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Sample records for nicotine alcohol cannabis

  1. Alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, and caffeine use and symptom distress in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamera, E; Schneider, J K; Deviney, S

    1995-09-01

    The high prevalence of substance use, e.g., alcohol and illegal and nonprescribed drugs, in schizophrenia is widely recognized. One explanation for this high prevalence is that substance use may be a self-initiated method for managing symptoms. To test whether the intake of four substances--alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, and caffeine--would increase with increases in symptom distress, daily self-reports of symptom distress and substance intake over 12 weeks were analyzed with pooled time series analyses. Compliance with neuroleptic medication was added to the analyses to control for any changes in prescribed medication compliance while using nonprescribed drugs or alcohol. Of the four substances studied, only nicotine was significantly related to symptom distress. Higher distress with prodromal symptoms was related to decreases in nicotine use. Analysis of caffeine did not meet the criteria for significance but does provide direction for further research. Higher distress, with neurotic symptoms, was related to increases in caffeine use. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between nicotine and symptoms.

  2. Specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine dependence.

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    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John; Prescott, Carol A

    2007-11-01

    Although genetic risk factors have been found to contribute to dependence on both licit and illicit psychoactive substances, we know little of how these risk factors interrelate. To clarify the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of dependence on cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine in males and females. Lifetime history by structured clinical interview. General community. Four thousand eight hundred sixty-five members of male-male and female-female pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Main Outcome Measure Lifetime symptoms of abuse of and dependence on cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. Controlling for greater symptom prevalence in males, genetic and environmental parameters could be equated across sexes. Two models explained the data well. The best-fit exploratory model contained 2 genetic factors and 1 individual environmental factor contributing to all substances. The first genetic factor loaded strongly on cocaine and cannabis dependence; the second, on alcohol and nicotine dependence. Nicotine and caffeine had high substance-specific genetic effects. A confirmatory model, which also fit well, contained 1 illicit drug genetic factor--loading only on cannabis and cocaine--and 1 licit drug genetic factor loading on alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. However, these factors were highly intercorrelated (r = + 0.82). Large substance-specific genetic effects remained for nicotine and caffeine. The pattern of genetic and environmental risk factors for psychoactive substance dependence was similar in males and females. Genetic risk factors for dependence on common psychoactive substances cannot be explained by a single factor. Rather, 2 genetic factors-one predisposing largely to illicit drug dependence, the other primarily to licit drug dependence-are needed. Furthermore, a large proportion of the genetic influences on nicotine and particularly caffeine dependence

  3. Concordance between DSM-5 and DSM-IV nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorder diagnoses among pediatric patients.

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    Kelly, Sharon M; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; O'Grady, Kevin E; Schwartz, Robert P

    2014-07-01

    The recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) includes several major revisions to substance use diagnoses. Studies have evaluated the impact of these changes among adult samples but research with adolescent samples is lacking. 525 adolescents (93% African American) awaiting primary care appointments in Baltimore, Maryland were recruited for a study evaluating a substance use screening instrument. Participants were assessed for DSM-5 nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorder, DSM-IV alcohol and cannabis abuse, and DSM-IV dependence for all three substances during the past year using the modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-2, Substance Abuse Module. Contingency tables examining DSM-5 vs. DSM-IV joint frequency distributions were examined for each substance. Diagnoses were more prevalent using DSM-5 criteria compared with DSM-IV for nicotine (4.0% vs. 2.7%), alcohol (4.6% vs. 3.8%), and cannabis (10.7% vs. 8.2%). Cohen's κ, Somers' d, and Cramer's V ranged from 0.70 to 0.99 for all three substances. Of the adolescents categorized as "diagnostic orphans" under DSM-IV, 7/16 (43.8%), 9/29 (31.0%), and 13/36 (36.1%) met criteria for DSM-5 disorder for nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis, respectively. Additionally, 5/17 (29.4%) and 1/21 (4.8%) adolescents who met criteria for DSM-IV abuse did not meet criteria for a DSM-5 diagnosis for alcohol and cannabis, respectively. Categorizing adolescents using DSM-5 criteria may result in diagnostic net widening-particularly for cannabis use disorders-by capturing adolescents who were considered diagnostic orphans using DSM-IV criteria. Future research examining the validity of DSM-5 substance use disorders with larger and more diverse adolescent samples is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating causal associations between use of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis: a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization study.

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    Verweij, Karin J H; Treur, Jorien L; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2018-07-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show co-occurrence of use of different addictive substances. Whether these associations are causal or due to overlapping underlying influences remains an important question in addiction research. Methodological advances have made it possible to use published genetic associations to infer causal relationships between phenotypes. In this exploratory study, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine the causality of well-established associations between nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis use. Two-sample MR was employed to estimate bidirectional causal effects between four addictive substances: nicotine (smoking initiation and cigarettes smoked per day), caffeine (cups of coffee per day), alcohol (units per week) and cannabis (initiation). Based on existing genome-wide association results we selected genetic variants associated with the exposure measure as an instrument to estimate causal effects. Where possible we applied sensitivity analyses (MR-Egger and weighted median) more robust to horizontal pleiotropy. Most MR tests did not reveal causal associations. There was some weak evidence for a causal positive effect of genetically instrumented alcohol use on smoking initiation and of cigarettes per day on caffeine use, but these were not supported by the sensitivity analyses. There was also some suggestive evidence for a positive effect of alcohol use on caffeine use (only with MR-Egger) and smoking initiation on cannabis initiation (only with weighted median). None of the suggestive causal associations survived corrections for multiple testing. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses found little evidence for causal relationships between nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis use. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, and nicotine use from early adolescence to middle adulthood.

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    Kendler, Kenneth S; Schmitt, Eric; Aggen, Steven H; Prescott, Carol A

    2008-06-01

    While both environmental and genetic factors are important in the etiology of psychoactive substance use (PSU), we know little of how these influences differ through development. To clarify the changing role of genes and environment in PSU from early adolescence through middle adulthood. Retrospective assessment by life history calendar, with univariate and bivariate structural modeling. General community. A total of 1796 members of male-male pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Levels of use of alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, and nicotine recorded for every year of the respondent's life. For nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis, familial environmental factors were critical in influencing use in early adolescence and gradually declined in importance through young adulthood. Genetic factors, by contrast, had little or no influence on PSU in early adolescence and gradually increased in their effect with increasing age. The sources of individual differences in caffeine use changed much more modestly over time. Substantial correlations were seen among levels of cannabis, nicotine, and alcohol use and specifically between caffeine and nicotine. In adolescence, those correlations were strongly influenced by shared effects from the familial environment. However, as individuals aged, more and more of the correlation in PSU resulted from genetic factors that influenced use of both substances. These results support an etiologic model for individual differences in PSU in which initiation and early patterns of use are strongly influenced by social and familial environmental factors while later levels of use are strongly influenced by genetic factors. The substantial correlations seen in levels of PSU across substances are largely the result of social environmental factors in adolescence, with genetic factors becoming progressively more important through early and middle adulthood.

  6. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee A Moore

    Full Text Available Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual's substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups.

  7. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis.

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    Moore, Ashlee A; Neale, Michael C; Silberg, Judy L; Verhulst, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual's substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups.

  8. Nicotine dependence predicts cannabis use disorder symptoms among adolescents and young adults.

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    Dierker, Lisa; Braymiller, Jessica; Rose, Jennifer; Goodwin, Renee; Selya, Arielle

    2018-06-01

    We evaluate if cigarette smoking and/or nicotine dependence predicts cannabis use disorder symptoms among adolescent and young adult cannabis users and whether the relationships differ based on frequency of cannabis use. Data were drawn from seven annual surveys of the NSDUH to include adolescents and young adults (age 12-21) who reported using cannabis at least once in the past 30 days (n = 21,928). Cannabis use frequency trends in the association between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and cannabis use disorder symptoms were assessed using Varying Coefficient Models (VCM's). Over half of current cannabis users also smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days (54.7% SE 0.48). Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was associated with earlier onset of cannabis use, more frequent cannabis use and a larger number of cannabis use disorder symptoms compared to those who did not smoke cigarettes. After statistical control for socio-demographic characteristics and other substance use behaviors, nicotine dependence but not cigarette smoking quantity or frequency was positively and significantly associated with each of the cannabis use disorder symptoms as well as the total number of cannabis symptoms endorsed. Higher nicotine dependence scores were consistently associated with the cannabis use disorder symptoms across all levels of cannabis use from 1 day used (past month) to daily cannabis use, though the relationship was strongest among infrequent cannabis users. Prevention and treatment efforts should consider cigarette smoking comorbidity when addressing the increasing proportion of the US population that uses cannabis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcohol consumption moderates the link between cannabis use and cannabis dependence in an internet survey.

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    Smucker Barnwell, Sara; Earleywine, Mitch; Gordis, Elana B

    2005-06-01

    The link between cannabis use and cannabis dependence remains poorly understood. Some people use cannabis regularly without signs of dependence; others show dependence despite using less. This study examined alcohol consumption as a moderator of this association. A sample of 476 people (primarily Caucasian men) who used cannabis at least once per week reported their alcohol consumption, cannabis use, and cannabis dependence symptoms in an Internet survey. Regressions revealed significant interactions between measures of cannabis use and alcohol consumption when predicting cannabis dependence. Cannabis use covaried with cannabis dependence, particularly in people who consumed alcohol frequently or in large amounts per week. Despite limitations, these data suggest that alcohol may decrease the safety of cannabis consumption. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of the effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and caffeine on birth size and subsequent growth.

