Carl; Costa, Vitor; Guglielmo, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This investigation reports the effects of chewing caffeinated gum on race performance with trained cyclists. Twenty competitive cyclists completed two 30-km time trials that included a maximal effort 0.2-km sprint each 10-km. Caffeine (~3-4 mg · kg(-1)) or placebo was administered double-blind via chewing gum at the 10-km point following completion of the first sprint. Measures of power output, oxygen uptake, heart rate, lactate and perceived exertion were taken at set intervals during the time trial. Results indicated no substantial differences in any measured variables between caffeine and placebo conditions during the first 20-km of the time trial. Caffeine gum did however lead to substantial enhancements (mean ± 90% confidence limits (CLs)) in mean power during the final 10-km (3.8% ± 2.3%), and sprint power at 30-km (4.0% ± 3.6%). The increases in performance over the final 10-km were associated with small increases in heart rate and blood lactate (effect size of 0.24 and 0.28, respectively). There were large inter-individual variations in the response to caffeine, and apparent gender related differences in sprint performance. Chewing caffeine gum improves mean and sprint performance power in the final 10-km of a 30-km time trial in male and female cyclists most likely through an increase in nervous system activation.

  13. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi Kazerani G

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste"nseems necessary."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine"nto achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance."nMaterials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were"ninvestigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the"nbitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of"ndrug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of"nchewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were"nidentical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used"nevery 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index"nwas used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were"nassessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test."nResults: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque"nscore between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which"nwas statistically significant (P<0.001. Subjective

  14. Comparative assessment of chewing gum and ibuprofen in the management of orthodontic pain with fixed appliances: A pragmatic multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Anthony J; Ellis, Pamela; Jordan, Abbie; Bradley, Rebecca; Ewings, Paul; Atack, Nikki E; Griffiths, Helen; House, Kate; Moore, Matthew; Deacon, Scott; Wenger, Nick; Worth, Victoria; Scaysbrook, Emma; Sandy, Jonathan R

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this randomized trial was to investigate the effect of the use of a sugar-free chewing gum vs ibuprofen on reported pain in orthodontic patients. This was a 2-arm parallel design randomized controlled trial in 9 sites in the southwest of England. Patients about to undergo orthodontic treatment with maxillary and mandibular fixed appliances were recruited and randomly allocated to an experimental chewing gum group or a control ibuprofen group. Eligibility criteria included patients undergoing fixed maxillary and mandibular appliance therapy, aged 11 to 17 years, and able to use ibuprofen and chewing gum. The primary outcome measure was pain experienced after appliance placement using a mean of 3 recordings on a scale of 0 to 10. Secondary outcome measures were pain experienced in the subsequent 3 days, pain after the first archwire change, ibuprofen use, and appliance breakages. Pain scores were recorded with a questionnaire and posted to a collection center by each patient. Randomization was by means of a central telephone service and comprised computer-generated random numbers used to generate a sequential allocation list, with permuted blocks of variable size (2 and 4) and stratified by center. Neither the clinicians nor the patients were blinded to the intervention. Patients in the control group were permitted to use ibuprofen only, and patients in the experimental group were allowed to use ibuprofen if they did not get sufficient analgesia from the chewing gum. Data were analyzed using the principle of intention to treat with multilevel modeling to reflect the structured nature of the data (scores within patient within site). One thousand patients were recruited and randomized in a ratio of 1:1 to the chewing gum and ibuprofen (control) groups. The male-to-female ratios were similar in the groups. The pain questionnaire response rates were good at approximately 84% and 83% after appliance placement (chewing gum group, 419; ibuprofen group, 407) and

  15. "JCE" Classroom Activity #105. A Sticky Situation: Chewing Gum and Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.

    2010-01-01

    In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify the…

  16. Erosive effects of acidic center-filled chewing gum on primary and permanent enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolan M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The higher incidence of dental erosion in children and teenagers possibly reflects a high intake of acidic food and beverages as well as a more frequent diagnosis on this condition. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the erosive potential of acidic filling of chewing gum in primary and permanent enamel. Methods and Materials: Eighty enamel blocks (40 primary and 40 permanent teeth were used and randomly distributed into eight groups. Groups were divided according to types of dental substrates (permanent or primary, frequency of exposure to the acidic substance (2X or 4X/day, and concentration (pure or diluted. Exposure time to the acidic content of the chewing gum was five minutes under agitation, during five days. Results: All groups showed a significant decrease in surface microhardness (P < 0.001. There was neither any significant difference in the frequency of exposure to the acidic content nor to the types of dental substrates. There was a statistically significant difference between D1 (pure, 2X/day and D2 (diluted, 2X/day (P = 0.002, D3 (pure, 4X/day and D4 (diluted, 4X/day (P = 0.009 regarding the concentration, then the diluted acid content was associated with a greater decrease in microhardness. Conclusion: It is concluded that the acidic filling of a chewing gum reduced the microhardness of primary and permanent enamel.

  17. Self-perceived mouthfeel and physico-chemical surface effects after chewing gums containing sorbitol and Magnolia bark extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Dodds, Michael W. J.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority recognizes the contribution of sugar-free chewing gum to oral health through increased salivation, clearance of food debris, and neutralization of biofilm pH. Magnolia bark extract is a gum additive shown to reduce the prevalence of bad-breath bacteria but its

  18. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi David K

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva to increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a fixed total daily dose of 10.32 g over five weeks. Methods Participants (n = 132 were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day. All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration. Results There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant. Conclusion There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically

  19. Consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing gum to prevent dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2009-01-01

    DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified using searches with Medline, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were screened independently and were included if they evaluated the effect of one or more chewing gums containing at least one polyol (xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol...... randomised controlled trials (RCT) of which four were cluster RCT, nine controlled clinical trials (CCT) and four cohort studies]. Two RCT had a Jadad score of three or higher. The mean preventive fraction for the four main gum types are shown in the table 1, results of all except the sorbitol -mannitol...... blend were statistically significant. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Although research gaps exist, particularly on optimal dosing and relative polyol efficacy, there is consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing gum...

  20. Effects of gum chewing on memory and attention: reply to Scholey (2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-10-01

    Recent studies have reported varying results regarding cognitive performance while chewing gum. The differences between the results of these studies may be explained by methodological and statistical factors. Future studies are needed to assess various aspects of cognitive functioning using extensive standardised neuropsychological test batteries, adequate experimental designs and appropriate statistical methods.

  1. Usefulness of chewing gum for recovering intestinal function after cesarean delivery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ping Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum has been reported to enhance bowel function. However, the efficacy remains unclear for women undergoing cesarean delivery. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of chewing gum for recovering intestinal function following cesarean delivery in the early postoperative period. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library were searched to identify English language randomized controlled trials comparing chewing gum with other procedures for promoting the recovery of intestinal function after cesarean delivery. Two of the authors independently extracted data from the eligibility studies, and Review Manager Version 5.2 was used to pool the data. Finally, five randomized controlled trials involving 882 patients were included and all the trials were considered as at high risk of bias. The pooled findings showed that chewing gum after cesarean delivery can significantly shorten the time to first flatus [standardized mean difference (SMD = −0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI = −1.01 to −0.14; p < 0.001]; time to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds (SMD = −0.69; 95% CI = −1.20 to −0.17; p = 0.009; I² = 92%. Time to the first defecation (SMD = −0.53; 95% CI = −1.61 to −0.07; p = 0.07; I² = 92% and length of hospital stay (SMD = −0.59; 95% CI = −1.18 to 0.00; p = 0.05; I² = 93% were also reduced in the chewing gum group; however, these results were not statistically significant. The current evidence suggests that chewing gum has a positive effect on intestinal function recovery following cesarean delivery in the early postoperative period. However, more large-scale and high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these results.

  2. The efficacy of gum chewing in reducing postoperative ileus: a multisite randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, David Anthony Tony; Doyle-Munoz, Janet; McTigue, Toni; D'Andrea, Stephanie; Natale-Ryan, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, attention-controlled, randomized study was to determine whether postoperative gum chewing reduces the duration of postoperative ileus symptoms following elective open or laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy when compared with standard care or an attention-control intervention. Forty-seven subjects scheduled for either an open or laparoscopic colon resection participated in the study. Subjects were recruited preoperatively at the preadmission learning centers of the 2 acute care medical centers that comprised the study settings. Subjects were randomized to 3 groups: (1) standard postoperative care (n = 18); (2) standard care and a silicone-adhesive patch applied to the deltoid region of the upper arm as an attention control (n = 16); and (3) standard care and gum chewing (n = 13). Standard postoperative care included removal of the nasogastric tube, early ambulation, nothing by mouth with ice chips only until the first passage of flatus, and then advancement of diet until tolerance of solid food. No statistically significant differences were found among the 3 study groups for the 4 postoperative outcome variables measured: (1) first passage of flatus; (2) first bowel movement; (3) return of hunger; and (4) ability to tolerate solid food for one meal. Postoperative gum chewing was not found to be more effective than standard postoperative care or our attention-control intervention in reducing the duration of postoperative ileus symptoms, length of stay, or complications among patients following open/laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy.

  3. What Type of Food Can Older Adults Masticate?: Evaluation of Mastication Performance Using Color-Changeable Chewing Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Shinichi; Kawate, Nobuyuki; Mizuma, Masazumi

    2017-10-01

    This study determines if older adults can masticate regular foods via a simple test conducted using a color-changeable chewing gum. Seventy-nine consecutive inpatients of our clinic receiving rehabilitation and general medicine were assessed for eligibility. The inclusion criterion was >65 years. Thirty patients consented to participate. The main outcome variable was the food bolus texture at the swallowing threshold for five regular foods. The main explanatory variable was the a* value of the color-changeable chewing gum after 120 s of chewing (a* represents the degree of color between red and green, and a positive a* value indicates red). The mean age ± standard deviation of the participants was 81.6 ± 8.6 years, and 40% were men. Participants being able to prepare the food with suitable texture for swallowing was positively associated with the a* values in boiled rice, ginger-fried pork loin, boiled fish-paste, and rice cracker (Crude OR 1.18, 1.15, 1.17, and 1.50; P chewing gum is not only useful but also extremely practical, even for older adults in a wide range of settings, including an individual's home. This approach would lead to a reduction in unnecessary mechanically altered or pureed food for older adults who can eat pureed food and safely provide palatable food.

  4. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shikhar; Sogi, Suma H P; Indushekar, K R

    2013-01-01

    This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol) chewing gums in children. A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol) chewing gum showed a marked increase in the pH of saliva and plaque when compared to their counterpart. All these values had a significant difference of P ≤ 0.0001. Xylitol is a safe all-natural sweetener which helps to reduce tooth decay. It plays a unique role in preventive strategies for better health.

  5. Effect of three commercially available chewing gums on salivary flow rate and pH in caries-active and caries-free children: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantipalli, Usha Kiran; Avula, Sai Sankar Jogendra; Enuganti, Sridevi; Bandi, Sujatha; Kakarla, Pranitha; Kuravadi, Raja Vardhan

    2017-01-01

    Adequate salivary flow is an important requisite in the maintenance of oral health. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste) and mechanical (chewing) stimuli. Hence, the aim of the present study was to know the efficacy of commercially available chewing gums (sugar free and sugared) on salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH in caries-active and caries-free children. One hundred school children aged between 10 and 12 years were divided into two groups on the basis of their caries status into caries free and caries active. Unstimulated saliva was collected before start of the study. Both groups were subjected to three commercially available chewing gums (2 sugar free, 1 sugared) on consecutive days, and saliva was collected at intervals of 2 min (T2), 10 min (T10), and 30 min (T30). The pH and flow rate of saliva samples were measured before and specified time intervals after gum chewing. In both the groups, gum chewing increased the SFR, significantly at T2, and gradually declined at T30 which was significantly higher than baseline values. The pH raised significantly at T2 and gradually declined at T30 which was significantly higher than baseline values with sugar-free gums, but with sugared gums, the pH raised slightly at T2 and dropped significantly at T30. However, no statistically significant differences in pH and flow rate were noticed in both the groups. Chewing of sugar-free gums in both caries-active and caries-free children may aid in reducing the incidence of dental caries.

  6. Demand characteristics, pre-test attitudes and time-on-task trends in the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported mood in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A P; Smith, A P

    2012-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that chewing gum enhances reported alertness, but has variable effects on attention. Demand characteristics may explain these effects. The current study investigated the effects of gum and demand characteristics on attention and reported mood over time. Participants completed measures of mood and attention, with and without chewing gum. To manipulate demand characteristics, they were told that the hypothesised effect of gum was either positive or negative, or no hypothesis was mentioned. Attitudes towards gum were assessed pre- and post-manipulation. Gum increased reported alertness; this effect was only significant for positive and neutral demand characteristics. Vigilance accuracy was reduced for chewing gum, but only in the fourth minute of the task, and gum reduced focussed attention accuracy, but only for the first 64 trials. Demand characteristics did not moderate time-on-task effects. Gum improved selective attention. A positive effect on response organisation was observed; this was significant when demand characteristics and pre-test attitudes to gum were both negative. The results suggest that demand characteristics moderate effects on self-reported alertness and response organisation, but cannot explain time-on-task effects or variable main effects on other aspects of attention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikhar Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Results: Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol chewing gum showed a marked increase in the pH of saliva and plaque when compared to their counterpart. All these values had a significant difference of P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusion: Xylitol is a safe all-natural sweetener which helps to reduce tooth decay. It plays a unique role in preventive strategies for better health.

  8. Masticatory path pattern during mastication of chewing gum with regard to gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Shiga, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Ichiro; Yokoyama, Masaoki; Nakajima, Kunihisa

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the masticatory path patterns of the mandibular incisal point during mastication of softened chewing gum with regard to gender difference. One hundred healthy subjects (50 males and 50 females) were asked to chew softened chewing gum on one side at a time (right side and left side) and the movement of the mandibular incisal point was recorded using MKG K6I. After a catalog of path patterns was made, the movement path was classified into one of the pattern groups, and then the frequency of each pattern was investigated. A catalog of path patterns consisting of the three types of opening path (op1, linear or concave path; op2, path toward the chewing side after toward the non-working side; op3, convex path) and two types of closing path (cl1, convex path; cl2, concave path) was made. The movement path was classified into one of seven patterns, with six patterns being from the catalog and a final extra pattern in which the opening and closing paths crossed. The most common pattern among the subjects was Pattern I, followed by Patterns III, II, IV, V, VII, and VI, in that order. The majority of cases, 149 (74.5%) of 200 cases, showed either Pattern I (op1 and cl1) or Pattern III (op2 and cl1). There was no significant difference between the two genders in the frequency of each pattern. The movement path could be classified into seven patterns and no gender-related difference was found in the frequency of each pattern.

  9. Characterization and preliminary toxicity assay of nano-titanium dioxide additive in sugar-coated chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Xin; Cheng, Bin; Yang, Yi-Xin; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Jia-Hui; Du, Li-Jing; Liu, Yuanfang; Zhao, Yuliang; Wang, Haifang

    2013-05-27

    Nanotechnology shows great potential for producing food with higher quality and better taste through including new additives, improving nutrient delivery, and using better packaging. However, lack of investigations on safety issues of nanofood has resulted in public fears. How to characterize engineered nanomaterials in food and assess the toxicity and health impact of nanofood remains a big challenge. Herein, a facile and highly reliable separation method of TiO2 particles from food products (focusing on sugar-coated chewing gum) is reported, and the first comprehensive characterization study on food nanoparticles by multiple qualitative and quantitative methods is provided. The detailed information on nanoparticles in gum includes chemical composition, morphology, size distribution, crystalline phase, particle and mass concentration, surface charge, and aggregation state. Surprisingly, the results show that the number of food products containing nano-TiO2 (TiO2 in gum is nano-TiO2 , and it is unexpectedly easy to come out and be swallowed by a person who chews gum. Preliminary cytotoxicity assays show that the gum nano-TiO2 particles are relatively safe for gastrointestinal cells within 24 h even at a concentration of 200 μg mL(-1) . This comprehensive study demonstrates accurate physicochemical property, exposure, and cytotoxicity information on engineered nanoparticles in food, which is a prerequisite for the successful safety assessment of nanofood products. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Acute Ingestion of Caffeinated Chewing Gum Improves Repeated Sprint Performance of Team Sport Athletes With Low Habitual Caffeine Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Tierney, Peter; Gray, Nicola; Hawe, Greg; Macken, Maria; Egan, Brendan

    2018-04-23

    The effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on short-duration high-intensity performance are equivocal, while studies of novel modes of delivery and the efficacy of low doses of caffeine are warranted. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum on repeated sprint performance (RSP) in team sport athletes, and whether habitual caffeine consumption alters the ergogenic effect, if any, on RSP. A total of 18 male team sport athletes undertook four RSP trials using a 40-m maximum shuttle run test, which incorporates 10 × 40-m sprints with 30 s between the start of each sprint. Each participant completed two familiarization sessions, followed by caffeine (CAF; caffeinated chewing gum; 200 mg caffeine) and placebo (PLA; noncaffeinated chewing gum) trials in a randomized, double-blind manner. RSP, assessed by sprint performance decrement (%), did not differ (p = .209; effect size = 0.16; N = 18) between CAF (5.00 ± 2.84%) and PLA (5.43 ± 2.68%). Secondary analysis revealed that low habitual caffeine consumers (130 mg/day, n = 6; 3.98 ± 2.57% vs. 3.80 ± 1.79%, respectively; p = .684; effect size = 0.08). The data suggest that a low dose of caffeine in the form of caffeinated chewing gum attenuates the sprint performance decrement during RSP by team sport athletes with low, but not moderate-to-high, habitual consumption of caffeine.

  11. Assessment of the abuse liability of three menthol Vuse Solo electronic cigarettes relative to combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Mitchell F; Campbell, Leanne R; Jin, Tao; Graff, Donald W; Fant, Reginald V; Henningfield, Jack E

    2018-05-03

    We previously reported that following a short-term product use period, use of non-menthol Vuse Solo electronic cigarettes (ECs) resulted in product effect-related subjective responses and nicotine uptake between those of combustible cigarettes (high-abuse liability comparator) and nicotine gum (low-abuse liability comparator); the results were generally closer to those of nicotine gum. Using a similar design to the previous study, we evaluated the abuse liability of three menthol-flavored Vuse Solo ECs with the same nicotine contents (14, 29, and 36 mg) in a group of EC-naïve, menthol cigarette smokers, relative to comparator products. Six-hour nicotine uptake and ratings of subjective effects were used to determine abuse liability and pharmacokinetics. Use of menthol Vuse Solo resulted in significantly lower responses to subjective measurements (product liking, intent to use product again, and liking of positive product effects), higher urge to smoke responses, and a lower peak (C max ) and overall extent (AUC 0-360 ) of nicotine uptake compared to smoking the usual brand menthol cigarette. When compared with use of nicotine gum, subjective responses to use of menthol Vuse ECs were in the same direction as those resulting from smoking cigarettes but were more similar to nicotine gum use in magnitude than they were to cigarettes. These findings are concordant with our previous results and provide evidence that menthol Vuse Solo ECs have abuse liability that is lower than menthol cigarettes and potentially greater than that of nicotine gum. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02664012.

  12. Naturalistic assessment of demand for cigarettes, snus, and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Wilson, A George; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Judd, Michael C; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures. Cigarette smokers (N = 42) used an experimental income to purchase their usual brand of cigarettes and either snus or gum (only one product available per session) across a range of prices, while receiving all products they purchased from one randomly selected price. In a separate portion of the study, participants self-administered these products during laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions. Demand elasticity (sensitivity of purchasing to price) was significantly greater for snus than cigarettes. Elasticity for gum was intermediate between snus and cigarettes but was not significantly different than either. Demand intensity (purchasing unconstrained by price) was significantly lower for gum compared to cigarettes, with no significant difference observed between snus and cigarettes. Results of the laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions were generally discordant with measures of demand elasticity, with significantly higher "breakpoints" for cigarettes compared to gum and no significant differences between other study products. Moreover, breakpoints and product purchasing were generally uncorrelated across tasks. Under naturalistic conditions, snus appears more sensitive to price manipulation than either cigarettes or nicotine gum in existing smokers.

  13. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shikhar Kumar; Suma H. P. Sogi; K R Indushekar

    2013-01-01

    This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol) chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Results: Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol) chewin...

  14. The efficacy of two prototype chewing gums for the removal of extrinsic tooth stain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Kulak, Y; Kazazoglu, E

    Aim: To compare the potential efficacy of two prototype chewing gums in extrinsic stain removal on natural teeth. Setting: Dental school clinics. Design: Double-blind, two groups, parallel design. Participants: 76 adult volunteers (32m, 44f, mean age: 20.6 years old). Methods: Oral hard and soft

  15. The Effects of Chewing Cinnamon Flavored Gum on Mood, Feeling and Spelling Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew; Kim, Wonsun; Raudenbush, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate if the effects of chewing cinnamon flavored gum can increase mood, feeling and spelling acquisition. 5th grade students (n = 22) at Ilshin elementary school in South Korea served as participants. The same students were required to take 4 spelling tests with 1 given every day over the course of 4 days. For…

  16. Fighting Against Disuse of the Masticatory System in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Pilot Study Using Chewing Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, H Willemijn; van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Steenks, Michel H; van der Bilt, Andries; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H J; de Groot, Imelda J M; Kalaykova, Stanimira I

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients report masticatory problems. The aim was to determine the efficacy of mastication training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using chewing gum for 4 weeks. In all, 17 patients and 17 healthy age-matched males participated. The masticatory performance was assessed using a mixing ability test and measuring anterior bite force before, shortly after and 1 month after the training. In the patient group the masticatory performance improved and remained after 1-month follow-up, no significant changes in anterior maximum bite force was observed after mastication training. In the healthy subject the bite force increased and remained at the 1-month follow-up; no significant differences in masticatory performance were observed. Mastication training by using sugar-free chewing gum in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients improved their masticatory performance. Since bite force did not improve, the working mechanism of the improvement in chewing may relate to changes of the neuromuscular function and coordination, resulting in improvement of skills in performing mastication. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Effects of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol on the development of gingivitis and plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keukenmeester, R.S.; Slot, D.E.; Rosema, N.A.M.; van Loveren, C.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to test the effect of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol compared to the use of a gum base or no gum on gingivitis and plaque scores under both brushing and non-brushing circumstances. Methods The design of the study was a four-group,

  18. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis : Comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, CP; Brand, HS; Veerman, ECI; Valentijn-Benz, M; Van Amerongen, BM; Amerongen, AVN; Valentijn, RM; Vos, PI; Bijlsma, JA; ter Wee, PM

    2005-01-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White(TM)) and a

  19. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis: comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, Casper P.; Brand, Henk S.; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van Amerongen, Barbara M.; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V.; Valentijn, Robert M.; Vos, Pieter F.; Bijlsma, Joost A.; Bezemer, Pieter D.; ter Wee, Piet M.

    2005-01-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White) and a

  20. Comparative evaluation of the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and xylitol-containing chewing gum on salivary flow rate, pH and buffering capacity in children: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Rahul J; Thakkar, Janhavi B

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare and evaluate the changes in the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity before and after chewing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and xylitol-containing chewing gums in children. Sixty children aged between 8 and 12 years were selected for the study. They were randomly divided into Group 1 (CPP-ACP chewing gum) and Group 2 (xylitol-containing chewing gum) comprising thirty children each. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples at 15 and 30 min interval were collected from all children. All the saliva samples were estimated for salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Significant increase in salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity from baseline to immediately after spitting the chewing gum was found in both the study groups. No significant difference was found between the two study groups with respect to salivary flow rate and pH. Intergroup comparison indicated a significant increase in salivary buffer capacity in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Chewing gums containing CPP-ACP and xylitol can significantly increase the physiochemical properties of saliva. These physiochemical properties of saliva have a definite relation with caries activity in children.

  1. Fighting against disuse of the masticatory system in duchenne muscular dystrophy : A pilot study using chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, H. Willemijn; Van Den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Steenks, Michel H.; Van Der Bilt, Andries; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Creugers, Nico H J; De Groot, Imelda J M; Kalaykova, Stanimira I.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients report masticatory problems. The aim was to determine the efficacy of mastication training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using chewing gum for 4 weeks. In all, 17 patients and 17 healthy age-matched males participated. The masticatory performance was assessed

  2. Comparative evaluation of the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and xylitol-containing chewing gum on salivary flow rate, pH and buffering capacity in children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul J Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to compare and evaluate the changes in the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity before and after chewing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and xylitol-containing chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: Sixty children aged between 8 and 12 years were selected for the study. They were randomly divided into Group 1 (CPP-ACP chewing gum and Group 2 (xylitol-containing chewing gum comprising thirty children each. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples at 15 and 30 min interval were collected from all children. All the saliva samples were estimated for salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Results: Significant increase in salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity from baseline to immediately after spitting the chewing gum was found in both the study groups. No significant difference was found between the two study groups with respect to salivary flow rate and pH. Intergroup comparison indicated a significant increase in salivary buffer capacity in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Conclusion: Chewing gums containing CPP-ACP and xylitol can significantly increase the physiochemical properties of saliva. These physiochemical properties of saliva have a definite relation with caries activity in children.

  3. A Randomized, Two-Way Crossover Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine Delivered Using Caffeinated Chewing Gum Versus a Marketed Caffeinated Beverage in Healthy Adult Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Paul; Pan, Xiao; Shepherd, Phil; Malandain, Elise; Carney, John; Coleman, Hugh

    2017-12-01

    Background: This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics of caffeine delivered using caffeinated chewing gum to that delivered using a marketed caffeinated beverage (instant coffee) in 16 healthy adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: This was a controlled open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study. Caffeinated chewing gum and a serving of instant coffee, each containing ∼50 mg caffeine, were administered with blood samples collected before and up to 24 hours after administration starts. Plasma caffeine levels were analyzed using validated liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry methodology. Results: There were no statistical differences between the two caffeine products in t max ( p  = 0.3308) and k a ( p  = 0.3894). Although formulated at ∼50 mg caffeine each, mean dose released from chewing gum was ∼18% less than beverage. Dose-normalized area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) 0-t , AUC 0-∞ , and C max was similar between products. Although the criteria were not set a priori and the study was not powered for concluding bioequivalence, the 90% confidence intervals fell within the bioequivalence limit of 80% to 125%. Conclusions: Existing scientific literature on caffeine, based mostly on data from caffeinated beverages, can be leveraged to support the safety of caffeine delivered by chewing gum and current maximum safe caffeine dose advice should be applicable irrespective of delivery method.

  4. Chewing gum and cognitive performance: a case of a functional food with function but no food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, Andrew

    2004-10-01

    Recent reports suggest that enhancement of memory performance while chewing gum is a fairly robust phenomenon. The processes underlying the effect are not known, but may involve glucose delivery, context-dependent effects and arousal mechanisms amongst others. This brief commentary outlines the main findings from these studies and raises some issues regarding interpretation, methodology and future research directions.

  5. Effects of chewing gum on driving performance as evaluated by the STISIM driving simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Ingyu; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Joo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chewing gum on driving performance in a driving simulator. [Subjects] In total, 26 young licensed drivers participated. [Methods] The driving scenario was typical of an urban environment: a single-carriageway, two-way road consisting of a mix of curved and straight sections, with considerable levels of traffic, pedestrians, and parked cars. Mean distance driven above the speed limit, lane position, mean distance driven across...

  6. Oral Presence of Carbohydrate and Caffeine in Chewing Gum: Independent and Combined Effects on Endurance Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin-Brown, Katherine T; Siegel, Rodney; Kilding, Andrew E; Laursen, Paul B

    2016-03-01

    The oral presence of carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) may independently enhance exercise performance, but their influence on performance during prolonged exercise is less known. To determine the independent and combined effects of CHO and CAF administered in chewing gum during a cycling time trial (TT) after prolonged exercise. Eleven male cyclists (32.2 ± 7.5 y, 74.3 ± 6.8 kg, 60.2 ± 4.0 mL · kg-1 · min-1 VO2peak) performed 4 experimental trials consisting of 90-min constant-load cycling at 80% of their second ventilatory threshold (207 ± 30 W), followed immediately by a 20-km TT. Under double-blinded conditions, cyclists received placebo (PLA), CHO, CAF, or a combined CHO+CAF chewing gum at 0-, 5-, 10-, and 15-km points of the TT. Overall TT performance was similar across experimental and PLA trials (%mean difference ± 90%CL 0.2% ± 2.0%, 0.4% ± 2.2%, 0.1% ± 1.8% for CHO, CAF, and CHO+CAF). Compared with PLA, mean power output tended to be higher in the first 2 quarters of the TT with CHO (1.6% ± 3.1% and 0.8% ± 2.0%) and was substantially improved in the last 2 quarters during CAF and CHO+CAF trials (4.2% ± 3.0% and 2.0% ± 1.8%). There were no differences in average heart rate (ES performance. Blood lactate was substantially higher post-TT for CAF and CHO+CAF (ES >0.6). After prolonged constant-load cycling, the oral presence of CHO and CAF in chewing gum, independently or in combination, did not improve overall performance but did influence pacing.

  7. EFFECT OF XYLITOL AND SORBITOL IN CHEWING-GUMS ON MUTANS STREPTOCOCCI, PLAQUE PH AND MINERAL LOSS OF ENAMEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WENNERHOLM, K; ARENDS, J; BIRKHED, D; RUBEN, J; EMILSON, CG; DIJKMAN, AG

    1994-01-01

    Seventeen subjects with more than 3 x 10(5) mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva completed this randomised, cross-over study. Four different chewing-gums, containing: (1) 70% xylitol, (2) 35% xylitol + 35% sorbitol, (3) 17.5% xylitol + 52.5% sorbitol, and (4) 70% sorbitol, were tested. The

  8. A novel colourimetric technique to assess chewing function using two-coloured specimens: Validation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Martin; Christou, Panagiotis; Miyazaki, Hideo; Halazonetis, Demetrios; Herrmann, François R; Müller, Frauke

    2015-08-01

    Chewing efficiency may be evaluated using cohesive specimen, especially in elderly or dysphagic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate three two-coloured chewing gums for a colour-mixing ability test and to validate a new purpose built software (ViewGum©). Dentate participants (dentate-group) and edentulous patients with mandibular two-implant overdentures (IOD-group) were recruited. First, the dentate-group chewed three different types of two-coloured gum (gum1-gum3) for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 chewing cycles. Subsequently the number of chewing cycles with the highest intra- and inter-rater agreement was determined visually by applying a scale (SA) and opto-electronically (ViewGum©, Bland-Altman analysis). The ViewGum© software determines semi-automatically the variance of hue (VOH); inadequate mixing presents with larger VOH than complete mixing. Secondly, the dentate-group and the IOD-group were compared. The dentate-group comprised 20 participants (10 female, 30.3±6.7 years); the IOD-group 15 participants (10 female, 74.6±8.3 years). Intra-rater and inter-rater agreement (SA) was very high at 20 chewing cycles (95.00-98.75%). Gums 1-3 showed different colour-mixing characteristics as a function of chewing cycles, gum1 showed a logarithmic association; gum2 and gum3 demonstrated more linear behaviours. However, the number of chewing cycles could be predicted in all specimens from VOH (all pchewing efficiency, given an elastic specimen is chewed for 20 cycles and could be recommended for the evaluation of chewing efficiency in a clinical and research setting. Chewing is a complex function of the oro-facial structures and the central nervous system. The application of the proposed assessments of the chewing function in geriatrics or special care dentistry could help visualising oro-functional or dental comorbidities in dysphagic patients or those suffering from protein-energy malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  9. The effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaiwa, Miho; Gunjigake, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency by evaluating masticatory variables. Ten adult nasal breathers with normal occlusion and no temporomandibular dysfunction were selected. Subjects were instructed to bite the chewing gum on the habitual side. While breathing through the mouth and nose, the glucide elution from the chewing gum, number of chewing strokes, duration of chewing, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle were evaluated as variables of masticatory efficiency. The durations required for the chewing of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 250 strokes were significantly (P chewing stroke between nose and mouth breathings. The glucide elution rates for 1- and 3-minute chewing were significantly (P chewing between nose and mouth breathings. While chewing for 1, 3, and 5 minutes, the chewing stroke and EMG activity of the masseter muscle were significantly (P chewing to obtain higher masticatory efficiency when breathing through the mouth. Therefore, mouth breathing will decrease the masticatory efficiency if the duration of chewing is restricted in everyday life.

  10. Effects of nicotine on visuo-spatial selective attention as indexed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, A; Thiel, C M; Fink, G R

    2006-08-11

    Nicotine has been shown to specifically reduce reaction times to invalidly cued targets in spatial cueing paradigms. In two experiments, we used event-related potentials to test whether the facilitative effect of nicotine upon the detection of invalidly cued targets is due to a modulation of perceptual processing, as indexed by early attention-related event-related potential components. Furthermore, we assessed whether the effect of nicotine on such unattended stimuli depends upon the use of exogenous or endogenous cues. In both experiments, the electroencephalogram was recorded while non-smokers completed discrimination tasks in Posner-type paradigms after chewing a nicotine polacrilex gum (Nicorette 2 mg) in one session and a placebo gum in another session. Nicotine reduced reaction times to invalidly cued targets when cueing was endogenous. In contrast, no differential effect of nicotine on reaction times was observed when exogenous cues were used. Electrophysiologically, we found a similar attentional modulation of the P1 and N1 components under placebo and nicotine but a differential modulation of later event-related potential components at a frontocentral site. The lack of a drug-dependent modulation of P1 and N1 in the presence of a behavioral effect suggests that the effect of nicotine in endogenous visuo-spatial cueing tasks is not due to an alteration of perceptual processes. Rather, the differential modulation of frontocentral event-related potentials suggests that nicotine acts at later stages of target processing.

  11. Deposition of a model substance, Tc E-HIDA, in the oral cavity after administration of lozenges, chewing gum and sublingual tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Davis, S.S.; Melia, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    The deposition and clearance of a model substance, Tc E-HIDA, in the oral cavity/upper oesophagus and in the stomach after administration of lozenges, chewing gum and sublingual tablets has been followed by gamma scintigraphy in a group of healthy male volunteers. Following administration...

  12. Thyroid Patient Salivary Radioiodine Transit and Dysfunction Assessment Using Chewing Gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkalides, Demetrios

    2016-11-01

    Radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction is the most frequent side-effect of I-131 thyroid therapy. Here, a novel saliva sampling method with ordinary chewing gums administered to the patients at appropriate time intervals post-treatment (TIPT) was used to relate this effect to chewing gum saliva activity (CGSA) content. Saliva samples were acquired after the oral administration of prescribed I-131 activity (radioactivity administered [RA]) to 19 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and 16 hyperthyroidism patients of the radioisotope unit (RIU) during 2014 and 2015. The error of this saliva collecting process was found to be 1.2%-2.05%, and so, the method was considered satisfactory. For each patient, the CGSA was plotted against the TIPT producing a curve, R(t). On this, two functions were fitted: a linear on the first few rising data points and a gamma variate over the peak of the R(t). From these, several parameters related to the radioactivity oral transit were calculated and the total radioactivity administered (TRA) during all past treatments of each patient was obtained from RIU records. The patients were asked to report any swelling, dry mouth, taste-smell change, or pain and were graded as a morbidity score (MS) describing the quality of life of each. The peak radioactivity in the saliva samples, R max , was found to be proportional to RA and was plotted against the CGSA extrapolated at 24 and 36 hours. The linear fits produced were used to estimate the salivary glands' activity average effective half-life (16.3 hours). The MS of DTC patients was found to depend linearly both on R max and TRA (MS = 0.0032 × R max - 0.7107 and MS = 0.1862 × TRA +0.66, respectively). Both lines were used to extrapolate symptom thresholds. The measurement of R max in DTC patients proved very useful for individualized radiation protection, and the dependence of MS on TRA should be used when additional treatments are considered for repeat DTC patients.

  13. An electromyographic study on the sequential recruitment of bilateral sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscle activity during gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S-X; Li, B-Y; Zhang, Y; Zhou, L-J; Liu, L; Widmalm, S-E; Wang, M-Q

    2017-08-01

    Mandibular functions are associated with electromyographic activity of the jaw muscles and also the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). The precise spatiotemporal relation of SCM and masticatory muscles activities during chewing is worthy of investigation. To analyse the sequential recruitment of SCM and masseter activities during chewing as indicated by the spatiotemporal locations of their activity peaks. Jaw movements and bilateral surface electromyographic activity of SCM and masseter were recorded during gum chewing in 20 healthy subjects. The timing order was decided by comparing the length of time from the time when the opening started to the time when the surface electromyographic activity reached its peak value. Spatial order was analysed by locating the peak electromyographic activity onto a standard chewing cycle which was created based on 15 unilateral chewing cycles. Paired t-test, one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls post-test were used for comparisons. Although the Time to Peak for the balancing side SCM appeared shorter than for the other three tested muscles, most often it did not reach a level of significance. However, the location of the balancing side SCM's peak activity was further from the terminal chewing position (TCP) than the working side SCM and bilateral masseters (P < 0·05). The balancing side SCM activity reached its peak significantly further away from TCP than the other three tested muscles during chewing. Further studies with spatiotemporal variables included should be helpful to understand the roles of the head, neck and jaw muscles in orofacial and cervical dysfunctional problems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate tooth stain reduction with nicotine replacement gum during a smoking cessation program

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelton, Helen

    2012-06-13

    AbstractBackgroundIn addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers.MethodsAn evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet). Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat) was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test.ResultsAt week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA). The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0.015), 6 (p = 0

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol and plaque acid neutralisation (ID 485), maintenance of tooth mineralisation (ID 486, 562, 1181), reduction of dental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol and plaque acid neutralisation, maintenance of tooth mineralisation, reduction of dental plaque, and defence against pathogens in the middle ear. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...... in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claims is sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol. The Panel considers that sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol...

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopic study on the effects of chewing on short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mayumi; Hoshi, Yoko; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kida, Ikuhiro

    2011-12-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy, we examined whether chewing gum improves performance in a short-term memory task - immediate recall of random eight-digit numbers - by assessing cerebral hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. We found that the oxyhemoglobin concentration during and after chewing gum was higher than that before chewing; further, the concentration increased during the task, and this increase was reduced with chewing, although non-significantly. Chewing did not improve task performance. Therefore, chewing-induced hemodynamic responses were unrelated to the performance in short-term memory tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of GutsyGum(tm), A Novel Gum, on Subjective Ratings of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Following A Refluxogenic Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel; Sam, Cecilia H Y; Green, Tim; Wood, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Chewing gum alleviates symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) following a refluxogenic meal. GutsyGum(tm), a chewing gum developed to alleviate the symptoms of GER contains calcium carbonate, with a proprietary blend of licorice extract, papain, and apple cider vinegar (GiGs®). The efficacy of GutsyGum(tm) was determined in alleviating the symptoms of GER after a refluxogenic meal compared to placebo gum. This double-blind, placebo-controlled-crossover trial with a one-week washout between treatments had 24 participants with a history of GER consume a refluxogenic meal and then chew GutsyGum(tm) or placebo gum. Participants completed GER symptom questionnaires, consisting of symptom based 10 cm Visual Analogue Scales, immediately following the meal and then at regular intervals out to four hours postmeal. Adjusted mean ± SEM heartburn score (15-min postmeal to 240 min) was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo gum treatment (0.81 ± 0.20 vs. 1.45 ± 0.20 cm; p = 0.034). Mean acid reflux score was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo treatment (0.72 ± 0.19 vs. 1.46 ± 0.19 cm; p = 0.013). There were no significant differences for any of the secondary outcomes. However, pain approached significance with less pain reported in GutsyGum(tm) versus placebo treatment (0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 cm; p = 0.081). Although nausea (p = 0.114) and belching (p = 0.154) were lower following GutsyGum(tm), the difference was not statistically significant. GutsyGum(tm) is more effective than a placebo gum in alleviating primary symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux (Clinical Trial Registration: ACTRN12612000973819).

  18. Effect of chewing speed on energy expenditure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Leelayuwat, Naruemon; Boonyawat, Nattawat; Parniangtong, Auddamar; Sripratoom, Jindamanee

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of rate of chewing on energy expenditure in human subjects. Fourteen healthy subjects (aged 18-24 years) within the normal range of BMI participated in a cross-over experiment consisting of two 6-min sessions of gum chewing, slow (∼60 cycles/min) and fast (∼120 cycles/min) chewing. The resting energy expenditure (REE) and during gum chewing was measured using a ventilated hood connected to a gas analyzer system. The normality of data was explored using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The energy expenditure rate during chewing and the energy expenditure per chewing cycle were compared between the two chewing speeds using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. The energy expenditure per chewing cycle during slow chewing (median 1.4, range 5.2 cal; mean 2.1±1.6 cal) was significantly higher than that during fast chewing (median 0.9, range 2.2 cal; mean 1.0±0.7 cal) (p chewing speeds (p > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that chewing at a slower speed could increase the energy expenditure per cycle and might affect the total daily energy expenditure.

  19. Nicorette reborn? E-cigarettes in light of the history of nicotine replacement technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Mark J

    2015-06-01

    E-cigarettes are currently hotly debated as threatening to re-normalize cigarette smoking and make nicotine addiction publicly acceptable once more. In this paper I contextualize the e-cigarette controversy in light of longstanding disagreements about the meaning and significance of nicotine replacement technologies. A concerted effort to develop such technologies first emerged in Sweden at the end of the 1960s, embodying a vital tension. Two competing 'scripts' vied to influence and shape innovative designs. On the one hand, Nicorette chewing gum was conceived as a therapeutic device aiding smoking cessation. On the other hand, it was cast as a cigarette substitute designed to deliver nicotine 'in the right way', thereby advancing the creative destruction of the combustible cigarette as a drug delivery platform. Drawing on historical and archival research I outline how these two alternative innovation scripts started out entangled with each other before becoming disentangled, leading to the eventual stabilization of Nicorette gum as a therapeutic product to be deployed in the treatment of smoking as a dependence disorder. While a post-therapeutic future for nicotine replacement was charted by Michael Russell at the beginning of the 1990s, it is only with the rise of e-cigarettes after 2003 that such a future has started to verge on reality. E-cigarettes can be seen as resurrecting the historically marginalized script of nicotine replacement as dedicated to righting nicotine consumption and freeing it from the wrongful drug delivery of the modern cigarette. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Formulation and characterization of caffeine biodegradable chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chewing gum delivery system for alertness using ... texture profile analysis (TPA), and also evaluated for biodegradation, microstructure`, in vitro .... human chewing. .... Data are presented as mean ± standard error mean (n=6) .... No conflict of interest associated with this work. ... d), which permit unrestricted use, distribution,.

  1. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  2. Want to block earworms from conscious awareness? B(u)y gum!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, C Philip; Powell, Kitty; Rapley, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examine the role of articulatory motor planning in experiencing an involuntary musical recollection (an "earworm"). Experiment 1 shows that interfering with articulatory motor programming by chewing gum reduces both the number of voluntary and the number of involuntary-unwanted-musical thoughts. This is consistent with other findings that chewing gum interferes with voluntary processes such as recollections from verbal memory, the interpretation of ambiguous auditory images, and the scanning of familiar melodies, but is not predicted by theories of thought suppression, which assume that suppression is made more difficult by concurrent tasks or cognitive loads. Experiment 2 shows that chewing the gum affects the experience of "hearing" the music and cannot be ascribed to a general effect on thinking about a tune only in abstract terms. Experiment 3 confirms that the reduction of musical recollections by chewing gum is not the consequence of a general attentional or dual-task demand. The data support a link between articulatory motor programming and the appearance in consciousness of both voluntary and unwanted musical recollections.

  3. Origin of Xylitol in Chewing Gum: A Compound-Specific Isotope Technique for the Differentiation of Corn- and Wood-Based Xylitol by LC-IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Daniel; Wolbert, Jens-Benjamin; Schulte, Marcel S; Jochmann, Maik A; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2018-02-28

    The sugar replacement compound xylitol has gained increasing attention because of its use in many commercial food products, dental-hygiene articles, and pharmaceuticals. It can be classified by the origin of the raw material used for its production. The traditional "birch xylitol" is considered a premium product, in contrast to xylitol produced from agriculture byproducts such as corn husks or sugar-cane straw. Bulk stable-isotope analysis (BSIA) and compound-specific stable-isotope analysis (CSIA) by liquid-chromatography isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) of chewing-gum extracts were used to determine the δ 13 C isotope signatures for xylitol. These were applied to elucidate the original plant type the xylitol was produced from on the basis of differences in isotope-fractionation processes of photosynthetic CO 2 fixation. For the LC-IRMS analysis, an organic-solvent-free extraction protocol and HPLC method for the separation of xylitol from different artificial sweeteners and sugar-replacement compounds was successfully developed and applied to the analysis of 21 samples of chewing gum, from which 18 could be clearly related to the raw-material plant class.

  4. Exercise as an adjunct to nicotine gum in treating tobacco dependence among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Taru; Leeman, Robert F; Korhonen, Tellervo; Quiles, Zandra N; Terwal, Donna M; Garvey, Arthur J; Hartley, Howard L

    2008-04-01

    This was the first randomized, controlled smoking cessation trial assessing the efficacy of an exercise intervention as an adjunct to nicotine gum therapy in comparison with both equal contact control and standard care control conditions. Sedentary female smokers aged 18-55 years were provided with nicotine gum treatment along with brief behavioral counseling and were randomized into one of these three behavioral adjunct conditions. In the "intent-to-treat" sample (N = 182), at end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up, there were clear, but nonsignificant, trends in univariate analyses in which the exercise and equal contact control conditions both had higher rates of abstinence than the standard care control. However, when adjusting for other predictors of relapse in a multiple logistic regression, both exercise and equal contact control showed an advantage over standard care control in avoiding early relapse (i.e., after 1 week). In a multivariate survival model adjusting for other predictors, the equal contact condition had a significantly lower likelihood of relapse compared with the standard care condition and there was a near significant trend in which exercise offered an advantage over standard care as well. While these findings suggest a slightly improved likelihood of abstinence with exercise compared with standard care, exercise did not differ from equal contact control in its efficacy. Potential explanations for these equivalent levels of efficacy and implications for the findings are discussed.

  5. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  6. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    , concentration, and memory. Finally there are several strategies to deal with nicotine dependence, Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT), which are nicotine chewing-gum, transdermal nicotine patches, and nicotine inhalators device. Also some antidepressants like bupropion has shown to be effective in smoking cessation treatment. To know more about nicotine phenomenon would be important, because that will allow a more mature perspective about the damage and beneficial effects of that substance.

  7. Functional Connectivity of Human Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Schutt, R.; Myers, C.; Peltier, S.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    Mastication is one of the most important orofacial functions. The neurobiological mechanisms of masticatory control have been investigated in animal models, but less so in humans. This project used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess the positive temporal correlations among activated brain areas during a gum-chewing task. Twenty-nine healthy young-adults underwent an fcMRI scanning protocol while they chewed gum. Seed-based fcMRI analyses were performed with the motor cortex and cerebellum as regions of interest. Both left and right motor cortices were reciprocally functionally connected and functionally connected with the post-central gyrus, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, and precuneus. The cerebellar seeds showed functional connections with the contralateral cerebellar hemispheres, bilateral sensorimotor cortices, left superior temporal gyrus, and left cingulate cortex. These results are the first to identify functional central networks engaged during mastication. PMID:23355525

  8. Want to block earworms from conscious awareness?B(u)y gum!

    OpenAIRE

    Beaman, C. Philip; Powell, Kitty; Rapley, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examine the role of articulatory motor planning in experiencing an involuntary musical recollection (an “earworm”). Experiment 1 shows that interfering with articulatory motor programming by chewing gum reduces both the number of voluntary and the number of involuntary—unwanted—musical thoughts. This is consistent with other findings that chewing gum interferes with voluntary processes such as recollections from verbal memory, the interpretation of ambiguous auditory images,...

  9. [Chewing and cognitive function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Chewing does not only crush food to aid swallowing and digestion; it also helps to relieve stress and regulate cognitive functions, including alertness and executive function. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving. In addition, it has been shown in the elderly that a decrease in the number of residual teeth is related to dementia onset. These findings suggest a link between chewing and maintaining memory and attention. Recently, many studies regarding the effects of chewing on memory and attention were conducted using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). When a working memory task was used, the middle frontal gyrus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed greater activation in addition to producing higher alertness after chewing. Furthermore, using an attentional network test, reaction time shortened, and the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus were both activated for the executive network. From these results, it is suggested that chewing elevates alertness, consequently leading to improvements in cognitive performance. In this review, we introduce findings concerning the effects of chewing on cognitive performance, and discuss the neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects.

  10. Brain Activity and Human Unilateral Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Myers, C.; Schutt, R.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mechanisms underlying mastication have been studied in non-human mammals but less so in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activity in humans during gum chewing. Chewing was associated with activations in the cerebellum, motor cortex and caudate, cingulate, and brainstem. We also divided the 25-second chew-blocks into 5 segments of equal 5-second durations and evaluated activations within and between each of the 5 segments. This analysis revealed activation clusters unique to the initial segment, which may indicate brain regions involved with initiating chewing. Several clusters were uniquely activated during the last segment as well, which may represent brain regions involved with anticipatory or motor events associated with the end of the chew-block. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for specific brain areas associated with chewing in humans and demonstrated that brain activation patterns may dynamically change over the course of chewing sequences. PMID:23103631

  11. Effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system. Seventeen healthy volunteers without any experience of chewing betel nut (fresh chewers) and 17 habitual chewers underwent vital sign measurements, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests prior to the study. Each subject then chewed two pieces of betel nut for 2min (dosing). The same paradigm was repeated immediately, 10min, and 20min after chewing. On a different day, 10 fresh chewers masticated chewing gum as control. Fresh chewers exhibited significantly decreased response rates of oVEMP (53%) and cVEMP (71%) after dosing compared with those from the predosing period. These abnormal VEMPs returned to normal 20min after dosing. In contrast, 100% response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were observed before and after masticating chewing gum. In habitual chewers, the response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were 32% and 29%, respectively, 20min after dosing. Chewing betel nuts induced a transient loss of the otolithic reflexes in fresh chewers but may cause permanent loss in habitual chewers. Chewing betel nuts can cause a loss of otholitic reflex function. This creates a risk for disturbed balance and malfunction, for instance, during driving. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of gum chewing exercises on saliva secretion and occlusal force in community-dwelling elderly individuals: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kazuharu; Matsuo, Koichiro; Takagi, Daisuke; Morita, Yu; Ooka, Takafumi; Hironaka, Shouji; Mukai, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    Elderly individuals face the risk of reductions in saliva secretion and occlusal force caused by systemic diseases or medications that can eventually result in malnutrition and systemic complications. We tested the hypothesis that regular gum chewing exercises (GCE) would enhance saliva secretion and occlusal force in an elderly population. A total of 12 community-dwelling elderly individuals (3 men and 9 women) participated in this study after providing informed consent. Participants carried out GCE regimens using a soft gum (GCE-S) or hard gum (GCE-H) for 2 weeks each, with a 2-week rest period between trials. Mucosal moisture on the tongue surface, resting saliva, and occlusal force were measured before and after each test gum, and changes in parameters at relevant time-points were statistically analyzed. Differences in each measurement item were assessed using the Friedman test for before and after the GCE. We used the Holm's correction for multiple comparisons if the Friedman test results were significant. The critical value for rejecting the null hypothesis was set at P GCE-S, returned to baseline levels during the rest period and significantly increased again after GCE-H. Mucosal moisture and occlusal force followed a similar trend, with a significant rise after GCE-H. The results of the present study suggest that GCE can increase resting saliva secretion and occlusal force in elderly individuals. Further investigations are required on the appropriate use of soft and hard gums to address oral frailty in elderly individuals. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 48-53. © 2015 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Effects of chewing in working memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Kashikura, Kenichi; Nonaka, Hiroi; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2008-05-09

    It has been generally suggested that chewing produces an enhancing effect on cognitive performance-related aspects of memory by the test battery. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that chewing is associated with activation of various brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the relation between cognitive performances affected by chewing and the neuronal activity in specified regions in the brain. We therefore examined the effects of chewing on neuronal activities in the brain during a working memory task using fMRI. The subjects chewed gum, without odor and taste components, between continuously performed two- or three-back (n-back) working memory tasks. Chewing increased the BOLD signals in the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 9 and 46) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the n-back tasks. Furthermore, there were more prominent activations in the right premotor cortex, precuneus, thalamus, hippocampus and inferior parietal lobe during the n-back tasks after the chewing trial. These results suggest that chewing may accelerate or recover the process of working memory besides inducing improvement in the arousal level by the chewing motion.

  14. Sleep Patterns, Mood, Psychomotor Vigilance Performance, and Command Resilience of Watchstanders on the Five and Dime Watchbill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-28

    soft drinks, energy drinks), type and frequency of tobacco product use (e.g., cigarettes, chewing tobacco, nicotine gum or patches, electronic smoke...caffeinated beverages (RX Department only). Regarding the use of nicotine products, cigarettes were used by 20 participants, followed by electronic ...smoke (n = 9), chewing tobacco/snuff (n = 8), and cigars (n = 2). Bed size 27% Mattress 35% Pillow 10% Curtain 8% Odors 20% 0% 20% 40% 60

  15. Effect of Gum Chewing on Intestinal Functions after Gynecological Operations: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Şenol

    2016-12-01

    RESULTS: There was no difference between groups in terms of age, duration of operation, intraoperative blood loss, pre and postoperative serum hemoglobin levels, duration to first bowel sound, flatulence and defecation (p>0.05. Age (r=0.234, p=0.032, type of incision (r=0.228, p=0.037 were significantly correlated with the time to first bowel sound. Type of incision (r=0.295, p=0.006, duration of operation (r=0.277, p=0.01 and intraoperative blood loss (r=0.298, p=0.006 were significantly correlated with the time to first flatulence. In multivariate regression analyses, none of the variables were found to be significant parameter for time to first bowel sound (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Gum chewing does not affect some of the gastrointestinal functions after gynecological operations and there is no single parameter for time to first bowel sound, first flatulence and first defecation, individual surgical and medical condition differences should be kept in mind while evaluating intestinal functions.

  16. Influence of posterior dental arch length on brain activity during chewing in patients with mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoi, K; Fueki, K; Usui, N; Taira, M; Wakabayashi, N

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that shortened dental arch decreases masticatory function. However, its potential to change brain activity during mastication is unknown. The present study investigates the effect of a shortened posterior dental arch with mandibular removable partial dentures (RPDs) on brain activity during gum chewing. Eleven subjects with missing mandibular molars (mean age, 66.1 years) on both sides received experimental RPDs with interchangeable artificial molars in a crossover trial design. Brain activity during gum chewing with RPDs containing (full dental arch) and lacking artificial molars (shortened dental arch) was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, masticatory function was evaluated for each dental arch type. Food comminuting and mixing ability and the perceived chewing ability were significantly lower in subjects with a shortened dental arch than those with a full dental arch (P chewing with the full dental arch occurred in the middle frontal gyrus, primary sensorimotor cortex extending to the pre-central gyrus, supplementary motor area, putamen, insula and cerebellum. However, middle frontal gyrus activation was not observed during gum chewing with the shortened dental arch. These results suggest that shortened dental arch affects human brain activity in the middle frontal gyrus during gum chewing, and the decreased middle frontal gyrus activation may be associated with decreased masticatory function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. What Are Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarette Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Facts / Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Street names: Chew, Dip, Snuff Print Expand All Revised July 2017 What are tobacco, nicotine, and e-cigarette products? ©Shutterstock/ CatherineL-Prod Also known as: Cigarettes: ...

  18. The effect of betel nut chewing on contour and object masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2011-11-01

    The betel nut is a common stimulant in many Asian countries. We employed the masking task developed by Enns and Di Lollo (Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 345-352, 1997) to investigate the effects of betel nuts on sensory and attentional processing. In the masking task, participants needed to identify a target that was masked by either a contour mask or an object mask. Sensory processing was assessed by examining target identification in the contour mask condition when the target was presented only centrally, whereas attentional processing was assessed by examining target identification in the object mask condition when the target was presented randomly in either a central or a parafoveal location. The results showed that chewing betel nut and chewing gum produced significant contour masking with a large effect size, similar to the pure control condition, in which participants chewed nothing, and the placebo control condition, in which what participants chewed was disguised. This suggests that neither betel nut nor gum affects sensory processing. Alternatively, betel nut chewing could produce a reduction in object masking for the habitual chewers and the nonchewers, suggesting an effect of betel nut on attentional processing. This concentrated attention was also observed in the placebo control condition; thus, it cannot be exclusively driven by the expectation effect. Also, chewing per se reduced the attentional distribution foveally.

  19. The effect of the augmentation of cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine on EEG indices of visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-03-01

    The cholinergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention but the exact role remains unclear. In visuospatial attention, bias refers to neuronal signals that modulate the sensitivity of sensory cortex, while disengagement refers to the decoupling of attention making reorienting possible. In the current study we investigated the effect of facilitating cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine (Nicorette Freshmint 2mg, polacrilex chewing gum) on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of bias and disengagement. Sixteen non-smoking participants performed in a Visual Spatial Cueing (VSC) task while EEG was recorded. A randomized, single-blind, crossover design was implemented. Based on the scarce literature, it was expected that nicotine would specifically augment disengagement related processing, especially manifest as an increase of the modulation of the Late Positive Deflection (LPD) by validity of cueing. No effect was expected on bias related components (cue-locked: EDAN, LDAP; target-locked: P1 and N1 modulations). Results show weak indications for a reduction of the reaction time validity effect by nicotine, but only for half of the sample in which the validity effect on the pretest was largest. Nicotine reduced the result of bias as indexed by a reduced P1 modulation by validity, especially in subjects with strong peripheral responses to nicotine. Nicotine did not affect ERP manifestations of the directing of bias (EDAN, LDAP) or disengagement (LPD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Objective assessment of actual chewing side by measurement of bilateral masseter muscle electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yo; Kuwatsuru, Rika; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Oki, Kyosuke; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity of objective assessment of actual chewing side by measurement of electromyographic (EMG) activity of the bilateral masseter muscles upon chewing test foods. The sample consisted of 19 healthy, dentate individuals. The subjects were asked to chew three types of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky, and chewing gum) for 10 strokes on the right side and then on the left side, and instructed to perform maximum voluntary clenching for 3s, three times. EMG activity from the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The data were collected in three different days. The root mean square EMG amplitude obtained from the maximum clenching task was used as the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Then, the level of amplitude against the MVC (%MVC) was calculated for the right and left sides on each stroke. The side with the larger %MVC value was judged as the chewing side, and the concordance rates (CRs) for the instructed chewing side (ICS) and the judged chewing side (JCS) were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the CRs were calculated to evaluate the reproducibility of the method. High CRs between the ICS and JCS for each test food were recognized. There were significant ICCs for beef jerky (R=0.761, Pchewing gum (R=0.785, Pchewing side during mastication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sugar-free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates and reduction of calculus formation (ID 1309) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    calculus/tartar formation, gums health”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. The Panel considers that reduction of calculus formation at sites which are most important for dental health is a beneficial physiological effect. No human studies have been provided from which...... conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of a claim on the use of sugar-free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates and the reduction of calculus formation at sites which are most important for dental health (e.g. gingival margin or between teeth). On the basis of the data presented......, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the use of sugar-free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates and reduction of calculus formation at sites which are most important for dental health....

  2. Evaluation of chewing ability and its relationship with activities of daily living, depression, cognitive status and food intake in the community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yumi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Yamaga, Takayuki; Takiguchi, Tomoya; Wada, Taizo; Sakamoto, Ryota; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Fukutomi, Eriko; Chen, Wenling; Fujisawa, Michiko; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Miyazaki, Hideo; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess chewing ability using color-changeable chewing gum and to show the association between chewing ability and geriatric functions, as well as dietary status in the community-dwelling elderly. The study population consisted of 269 community-dwelling elderly aged ≥ 75 living in Tosa, Japan. Assessment of chewing ability was carried out by a dentist using color-changeable chewing gum. Activities of daily living (ADL), depression and subjective quality of life (QOL) were assessed by questionnaire. Cognitive status was assessed by; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised (HDS-R) and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) during the check-up. Food diversity was assessed using the 11-item Food Diversity Score Kyoto (FDSK-11). Number of teeth was significantly related to chewing ability (Pchewing ability had significantly lower ADL scores in the items of self-maintenance (P=0.029) and intellectual activity (P=0.021). There was a significant association between low chewing ability and depression (Pchewing ability; MMSE (P=0.022), HDSR (P=0.017) and FAB (P=0.002). The participants with low chewing ability had lower food variety (Pchewing ability. Low chewing ability evaluated by color-changeable gum was associated with lower ADL, lower cognitive functioning, depression and food insufficiency in the community-dwelling elderly. More attention should be paid to assessing chewing ability of elderly persons in community settings. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. A Comparison of Oral Sensory Effects of Three TRPA1 Agonists in Young Adult Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eva Ø.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Boudreau, Shellie A.

    2017-01-01

    This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde) in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30) and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25) participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg), nicotine (4 mg), or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg) chewing gum. Throughout a standardized 10 min chewing regime, burning, cooling, and irritation intensities, and location were recorded. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate and intra-oral temperature were assessed before, during, and after chewing. Basal intra-oral temperature was lower in smokers (35.2°C ± 1.58) as compared to non-smokers (35.9°C ± 1.61) [F(1, 52) = 8.5, P = 0.005, post hoc, p = 0.005]. However, the increase in temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in response to chewing menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde gums were similar between smokers and non-smokers. Although smoking status did not influence the intensity of burning, cooling, and irritation, smokers did report nicotine burn more often (92%) than non-smokers (63%) [χ(1, N=55)2 = 6.208, P = 0.013]. Reports of nicotine burn consistently occurred at the back of the throat and cinnamaldehyde burn on the tongue. The cooling sensation of menthol was more widely distributed in the mouth of non-smokers as compared to smokers. Smoking alters thermoregulation, somatosensory, and possibly TRPA1 receptor responsiveness and suggests that accumulated exposure of nicotine by way of cigarette smoke alters oral sensory and vasomotor sensitivity. PMID:28936178

  4. Average chewing pattern improvements following Disclusion Time reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstein, Robert B; Radke, John

    2017-05-01

    Studies involving electrognathographic (EGN) recordings of chewing improvements obtained following occlusal adjustment therapy are rare, as most studies lack 'chewing' within the research. The objectives of this study were to determine if reducing long Disclusion Time to short Disclusion Time with the immediate complete anterior guidance development (ICAGD) coronoplasty in symptomatic subjects altered their average chewing pattern (ACP) and their muscle function. Twenty-nine muscularly symptomatic subjects underwent simultaneous EMG and EGN recordings of right and left gum chewing, before and after the ICAGD coronoplasty. Statistical differences in the mean Disclusion Time, the mean muscle contraction cycle, and the mean ACP resultant from ICAGD underwent the Student's paired t-test (α = 0.05). Disclusion Time reductions from ICAGD were significant (2.11-0.45 s. p = 0.0000). Post-ICAGD muscle changes were significant in the mean area (p = 0.000001), the peak amplitude (p = 0.00005), the time to peak contraction (p chewing position became closer to centric occlusion (p chewing velocities increased (p chewing pattern (ACP) shape, speed, consistency, muscular coordination, and vertical opening improvements can be significantly improved in muscularly dysfunctional TMD patients within one week's time of undergoing the ICAGD enameloplasty. Computer-measured and guided occlusal adjustments quickly and physiologically improved chewing, without requiring the patients to wear pre- or post-treatment appliances.

  5. Chew the Pain Away: Oral Habits to Cope with Pain and Stress and to Stimulate Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane Anthea Francesca Weijenberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations for these discrepancies by incorporating knowledge derived from studies into oral habits and bruxism. Both stress and cerebral functional specialization (i.e., the involvement of specific brain structures in distinctive cognitive processes are hypothesized to play a major role in the underlying physiological mechanisms of the diverse effects of chewing gum on cognition, stress, and pain.

  6. The influence of food consistency on chewing rate and muscular work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, A; Abbink, J H

    2017-11-01

    Food properties influence the parameters of the masticatory process, such as jaw movement, muscle activity and chewing rate. Firm foods will require more muscle activity than softer foods. However, the influence of food hardness on chewing rate is ambiguous as both slower and higher chewing rates have been reported for harder foods. Rheological characteristics of the food, such as plasticity and elasticity, may help to explain differences in chewing rate. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of food properties on chewing rate and muscular work in five phases of a chewing sequence. Eighty-four participants chewed on five foods, which strongly differed in consistency. Chewing gum was used as a reference food. The phase in the chewing sequence had a large significant effect on cycle duration for the five foods. A significant decrease in cycle duration at the beginning of chewing was followed by an increase in later phases, leading to U-shaped curves. Food type had a small effect on the average cycle duration. However, large significant differences in cycle duration were observed between the foods at the beginning of a chewing sequence. In that phase, the firm foods were chewed much slower than the soft foods. Muscular work was significantly influenced by both chewing phase and food type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A.; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F.; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut (‘BN’), nut + Piper betle leaf (‘BL’), and betel quid (‘BQ’) consisting of nut+lime+tobacco+Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p<0.05 indicated significance. Predominant compounds in chewing material were guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, chavibetol, and nicotine. In chewing saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ) and significant differences between all groups for total areca- specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. PMID:25797484

  8. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    comprised three separate series of a 4-min chewing period. These series differed only with respect to CF, i.e., habitual frequency, and 60 and 88 strokes/min. Results showed that more than 50% of the released menthol and menthone could be retrieved in the expired air and saliva. After 2-min of chewing...

  9. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  10. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  11. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  12. Chewing-induced hypertension in afferent baroreflex failure: a sympathetic response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente Mora, Cristina; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Our goal was to understand the autonomic responses to eating in patients with congenital afferent baroreflex failure, by documenting changes in blood pressure and heart rate with chewing, swallowing and stomach distension. What is the main finding and its importance? Patients born with lesions in the afferent baroreceptor pathways have an exaggerated pressor response to food intake. This appears to be a sympathetically mediated response, triggered by chewing, that occurs independently of swallowing or distension of the stomach. The chewing-induced pressor response may be useful as a counter-manoeuvre to prevent orthostatic hypotension in these patients. Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease with extremely labile blood pressure resulting from baroreflex deafferentation. Patients have marked surges in sympathetic activity, frequently surrounding meals. We conducted an observational study to document the autonomic responses to eating in patients with FD and to determine whether sympathetic activation was caused by chewing, swallowing or stomach distension. Blood pressure and R-R intervals were measured continuously while chewing gum (n = 15), eating (n = 20) and distending the stomach by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding (n = 9). Responses were compared with those of normal control subjects (n = 10) and of patients with efferent autonomic failure (n = 10) who have chronically impaired sympathetic outflow. In patients with FD, eating was associated with a marked but transient pressor response (P Chewing gum evoked a similar increase in blood pressure that was higher in patients with FD than in control subjects (P = 0.0001), but was absent in patients with autonomic failure. In patients with FD, distending the stomach by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding failed to elicit a pressor response. The results provide indirect evidence that chewing triggers sympathetic

  13. The Physiological and Performance Effects of Caffeine Gum Consumed During A Simulated Half-Time By Professional Academy Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Russell; N A, Reynolds; B T, Crewther; C J, Cook; L, Kilduff

    2017-11-27

    Despite the prevalence of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, few studies have examined the use of caffeinated gums, especially during half-time in team sports. The physiological (blood lactate, salivary hormone concentrations) and performance (repeated sprints, cognitive function) effects of consuming caffeine gum during a simulated half-time were examined. Professional academy rugby union players (n=14) completed this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced study. Following pre-exercise measurements , players chewed a placebo (PL) gum for five min before a standardized warm-up and completing repeated sprint testing (RSSA1). Thereafter, during a 15 min simulated half-time period, players chewed either caffeine (CAF: 400 mg; 4.1 ± 0.5 mg·kg) or PL gum for five min before completing a second repeated sprint test (RSSA2). Blood lactate, salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations, and indices of cognitive function (i.e., reaction time and Stroop test) were measured at baseline, pre-RSSA1, post-RSSA1, pre-RSSA2 and post-RSSA2. Sprint performance was not affected by CAF (P=0.995) despite slower sprint times following the first sprint of both RSSA tests (all P0.05). Although performance effects were absent, chewing caffeine gum increased the salivary testosterone concentrations of professional rugby union players over a simulated half-time. Practitioners may therefore choose to recommend caffeine gum between successive exercise bouts due to the increases in salivary testosterone observed; a variable associated with increased motivation and high-intensity exercise performance.

  14. Relationship between chewing ability and cognitive impairment in the rural elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyong; Lee, Sung Kook; Choi, Youn-Hee; Tanaka, Makiko; Hirotsu, Kimiko; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Jung, Yun-Sook; Amano, Atsuo

    Relationship between masticatory function and cognitive impairment had been suggested but still understudied. We investigated the association between chewing ability and cognitive impairment among the elderly living in a rural region. A total of 295 elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in a rural city of Korea participated in a cross-sectional study. Trained nurses conducted interviews and assessed chewing ability using gum that changed color based on chewing performance. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination for Dementia Screening (MMSE-DS) of Korean vesrsion. Socio-demographic characteristics, activities of daily living (ADL), Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) were also assessed using questionnaires as potential confounders. The mean age of the participants was 81.4 (ranged 70-102) years and 67.8% of them were female. Participants with low chewing ability were significantly older, dependent, and had lower MNA and MMSE-DS scores. The elderly with middle or low chewing ability had significantly higher risk for having cognitive impairment than those with higher chewing ability. Our findings suggest that poor chewing ability is associated with cognitive impairment or dementia in the elderly living in rural area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J

    2015-06-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans, including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut ('BN'), nut + Piper betle leaf ('BL'), and betel quid ('BQ') consisting of nut + lime + tobacco + Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p < 0.05 indicated significance. Predominant compounds in chewing material were guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, chavibetol, and nicotine. In chewing saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ), and significant differences between all groups for total areca-specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.

  17. The effect of green tea extract on the removal of sulfur-containing oral malodor volatiles in vitro and its potential application in chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q C; Wu, A Z; Pika, J

    2010-09-01

    Increasing pH solution from 7.5 to 8.0 was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of green tea extract for methanethiol removal in vitro. Green tea extract was also found to remove hydrogen sulfide and its effectiveness was greatly improved under alkaline conditions. It was found that with green tea extract, maximum H₂S removal was achieved when the pH was between 8.1 and 8.4 at 37 °C for 5 min. Further increases in pH resulted in decrease of the extract effectiveness. Vegetable acetone powders which contain polyphenol oxidases or peroxidases were found to further enhance the effectiveness for the removal of thiols when used in combination with green tea extracts at body temperature under alkaline conditions. Adding 5% baking soda to green tea extract-containing chewing gum was found to buffer saliva pHs to 8.0 during 10 min of chewing. However, severe discoloration was observed and undesirable bitterness was perceived, most likely due to the polymerization of unencapsulated green tea polyphenols. Therefore, encapsulation of green tea extract is recommended for applications at elevated pHs.

  18. Effects of chewing on cognitive processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and cognitive processing speed, testing the hypothesis that this effect induces higher cognitive performance. Seventeen healthy adults (20-34 years old) were studied during attention task with blood oxygenation level-dependent functional (fMRI) at 3.0 T MRI. The attentional network test (ANT) within a single task fMRI containing two cue conditions (no cue and center cue) and two target conditions (congruent and incongruent) was conducted to examine the efficiency of alerting and executive control. Participants were instructed to press a button with the right or left thumb according to the direction of a centrally presented arrow. Each participant underwent two back-to-back ANT sessions with or without chewing gum, odorless and tasteless to remove any effect other than chewing. Behavioral results showed that mean reaction time was significantly decreased during chewing condition, regardless of speed-accuracy trade-off, although there were no significant changes in behavioral effects (both alerting and conflict effects). On the other hand, fMRI analysis revealed higher activations in the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus for the executive network and motor-related regions for both attentional networks during chewing condition. These results suggested that chewing induced an increase in the arousal level and alertness in addition to an effect on motor control and, as a consequence, these effects could lead to improvements in cognitive performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Flavor release measurement from gum model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero-López, Isabel; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans; Bredie, Wender L P

    2004-12-29

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio-scaled using the signal from acetone in the breath of subjects. Next, APCI-MS and sensory TI curves are smoothed by low-pass filtering. Principal component analysis of the individual curves is used to display graphically the product differentiation by APCI-MS or TI signals. It is shown that differences in gum composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory adaptation and sensitivity differences of human perception versus APCI-MS detection might explain the divergence between the two dynamic measurement methods.

  20. Effect of experimental chewing on masticatory muscle pain onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Rodrigues Conti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a chewing exercise on pain intensity and pressure-pain threshold in patients with myofascial pain. METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive women diagnosed with myofascial pain (MFP according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria comprised the experimental group and 15 healthy age-matched female were used as controls. Subjects were asked to chew a gum stick for 9 min and to stay at rest for another 9 min afterwards. Pain intensity was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS every 3 min. At 0, 9 and 18 min, the pressure-pain threshold (PPT was measured bilaterally on the masseter and the anterior, medium, and posterior temporalis muscles. RESULTS: Patients with myofascial pain reported increase (76% and no change (24% on the pain intensity measured with the VAS. A reduction of the PPT at all muscular sites after the exercise and a non-significant recovery after rest were also observed. CONCLUSION: The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. there are at least two subtypes of patients with myofascial pain that respond differently to experimental chewing; 2. the chewing protocol had an adequate discriminative ability in distinguishing patients with myofascial pain from healthy controls.