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    Fried, P A; O'Connell, C M

    1987-01-01

    Maternal use of cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, and caffeine was established for four time periods; prepregnancy, first trimester, third trimester and average use over pregnancy. The relationship between such usage and growth parameters of offspring followed up from birth to 12 and 24 months of age were examined. Of the soft drugs used, nicotine had the most pronounced effect. After adjustment for other relevant variables, nicotine use prior to and during pregnancy was negatively related to weight and head circumference at birth. Furthermore, third trimester nicotine use was a stronger predictor of decreased weight and head circumference at birth than was first trimester use. The results obtained are consistent with ponderal index (PI) literature suggesting a recovery of growth retardation in infants with a lowered PI. Average consumption of greater than one ounce of absolute alcohol per day was negatively related to birth weight and length. Neither cannabis nor caffeine use had a significant negative effect on any growth parameter.

  11. Personality Disorders and the 3-Year Course of Alcohol, Drug, and Nicotine Use Disorders

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    Hasin, Deborah; Fenton, Miriam C.; Skodol, Andrew; Krueger, Robert; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Greenstein, Eliana; Blanco, Carlos; Grant, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Context Little is known about the role of a broad range of personality disorders in the course of substance use disorder (SUD), and whether these differ by substance. The existing literature focuses mostly on antisocial personality disorder and does not come to clear conclusions. Objective To determine the association between the ten DSM-IV personality disorders and the persistence of common SUDs in a 3-year prospective study of a national sample. Design Data were drawn from participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who had alcohol dependence (N=1,172), cannabis use disorder (N=454) or nicotine dependence (N=4,017) at baseline and who were re-interviewed three years later. Control variables included demographic characteristics, family history of substance disorders, baseline Axis I disorders and treatment status, and prior SUD duration. Main outcome measure Persistent SUD, defined as meeting full criteria for the relevant SUD throughout the 3-year follow-up period. Results Persistent SUD was found among 30.1% of participants with alcohol dependence, 30.8% with cannabis use disorder, and 56.6% with nicotine dependence at baseline. Axis I disorders did not have strong or consistent associations with persistent SUD. In contrast, antisocial personality disorder was significantly associated with persistent alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use disorders (adjusted odds ratios: 2.46-3.51), as was borderline personality disorder (adjusted odds ratios: 2.04-2.78) and schizotypal personality disorder (adjusted odds ratios: 1.65-5.90). Narcissistic, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders were less consistently associated with SUD persistence. Conclusions The consistent findings on the association of antisocial, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders with persistent SUD indicates the importance of these personality disorders in understanding the course of SUD. Future studies should examine dimensional

  12. Decision-Making Does not Moderate the Association between Cannabis Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescent Cannabis Users.

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    Ross, J Megan; Graziano, Paulo; Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Coxe, Stefany; Gonzalez, Raul

    2016-10-01

    Results from research conducted on the association between cannabis use and body mass index (BMI) reveal mixed findings. It is possible that individual differences in decision-making (DM) abilities may influence these associations. This study analyzed how amount of cannabis use, DM performance, and the interaction of these variables influenced BMI and clinical classifications of weight among adolescents (ages 14 to 18 years; 56% male; 77% Hispanic). The sample consisted primarily of cannabis users (n=238) without a history of significant developmental disorders, birth complications, neurological conditions, or history of mood, thought, or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder at screening. Furthermore, few participants engaged frequently in other drug use (except for alcohol and nicotine). Analyses revealed that more lifetime cannabis use was associated with a higher BMI and greater likelihood of being overweight/obese. Interactions between DM and cannabis use on BMI were not significant, and DM was not directly associated with BMI. Our findings suggest that among adolescents, cannabis use is associated with a greater BMI regardless of DM abilities and this association is not accounted for by other potential factors, including depression, alcohol use, nicotine use, race, ethnicity, or IQ. (JINS, 2016, 22, 944-949).

  13. Brain reactivity to alcohol and cannabis marketing during sobriety and intoxication.

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    de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Elizabeth B; Theunissen, Eef L; Kuypers, Kim P C; Evers, Elisabeth A; Stiers, Peter; Toennes, Stefan W; Witteman, Jurriaan; van Dalen, Wim; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2017-05-01

    Drugs of abuse stimulate striatal dopamine release and activate reward pathways. This study examined the impact of alcohol and cannabis marketing on the reward circuit in alcohol and cannabis users while sober and intoxicated. It was predicted that alcohol and cannabis marketing would increase striatal activation when sober and that reward sensitivity would be less during alcohol and cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21) participated in a mixed factorial study involving administration of alcohol and placebo in the alcohol group and cannabis and placebo in the cannabis group. Non-drug users (n = 20) served as between group reference. Brain activation after exposure to alcohol and cannabis marketing movies was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared between groups while sober and compared with placebo while intoxicated. Implicit alcohol and cannabis cognitions were assessed by means of a single-category implicit association test. Alcohol and cannabis marketing significantly increased striatal BOLD activation across all groups while sober. Striatal activation however decreased during intoxication with alcohol and cannabis. Implicit associations with cannabis marketing cues were significantly more positive in alcohol and cannabis users as compared with non-drug using controls. Public advertising of alcohol or cannabis use elicits striatal activation in the brain's reward circuit. Reduction of marketing would reduce brain exposure to reward cues that motivate substance use. Conversely, elevated dopamine levels protect against the reinforcing potential of marketing. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Cannabis use and dependence among French schizophrenic inpatients

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    Michel eLejoyeux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: 101 schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken.Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs 44.7 years pConclusion: 33.6 % of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment

  15. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure.

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    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.

  16. Alcohol and cannabis: Comparing their adverse health effects and regulatory regimes.

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    Hall, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    The claim that the adverse health effects of cannabis are much less serious than those of alcohol has been central to the case for cannabis legalisation. Regulators in US states that have legalised cannabis have adopted regulatory models based on alcohol. This paper critically examines the claim about adverse health effects and the wisdom of regulating cannabis like alcohol. First, it compares what we know about the adverse health effects of alcohol and cannabis. Second, it discusses the uncertainties about the long term health effects of sustained daily cannabis use. Third, it speculates about how the adverse health effects of cannabis may change after legalisation. Fourth, it questions the assumption that alcohol provides the best regulatory model for a legal cannabis market. Fifth, it outlines the major challenges in regulating cannabis under the liberal alcohol-like regulatory regimes now being introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use

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    Earleywine Mitch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.

  18. Alcohol's actions on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

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    Davis, Tiffany J; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that alcoholism and tobacco addiction often co-occur, relatively little information is available on the biological factors that regulate the co-use and abuse of nicotine and alcohol. In the brain, nicotine acts at several different types of receptors collectively known as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Alcohol also acts on at least some of these receptors, enhancing the function of some nAChR subtypes and inhibiting the activity of others. Chronic alcohol and nicotine administration also lead to changes in the numbers of nAChRs. Natural variations (i.e., polymorphisms) in the genes encoding different nAChR subunits may be associated with individual differences in the sensitivity to some of alcohol's and nicotine's effects. Finally, at least one subtype of nAChR may help protect cells against alcohol-induced neurotoxicity.

  19. Alcohol and cannabis use among college students: Substitutes or complements?

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    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2016-07-01

    Economists debate whether changes in availability of alcohol or cannabis are positively or negatively related to changes in use of the other substance. Implicit in these arguments are two competing, individual-level hypotheses-that people use alcohol and cannabis either as complements or substitutes for one another. This is the first study to test these hypotheses using micro-longitudinal data on individuals' alcohol and cannabis use on a given evening. United States college students who use alcohol and cannabis (n=876) were selected from a larger sample who participated in a 30-day online daily diary study. At baseline, students reported their proclivity to use alcohol/drugs to cope with stress. Each day students reported their level of alcohol use from the prior evening as well as whether they had used cannabis. Evening levels of alcohol use and mean levels of alcohol use positively predicted the likelihood of evening cannabis use, results indicative of complementary use. This relation, however, was moderated by coping style, such that students who were more likely to use alcohol/drugs to cope were less likely to use cannabis as their evening or mean alcohol use levels increased, results indicative of substitution. Substance-using college students showed evidence for complementary alcohol and cannabis use at both the within- and between-person levels. Students with a proclivity toward using alcohol/drugs to cope, however, showed evidence of substitution. These findings suggest that studies based on economic theories of substance use should take into account individual differences in substance use motives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING

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    Sewell, R. Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of toler...

  1. Substituting cannabis for prescription drugs, alcohol and other substances among medical cannabis patients: The impact of contextual factors.

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    Lucas, Philippe; Walsh, Zach; Crosby, Kim; Callaway, Robert; Belle-Isle, Lynne; Kay, Robert; Capler, Rielle; Holtzman, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed increased attention to how cannabis use impacts the use of other psychoactive substances. The present study examines the use of cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, illicit substances and prescription drugs among 473 adults who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes. The Cannabis Access for Medical Purposes Survey is a 414-question cross-sectional survey that was available to Canadian medical cannabis patients online and by hard copy in 2011 and 2012 to gather information on patient demographics, medical conditions and symptoms, patterns of medical cannabis use, cannabis substitution and barriers to access to medical cannabis. Substituting cannabis for one or more of alcohol, illicit drugs or prescription drugs was reported by 87% (n = 410) of respondents, with 80.3% reporting substitution for prescription drugs, 51.7% for alcohol, and 32.6% for illicit substances. Respondents who reported substituting cannabis for prescription drugs were more likely to report difficulty affording sufficient quantities of cannabis, and patients under 40 years of age were more likely to substitute cannabis for all three classes of substance than older patients. The finding that cannabis was substituted for all three classes of substances suggests that the medical use of cannabis may play a harm reduction role in the context of use of these substances, and may have implications for abstinence-based substance use treatment approaches. Further research should seek to differentiate between biomedical substitution for prescription pharmaceuticals and psychoactive drug substitution, and to elucidate the mechanisms behind both. [Lucas P, Walsh Z, Crosby K, Callaway R, Belle-Isle L, Kay B, Capler R, Holtzman S. Substituting cannabis for prescription drugs, alcohol, and other substances among medical cannabis patients: The impact of contextual factors. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:326-333]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.