  1. Insight into nicotine addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Handa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the epidemic of nicotine addiction in India and other nations is a global public health tragedy of untoward proportions. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Smoking-caused disease is a consequence of exposure to toxins in tobacco smoke and addiction to nicotine is the proximate cause of these diseases. This article focuses on nicotine as a determinant of addiction to tobacco and the pharmacologic effects of nicotine that sustain cigarette smoking. The pharmacologic reasons for nicotine use are an enhancement of mood, either directly or through relief of withdrawal symptoms and augmentation of mental or physical functions. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5A's and 5R's approach and pharmacotherapy. Dental professionals play an important role in helping patients to quit tobacco at the community and national levels, to promote tobacco prevention and control nicotine addiction. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care.

  2. Chewing in adolescents with overweight and obesity: An exploratory study with behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroni-Pereira, Aline; Araujo, Darlle Santos; Scudine, Kelly Guedes de Oliveira; Prado, Daniela Galvão de Almeida; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Castelo, Paula Midori

    2016-12-01

    Physiological and behavioral aspects of masticatory function may have an impact on nutritional status, which has been little studied. The aim was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of objective, subjective and behavioral aspects of masticatory function in 231 adolescents, aged 14-17 years and compare these parameters between normal-weight (n = 115) and adolescents with overweight/obesity (n = 116). Objective aspects were examined by the Oro-facial Myofunctional Evaluation-expanded protocol (OMES-e), determining the masticatory type, chewing time/frequency, abnormal movements, and other; masticatory performance (color changeable chewing gum) and bite force were also explored. The subjective and behavioral evaluations were assessed using the Quality of Mastication Function Questionnaire, which explores the masticatory behavior and frequency/intensity of difficulty in chewing different types of foods. Results were submitted to normality tests, Chi-square, unpaired t-test and Mann-Whitney. A multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate which of the variables under study contributed to the variation in Percent Body Fat (α = 0.05). The results showed that OMES-e total score differed significantly between groups, that is, individuals with overweight showed more changes in oro-facial myofunctional aspects than normal-weight ones. Unilateral mastication was more frequent among females with overweight/obesity. They also showed greater difficulty on Habits and Fruit domains, reporting the need of adding sauce to the meal to facilitate swallowing and peeling and cutting fruit (apples) in small pieces in order to better chew them. OMES-e total score also showed a significant relationship with Percent Body Fat. Masticatory performance evaluated by chewing gum and bite force did not differ between groups. This study showed that adolescents with excess weight presented changes in masticatory behavior and greater difficulty in performing the masticatory function

  3. Description of chewing and food intake over the course of a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Zandian, Modjtaba; Eriksson-Marklund, Lisa; Bergh, Cecilia; Grigoriadis, Anastasios; Södersten, Per

    2011-10-24

    While the average frequency of chewing and food intake have been reported before, a detailed description of the pattern of chewing and the cumulative intake of food over the course of a meal have not. In order to achieve this goal, video recording of the maxillary-mandibular region of women eating food from a plate was synchronized with video recording of the plate and computer recording of the weight-loss of the plate. Video recording of chewing correlated strongly with chewing identified by magnetic tracking of jaw displacement in a test with chewing gum at three different frequencies, thus ensuring the validity of video recording of chewing. Weight-loss data were corrected by convolution algorithms, validated against human correction, using sliding window filtering to correct errors with video events as reference points. By use of this method, women ate on average 264 g of food over 114 min, they took an average of 51 mouthfuls during the meal and displayed on average 794 chews with 15 chews per chewing sequence. The number of mouthfuls decreased and the duration of the pauses after each mouthful increased in the middle of the meal and these measures were then restored. The ratio between chewing sequences and subsequent pauses remained stable although the weight of each mouthful decreased by the end of the meal, a measure that is hypothesized to be reflected in a decelerated speed of eating. The method allows this hypothesis to be tested and its implication for clinical intervention to be examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chew the pain away: oral habits to cope with pain and stress and to stimulate cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, R.A.F.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations

  5. Chew the pain away - Oral habits to cope with pain and stress, and to stimulate cognition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, R.A.F.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations

  6. Increased sternocleidomastoid, but not trapezius, muscle activity in response to increased chewing load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Nordh, Erik; Eriksson, Per-Olof

    2013-10-01

    Previous findings, during chewing, that boluses of larger size and harder texture result in larger amplitudes of both mandibular and head-neck movements suggest a relationship between increased chewing load and incremental recruitment of jaw and neck muscles. The present report evaluated jaw (masseter and digastric) and neck [sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and trapezius] muscle activity during the chewing of test foods of different sizes and textures by 10 healthy subjects. Muscle activity was recorded by surface electromyography and simultaneous mandibular and head movements were recorded using an optoelectronic technique. Each subject performed continuous jaw-opening/jaw-closing movements whilst chewing small and large boluses of chewing gum and rubber silicone (Optosil). For jaw opening/jaw closing without a bolus, SCM activity was recorded for jaw opening concomitantly with digastric activity. During chewing, SCM activity was recorded for jaw closing concomitantly with masseter activity. Trapezius activity was present in some, but not all, cycles. For the masseter and SCM muscles, higher activity was seen with larger test foods, suggesting increased demand and recruitment of these muscles in response to an increased chewing load. This result reinforces the previous notion of a close functional connection between the jaw and the neck motor systems in jaw actions and has scientific and clinical significance for studying jaw function and dysfunction. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  7. Effect of mini-implant-supported mandibular overdentures on electromyographic activity of the masseter muscle during chewing of hard and soft food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmawy, Tarek Mohy; El Talawy, Dina Bahgat; Shaheen, Nasser Hussein

    2014-09-01

    To objectively evaluate the effect of mini-implant- supported mandibular overdentures on electromyographic activity (EMG) of the masseter muscle during chewing of hard and soft foods. Twelve completely edentulous patients (4 females and 8 males) with maladaptive experience of wearing mandibular dentures received new maxillary and mandibular dentures. After 3 months of adaptation, four mini dental implants (MDIs) were inserted in the interforaminal region of the mandible, and the new mandibular dentures were connected to the implants immediately with O/ring attachments. The activity of masseter muscle (EMG) and the duration of chewing cycle were measured during chewing hard (carrot) and soft (gum) foods. The measurements were made 3 months after wearing each of the following prostheses: the new conventional dentures; and the MDI-retained mandibular overdentures. The EMG of masseter muscle increased and the DC decreased with MDI-retained mandibular overdentures when compared to conventional dentures. Hard food (carrot) was associated with increased EMG and decreased DC when compared to soft food (gum) for both conventional dentures and MDI-retained mandibular overdentures. Mini-implant-supported mandibular overdentures are associated with increased activity of masseter muscle and decreased duration of chewing cycle for both hard and soft foods when compared to conventional dentures.

  8. Chewing Stimulation Reduces Appetite Ratings and Attentional Bias toward Visual Food Stimuli in Healthy-Weight Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Akitsu; Miyamoto, Jun J; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Moriyama, Keiji

    2018-01-01

    Based on the theory of incentive sensitization, the exposure to food stimuli sensitizes the brain's reward circuits and enhances attentional bias toward food. Therefore, reducing attentional bias to food could possibly be beneficial in preventing impulsive eating. The importance of chewing has been increasingly implicated as one of the methods for reducing appetite, however, no studies to investigate the effect of chewing on attentional bias to food. In this study, we investigated whether chewing stimulation (i.e., chewing tasteless gum) reduces attentional bias to food as well as an actual feeding (i.e., ingesting a standardized meal) does. We measured reaction time, gaze direction and gaze duration to assess attentional bias toward food images in pairs of food and non-food images that were presented in a visual probe task (Experiment 1, n = 21) and/or eye-tracking task (Experiment 2, n = 20). We also measured appetite ratings using visual analog scale. In addition, we conducted a control study in which the same number of participants performed the identical tasks to Experiments 1 and 2, but the participants did not perform sham feeding with gum-chewing/actual feeding between tasks and they took a rest. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after actual feeding, subjective ratings of hunger, preoccupation with food, and desire to eat significantly decreased, whereas fullness significantly increased. Sham feeding showed the same trends, but to a lesser degree. Results of the visual probe task in Experiment 1 showed that both sham feeding and actual feeding reduced reaction time bias significantly. Eye-tracking data showed that both sham and actual feeding resulted in significant reduction in gaze direction bias, indexing initial attentional orientation. Gaze duration bias was unaffected. In both control experiments, one-way ANOVAs showed no significant differences between immediately before and after the resting state for any of the appetite ratings, reaction time bias, gaze

  9. Chewing Stimulation Reduces Appetite Ratings and Attentional Bias toward Visual Food Stimuli in Healthy-Weight Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Akitsu; Miyamoto, Jun J.; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Moriyama, Keiji

    2018-01-01

    Based on the theory of incentive sensitization, the exposure to food stimuli sensitizes the brain’s reward circuits and enhances attentional bias toward food. Therefore, reducing attentional bias to food could possibly be beneficial in preventing impulsive eating. The importance of chewing has been increasingly implicated as one of the methods for reducing appetite, however, no studies to investigate the effect of chewing on attentional bias to food. In this study, we investigated whether chewing stimulation (i.e., chewing tasteless gum) reduces attentional bias to food as well as an actual feeding (i.e., ingesting a standardized meal) does. We measured reaction time, gaze direction and gaze duration to assess attentional bias toward food images in pairs of food and non-food images that were presented in a visual probe task (Experiment 1, n = 21) and/or eye-tracking task (Experiment 2, n = 20). We also measured appetite ratings using visual analog scale. In addition, we conducted a control study in which the same number of participants performed the identical tasks to Experiments 1 and 2, but the participants did not perform sham feeding with gum-chewing/actual feeding between tasks and they took a rest. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after actual feeding, subjective ratings of hunger, preoccupation with food, and desire to eat significantly decreased, whereas fullness significantly increased. Sham feeding showed the same trends, but to a lesser degree. Results of the visual probe task in Experiment 1 showed that both sham feeding and actual feeding reduced reaction time bias significantly. Eye-tracking data showed that both sham and actual feeding resulted in significant reduction in gaze direction bias, indexing initial attentional orientation. Gaze duration bias was unaffected. In both control experiments, one-way ANOVAs showed no significant differences between immediately before and after the resting state for any of the appetite ratings, reaction time bias

  10. Chewing efficiency and maximum bite force with different attachment systems of implant overdentures: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyad, Moustafa Abdou; Khairallah, Ahmed Samir

    2017-06-01

    This crossover study aimed to evaluate and compare chewing efficiency and maximum bite force (MBF) with resilient telescopic and bar attachment systems of implant overdentures in patients with atrophied mandibles. Ten participants with severely resorbed mandibles and persistent denture problems received new maxillary and mandibular conventional dentures (control, CD). After 3 months of adaptation, two implants were inserted in canine region of the mandible. In a quasi-random method, overdentures were connected to the implants with either bar overdentures (BOD) or resilient telescopic overdentures (TOD) attachment systems. Chewing efficiency in terms of unmixed fraction (UF) was measured using chewing gum (after 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 strokes), and MBF was measured using a bite force transducer. Measurements were performed 3 months after using each of the following prostheses: CD, BOD and TOD. Chewing efficiency and MBF increased significantly with BOD and TOD compared to CD. As the number of chewing cycles increased, the UF decreased. TOD recorded significant higher chewing efficiency and MBF than BOD. Resilient telescopic attachments are associated with increased chewing efficiency and MBF compared bar attachments when used to retain overdentures to the implants in patients with atrophied mandibles. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Symmetry of fMRI activation in the primary sensorimotor cortex during unilateral chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, M; Domin, M; Kordass, B

    2017-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most advanced techniques to analyze the cerebral effects on many behavior aspects of the oral system such as chewing and mastication. Studies on imaging of the cerebral representation of chewing demonstrated differential results with respect to cortical lateralization during unilateral chewing. The aim of our study is to clarify the effects of cerebral responses during unilateral chewing. We used fMRI to compare brain activities during occlusal function in centric occlusion on natural teeth and chewing on a gum located on the right or the left teeth in 15 healthy subjects. Group data were performed by Talairach normalization and in addition by an assignment of activation maxima to individual anatomical landmarks in order to avoid possible loss of spatial preciseness of activation sites by normalization procedures. Evaluation of group data by Talairach normalization revealed representation sites for occlusal movements in bilateral primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices, primary motor (M1) and premotor cortices, supplementary motor area (SMA) and medial cingulate gyrus, bilateral anterior cerebellar hemispheres and vermis, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, and left pallidum. Right-sided chewing showed no differential activation to left-sided chewing, and both showed activation in areas also involved in bilateral occlusion. Both techniques, the one based on group normalization and the one based on an individual evaluation method, revealed remarkable low differences in activation maximum location in the primary motor, the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, and the anterior cerebellar lobe. All chewing movements tested involved bilateral sensorimotor activation without a significant lateralization of activation intensities. Overall, a general lateralization of occlusion movements to the dominant side could not be verified in the present study. Chewing on the left or on the right

  12. DECEMBER JMBR 13 - 2 correction.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    chewing, type of gum chewed; reason for chewing and for discarding chewed gum as well as self perception of oral malodour .... although chewing gum improved selective and sustained attention, it failed to improve. 17 memory. Another study ...

  13. Differential Effects of Nicotine on Discrete Components of Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Bundesen, Claus; Coull, Jennifer T.

    2009-01-01

    or a placebo gum. The experimental paradigm was a letter recognition task with varied stimulus durations terminated by pattern masks. The temporal threshold of conscious perception (t0), visual processing speed (C), storage capacity of visual short-term memory (K), and attentional selectivity (alpha) were...... encoding of information into visual short-term memory is begun, but (b) decreases the rate of encoding and possibly also the attentional selectivity.......Objective: Nicotine is an important cholinergic neurotransmitter that has been linked to various cognitive functions. Several studies have observed attentional modulations after nicotine, but the roles played by nicotine and other cholinergic substances in attention remain unclear. The aim...

  14. Palauans who chew betel nut: social impact of oral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn Griffin, M T; Mott, M; Burrell, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2014-03-01

    Chewing betel nut is a tradition extending from Southeast Asia to the Pacific. Globally, betel nut is the fourth main psychotropic substance containing a stimulant, arecoline, that has a similar effect to nicotine. In Palau, there is broad acceptance of betel nut chewing. One of the largest immigrant groups in Hawaii is the Palauans. Chewing betel nut has significant social implications that make it difficult for those who engage in this practice to separate potential oral disease from the social importance. However, little is known about the social impact of oral disease from chewing betel nut on Palauans in Hawaii. The study aimed to describe the perceptions of betel-chewing Palauans in Hawaii regarding betel nut and to determine the social impact of oral disease among these individuals. Descriptive study conducted on the island of Oahu, Hawaii with 30 adult Palauans. Data were collected using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 to measure perceptions of social impact of oral disease on well-being. Demographic and general health information was collected. Participants perceived little negative social impact of oral disease on well-being. Families, peers and society exert a strong influence on the decision to chew betel nut, a known carcinogen. Participants in this study showed little concern on the impact of betel nut chewing on their oral health. They continue the habit in spite of the awareness of potential for oral disease. Nurses face challenges in educating Palauans about the negative aspects of betel nut, particularly those related to oral health especially when they do not perceive problems. Nurses must be involved in the development of health policies to design and implement strategies to promote behavioural change, and to ensure clinical services that are culturally sensitive to betel nut chewers. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  15. E-Cigarette Liquid Nicotine Ingestion in a Child: Case Report and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Natasha; Sangha, Gurinder; Poonai, Naveen; Lim, Rodrick

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine poisoning is well described in the pediatric population, and even small oral doses may result in toxic effects. The source of nicotine is usually tobacco products and nicotine replacement products such as gum and patches. With the more frequent use of novel products such as e-cigarettes, concern has arisen regarding liquid nicotine. As there are no regulations regarding childproof bottling and packaging, there may be increased potential for unintentional ingestion of these colorfully and appealingly packaged products by children. We present and discuss a case of this nature, as we feel emergency physicians should be aware of this new mode of poisoning, and public health efforts should be made to minimize such exposures.

  16. Withdrawal-oriented therapy for smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, P

    1989-06-01

    The treatment approach of the Maudsley Hospital Smokers Clinic is described. It stems from the notion that smokers seeking help are dependent on nicotine, and that withdrawal discomfort is a major block to their success in quitting. Accordingly, therapy focuses on helping clients overcome nicotine deprivation. It uses nicotine replacement and a special format of group treatment. Details are given of preparation of clients, use of nicotine chewing gum, use of group-oriented groupwork, use of information about withdrawal, and training in withdrawal-oriented therapy. Data are presented concerning characteristics of the clientele, treatment adherence, and treatment results. A number of controversial issues are addressed, such as the optimal duration of treatment, timing of the quit date, the value of educational input, and the value of individualization of treatment goals.

  17. Social capital and oral health: The association of social capital with edentulism and chewing ability in the rural elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyong; Jung, Yun-Sook; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Rim; Kwon, Gi-Hong; Choi, Youn-Hee; Lee, Hee-Kyung

    2018-01-01

    The association between social capital and oral health had been reported in various ways, but still remains unclear. We investigated the association between the social capital of the elderly living in a rural region and their edentulism and chewing ability. A total of 241 elderly aged≥70years living in a rural city of Korea participated in this cross-sectional study. Their social capital was surveyed by questionnaire assessing its network and trust dimensions. Their edentulism and chewing ability were assessed by oral examination and chewing gum whose color changes based on the mastication performance. The mean age of the participants was 82.7 (ranged 71 to 101) years and 68.8% of them were female. In the binomial regression analysis, the general network aspect of the network dimension was significantly associated with chewing ability, of which the prevalence ratio was 1.88 (95% CI: 1.16-3.06) in the age, sex, education and marital status-adjusted model. Our findings suggest that social capital, such as a poor social network, is associated with poor chewing ability in the elderly living in rural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-17

    Production Association of the Powder Metallurgical Industry. We refer to it in short as the Institute of Powder Metallurgy. This is another contri...ployed worker could exercise his ownership rights guar - anteed by the Constitution. These are the economists who point out that this model of enterprise...certification. This is not the only instance of an investigation that lasts for months if not for years. Anti-nicotine chewing gum is being tested ever

  19. Effects of Caffeinated Gum on a Battery of Soccer-Specific Tests in Trained University-Standard Male Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; King, George; Russell, Mitchell; Lynn, Anthony; Russell, Mark

    2018-03-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether caffeinated gum influenced performance in a battery of soccer-specific tests used in the assessment of performance in soccer players. In a double blind, randomised, cross-over design, ten male university-standard soccer players (age 19 ± 1 y, stature 1.80 ± 0.10 m, body mass 75.5 ± 4.8 kg) masticated a caffeinated (200 mg; caffeine) or control (0 mg; placebo) gum on two separate occasions. After a standardised warm-up, gum was chewed for 5 min and subsequently expectorated 5 min before players performed a maximal countermovement jump, a 20 m sprint test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1). Performance on 20 m sprints were not different between trials (caffeine: 3.2 ± 0.3 s, placebo: 3.1 ± 0.3 s; p = 0.567; small effect size: d = 0.33), but caffeine did allow players to cover 2.0% more distance during Yo-YoIR1 (caffeine: 1754 ± 156 m, placebo: 1719 ± 139 m; p = 0.016; small effect size: d = 0.24) and increase maximal countermovement jump height by 2.2% (caffeine: 47.1 ± 3.4 cm, placebo: 46.1 ± 3.2 cm; p = 0.008; small effect size: d = 0.30). Performance on selected physical tests (Yo-YoIR1 and countermovement jump) was improved by the chewing of caffeinated gum in the immediate period before testing in university-standard soccer players but the sizes of such effects were small. Such findings may have implications for the recommendations made to soccer players about to engage with subsequent exercise performance.

  20. Fluoride supplementation (with tablets, drops, lozenges or chewing gum) in pregnant women for preventing dental caries in the primary teeth of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Rena; Ota, Erika; Hoshi, Keika; Naito, Toru; Toyoshima, Yoshihiro; Yuasa, Hidemichi; Mori, Rintaro; Nango, Eishu

    2017-10-23

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. Caries prevalence in most industrialised countries has declined among children over the past few decades. The probable reasons for the decline are the widespread use of fluoride toothpaste, followed by artificial water fluoridation, oral health education and a slight decrease in sugar consumption overall. However, in regions without water fluoridation, fluoride supplementation for pregnant women may be an effective way to increase fluoride intake during pregnancy. If fluoride supplements taken by pregnant women improve neonatal outcomes, pregnant women with no access to a fluoridated drinking water supply can obtain the benefits of systemic fluoridation. To evaluate the effects of women taking fluoride supplements (tablets, drops, lozenges or chewing gum) compared with no fluoride supplementation during pregnancy to prevent caries in the primary teeth of their children. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 25 January 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 11) in the Cochrane Library (searched 25 January 2017); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 25 January 2017); Embase Ovid (1980 to 25 January 2017); LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 25 January 2017); and CINAHL EBSCO (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; 1937 to 25 January 2017). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 25 January 2017. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of fluoride supplements (tablets, drops, lozenges or chewing gum) administered to women during

  1. Gutkha Addiction: Nicotine Dependence or a Conditioned Reflex?

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Prathamesh Satish; Prashant, M C; Nagpal, Neelu; Patil, Atulkumar A; Ahuja, Rinky; Mathur, Vidhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: A pre-packaged mixture of areca nut, tobacco, slaked lime, catechu, and flavoring agents is popularly known as Gutkha. Aim of study is to analyze the addiction biology of Gutkha chewing and to assess efficacy of a cessation program based on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Materials and Methods: Patterns of addiction of 400 Gutkha chewers were analyzed with a questionnaire-based survey. Urine cotinine levels of 60 subjects undergoing NRT were periodically estimated using gas ch...

  2. Associations between chewing and swallowing problems and physical and psychosocial health status of long-term care residents in taiwan: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tze-Fang; Chen, I-Ju; Li, I-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Oral health is often overlooked in institutional elder care but may have an impact on general health and ability to communicate. We aimed to determine the factor associated with chewing and swallowing problems among long-term care residents in Taiwan. Staff nurses trained to evaluate oral health assessed 781 residents using relevant sections of the Minimum Data Set 2.1 for nursing homes (Chinese version), including the Cognitive Performance Scale, Index of Social Engagement, and Activities of Daily Living Scale. Individuals with chewing and swallowing problems (n = 345) tended to be women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, P = .019) in smaller facilities (OR = 4.18, P broken, loose, or carious teeth (OR = 1.74, P = .042); and with more frequently inflamed gums (OR = 2.72, P = .025) than residents without chewing and swallowing problems (n = 436). Residents' chewing and swallowing problems were significantly associated with parenteral/enteral intake, oral health status, nutritional status, concomitant disease and infection, cognitive function, and social engagement. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fluoride kinetics in saliva after the use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum Cinética de flúor na saliva após o uso de uma goma de mascar fluoretada

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    Maria Francisca Thereza Borro Bijella

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a relationship between the use of fluoride, the reduction of dental caries and the increase of dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride kinetics in saliva after using the HappydentTM chewing gum, which contains 3.38 mg of fluoride as monofluorophosphate. Fifteen 7-9-year-old volunteers were instructed to chew the gum TridentTM (control and HappydentTM on different days. Total saliva was collected for 3 minutes, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 and 45 minutes after starting chewing. Salivary fluoride was analyzed with a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion 96-09 after acid hydrolysis. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and by Tukey’s post hoc test (p Há uma relação entre o uso de fluoretos, a redução na cárie e o aumento da fluorose dentária. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a cinética do flúor na saliva após o uso da goma de mascar Happydent®, que contém 3,38 mg de flúor como monofluorfosfato. A saliva foi coletada de 15 voluntários entre 7 e 9 anos de idade, durante 3 minutos nos intervalos de 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 e 45 minutos. Inicialmente, a coleta foi realizada com o Trident® (controle e, após 24 h, a coleta foi repetida com a goma de mascar Happydent®. O flúor foi analisado com um eletrodo íon-específico (Orion 96-09 após a realização da hidrólise ácida. Os dados foram analisados através da análise de variância a dois critérios e pelo teste de Tukey (p < 0,05. A quantidade média ± dp (mg de flúor liberado na saliva foi 0,276 ± 0,126 e 0,024 ± 0,014 para o Happydent® e o Trident®, respectivamente. A quantidade de flúor nas amostras de saliva após o uso do Happydent® foi significativamente maior do que após o uso do Trident® em todos os tempos experimentais, com exceção dos períodos de 30 e 45 minutos. A alta quantidade de flúor na saliva após o uso do Happydent® poderia ser eficiente na prevenção da cárie dentária, o que deveria ser avaliado

  4. Prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among construction site workers: A cross-sectional study in Delhi

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    Mamta Parashar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Workers represent half the world′s population and are major contributors to economic and social development. Tobacco consumption in construction site workers has been considered a big challenge. Objectives: (1 To assess the prevalence of nicotine dependence among tobacco users. (2 To study the correlates of nicotine dependence among the construction site workers. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using a predesigned and pretested structured proforma. The study was conducted among all construction site workers aged 18yrs and above in campus of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi.Karl Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire was used to assess dependence on nicotine. Results: The mean age of construction site workers was 32.04±11.6 years. Among the workers, majority (91% were tobacco user. Among the users, 60% found it difficult to refrain from smoking/chewing in places where use of tobacco is not allowed (e.g. hospitals, government offices, cinemas, Libraries etc. 55% of the users smoked or chewed tobacco during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day. On multivariate analysis, the factors which were found to be significantly associated with nicotine dependence were lower income group (OR 2.57, CI:1.66-3.99, smokeless tobacco use (OR 2.36,CI:1.30-4.27 and lower education (OR = 2.86 (95% CI 1.97-4.16 for illiterate. Discussion: The prevalence of tobacco use (91% among construction workers is very high compared to that in the general population. Recognition of construction sites as work places and proper implementation of law is needed.

  5. Acute nicotine alteration of sensory memory impairment in smokers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulude, Louise; Labelle, Alain; Knott, Verner J

    2010-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a high rate of cigarette smoking and also exhibit profound deficits in sensory processing, which may in part be ameliorated by the acute actions of smoke-inhaled nicotine. The mismatch negativity (MMN), a preattentive event-related potential index of auditory sensory memory, is diminished in schizophrenia. The MMN is increased in healthy controls with acute nicotine. To utilize the MMN to compare auditory sensory memory in minimally tobacco-deprived (3 hours) patients and matched tobacco-deprived smoking controls and to assess the effects of acute nicotine on MMN-indexed sensory memory processing in the patients. Event-related potentials were recorded in 2 auditory oddball paradigms, one involving tone frequency changes (frequency MMN) and one involving tone duration changes (duration MMN). Controls were assessed once under nontreatment conditions, and patients were assessed twice under randomized double-blind treatment conditions involving placebo and nicotine (8 mg) gum. Outpatient mental health center. Twelve smokers with schizophrenia and twelve control smokers. Compared with the controls, the patients showed reduced frequency-MMN (P sensory memory processing in patients with schizophrenia, an effect that may be mediated by activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the function of which is diminished in schizophrenia. These ameliorating actions of nicotine may have implications for understanding the close relationship between tobacco smoking and schizophrenia and for developing nicotinic pharmacotherapies to alleviate sensory memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  6. Effects of Food Texture on Three-Dimensional Loads on Implants During Mastication Based on In Vivo Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Toru; Gunji, Yoshinori; Vanegas, Juan R; Kawata, Tetsuo; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms by which the loads exerted on implants that support prostheses are modulated during mastication remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of food texture on 3-dimensional loads measured at a single implant using a piezoelectric transducer. Two subjects participated in this study. The transducer and the experimental superstructure, which had been adjusted to the subject's occlusal scheme, were attached to the implant with a titanium screw. The foods tested were chewing gum and peanuts. The mean maximum load on the implant in each chewing cycle was significantly higher during peanut chewing than during gum chewing. The direction of maximum load was significantly more widely dispersed during peanut chewing than during gum chewing. The range of changes in load direction during the force-increasing phase of each chewing cycle was significantly wider during peanut chewing than during gum chewing. The load on the implant was affected by food texture in both subjects. This measurement method can be useful to investigate the mechanisms of load modulation on implants during mastication.

  7. Effects of chewing rate and reactive hyperemia on blood flow in denture-supporting mucosa during simulated chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Takamichi; Ueda, Takayuki; Ogami, Koichiro; Koike, Takashi; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    We examined how chewing rate and the extent of reactive hyperemia affect the blood flow in denture-supporting mucosa during chewing. The left palatal mucosa was loaded under conditions of simulated chewing or simulated clenching for 30s, and the blood flow during loading was recorded. We compared the relative blood flow during loading under conditions that recreated different chewing rates by combining duration of chewing cycle (DCC) and occlusal time (OT): fast chewing group, typical chewing group, slow chewing group and clenching group. The relationship between relative blood flow during simulated chewing and the extent of reactive hyperemia was also analyzed. When comparing the different chewing rate, the relative blood flow was highest in fast chewing rate, followed by typical chewing rate and slow chewing rate. Accordingly, we suggest that fast chewing increases the blood flow more than typical chewing or slow chewing. There was a significant correlation between the amount of blood flow during simulated chewing and the extent of reactive hyperemia. Within the limitations of this study, we concluded that slow chewing induced less blood flow than typical or fast chewing in denture-supporting mucosa and that people with less reactive hyperemia had less blood flow in denture-supporting mucosa during chewing. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating the impact of nicotine on executive functions using a novel virtual reality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansari, Ashok S; Froggatt, Daniel; Edginton, Trudi; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-05-01

    Nicotine is known to enhance aspects of cognitive functioning in abstinent smokers, but the effects on specific areas of executive functions and in non-smokers are inconclusive. This may be due in part to the poor sensitivity of tests used to assess executive functions. This study used a new virtual reality assessment of executive functions known as JEF (the Jansari assessment of Executive Functions) to address this issue. A 2 × 2 design manipulating group (smokers and never-smokers) and drug [nicotine (4 mg for smokers; 2 mg for never smokers) versus placebo gum]. School of Psychology; University of East London. Seventy-two participants (aged 18-54 years): 36 minimally deprived (2 hours) smokers and 36 never-smokers. Components of executive function were measured using the virtual reality paradigm JEF, which assesses eight cognitive constructs simultaneously as well as providing an overall performance measure. Univariate analyses of variance revealed that nicotine improved overall JEF performance, time-based prospective memory and event-based prospective memory in smokers (P < 0.01), but not in never-smokers. Action-based prospective memory was enhanced in both groups (P < 0.01) and never-smokers out-performed smokers on selective thinking and adaptive thinking (P < 0.01). Executive functioning and prospective memory as aspects of cognitive performance can be enhanced by nicotine gum in smokers who have abstained for as little as 2 hours. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Differences between the chewing and non-chewing sides of the mandibular first molars and condyles in the closing phase during chewing in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonari, Hiroshi; Kwon, Sangho; Kuninori, Takaharu; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess differences between the closing paths of the chewing and non-chewing sides of mandibular first molars and condyles during natural mastication, using standardized model food in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy young adults (age: 19-25 years; 22 men, 10 women) with normal occlusion and function chewed on standardized gummy jelly. Using an optoelectric jaw-tracking system with six degrees of freedom, we recorded the path of the mandibular first molars and condyles on both sides for 10 strokes during unilateral chewing. Variables were compared between the chewing side and the non-chewing side of first molars and condyles on frontal, sagittal, and horizontal views during the early-, middle- and late-closing phases. On superior/inferior displacements, the chewing side first molar and condyle were positioned superior to those on the non-chewing side during the early- and middle-closing phases. Conversely, the first molar and condyle on the non-chewing side were positioned significantly superior to those on the chewing side during the late-closing phase. On anterior/posterior displacements, the chewing side mandibular first molar and condyle were positioned significantly posterior to those on the non-chewing side throughout all closing phases. Our results showed the differences between the mandibular first molars and condyles on both sides with respect to masticatory path during natural chewing of a model food. These differences can be useful for informing initial diagnostic tests for impaired masticatory function in the clinical environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pengaruh Pengunyahan Permen Karet dengan Pemanis Xylitol terhadap Penurunan Risiko Karies Gigi

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    Wahyu Sulistiadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the use of xylitol chewing gum and risk of dental caries. The sample was taken from a population of 800 (120 samples. Standard equipment was used in observing the dental plaque, salivary flow rate and pH of the saliva from patients using xylitol chewing gum or non xylitol chewing gum. The results were analyzed using the t-test (one tailed with 95% confidence intervals (α ≤ 0.05. The results show a significant effect of chewed xylitol gum with increased pH in saliva, increased salivary flow rate (SFR, and decreased plaque score.

  11. Evaluation of jaw and neck muscle activities while chewing using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Narita, Noriyuki; Endo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to quantitatively clarify the physiological features in rhythmically coordinated jaw and neck muscle EMG activities while chewing gum using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in 20 healthy subjects. The chewing side masseter muscle EMG signal was used as the reference signal, while the other jaw (non-chewing side masseter muscle, bilateral anterior temporal muscles, and bilateral anterior digastric muscles) and neck muscle (bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles) EMG signals were used as the examined signals in EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses. Chewing-related jaw and neck muscle activities were aggregated in the first peak of the power spectrum in rhythmic chewing. The gain in the peak frequency represented the power relationships between jaw and neck muscle activities during rhythmic chewing. The phase in the peak frequency represented the temporal relationships between the jaw and neck muscle activities, while the non-chewing side neck muscle presented a broad range of distributions across jaw closing and opening phases. Coherence in the peak frequency represented the synergistic features in bilateral jaw closing muscles and chewing side neck muscle activities. The coherence and phase in non-chewing side neck muscle activities exhibited a significant negative correlation. From above, the bilateral coordination between the jaw and neck muscle activities is estimated while chewing when the non-chewing side neck muscle is synchronously activated with the jaw closing muscles, while the unilateral coordination is estimated when the non-chewing side neck muscle is irregularly activated in the jaw opening phase. Thus, the occurrence of bilateral or unilateral coordinated features in the jaw and neck muscle activities may correspond to the phase characteristics in the non-chewing side neck muscle activities during rhythmical chewing. Considering these novel findings in healthy subjects, EMG

  12. Nicotine facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Anton L; Vartak, Devavrat; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of restoration adjustments on prefrontal blood flow: A simplified NIRS preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaguri, Kenichi; Otsuka, Takero; Tsunashima, Hiroyuki; Shimazaki, Tateshi; Kubo, Kin-Ya; Onozuka, Minoru

    The aim of this study was to examine, after setting several restorations, the influence of adjusted occlusal interference during gum chewing on blood flow in the prefrontal area as determined using near-infrared spectroscopy. The physiological rate was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire. We selected 16 patients who desired prosthetic restorative treatment on the lateral dentition, and eight healthy volunteers. Subjects were divided into three eight-person groups. One group received restorations on the premolar area (PA), another group received restorations on the molar area (MA), and the control group (CT) received no prosthetic restorations. The spectroscope was fastened to the frontal region of the head after placement of the final restoration, but before adjustment. Pre-adjustment (first gum chewing for CT) blood flow in the prefrontal cortex was measured during gum chewing. Blood flow was again measured during gum chewing after the restoration (second gum chewing for CT) had been adjusted in accordance with the subjective assessment of the patient while wearing the device. The VAS provided quantification of comfort during gum chewing before and after restoration adjustment. For the PA and MA groups, adjusting restorations decreased discomfort significantly during gum chewing. Moreover, in the MA group, prefrontal blood flow was significantly reduced, and blood flow correlated with discomfort. Activation of the prefrontal area may provide an objective criterion for judging the functionality of occlusion after prosthetic occlusal reconstruction and/or orthodontics.

  14. Tobacco-Smoking, Alcohol-Drinking, and Betel-Quid-Chewing Behaviors: Development and Use of a Web-Based Survey System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Huang, Chu-Ching; Yeh, Wen-Ling; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Ching-Yen; Lee, Hsiu-Lan

    2018-06-11

    Smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid are health-risk behaviors for several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, with severe impacts on health. However, health care providers often have limited time to assess clients' behaviors regarding smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid and intervene, if needed. The objective of this study was to develop a Web-based survey system; determine the rates of tobacco-smoking, alcohol-drinking, and betel-quid-chewing behaviors; and estimate the efficiency of the system (time to complete the survey). Patients and their family members or friends were recruited from gastrointestinal medical-surgical, otolaryngology, orthopedics, and rehabilitation clinics or wards at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data for this descriptive, cross-sectional study were extracted from a large series of research studies. A Web-based survey system was developed using a Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP stack solution. The Web survey was set up to include four questionnaires: the Chinese-version Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, the Chinese-version Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Betel Nut Dependency Scale, and a sociodemographic form with several chronic diseases. After the participants completed the survey, the system automatically calculated their score, categorized their risk level for each behavior, and immediately presented and explained their results. The system also recorded the time each participant took to complete the survey. Of 782 patient participants, 29.6% were addicted to nicotine, 13.3% were hazardous, harmful, or dependent alcohol drinkers, and 1.5% were dependent on chewing betel quid. Of 425 family or friend participants, 19.8% were addicted to nicotine, 5.6% were hazardous, harmful, or dependent alcohol drinkers, and 0.9% were dependent on chewing betel quid. Regarding the mean time to complete the survey, patients took 7.9 minutes (SD 3.0; range 3-20) and

  15. Nicotine enhances an auditory Event-Related Potential component which is inversely related to habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Theresa; Taroyan, Naira; Overton, Paul G

    2017-07-01

    Nicotine is a psychoactive substance that is commonly consumed in the context of music. However, the reason why music and nicotine are co-consumed is uncertain. One possibility is that nicotine affects cognitive processes relevant to aspects of music appreciation in a beneficial way. Here we investigated this possibility using Event-Related Potentials. Participants underwent a simple decision-making task (to maintain attentional focus), responses to which were signalled by auditory stimuli. Unlike previous research looking at the effects of nicotine on auditory processing, we used complex tones that varied in pitch, a fundamental element of music. In addition, unlike most other studies, we tested non-smoking subjects to avoid withdrawal-related complications. We found that nicotine (4.0 mg, administered as gum) increased P2 amplitude in the frontal region. Since a decrease in P2 amplitude and latency is related to habituation processes, and an enhanced ability to disengage from irrelevant stimuli, our findings suggest that nicotine may cause a reduction in habituation, resulting in non-smokers being less able to adapt to repeated stimuli. A corollary of that decrease in adaptation may be that nicotine extends the temporal window during which a listener is able and willing to engage with a piece of music.