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    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  3. Polysomnographic sleep disturbances in nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and cannabis use: A focused review.

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    Garcia, Alexandra N; Salloum, Ihsan M

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, approximately 60 million Americans suffer from sleep disorders and about 22 million Americans report substance dependence or use disorders annually. Sleep disturbances are common consequences of substance use disorders and are likely found in primary care as well as in specialty practices. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of the most frequently used substances-nicotine, alcohol, opioids, cocaine, caffeine, and cannabis-have on sleep parameters measured by polysomnography (PSG) and related clinical manifestations. We used electronic databases such as PubMED and PsycINFO to search for relevant articles. We only included studies that assessed sleep disturbances using polysomnography and reviewed the effects of these substances on six clinically relevant sleep parameters: Total sleep time, sleep onset latency, rapid-eye movement, REM latency, wake after sleep onset, and slow wave sleep. Our review indicates that these substances have significant impact on sleep and that their effects differ during intoxication, withdrawal, and chronic use. Many of the substance-induced sleep disturbances overlap with those encountered in sleep disorders, medical, and psychiatric conditions. Sleep difficulties also increase the likelihood of substance use disorder relapse, further emphasizing the need for optimizing treatment interventions in these patients. Our review highlights the importance of systematically screening for substance use in patients with sleep disturbances and highlights the need for further research to understand mechanisms underlying substances-induced sleep disturbances and on effective interventions addressing these conditions. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Substitution and Complementarity of Alcohol and Cannabis: A Review of the Literature.

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    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2016-09-18

    Whether alcohol and cannabis are used as substitutes or complements remains debated, and findings across various disciplines have not been synthesized to date. This article is a first step towards organizing the interdisciplinary literature on alcohol and cannabis substitution and complementarity. Electronic searches were performed using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge. Behavioral studies of humans with "alcohol" (or "ethanol") and "cannabis" (or "marijuana") and "complement(*)" (or "substitut(*)") in the title or as a keyword were considered. Studies were organized according to sample characteristics (youth, general population, clinical and community-based). These groups were not set a priori, but were informed by the literature review process. Of the 39 studies reviewed, 16 support substitution, ten support complementarity, 12 support neither and one supports both. Results from studies of youth suggest that youth may reduce alcohol in more liberal cannabis environments (substitute), but reduce cannabis in more stringent alcohol environments (complement). Results from the general population suggest that substitution of cannabis for alcohol may occur under more lenient cannabis policies, though cannabis-related laws may affect alcohol use differently across genders and racial groups. Alcohol and cannabis act as both substitutes and complements. Policies aimed at one substance may inadvertently affect consumption of other substances. Future studies should collect fine-grained longitudinal, prospective data from the general population and subgroups of interest, especially in locations likely to legalize cannabis.

  5. Concurrent Use of Cannabis and Alcohol: Neuropsychiatric Effect Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Anna; Torrens, Marta; Papaseit, Esther; Arellano, Ana Lucia; Farré, Magi

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent use of cannabis and alcohol is frequent. According different studies, the prevalence is among 20-34% depending on different samples studied. In contrast with the wide evidence available about neuropsychiatric effects associated to the use of cannabis or alcohol separately, there are few studies of the neuropsychiatric effects of their combination. Our aim was to review the literature regarding this topic. We performed a search in MEDLINE and from 114 potentially eligible studies, 27 were selected. Most of them studied the relation between cannabis and alcohol, and with them combined to other substances of abuse, but only a few considered their concurrent effect among mental disorders (ADHD, bipolar disorder) and neuropsychological performance. More research in the neuropsychiatric effects of the concomitant use of cannabis and alcohol is needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: Common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linzy M. Hendrickson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused. As many as 80-95% of alcoholics are also smokers, suggesting that ethanol and nicotine, the primary addictive component of tobacco smoke, may functionally interact in the central nervous system and/or share a common mechanism of action. While nicotine initiates dependence by binding to and activating neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, ligand-gated cation channels normally activated by endogenous acetylcholine (ACh, ethanol is much less specific with the ability to modulate multiple gene products including those encoding voltage-gated ion channels, and excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. However, emerging data indicate that ethanol interacts with nAChRs, both directly and indirectly, in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic reward circuitry to affect brain reward systems. Like nicotine, ethanol activates DAergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA which project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc. Blockade of VTA nAChRs reduces ethanol-mediated activation of DAergic neurons, NAc DA release, consumption, and operant responding for ethanol in rodents. Thus, ethanol may increase ACh release into the VTA driving activation of DAergic neurons through nAChRs. In addition, ethanol potentiates distinct nAChR subtype responses to ACh and nicotine in vitro and in DAergic neurons. The smoking cessation therapeutic and nAChR partial agonist, varenicline, reduces alcohol consumption in heavy drinking smokers and rodent models of alcohol consumption. Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms in nAChR subunit genes are associated with alcohol dependence phenotypes and smoking behaviors in human populations. Together, results from preclinical, clinical, and genetic studies indicate that nAChRs may have an inherent role in the abusive properties of ethanol, as well as in nicotine and alcohol co-dependence.

  7. The role of conduct disorder in the relationship between alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J D; Lynskey, M T; Madden, P A F; Nelson, E C; Few, L R; Bucholz, K K; Statham, D J; Martin, N G; Heath, A C; Agrawal, A

    2015-12-01

    Genetic influences contribute significantly to co-morbidity between conduct disorder and substance use disorders. Estimating the extent of overlap can assist in the development of phenotypes for genomic analyses. Multivariate quantitative genetic analyses were conducted using data from 9577 individuals, including 3982 complete twin pairs and 1613 individuals whose co-twin was not interviewed (aged 24-37 years) from two Australian twin samples. Analyses examined the genetic correlation between alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and cannabis abuse/dependence and the extent to which the correlations were attributable to genetic influences shared with conduct disorder. Additive genetic (a(2) = 0.48-0.65) and non-shared environmental factors explained variance in substance use disorders. Familial effects on conduct disorder were due to additive genetic (a(2) = 0.39) and shared environmental (c(2) = 0.15) factors. All substance use disorders were influenced by shared genetic factors (rg = 0.38-0.56), with all genetic overlap between substances attributable to genetic influences shared with conduct disorder. Genes influencing individual substance use disorders were also significant, explaining 40-73% of the genetic variance per substance. Among substance users in this sample, the well-documented clinical co-morbidity between conduct disorder and substance use disorders is primarily attributable to shared genetic liability. Interventions targeted at generally reducing deviant behaviors may address the risk posed by this shared genetic liability. However, there is also evidence for genetic and environmental influences specific to each substance. The identification of these substance-specific risk factors (as well as potential protective factors) is critical to the future development of targeted treatment protocols.

  8. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Wu, Dan; Viallon, Vivian; Laumon, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates), and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003. Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general. The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8) and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%). Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1) more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%). Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34), and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%). An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed. Almost a

  9. Cannabis, alcohol and fatal road accidents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Martin

    Full Text Available This research aims to estimate the relative risks of responsibility for a fatal accident linked to driving under the influence of cannabis or alcohol, the prevalence of these influences among drivers and the corresponding attributable risk ratios. A secondary goal is to estimate the same items for three other groups of illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine and opiates, and to compare the results to a similar study carried out in France between 2001 and 2003.Police procedures for fatal accidents in Metropolitan France during 2011 were analyzed and 300 characteristics encoded to provide a database of 4,059 drivers. Information on alcohol and four groups of illicit drugs derived from tests for positivity and potential confirmation through blood analysis. The study compares drivers responsible for causing the accident, that is to say having directly contributed to its occurrence, to drivers involved in an accident for which they were not responsible, and who can be assimilated to drivers in general.The proportion of persons driving under the influence of alcohol is estimated at 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8 and under the influence of cannabis at 3.4% (2.9%-3.9%. Drivers under the influence of alcohol are 17.8 times (12.1-26.1 more likely to be responsible for a fatal accident, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever exceeded the legal limit for alcohol is estimated at 27.7% (26.0%-29.4%. Drivers under the influence of cannabis multiply their risk of being responsible for causing a fatal accident by 1.65 (1.16-2.34, and the proportion of fatal accidents which would be prevented if no drivers ever drove under the influence of cannabis is estimated at 4.2% (3.7%-4.8%. An increased risk linked to opiate use has also been found to be significant, but with low prevalence, requiring caution in interpreting this finding. Other groups of narcotics have even lower prevalence, and the associated extra risks cannot be assessed