  16. Validation of the human odor span task: effects of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, David A; Drobes, David J

    2017-10-01

    Amongst non-smokers, nicotine generally enhances performance on tasks of attention, with limited effect on working memory. In contrast, nicotine has been shown to produce robust enhancements of working memory in non-humans. To address this gap, the present study investigated the effects of nicotine on the performance of non-smokers on a cognitive battery which included a working memory task reverse-translated from use with rodents (the odor span task, OST). Nicotine has been reported to enhance OST performance in rats and the present study assessed whether this effect generalizes to human performance. Thirty non-smokers were tested on three occasions after consuming either placebo, 2 mg, or 4 mg nicotine gum. On each occasion, participants completed a battery of clinical and experimental tasks of working memory and attention. Nicotine was associated with dose-dependent enhancements in sustained attention, as evidenced by increased hit accuracy on the rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task. However, nicotine failed to produce main effects on OST performance or on alternative measures of working memory (digit span, spatial span, letter-number sequencing, 2-back) or attention (digits forward, 0-back). Interestingly, enhancement of RVIP performance occurred concomitant to significant reductions in self-reported attention/concentration. Human OST performance was significantly related to N-back performance, and as in rodents, OST accuracy declined with increasing memory load. Given the similarity of human and rodent OST performance under baseline conditions and the strong association between OST and visual 0-back accuracy, the OST may be particular useful in the study of conditions characterized by inattention.

  17. Acute effects of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers

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    Vikas Thakran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco are well established, however, the effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamic have not been studied. We intended to analyze the acute effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled seven habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease with single vessel disease or double vessel disease satisfying the criteria for elective PCI. Patients were instructed to keep 1 g of crushed dried tobacco leaves in the mouth after a successful PCI. Lesion in last stented vessels was evaluated for fractional flow reserve (FFR, coronary flow reserve (CFR, and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR post-PCI, after 15 min and 30 min of tobacco chewing along with the measurement of serum cotinine levels. Results: Oral tobacco led to high levels of cotinine in the majority of patients. There was an insignificant rise in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure following tobacco consumption. Baseline CFR (median 1.6, range 1.1–5.5 was low in tobacco chewers after PCI even after optimum FFR (0.9 ± 0.05 in the majority of patients suggesting abnormal microvascular hemodynamics (high IMR in 3 patients, overall median 14.2, range 7–36.2. However, there was no significant change in the estimated CFR or IMR values following tobacco chewing. One patient had bradycardia and hypotension which may be related to vagal reaction or acute nicotine poisoning. Conclusion: Tobacco chewers have abnormal coronary microcirculation hemodynamics even following a successful PCI. However, the coronary micocirculation and hemodynamics do not change acutely following tobacco chewing despite high serum cotinine concentrations.

  18. The use of sugar free chewing gum as a supplement in the prevention of dental caries. Narrative Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Matthews

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases. The WHO has classified it as one of the major public health problems worldwide. That is why a special emphasis has been paid to developing new preventive methods and the use of gum without sugar has been included as one of them. This strategy has significant benefits on oral health due to: (1 saliva stimulation, which favors teeth clearance and regulates the pH; (2 remineralization promotion as a result of the above and incorporation of minerals to the gum; (3 mechanical control of the bacterial plaque; (4 replacement of sugar by sweeteners which are harmful for bacteria (the most commonly used is xylitol and (5 incorporation of active agents such as bicarbonate, casein, urea, chlorhexidine and chitosan, among others. Despite these benefits, the effect of the gum is considered to be weak for dental caries prevention when used instead of brushing. Therefore, its implementation must be proposed as a complement to oral hygiene routines and not as a preventive measure by itself. It is necessary to carry out a greater amount of clinical trials to evaluate its effectiveness in a context of high biological variability in the short and long term and including patients of different sex, age, socio-economic status and systemic health.

  19. Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and gums isn't removed by good daily dental care, over time it will harden into a crust called calculus or tartar . Once tartar forms, it starts to destroy gum tissue, causing gums to bleed and pull away from the teeth. This is known as periodontitis (pronounced: pair-ee- ...

  20. The effect of gamma irradiation on guar gum, locust bean gum, gum tragacanth and gum karaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Karen; Gray, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Changes in rheological properties, as measured by viscosity, of two galactomannans (guar gum and locust beam gum) and two acidic polysaccharides (gumtragacanth and gum karaya) were studied at a range of irradiation doses o C for 1 h was determined over a wide shear rate range. All samples showed pseudoplastic behaviour which approached Newtonian with increasing irradiation dose. Viscosities were calculated at a shear rate of 54 sec -1 to enable comparison across the samples. Both galactomannans showed a decrease in viscosity with increasing γ irradiation independent of temperature and a hypothesis is proposed that at low γ irradiation doses (<2 kGy) there is a reduction in polymer aggregation in solution, whereas at higher doses polymer hydrolysis occurs. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy data supports this hypothesis, with the detection of different free radicals at low and high irradiation doses. The viscosity of the acidic polysaccharides, gum karaya and gum tragacanth, following γ irradiation at low doses (<1 kGy) was unchanged or slightly higher when compared to the unirradiated control samples. Above 1 kGy dispersion viscosity decreased with increasing dose. For these polysaccharides chain hydrolysis seems to occur during irradiation at all doses resulting in an increase in the amount of soluble polymer and hence increased viscosity at low doses, whilst at high doses viscosity decreases due to extensive polymer hydrolysis. Similar electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra were obtained at low and high doses with a stronger signal at the higher dose. (Author)

  1. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  2. Novel software for quantitative evaluation and graphical representation of masticatory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halazonetis, D J; Schimmel, M; Antonarakis, G S; Christou, P

    2013-05-01

    Blending of chewing gums of different colours is used in the clinical setting, as a simple and reliable means for the assessment of chewing efficiency. However, the available software is difficult to use in an everyday clinical setting, and there is no possibility of automated classification of the patient's chewing ability in a graph, to facilitate visualisation of the results and to evaluate potential chewing difficulties. The aims of this study were to test the validity of ViewGum - a novel image analysis software for the evaluation of boli derived from a two-colour mixing ability test - and to establish a baseline graph for the representation of the masticatory efficiency in a healthy population. Image analysis demonstrated significant hue variation decrease as the number of chewing cycles increased, indicating a higher degree of colour mixture. Standard deviation of hue (SDHue) was significantly different between all chewing cycles. Regression of the log-transformed values of the medians of SDHue on the number of chewing cycles showed a high statistically significant correlation (r² = 0.94, P test methods by the simplicity of its application. The newly developed ViewGum software provides speed, ease of use and immediate extraction of clinically useful conclusions to the already established method of chewing efficiency evaluation and is a valid adjunct for the evaluation of masticatory efficiency with two-colour chewing gum. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Chewing behavior and salivary secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaviao, MBD; Engelen, L

    We determined the salivary flow rate in 16 healthy subjects in rest and while chewing artificial and natural foods (Parafilm, Melba toast with and without margarine, and three different volumes of breakfast cake and cheese). We also determined the duration of a chewing cycle, the number of chewing

  4. Effects of acute nicotine on event-related potential and performance indices of auditory distraction in nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Verner J; Bolton, Kiley; Heenan, Adam; Shah, Dhrasti; Fisher, Derek J; Villeneuve, Crystal

    2009-05-01

    Although nicotine has been purported to enhance attentional processes, this has been evidenced mostly in tasks of sustained attention, and its effects on selective attention and attentional control under conditions of distraction are less convincing. This study investigated the effects of nicotine on distractibility in 21 (11 males) nonsmokers with event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral performance measures extracted from an auditory discrimination task requiring a choice reaction time response to short- and long-duration tones, with and without imbedded deviants. Administered in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, nicotine gum (6 mg) failed to counter deviant-elicited behavioral distraction characterized by longer reaction times and increased response errors. Of the deviant-elicited ERP components, nicotine did not alter the P3a-indexed attentional switching to the deviant, but in females, it tended to diminish the automatic processing of the deviant as shown by a smaller mismatch negativity component, and it attenuated attentional reorienting following deviant-elicited distraction, as reflected by a reduced reorienting negativity ERP component. Results are discussed in relation to attentional models of nicotine and with respect to future research directions.

  5. The effect of gamma irradiation on guar gum, locust bean gum, gum tragacanth and gum karaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Karen (Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast (United Kingdom) Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)); Gray, Richard (Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast (United Kingdom))

    1993-02-01

    Changes in rheological properties, as measured by viscosity, of two galactomannans (guar gum and locust beam gum) and two acidic polysaccharides (gumtragacanth and gum karaya) were studied at a range of irradiation doses < 10 kGy. Powdered samples were irradiated, and the viscosity of a 1% dispersion prepared at room temperature or by heating to 80[sup o]C for 1 h was determined over a wide shear rate range. All samples showed pseudoplastic behaviour which approached Newtonian with increasing irradiation dose. Viscosities were calculated at a shear rate of 54 sec[sup -1] to enable comparison across the samples. Both galactomannans showed a decrease in viscosity with increasing [gamma] irradiation independent of temperature and a hypothesis is proposed that at low [gamma] irradiation doses (<2 kGy) there is a reduction in polymer aggregation in solution, whereas at higher doses polymer hydrolysis occurs. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy data supports this hypothesis, with the detection of different free radicals at low and high irradiation doses. The viscosity of the acidic polysaccharides, gum karaya and gum tragacanth, following [gamma] irradiation at low doses (<1 kGy) was unchanged or slightly higher when compared to the unirradiated control samples. Above 1 kGy dispersion viscosity decreased with increasing dose. For these polysaccharides chain hydrolysis seems to occur during irradiation at all doses resulting in an increase in the amount of soluble polymer and hence increased viscosity at low doses, whilst at high doses viscosity decreases due to extensive polymer hydrolysis. Similar electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra were obtained at low and high doses with a stronger signal at the higher dose. (Author).

  6. Relationships between perceived chewing ability, objective masticatory function and oral health-related quality of life in mandibulectomy or glossectomy patients with a dento-maxillary prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimaijiang, Yiliyaer; Otomaru, Takafumi; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    This preliminary study examined whether the type of surgery performed for head and neck lesion was associated perceived chewing ability, objective masticatory function, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients who required a dento-maxillary prosthesis postoperatively. Thirty-eight patients with a dento-maxillary prosthesis were divided into three groups according to the type of surgery received: marginal mandibulectomy, segmental mandibulectomy with bony reconstruction, or glossectomy. Perceived chewing ability, objective mixing ability, and OHRQoL were evaluated using a food intake questionnaire, color-changeable chewing gum, and the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), respectively. Differences in the scores obtained by the three measures were compared between the surgical groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and associations between the scores in each group were analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Objective mixing ability was found to be significantly low only in patients who underwent glossectomy. No other measures differed significantly between the surgical groups. Perceived chewing ability and objective mixing ability were significantly associated in the marginal mandibulectomy and glossectomy groups but not in the segmental mandibulectomy group. Furthermore, GOHAI score was significantly associated with perceived chewing ability and objective mixing ability in the marginal mandibulectomy group. Within the limitations of this study, the present findings suggest that the type of surgery received might influence food mixing ability. Associations among food mixing ability, perceived chewing and OHRQoL are not accountable depending on the type of surgery received, indicating the presence of other contributing factors to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The SPLENDID chewing detection challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanagiotou, Vasileios; Diou, Christos; Lingchuan Zhou; van den Boer, Janet; Mars, Monica; Delopoulos, Anastasios

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring of eating behavior using wearable technology is receiving increased attention, driven by the recent advances in wearable devices and mobile phones. One particularly interesting aspect of eating behavior is the monitoring of chewing activity and eating occurrences. There are several chewing sensor types and chewing detection algorithms proposed in the bibliography, however no datasets are publicly available to facilitate evaluation and further research. In this paper, we present a multi-modal dataset of over 60 hours of recordings from 14 participants in semi-free living conditions, collected in the context of the SPLENDID project. The dataset includes raw signals from a photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor and a 3D accelerometer, and a set of extracted features from audio recordings; detailed annotations and ground truth are also provided both at eating event level and at individual chew level. We also provide a baseline evaluation method, and introduce the "challenge" of improving the baseline chewing detection algorithms. The dataset can be downloaded from http: //dx.doi.org/10.17026/dans-zxw-v8gy, and supplementary code can be downloaded from https://github. com/mug-auth/chewing-detection-challenge.git.

  8. Structural, thermal and rheological characterization of modified Dalbergia sissoo gum--A medicinal gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Hira; Shahid, Muhammad; Anjum, Fozia; Mudgil, Deepak

    2016-03-01

    Dalbergia sissoo gum was purified by ethanol precipitation. The purified gum was modified and hydrolyzed. Gum was modified by performing polyacrylamide grafting and carboxymethylation methods. The hydrolysis was carried out by using mannanase, barium hydroxide and trifluoroacetic acid. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The decrease in viscosity was studied by performing the flow test. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were thermally stable as compared to crude gum. There was increase in crystallinity after modification and hydrolysis, determined through XRD. FTIR analysis exhibits no major transformation of functional group, only there was change in the intensity of transmittance. It is concluded that the modified and hydrolyzed gum can be used for pharmaceutical and food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physics of chewing in terrestrial mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emmanuel; Ma, Grace; Clanet, Christophe; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies on chewing frequency across animal species have focused on finding a single universal scaling law. Controversy between the different models has been aroused without elucidating the variations in chewing frequency. In the present study we show that vigorous chewing is limited by the maximum force of muscle, so that the upper chewing frequency scales as the -1/3 power of body mass for large animals and as a constant frequency for small animals. On the other hand, gentle chewing to mix food uniformly without excess of saliva describes the lower limit of chewing frequency, scaling approximately as the -1/6 power of body mass. These physical constraints frame the -1/4 power law classically inferred from allometry of animal metabolic rates. All of our experimental data stay within these physical boundaries over six orders of magnitude of body mass regardless of food types.

  10. Chewing efficiency, bite force and oral health-related quality of life with narrow diameter implants - a prospective clinical study: results after one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkling, Norbert; Saftig, Marcus; Worni, Andreas; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Schimmel, Martin

    2017-04-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the evolution of chewing efficiency, maximum voluntary bite force (MBF) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in edentulous patients treated with narrow diameter implants (NDIs) over the course of 1 year. Four NDIs (MDI ® , 3M ESPE, diameter 1.8 mm) were placed interforaminally in 20 edentulous patients. They were immediately loaded by converting the existing prosthesis into an implant overdenture. Participants were examined six times pre- and postoperatively [baseline (BL) to week 52 (w52)]. Chewing efficiency was evaluated with a colour-mixing ability test by evaluation of the standard deviation of hue (VOH, ViewGum©). MBF was measured using a digital force gauge. OHRQoL was determined with the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIPG49). Nonparametric Brunner-Langer models were applied for statistical testing. The study failed to demonstrate an effect on chewing efficiency. MBF increased continuously during the observation period (medians: MBF[N]@BL = 46.6 [iqr 50.1]; MBF[N]@w52 = 103.9 [iqr 76.0]; P = 0.002). OHRQoL increased steeply after implant loading and continued improving (medians: BL ∑OHIPG49 = 31 [iqr 40.0]; w4 ∑OHIPG49 = 11.5 [iqr 19.5]; w52 ∑OHIPG49 = 6 [iqr 13.0], P chewing instructions. Larger studies need to confirm a positive effect on chewing efficiency and develop long-term maintenance solutions if patients become frail because no easy downgrading approaches of one-piece titanium implants exist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Chemical and toxicological characterization of commercial smokeless tobacco products available on the Canadian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, W S; Joza, P J; Trivedi, A H; Momin, R A; Wagstaff, W G; Lauterbach, J H

    2009-03-01

    Some health experts are recommending that smokers who refuse to quit or refuse to use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) such as nicotine-containing chewing gum switch to certain types of smokeless tobacco products (STP) such as Swedish snus. Other health experts disagree citing the uncertainty in the composition of commercially available STP, the lack of governmental regulations to ensure that STP advertised to meet certain standards (i.e., GothiaTek) do actually meet such standards, and the uncertainty that any STP can provide as safe as alternative to smoking as NRT. One reason for uncertainty is the dearth of detailed chemical and toxicological information on contemporary STP. Unlike the situation with cigarettes, there are few standardized methods for analytical and toxicological studies of STP. Consequently, the objective for this work was to characterize several types of STP available on the Canadian market using the modifications of the Official Health Canada chemical and toxicological methods developed for cigarettes. Moist snuff samples tested had TSNA and B[a]P levels somewhat above the GothiaTek standard while samples of Swedish snus, low-moisture snuff, and US-style chewing tobacco did not. Use of in vitro assays to assess STP toxicity was of limited utility in distinguishing product types.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industry-wide surveys or calculations based on the composition or chemical and physical properties of a... and prior to eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, applying cosmetics, or using the... shall ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in areas...

  13. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as..., methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil, tragacanth, and xanthan gum. Esophageal obstruction and...

  14. Tragacanth gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Gavlighi, Hassan Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    highly substituted pectin-like structural elements. Enzymatically produced low molecular- weight fractions of tragacanth gum exhibit potential prebiotic activity by promoting growth in vitro of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strains. These findings may lead to new uses of this gum for production...... of value-added prebiotic compounds for functional foods....

  15. Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, D; Dierckx, S; Dewettinck, K

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a review of the industrially most relevant exudate gums: gum arabic, gum karya, and gum tragacanth. Exudate gums are obtained as the natural exudates of different tree species and exhibit unique properties in a wide variety of applications. This review covers the chemical structure, occurrence and production of the different gums. It also deals with the size and relative importance of the various players on the world market. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the main application fields of the different gums, both food and non-food.

  16. Fluoroacetic acid in guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, T; Gynther, J

    1984-04-01

    The toxicity of guar gum, derived from the Indian leguminous plant Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, is thought to be due to a globulin which can be denaturated and made non-toxic. Another very toxic compound, fluoroacetic acid, has been detected at a low level in raw samples of guar gum (0.07-1.42 micrograms fluoroacetic acid/g). A sample of a guar-gum pharmaceutical formulation contained only 0.08 ppm fluoroacetate. One exceptionally high value of 9.5 micrograms/g was found in a guar-gum powder. The low concentrations of fluoroacetate found in guar gum dispel any considerations about possible health risks associated with fluoroacetate during the prolonged use of guar gum at the recommended doses.

  17. Contribution of the cheeks to the intraoral manipulation of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazari, A; Heath, M R; Prinz, J F

    2007-04-01

    The role of the teeth in chewing has been studied extensively; however, less attention has been paid to soft tissue function. In this study the process of mixing within the bolus and the contribution of the cheeks to this process were investigated using a test food constructed from two differently colored chewing gums. A cheek guard was placed into either the left the or right buccal sulcus. Eighteen dentate subjects were instructed to chew four samples of gum for 30 strokes, two samples with the cheek guard in place and two without. Upon completion, the gum was removed from the mouth and its length was measured. The bolus was then placed into a plastic bag and flattened. Pairs of flattened samples chewed with and without the cheek guard in place were then assessed by five judges who were asked to identify which of each pair was most mixed. Inhibition of the cheek during chewing resulted in significantly longer samples, which were also less mixed.

  18. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Reasons for betel quid chewing amongst dependent and non-dependent betel quid chewing adolescents: a school-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azmina; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2018-05-09

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing in children is initiated in their adolescence. It is pivotal to understand adolescents' reasons behind chewing BQ. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reasons for BQ chewing amongst adolescents using reasons for betel quid chewing scale (RBCS) and their associated dependency on it. This is a cross-sectional school based survey. Out of 2200 adolescents from 26 schools of Karachi, 874 BQ chewers were assessed for their reasons of BQ chewing and dependency on it. Regression analyses were employed to report crude and adjusted (after adjusting for all reasons of BQ chewing) effect sizes with 95% confidence interval and P-value was set significant at < 0.05. Students who believed that BQ chewing relaxes them (stimulation construct) were twice as likely to be dependent on BQ (OR = 2.36, 95% CI (1.20-4.65) as compared with others. Participants who thought it eases their decision making (stimulation construct), were sizably more likely to be dependent on BQ (OR = 9.65, 95% CI (4.15-22.43) than those who did not consider ease in decision making important. Adolescents who considered not chewing as rude (social/cultural construct), were thrice more likely to be dependent on BQ (OR = 2.50, 95% CI (1.11-5.63) than others. Stimulation remained fundamental chewing reason followed by social/cultural trigger amongst adolescents. Any future intervention may get favorable results if it addresses ways to overcome stimulation and social/cultural barriers that are strongly associated with BQ chewing and dependency.

  20. A man before his time: Russell's insights into nicotine, smoking, treatment and curbing the smoking problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Robson, Debbie

    2018-04-01

    This narrative review aimed to provide a brief overview of five key research 'classics' produced by the innovative and radical thought leader, Professor Michael Anthony Hamilton Russell (1932-2009), drawing upon his other work wherever feasible. Narrative review. From more than 250 publications, we selected papers we considered seminal texts, published in 1971, 1976, 1978, 1979 and 1991. Russell was among the first researchers to explain that smoking was a dependence disorder caused by the drug nicotine decades before this was recognized formally. He therefore saw quickly the importance of delivering nicotine in a less harmful format as a way of controlling nicotine withdrawal when stopping smoking, first studying nicotine gum. In addition to pharmacotherapies, Russell's research also explored the role of behavioural support, particularly the role of general practitioners (GPs), alone as well as supported by specialist clinics; this research underpinned initiatives in England to reimburse doctors for giving advice to smokers, and to provide a national network of smoking cessation services. Research on nicotine uptake from other delivery systems and routes led Russell to theorize that the speed and dose of delivery impacted upon the effectiveness of a product to act as a substitute for smoking. He commented on the addictiveness of the high nicotine boli delivered in quick succession when smoking cigarettes and argued that alternative recreational nicotine delivery systems would need to be promoted actively to smokers in order for them to compete with cigarettes, a forerunner for contemporary debates on electronic cigarettes. The legacy of Russell's landmark research is seen in present-day nicotine science, policy and discourse. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Nicotine enhances modulation of food-cue reactivity by leptin and ghrelin in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Nils B; Wuttig, Franziska; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-07-01

    Endocrine signals such as ghrelin and leptin are known to modulate the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system and, consequently, show associations with food and drug reward. In animal models, nicotine was demonstrated to reduce body weight by attenuating food intake and effects of leptin and ghrelin are partly modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which hint at potential interactions. However, the neuropharmacological modulation of endocrine signals by nicotine in healthy humans remains to be tested experimentally. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate food-cue reactivity after an overnight fast and following a caloric load (oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT) in 26 healthy normal-weight never-smokers. Moreover, we administered either nicotine (2 mg) or placebo gums using a randomized cross-over design and assessed blood plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin. During fasting, nicotine administration decreased correlations with ghrelin levels in the mesocorticolimbic system whereas correlations with leptin were increased. After the OGTT, nicotine increased the modulatory effects of ghrelin and leptin on food-cue reactivity, particularly in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala. Critically, this led to an indirect modulation of the behavioral 'appetizer effect' (i.e. cue-induced increases in subjective appetite) by homeostatic feedback signals via food-cue reactivity in vmPFC. We conclude that nicotine enhances the effect of ghrelin and leptin in the valuation and relevance network which might, in turn, reduce appetite. This highlights that amplifying the impact of homeostatic signals such as ghrelin and leptin in normal-weight individuals might hint at a mechanism contributing to nicotine's anorexic potential. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Natural gums and modified natural gums as sustained-release carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, T R; Kanwar, M; Lal, R; Gupta, A

    2000-10-01

    Although natural gums and their derivatives are used widely in pharmaceutical dosage forms, their use as biodegradable polymeric materials to deliver bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. These natural polysaccharides do hold advantages over the synthetic polymers, generally because they are nontoxic, less expensive, and freely available. Natural gums can also be modified to have tailor-made materials for drug delivery systems and thus can compete with the synthetic biodegradable excipients available in the market. In this review, recent developments in the area of natural gums and their derivatives as carriers in the sustained release of drugs are explored.

  3. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Waterpipe tobacco products: nicotine labelling versus nicotine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansickel, Andrea R; Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco package labelling typically indicates "0.0% tar" and "0.05% or 0.5% nicotine". To determine the extent to which nicotine labeling is related to nicotine delivery. 110 waterpipe smokers engaged in a 45-minute waterpipe smoking session. Puff topography and plasma nicotine were measured. Three waterpipe tobacco brands were used: Nakhla (0.5% nicotine), Starbuzz (0.05% nicotine), and Al Fakher (0.05% nicotine). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Topography did not differ across brands. Peak plasma nicotine varied significantly across brands. Al Fakher had the highest nicotine delivery (11.4 ng/ml) followed by Nakhla (9.8 ng/ml) and Starbuzz (5.8 ng/ml). Nicotine labelling on waterpipe tobacco products does not reflect delivery; smoking a brand with a "0.05% nicotine" label led to greater plasma nicotine levels than smoking a brand with a "0.5% nicotine" label. Waterpipe tobacco products should be labelled in a manner that does not mislead consumers.

  5. Acute nicotine fails to alter event-related potential or behavioral performance indices of auditory distraction in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Verner J; Scherling, Carole S; Blais, Crystal M; Camarda, Jordan; Fisher, Derek J; Millar, Anne; McIntosh, Judy F

    2006-04-01

    Behavioral studies have shown that nicotine enhances performance in sustained attention tasks, but they have not shown convincing support for the effects of nicotine on tasks requiring selective attention or attentional control under conditions of distraction. We investigated distractibility in 14 smokers (7 females) with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and behavioral performance measures extracted from an auditory discrimination task requiring a choice reaction time response to short- and long-duration tones, both with and without embedded deviants. Nicotine gum (4 mg), administered in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, failed to counter deviant-elicited behavioral distraction (i.e., slower reaction times and increased response errors), and it did not influence the distracter-elicited mismatch negativity, the P300a, or the reorienting negativity ERP components reflecting acoustic change detection, involuntary attentional switching, and attentional reorienting, respectively. Results are discussed in relation to a stimulus-filter model of smoking and in relation to future research directions.

  6. Effects of Chewing on Cognitive Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and…

  7. Extended nicotine self-administration increases sensitivity to nicotine, motivation to seek nicotine and the reinforcing properties of nicotine-paired cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Kelly J; Lay, Belinda P P; Holmes, Nathan M

    2017-03-01

    An array of pharmacological and environmental factors influence the development and maintenance of tobacco addiction. The nature of these influences likely changes across the course of an extended smoking history, during which time drug seeking can become involuntary and uncontrolled. The present study used an animal model to examine the factors that drive nicotine-seeking behavior after either brief (10 days) or extended (40 days) self-administration training. In Experiment 1, extended training increased rats' sensitivity to nicotine, indicated by a leftward shift in the dose-response curve, and their motivation to work for nicotine, indicated by an increase in the break point achieved under a progressive ratio schedule. In Experiment 2, extended training imbued the nicotine-paired cue with the capacity to maintain responding to the same high level as nicotine itself. However, Experiment 3 showed that the mechanisms involved in responding for nicotine or a nicotine-paired cue are dissociable, as treatment with the partial nicotine receptor agonist, varenicline, suppressed responding for nicotine but potentiated responding for the nicotine-paired cue. Hence, across extended nicotine self-administration, pharmacological and environmental influences over nicotine seeking increase such that nicotine seeking is controlled by multiple sources, and therefore highly resistant to change. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. [Influence of mastication on the amount of hemoglobin in human brain tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, A

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of mastication on the amount of hemoglobin in human brain tissue. Nine healthy volunteers (6 males and 3 females) participated in this study. They underwent two tasks: 1) at rest, 2) gum-chewing. In seven of the nine (4 males and 3 females), experimental occlusal interference was applied to the first molar of the mandibule on the habitual masticatory side. They underwent the gum-chewing task. To evaluate the amount of hemoglobin, both the hemoglobin oxygenation state and blood volume during gum-chewing were measured in the frontal region, using near-infrared spectroscopy. The amount of total-hemoglobin (blood volume) and oxyhemoglobin of subjects significantly increased during gum-chewing (p experimental occlusal interference was imposed on the subject, the amount of them significantly decreased compared with subjects without experimental occlusal interference (p < 0.05). The results suggested that increases of cerebral blood flow in the frontal region were not due to the mandibular movement, and that human brain activity caused by mastication was not only in the cortical masticatory area but also in the frontal region.

  9. Occupational allergic rhinitis from guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Tupasela, O; Jolanki, R; Vaheri, E; Estlander, T; Keskinen, H

    1988-05-01

    Three cases of allergic rhinitis from a vegetable gum, guar gum, have been detected. Two subjects were exposed to fine guar gum powder (Emco Gum 563, Meyhall Chemical AG, Switzerland), an insulator in rubber cables, when opening cables in a power cable laboratory. After 1-2 years' exposure the patients developed rhinitis. Scratch-chamber tests, nasal provocation tests, nasal eosinophilia and a RAST test proved their allergy. A third subject developed allergic rhinitis from another guar gum product (Meyproid 5306, Meyhall Chemical AG) after 2 years' exposure in a paper factory. A positive skin test and nasal provocation test confirmed the diagnosis. A fourth case of possible allergy to guar gum after exposure to Meyproid 5306 in a paper factory is also presented. No final diagnosis was reached in this case (in 1974). The present subjects, only one of whom was atopic, developed allergy within 2 years, although their exposure to guar gum was not especially heavy. Therefore, when handling guar, adequate ventilation facilities should be provided and protective clothing, including a respiratory mask, should be worn.

  10. Determination of locust bean gum and guar gum by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K; Rosa, C; Hischenhuber, C; Meyer, R

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to differentiate the thickening agents locust bean gum (LBG) and the cheaper guar gum in finished food products. Universal primers for amplification of the intergenic spacer region between trnL 3' (UAA) exon and trnF (GAA) gene in the chloroplast (cp) genome and subsequent restriction analysis were applied to differentiate guar gum and LBG. The presence of guar gum powder added to LBG powder was detectable. Based on data obtained from sequencing this intergenic spacer region, a second PCR method for the specific detection of guar gum DNA was also developed. This assay detected guar gum powder in LBG in amounts as low as 1% (w/w). Both methods successfully detected guar gum and/or LBG in ice cream stabilizers and in foodstuffs, such as dairy products, ice cream, dry seasoning mixes, a finished roasting sauce, and a fruit jelly product, but not in products with highly degraded DNA, such as tomato ketchup and sterilized chocolate cream. Both methods detected guar gum and LBG in ice cream and fresh cheese at levels <0.1%.

  11. Reduced-Nicotine Cigarettes in Young Smokers: Impact of Nicotine Metabolism on Nicotine Dose Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paul; Ghahremani, Dara G; Tyndale, Rachel F; Cox, Chelsea M; Kazanjian, Ari S; Paterson, Neil; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Petersen, Nicole; Vigil, Celia; London, Edythe D

    2017-07-01

    The use of cigarettes delivering different nicotine doses allows evaluation of the contribution of nicotine to the smoking experience. We compared responses of 46 young adult smokers to research cigarettes, delivering 0.027, 0.110, 0.231, or 0.763 mg nicotine, and conventional cigarettes. On five separate days, craving, withdrawal, affect, and sustained attention were measured after overnight abstinence and again after smoking. Participants also rated each cigarette, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) was used to identify participants as normal or slow metabolizers. All cigarettes equally alleviated craving, withdrawal, and negative affect in the whole sample, but normal metabolizers reported greater reductions of craving and withdrawal than slow metabolizers, with dose-dependent effects. Only conventional cigarettes and, to a lesser degree, 0.763-mg nicotine research cigarettes increased sustained attention. Finally, there were no differences between ratings of lower-dose cigarettes, but the 0.763-mg cigarettes and (even more so) conventional cigarettes were rated more favorably than lower-dose cigarettes. The findings indicate that smoking-induced relief of craving and withdrawal reflects primarily non-nicotine effects in slow metabolizers, but depends on nicotine dose in normal metabolizers. By contrast, relief of withdrawal-related attentional deficits and cigarette ratings depend on nicotine dose regardless of metabolizer status. These findings have bearing on the use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes to facilitate smoking cessation and on policy regarding regulation of nicotine content in cigarettes. They suggest that normal and slow nicotine metabolizers would respond differently to nicotine reduction in cigarettes, but that irrespective of metabolizer status, reductions to <0.763 mg/cigarette may contribute to temporary attentional deficits.

  12. Nicotine Vapor Method to Induce Nicotine Dependence in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallupi, Marsida; George, Olivier

    2017-07-05

    Nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, induces potentiation of brain stimulation reward, increases locomotor activity, and induces conditioned place preference. Nicotine cessation produces a withdrawal syndrome that can be relieved by nicotine replacement therapy. In the last decade, the market for electronic cigarettes has flourished, especially among adolescents. The nicotine vaporizer or electronic nicotine delivery system is a battery-operated device that allows the user to simulate the experience of tobacco smoking without inhaling smoke. The device is designed to be an alternative to conventional cigarettes that emits vaporized nicotine inhaled by the user. This report describes a procedure to vaporize nicotine in the air to produce blood nicotine levels in rodents that are clinically relevant to those that are observed in humans and produce dependence. We also describe how to construct the apparatus to deliver nicotine vapor in a stable, reliable, and consistent manner, as well as how to analyze air for nicotine content. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Occupational asthma caused by guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, F; Cartier, A; Somer, J; Dolovich, J; Malo, J L

    1990-04-01

    Some vegetable gums have been reported to cause asthma. We describe three subjects who were exposed at work to guar gum, which is derived from the outer part of Cyanopsis tetragonolobus, a vegetable that grows in India. The first subject worked for a pharmaceutical company; the second and third subjects worked at a carpet-manufacturing plant. All three subjects developed symptoms of rhinitis and asthma after the onset of exposure to guar gum. All subjects were atopic and demonstrated mild bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled histamine at the time they were observed. Skin prick tests demonstrated an immediate skin reaction to guar gum. All three subjects had high levels of serum IgE antibodies to guar gum. Specific inhalation challenges in which the three subjects were exposed for short intervals (less than or equal to 4 minutes) to powder of guar gum elicited isolated immediate bronchospastic reactions in two subjects and a dual reaction in the other subject.

  14. Smokeless tobacco, sport and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué, Frédéric; Guenancia, Charles; Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Moreau, Daniel; Cottin, Yves; Zeller, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure, inotropism, cardiac output and myocardial oxygen consumption are increased by nicotine, leading to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The same occurs at submaximal levels of exercise. These increases are accompanied by a rise in systemic resistances. At maximal exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) are unaffected by nicotine. Because endothelial dysfunction is promoted by nicotine, paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction may occur during exercise and recovery. Nicotine induces a decrease in muscular strength and impairs anaerobic performance. However, nicotine is used in sports as it diminishes anxiety, enhances concentration and agility, improves aerobic performance and favours weight control. Importantly, smokeless tobacco, similar to cigarette smoking, leads to nicotine dependence through dopaminergic pathways. Smokeless tobacco has harmful cardiovascular effects and is addictive: it fulfils all the criteria for inclusion in the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list as a doping product. Smokeless tobacco use in sporting activities must be discouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral health benefits of a daily dental chew in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, Bradley W

    2013-01-01

    An independent study was conducted to determine and quantify the oral care benefits of a daily edible dental chew in dogs as measured by plaque and calculus control, gingival indices, and oral malodor. A "clean mouth" test model was used comparing a commercial dry diet and a commercial dry diet plus one dental chew per day. The dental chew tested was representative of a retail canine dental chew. The test dental chew was a green-colored dental dog chew with a flexible texture that can be readily chewed by dogs. They are made with a knuckle bone shape on one end and a toothbrush shape on the other end. Sixty adult dogs were allocated in either control or test groups based on plaque stratification and studied for 28-days. The test group (30 dogs) received a dry diet and 1 dental chew each day. The control group (30 dogs) received the same dry diet only. At the end of the study, measurements of plaque and calculus accumulation and evaluations of oral malodor and gingival heath were performed. Adding a dental chew to the diet resulted in statistically significant reductions in plaque and calculus accumulation, and oral malodor while improving gingival indices.