  10. Substitution and complementarity of alcohol and cannabis: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether alcohol and cannabis are used as substitutes or complements remains debated, and findings across various disciplines have not been synthesized to date. Objective This paper is a first step towards organizing the interdisciplinary literature on alcohol and cannabis substitution and complementarity. Method Electronic searches were performed using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge. Behavioral studies of humans with ‘alcohol’ (or ‘ethanol’) and ‘cannabis’ (or ‘marijuana”) and ‘complement*’ (or ‘substitut*’) in the title or as a keyword were considered. Studies were organized according to sample characteristics (youth, general population, clinical and community-based). These groups were not set a priori, but were informed by the literature review process. Results Of the 39 studies reviewed, 16 support substitution, ten support complementarity, 12 support neither and one supports both. Results from studies of youth suggest that youth may reduce alcohol in more liberal cannabis environments (substitute), but reduce cannabis in more stringent alcohol environments (complement). Results from the general population suggest that substitution of cannabis for alcohol may occur under more lenient cannabis policies, though cannabis-related laws may affect alcohol use differently across genders and racial groups. Conclusions Alcohol and cannabis act as both substitutes and complements. Policies aimed at one substance may inadvertently affect consumption of other substances. Future studies should collect fine-grained longitudinal, prospective data from the general population and subgroups of interest, especially in locations likely to legalize cannabis. PMID:27249324

  11. Delivering prevention for alcohol and cannabis using the Internet: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Andrews, Gavin; Teesson, Maree; Vogl, Laura E

    2009-06-01

    To establish the efficacy of an internet based prevention program to reduce alcohol and cannabis use in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 764 13-year olds from ten Australian secondary schools in 2007-2008. Half the schools were randomly allocated to the computerised prevention program (n=397), and half to their usual health classes (n=367). The Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis prevention course is facilitated by the internet and consists of novel, evidence-based, curriculum consistent lessons aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use. Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and at six months following the intervention. Compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant improvements in alcohol and cannabis knowledge at the end of the course and the six month follow-up. In addition, the intervention group showed a reduction in average weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of cannabis use at the six month follow-up. No differences between groups were found on alcohol expectancies, cannabis attitudes, or alcohol and cannabis related harms. The course is acceptable, scalable and fidelity is assured. It increased knowledge regarding alcohol and cannabis, and decreased use of these drugs.

  12. Nicotine dependence, use of illegal drugs and psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortega, José María; Jurado, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Gurpegui, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of smoking and nicotine dependence with psychiatric morbidity, controlling for the potential confounding effect of smoking on the relationship between the use of other substances and psychiatric morbidity. A sample of 290 adults were interviewed at a primary health centre (patients, 58%; patients' relatives, 34%; staff, 8%) to inquire about their tobacco, caffeine, alcohol, and illegal drug consumption. Psychiatric morbidity, defined by a score >6 on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), showed a strong direct association with nicotine dependence. The use of illegal drugs, but not of alcohol, was also strongly associated with psychiatric morbidity, after controlling for smoking. Both smoking and high nicotine dependence were also associated with use of caffeine, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine. High nicotine dependence may be considered as an expression of individual psychopathologic vulnerability. Tobacco may have a central facilitating role in the use of caffeine, alcohol, and illegal drug.

  13. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG, a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350 The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal, 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%, better symptom management (57%, and less withdrawal potential (34% with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one

  14. Recent Advances in Nicotinic Receptor Signaling in Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the profile of psychiatric manifestations in cannabis users: A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Indrajeet Sharma; Tulika Jha; Purshottam K. Kaundal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is the world's most commonly used illicit drug, with approximately 200 to 300 million regular users. It occupies fourth place in worldwide popularity among psychoactive drugs, after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Nowadays, cannabis is widely used by young people and, the prevalence of lifetime use of cannabis by young adults has increased in many developed countries over the past several decades. Methods: It was a one year cross-sectional observational study. The stu...

  17. Cue Reactivity in Nicotine and Alcohol Addiction: A Cross-Cultural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wanwan; Wu, Qichao; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Ying; Song, Hongwen; Yang, Lizhuang; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of research indicates that cue reactivity is critical to understanding the neurobiology of nicotine and alcohol addiction and developing treatments. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalograph (EEG) studies have shown abnormal cue reactivity in various conditions between nicotine or alcohol addicts and the healthy. Although the causes of these abnormalities are still unclear, cultural effect can not be ignored. We conduct an review of fMRI and EEG studies about the cue reactivity in nicotine and alcohol addiction and highlight the cultural perspective. We suggest that cultural cue reactivity is a field worth of exploring which may has an effect on addictive behavior through emotion and attention. The cultural role of nicotine and alcohol addiction would provide new insight into understanding the mechanisms of nicotine and alcohol addiction and developing culture-specific therapies. We consider that culture as a context may be a factor that causes confusing outcomes in exploring nicotine and alcohol addiction which makes it possible to control the cultural influences and further contribute to the more consistent results. PMID:27635123

  18. Verbal learning and memory in adolescent cannabis users, alcohol users and non-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Jones, Katy A; Rozman, Megan E; Davis, Sasha M; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat

    2011-07-01

    Long-term heavy cannabis use can result in memory impairment. Adolescent users may be especially vulnerable to the adverse neurocognitive effects of cannabis. In a cross-sectional and prospective neuropsychological study of 181 adolescents aged 16-20 (mean 18.3 years), we compared performance indices from one of the most widely used measures of learning and memory--the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test--between cannabis users (n=52; mean 2.4 years of use, 14 days/month, median abstinence 20.3 h), alcohol users (n=67) and non-user controls (n=62) matched for age, education and premorbid intellectual ability (assessed prospectively), and alcohol consumption for cannabis and alcohol users. Cannabis users performed significantly worse than alcohol users and non-users on all performance indices. They recalled significantly fewer words overall (pmemory performance after controlling for extent of exposure to cannabis. Despite relatively brief exposure, adolescent cannabis users relative to their age-matched counterparts demonstrated similar memory deficits to those reported in adult long-term heavy users. The results indicate that cannabis adversely affects the developing brain and reinforce concerns regarding the impact of early exposure.

  19. Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use: final results of the Climate Schools course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Vogl, Laura E; Andrews, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    To establish the long-term efficacy of a universal internet-based alcohol and cannabis prevention programme in schools. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, is facilitated by the internet and consists of 12 novel and curriculum consistent lessons delivered over 6 months. A total of 764 year 8 students (13 years) from 10 Australian secondary schools were allocated randomly to the internet-based prevention programme (n = 397, five schools), or to their usual health classes (n = 367, five schools). Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and 6 and 12 months following completion of the intervention, on measures of alcohol and cannabis knowledge, attitudes, use and related harms. This paper reports the final results of the intervention trial, 12 months following the completion of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The effectiveness of the course 6 months following the intervention has been reported previously. At the 12-month follow-up, compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant improvements in alcohol and cannabis knowledge, a reduction in average weekly alcohol consumption and a reduction in frequency of drinking to excess. No differences between groups were found on alcohol expectancies, cannabis attitudes or alcohol- and cannabis-related harms. The course was found to be acceptable by teachers and students as a means of delivering drug education in schools. Internet-based prevention programs for school-age children can improve student's knowledge about alcohol and cannabis, and may also reduce alcohol use twelve months after completion.

  20. Does cannabis use moderate smoking cessation outcomes in treatment-seeking tobacco smokers? Analysis from a large multi-center trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Rachel A; Ashare, Rebecca L; Schnoll, Robert A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; George, Tony P

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and cannabis are frequently used in combination and cannabis co-use may lead to poor tobacco cessation outcomes. Therefore, it is important to explore if cannabis co-use is associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving successful tobacco abstinence among treatment-seeking tobacco smokers. The present study examined whether current cannabis use moderated tobacco cessation outcomes after 12 weeks of pharmacological treatment (varenicline vs. nicotine patch vs. placebo) with adjunctive behavioral counseling. Treatment-seeking tobacco smokers (N = 1,246) were enrolled in an intent-to-treat study, of which 220 were current cannabis users. Individuals were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of placebo (placebo pill plus placebo patch), nicotine patch (active patch plus placebo pill), or varenicline (active pill plus placebo patch), plus behavioral counseling. The primary endpoint was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence at the end of treatment. Controlling for rate of nicotine metabolism, treatment arm, age, sex, alcohol, and level of nicotine dependence, cannabis users were as successful at achieving biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence compared to tobacco-only smokers. Findings suggest that cannabis use does not hinder the ability to quit tobacco smoking. Future tobacco cessation studies should employ prospective, longitudinal designs investigating cannabis co-use over time and at different severity levels. (Am J Addict 2016;25:291-296). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  1. Factors associated with alcohol consumption among medical cannabis patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan K; Walton, Maureen A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Bourque, Carrie; Ilgen, Mark A

    2018-02-01

    Chronic pain is the most common reason for medical cannabis certification. Data regarding alcohol use and risky drinking among medical cannabis patients with pain is largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and risky drinking in this population. Participants completed surveys regarding demographics, pain-related variables, anxiety, cannabis use, and past six-month alcohol consumption. Alcohol use groups were defined using the AUDIT-C [i.e., non-drinkers, low-risk drinkers, and high-risk drinkers (≥4 for men and ≥3 for women)] and compared on demographic characteristics, pain measures, anxiety, and cannabis use. Overall, 42% (n=330/780) were non-drinkers, 32% (n=251/780) were low-risk drinkers, and 26% (n=199/780) were high-risk drinkers. Compared to non-drinkers, low- and high-risk drinkers were significantly younger whereas a larger proportion of low-risk drinkers reported being African-American compared to non- or high-risk drinkers. High-risk drinkers reported significantly lower pain severity/interference compared to the other groups; high-risk drinkers were also less likely to be on disability compared to other groups. A multinomial logistic regression showed that patients reporting lower pain severity and less disability had greater odds of being classified a high-risk drinker. High-risk drinking appears common among medical cannabis patients. Future research should examine whether such use is concurrent or consecutive, and the relationship of such co-use patterns to consequences. Nevertheless, individuals treating patients reporting medical cannabis use for pain should consider alcohol consumption, with data needed regarding the efficacy of brief alcohol interventions among medical cannabis patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  3. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantella, Nicole M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  4. Cannabis and alcohol use, affect and impulsivity in psychiatric out-patients' daily lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Timothy J; Wycoff, Andrea M; Lane, Sean P; Carpenter, Ryan W; Brown, Whitney C