  16. Comparison of physical chewing measures to consumer typed Mouth Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arran; Jeltema, Melissa; Morgenstern, Marco P; Motoi, Lidia; Kim, Esther; Hedderley, Duncan

    2018-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypotheses that when presented with foods that could be chewed in different ways, (1) are participants jaw movements and chewing sequence measures correlated with Mouth Behavior (MB) group, as measured by the JBMB typing tool? (2) can MB group membership can be predicted from jaw movement and chewing sequence measures? One hundred subjects (69 female and 31 male, mean age 27 ± 7.7 years) were given four different foods (Mentos, Walkers, Cheetos Puffs, Twix) and video recordings of their jaw movements made. Twenty-nine parameters were calculated on each chewing sequence with 27 also calculated for the first half and second half of chewing sequence. Subjects were assigned to a MB group using the JBMB typing tool which gives four MB groups ("Chewers," "Crunchers," "Smooshers," and "Suckers"). The differences between individual chewing parameters and MB group were assessed with analysis of variance which showed only small differences in average chewing parameters between the MB groups. By using discriminant analysis, it was possible to partially discriminate between MB groups based on changes in their chewing parameters between foods with different material properties and stages of the chewing. A 19-variable model correctly predicted 68% of the subjects' membership of a MB group. This partially confirms our first hypothesis that when presented with foods that could be chewed in different ways participants will use a chewing sequence and jaw movements that correlate with their MB as measured by the JBMB typing tool. The way consumers chew their food has an impact on their texture perception of that food. While there is a wide range of chewing behaviors between consumers, they can be grouped into broad categories to better target both product design and product testing by sensory panel. In this study, consumers who were grouped on their texture preference (MB group) had jaw movements, when chewing a range of foods, which

  17. Gums, badgers, and economics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gums trees (in the genus Eucalyptus, from Australia) are not set to ‘disappear’ (even if some people wanted them to). Gums form an important component of the forest industry and, at last count, they covered over 540 000 ha in formal plantations...

  18. Gender differences in chewing discomfort in older South Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-J; Kim, C-B; Ahn, Y-H; Chung, W-G; Kim, N-H

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in chewing discomfort among elderly Koreans. This study used data from 56 616 (weighted sample: 5 638 394) subjects aged over 65 years who participated in the 2011 Community Health Survey in Korea. Of them, 23 059 (weighted sample: 2 368 200, 42.0%) were men and 33 357 (weighted sample: 3 270 194, 58.0%) were women. Data were analysed using chi-square tests and hierarchical logistic regression analyses, with SPSS 20.0. Chewing discomfort was set as the dependent variable, and independent variables were divided into socio-economic factors (place of residence, age, education, monthly household income, basic living security stipend, private insurance, economic activity, living arrangements), general health factors (hypertension, diabetes) and oral health factors (tooth defects, denture use, subjective periodontal health status). A greater proportion of women (50.2%) than men (42.6%) exhibited chewing discomfort (P chewing discomfort (P chewing discomfort (P chewing discomfort than their male counterparts. The factors associated with chewing also differ by gender. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Use of Nicotine in Electronic Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems by US Adults, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Scott R; Kemp, Catherine B; Heath, J Wesley; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    Nicotine in electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/ENNDS) may present a risk of harm to those with cardiovascular disease and the fetuses of pregnant women. We assessed the extent to which adult users of ENDS/ENNDS used these products with nicotine. We obtained data for this study from a national probability survey of 6051 US adults that was conducted in August and September 2015. Of 399 adult ENDS/ENNDS users who were current smokers, 337 (80.7%) used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine, whereas only 29 of 71 (36.9%) ENDS/ENNDS users who were never smokers used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine. Assessments of the population health impact of ENDS/ENNDS use among never smokers should take into account the extent to which use involves nicotine.

  20. Effects of Nicotine Metabolites on Nicotine Withdrawal Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Sagi; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-06-01

    Rodent studies suggest that nicotine metabolites and minor tobacco alkaloids such as nornicotine and cotinine may promote cigarette smoking by enhancing nicotine rewarding and reinforcing effects. However, there is little information on the effects of these minor tobacco alkaloids on nicotine withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to determine whether the minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine and cotinine exhibit nicotine-like behavioral effects in a mouse model of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. Mice were infused with nicotine or saline for 14 days. Experiments were conducted on day 15, 18-24 hours after minipump removal. Ten minutes prior to testing, nicotine-dependent ICR male mice received an acute injection of nicotine (0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg), nornicotine (2.5 and 25 mg/kg), or cotinine (5 and 50 mg/kg) to determine effects on somatic signs, anxiety-like behaviors, and hyperalgesia spontaneous signs of withdrawal. Nicotine and the minor tobacco alkaloid nornicotine, but not cotinine, produced dose-dependent reversal of nicotine withdrawal signs in the mouse. The minor tobacco alkaloid and nicotine metabolite nornicotine at high doses have nicotinic like effects that may contribute to tobacco consumption and dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gum tragacanth. 184.1351 Section 184.1351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Gum tragacanth is the exudate from one of several...

  2. Effect of body posture on chewing behaviours in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, T; Magara, J; Tsujimura, T; Inoue, M

    2017-11-01

    Mastication is essential to the eating process and forms an important part of feeding behaviour. Many factors related to the food bolus, such as bolus texture and size, are known to influence mastication. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of body posture on (i) chewing duration prior to the first swallow and (ii) patterns of mastication-related EMG activity. We asked 10 healthy adults to chew 8 g of steamed rice with barium sulphate while we recorded masseter, suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity and simultaneously collected videofluorographic images. Participants chewed in either an upright or reclining position. Chewing duration, which was defined as the time from the start of mastication to the first swallow, was not different between the positions. However, the variability of chewing duration was larger in the upright versus reclining position, and the chewing duration in the reclining position was distributed around 15 s. Masseter activity gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner and was significantly larger at the early versus late stage of mastication. Suprahyoid activity was significantly larger at the early versus middle stage of mastication in the upright position only. Finally, masseter activity per second was negatively correlated with changes in chewing duration, that is, the larger the increase in chewing duration in the reclining position, the more the decrease in masseter activity per second. These results suggest that position-dependent changes in chewing behaviours, as described by chewing duration and EMG activity, may vary among participants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Betel Quid Chewing, Personality and Mood: Betel Quid Chewing Associated with Low Extraversion and Negative Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Ping-Ho; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Shiah, Yung-Jong

    2018-02-08

    Betel quid (BQ), chewed by about 600 million people worldwide, is one of the most widely used addictive substances. Little is known about psychological factors in BQ chewers. The present study was the first attempt to explore the relationships between BQ chewing, personality, and mood. A survey was conducted with a purposive sample to assess BQ chewing habits in four subgroups: BQ-only users, BQ users who smoke and/or drink, smokers and/or drinkers only, and substance nonusers. A total of 494 participants were recruited from the civilian, non-institutionalized population in Taiwan. Habitual consumption of BQ, smoking and drinking; socio-demographic variables; extraversion; and mood (tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, confusion, and self-esteem). All BQ chewers were evaluated on BQ dependence domains using DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria. The 6-month BQ dependency rate among BQ chewers, defined by either DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria, ranged from 42.9 to 45.6%. BQ-only users had significantly lower scores on extraversion than substance nonusers. BQ-only users had statistically significant higher scores on confusion and total mood than substance nonusers. BQ-only users had significantly higher scores on fatigue, anger, tension, and depression, than substance nonusers, BQ users who smoke and/or drink, and smokers and/or drinkers only. The number of BQ dependence domains correlated significantly negatively with total mood scores. Conclusions/Importance: The results supported the two hypotheses: (a) BQ chewing is associated with low extraversion; and (b) BQ chewing is related to negative mood.

  4. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children's Chewing Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nanae; Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children's chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes' daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children's chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians.

  5. Critical Evaluation of State-of-the-Art In Situ Thermal Treatment Technologies for DNAPL Source Zone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    valent iron (ZVI) powder in a water/ guar slurry for remediation of chlorinated DNAPL source zones. The ZVI continues the remediation after the thermal...MUST BE FOLLOWED BY PERSONNEL ON SITE 1. Smoking, eating, chewing gum or tobacco, or drinking are forbidden except in clean or designated areas...WORK PRACTICES ER-0314 69 Appendix D THE FOLLOWING PRACTICES MUST BE FOLLOWED BY PERSONNEL ON SITE 12. Smoking, eating, chewing gum or tobacco

  6. The path of chewing movement before and after experimental occlusal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Shiga, H

    1991-01-01

    To understand functions of the masticatory system accurate recording and analysis of mandibular movement are indispensable. The purpose of this experiment was to find functional differences in the path of masticatory movement due to experimental occlusal interference. Occlusal interference was placed on the mandibular first molar or cuspid of the habitual chewing side in seven normal subjects. While subjects were asked to masticate gum on one side at a time, jaw movements were recorded and analyzed using an automatic masticatory movement analysis system previously developed. Standard deviations (SD) of the vertical and lateral elements in the opening and closing phases were calculated and compared before and after the occlusal interference. In the opening phase the SDs increased significantly with either the interference placed on the cuspid or molar tooth. In the closing phase it generally increased with either the interference. The effect was significantly more with the cuspid interference than that of the molar tooth. The SD of the vertical element is also generally increased with either interference. However, in contrast to the lateral element, the effect of the molar interference on the vertical element was significantly more than that of the cuspid.

  7. Gum Producers Can Improve Quality Of Gum Marketed and Get Higher Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph W. Clements

    1979-01-01

    Acid waste from over-treatment and old, wornout iron cups have contributed significantly to the generally poor quality of gum marketed. Today producers are reluctant to purchase new cups and gutters and invest up to $1.80 per tree for production when the market price for gum averages 14.54 per pound annually. Guidelines are given for improving the quality by...

  8. Examining disadoption of gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ruben, R.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Gum arabic production in Sudan has developed over the years in a well-established traditional bush-fallow system in which the gum tree (Acacia senegal) is rotated with annual crops. Following the Sahel drought, the gum area has suffered from deforestation and gum production has declined. Several

  9. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.597). A statistically significant negative correlation between body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  10. A comparison of chewing rate between overweight and normal BMI individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy Kristin; Venn, Bernard; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Rush, Elaine; Gallo, Luigi Maria; Yong, Janet Lee Ching; Farella, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Previous attempts to identify an 'obese eating style' have led to conflicting findings. This observational study compared the chewing features of overweight or obese young adults with those of normal range BMI. We hypothesised that chewing features are individual-specific and differ between participants of a normal BMI and high BMI. Fourteen overweight to obese participants (BMI≥25.0) were pairwise matched with 14 normal range BMI participants (18.5chewing episodes, including rate, duration, and power. Masticatory performance was assessed by a sieve test and was expressed as the percentage of particles ≤2mm after a standardised chewing test. Regardless of the meal, chewing rate was remarkably consistent among participants (ICC=0.89; 95% CI=0.79-0.94). Chewing rate did not differ between high and normal BMI participants (p>0.05), whereas chewing power was significantly higher in high BMI participants (pchewing characteristics were found between BMI groups. Participants chewed at similar rate in the natural environment (pizza) and in the laboratory (rice) setting (p>0.05). Masticatory performance did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between the high (55.9%) and normal (52.4%) BMI groups. Within the limitations of the present study, chewing characteristics appear to be individual-specific with wide variability. Overweight participants chew at a similar rate to control participants, albeit slightly stronger. Our preliminary findings need to be replicated in larger samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effects of Betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N S

    2001-01-01

    Betel chewing has been claimed to produce a sense of well-being, euphoria, heightened alertness, sweating, salivation, a hot sensation in the body and increased capacity to work. Betel chewing also leads to habituation, addiction and withdrawal. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of Areca nut, has been extensively studied, and several effects of betel chewing are thought to be related to the actions of this parasympathomimetic constituent. However, betel chewing may produce complex reactions and interactions. In the presence of lime, arecoline and guvacoline in Areca nut are hydrolyzed into arecaidine and guvacine, respectively, which are strong inhibitors of GABA uptake. Piper betle flower or leaf contains aromatic phenolic compounds which have been found to stimulate the release of catecholamines in vitro. Thus, betel chewing may affect parasympathetic, GABAnergic and sympathetic functions. Betel chewing produces an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and body temperature. In addition, EEG shows widespread cortical desynchronization indicating a state of arousal. In autonomic function tests, both the sympathetic skin response and RR interval variation are affected. Betel chewing also increases plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These results suggest that betel chewing mainly affects the central and autonomic nervous systems. Future studies should investigate both the acute and chronic effects of betel chewing. Such studies may further elucidate the psychoactive mechanisms responsible for the undiminished popularity of betel chewing since antiquity. Copyright 2001 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Chewing Tobacco: Not a Safe Alternative to Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Quit smoking Get the facts about chewing tobacco and other forms of smokeless tobacco. They' ... than you might think. By Mayo Clinic Staff Chewing tobacco and other smokeless tobacco products may be ...

  13. Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, K; Kawachi, I; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ≤ 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers.

  14. Nicotine Lozenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine lozenges are used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine lozenges are in a class of medications called smoking cessation aids. They work by providing nicotine to your body to decrease the withdrawal symptoms ...

  15. GumTree-An integrated scientific experiment environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Goetz, Andy; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis

  16. Effect of chewing speed on the detection of a foreign object in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paphangkorakit, J; Ladsena, V; Rukyuttithamkul, T; Khamtad, T

    2016-03-01

    Accidentally biting hard on a piece of hard foreign object in food is among the causes of tooth fracturing and could be associated with oral sensibility. This study has investigated the effect of chewing speed on the ability to detect a foreign object in food in human. Fourteen healthy subjects were asked to randomly chew one of 10 cooked rice balls, five of which containing a foreign object made from a tiny uncooked rice grain, until they detected the rice grain. Each subject chewed the test foods both at 50 (slow) and 100 (fast) chews min(-1). The accuracy of detection and the number of chews before detection (CBD) were recorded and compared between the two chewing speeds using paired t-tests. The results showed that almost all subjects detected the foreign object by biting. The accuracy of detection was more than 90% and not significantly different between slow and fast chewing but the mean CBD in slow chewing (11·7 ± 1·3 chews) was significantly different from that in fast chewing (20·7 ± 1·9 chews; P chews before a foreign object in food could be detected and was, presumably, more effective in detecting the object compared to fast chewers. If each chew bears equal probability of teeth encountering the foreign object, slow chewing might also reduce the chance of accidentally biting hard on the foreign object and fracturing the tooth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. What do GUM physicians think should be taught in a modern undergraduate GUM module? A qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, I

    2015-10-01

    Traditional undergraduate Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) teaching in the UK concentrated on the management of individual sexually transmitted infections. There is significant variation, however, in the GUM teaching provided by different medical schools today. I undertook a qualitative interview study to gather views of GUM and other sexual health clinicians regarding what should be taught within a modern undergraduate GUM module. Nine GUM clinicians and two Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) clinicians participated in the study; all were directly involved in undergraduate teaching. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with study participants by a single interviewer, focusing on three key topics: their individual opinions regarding important learning outcomes (LOs) for a modern model GUM curriculum, their preferred teaching methods and the total recommended teaching time required. Interviews were audio-recorded with consent and professionally transcribed. Data were analysed by the content analysis method. Interviewees frequently stressed skill and attitudinal LOs, even above knowledge. Recommended important skills included sexual history taking, HIV risk assessment and testing, and male and female genital examination. Recommended attitudinal LOs were developing an open and non-judgemental approach to sexual health issues and understanding sexual well-being to be an important component of general health. Respondents were keen for a mixture of teaching methods, but generally agreed that clinic attendance and experiential learning were beneficial. They preferred that GUM teaching should be delivered in the latter years of the undergraduate curriculum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (Cgum (calculated from Arrhenius-Frenkel-Eyring plot was relatively low and indicated the presence of fewer inter- and intramolecular interactions.

  19. Oral parafunctions, piercing and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejersjö, Christina; Ovesson, Daniel; Mossberg, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    The use of chewing-gum and piercing has become common among adolescents and might result in increased oral muscle activity and overloading. Aim To investigate the frequency of oral piercing and parafunctions in relation to symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) among adolescents. One hundred and twenty-four third level high school students, living either in a city or in a small town, enrolled in either science or media programmes, were included. The students completed a questionnaire regarding different parafunctions and symptoms of TMD. A clinical examination of the temporomandibular system and estimation of the tooth wear was performed in 116 students. Chewing-gum was used by 86% of the students (25% with a daily use) and 14% had an oral piercing. The science students used more chewing gum than the media students (p = 0.008), while the media students had more piercings (p headache, 18% for clicking, 7% for facial pain and 6% for difficulty to open wide. Girls reported more headaches (p = 0.007) and more severe symptoms (p = 0.003), had more medical consultations and used more analgesics (both p headache (p temporomandibular joints and muscles (both p headache and muscle tenderness (both p headache (p < 0.05) and tooth wear (p = 0.004). There is an association between use of chewing gum, nail biting, oral piercing, and symptoms of TMD.

  20. Nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltenstein, Matthew W; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco addiction is a relapsing disorder that constitutes a substantial worldwide health problem, with evidence suggesting that nicotine and nicotine-associated stimuli play divergent roles in maintaining smoking behavior in men and women. While animal models of tobacco addiction that utilize nicotine self-administration have become more widely established, systematic examination of the multiple factors that instigate relapse to nicotine-seeking have been limited. Here, we examined nicotine self-administration and subsequent nicotine-seeking in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats using an animal model of self-administration and relapse. Rats lever pressed for nicotine (0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg/infusion, IV) during 15 daily 2-h sessions, followed by extinction of lever responding. Once responding was extinguished, we examined the ability of previously nicotine-paired cues (tone+light), the anxiogenic drug yohimbine (2.5mg/kg, IP), a priming injection of nicotine (0.3mg/kg, SC), or combinations of drug+cues to reinstate nicotine-seeking. Both males and females readily acquired nicotine self-administration and displayed comparable levels of responding and intake at both nicotine doses. Following extinction, exposure to the previously nicotine-paired cues or yohimbine, but not the nicotine-prime alone, reinstated nicotine-seeking in males and females. Moreover, when combined with nicotine-paired cues, both yohimbine and nicotine enhanced reinstatement. No significant sex differences or estrous cycle dependent changes were noted across reinstatement tests. These results demonstrate the ability to reinstate nicotine-seeking with multiple modalities and that exposure to nicotine-associated cues during periods of a stressful state or nicotine can increase nicotine-seeking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gellan Gum: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar B. Bajaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharides are water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. It is commercially produced by C. P. Kelco in Japan and the USA. Further research and development in biopolymer technology is expected to expand its use. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the gellan gum synthesized by Sphingomonas paucimobilis with special emphasis on its fermentative production and downstream processing. Rheological behaviour of fermentation broth during fermentative production of gellan gum and problems associated with mass transfer have been addressed. Information on the biosynthetic pathway of gellan gum, enzymes and precursors involved in gellan gum production and application of metabolic engineering for enhancement of yield of gellan gum has been specified. Characteristics of gellan gum with respect to its structure, physicochemical properties, rheology of its solutions and gel formation behaviour are discussed. An attempt has also been made to review the current and potential applications of gellan gum in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  2. Optimizing gelling parameters of gellan gum for fibrocartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeyeon; Fisher, Stephanie; Kallos, Michael S; Hunter, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Gellan gum is an attractive biomaterial for fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications because it is cell compatible, can be injected into a defect, and gels at body temperature. However, the gelling parameters of gellan gum have not yet been fully optimized. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanics, degradation, gelling temperature, and viscosity of low acyl and low/high acyl gellan gum blends. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum resulted in increased stiffness and the addition of high acyl gellan gum resulted in greatly decreased stiffness. Degradation studies showed that low acyl gellan gum was more stable than low/high acyl gellan gum blends. Gelling temperature studies showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum and CaCl₂ increased gelling temperature and low acyl gellan gum concentrations below 2% (w/v) would be most suitable for cell encapsulation. Gellan gum blends were generally found to have a higher gelling temperature than low acyl gellan gum. Viscosity studies showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum increased viscosity. Our results suggest that 2% (w/v) low acyl gellan gum would have the most appropriate mechanics, degradation, and gelling temperature for use in fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Temporomandibular Disorders: The Habitual Chewing Side Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Mora, Urbano; López-Cedrún, José; Mora, María J.; Otero, Xosé L.; Santana-Penín, Urbano

    2013-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side) and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. Methods The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms) was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. Results Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher’s exact test, P = .003) and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002) were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88) degrees versus 46.16(7.25) degrees; P = .001), and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35) degrees versus 48.32(9.53) degrees P = .036) on the symptomatic side. Discussion The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, “habitual chewing side syndrome”, instead of the nonspecific symptom-based “temporomandibular joint disorders”; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side. PMID:23593156

  4. Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Santana-Mora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. METHODS: The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. RESULTS: Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003 and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002 were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88 degrees versus 46.16(7.25 degrees; P = .001, and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35 degrees versus 48.32(9.53 degrees P = .036 on the symptomatic side. DISCUSSION: The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.

  5. Pion-nucleon vertex function and the Chew-Low model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.T.

    1977-01-01

    We provide an interpretation of the cutoff function used in the Chew-Low theory of pion-nucleon scattering. It is shown that this function may be related to the pion-pion interaction which is not explicitly considered in the Chew-Low approach. Using a previously developed model for the pion-nucleon vertex function, we then perform a ''parameter-free'' Chew-Low calculation which predicts the P 33 resonance quite well

  6. Extraction and Characterization of Boswellia Serrata Gum as Pharmaceutical Excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Sumedha; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript deals with the purification and characterization of Boswellia serrata gum as a suspending agent. The Boswellia serrata gum was purchased as crude material, purified and further characterized in terms of organoleptic properties and further micromeritic studies were carried out to characterize the polymer as a pharmaceutical excipient. The suspending properties of the polymer were also evaluated. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. To characterize Boswellia serrata gum as a natural excipient. Boswellia serrata gum, paracetamol, distilled water. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. It is concluded from the research work that the gum extracted from Boswellia serrata shows the presence of carbohydrates after chemical tests. All the organoleptic properties evaluated were found to be acceptable. The pH was found to be slightly acidic. Swelling Index reveals that the gum swells well in water. Total ash value was within the limits. The values of angle of repose and Carr's Index of powdered gum powder showed that the flow property was good. IR spectra confirmed the presence of alcohol, amines, ketones, anhydrides and aromatic rings. The suspending properties of Boswellia serrata gum were found to be higher as compared to gum acacia while the flow rate of Boswellia serrata gum (1% suspension) was less than gum acacia (1% suspension). The viscosity measurement of both Boswellia serrata gum suspension and gum acacia suspension showed approximately similar results.

  7. Evaluation of nicotine in tobacco-free-nicotine commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinghausen, Garrett; Lee, Jauh T; Weatherly, Choyce A; Lopez, Diego A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a variety of new tobacco-free-nicotine, TFN, products have been commercialized as e-liquids. Tobacco-derived nicotine contains predominantly (S)-(-)-nicotine, whereas TFN products may not. The TFN products are said to be cleaner, purer substances, devoid of toxic components that come from the tobacco extraction process. A variety of commercial tobacco and TFN products were analyzed to identify the presence and composition of each nicotine enantiomer. A rapid and effective enantiomeric separation of nicotine has been developed using a modified macrocyclic glycopeptide bonded to superficially porous particles. The enantiomeric assay can be completed in nicotine, which is present in much greater quantities in commercial TFN products compared to commercial tobacco-derived products. Such studies are required by the FDA for new enantiomeric pharmacological products. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effect of complete and partial removable dentures on chewing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, T M S V; Vilanova, L S R; Gonçalves, L M; Rodrigues Garcia, R C M

    2014-03-01

    Partial or complete edentulism impairs mastication. However, it is unclear how the chewing cycle is affected by prosthetics. We evaluated the chewing movements of patients fitted with complete (CD) or removable partial denture (RPD). A total of 29 subjects were kinesiographically evaluated during chewing of peanuts and Optocal portions in a random sequence. The subjects were divided into two groups according to prosthesis type. Group RPD was composed of 14 partially edentulous patients using a lower distal extension RPD (mean age 61 ± 8 years), and group CD contained 15 completely edentulous patients using CD (mean age 65·9 ± 7·9 years) in both jaws. Opening, closing, occlusal and masticatory cycle times, movement angle (opening and closing), maximum velocity (opening and closing), total area and chewing cycle amplitudes were evaluated. The results were subjected to anova and Tukey's HSD test at a significance level of 5%. The RPD group exhibited shorter opening and closing phases and masticatory cycle time (P chewing envelope was smaller in the CD group (P chewing cycles in any of the parameters evaluated (P > 0·05). RPD wearers use a faster chewing sequence with greater vertical and lateral jaw excursions compared with CD wearers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Wickham, Kate A.; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2018-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be importa...

  10. GumTree - An Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia; Goetz, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Full text: GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis. (authors)

  11. Nanodisturbances in deformed Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Mikhail Yu.; Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Ovid'ko, Ilya A.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic experiments have been performed to characterize defect structures in deformed Gum Metal, a special titanium alloy with high strength, low Young's modulus, excellent cold workability and low resistance to shear in certain crystallographic planes. Results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization reveal nanodisturbances (planar nanoscopic areas of local shear) as typical elements of defect structures in deformed Gum Metal. A theoretical model is suggested describing nanodisturbances as nanoscale dipoles of non-conventional partial dislocations with arbitrary, non-quantized Burgers vectors. It is shown theoretically that the homogeneous generation of nanodisturbances is energetically favorable in Gum Metal, where they effectively carry plastic flow

  12. Influence of the language dominant hemisphere on the activation region of the cerebral cortex during mastication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relationship of the activation region of the cerebral cortex during mastication with the language dominant hemisphere. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to chew a special gum 50 times on each side of the mouth, the gum changed color, becoming a deeper red, as it was chewed. The depth of red of the chewed gum was used to ascertain the habitual masticatory side. Measurements were also performed on a conventional whole body 1.5 T clinical scanner using a single shot, multislice echo-planar imaging sequence. The subjects were asked to masticate first on the right side, and then on the left side. As well, they were instructed to do a shiritori test, which is a word game. Computer analysis of the fMRI was done using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 99 software (p<0.001, paired t-test). We found that the sensorimotor cortex activated by masticatory movements always contains language dominant hemisphere. (author)

  13. Isolation and characterization of gum from Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the morphology, physicochemical and compressional characteristics of a natural gum derived from the fruits of Chrysophyllum albidum. Preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of Chrysophyllum albidum gum (in comparison with tragacanth gum) were determined while ...

  14. GumTree: Data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, Hugh [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: hrz@ansto.gov.au; Hathaway, Paul [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Hauser, Nick [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Fei, Yang [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Franceschini, Ferdi [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lam, Tony [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation.

  15. GumTree: Data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Hugh; Hathaway, Paul; Hauser, Nick; Fei, Yang; Franceschini, Ferdi; Lam, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation

  16. Crossing symmetric solution of the Chew-Low equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An N/D dispersion theory is developed which solves crossing symmetric Low equations. The method is used to generate crossing symmetric solutions to the Chew-Low model. We show why the technique originally proposed by Chew and Low was incapable of producing solutions. (orig.)

  17. Nicotine, auditory sensory memory and attention in a human ketamine model of schizophrenia: moderating influence of a hallucinatory trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verner eKnott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The procognitive actions of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR agonist nicotine are believed, in part, to motivate the excessive cigarette smoking in schizophrenia, a disorder associated with deficits in multiple cognitive domains, including low level auditory sensory processes and higher order attention-dependent operations. Objectives: As N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR hypofunction has been shown to contribute to these cognitive impairments, the primary aims of this healthy volunteer study were to: a to shed light on the separate and interactive roles of nAChR and NMDAR systems in the modulation of auditory sensory memory (and sustained attention, as indexed by the auditory event-related brain potential (ERP – mismatch negativity (MMN, and b to examine how these effects are moderated by a predisposition to auditory hallucinations/delusions (HD. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design involving a low intravenous dose of ketamine (.04 mg/kg and a 4 mg dose of nicotine gum, MMN and performance on a rapid visual information processing (RVIP task of sustained attention were examined in 24 healthy controls psychometrically stratified as being lower (L-HD, n = 12 or higher (H-HD for HD propensity. Results: Ketamine significantly slowed MMN, and reduced MMN in H-HD, with amplitude attenuation being blocked by the co-administration of nicotine. Nicotine significantly enhanced response speed (reaction time and accuracy (increased % hits and d΄ and reduced false alarms on the RIVIP, with improved performance accuracy being prevented when nicotine was administered with ketamine. Both % hits and d΄, as well as reaction time were poorer in H-HD (vs. L-HD and while hit rate and d΄ was increased by nicotine in H-HD, reaction time was slowed by ketamine in L-HD. Conclusions: Nicotine alleviated ketamine-induced sensory memory impairments and improved attention, particularly in individuals prone to HD.

  18. Nicotine response and nicotinic receptors in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C M; Medhurst, L J; Collins, A C

    1987-01-01

    Nicotine response and nicotinic receptor binding were characterized in long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice which have been selectively bred for differential "sleep-time" following ethanol administration. LS mice are more sensitive than SS mice to nicotine as measured by a battery of behavioral and physiological tests and as measured by sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures. The greater sensitivity of the LS mice is not due to differences in binding of [3H]nicotine. Unlike inbred mouse strains which differ in sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures, these selected mouse lines do not differ in levels of binding of [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) in the hippocampus. Significant differences in BTX binding were found in the cerebellum and striatum. Although these two mouse lines do not differ in blood levels of nicotine following nicotine administration, they differ slightly in brain levels of nicotine indicating differential distribution of the drug. Since this distribution difference is much smaller than the observed behavioral differences, these mice probably differ in CNS sensitivity to nicotine; however, follow-up studies are necessary to test whether the differential response of these mice is due to subtle differences in distribution of nicotine to the brain.

  19. Delineating miRNA profile induced by chewing tobacco in oral keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Younis Bhat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The major established etiologic risk factor for oral cancer is tobacco (chewed, smoked and snuffed forms. Chewing form of tobacco is predominantly used in India making it the leading cause of oral cancer. Despite being one of the leading causes of oral cancer, the molecular alterations induced by chewing tobacco remains largely unclear. Carcinogenic effect of chewing tobacco is through chronic and not acute exposure. To understand the molecular alterations induced by chewing tobacco, we developed a cell line model where non-neoplastic oral keratinocytes were chronically exposed to chewing tobacco for a period of 6 months. This resulted in increased cellular proliferation and invasive ability of normal oral keratinocytes. Using this cellular model we studied the differential expression of miRNAs associated with chewing tobacco and the altered signaling pathways through which the aberrantly expressed miRNAs affect tumorigenesis. miRNA sequencing  was carried out using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform  which resulted in the identification of 427 annotated miRNAs of which 10 were significantly dysregulated (≥ 4 fold; p-value ≤ 0.05 in tobacco exposed cells compared to untreated parental cells. To study the altered signaling in oral keratinocytes chronically exposed to chewing tobacco, we employed quantitative proteomics to characterize the dysregulated proteins. Integration of miRNA sequencing data with proteomic data resulted in identification of 36 proven protein targets which (≥1.5 fold; p-value ≤ 0.05 showed expression correlation with the 10 significantly dysregulated miRNAs. Pathway analysis of the dysregulated targets revealed enrichment of interferon signaling and mRNA processing related pathways in the chewing tobacco exposed cells. In addition, we also identified 6 novel miRNA in oral keratinocytes chronically exposed to chewing tobacco extract. Our study provides a framework to understand the oncogenic transformation induced by

  20. Formulation and Characterization of Biodegradable Medicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights .... was available as solid flakes (Smart Nanoz ..... Zein chewing gum has all the benefits of a ... advantage over synthetic gums in that it is.

  1. Automatic identification of temporal sequences in chewing sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amft, O.D.; Kusserow, M.; Tröster, G.

    2007-01-01

    Chewing is an essential part of food intake. The analysis and detection of food patterns is an important component of an automatic dietary monitoring system. However chewing is a time-variable process depending on food properties. We present an automated methodology to extract sub-sequences of

  2. Algorithms for the detection of chewing behavior in dietary monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Helal, Abdelsalam; Mendez-Vasquez, Andres

    2009-08-01

    The detection of food consumption is key to the implementation of successful behavior modification in support of dietary monitoring and therapy, for example, during the course of controlling obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Since the vast majority of humans consume food via mastication (chewing), we have designed an algorithm that automatically detects chewing behaviors in surveillance video of a person eating. Our algorithm first detects the mouth region, then computes the spatiotemporal frequency spectrum of a small perioral region (including the mouth). Spectral data are analyzed to determine the presence of periodic motion that characterizes chewing. A classifier is then applied to discriminate different types of chewing behaviors. Our algorithm was tested on seven volunteers, whose behaviors included chewing with mouth open, chewing with mouth closed, talking, static face presentation (control case), and moving face presentation. Early test results show that the chewing behaviors induce a temporal frequency peak at 0.5Hz to 2.5Hz, which is readily detected using a distance-based classifier. Computational cost is analyzed for implementation on embedded processing nodes, for example, in a healthcare sensor network. Complexity analysis emphasizes the relationship between the work and space estimates of the algorithm, and its estimated error. It is shown that chewing detection is possible within a computationally efficient, accurate, and subject-independent framework.

  3. Chewing ability of the long-term hospitalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Petteri; Vehkalahti, Miira M

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the chewing ability of 260 (25 percent men) long-term hospitalized elderly patients 60 years of age and older in Laakso hospital, Helsinki, Finland, in relation to their mastication capacity, sore mouth and degree of dependence. The subjects' (mean age 83.3 years, SD = 8.1 years) mastication capacity was determined by a specialist dentist by means of: (a) number of functioning teeth and dentures; (b) modified Eichner Index; and (c) the Eichner Score, based on the index. Based on the information given by the nursing staff, an indicator of chewing ability was created. The chewing ability was poor for 55 percent, limited for 17 percent, moderate for 14 percent and excellent for 14 percent. Excellent or moderate ability to chew was related to a subject's lesser degree of dependence (OR = 1.5; p = 0.02) and higher Eichner Score (OR = 1.3; p = 0.000). More attention should be focused on mastication capacity of the hospitalized elderly.

  4. Acute effects of nicotine amplify accumbal neural responses during nicotine-taking behavior and nicotine-paired environmental cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Guillem

    Full Text Available Nicotine self-administration (SA is maintained by several variables, including the reinforcing properties of nicotine-paired cues and the nicotine-induced amplification of those cue properties. The nucleus accumbens (NAc is implicated in mediating the influence of these variables, though the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are not yet understood. In the present study, Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer nicotine. During SA sessions each press of a lever was followed by an intravenous infusion of nicotine (30 µg/kg paired with a combined light-tone cue. Extracellular recordings of single-neuron activity showed that 20% of neurons exhibited a phasic change in firing during the nicotine-directed operant, the light-tone cue, or both. The phasic change in firing for 98% of neurons was an increase. Sixty-two percent of NAc neurons additionally or alternatively showed a sustained decrease in average firing during the SA session relative to a presession baseline period. These session decreases in firing were significantly less prevalent in a group of neurons that were activated during either the operant or the cue than in a group of neurons that were nonresponsive during those events (referred to as task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons, respectively. Moreover, the session decrease in firing was dose-dependent for only the task-nonactivated neurons. The data of the present investigation provide supportive correlational evidence for two hypotheses: (1 excitatory neurophysiological mechanisms mediate the NAc role in cue-maintenance of nicotine SA, and (2 a differential nicotine-induced inhibition of task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons mediates the NAc role in nicotine-induced amplification of cue effects on nicotine SA.

  5. Ex vivo determination of chewing patterns using FBG and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, L. Z.; Pegorini, V.; Pitta, C. S. R.; Assmann, T. S.; Cardoso, R.; Kalinowski, H. J.; Silva, J. C. C.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports the experimental procedures performed in a bovine head for the determination of chewing patterns during the mastication process. Mandible movements during the chewing have been simulated either by using two plasticine materials with different textures or without material. Fibre Bragg grating sensors were fixed in the jaw to monitor the biomechanical forces involved in the chewing process. The acquired signals from the sensors fed the input of an artificial neural network aiming at the classification of the measured chewing patterns for each material used in the experiment. The results obtained from the simulation of the chewing process presented different patterns for the different textures of plasticine, resulting on the determination of three chewing patterns with a classification error of 5%.

  6. ¿Sirve la goma de mascar para acelerar la recuperación luego de una cirugía abdominal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative ileus is a common condition that delays recovery after an abdominal surgery. The early use of sham feeding, with chewing gum, stimulates peristalsis; thus should allow an earlier nutrition. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 20 databases, we identified 14 systematic reviews including 24 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded that chewing gum probably reduces the length of hospital stay after an abdominal surgery.