    2016-11-01

    Cannabis and alcohol are the most commonly used (il)licit drugs world-wide. We compared the effects of cannabis and alcohol use on within-person changes in impulsivity, hostility and positive affect at the momentary and daily levels, as they occurred in daily life. Observational study involving ecological momentary assessments collected via electronic diaries six random times a day for 28 consecutive days. Out-patients' everyday life contexts in Columbia, MO, USA. Ninety-three adult psychiatric out-patients (85% female; mean = 30.9 years old) with borderline personality or depressive disorders, who reported using only cannabis (n = 3), only alcohol (n = 58) or both (n = 32) at least once during the study period. Real-time, standard self-report measures of impulsivity, hostility and positive affect, as impacted by momentary reports of cannabis and alcohol use. Cannabis use was associated with elevated feelings of impulsivity at the day level [b = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17-1.49] and increased hostility at the momentary (b = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.01-0.12) and person (b = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.15-1.47) level. Alcohol use was associated with elevated feelings of impulsivity at the momentary (b = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.13-0.71) and day levels (b = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.22-1.41) and increased positive affect at the momentary (b = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.06-0.18) and day (b = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.16-0.49) levels. Cannabis and alcohol use are associated with increases in impulsivity (both), hostility (cannabis) and positive affect (alcohol) in daily life, and these effects are part of separate processes that operate on different time-scales (i.e. momentary versus daily). © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Modulation of the effects of alcohol on driving-related psychomotor skills by chronic exposure to cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A; Terry, P

    2002-03-01

    Many previous studies have reported that alcohol and cannabis produce additive psychomotor effects in acute combination, but few have explicitly tested whether chronic exposure to cannabis, in the absence of acute administration, alters the effects of alcohol on psychomotor performance. To test whether long-term cannabis use modulates the effects of alcohol on psychomotor skills and self-reported mood and sensation. Regular cannabis users (minimum: daily use for at least 3 years) and infrequent users (maximum: once-monthly use for at most 3 years) were matched for sex, age, alcohol intake and other drug use (14 participants in each group). Participants received alcohol (females 0.35 g/kg; males 0.45 g/kg) and placebo drinks. By urinalysis, only regular users tested positive for metabolites of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; breath alcohol levels were similar between groups. Participants were tested on a computerised tracking task that has been used to screen drugs for adverse effects on driving. The task involved tracking a moving target on a computer screen while simultaneously responding to occasional presentations of stimuli in the periphery of the screen. Tracking accuracy was similar for both groups after placebo, but alcohol caused a significant deterioration in performance among infrequent cannabis users relative to regular users. These changes were mirrored by significant changes in self-reported scores for dizziness, measured by visual analogue scales. Alcohol slowed reaction times, but not differentially between groups. For psychomotor skills relevant to driving, chronic cannabis use (in the absence of acute administration) does not potentiate the effects of alcohol. In fact, the superior tracking accuracy of regular users relative to infrequent users after alcohol, and their lower scores for dizziness, suggest that chronic cannabis use may instead confer cross-tolerance to specific effects of alcohol on behaviour.

  6. The selectively bred high alcohol sensitivity (HAS) and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats differ in sensitivity to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; Dawson, Ralph; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2002-06-01

    Studies in rodents selectively bred to differ in alcohol sensitivity have suggested that nicotine and ethanol sensitivities may cosegregate during selective breeding. This suggests that ethanol and nicotine sensitivities may in part be genetically correlated. Male and female high alcohol sensitivity (HAS), control alcohol sensitivity, and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats were tested for nicotine-induced alterations in locomotor activity, body temperature, and seizure activity. Plasma and brain levels of nicotine and its primary metabolite, cotinine, were measured in these animals, as was the binding of [3H]cytisine, [3H]epibatidine, and [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin in eight brain regions. Both replicate HAS lines were more sensitive to nicotine-induced locomotor activity depression than the replicate LAS lines. No consistent HAS/LAS differences were seen on other measures of nicotine sensitivity; however, females were more susceptible to nicotine-induced seizures than males. No HAS/LAS differences in nicotine or cotinine levels were seen, nor were differences seen in the binding of nicotinic ligands. Females had higher levels of plasma cotinine and brain nicotine than males but had lower brain cotinine levels than males. Sensitivity to a specific action of nicotine cosegregates during selective breeding for differential sensitivity to a specific action of ethanol. The differential sensitivity of the HAS/LAS rats is due to differences in central nervous system sensitivity and not to pharmacokinetic differences. The differential central nervous system sensitivity cannot be explained by differences in the numbers of nicotinic receptors labeled in ligand-binding experiments. The apparent genetic correlation between ethanol and nicotine sensitivities suggests that common genes modulate, in part, the actions of both ethanol and nicotine and may explain the frequent coabuse of these agents.

  7. Cannabis and crash responsibility while driving below the alcohol per se legal limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B; Camp, Bayliss

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing interest in how extensively the use of marijuana by drivers relates to crash involvement. While cognitive, lab-based studies are consistent in showing that the use of cannabis impairs driving tasks, epidemiological, field-based studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents. There is ample evidence that the presence of cannabis among drivers with a BAC≥0.08g/dL highly increases the likelihood of a motor vehicle crash. Less clear, however, is the contribution of cannabis to crash risk when drivers have consumed very little or no alcohol. This effort addresses this gap in knowledge. We took advantage of a unique database that merged fatal crashes in the California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS) and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which allows for a precise identification of crash responsibility. To account for recent increase in lab testing, we restricted our sample to cover only the years 1993-2009. A total of 4294 drivers were included in the analyses. Descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were run to model the contribution of alcohol and drugs to the likelihood of being responsible in a fatal crash. We found evidence that compared with drivers negative for alcohol and cannabis, the presence of cannabis elevates crash responsibility in fatal crashes among drivers at zero BACs (OR=1.89) and with 0cannabis on fatal crashes, in particular in the absence of alcohol, are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medicinal versus recreational cannabis use: Patterns of cannabis use, alcohol use, and cued-arousal among veterans who screen positive for PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loflin, Mallory; Earleywine, Mitch; Bonn-Miller, Marcel

    2017-05-01

    The present study is the first to test whether veterans who use cannabis specifically for the purposes of self-medication for their reported PTSD symptoms differ from veterans who use cannabis medicinally for other reasons, or recreationally, in terms of patterns of cannabis use, use of alcohol, and reactivity to written combat trauma reminders. Assessment measures were administered online to a sample of veterans with a history of cannabis use (n=1971). Cued arousal was assessed pre/post via a prompt about combat experiences. Hypotheses were tested using a series of Bonferroni corrected one-way analyses of variance, t-tests, bivariate and partial correlations, and a Chi-square test. Compared to recreational users, veterans who identify as medicinal cannabis users reported greater combat exposure (d=0.56), PTSD symptoms (d=1.02), subjective arousal when cued (d=0.25), and cannabis use (d frequency =0.40; d density =0.42), but less alcohol use (d=0.28). Few differences were observed between medicinal users who reported using for PTSD versus those who reported using for other reasons. Compared to those who use cannabis recreationally, veterans who report that they use cannabis medicinally use more cannabis and endorse significantly more symptoms of arousal following a prompt about combat trauma experiences. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The risk for persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence: the role of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Stohl, Malka; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Goodwin, Renee D; Skodol, Andrew E; Krueger, Robert F; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol and nicotine dependence are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially when cases are persistent. The risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence is increased by childhood maltreatment. However, the influence of childhood maltreatment on dependence course is unknown, and is evaluated in the current study. Physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, were evaluated as predictors of persistent alcohol and nicotine dependence over 3 years of follow-up, with and without control for other childhood adversities. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). NESARC participants completing baseline and follow-up who met criteria at baseline for past-year alcohol dependence (n = 1172) and nicotine dependence (n = 4017). Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS) measures of alcohol/nicotine dependence, childhood maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (e.g. parental divorce). Controlling for demographics only, physical, sexual and emotional abuse and physical neglect predicted 3-year persistence of alcohol dependence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.50-2.99; 95% CI = 1.04-4.68] and nicotine dependence (AOR = 1.37-1.74; 95% CI = 1.13-2.11). With other childhood adversities also controlled, maltreatment types remained predictive for alcohol persistence (AOR = 1.53-3.02; 95% CI = 1.07-4.71) and nicotine persistence (AOR = 1.35-1.72; 95% CI = 1.11-2.09). Further, a greater number of maltreatment types incrementally influenced persistence risk (AOR = 1.19-1.36; 95% CI = 1.11-1.56). A history of childhood maltreatment predicts persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence. This association, robust to control for other childhood adversities, suggests that maltreatment (rather than a generally difficult childhood) affects the course of dependence. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Study of Personality Factors in Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    has ever been on an alcoholism treatment unit can attest to the high rate of nicotine and caffeine consumption in this population. More empirically...administrations of cannabis . Moreover, despite the crucial role of learning in substance use, people still choose and perceive their learning...Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45’, 609-611. Bachman, J., & Jones, R. Personality correlates of cannabis dependence. Addictive Behaviors