  7. Effects of nicotine and nicotine expectancy on attentional bias for emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sally; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine's effects on mood are thought to enhance its addictive potential. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on affect regulation have not been reliably demonstrated in human laboratory studies. We investigated the effects of nicotine abstinence (Experiment 1), and nicotine challenge and expectancy (Experiment 2) on attentional bias towards facial emotional stimuli differing in emotional valence. In Experiment 1, 46 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to either continue to abstain from smoking or to smoke immediately before testing. In Experiment 2, 96 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to smoke a nicotinized or denicotinized cigarette and to be told that the cigarette did or did not contain nicotine. In both experiments participants completed a visual probe task, where positively valenced (happy) and negatively valenced (sad) facial expressions were presented, together with neutral facial expressions. In Experiment 1, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location and abstinence on reaction time, indicating that abstinent smokers showed an attentional bias for neutral stimuli. In Experiment 2, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location, nicotine challenge and expectation on reaction time, indicating that smokers receiving nicotine, but told that they did not receive nicotine, showed an attentional bias for emotional stimuli. Our data suggest that nicotine abstinence appears to disrupt attentional bias towards emotional facial stimuli. These data provide support for nicotine's modulation of attentional bias as a central mechanism for maintaining affect regulation in cigarette smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) associated with vertebrates in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SÁnchez-Montes, Sokani; Colunga-Salas, Pablo; Álvarez-Castillo, LucÍa; GuzmÁn-Cornejo, Carmen; Montiel-Parra, Griselda

    2018-01-15

    The chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) of Mexico have been little studied and many publications include isolated records. This paper summarizes current knowledge of chewing lice recorded from Mexico resulting from an exhaustive search of the literature published from 1866 to 2017. We found 342 louse species associated with 206 bird and 28 mammal species. As a result, we provide a checklist of the chewing lice recorded from Mexico, including a host-parasite list and their geographical distribution within the country.

  9. Elastic properties of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko; Hwang, Junghwan; Nishino, Kazuaki; Saito, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements under tensile loading and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of elastic deformation in Gum Metal. Tensile stress-strain curves for Gum Metal indicate that cold working substantially decreases the elastic modulus while increasing the yield strength, thereby confirming nonlinearity in the elastic range. The gradient of each curve decreased continuously to about one-third its original value near the elastic limit. As a result of this decrease in elastic modulus and nonlinearity, elastic deformability reaches 2.5% after cold working. Superelasticity is attributed to stress-induced martensitic transformations, although the large elastic deformation in Gum Metal is not accompanied by a phase transformation

  10. Prevalence of Khat chewing and associated factors in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen, Somalia, Sudan, South Africa and Madagascar; it ... effects of khat chewing; for instance, a study revealed .... cervical cancer screening coverage in women, and provision ..... Socio-economic effects of khat chewing in.

  11. The influence of food consistency on chewing rate and muscular work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bilt, A.; Abbink, J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Food properties influence the parameters of the masticatory process, such as jaw movement, muscle activity and chewing rate. Firm foods will require more muscle activity than softer foods. However, the influence of food hardness on chewing rate is ambiguous as both slower and higher chewing rates

  12. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  13. Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassanpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gums refer to a type of polysaccharides which are used to increase viscosity and create some other functional properties such as thickening agent, emulsifying agent, stabilizer, crystal inhibitor and so forth. They are classifying based on their nature and originality including, microbial, plant, exudate and animal Gums. This article shortly reviews a group of plant Gums and recent findings in their application. Gums or Hydrocolloids are main compounds which create stability of emulsion via entering into water phase. The importance of these compounds is on viscosity and electrostatic reactions to stabilize nonalcoholic emulsion with below properties; 1 easily soluble in cold water, 2 the lowest amount of viscosity in water, 3 having maximum level of emulsifier amount, 4 no creation of gelling. Diversity and functionality of Gums and regarding their still novelty in food industries have made Gums one of the main additives in food formulations. Since sourced of Gums are different we must focus on using them together to improve their synergistic effect but interactions among them and combined matrixes produced by them also need to be studied in details.

  14. Synchrotron radiation microbeam X-ray fluorescence analysis of zinc concentration in remineralized enamel in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tsunenori; Ishizaki, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shuji; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Remineralization is an indispensable phenomenon during the natural healing process of enamel decay. The incorporation of zinc (Zn) into enamel crystal could accelerate this remineralization. The present study was designed to investigate the concentration and distribution of Zn in remineralized enamel after gum chewing. The experiment was performed at the Photon Factory. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized and X-rays were focused into a small beam spot. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from the sample was detected with a silicon (Si) (lithium (Li)) detector. X-ray beam energy was tuned to detect Zn. The examined samples were small enamel fragments remineralized after chewing calcium phosphate-containing gum in situ. The incorporation of Zn atom into hydroxyapatite (OHAP), the main component of enamel, was measured using Zn K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) with fluorescence mode at the SPring-8. A high concentration of Zn was detected in a superficial area 10-microm deep of the sectioned enamel after gum chewing. This concentration increased over that in the intact enamel. The atomic distance between Zn and O in the enamel was calculated using the EXAFS data. The analyzed atomic distances between Zn and O in two sections were 0.237 and 0.240 nm. The present experiments suggest that Zn is effectively incorporated into remineralized enamel through the physiological processes of mineral deposition in the oral cavity through gum-chewing and that Zn substitution probably occurred at the calcium position in enamel hydroxyapatite.

  15. The effect of food bolus location on jaw movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, W N B; Gezelle Meerburg, P J; Luraschi, J; Whittle, T; Schimmel, M; Lobbezoo, F; Peck, C C; Murray, G M; Minami, I

    2012-09-01

    Masticatory efficiency in individuals with extensive tooth loss has been widely discussed. However, little is known about jaw movement smoothness during chewing and the effect of differences in food bolus location on movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether experimental differences in food bolus location (anterior versus posterior) had an effect on masticatory efficiency and jaw movement smoothness. Jaw movement smoothness was evaluated by measuring jerk-cost (calculated from acceleration) with an accelerometer that was attached to the skin of the mentum of 10 asymptomatic subjects, and acceleration was recorded during chewing on two-colour chewing gum, which was used to assessed masticatory efficiency. Chewing was performed under two conditions: posterior chewing (chewing on molars and premolars only) and anterior chewing (chewing on canine and first premolar teeth only). Jerk-cost and masticatory efficiency (calculated as the ratio of unmixed azure colour to the total area of gum, the unmixed fraction) were compared between anterior and posterior chewing with the Wilcoxon signed rank test (two-tailed). Subjects chewed significantly less efficiently during anterior chewing than during posterior chewing (P = 0·0051). There was no significant difference in jerk-cost between anterior and posterior conditions in the opening phase (P = 0·25), or closing phase (P = 0·42). This is the first characterisation of the effect of food bolus location on jaw movement smoothness at the same time as recording masticatory efficiency. The data suggest that anterior chewing decreases masticatory efficiency, but does not influence jerk-cost. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Stabilization of emulsions by gum tragacanth (Astragalus spp.) correlates to the galacturonic acid content and methoxylation degree of the gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Meyer, Anne S.; Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz

    2013-01-01

    Gum tragacanth samples from six species of Iranian Astragalus bush plants (“goat's-horn”) were evaluated for their emulsion stabilizing effects and their detailed chemical composition in order to examine any possible correlation between the make-up and the emulsion stabilizing properties of gum......:50 (A. rahensis, A. microcephalus, A. compactus) or tipped toward higher bassorin than tragacanthin (A. gossypinus). The monosaccharide make-up of the six gums also varied, but all the gums contained relatively high levels of galacturonic acid (∼100–330 mg/g), arabinose (50–360 mg/g), xylose (∼150...

  17. R-Modafinil Attenuates Nicotine-Taking and Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Yang, Hong-Ju; Gao, Jun-Tao; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Slack, Rachel D; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    (±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:25613829

  18. Use of and reasons for using multiple other tobacco products in daily and nondaily smokers: Associations with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael S; Shadel, William G; Tucker, Joan S; Edelen, Maria O

    2016-11-01

    Use of other tobacco products (OTPs) among smokers is increasing. Little is known about types of OTP used and the reasons for use, and how OTP use and reasons for use correlate with smoking patterns and nicotine dependence in daily and nondaily smokers. This paper addresses these gaps in the literature. 656 daily smokers and 203 nondaily smokers provided information on their use of different OTPs (hookah, e-cigarettes, chew/snuff, snus, cigars, dissolvables), and reasons for using OTPs (e.g., "to cut down on smoking"), as well as their cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models assessed the association of smoking status with OTP use (ever and current) and reasons for use. Within each smoking group, separate logistic regression models examined the associations of OTP use and reasons for use with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Compared to daily smokers, nondaily smokers were more likely to use hookah and cigars, less likely to use dissolvables, and less likely to endorse using OTPs to reduce their smoking. Among non-daily smokers, nicotine dependence was associated with a higher likelihood of current OTP use (OR=1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.07]; p<0.05), whereas cigarette consumption was not. Results suggest OTP use in nondaily smokers does not correlate with less frequent smoking, but may correlate with higher nicotine dependence. Use of combustible OTPs among nondaily smokers may offset any potential benefits achieved through less frequent cigarette consumption. Providers should explicitly address OTP use when discussing cigarette cessation and reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Betel quid chewing in rural Bangladesh: prevalence, predictors and relationship to blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Julia E; Marcotte, Erin L; Argos, Maria; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Sarwar, Golam; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2012-04-01

    Betel quid is chewed by 600 million people worldwide and it has been linked to obesity and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of our study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of betel quid chewing in a rural area of Bangladesh, and determine its effects on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. In this population-based prospective study, we analysed data on 19 934 Bangladeshi adults. Linear and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the socio-demographic predictors of betel quid chewing and the effect of betel quid on change in BMI and on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, arterial pressure, overweight or obesity, and hypertension. At baseline, betel quid was chewed by 33.2% of the cohort (35.5% of men, 31.6% of women). In a subsample in which we collected methods of use, 17.5% chewed it without tobacco and 82.5% chewed it with tobacco. In multivariate analysis, betel quid chewing was associated with female sex, older age, tobacco smoking and lower socio-economic status, as measured by fewer years of formal education and not owning land. Betel quid was chewed more times per day among women and older persons. At follow-up, persons who chewed betel quid without tobacco had higher systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and arterial pressure in comparison with never users. After controlling for other explanatory variables, chewing betel quid without tobacco was associated with general hypertension [odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.10] and systolic hypertension (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.01-2.37). We did not observe associations of betel quid chewing with BMI or overweight. Betel quid chewing is likely contributing to high blood pressure in Bangladesh, particularly among women.

  20. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  1. Physico-chemical study on guar gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Nahla Mubarak

    2000-05-01

    Guar plant is an annual summer plant and it can resist diseases, pests and drought. Guar gum is used in a lot of industries. The present study deals with some physical properties of two commercial grade samples of guar gum cyamopsis tetragonoloba which where produced in 1996 and 1997 seasons (S 1 and S 2 respectively). Our analytical data are compared with those of previous workers in this area and international quality. Guar gum (S 2 ) is separated into water-insoluble components. Three fractions were obtained from the water-soluble components by fractional participation using acetone. Guar gum powder is yellowish white; the water-insoluble component is brownish white. Comparison study between gum samples (S 1 and S 2 ) and water-insoluble fraction (1) and water-soluble fractions are close to each other in their physico-properties. chemical All samples and fractions contain galactomannan polysaccharide as explained by infra-red spectra.Moisture contents for the gum samples were 5.2% and 7.8% and that for the water-insoluble fraction 4.7% while that for fraction samples were 5.2%-7.5% ash contents for the gum samples was 0.81% and 1.14% and for the water-insoluble component 0.88% while the contents in the fractions between 0.5%-0.66%. Nitrogen content determination showed that the gum samples had value of 0.678% and 0.732% and water -insoluble fraction had a value of 0.118%. The values decreased in the water-soluble fractions giving 0.049%, 0.053 and 0.056%. Water-soluble component and its fractions record the following results: pH measurements showed that the water-soluble component had pH 6.70 and 6.84 while its fractions had pH 5.90 and 7.00. Viscosity measurements showed that water-soluble fractions had intrinsic viscosity of 6.4 and 6.8 dL. g -1 . The fractions derived from water-soluble fraction had intrinsic viscosity of 6.6, 7 and 7.5 dl. g -1 . Using Mark-Howink equation, calculated average molecular weights for the water-soluble components were 7.01x10 5

  2. Characterization of Grewia Gum, a Potential Pharmaceutical Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah.I.Nep

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Grewia gum was extracted from the inner stem bark of Grewia mollis and characterized by several techniques such as gas chromatography (GC, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis of the extracted sample. Spectroscopic techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and 1H and 13C NMR techniques were also used to characterize the gum. The results showed that grewia gum is a typically amorphous polysaccharide gum containing glucose, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose and xylose as neutral sugars. It has an average molecular weight of 5925 kDa expressed as the pullulan equivalent. The gum slowly hydrated in water, dispersing and swelling to form a highly viscous dispersion exhibiting pseudoplastic flow behaviour. The polysaccharide gum is thermally stable and may have application as stabilizer or suspending agent in foods, cosmetics and in pharmaceuticals. It may have application as a binder or sustained-release polymer matrix in tablets or granulations.

  3. Evaluation of carboxymethyl moringa gum as nanometric carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpy; Abhishek; Ahuja, Munish

    2017-10-15

    In the present study, carboxymethylation of Moringa oleifera gum was carried out by reacting with monochloroacetic acid. Modified gum was characterised employing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Rheology study. The carboxymethyl modification of moringa gum was found to increase its degree of crystallinity, reduce viscosity and swelling, increase the surface roughness and render its more anionic. The interaction between carboxymethyl moringa gum and chitosan was optimised by 2-factor, 3-level central composite experimental design to prepare polyelectrolyte nanoparticle using ofloxacin, as a model drug. The optimal calculated parameters were found to be carboxymethyl moringa gum- 0.016% (w/v), chitosan- 0.012% (w/v) which provided polyelectrolyte nanoparticle of average particle size 231nm and zeta potential 28mV. Carboxymethyl moringa gum-chitosan polyelectrolyte nanoparticles show sustained in vitro release of ofloxacin upto 6h which followed first order kinetics with mechanism of release being erosion of polymer matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Competition in the gum arabic market: a game theoretic modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Gum arabic is mainly produced from two Acacias that are found in the gum belt of Sub-Saharan Africa. These are Acacia senegal that produces high quality gum and Acacia seyal that produces low quality gum. In recent years the gum market structure has changed and Sudan lost its near monopoly position

  5. Grewia Gum 1: Some Mechanical and Swelling Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: Compacts (500 mg) of both freeze-dried and air-dried grewia gum were separately ... grewia gum films were compared with films of pullulan and guar gum which were similarly prepared. .... Freeze-drying was carried out using an.

  6. gum production by Xanthomonas campestris pv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2012-09-11

    Sep 11, 2012 ... 8004) for xanthan gum production in this study. ... strain for xanthan gum production using cassava starch in industrial applications. ... the cassava price is cost-effective relative to other ... For amylase activity determination, a crude enzyme sample (1 ml) .... time point to stop fermentation from an economic.

  7. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. Neem gum as a binder in a formulated paracetamol tablet with reference to Acacia gum BP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing strength-friability/disintegration time ratio were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution times. Tablet formulations containing NMG exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower mechanical strength; however, the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate was lower when compared to those containing ACA. Inclusion of NMG improved the balance between binding and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets produced than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower disintegration and dissolution times than those containing ACA.

  9. Constituents of areca chewing related to esophageal cancer risk in Taiwanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M-T; Wu, D-C; Hsu, H-K; Kao, E-L; Lee, J-M

    2004-01-01

    Two most common types of areca chewing are noted in Taiwan: raw betel fruit with Piper betle inflorescence or folded in betel leaf. Piper betle inflorescence contains carcinogens, whereas betel leaf includes anticarcinogenic agents. One hundred and twenty-six esophageal squamous-cell-carcinoma patients and 279 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. Areca chewers were 4.4 times (95% CI, 2.2-8.8) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than non-chewers. Sixty-five of the patients were areca chewers, of which, 61 (93.9%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, none chewed it with betel leaf and four (6.1%) chewed both. Of the 24 controls who were chewers, 10 (41.7%), three (12.5%) and 11 (45.8%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, betel leaf, and both, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects who chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence were 24.4 times (95% CI 3.9-154.4) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than those who chewed areca with betel leaf or with both leaf and inflorescence. Our epidemiologic findings suggest parts of the same Piper plant contains carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic substances.

  10. Mango kernel starch-gum composite films: Physical, mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Lutfi, Zubala; Hasnain, Abid

    2017-05-01

    Composite films were developed by the casting method using mango kernel starch (MKS) and guar and xanthan gums. The concentration of both gums ranged from 0% to 30% (w/w of starch; db). Mechanical properties, oxygen permeability (OP), water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility in water and color parameters of composite films were evaluated. The crystallinity and homogeneity between the starch and gums were also evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous matrix, with no signs of phase separation between the components. XRD analysis demonstrated diminished crystalline peak. Regardless of gum type the tensile strength (TS) of composite films increased with increasing gum concentration while reverse trend was noted for elongation at break (EAB) which found to be decreased with increasing gum concentration. The addition of both guar and xanthan gums increased solubility and WVP of the composite films. However, the OP was found to be lower than that of the control with both gums. Furthermore, addition of both gums led to changes in transparency and opacity of MKS films. Films containing 10% (w/w) xanthan gum showed lower values for solubility, WVP and OP, while film containing 20% guar gum showed good mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. {sup 13} C-NMR of mesquite gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cristina T; Garcia, Rosangela B [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas

    1992-12-31

    Mesquite and guar gums are galactomannans extracted from the seeds of Proposis Juliflora and Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, respectively. An experimental sample of mesquite gum and a commercial sample of guar gum were partially depolymerized by ultrasonic radiation and the produce analysed by high resolution {sup 13} C-NMR spectroscopy. The different carbon lines were resolved and their assignments were done as those reported in the literature. The galactose to mannose ratios (G/M) were estimated from the relative peak areas of the C-1 lines as G/M=61 for mesquite and G/M=0.54 for guar gum. The next nearest-neighbour probabilities (diad frequencies) of the D-galactosyl substitution to the D-mannose backbone were evaluated by integrating C-4 mannose splitted peaks. (author) 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Predictors of chewing ability among community-residing older adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyongok; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son

    2017-01-01

    Decreased chewing ability in older adults can lead to poor nutritional and physical conditions, and eventually death. The present study examined the relationships between chewing ability and related characteristics (e.g. health promotion habits, health status and functional status), and identified predictors of chewing ability in community-residing older adults. Among the total of 11 542 participants in the 2011 National Survey on Older Adults in Korea, data from 10 543 participants were used for analysis. Chewing ability was evaluated using a self-report of chewing ability. Exercise ability was assessed by objective exercise ability and perceived exercise ability in both the upper and lower extremities. Depression and cognitive functions were measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and the Mini-Mental State Examination, respectively. A total of 56.9% of participants had poor chewing abilities. After adjusting for age and sex, logistic regression analysis showed that depression (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.60-1.92), cognitive impairment (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17-1.40), objective exercise ability (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.41), regular exercise habits (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.13-1.34), medical check-up history (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.32), number of chronic diseases (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15) and perceived exercise ability in the lower extremities (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.10) were significant predictors of chewing ability. Chewing ability in older adults should be improved in consideration of mental and general health condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 78-84. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Formulation and characterization of caffeine biodegradable chewing gum delivery system for alertness using plasticized poly (D,L-lactic acid) as gum base, Abstract PDF. Farhad Firoze Mehta, R Rajagopalan, Piyush Trivedi. Vol 10, No 3 (2011), Formulation and Characterization of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked Chitosan ...

  14. Impact of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lei; Zhao Qinglin; Yao Chukang; Zhou Mingkai

    2012-01-01

    The retarding effect of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration, as a partial system of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydration, was investigated with several methods. The tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration behavior in the presence or absence of welan gum was researched by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential analysis. Meanwhile, we studied the surface electrochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of welan gum by utilizing a zeta potential analyzer and UV–VIS absorption spectrophotometer. By adding welan gum, the morphology change of ettringite and retardation of hydration stages in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system was observed. Moreover, we detected the adsorption behavior and zeta potential inversion of tricalcium aluminate and ettringite, as well as a rapid decrease in the zeta potential of tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system. The reduction on nucleation rate of ettringite and hydration activity of C 3 A was also demonstrated. Thus, through the adsorption effect, welan gum induces a retarding behavior in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration. Highlights: ► Adsorption characteristics of welan gum on C 3 A and ettringite have been studied. ► C 3 A–gypsum hydration behavior and the hydration products are examined in L/S = 3. ► Welan gum retards the process of C 3 A–gypsum hydration. ► The addition of welan gum changes the nucleation growth of ettringite.

  15. Chewing of betel quid: why do health careproviders in Thimphu, Bhutan, do it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Nidup; Pacheun, Oranut; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon

    2012-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of betel quid chewing and related factors including general characteristics, behavioral pattern, perception and social influences among health care providers in Thimphu, Bhutan. A self-administered questionnaire was handed to 478 health care providers working in different units of health care centers in Thimphu during June-July 2010. A total of 391 (81.8%) questionnaires were returned. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. The prevalence of current betel quid chewers among this group was 26.6%. Males chewed betel quid more than females (29.5%, 23.9% respectively). Forty-two percent of current chewers had no specific reasons for chewing betel quid, although 18.2% declared that they were addicted. Both friends and family members were key persons involved in influencing betel quid chewing. Marital status was significantly associated with betel quid chewing, married health care providers being 2 times more likely to chew betel quid (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.02-4.28) than those of single marital status. Similarly, those coming from West Bhutan, were 2 times more likely to be currently using betel quid (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.32-5.55) than other regions. Health care providers from families with more than half of their members chewing betel quid were 14 times more likely to be currently chewing it (OR = 14.52, 95% CI = 6.02-35.04) than families having none of their members chewing it. Health care smokers were more likely to chew betel quid than non-smoking ones (p-value = 0.012). Also occasional drinkers were 3 times more likely to be currently using betel quid (OR = 3.52, 95% CI = 1.78-6.96). Those who perceived a high barrier to quit chewing were about 2.6 times more likely to be current chewers of betel quid, than those who perceived less of a barrier to quit (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.21-5.67). The present study revealed betel quid chewing prevalence rate of 26.6%. Of the various factors

  16. The Influence of Puff Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Rate of Nicotine Metabolism on Daily Nicotine Exposure in African American Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Dempsey, Delia A; St Helen, Gideon; Delucchi, Kevin; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-06-01

    African American (AA) smokers experience greater tobacco-related disease burden than Whites, despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day (CPD). Understanding factors that influence daily nicotine intake in AA smokers is an important step toward decreasing tobacco-related health disparities. One factor of interest is smoking topography, or the study of puffing behavior. (i) to create a model using puff characteristics, nicotine dependence, and nicotine metabolism to predict daily nicotine exposure, and (ii) to compare puff characteristics and nicotine intake from two cigarettes smoked at different times to ensure the reliability of the puff characteristics included in our model. Sixty AA smokers smoked their preferred brand of cigarette at two time points through a topography device. Plasma nicotine, expired CO, and changes in subjective measures were measured before and after each cigarette. Total nicotine equivalents (TNE) was measured from 24-hour urine collected during ad libitum smoking. In a model predicting daily nicotine exposure, total puff volume, CPD, sex, and menthol status were significant predictors (R(2) = 0.44, P smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 936-43. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Is Khat (Catha edulis) chewing a risk factor for periodontal diseases? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Al-Maweri, Sadeq-Ali; Al-Shamiri, Hashem-Motahir; Ijaz, Anum; Gamal, Shukri; Dhaifullah, Esam

    2017-10-01

    Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is a highly prevalent habit in the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa, and has recently spread to Western countries. The association between khat chewing and oral mucosal lesions is well documented in the literature. However, there is no concrete evidence on the association between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the influence of khat chewing on periodontal health. A literature search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Sciences databases was carried out to identify relevant articles published from 1990 to May 2017. The inclusion criteria were all clinical studies that assessed the relationship between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The search yielded 122 articles, of which 10 were included in this systematic review. Most of the studies exhibited a positive correlation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Altogether, the analysis of the current evidence reveals that khat chewing is destructive to the periodontium and enhances the risk of periodontal disease progression. However, due to variability of studies, more longitudinal case-controlled studies are highly warranted to establish a causal relation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Key words: Khat chewing, periodontal health, periodontal disease, risk factor.

  18. Effect of maternal use of chewing gums containing xylitol on transmission of mutans streptococci in children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsi-Kuei; Fang, Chia-En; Huang, Mao-Suan; Cheng, Hsin-Chung; Huang, Tsai-Wei; Chang, Hui-Ting; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are the major causative bacteria involved in human dental decay. Habitual consumption of xylitol has been proved to reduce MS levels in saliva and plaque. To evaluate the effect of the maternal use of xylitol gum on MS reduction in infants. A structured literature review and meta-analysis. A random effects model was used to assess the relative risks of the incidence of MS in the saliva or plaque of children who were 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months old. We reviewed 11 RCTs derived from 5 research teams that included 601 mothers. Our results indicated that the incidence of MS in the saliva or plaque of the infants was significantly reduced in the xylitol group (risk ratio: 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.73, at 12-18 months) and (risk ratio: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.40-0.79, at 36 months) compared with the control groups. The long-term effect of maternal xylitol gum exposure on their children's dental caries was controversial. Habitual xylitol consumption by mothers with high MS levels was associated with a significant reduction in the mother-child transmission of salivary MS. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Madsen, Henrik; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    and the method can be used to measure breath from the nose. A mathematical model of the data was developed to give a quantitative method for description and characterization of the release of flavor compounds. The release profiles consisted of two sequences, one for a chewing period, and one for a phasing out...... process. The proposed method for modeling provided a reasonable description of the release process. In addition to flavor compounds, this new interface and mathematical application could provide information on chemicals in the human breath which could be interesting, for example, within medical diagnosis....... with that of the flavor detection threshold. An application study on the release of menthone and menthol from chewing gum by a group of six test persons was performed. Flavored chewing gum was used as a model matrix because of the long chewing periods and the simplicity of the system. It is concluded that the interface...

  20. 75 FR 44251 - Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0441; FRL-8829-8 Wood Oils and Gums, and... integrated use in tank mixes with chemical fungicides. The Wood Oils and Gums Registration Review Case no longer contains any other wood oils or gums with active ingredients with registered products except for...

  1. Health risk perception and betel chewing behavior--the evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we provided an empirical examination of the interaction between people's health risk perception and betel chewing. We hypothesized that a better knowledge of possible health risks would reduce both the number of individuals who currently chew betel and the likelihood of those who do not yet chew betel to begin the habit. We constructed a simultaneous equation model with Bayesian two-stage approach to control the endogeneity between betel chewing and risk perception. Using a national survey of 26,684 observations in Taiwan, our study results indicated that better health knowledge reduced the possibility that people would become betel chewers. We also found that, in general, betel chewers have a poorer health risk perception than other population. Overall, the empirical evidence suggested that health authorities could reduce the odds of people becoming betel chewers by improving their knowledge of betel-chewing's harmful effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. T-type calcium channel antagonism decreases motivation for nicotine and blocks nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslaner, Jason M; Vardigan, Joshua D; Drott, Jason M; Uebele, Victor N; Renger, John J; Lee, Ariel; Li, Zhaoxia; Lê, A D; Hutson, Pete H

    2010-10-15

    Recent evidence suggests an involvement of T-type calcium channels in the effects of drugs of abuse. We examined the influence of the novel, potent, and selective T-type calcium channel antagonist [2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-{5-[2,2,2-trifluoroethyl]oxo}pyridine-2-yl)ethyl]acetamide] (TTA-A2) (.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) on motivation for nicotine, as measured by nicotine self-administration on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, and nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine delivery (n = 11 or 12 Long Evans rats/group). Furthermore, we examined the specificity of the TTA-A2 effects by characterizing its influence on PR responding for food (in the absence or presence of nicotine-potentiated responding), food- versus nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food administration (n = 11 or 12 Wistar Hannover rats/group), and its ability to induce a conditioned place aversion. TTA-A2 dose-dependently decreased self-administration of nicotine on a PR schedule and the ability of both nicotine and a cue paired with nicotine to reinstate responding. The effects were specific for nicotine's incentive motivational properties, as TTA-A2 did not influence responding for food on a PR schedule but did attenuate the ability of nicotine to potentiate responding for food. Likewise, TTA-A2 did not alter food-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food but did decrease nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement. Finally, TTA-A2 did not produce an aversive state, as indicated by a lack of ability to induce conditioned place aversion. These data suggest that T-type calcium channel antagonists have potential for alleviating nicotine addiction by selectively decreasing the incentive motivational properties of nicotine. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aplikasi Campuran Alginat Dari Sargassum Crassifolium Dan Gum Sebagai Pengental Textile Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subaryono Subaryono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian aplikasi campuran alginat dari Sargassum crassifolium dan gum untuk meningkatkan viskositas alginat sebagai pengental pada textile printing telah dilakukan. Viskositas campuran alginat dengan guar gum, gum arab, dan locust bean gum diamati pada penyimpanan selama 8 jam. Produk terbaik diujikan sebagai pengental pada textile printing. Campuran alginat dengan guar gum pada perbandingan 90:10 dan 80:20 meningkatkan viskositas dan stabilitas alginat selama penyimpanan. Campuran alginat dengan gum arab dan locust bean gum akan menurunkan viskositas alginat sehingga tidak sesuai untuk aplikasi textile printing. Aplikasi campuran alginat dengan guar gum 90:10 dan 80:20 sebagai pengental pada tekstil printing menghasilkan produk akhir yang setara dengan pengental komersial manutex.

  4. Betel nut chewing associated with increased risk of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang

    2017-11-01

    Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  6. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  7. Gum Arabic authentication and mixture quantification by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yongjiang; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method is developed for Gum Arabic authentication based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometric methods. On a large industrial collection of authentic gum Arabics, the two major Acacia gum species, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal could be assigned perfectly...... by the NIR spectroscopic method. In addition, a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is calibrated to predict the blending percentage of the two pure gum types, producing an accuracy, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.8%. Sampling of the Gum Arabic ‘tears’ is discussed......, and it was determined that subsamples from three ‘tears’ is required for a representative result. It is concluded that NIR spectroscopy is a very powerful and reliable method for authenticity testing of Gum Arabic species....

  8. Analytical studies on the gum exudate from Anogeissus leiocarpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Samia Eltayeb

    1999-04-01

    Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected as natural exudate nodules, from three different location. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied. results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied except refractive index value which was found to be constant in all samples. The effect of location on the properties of gum samples was also studied and the analysis of variance showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) in all properties studied except in ash content. Inter nodule variations of gum from two different location were studied individually. Results showed significant differences for each parameter studied except for the refractive index value. The properties studied of all gum samples were as follows: 9.2% moisture, 3.4% ash, 0.72% nitrogen, 4.74% protein, -35.5 specific rotation, 1.68 relative viscosity, 4.2 pH, 1.334 refractive index, 14.3 uronic acid, 0.44% reducing sugar, 1336.0 equivalent weight and 0.68% tannin content. UV absorption spectra of gum samples and gum nodules were determined. Cationic composition of gum samples was also determined and the results showed that (Mg) has highest value in all samples studied followed by Fe, Na, K, Ca, Zn and trace amount of Mn, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb. The water holding capacity was found to be 65.5% and emulsifying stability was found to be 1.008. The component sugars of gum were examined by different methods followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of hydrolysate crude gum sample by HPLC show L-rhamnose (6.82), L-arabinose (48.08), D-galactose (11.26) and two unknown oligosaccharides having values (0.22 and 32.61). Some physicochemical properties were studied. Results showed significant differences in nitrogen and protein contents, specific rotation, relative viscosity, equivalent weight and pH of fractions, where as insignificant differences were observed in uronic acid content and refractive index values

  9. Is the side with the best masticatory performance selected for chewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Lastra, Bernat; Flores-Orozco, Elan Ignacio; Salsench, Juan; Peraire, Maria; Martinez-Gomis, Jordi

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the degree of relationship between masticatory laterality and lateral asymmetry of masticatory performance using silicon pieces enclosed in a latex bag. Forty-two young adults with natural dentition participated in this cross-sectional, observational study. They performed four different masticatory assays, each consisting of five trials of chewing three pieces of silicon for 20 cycles. In one assay, they were asked to masticate unbagged silicon free-style, whilst in the three other assays they were asked to masticate bagged silicon free-style, unilaterally on the right-hand side and unilaterally on the left-hand side. The preferred chewing side was determined by calculating the asymmetry index for both the free-style assays. Masticatory performance was determined by sieving the silicon particles and the cycle duration was also recorded. Data were analysed using independent samples or paired t-test and linear regression. Masticatory function using the bagged silicon was similar to that using the unbagged silicon. A significant and positive relationship was observed between the preferred chewing side expressed as the asymmetry index and the side with better masticatory performance. Alternate unilateral chewers demonstrated better masticatory performance than unilateral chewers. However, when free-style and unilateral chewing were compared for each subject, unilateral chewing was found to be as efficient as - or even more efficient than - free-style chewing. There is a positive association between the preferred chewing side and the more efficient side. Alternate unilateral mastication per se does not promote better masticatory performance than consistently unilateral mastication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Overmeire, Ilse P. I.; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F. A.; Van Laethem, Danny M. G.; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual F...

  11. Khat chewing and acculturation in East-African migrants living in Frankfurt am Main/Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, Stephan; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2015-04-22

    Khat (Catha edulis, Forsk) is a drug widely used in countries around the Red Sea (East-Africa and Arabian Peninsula). In Germany khat chewing is illegal but nevertheless an often observed habit in immigrants from this region. This study investigates the interrelation between immigrants acculturation processes and traditional khat chewing habits. Sixty-one khat chewers (14 female) from East-African countries were interviewed about their khat chewing habits and acculturation strategy using standardized questionnaires. Results indicate that immigrants׳ khat chewing behaviors are similar to what is common in countries with traditional khat use. But khat chewing tended to be less among immigrants who were relatively more oriented towards their cultures of origin. Chewing khat was subjectively considered to help coping with problems, to forget bad memories and to concentrate better. It was concluded that khat chewing serves a functional use of coping with stressful events in the present or in the past within this sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Record the sample as “negative” for xanthan gum if no gel forms or if a soft or brittle gel forms both... more than 1.5 percent of pyruvic acid and “negative” for xanthan gum if the sample contains less than 1... preclude such use. (f) To assure safe use of the additive: (1) The label of its container shall bear, in...

  13. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Hammerl

    Full Text Available Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.

  14. Granule properties of paracetamol made with Bombax ceiba gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bombax ceiba gum was extracted from the calyx of the Bombax flower using both hot and cold water extraction method. The gum was used as binder to prepare paracetamol granules in concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 %. Acacia gum was used to prepare the standard at the same concentrations. The granule properties of ...

  15. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Gubner, Noah R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-09-01

    Rate of nicotine metabolism has been identified as an important factor influencing nicotine intake and can be estimated using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a validated biomarker of CYP2A6 enzyme activity. Individuals who metabolize nicotine faster (higher NMR) may alter their smoking behavior to titrate their nicotine intake in order to maintain similar levels of nicotine in the body compared to slower nicotine metabolizers. There are known racial differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism with African Americans on average having a slower rate of nicotine metabolism compared to Whites. The goal of this study was to determine if there are racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and measures of nicotine intake assessed using multiple biomarkers of nicotine and tobacco smoke exposure. Using secondary analyses of the screening data collected in a recently completed clinical trial, treatment-seeking African American and White daily smokers (10 or more cigarettes per day) were grouped into NMR quartiles so that the races could be compared at the same NMR, even though the distribution of NMR within race differed. The results indicated that rate of nicotine metabolism was a more important factor influencing nicotine intake in White smokers. Specifically, Whites were more likely to titrate their nicotine intake based on the rate at which they metabolize nicotine. However, this relationship was not found in African Americans. Overall there was a greater step-down, linear type relationship between NMR groups and cotinine or cotinine/cigarette in African Americans, which is consistent with the idea that differences in blood cotinine levels between the African American NMR groups were primarily due to differences in CYP2A6 enzyme activity without titration of nicotine intake among faster nicotine metabolizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of chewing behaviour on memory and spatial learning in albino BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Siancas, E E

    2017-05-01

    Since the relationship between chewing and cognitive functions has not been fully elucidated, this study aimed to determine the impact of chewing behaviour on spatial learning and memory in albino male BALB/c mice. Twenty mice aged 8 weeks were divided into 2 equal groups. The regular chewing group was fed with uncrushed grains (the same diet given to all 20 mice since they were weaned) and the limited chewing group was fed with crushed grains. At 16 weeks of age, the mice were evaluated over 5 days, including a 4-day acquisition phase prior to a probe test of spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze on the fifth day. A comparison of the regular chewing group and the limited chewing group found no significant differences in either the acquisition phase or the probe test. However, there were significant differences in the acquisition phase for just the regular chewing group when comparing results from the first day to those from the other 3 days. The results suggest that regular chewing affects spatial learning and memory since mice in the regular chewing group decreased their times to find the hidden platform during the acquisition phase. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum.