  11. The effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, and tetrahydrocannabinol on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesta, Dominik H; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Burtscher, Martin; Roberts, Christian K

    2013-12-13

    Caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are among the most prevalent and culturally accepted drugs in western society. For example, in Europe and North America up to 90% of the adult population drinks coffee daily and, although less prevalent, the other drugs are also used extensively by the population. Smoked tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption and marijuana (cannabis) smoking are addictive and exhibit adverse health effects. These drugs are not only common in the general population, but have also made their way into elite sports because of their purported performance-altering potential. Only one of the drugs (i.e., caffeine) has enough scientific evidence indicating an ergogenic effect. There is some preliminary evidence for nicotine as an ergogenic aid, but further study is required; cannabis and alcohol can exhibit ergogenic potential under specific circumstances but are in general believed to be ergolytic for sports performance. These drugs are currently (THC, ethanol) or have been (caffeine) on the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency or are being monitored (nicotine) due to their potential ergogenic or ergolytic effects. The aim of this brief review is to evaluate the effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and THC by: 1) examining evidence supporting the ergogenic or ergolytic effects; 2) providing an overview of the mechanism(s) of action and physiological effects; and 3) where appropriate, reviewing their impact as performance-altering aids used in recreational and elite sports.

  12. R-Modafinil Attenuates Nicotine-Taking and Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Yang, Hong-Ju; Gao, Jun-Tao; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Slack, Rachel D; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    (±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:25613829

  13. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom profiles and concurrent problems with alcohol and cannabis: sex differences in a representative, population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; van der Maas, Mark; Toplak, Maggie E; Erickson, Patricia G; Mann, Robert E; Seeley, Jane; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2016-02-27

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a robust association with alcohol and cannabis misuse, and these relationships are expressed differently in males and females. Manifestation of specific ADHD symptom profiles, even in the absence of the full disorder, may also be related to problems with alcohol and cannabis, although these relationships have not been investigated in epidemiological studies. To address this question, we studied the sex-specific associations of ADHD symptomatology with problematic alcohol and cannabis use in a representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older residing in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Monitor, an ongoing cross-sectional telephone survey, between January 2011 and December 2013. Respondents (n =  5080) reported on current ADHD symptomatology, measured using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Version 1.1 Screener (ASRS-V1.1) and four additional items, and alcohol and cannabis use, which were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), respectively. Logistic regression analyses were conducted in men and women to test the association of each ADHD symptom cluster (hyperactivity, inattentiveness, impulsivity) with problematic alcohol and cannabis use. After controlling for age, education, and comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, hyperactive symptoms were associated with problematic alcohol use in both men and women and with problematic cannabis use in men. Impulsive symptoms were independently associated with problematic cannabis use in men. By contrast, inattentive symptomatology predicted problems with alcohol and cannabis only in women. In all models, age was negatively associated with substance misuse and externalizing behavior was positively correlated and the strongest predictor of hazardous alcohol and cannabis use. ADHD symptom

  14. Regular cannabis and alcohol use is associated with resting-state time course power spectra in incarcerated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Sandra; Rashid, Barnaly; Gopal, Shruti; Nyalakanti, Prashanth; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2017-09-01

    Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin. All participants were scanned at the maximum-security facilities using The Mind Research Network's 1.5T Avanto SQ Mobile MRI scanner. Information on cannabis and alcohol regular use duration was collected using self-report. Resting-state networks were computed using group independent component analysis in 201 participants. Associations with cannabis and alcohol use were assessed using Mancova analyses controlling for age, IQ, smoking and psychopathy scores in the complete case sample of 180 male juvenile delinquents. No associations between alcohol or cannabis use and network spatial maps were found. Longer cannabis use was associated with decreased low frequency power of the default mode network, the executive control networks (ECNs), and several sensory networks, and with decreased functional network connectivity. Duration of alcohol use was associated with decreased low frequency power of the right frontoparietal network, salience network, dorsal attention network, and several sensory networks. Our findings suggest that adolescent cannabis and alcohol use are associated with widespread differences in resting-state time course power spectra, which may persist even after abstinence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring spatial and temporal trends of nicotine and alcohol consumption in Australia using wastewater-based epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Foon Yin; Gartner, Coral; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Steve; O'Brien, Jake; Tscharke, Benjamin J; Been, Frederic; Gerber, Cobus; White, Jason; Thai, Phong; Bruno, Raimondo; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, K Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2018-06-01

    Tobacco and alcohol consumption remain priority public health issues world-wide. As participation in population-based surveys has fallen, it is increasingly challenging to estimate accurately the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an alternative approach for estimating substance use at the population level that does not rely upon survey participation. This study examined spatio-temporal patterns in nicotine (a proxy for tobacco) and alcohol consumption in the Australian population via WBE. Daily wastewater samples (n = 164) were collected at 18 selected wastewater treatment plants across Australia, covering approximately 45% of the total population. Nicotine and alcohol metabolites in the samples were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Daily consumption of nicotine and alcohol and its associated uncertainty were computed using Monte Carlo simulations. Nation-wide daily average and weekly consumption of these two substances were extrapolated using ordinary least squares and mixed-effect models. Nicotine and alcohol consumption was observed in all communities. Consumption of these substances in rural towns was three to four times higher than in urban communities. The spatial consumption pattern of these substances was consistent across the monitoring periods in 2014-15. Nicotine metabolites significantly reduced by 14-25% (P = 0.001-0.008) (2014-15) in some catchments. Alcohol consumption remained constant over the studied periods. Strong weekly consumption patterns were observed for alcohol but not nicotine. Nation-wide, the daily average consumption per person (aged 15-79 years) was estimated at approximately 2.5 cigarettes and 1.3-2.0 standard drinks (weekday-weekend) of alcohol. These estimates were close to the sale figure and apparent consumption, respectively. Wastewater-based epidemiology is a feasible method for objectively evaluating the geographic, temporal and weekly profiles of

  16. Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis consumption in adolescents from a multicultural population (Burela, Lugo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Geada, Ainara; Busto Miramontes, Alicia; Caamaño Isorna, Francisco

    2018-01-15

    Social inequalities have been associated with morbidity and mortality. Gender, ethnic group and inequalities were studied in an adolescent population to analyze alcohol, tobacco and cannabis consumption. We carried out a cross-sectional study of pupils from high schools in Burela (northern Spain) (n=238). We used the "Factors de Risc en Estudiants de Secundária" questionnaire designed by Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona. nationality and weekly pocket money. Dependent variables: expectations and consumption of alcohol, tobacco and marihuana. Logistic regression was used. Participation in the study reached 91%. The proportion of pupils that have tried alcohol on occasion increases with age (27.3%, 47.7%, 75.9%), as with tobacco (1.8%, 7.6%, 17.0%), and cannabis (0%, 3.1%, 7.0%). Higher levels of spending money constitute a risk factor for tasting alcohol (OR=3.01), for high-risk consumption (OR=3.35), for getting drunk (OR=6.45) and for trying marijuana (OR=15.30). Sex and nationality were not shown to be associated with the use of any of these three drugs. The results of our study show that consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis increases with age and with increased spending money. The data do not support the argument that foreign pupils are a risk group for alcohol consumption, so they should not be stigmatized.

  17. Persistent cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence represent risks for midlife economic and social problems: A longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Meier, Madeline H.; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Hogan, Sean; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18–38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife. Cannabis dependence was not linked to traffic-related convictions. Associations were not explained by socioeconomic adversity, childhood psychopathology, achievement orientation, or family structure; cannabis-related criminal convictions; early onset of cannabis dependence; or comorbid substance dependence. Cannabis dependence was associated with more financial difficulties than alcohol dependence; no difference was found in risks for other economic or social problems. Cannabis dependence is not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than alcohol dependence. PMID:28008372

  18. Childhood maltreatment, personality disorders and 3-year persistence of adult alcohol and nicotine dependence in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Stohl, Malka; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Skodol, Andrew E; Eaton, Nicholas R; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Goodwin, Renee D; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-05-01

    Persistent cases of alcohol and nicotine dependence are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and are predicted by childhood maltreatment and personality disorders. Our aim was to test whether personality disorders (individually or conjointly) mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and the persistence of dependence. Personality disorders, modeled dimensionally, were tested as mediators of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and the 3-year persistence of alcohol and nicotine dependence in participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who had current alcohol and nicotine dependence in their baseline interview. Individual personality disorders were assessed in separate models. Then, those that were significant were examined jointly in multiple mediator models to determine their total and unique effects. A large, nationally representative US survey. Participants ≥ 18 years who completed baseline and 3-year follow-up NESARC interviews who had baseline alcohol dependence (n = 1172; 68% male) or nicotine dependence (n = 4017; 52.9% male). Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-IV) measures of childhood maltreatment, personality disorders and alcohol/nicotine dependence. Individual models indicated that many personality disorders mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and the 3-year persistence of alcohol and nicotine dependence (each explaining 6-46% of the total effect, Ps Personality disorder symptoms (especially borderline and antisocial) help explain the association between childhood maltreatment and persistent alcohol and nicotine dependence. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Cannabis use and abuse correlates in a homogenous South African schizophrenia population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezl Koen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Worldwide, cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance, and it has been identified as a correlate in schizophrenia samples for poorer symptomatic and functional outcomes in many international studies. The object of this retrospective study was to identify the prevalence of cannabis use/abuse and the demographic and clinical correlates therefor in a large homogeneous South African schizophrenia population. Methods. As part of a large genetic study, 547 subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were collected and each participant underwent a urinary drug screen. Use/abuse of cannabis was defined as using cannabis more than 21 times in a single year. Subjects with and without cannabis use/abuse were statistically compared. Results. Significant differences between the two groups were found in terms of gender, marital status, age of onset of schizophrenia, number of hospitalisations and relapses, alcohol abuse, smoking, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS scores for hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behaviour and formal thought disorder, and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS score for avolition/apathy. Conclusion. The prevalence of cannabis use/abuse in this study was high, and our findings were comparable with those of previous international studies. Abuse/use started mainly in the teenage years, was more prevalent among males than females, and was associated with negative overall outcomes. There was also a positive correlation between cannabis and nicotine and alcohol use/abuse. Determination of cannabis abuse based solely on history was found to be reliable, and urine cannabis testing appeared to be of limited value in routine management of this group of schizophrenic patients.

  20. The effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, and tetrahydrocannabinol on exercise performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pesta, Dominik H; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Burtscher, Martin; Roberts, Christian K

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are among the most prevalent and culturally accepted drugs in western society. For example, in Europe and North America up to 90% of the adult population drinks coffee daily and, although less prevalent, the other drugs are also used extensively by the population. Smoked tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption and marijuana (cannabis) smoking are addictive and exhibit adverse health effects. These drugs are not only com...

  1. Job exposure to the public in relation with alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Findings from the CONSTANCES cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Airagnes

    Full Text Available To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use.From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily, and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women, the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely. Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28 drinks per week in men(women, heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month, alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence, tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more. Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status.Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance.Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to

  2. Job exposure to the public in relation with alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Findings from the CONSTANCES cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airagnes, Guillaume; Lemogne, Cédric; Goldberg, Marcel; Hoertel, Nicolas; Roquelaure, Yves; Limosin, Frédéric; Zins, Marie

    2018-01-01

    To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients) and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily), and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women), the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely). Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28) drinks per week in men(women)), heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month), alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence), tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day) and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more). Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status. Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk), tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance. Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to

  3. The diverging trajectories of cannabis and tobacco policies in the United States: reasons and possible implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2018-04-01

    To examine briefly the (i) rationales for two policy proposals in the United States to make it mandatory for cigarettes to contain very low levels of nicotine and to legalize cannabis for recreational use by adults; and (ii) possible lessons that participants in each policy debate may learn from each other. We briefly describe the diverging policies towards cannabis and tobacco in the United States, explain and critically analyse their rationales and discuss possible policy lessons. Advocates of cannabis legalization have argued that prohibition has been an ineffective and expensive policy that penalizes ethnic minority users unjustly of a drug that is far less harmful than alcohol. The prohibition of traditional tobacco cigarettes has been advocated as a way to eliminate cigarette smoking. These proposals embody very different attitudes towards the harms of recreational adult drug use. Advocates of nicotine prohibition demand that alternative methods of nicotine delivery must be shown to be completely safe before adults are allowed to use them. Advocates of tobacco prohibition ignore evidence that smokers may not use these products and the likelihood of expanding the illicit tobacco market. Advocates of legalizing and regulating recreational cannabis ignore the need to tax and regulate sales in order to minimize the harms of heavy use. It is not clear that the prohibition of adult use has a useful role to play in the regulation of either cannabis or tobacco. If both products remain legal, the goals of regulating tobacco and cannabis products should be to restrict youth access, promote the use of the least harmful products, provide users with evidence-based information on both absolute and differential product risks of use and use differential taxes and marketing controls to promote ways of using these products that cause the least harm to their users. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of treatment utilization among adults with cannabis use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Mannelli, Paolo; Swartz, Marvin S

    2017-08-01

    The increase in cannabis potency may have treatment implications for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Given the reported increase in prevalence of cannabis use among adults, there is a need to understand substance use treatment needs for CUD. We examined demographics and behavioral health indicators of adults aged ≥18 years that met criteria for past-year CUD (n=10,943) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We determined prevalence and correlates of past-year treatment use for alcohol/drug, any drug, and cannabis use related problems, to inform treatment efforts for CUD. The majority of adults with past-year CUD were young adults aged 18-25 or men, had low income, and did not attend college. Two-thirds of adults with CUD met criteria for cannabis dependence, which was comparatively common among younger adults, women, low-income or publicly insured adults, and college-educated adults. Nicotine dependence (40.92%) and alcohol (44.07%) or other drug use disorder (19.70%) were prevalent among adults with CUD. Overall, less than 13% of adults with CUD had received alcohol/drug use treatment the past year; only 7.8% received cannabis-specific treatment. There was no significant yearly variation in treatment use prevalence over 9 years. In particular, Asian-Americans, women, and college-educated adults underutilized cannabis-specific treatment. This large sample of adults with CUD reveals pervasive underutilization of cannabis-related treatment, especially in women, married adults, and those with college education, despite a high proportion of comorbid behavioral health problems. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In alcohol-dependent drinkers, what does the presence of nicotine dependence tell us about psychiatric and addictive disorders comorbidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas; Gorwood, Philip

    2010-01-01

    To examine the pattern of psychiatric comorbidity associated with nicotine dependence among alcohol-dependent respondents in the general population. Drawn from a US national survey of 43,000 adults The (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions) who took part in a face-to-face interview, data were examined on the 4782 subjects with lifetime alcohol dependence, and comparisons were made between those with and those without nicotine dependence. Nicotine dependence was reported by 48% of the alcohol-dependent respondents. They reported higher lifetime rates of panic disorder, specific and social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, manic disorder, suicide attempt, antisocial personality disorder and all addictive disorders than those without nicotine dependence. After controlling for the effects of any psychiatric and addictive disorder, alcohol-dependent subjects with nicotine dependence were more than twice as likely as non-nicotine-dependent, alcohol-dependent subjects to have at least one other lifetime addiction diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval 2.07-2.68). Nicotine dependence represents a general marker of psychiatric comorbidity, particularly of addictive comorbidity. It may be used as a screening measure for psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice as well as in future trials.

  6. Patterns of cannabis use during adolescence and their association with harmful substance use behaviour: findings from a UK birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michelle; Collin, Simon M; Munafò, Marcus R; MacLeod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Heron, Jon

    2017-08-01

    Evidence on the role of cannabis as a gateway drug is inconsistent. We characterise patterns of cannabis use among UK teenagers aged 13-18 years, and assess their influence on problematic substance use at age 21 years. We used longitudinal latent class analysis to derive trajectories of cannabis use from self-report measures in a UK birth cohort. We investigated (1) factors associated with latent class membership and (2) whether latent class membership predicted subsequent nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use and recent use of other illicit drugs at age 21 years. 5315 adolescents had three or more measures of cannabis use from age 13 to 18 years. Cannabis use patterns were captured as four latent classes corresponding to 'non-users' (80.1%), 'late-onset occasional' (14.2%), 'early-onset occasional' (2.3%) and 'regular' users (3.4%). Sex, mother's substance use, and child's tobacco use, alcohol consumption and conduct problems were strongly associated with cannabis use. At age 21 years, compared with the non-user class, late-onset occasional, early-onset occasional and regular cannabis user classes had higher odds of nicotine dependence (OR=3.5, 95% CI 0.7 to 17.9; OR=12.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 150.3; and OR=37.2, 95% CI 9.5 to 144.8, respectively); harmful alcohol consumption (OR=2.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 4.3; OR=5.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 12.1; and OR=2.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.1, respectively); and other illicit drug use (OR=22.7, 95% CI 11.3 to 45.7; OR=15.9, 95% CI 3.9 to 64.4; and OR=47.9, 95% CI 47.9 to 337.0, respectively). One-fifth of the adolescents in our sample followed a pattern of occasional or regular cannabis use, and these young people were more likely to progress to harmful substance use behaviours in early adulthood. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. A cross-validation trial of an Internet-based prevention program for alcohol and cannabis: Preliminary results from a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Katrina E; Newton, Nicola C; Stapinski, Lexine; Slade, Tim; Barrett, Emma L; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Replication is an important step in evaluating evidence-based preventive interventions and is crucial for establishing the generalizability and wider impact of a program. Despite this, few replications have occurred in the prevention science field. This study aims to fill this gap by conducting a cross-validation trial of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis course, an Internet-based prevention program, among a new cohort of Australian students. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 1103 students (Mage: 13.25 years) from 13 schools in Australia in 2012. Six schools received the Climate Schools course and 7 schools were randomized to a control group (health education as usual). All students completed a self-report survey at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Mixed-effects regressions were conducted for all outcome variables. Outcomes assessed included alcohol and cannabis use, knowledge and intentions to use these substances. Compared to the control group, immediately post-intervention the intervention group reported significantly greater alcohol (d = 0.67) and cannabis knowledge (d = 0.72), were less likely to have consumed any alcohol (even a sip or taste) in the past 6 months (odds ratio = 0.69) and were less likely to intend on using alcohol in the future (odds ratio = 0.62). However, there were no effects for binge drinking, cannabis use or intentions to use cannabis. These preliminary results provide some support for the Internet-based Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis course as a feasible way of delivering alcohol and cannabis prevention. Intervention effects for alcohol and cannabis knowledge were consistent with results from the original trial; however, analyses of longer-term follow-up data are needed to provide a clearer indication of the efficacy of the intervention, particularly in relation to behavioral changes. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. The neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate neutralized the learning impairment induced by intrahippocampal nicotine in alcohol-drinking rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-García, E; Pallarès, M