  18. Differences in chewing behaviors between healthy fully dentate young and older adults assessed by electromyographic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-01-01

    To characterize changes in chewing behaviors associated with healthy aging, 10 young and 10 older fully dentate healthy participants were enrolled in this study. They chewed carrot samples that differed in hardness until their normal swallowing threshold. Their chewing behaviors were assessed using an electromyographic recording device. Adjusting for gender and body mass index, older adults had a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.020), a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.002), a greater maximal electromyographic voltage (p = 0.003) and a greater muscle activity (p = 0.002) before they could comfortably swallow the food bolus. A statistically significant main effect of food hardness on the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration, chewing rate and muscle activity was also observed (p < 0.001 for all). These results suggest that reduced mastication efficiency is associated with healthy aging in fully dentate adults. This ingestive behavior may contribute to aging-related reduction in appetite in older adults.

  19. Gum Graft Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tomography (CBCT) American Academy of Periodontology Installs New President, Officers in Boston American Academy of Periodontology Announces ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ...

  20. Gum Disease Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tomography (CBCT) American Academy of Periodontology Installs New President, Officers in Boston American Academy of Periodontology Announces ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ...

  1. Chronic Nicotine Treatment During Adolescence Attenuates the Effects of Acute Nicotine in Adult Contextual Fear Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Erica D; Gould, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent onset of nicotine abuse is correlated with worse chances at successful abstinence in adulthood. One reason for this may be due to enduring learning deficits resulting from nicotine use during adolescence. Previous work has indicated that chronic nicotine administration beginning in late adolescence (PND38) caused learning deficits in contextual fear when tested in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic nicotine treatment during adolescence would alter sensitivity to nicotine's cognitive enhancing properties in adulthood. C57BL/6J mice received saline or chronic nicotine (12.6mg/kg/day) during adolescence (postnatal day 38) or adulthood (postnatal day 54) for a period of 12 days. Following a 30-day protracted abstinence, mice received either an acute injection of saline or nicotine (0.045, 0.18, and 0.36mg/kg) prior to training and testing a mouse model of contextual fear. It was found that chronic nicotine administration in adult mice did not alter sensitivity to acute nicotine following a protracted abstinence. In adolescent mice, chronic nicotine administration disrupted adult learning and decreased sensitivity to acute nicotine in adulthood as only the highest dose tested (0.36mg/kg) was able to enhance contextual fear learning. These results suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure impairs learning in adulthood, which could increase the risk for continued nicotine use in adulthood by requiring administration of higher doses of nicotine to reverse learning impairments caused by adolescent nicotine exposure. Results from this study add to the growing body of literature suggesting chronic nicotine exposure during adolescence leads to impaired learning in adulthood and demonstrates that nicotine exposure during adolescence attenuates the cognitive enhancing effects of acute nicotine in adulthood, which suggests altered cholinergic function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  2. Impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on chewing efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    BESSADET, Marion; NICOLAS, Emmanuel; SOCHAT, Marine; HENNEQUIN, Martine; VEYRUNE, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Removable partial denture prostheses are still being used for anatomic, medical and economic reasons. However, the impact on chewing parameters is poorly described. Objectives The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on masticatory parameters. Material and Methods Nineteen removable partial denture prosthesis (RPDP) wearers participated in the study. Among them, 10 subjects were Kennedy Class III partially edentulous and 9 with posterior edentulism (Class I). All presented a complete and full dentate opposing arch. The subjects chewed samples of carrots and peanuts with and without their prosthesis. The granulometry of the expectorated boluses from carrot and peanuts was characterized by median particle size (D50), determined at the natural point of swallowing. Number of chewing cycles (CC), chewing time (CT) and chewing frequency (CF=CC/CT) were video recorded. Results With RPDP, the mean D50 values for carrot and peanuts were lower [Repeated Model Procedures (RMP), F=15, p<0.001] regardless of the type of Kennedy Class. For each food, mean CC, CT and CF values recorded decreased (RMP, F=18, F=9, and F=20 respectively, p<0.01). With or without RPD, the boluses' granulometry values were above the masticatory normative index (MNI) determined as 4,000 µm. Conclusion RPDP rehabilitation improves the ability to reduce the bolus particle size, but does not reestablish fully the masticatory function. Clinical relevance This study encourages the clinical improvement of oral rehabilitation procedure. PMID:24212983

  3. Mandibular corpus bone strains during mastication in goats (Capra hircus): a comparison of ingestive and rumination chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan H; Stover, Kristin K; Davis, Jillian S; Montuelle, Stephane J

    2011-10-01

    To compare the mechanical loading environment of the jaw in goats during ingestive and rumination chewing. Rosette strain gauges were attached to the external surface of the mandibular corpus in five goats to record bone strains during the mastication of hay and rumination. Strain magnitudes and maximum physiological strain rates during the mastication of hay are significantly higher than during rumination chewing on the working and balancing sides. Principal strain ratios and orientations are similar between the two chewing behaviours. Loading and chewing cycle duration are all longer during rumination chewing, whereas chew duty factor and variances in load and chewing cycle durations are higher during ingestive chewing. For most of the variables, differences in strain magnitudes or durations are similar at all three gauge sites, suggesting that rumination and ingestive chewing do not differentially influence bone at the three gauge sites. Despite lower strain magnitudes, the repetitive nature of rumination chewing makes it an important component of the mechanical loading environment of the selenodont artiodactyl jaw. However, similarities in principal strain orientations and ratios indicate that rumination chewing need not be considered as a unique loading behaviour influencing the biomechanics of the selenodont artiodactyl jaw. Differences in loading and chewing cycle durations during rumination and ingestion demonstrate flexibility in adult chewing frequencies. Finally, although the low within-sequence variability in chewing cycle durations supports the hypothesis that mammalian mastication is energetically efficient, chewing during rumination may not be more efficient than during ingestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS INFLUENCING BETEL NUT CHEWING AMONG ADULTS IN WEST INSEIN TOWNSHIP, YANGON, MYANMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Su Kyaw; Narksawat, Kulaya; Sillabutra, Jutatip

    2016-09-01

    Betel nut chewing can cause precancerous oral lesions and is common in Myanmar. We conducted a cross sectional study aimed to estimate prevalence and factors influencing betel nut chewing among 420 subjects aged ≥18 years in West Insein Township, Yangon, Myanmar in order to inform preventive health programs. The mean age of the study subjects was 45(±15) years. The overall prevalence of current betel nut chewing among study subjects was 55.2%. The mean age starting betel nut chewing was 29(±13) years, and the mean duration of chewing was 15(±13) years. The reasons given by study subjects for chewing betel nut included the addictive effect to betel nut, to release tension, to get rid of boredom and to stop smoking. Sixty-two point three percent of current betel nut chewers also chewed tobacco and 24.2% also smoked cigarettes. Factors significantly associated with betel nut chewing were male gender, current alcohol consumer, having no education or finishing primary or secondary school, having a low score regarding their attitude about the health effects of betel nut chewing, and having high score on interpersonal factors by family and peer pressure. Our results show a need to better educate the public about the health effects of betel nut chewing among the study population.

  5. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan C; Jenssen, Brian P

    2015-11-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are rapidly growing in popularity among youth. ENDS are handheld devices that produce an aerosolized mixture from a solution typically containing concentrated nicotine, flavoring chemicals, and propylene glycol to be inhaled by the user. ENDS are marketed under a variety of names, most commonly electronic cigarettes and e-cigarettes. In 2014, more youth reported using ENDS than any other tobacco product. ENDS pose health risks to both users and nonusers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in ENDS solutions, is both highly addictive and toxic. In addition to nicotine, other toxicants, carcinogens, and metal particles have been detected in solutions and aerosols of ENDS. Nonusers are involuntarily exposed to the emissions of these devices with secondhand and thirdhand aerosol. The concentrated and often flavored nicotine in ENDS solutions poses a poisoning risk for young children. Reports of acute nicotine toxicity from US poison control centers have been increasing, with at least 1 child death reported from unintentional exposure to a nicotine-containing ENDS solution. With flavors, design, and marketing that appeal to youth, ENDS threaten to renormalize and glamorize nicotine and tobacco product use. There is a critical need for ENDS regulation, legislative action, and counter promotion to protect youth. ENDS have the potential to addict a new generation of youth to nicotine and reverse more than 50 years of progress in tobacco control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Neem Gum as a Binder in a Formulated Paracetamol Tablet with Reference to Acacia Gum BP

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing ...

  7. Occurrence of gum spots in black cherry after partial harvest cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles O. Rexrode; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1990-01-01

    Bark beetles, primarily the bark beetle Phlosotribus liminori (Harris), are the major cause of gum spots in sawtimber-size black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Approximately 90 percent of all gum spots in the bole sections are caused by bark beetles. Gum spots were studied in 95 black cherry trees near Parsons, West Virginia. Over 50 percent of the bark beetle-caused gum...

  8. Chew-Low equations as Cremoma transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerikh, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    The Chew-Low equations for the p-wave pion-nucleon scattering with the crossing-symmetry matrix (3x3) are investigated in their well-known formulation as a system of nonlinear difference equations. These equations interpreted as geometrical transformations are shown to be a special case of the Cremona transformaions. Using the properties of the Cremona transformations we obtain the general 3-parametric functional equation on invariant algebraic and nonalgebraic curves in the space solutions of the Chew- Low equations. It is proved that there exists only one invariant algebraic curve, the parabola corresponding to the well-known solution. Analysis of the general functional equation on invariant nonalgebraic curves makes it possible to select in addition to this parabola 3 invariant forms defining implicitly 3 nonalgebraic curves and to concretize for them the general equation by means of fixing the parameters. From the transformational properties of the invariant forms with respect to the Cremona transformations, there follows an important result that the ration of these forms in proper powers is the general integral of the nonlinear system of the Chew-Low equations, which is an even antiperiodic function. The structure of the second general integral is given and the functional equations which determinne this integral are presented [ru

  9. Khat chewing and cirrhosis in Somaliland: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa D. Mahamoud

    2016-07-01

    Results: Eight Somali men aged 27–70 years living in Somaliland were identified with cirrhosis of otherwise unknown cause. All chewed khat habitually for many years (15–128 bundles per day times years of use. A liver biopsy of one man was consistent with khat hepatotoxicity. Four of the eight men died during the study period.Conclusion: Khat chewing may be associated with health consequences including severe hepatotoxicity with cirrhosis.

  10. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Parastoo; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 regions), the medial prefrontal cortex or the basolateral amygdala in the effect of acute or sub-chronic stress on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Our results indicated that subcutaneous administration of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) induced significant conditioned place preference. Exposure to acute or sub-chronic elevated platform stress potentiated the response of an ineffective dose of nicotine. Pre-conditioning intra-CA1 (0.5-4 µg/rat) or intra-medial prefrontal cortex (0.2-0.3 µg/rat) microinjection of mecamylamine (a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) reversed acute stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward as measured in the conditioned place preference paradigm. By contrast, pre-conditioning intra-basolateral amygdala microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) potentiated the effects of acute stress on nicotine reward. Our findings also showed that intra-CA1 or intra-medial prefrontal cortex, but not intra-basolateral amygdala, microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) prevented the effect of sub-chronic stress on nicotine reward. These findings suggest that exposure to elevated platform stress potentiates the rewarding effect of nicotine which may be associated with the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It seems that there is a different contribution of the basolateral amygdala, the medial prefrontal cortex or the CA1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference.

  11. Rapid screening of guar gum using portable Raman spectral identification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-01-25

    Guar gum is a well-known inactive ingredient (excipient) used in a variety of oral pharmaceutical dosage forms as a thickener and stabilizer of suspensions and as a binder of powders. It is also widely used as a food ingredient in which case alternatives with similar properties, including chemically similar gums, are readily available. Recent supply shortages and price fluctuations have caused guar gum to come under increasing scrutiny for possible adulteration by substitution of cheaper alternatives. One way that the U.S. FDA is attempting to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution is through field-deployable spectroscopic screening. Here we report a comprehensive approach to evaluate two field-deployable Raman methods--spectral correlation and principal component analysis--to differentiate guar gum from other gums. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods with current compendial identification tests. The ability of the spectroscopic methods to perform unambiguous identification of guar gum compared to other gums makes them an enhanced surveillance alternative to the current compendial identification tests, which are largely subjective in nature. Our findings indicate that Raman spectral identification methods perform better than compendial identification methods and are able to distinguish guar gum from other gums with 100% accuracy for samples tested by spectral correlation and principal component analysis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Elemental composition of betel nut and associated chewing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, C.; Akanle, O.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Betel nut chewing (Area catechu), Whether plain or wrapped inside a betel leaf 'quid' together with other substances including tobacco, has been reported as a cause of the high incidence of oral and oesophageal cancers in Asian communities worldwide. Chewing of such substances results in the formation of nitrosamines, some of which may be diabetogenic to man. The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is particularly prevalent amongst Asian immigrants living in the UK and as part of a larger study we have analysed a number of popular betel nut based chewing materials to determine their elemental composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for determination of elemental concentrations of short-lived radionuclides. Ag, Al. Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Dy, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ti, and V were detected, some of which are implicated in diabetes. Concentrations of these, expect for Ag, Dy and Ti, are reported and compared with values found in betel-nut and chewing materials from Taiwan. It is indicated that for certain elements the amount ingested by betel-nut chewers may be a significant fraction of their daily dietary intake. (author)

  13. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overmeire, Ilse P I; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F A; Van Laethem, Danny M G; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A J

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual FTND items. Urine samples and questionnaire data of 239 daily smokers were obtained. Nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine urinary levels were determined by UPLC MS/MS.Multiple linear regression models were developed to explore the relationship between nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine levels and separate FTND scores (for all six items). We found significant correlations between the different urinary biomarker concentrations, and the FTND score. The time before the first cigarette after waking (TTFC) was significantly associated with the nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine concentrations. No association was found between the ratio of hydroxycotinine to cotinine and either the FTND or the CPD. A model including four FTND questions, sex, age, and the cotinine concentration, accounted for 45% of the variance of CPD. There are significant relationships between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine and the FTND score. Especially the FTND question about TTFC is relevant for explaining the biomarker concentrations. CPD (below 15) was significantly explained by four FTND dependence items and urinary cotinine levels in a regression model. We investigated associations between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine in daily smokers and the FTND scores for nicotine dependence. We did not find association between the hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio and CPD. We developed a model that explains the cigarettes smoked daily (CPD) in a group of light

  14. Chewing ability in an urban and rural population over 40 years in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Witter, Dick J; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H J

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to assess chewing ability related to dental status. One thousand four hundred sixty-two Chinese subjects over 40 years, dentate in both jaws, were categorized in a hierarchical functional classification system with and without tooth replacements. Chewing ability was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression including five dental conditions ( "≥10 teeth in each jaw"; "complete anterior regions"; "sufficient premolar regions" (≥3 posterior occluding pairs (POPs)); "sufficient molar regions" (bilaterally ≥1 POP); and tooth replacement), adjusted for six background variables. Likelihood ratios for chewing problems were assessed at each level of the hierarchical classification system based on these dental conditions. Seventy-eight to 91 % of subjects reported no or minor chewing problems. The conditions "≥10 teeth in each jaw", and "complete anterior regions" were not associated, whereas "sufficient premolar regions" and "sufficient molar regions" were associated with chewing problems (Ors, 0.33–0.58). If classified hierarchically, the condition "≥10 teeth in each jaw" was relevant for chewing problems (likelihood ratios 3.3–3.7). "Sufficient premolar region" and "sufficient molar region" were relevant to reduce the likelihood ratios for having chewing problems (both approximately with a factor 2), both for soft and for hard foods. Subjects with artificial teeth added had similar chance for chewing problems compared to counterparts with natural teeth only. However, if comparing replaced teeth with natural teeth, subjects with tooth replacement showed higher chance for chewing problems. Chewing ability was strongly associated with dental conditions. The presence of at least 10 teeth in each jaw had highest impact on chewing ability.

  15. Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch is a main renewable bio-resource with low price and mass production in Guangxi, China. It was used as carbon source in growing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 (Xcc 8004) for xanthan gum production in this study. The xanthan gum yield of gelatinized cassava starch was higher than that of ...

  16. Khat chewing habit among school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of Khat leaves (Catha edulis in Jazan, southwest of KSA, is prevalent among all segments of the population. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of Khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students of Jazan region. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011 in Jazan region. A random sample of 3923 students was selected from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools representing the different educational sectors of the region. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence, associations and predictors of Khat chewing. RESULT: The overall Khat chewing prevalence among students was 20.5% (95% C.I.: 19.27-21.79. The prevalence was significantly higher among males, at 33.1% (95% CI: 31.16-35.08, than among females 4.3% (95% C.I.: 3.39-5.31 ( P <0.001. Univariate analysis revealed that gender, age, academic performance, friends' smoking and Khat chewing, and students' smoking status were associated with a significantly high risk of Khat chewing ( P <0.001 for all. The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the most important independent predictors of Khat chewing among the students in our sample were students' smoking status (OR = 13.02, P <0.001, friends' use of Khat (OR = 5.65, P <0.001, gender (OR = 4.62, P <0.001, and friend's use of tobacco (OR = 1.43, P <0.001. CONCLUSION: A significant percentage of students chew Khat. The abuse of Khat is significantly associated with gender, peer influence, and cigarette smoking. Intervention programs are needed to create awareness among school students and to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its unfavorable consequences.

  17. Effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate and xylitol on the clinical levels of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha A Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% mouthwash and xylitol chewing gum on the dental plaque levels. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy male dental students aged between 21 and 25 years (mean age 23.4 years participated in the study. All the subjects received a professional prophylaxis at the start of the study, with the purpose of making the dentition 100% free of plaque and calculus. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the Manuka honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the xylitol chewing gum group. Rinsing with water or any other fluid after the procedure was not allowed as also any form of mechanical oral hygiene for all the subjects during the experimental period of 72 h. After the experimental period, the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Results: The mean plaque scores for Groups I, II and III were 1.37, 1.35 and 1.57, respectively. The ANOVA revealed that between-group comparison was significant, with an F-value of 5.99 and a probability value of 0.004. The T-test was carried out to evaluate the inter-group significance, which revealed that the plaque inhibition by Manuka honey was similar to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Both Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly, better than the xylitol chewing gum. Conclusion: Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly better than xylitol chewing gum.

  18. Reproductive performance and weaning success in fur-chewing chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, María G; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta; Ponzio, Marina F

    2014-09-01

    In captive chinchillas, one of the most challenging behavioral problems is the development of a stress-related abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) known as "fur-chewing". We investigated whether there is a relationship between the severity of fur-chewing behavior and reproductive function in male and female chinchillas. Regardless of the severity of abnormal behavior, fur-chewing males did not show significant differences in seminal quality (sperm concentration, motility and viability; integrity of sperm membrane and acrosome) and the response to the process of semen collection (the number of stimuli needed to achieve ejaculation) when compared to those with normal behavior. Also, females showing normal or fur-chewing behavior presented similar reproductive performance in terms of number of litters per female per year and litter size. However, pup survival rate was lower (p=0.05) in fur-chewing females than in normal females. These results seem to be consistent with data suggesting non-significant effects of ARBs on reproductive performance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Brief communication: effect of coca-leaf chewing on salivary progesterone assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, V J; von Dornum, M; Ellison, P T

    1993-12-01

    Although there is evidence for reduced fertility in Andean and Himalayan populations at higher altitudes, factors other than hypoxia may be primarily responsible. A valuable approach in the investigation of these fertility determinants is the use of salivary steroid assays. However, coca-leaf chewing--a ubiquitous practice among high altitude Andean populations--has negative consequences for the accurate measurement of ovarian steroids. This report evaluates the effects of coca-leaf chewing on assays of salivary progesterone. Study participants include naive and habitual users of coca leaf from La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia. Approximately 300 saliva samples were collected immediately before, during, and after coca-leaf chewing. The series includes samples with and without the alkaloid enhancer typically used by coca-leaf chewers. Coca chewing produces false salivary progesterone values that mimic luteal phase values. On the basis of this study, an appropriate protocol is developed for the collection of salivary samples in coca-leaf chewing populations. These results verify the feasibility of salivary assays, even for very difficult field conditions, and highlight the necessity of establishing suitable collection procedures before full field implementation of saliva sampling.

  20. Determining chewing efficiency using a solid test food and considering all phases of mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Wang, Xinmiao; Chen, Jianshe; van der Glas, Hilbert W

    2018-07-01

    Following chewing a solid food, the median particle size, X 50 , is determined after N chewing cycles, by curve-fitting of the particle size distribution. Reduction of X 50 with N is traditionally followed from N ≥ 15-20 cycles when using the artificial test food Optosil ® , because of initially unreliable values of X 50 . The aims of the study were (i) to enable testing at small N-values by using initial particles of appropriate size, shape and amount, and (ii) to compare measures of chewing ability, i.e. chewing efficiency (N needed to halve the initial particle size, N(1/2-Xo)) and chewing performance (X 50 at a particular N-value, X 50,N ). 8 subjects with a natural dentition chewed 4 types of samples of Optosil particles: (1) 8 cubes of 8 mm, border size relative to bin size (traditional test), (2) 9 half-cubes of 9.6 mm, mid-size; similar sample volume, (3) 4 half-cubes of 9.6 mm, and 2 half-cubes of 9.6 mm; reduced particle number and sample volume. All samples were tested with 4 N-values. Curve-fitting with a 2nd order polynomial function yielded log(X 50 )-log(N) relationships, after which N(1/2-Xo) and X 50,N were obtained. Reliable X 50 -values are obtained for all N-values when using half-cubes with a mid-size relative to bin sizes. By using 2 or 4 half-cubes, determination of N(1/2-Xo) or X 50,N needs less chewing cycles than traditionally. Chewing efficiency is preferable over chewing performance because of a comparison of inter-subject chewing ability at the same stage of food comminution and constant intra-subject and inter-subject ratios between and within samples respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chewing Duration Time Of Various Food Textures In Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raísa Coutinho Vitcel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain reference values of chewing time of several food textures in young adults. METHOD: descriptive study with a quantitative approach that was developed in a clinical reference, being the population composed of 40 young adults between 18-30 years of age, of both genres. As exclusion criteria: those with neuromuscular and / or degenerative diseases or consequences thereof, as well as subjects who were making use of any orthodontic / orthopedic resource. We conducted a dental evaluation, followed by a clinical assessment. One at a time, the following foods were offered: French bread, wafer biscuit, roasted cashews, for voluntary chewing.  To measure the food chewing time, we used a stopwatch, and this collection procedure was filmed. Data analysis was performed by means of the SPSS statistics 20.0 (IBM® program. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between the medians of chewing time of French bread, wafer biscuit and cashew nuts, which were 33.0s (interquartile amplitude 29.0 - 40.0, 10.0s (interquartile amplitude 8.25-12.0 and 18.5s (interquartile amplitude 15.0-23.75, respectively. CONCLUSION: The texture of foods influences the length of mastication. The more rigid is the food, the more cycles and mandibular movements, and therefore the longer the duration of chewing.

  2. The SPLENDID chewing detection challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papapanagiotou, Vasileios; Diou, Christos; Zhou, Lingchuan; Boer, van den Janet; Mars, Monica; Delopoulos, Anastasios

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of eating behavior using wearable technology is receiving increased attention, driven by the recent advances in wearable devices and mobile phones. One particularly interesting aspect of eating behavior is the monitoring of chewing activity and eating occurrences. There are several

  3. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation : evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing

  4. Chewing and spitting out food as a compensatory behavior in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youn Joo; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that chewing and spitting out food may be associated with severe eating-related pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between chewing and spitting, and other symptoms of eating disorders. We hypothesized that patients who chew and spit as a compensatory behavior have more severe eating-related pathology than patients who have never engaged in chewing and spitting behavior. We divided 359 patients with eating disorders into two groups according to whether they engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior to lose weight or not. After comparing eating-related pathology between the two groups, we examined factors associated with pathologic eating behaviors using logistic regression analysis. Among our 359 participants, 24.5% reported having engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior. The chewing and spitting (CHSP+) group showed more severe eating disorder symptoms and suicidal behaviors. This group also had significantly higher scores on subscales that measured drive for thinness, bulimia, and impulse regulation on the EDI-2, Food Craving Questionnaire, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Chewing and spitting is a common compensatory behavior among patients with eating disorders and is associated with more-pathologic eating behaviors and higher scores on psychometric tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chewing side preference in first and all mastication cycles for hard and soft morsels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanlu, Masumeh; Khamnei, Saeed; SalariLak, Shaker; Oskoee, Siavash Savadi; Shakouri, Seyed Kazem; Houshyar, Yousef; Salekzamani, Yaghoub

    2012-01-01

    Preferred chewing side is a still controversial matter and various methods used have yielded some inconsistencies. The aim of this study is to compare the preference determined in different conditions. Nineteen healthy subjects were offered hard (walnut) and soft (cake) foods, while the electromyography was recorded from their masseter muscles, in 2009 in the Research Center of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Four occurrences were determined as the side of the first chews/all chews in the two food types, and then analyzed for correlations and agreements. For hard food 73.68% and for soft food 57.89% of the subjects showed preference. The comparison of all chews showed a highly significant preference towards the right side in both food types (p=0.000 & 0.003). There was both correlation and agreement between the first chew preferences in both food types, and an agreement between the first and all chew preferences in the hard food. Therefore, there seems to exist some laterality in mastication, which is more explicit when using hard food and assessing all chews. PMID:22993653

  6. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lighters—anything that you connect with your smoking habit. Get rid of all old chewing tobacco containers ... nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking or using chewing tobacco. Some people gain weight ...

  7. Effect of enzymatic depolymerization on physicochemical and rheological properties of guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-09-01

    Depolymerization of guar gum using enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to obtain depolymerized guar gum having functional application as soluble dietary fiber. Enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum significantly affected the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of guar gum. The depolymerized guar gum showed a significant increase in crystallinity index from 3.86% to 13.2% and flow behavior index from 0.31 to 1.7 as compared to native guar gum. Remarkable decrease in intrinsic viscosity and consistency index was also observed from 9 to 0.28 and 4.04 to 0.07, respectively. Results revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum resulted in a polysaccharide with low degree of polymerization, viscosity and consistency which could make it useful for incorporation in food products as dietary fiber without affecting the rheology, consistency and texture of the products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and characterization of cross-linked excipient of coprocessed xanthan gum-acacia gum as matrix for sustained release tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surini, Silvia; Wati, Dina Risma; Syahdi, Rezi Riadhi

    2018-02-01

    Sustained release tablet is solid dosage form which is designed to release drugs slowly in the body. This research was intended to prepare and characterize the cross-linked excipients of co-processed xanthan gum-acacia gum (CL-Co-XGGA) as matrices for sustained release tablets with gliclazide as a model drug. CL-Co-XGGA excipients were cross-linked materials of co-processed excipients of xanthan gum-acacia gum (Co-XGGA) using sodium trimetaphosphate. Co-processed excipients of xanthan gum-acacia gum were prepared in the ratio of each excipient 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1. Co-XGGA and CL-Co-XGGA excipients were characterized physically, chemically and functionally. Then, the sustained release (SR) tablets were formulated by wet granulation method using CL-Co-XGGA excipients as matrices. Also, the dissolution study of the gliclazide SR tablets was carried out in phosphate buffer medium pH 7,4 containing sodium lauryl sulphate 0.2% for 12 hours. The results showed that the degree of substitution (DS) of CL-Co-XGGA 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 excipients were respectively 0.067, 0.082 and 0.08. Besides that, the excipients gel strengths were 14.03, 17.27 and 20,70 gF, respectively. The cross-linked excipients had improved flow properties and swelling capability compared to the Co-XGGA excipients. The results of the gliclazide SR tablets evaluations showed that all tablets were passed all tablet requirements. Moreover, the gliclazide release from SR tablets F1 - F6 revealed the sustained release profile, which was following zero order kinetics (F1, F2, F3, F6) and Higuchi kinetics (F4 and F5). It could be concluded that the obtained CL-Co-XGGA excipients might be used as matrices for sustained release tablets and could retard drug release up to 8 until 32 hours.

  9. Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paiva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural cork stopper manufacturing produces a significant amount of cork waste, which is granulated and combined with synthetic glues for use in a wide range of applications. There is a high demand for using biosourced polymers in these composite materials. In this study, xanthan gum (XG and chitosan (CS were investigated as possible natural binders for cork. Xanthan gum was oxidized at two different aldehyde contents as a strategy to improve its water resistance. This modification was studied in detail by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and the degree of oxidation was determined by the hydroxylamine hydrochloride titration method. The performance of the adhesives was studied by tensile tests and total soluble matter (TSM determinations. Xanthan gum showed no water resistance, contrary to oxidized xanthan gum and chitosan. It is hypothesized that the good performance of oxidized xanthan gum is due to the reaction of aldehyde groups—formed in the oxidation process—with hydroxyl groups on the cork surface during the high temperature drying. Combining oxidized xanthan gum with chitosan did not yield significant improvements.

  10. Caries prevalence and DMF-T index of Papuan’s students with Betel chewing habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Tebai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to find the extent of caries prevalence and DMF-T index in Papuan’s students with betel chewing habit in Cilaki Dormitory Bandung, 2007. Betel chewing habit is a chewing action of Areca nut (Areca Catechu Linn, Betel leaves (Piper Betel Folia, Betel fruit (Piper Betle Linn, lime talk (Calcium Hydroxide, and after chew to spent out of the mouth. The research is a descriptive research using the survey technique. Research samples are determined by purposive sampling, and a number of 80 samples are collected, consisting of Papuan’s student with betel chewing habit in Bandung between 18-to-30 years of age. Research results indicated that caries prevalence is 98.75% with a DMF-T index of 5.46. The conclusion of the reseach is that the caries prevalence and the DMF-T in Papuan’s student with betel chewing habit in Cilaki Papuan’s Student Dormitory Bandung, 2007, is in the high category.

  11. Chewing bread: impact on alpha-amylase secretion and oral digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Marianne; Septier, Chantal; Brignot, Hélène; Salles, Christian; Panouillé, Maud; Feron, Gilles; Tournier, Carole

    2017-02-22

    During chewing, saliva helps in preparing the food bolus by agglomerating the formed particles, and it initiates enzymatic food breakdown. However, limited information is actually available on the adaptation of saliva composition during the oral processing of complex foods, especially for foods that are sensitive to salivary enzymes. We addressed this question in the context of starch-based products and salivary alpha-amylase. The objectives were two-fold: (1) to determine if salivary alpha-amylase secretion can be modulated by the bread type and (2) to evaluate the contribution of the oral phase in bread enzymatic breakdown. Mouthfuls of three different wheat breads (industrial, artisan and whole-meal breads) were chewed by twelve subjects. Saliva samples were collected at rest and at different times corresponding to 33, 66 and 100% of the individual's chewing sequence. Alpha-amylase activity and total protein content were determined for all saliva samples that were collected. Additionally, the salivary maltose concentration was measured as a marker of bread enzymatic digestion. Boluses were collected at the swallowing time to evaluate the saliva uptake. Chewing industrial bread induced higher saliva uptake than the other breads despite a similar chewing duration. The evolution of salivary amylase activity tended to depend on the type of bread and was highly influenced by a large degree of inter- and intra-subject variability. The protein and maltose concentration steadily increased during chewing as a result of bread breakdown. The salivary protein concentration was mainly affected by the release of the water-soluble proteins of the bread. The salivary maltose concentration was found to be significantly lower for the whole-meal bread. When considering the weight of the mouthful, enzymatic breakdown was found to be most efficient for the breads ranking from industrial > artisan > whole-meal.

  12. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Areca nut chewing has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but its association with erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated. To investigate the association between areca nut chewing and risk of ED. Consecutive men at public health centers for oral malignancy screening or health checkup were invited to complete a questionnaire. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Of the 2,652 respondents, 1,038 (mean age = 43.8 ± 11.1 years) were eligible for the areca nut chewing group and 1,090 non-areca nut chewers were selected as the age-matched control group. In the areca nut group, the mean duration of chewing was 13.2 ± 9.6 years, 61.7% consumed more than 10 portions per day, and 76.2% used it with betel leaf, 16.7% used it with betel inflorescence, and 7.1% used it with betel leaf and inflorescence. Smoking, alcohol drinking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were more predominant in areca nut chewers compared with controls. ED defined by self-report and by SHIM score was more prevalent in areca nut chewers than in controls (13.7% vs 9.8% and 48.7% vs 43.3%, respectively; P betel inflorescence was associated with a higher risk of ED (odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-3.28) with a dose-dependent effect, whereas using it with betel leaf was not (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.26) after adjustment of possible confounders. Areca nut chewing with betel inflorescence was associated with an increased risk of ED. These findings warrant further studies. Huang Y-J, Jiann B-P. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med 2017;5:e163-e168. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  14. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Results Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products’ ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Conclusions Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products’ impact on public health. PMID:24732160

  15. Analytical calculation of an invariant curve for Chew-Low equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    The local structure of the one-parameter set of invariant curves for Chew-Low equations having the form of the convergent series is considered. Coefficients of this series βsub(i)(C) are polynomials in set parameter C. The transition to the general solution of Chew-Low equations is carried out by replacing the parameter C by arbitrary even, real, meromorphic function C(w) with the property C(w+1)=-C(w). The procedure for calculation of coefficients βsub(i)(C), which is based on the solution of nonlinear functional eqtions, following from Chew-Low equations, is developed. First twelve coefficients βsub(i)(C) are calculated analytically by computer, using program system SCHOONSCHIP

  16. Decreased sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures as a consequence of nicotine pretreatment in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Collins, A C

    1988-01-01

    Male and female long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice were pretreated with a subseizure-producing dose of nicotine (2.0 mg/kg) 7.5, 15 and 30 minutes prior to challenge with seizure-producing doses of this drug. Nicotine pretreated animals were less susceptible to nicotine-induced seizures than were saline pretreated animals. The latency to seizure following nicotine challenge was greater in nicotine pretreated animals than in saline controls. Nicotine pretreated LS mice show a greater decrease in nicotine-induced seizure susceptibility than do nicotine pretreated SS mice. This decrease in seizure susceptibility is consistent with induction of nicotinic receptor desensitization via nicotine pretreatment. It is hypothesized that LS and SS mice might differ in sensitivity to nicotine in part because they differ in baseline levels of desensitized versus functional nicotinic receptors.

  17. Nicotinic receptor blockade decreases fos immunoreactivity within orexin/hypocretin-expressing neurons of nicotine-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Steven J; Gentile, Taylor A; Mo, Lili; Tran, Fionya H; Ma, Sisi; Muschamp, John W

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Nicotine is the principal psychoactive ingredient in tobacco that causes addiction. The structures governing nicotine addiction, including those underlying withdrawal, are still being explored. Nicotine withdrawal is characterized by negative affective and cognitive symptoms that enhance relapse susceptibility, and suppressed dopaminergic transmission from ventral tegmental area (VTA) to target structures underlies behavioral symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. Agonist and partial agonist therapies help 1 in 4 treatment-seeking smokers at one-year post-cessation, and new targets are needed to more effectively aid smokers attempting to quit. Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons send excitatory projections to dopamine (DA)-producing neurons of VTA and modulate mesoaccumbal DA release. The effects of nicotinic receptor blockade, which is commonly used to precipitate withdrawal, on orexin neurons remain poorly investigated and present an attractive target for intervention. The present study sought to investigate the effects of nicotinic receptor blockade on hypothalamic orexin neurons using mecamylamine to precipitate withdrawal in rats. Separate groups of rats were treated with either chronic nicotine or saline for 7-days at which point effects of mecamylamine or saline on somatic signs and anxiety-like behavior were assessed. Finally, tissue from rats was harvested for immunofluorescent analysis of Fos within orexin neurons. Results demonstrate that nicotinic receptor blockade leads to reduced orexin cell activity, as indicated by lowered Fos-immunoreactivity, and suggest that this underlying cellular activity may be associated with symptoms of nicotine withdrawal as effects were most prominently observed in rats given chronic nicotine. We conclude from this study that orexin transmission becomes suppressed in rats upon nicotinic receptor blockade, and that behavioral symptoms associated

  18. Combined Effects of Chewing Ability and Dietary Diversity on Medical Service Use and Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yuan-Ting C; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Chang, Yu-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2016-06-01

    To examine whether chewing ability affects healthcare use and expenditure and whether improving dietary quality alleviates any such effects. Prospective cohort. The Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000), a nationwide community-based survey of people aged 65 and older. Individuals aged 65 and older (N = 1,793; 903 men, 890 women). Chewing ability (satisfactory or unsatisfactory) was assessed using a questionnaire, and dietary quality was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall as a dietary diversity score. Data on annual medical use and expenditures from the interview date until December 31, 2006, were collected from National Health Insurance claims. Generalized linear models were used to assess the associations between chewing ability, dietary quality, and annual medical usage or expenditure. After 8 years of follow-up, older adults with unsatisfactory chewing ability had considerably higher emergency, hospitalization, and total medical expenditures. Older adults with unsatisfactory chewing ability and a poor diet used fewer annual preventive care and dental services than those with satisfactory chewing ability but had longer hospital stays and higher expenditures. After adjusting for covariates, unsatisfactory chewing ability resulted in significantly longer hospital stays in participants with a poor diet (β = 2.34, 95% confidence interval = 2.02-2.71, P chewing ability and a less-diverse diet together are associated with longer hospital stays and higher medical expenditures. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Sympathomimetic Effects of Acute E-Cigarette Use: Role of Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheimani, Roya S; Bhetraratana, May; Peters, Kacey M; Yang, Benjamin K; Yin, Fen; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Araujo, Jesus A; Middlekauff, Holly R

    2017-09-20

    Chronic electronic (e) cigarette users have increased resting cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study is to determine the role of nicotine versus non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette emissions in causing these pathologies in otherwise healthy humans. Thirty-three healthy volunteers who were not current e-cigarette or tobacco cigarette smokers were studied. On different days, each participant used an e-cigarette with nicotine, an e-cigarette without nicotine, or a sham control. Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity was determined by heart rate variability, and susceptibility to oxidative stress was determined by plasma paraoxonase activity. Following exposure to the e-cigarette with nicotine, but not to the e-cigarette without nicotine or the sham control, there was a significant and marked shift in cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance. The decrease in high-frequency component and the increases in the low-frequency component and the low-frequency to high-frequency ratio were significantly greater following exposure to the e-cigarette with nicotine compared with exposure to the e-cigarette without nicotine or to sham control. Oxidative stress, as estimated by plasma paraoxonase, did not increase following any of the 3 exposures. The acute sympathomimetic effect of e-cigarettes is attributable to the inhaled nicotine, not to non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette aerosol, recapitulating the same heart rate variability pattern associated with increased cardiac risk in multiple populations with and without known cardiac disease. Evidence of oxidative stress, as estimated by plasma paraoxonase activity, was not uncovered following acute e-cigarette exposure. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  20. Khat chewing habit among school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel

    2013-01-01

    The use of Khat leaves (Catha edulis) in Jazan, southwest of KSA, is prevalent among all segments of the population. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of Khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students of Jazan region. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011 in Jazan region. A random sample of 3923 students was selected from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools representing the different educational sectors of the region. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence, associations and predictors of Khat chewing. The overall Khat chewing prevalence among students was 20.5% (95% C.I.: 19.27-21.79). The prevalence was significantly higher among males, at 33.1% (95% CI: 31.16-35.08), than among females 4.3% (95% C.I.: 3.39-5.31) ( P academic performance, friends' smoking and Khat chewing, and students' smoking status were associated with a significantly high risk of Khat chewing ( P peer influence, and cigarette smoking. Intervention programs are needed to create awareness among school students and to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its unfavorable consequences.

  1. A clinical protocol to increase chewing and assess mastication in children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M; Peterson, Kathryn M; Zeleny, Jason R; Piazza, Cathleen C

    2014-09-01

    Children with feeding disorders often cannot or do not chew when presented with table food. Children with chewing deficits also often swallow the bite before masticating it appropriately, which we will refer to as early swallowing. In the current study, we evaluated a clinical protocol to increase chews per bite, assess mastication, and eliminate early swallowing with three children with feeding disorders. The current study adds to a small body of literature on chewing and mastication of children with feeding disorders. Suggestions for future research are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Volitional chewing with a conscious effort alters and facilitates swallowing during feeding sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, J; Hara, A; Nomura, T; Kondo, H

    2014-03-01

    The key objective of mastication is to form a food bolus suitable for smooth swallowing. However, chewing is usually performed without a conscious effort. Poor bolus formation can cause pharyngeal residue and suffocation in elderly individuals with reduced swallowing function. Therefore, chewing with a conscious effort may help the bolus to more easily pass the pharynx. This study aimed to clarify the impact of mastication with a conscious effort on the feeding sequence. Subjects included 25 dentulous volunteers who were informed and provided written consent. Lateral videofluoroscopy was performed during the feeding of solid agar jelly under two conditions: chewing naturally in their usual manner (without volition) and chewing with a conscious effort (with volition). Temporal evaluation was performed for mastication, stage II transport (STII), swallow onset and oropharyngeal transit time. Moreover, bolus volume at swallow onset and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness were measured. Volitional chewing with a conscious effort lengthened the duration of the chewing sequence before and after STII and delayed the swallow onset despite the fact that the bolus volume in the vallecula and hypopharynx (HYP) had significantly increased. Furthermore, with volition, the bolus transit time from swallow onset in the oral cavity, upper oropharynx and HYP was reduced, and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness demonstrated significant improvement. These results suggest that volitional chewing with a conscious effort can alter bolus transport and swallowing, resulting in easier swallowing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The reasons for betel-quid chewing scale: assessment of factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Pokhrel, Pallav; Murphy, Kelle L; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Suguitan, Gil S; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-03

    Despite the fact that betel-quid is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances worldwide and a major risk-factor for head-and-neck cancer incidence and mortality globally, currently no standardized instrument is available to assess the reasons why individuals chew betel-quid. A measure to assess reasons for chewing betel-quid could help researchers and clinicians develop prevention and treatment strategies. In the current study, we sought to develop and evaluate a self-report instrument for assessing the reasons for chewing betel quid which contributes toward the goal of developing effective interventions to reduce betel quid chewing in vulnerable populations. The current study assessed the factor structure, reliability and convergent validity of the Reasons for Betel-quid Chewing Scale (RBCS), a newly developed 10 item measure adapted from several existing "reasons for smoking" scales. The measure was administered to 351 adult betel-quid chewers in Guam. Confirmatory factor analysis of this measure revealed a three factor structure: reinforcement, social/cultural, and stimulation. Further tests revealed strong support for the internal consistency and convergent validity of this three factor measure. The goal of designing an intervention to reduce betel-quid chewing necessitates an understanding of why chewers chew; the current study makes considerable contributions towards that objective.

  4. Prevalence of areca nut chewing in the middle school-going children of Indore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Khandelwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess areca nut chewing habit among middle school-aged children in Indore, India. Areca nut is chewed by itself, and in various scented preparations. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children, and oral submucous fibrosis and may aggravate asthma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective collection of data to evaluate the prevalence of areca nut chewing among 3896 children was done. A simple random sampling was done. Children of both sexes were included in this study. Results: 27.06% of the school-going children (1054/3896 had areca nut chewing habit. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (2:1. 45.42% of school going children of rural area pander to areca nut chewing habit, whereas in urban area 20.09% children are indulged. Government school children are more involved in areca nut chewing habit. 81.02% of the children used sweetened and flavoured form of areca nut. The majority of the users were not aware of harmful effects that the use of areca nut might be harmful for health Conclusion: To diminish the use of areca nut, the Indian Government should consider limiting trade, advertising, and actively communicating its health risks to the public and should deem heavy taxes on it.

  5. 'Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Cox, Sharon; Goniewicz, Maciej; McRobbie, Hayden; Kimber, Catherine; Doig, Mira; Kośmider, Leon

    2018-06-07

    To compare the effects of i) high versus low nicotine concentration e-liquid, ii) fixed versus adjustable power and iii) the interaction between the two on: a) vaping behaviour, b) subjective effects, c) nicotine intake, and d) exposure to acrolein and formaldehyde in e-cigarette users vaping in their everyday setting. Counterbalanced, repeated measures with four conditions: i) low nicotine (6 mg/mL)/fixed power; ii) low nicotine/adjustable power; iii) high nicotine (18 mg/mL)/fixed power; iv) high nicotine/adjustable power. London and the South East, England. Twenty experienced e-cigarette users (recruited between September 2016 and February 2017) vaped ad libitum using an eVic Supreme™ with a 'Nautilus Aspire' tank over four weeks (one week per condition). Puffing patterns (daily puff number [PN], puff duration [PD], inter-puff interval [IPI]), mL of e-liquid consumed, changes to power (where permitted), and subjective effects (urge to vape, nicotine withdrawal symptoms) were measured in each condition. Nicotine intake was measured via salivary cotinine. 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), a metabolite of the toxicant acrolein, and formate, a metabolite of the carcinogen formaldehyde, were measured in urine. There was a significant nicotine concentration x power interaction for PD (p<0.01). PD was longer with low nicotine/fixed power compared with i) high nicotine/fixed power (p< 0.001 and ii) low nicotine/adjustable power (p< 0.01). PN and liquid consumed were higher in the low versus high nicotine condition (main effect of nicotine, p<0.05). Urge to vape and withdrawal symptoms were lower, and nicotine intake was higher, in the high nicotine condition (main effects of nicotine: p<0.01). Whilst acrolein levels did not differ, there was a significant nicotine x power interaction for formaldehyde (p<0.05). Use of a lower nicotine concentration e-liquid may be associated with compensatory behaviour (e.g., higher number and duration of puffs) and increases

  6. Entandophragma angolense Gum as a Novel Binder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    the development of oral controlled release dosage forms. These semisynthetic polymers are quite expensive when compared with natural polymers such as guar gum and alginates, while the natural polymers are nontoxic and readily available [18]. The present study was designed to evaluate the hydrophilic natural gum ...

  7. Changes in jaw muscle activity and the physical properties of foods with different textures during chewing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Hiroko; Magara, Jin; Nakamura, Yuki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Ito, Kayoko; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate how the activity of the masseter (Mas) and suprahyoid (Hyoid) muscles is influenced by the physical properties of food, how changes in the rheological properties of food differ between different foods during the process of food reduction, and how different salivary flow rates affect bolus-making capability during masticatory behavior in healthy humans. Ten healthy adults participated in this study. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the Mas and Hyoid muscles, and 15 g of steamed rice and rice cake was prepared as test foods. In the ingestion test, the subjects were asked to eat each food in their usual manner. The chewing duration, number of chewing cycles before the first swallow, Mas and Hyoid EMG activity, and chewing cycle time were compared between the foods. Total chewing duration was divided into three substages: early, middle, and late; chewing cycle time and EMG activity per chewing cycle of each substage were compared between the foods and among the substages. In the spitting test, the rheological properties of the bolus at the end of each substage were compared between the foods and among the substages. Finally, stimulated salivary flow rates were measured and the relationships between salivary flow rate and chewing duration, EMG activity, and changes in physical food characteristics were investigated. There were significant differences in total chewing duration and the number of chewing cycles, but not in chewing cycle time, between the foods, which had similar hardness values. The EMG activity levels of the Mas and Hyoid per chewing cycle for the rice cake were significantly greater than for the steamed rice throughout the recording periods. While Mas activity did not change among the substages during chewing, Hyoid EMG activity decreased as chewing progressed. Chewing cycle time also gradually decreased as chewing progressed. The hardness of both foods initially increased, then gradually decreased

  8. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A; Pentel, Paul R; LeSage, Mark G

    2015-06-01

    The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self-administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E.; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A.; Pentel, Paul R.; LeSage, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. Methods The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self- administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Results Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. PMID:25891231

  10. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2011-01-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movement...

  11. Preparation and characterization of tragacanth-locust bean gum edible blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Emadzadeh, Bahareh; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-03-30

    The present work introduces the structure and physicomechanical properties of a novel blend film made from binary solutions of gum tragacanth (GT) and locust bean gum (LBG) at different mixing ratios. Apparent viscosities and surface tensions of individual and blend gum solutions were also investigated. The viscosity data indicated that there was a distinct synergism between the two gums at all mixing ratios. FTIR spectra showed the existence of noncovalent intermolecular interactions between gums. The surface tensions of binary solutions were significantly lower than those of individual gums which is advantageous for coating applications. All films had homogenous and smooth surface morphology and their transparency, water vapour barrier and mechanical properties were improved by incorporating LBG in blend. The results of this study suggest that GT-LBG blend film, owing to its desirable properties, has the potential to be used as a new degradable food packaging material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarika, P.R.; Cinthya, Kuriakose; Jayakrishnan, A.; Anilkumar, P.R.; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture

  13. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Cinthya, Kuriakose [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Jayakrishnan, A. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Anilkumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture.

  14. The role of betel-quid chewing in smoking cessation among workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Li; Chen, Peter Y; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Min-Chien

    2014-07-28

    Current smokers exhibit a higher rate of betel-quid chewing than non-smokers. However, little is known regarding the extent to which betel-quid chewing may affect attempts to quit smoking and smoking cessation. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between betel-quid chewing and patterns of quitting smoking. Specifically, we explore whether betel-quid chewing is associated with (1) current smokers who have never attempted to quit versus those who have attempted to quit and have failed, those who are in the process of quitting, and successful cessation smokers, and (2) current smokers who have attempted to quit and have failed versus those who have successfully quit smoking. A telephone survey of 7,215 workers was conducted and obtained an 88.6% response rate. In the survey, the respondents' smoking and betel-quid chewing statuses were recorded and a list of covariates was assessed. After controlling for the effect of the covariates, betel-quid chewing was found to be more highly associated with current smokers who have never attempted to quit, compared to current smokers who are in the process of quitting (OR = 12.72; 95% CI = 1.05-154.26), successful cessation smokers (OR = 3.62; 95% CI = 2.32-5.65), and smokers who have attempted to quit and have failed (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.06-1.77), respectively. In addition, betel-quid chewing is more highly associated with a failure to quit smoking than with successfully quitting smoking (OR = 3.46; 95% CI = 2.17-5.51). The findings support four plausible reasons why betel-quid chewing may dissuade smokers from quitting. These reasons highlight additional avenues for potentially reducing the smoking population in workplaces, such as considering work contexts and social norms, and product sales in smoking-cessation campaigns.

  15. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  17. A generating function for a class of effective Chew-Mandelstam functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.H.

    1982-12-01

    We have obtained the generating function for a class of effective Chew-Mandelstam functions for arbitrary integral angular momentum. From this a closed formula for the Chew-Mandelstam functions themselves is derived in both the simple equal mass case and in the more complicated case of unequal masses

  18. Chewing side preference - Impact on facial symmetry, dentition and temporomandibular joint and its correlation with handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyasi Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Habitual unilateral chewing develops subconsciously and serves as an example for lateral preference. This study aims to assess the possible impact of chewing side preference to facial asymmetry, temporomandibular joint (TMJ and oral hygiene and existence of any link between the preferred chewing side (PCS and handedness. Materials and Methods: A 2-month cross-sectional (observational study was performed on 76 healthy dentate subjects [24 males (31.6% and 52 females (68.4%] with a mean age of 20.8 ± 1.5 years who participated in this study according to the selection criteria. Results: A total of 75 subjects out of 76 (98.6% were observed to have a PCS. Out of them, 38 chewed on their right and 37 on the left side. Of the 74 right-handed subjects, 48.6% chewed on the right, 50% on the left and 1.4% chewed equally on both the sides. Conclusion: Chewing side preference has a detrimental effect on the TMJ of the corresponding side and is also related to lateral facial asymmetry, which suggests that examination and recording of chewing side preference merit consideration in routine dental examination and treatment planning.

  19. Use of pharmacy data to evaluate smoking regulations' impact on sales of nicotine replacement therapies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kristina B; Mostashari, Farzad; Kerker, Bonnie D

    2005-06-01

    Recently, New York City and New York State increased cigarette excise taxes and New York City implemented a smoke-free workplace law. To assess the impact of these policies on smoking cessation in New York City, we examined over-the-counter sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. Pharmacy sales data were collected in real time as part of nontraditional surveillance activities. We used Poisson generalized estimating equations to analyze the effect of smoking-related policies on pharmacy-specific weekly sales of nicotine patches and gum. We assessed effect modification by pharmacy location. We observed increases in NRT product sales during the weeks of the cigarette tax increases and the smoke-free workplace law. Pharmacies in low-income areas generally had larger and more persistent increases in response to tax increases than those in higher-income areas. Real-time monitoring of existing nontraditional surveillance data, such as pharmacy sales of NRT products, can help assess the effects of public policies on cessation attempts. Cigarette tax increases and smoke-free workplace regulations were associated with increased smoking cessation attempts in New York City, particularly in low-income areas.

  20. Gum Disease in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Club Program Perio Store Education & Careers Careers in Periodontics Perio Exam for Dental Licensure Recommended Competencies Periodontal ... With Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are ...

  1. Cardiology Patient Page: Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products come in kid-friendly flavors (including grape, chocolate, bubble gum, and gummy bear). E-cigarette advertising ... a tobacco telephone quit line), approved nicotine replacement therapies (eg, patch, gum, or inhaler), and oral nonnicotine ...

  2. The Effects of Preventive Intervention for Betel Nut Chewing in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the effect of preventive health education intervention in the knowledge, attitude, practice of betel nut chewing, and self-efficacy of anti-betel nut chewing for adolescent students. Methods: One hundred eighty-six indigenous samples were recruited, and divided into experimental and control groups. The…

  3. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  4. Surveillance of smokeless tobacco nicotine, pH, moisture, and unprotonated nicotine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Spierto, Francis W

    2003-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco is a complex chemical mixture, including not only the components of the tobacco leaf but also chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Smokeless tobacco contains the addictive chemical nicotine and more than 20 cancer-causing chemicals, including the potent tobacco-specific nitrosamines. The National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health has concluded that oral use of smokeless tobacco is a human carcinogen. Therefore, smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarettes. In fact, smokeless tobacco use begins primarily during early adolescence and can lead to nicotine dependence and increased risk of becoming a cigarette smoker. Under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (15 U.S.C. 4401 et seq., Pub. L. 99-252), tobacco manufacturers report annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, pH, and moisture content of their smokeless tobacco products. This information is considered "trade secret," or confidential, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(4) and 18 U.S.C. 1905 and cannot be released to the public. In an effort to provide consumers and researchers with information on the nicotine content of smokeless tobacco, CDC arranged for the analysis of popular brands of smokeless tobacco. The results of this CDC study show that pH is a primary factor in the amount of nicotine that is in the most readily absorbable, unprotonated form. Furthermore, this study found that the brands of moist snuff smokeless tobacco with the largest amount of unprotonated nicotine also are the most frequently sold brands.

  5. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2011-03-01

    To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18-60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success.

  6. Chewing rates among domestic dog breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Geoffrey E.; Cooper, Meghan; Helvie, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian masticatory rhythm is produced by a brainstem timing network. The rhythm is relatively fixed within individual animals but scales allometrically with body mass (Mb) across species. It has been hypothesized that sensory feedback and feed-forward adjust the rhythm to match the jaw's natural resonance frequency, with allometric scaling being an observable consequence. However, studies performed with adult animals show that the rhythm is not affected by jaw mass manipulations, indicating that either developmental or evolutionary mechanisms are required for allometry to become manifest. The present study was performed to tease out the relative effects of development versus natural selection on chewing rate allometry. Thirty-one dog breeds and 31 mass-matched non-domestic mammalian species with a range in Mb from ∼2 kg to 50 kg were studied. Results demonstrated that the chewing rhythm did not scale with Mb among dog breeds (R=0.299, P>0.10) or with jaw length (Lj) (R=0.328, P>0.05). However, there was a significant relationship between the chewing rhythm and Mb among the non-domestic mammals (R=0.634, Pgeneration but they do not explain the 1/3rd to 1/4th allometric scaling observed among adult mammals. The rhythm of the timing network is either adjusted to the physical parameters of the jaw system during early development only, is genetically determined independently of the jaw system or is uniquely hard-wired among dogs and laboratory rodents. PMID:20543125

  7. Gum Disease and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tomography (CBCT) American Academy of Periodontology Installs New President, Officers in Boston American Academy of Periodontology Announces ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ...

  8. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    OpenAIRE

    Antesh Kumar Jha; Dipak Chetia

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating ...

  9. Extraction and characterization of artocarpus integer gum as pharmaceutical excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Uzma; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Natural polymers are widely used as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. They are easily available, cheap and less toxic as compared to synthetic polymers. This study involves the extraction and characterization of kathal (Artocarpus integer) gum as a pharmaceutical excipient. Water was used as a solvent for extraction of the natural polymer. Yield was calculated with an aim to evaluate the efficacy of the process. The product was screened for the presence of Micrometric properties, and swelling index, flow behavior, surface tension, and viscosity of natural polymers were calculated. Using a water based extraction method, the yield of gum was found to be 2.85%. Various parameters such as flow behavior, organoleptic properties, surface tension, viscosity, loss on drying, ash value and swelling index together with microscopic studies of particles were done to characterize the extracted gum. The result showed that extracted kathal gum exhibited excellent flow properties. The gum was investigated for purity by carrying out chemical tests for different phytochemical constituents and only carbohydrates were found to be present. It had a good swelling index (13 ± 1). The pH and surface tension of the 1% gum solution were found to be 6 ± 0.5 and 0.0627 J/m2, respectively. The ash values such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash were found to be 18.9%, 0.67% and 4% respectively. Loss on drying was 6.61%. The extracted gum was soluble in warm water and insoluble in organic solvents. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed rough and irregular particles of the isolated polymer. The results of the evaluated properties showed that kathal-derived gum has acceptable pH and organoleptic properties and can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient to formulate solid oral dosage forms.

  10. Evaluation of the Binding Effect of Local Gum of Boswellia papyrifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, B. papyrifera gum has been evaluated for its binding effect in paracetamol granules and tablet formulations in comparison with the commonly used binders, Acacia BP and PVP K-30. Some physicochemical properties of the extracted gum indicated that the gum exhibited solubility in water, absence of tannin and ...

  11. The effects of nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors on working memory and associated brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClernon, Francis Joseph; Froeliger, Brett; Rose, Jed E; Kozink, Rachel V; Addicott, Merideth A; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Westman, Eric C; Van Wert, Dana M

    2016-07-01

    Smoking abstinence impairs executive function, which may promote continued smoking behavior and relapse. The differential influence of nicotine and non-nicotine (i.e. sensory, motor) smoking factors and related neural substrates is not known. In a fully factorial, within-subjects design, 33 smokers underwent fMRI scanning following 24 hours of wearing a nicotine or placebo patch while smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes or remaining abstinent from smoking. During scanning, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was acquired while participants performed a verbal N-back task. Following 24-hour placebo (versus nicotine) administration, accuracy on the N-back task was significantly worse and task-related BOLD signal lower in dorsomedial frontal cortex. These effects were observed irrespective of smoking. Our data provide novel evidence that abstinence-induced deficits in working memory and changes in underlying brain function are due in large part to abstinence from nicotine compared with non-nicotine factors. This work has implications both for designing interventions that target abstinence-induced cognitive deficits and for nicotine-reduction policy. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Thiol derivatization of Xanthan gum and its evaluation as a mucoadhesive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Meenakshi; Ahuja, Munish; Mehta, Heena

    2015-10-20

    Thiol-derivatization of xanthan gum polysaccharide was carried out by esterification with mercaptopropionic acid and thioglycolic acid. Thiol-derivatization was confirmed by Fourier-transformed infra-red spectroscopy. Xanthan-mercaptopropionic acid conjugate and xanthan-thioglycolic acid conjugate were found to possess 432.68mM and 465.02mM of thiol groups as determined by Ellman's method respectively. Comparative evaluation of mucoadhesive property of metronidazole loaded buccal pellets of xanthan and thiolated xanthan gum using chicken buccal pouch membrane revealed higher ex vivo bioadhesion time of thiolated xanthan gum as compared to xanthan gum. Improved mucoadhesive property of thiolated xanthan gum over the xanthan gum can be attributed to the formation of disulfide bond between mucus and thiolated xanthan gum. In vitro release study conducted using phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) revealed a sustained release profile of metronidazole from thiolated xanthan pellets as compared to xanthan pellets. In conclusion, thiolation of xanthan improves its mucoadhesive property and sustained the release of metronidazole over a prolonged period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of Peripheral κ-Opioid Receptors Normalizes Caffeine Effects Modified in Nicotine-Dependent Rats during Nicotine Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Bogdanova, N G

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effect of peripheral (intragastric) ICI-204,448, an agonist of gastric κ-opioid receptors, on the psychostimulating and anxiolytic effects of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats at the stage of nicotine withdrawal. In these rats, the effects of caffeine (10 mg/kg) were perverted. In nicotine-dependent rats, caffeine produced an anxiolytic effect accompanied by pronounced stimulation of motor activity, in contrast to anxiogenic effect induced by caffeine in intact rats without nicotine dependence. During nicotine withdrawal, nicotine-dependent rats demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to nicotine. Intragastric administration of κ-opioid receptor agonist ICI-204,448 normalized the effect of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats. We have previously demonstrated that activation of peripheral κ-opioid receptors inhibited central κ-opioid activity and eliminated manifestations of nicotine withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent rats, e.g. metabolism activation, stimulation of motor activity, and enhancement of food consumption. In its turn, inhibition of central κ-opioid structures activates the brain adenosine system, which can attenuate the caffeine-induced effects in nicotine-dependent rats.

  14. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Roskams, Tania [Department of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, University of Leuven (Belgium); Oben, Jude A., E-mail: j.oben@ucl.ac.uk [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  15. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI; Roskams, Tania; Oben, Jude A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. ► Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). ► Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. ► Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. ► Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine – which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed – RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-α2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type (α1, β1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type (α3, α6, α7, β2 and β4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, α3, α7, β1 and ε were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-α2 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by mecamylamine. α1 and α3-nAChR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in NASH fibrosis compared to normal livers. Conclusion: Nicotine at levels in smokers’ blood is pro-fibrogenic, through

  16. Xanthan - A Versatile Gum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conveniently from microbial sources due to several factors. They can ... Why do Microorganisms Produce Gums? Most phytopathogenic bacteria do not form spores. Many of .... salts of the polymer at alkaline pH, precipitation as a quarternary.

  17. Pharmacological properties of guggulsterones, the major active components of gum guggul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rohan; Gulati, Vandana; Palombo, Enzo A

    2012-11-01

    Oleo gum resin secreted by Commiphora mukul, also known as gum guggul, has been used widely as an ayurvedic drug. Commiphora mukul is a short thorny shrub that is native to the Indian subcontinent. Oleo gum resin extracted by incision of the bark is a very complex mixture of gum, minerals, essential oils, terpenes, sterols, ferrulates, flavanones and sterones. Its active constituents, the Z- and E-guggulsterones, have been demonstrated to exhibit their biological activities by binding to nuclear receptors and modulating the expression of proteins involved in carcinogenic activities. Guggulsterones have also been reported to regulate gene expression by exhibiting control over other molecular targets including transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and steroid receptors. Considerable scientific evidence indicates the use of gum guggul as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammation, nervous disorders, hyperlipidaemia and associated cardiac disorders such as hypertension and ischaemia, skin disorders, cancer and urinary disorders. This review highlights the taxonomic details, phytochemical properties and pharmacological profile of gum guggul. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Gunawan, Rudy; Timchalk, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the development and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.

  19. Chewing ability as a parameter for evaluating the disability of patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H; Ohtsuka, A; Kurashina, K; Kopp, S

    2001-05-01

    Restoration of chewing ability is an important aspect of the treatment for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). However, too little attention has been paid to it. We have used a questionnaire to evaluate and score the chewing ability of TMD patients. The questionnaire includes 19 kinds of food and a chewing task. The patient was asked if she/he experiences difficulty in enjoying eating. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations between score of chewing ability (SCA) and other symptoms/signs of TMD. Four hundred and seventy-three consecutive TMD patients were evaluated for SCA and other symptoms/signs including temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, TMJ and muscle tenderness, TMJ noise (clicking and crepitus), and maximum mouth opening. The relationship between SCA and other symptoms/signs were analysed by multiple regression analysis. Score of chewing ability correlated significantly with TMJ pain and mouth opening capacity but not with TMJ noise and muscle tenderness. Age was a background factor but sex was not. The result of this study suggests that SCA correlated with dysfunction of the TMD patients. This method could be used to evaluate the ability of chewing in assessment of TMD.

  20. Psychological stress-relieving effects of chewing - Relationship between masticatory function-related factors and stress-relieving effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Akinori; Kikuchi, Manaki; Nakanishi, Kousuke; Ueda, Takayuki; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory function-related factors (masticatory performance, occlusal contact area, maximum bite force, number of chewing strokes, and muscle activity) and the stress-relieving effects of chewing. A total of 28 healthy male subjects were instructed to rest or chew for 10min after 30min of stress loading with arithmetic calculations. Their stress state was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels. Saliva was collected at three time points: before stress loading, immediately after stress loading, and 10min after stress loading. Compared to resting, chewing produced a significantly greater reduction in the rate of change in salivary cortisol levels 10min after stress loading. A negative correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and the number of chewing strokes. No significant correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and other measurement items. In healthy dentulous people, the number of chewing strokes has been shown to be a masticatory function-related factor that affects stress relief from chewing, suggesting the possibility that more appropriate chewing would produce a greater effect psychological stress relief. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  2. Low Nicotine Content Descriptors Reduce Perceived Health Risks and Positive Cigarette Ratings in Participants Using Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Joel, Danielle L; Strasser, Andrew A; Donny, Eric C

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how smokers perceive reduced nicotine content cigarettes will be important if the FDA and global regulatory agencies implement reduced nicotine product standards for cigarettes. Prior research has shown that some smokers incorrectly believe "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Similar misunderstandings of health risk could also apply to reduced nicotine cigarettes. To date, most studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes have blinded subjects to the nicotine content. Therefore, little is known about how smokers experience reduced nicotine content cigarettes when they are aware of the reduced content, and how use may be impacted. The present study was a within-subjects experiment with 68 adult daily smokers who smoked two identical very low nicotine content Quest 3 (0.05 mg nicotine yield) cigarettes. Subjects were told that one cigarette contained "average" nicotine content, and the other contained "very low" nicotine content. After smoking each cigarette, subjects completed subjective measures about their smoking experience. Subjects rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as less harmful to their health overall compared to the "average" nicotine cigarette; this effect held true for specific smoking-related diseases. Additionally, they rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as having less desirable subjective effects than the "average" nicotine cigarette and predicted having greater interest in quitting smoking in the future if only the "very low" nicotine cigarette was available. Explicit knowledge of very low nicotine content changes smokers' perceptions of very low nicotine content cigarettes, resulting in reduced predicted harm, subjective ratings and predicted future use. Before a reduced nicotine product standard for cigarettes can be implemented, it is important to understand how product information impacts how smokers think about and experience very low nicotine content cigarettes. Prior research has shown that smokers

  3. Fabrication of electrospun almond gum/PVA nanofibers as a thermostable delivery system for vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Atefe; Tavanai, Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fabrication of vanillin incorporated almond gum/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers through electrospinning has been investigated. Electrospinning of only almond gum was proved impossible. It was found that the aqueous solution of almond gum/PVA (80:20, concentration=7% (w/w)) containing 3% (w/w) vanillin could have successfully electrospun to uniform nanofibers with diameters as low as 77nm. According to the thermal analysis, incorporated vanillin in almond gum/PVA nanofibers showed higher thermal stability than free vanillin, making this composite especially suitable for high temperature applications. XRD and FTIR analyses proved the presence of vanillin in the almond gum/PVA nanofibers. It was also found that vanillin was dispersed as big crystallites in the matrix of almond gum/PVA nanofibers. FTIR analysis showed almond gum and PVA had chemical cross-linking by etheric bonds between COH groups of almond gum and OH groups of PVA. Also, in the nanofibers, there were no major interaction between vanillin and either almond gum or PVA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in chewing sounds of dry-crisp snacks by multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Belie, N.; Sivertsvik, M.; De Baerdemaeker, J.

    2003-09-01

    Chewing sounds of different types of dry-crisp snacks (two types of potato chips, prawn crackers, cornflakes and low calorie snacks from extruded starch) were analysed to assess differences in sound emission patterns. The emitted sounds were recorded by a microphone placed over the ear canal. The first bite and the first subsequent chew were selected from the time signal and a fast Fourier transformation provided the power spectra. Different multivariate analysis techniques were used for classification of the snack groups. This included principal component analysis (PCA) and unfold partial least-squares (PLS) algorithms, as well as multi-way techniques such as three-way PLS, three-way PCA (Tucker3), and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) on the first bite and subsequent chew. The models were evaluated by calculating the classification errors and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for independent validation sets. It appeared that the logarithm of the power spectra obtained from the chewing sounds could be used successfully to distinguish the different snack groups. When different chewers were used, recalibration of the models was necessary. Multi-way models distinguished better between chewing sounds of different snack groups than PCA on bite or chew separately and than unfold PLS. From all three-way models applied, N-PLS with three components showed the best classification capabilities, resulting in classification errors of 14-18%. The major amount of incorrect classifications was due to one type of potato chips that had a very irregular shape, resulting in a wide variation of the emitted sounds.

  5. Chewing reduces sympathetic nervous response to stress and prevents poststress arrhythmias in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, So; Minamisawa, Susumu; Sasaguri, Kenichi; Onozuka, Minoru; Sato, Sadao; Ono, Yumie

    2011-10-01

    Reducing stress is important in preventing sudden death in patients with cardiovascular disease, as stressful events may cause autonomic imbalance and trigger fatal arrhythmias. Since chewing has been shown to inhibit stress-induced neuronal responses in the hypothalamus, we hypothesized that chewing could ameliorate stress-induced autonomic imbalance and prevent arrhythmias. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed changes in radiotelemetered electrocardiograms in rats that were allowed to chew a wooden stick during a 1-h period of immobilization stress. Chewing significantly reduced the occurrence of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and complex ventricular ectopy after immobilization and prevented stress-induced prolongation of the QT interval of VPBs throughout the 10-h experimental period. It also prevented prolongation of the QRS complex and fluctuations in the QT interval in normal sinus rhythm beats preceding VPBs during both immobilization and in the poststress period. Fast Fourier transform-based spectral analysis of heart-rate variability further showed that chewing significantly inhibited the stress-induced increase in the power ratio of low-to-high frequency activity (LF/HF: a marker of sympathetic activity) during immobilization and in addition was associated with blunting of the stress-induced increase in plasma noradrenaline observed at the termination of immobilization. Similar suppressive effects on the occurrence of VPBs and the LF/HF were observed in rats that were administered the β-adrenergic blocker propranolol before immobilization. These results indicate that chewing can ameliorate sympathetic hyperactivity during stress and prevent poststress arrhythmias and suggest that chewing may provide a nonpharmacological and cost-effective treatment option for patients with a high risk of stress-induced fatal arrhythmia.

  6. Selective depression behavior of guar gum on talc-type scheelite flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-zhong; Gu, Guo-hua; Wu, Xiang-bin; Zhao, Kai-le

    2017-08-01

    The depression behavior and mechanism of guar gum on talc-type scheelite flotation were systematically investigated by flotation experiments, adsorption tests, zeta-potential measurements, and infrared spectroscopic analyses. The flotation results for monominerals, mixed minerals, and actual mineral samples indicated that guar gum exhibited much higher selective depression for talc than for scheelite. Bench-scale closed-circuit tests showed that a tungsten concentrate with a WO3 grade of 51.43% and a WO3 recovery of 76.18% was obtained. Adsorption tests, zeta-potential measurements, and infrared spectral analyses confirmed that guar gum absorbed more strongly onto the talc surface than onto the scheelite surface because of chemisorption between guar gum and talc. This chemisorption is responsible for the guar gum's highly selective depression for talc and small depression for scheelite. The flotation results provide technical support for talc-type scheelite flotation.

  7. Nicotine concentration of e-cigarettes used by adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Camenga, Deepa R; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-10-01

    E-cigarettes are popular among youth, but little is known about the nicotine concentrations of e-liquids used by adolescents. In Spring, 2014, we conducted cross-sectional surveys in four Connecticut high schools and two middle schools. Among past-30-day e-cigarette users (n=513, 45% female, mean age 15.9 [SD=1.4]), we examined what nicotine concentration adolescents typically used in their e-cigarettes (range 0-30mg/mL and "I don't know"). We first examined whether age, sex, smoking status, e-cigarette use frequency, and/or e-cigarette acquisition source were associated with using nicotine-free e-liquid, nicotine e-liquid, or not knowing the e-liquid nicotine concentration. Among nicotine users (n=185), we then examined whether the aforementioned variables were associated with using higher nicotine concentrations. Adolescents reported using nicotine-free e-liquid (28.5%), nicotine e-liquid (37.4%), or not knowing their e-liquid nicotine concentration (34.1%). Nicotine users comprised more smokers and heavier e-cigarette users compared to nicotine-free e-liquid users and those who did not know their nicotine concentration. Nicotine users also comprised more males and were more likely to purchase e-cigarettes online or from tobacco shops compared to those who did not know their nicotine concentration. Among nicotine users, cigarette smoking, male sex, and purchasing e-cigarettes from tobacco shops predicted using higher nicotine concentrations. Adolescents reported using e-liquids with variable nicotine concentrations. Smokers, males, and those who purchased their own e-cigarettes reported using the highest nicotine levels. Of concern, many adolescents were unaware of the nicotine concentration in their e-liquid, raising concerns about inadvertent nicotine exposure among youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)