    2005-01-01

    The effects of intrahippocampal administration of nicotine and the neurosteroids pregnenolone sulfate and allopregnanolone on acquiring the lever-press response and extinction in a Skinner box were examined using voluntary alcohol-drinking rats. A free-choice drinking procedure that implies early availability of the alcoholic solution (10% ethanol v/v+3% glucose w/v in distilled water) was used. Alcohol and control rats were deprived of food and assigned at random to six groups. Each group received two consecutive intrahippocampal (dorsal CA1) injections immediately after 1-h of drinking ethanol and before the free lever-press response shaping and extinction session. The groups were: saline-saline; saline-pregnenolone sulfate (5 ng, 24 microM); saline-allopregnanolone (0.2 microg, 1.26 microM); nicotine (4.6 microg, 20 mM)-saline; nicotine-pregnenolone sulfate; nicotine-allopregnanolone. Blood alcohol concentrations were assessed the day before conditioning. The combination of the oral self-administration of ethanol and the intrahippocampal injection of nicotine deteriorated the ability to acquire the lever-press response. This effect was neutralized by intrahippocampal pregnenolone sulfate (negative modulator of the GABA(A) receptor complex), and it was not affected by intrahippocampal allopregnanolone (positive GABA receptor complex A modulator). Pregnenolone sulfate and allopregnanolone had no effects per se on lever-press acquisition, neither in alcohol-drinking rats nor in controls. Alcohol consumption facilitated operant extinction just as anxiolytics that act as positive modulators of the GABA receptor complex A receptors do, possibly reducing the anxiety or aversion related to non-reinforcement. This effect was increased by intrahippocampal nicotine.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of vaping cannabis in a sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Connor B; Hill, Melanie L; Pardini, Dustin A; Meier, Madeline H

    2016-12-01

    Vaping nicotine (i.e., the use of e-cigarettes and similar devices to inhale nicotine) is becoming increasingly popular among young people. Though some vaporizers are capable of vaporizing cannabis, sparse research has investigated this method of cannabis administration. The present study examines the prevalence and correlates of vaping cannabis in a sample of 482 college students. Participants reported high lifetime rates of vaping nicotine (37%) and cannabis (29%). Men (r s = 0.09, p = .047) and individuals from higher socioeconomic status families (r s = 0.14, p = .003) vaped cannabis more frequently than women and individuals from lower SES families. In addition, those who vaped cannabis more frequently were more open to new experiences (r s = 0.17, p vaping were frequent cannabis use (r s = 0.70, p vaping (r s = 0.46, p vaping cannabis, endorsed by 65% of those who had vaped cannabis, was convenience and discreetness for use in public places. Several correlates distinguished cannabis users who vaped from cannabis users who did not vape, most notably more frequent cannabis use (odds ratios [OR] = 3.68, p vaping (OR = 1.73, p vaping is prevalent among young adults, particularly among those who use other substances frequently and have more favorable attitudes toward smoking cannabis. Research is needed on the antecedents and potential harms and benefits of cannabis vaping in young adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The nicotine + alcohol interoceptive drug state: contribution of the components and effects of varenicline in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Patrick A; Cannady, Reginald; Besheer, Joyce

    2016-08-01

    Nicotine and alcohol co-use is highly prevalent, and as such, individuals experience the interoceptive effects of both substances together. Therefore, examining sensitivity to a compound nicotine and alcohol (N + A) interoceptive cue is critical to broaden our understanding of mechanisms that may contribute to nicotine and alcohol co-use. This work assessed the ability of a N + A interoceptive cue to gain control over goal-tracking behavior and determined the effects of the α4β2 nicotinic partial agonist and smoking cessation compound varenicline on sensitivity to N + A. Two groups of male Long Evans rats were trained to discriminate N + A (0.4 mg/kg nicotine + 1 g/kg alcohol, intragastric gavage (IG)) from water under two different training conditions using a Pavlovian drug discrimination task. The effects of varenicline (0, 1, 3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (IP)) administered alone and on sensitivity to N + A and the components were determined. Under both training conditions, N + A rapidly gained control over behavior, with a greater contribution of nicotine to the N + A compound cue. Varenicline fully substituted for the N + A training dose, and varenicline (1 mg/kg) enhanced sensitivity to the lowest N + A dose (0.1 N + 0.1 A). Given the high selectivity of varenicline for the α4β2 receptor, this finding suggests a functional role for α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in modulating sensitivity to N + A. The N + A compound cue is a unique cue that is modulated, in part, by activity at the α4β2 nAChR. These findings advance understanding of the interoceptive effects of nicotine and alcohol in combination and may have implications in relation to their co-use.

  11. Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, Anja C; Mulder, Eduard J H

    2006-01-01

    Teratological investigations have demonstrated that agents that are relatively harmless to the mother may have significant negative consequences to the fetus. Among these agents, prenatal alcohol, nicotine or cannabis exposure have been related to adverse offspring outcomes. Although there is a relatively extensive body of literature that has focused upon birth and behavioral outcomes in newborns and infants after prenatal exposure to maternal smoking, drinking and, to a lesser extent, cannabis use, information on neurobehavioral and cognitive teratogenic findings beyond these early ages is still quite limited. Furthermore, most studies have focused on prenatal exposure to heavy levels of smoking, drinking or cannabis use. Few recent studies have paid attention to low or moderate levels of exposure to these substances. This review endeavors to provide an overview of such studies, and includes animal findings and potential mechanisms that may explain the mostly subtle effects found on neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to either maternal smoking, alcohol or cannabis use is related to some common neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes, including symptoms of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity), increased externalizing behavior, decreased general cognitive functioning, and deficits in learning and memory tasks.

  12. Sleep quality during exam stress: the role of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Academic exam stress is known to compromise sleep quality and alter drug consumption in university students. Here we evaluated if sleeping problems and changes in legal drug consumption during exam stress are interrelated. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to survey sleep quality before, during, and after an academic exam period in 150 university students in a longitudinal questionnaire study. Self-reports of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumption were obtained. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20) was used as a measure of stress. Sleep quality and alcohol consumption significantly decreased, while perceived stress and caffeine consumption significantly increased during the exam period. No significant change in nicotine consumption was observed. In particular, students shortened their time in bed and showed symptoms of insomnia. Mixed model analysis indicated that sex, age, health status, as well as the amounts of alcohol and caffeine consumed had no significant influence on global sleep quality. The amount of nicotine consumed and perceived stress were identified as significant predictors of diminished sleep quality. Nicotine consumption had a small-to-very-small effect on sleep quality; perceived stress had a small-to-moderate effect. In conclusion, diminished sleep quality during exam periods was mainly predicted by perceived stress, while legal drug consumption played a minor role. Exam periods may pose an interesting model for the study of stress-induced sleeping problems and their mechanisms.

  13. Polygenic risk scores for smoking: predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Neale, M.C.; Furberg, H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: A strong correlation exists between smoking and the use of alcohol and cannabis. This paper uses polygenic risk scores to explore the possibility of overlapping genetic factors. Those scores reflect a combined effect of selected risk alleles for smoking. Methods: Summary-level

  14. Cannabis Use When it's Legal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment

  15. The role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aimed to investigate the role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use. First, we investigated the association of specific parental drinking patterns with 12-15 year olds' drinking. Only two out of six parental drinking patterns, i.e. having a heavy drinking father

  16. The New Cannabis Policy Taxonomy on APIS: Making Sense of the Cannabis Policy Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzner, Michael D; Thomas, Sue; Schuler, Jonathan; Hilton, Michael; Mosher, James

    2017-06-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS) is, for the first time, adding legal data pertaining to recreational cannabis use to its current offerings on alcohol policy. Now that Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia have legalized aspects of recreational cannabis, and more states are considering it, there is an urgency to provide high-quality, multi-dimensional legal data to the public health community. This article introduces the Cannabis Policy Taxonomy recently posted on APIS, and explores its theoretical and empirical contributions to the substance abuse literature and its potential for use in policy research. We also present results of interviews with public health experts in alcohol and cannabis policy, which sought to determine the most important variables to address in the initial release of cannabis policy data. From this process, we found that pricing controls emerged as the variable singled out by the largest number of experts. This analysis points to a host of vital policies that are of increasing importance to public health policy scholars and their current and future research.

  17. Drug, nicotine, and alcohol use among exercisers: Does substance addiction co-occur with exercise addiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szabo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking. Aims: The aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users and severity (level of problem in users among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i asymptomatic, (ii symptomatic, and (iii at-risk. Methods: A sample of 538 regular exercisers were surveyed via the Qualtrics research platform. They completed the (i Drug Use Disorder Identification Test, (ii Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, (iii Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and (iv Exercise Addition Inventory. Results: A large proportion (n=59; 10.97% of the sample was found to be at risk for exercise addiction. The proportion of drug and alcohol users among these participants did not differ from the rest of the sample. However, the incidence of nicotine consumption was lowest among them. The severity of problematic substance use did not differ across the groups. Conclusions: These findings suggest that substance addiction and the risk for exercise addiction are unrelated. In fact, those at risk for exercise addiction exhibited the healthiest profile related to the prevalence of smoking. Keywords: Alcohol drinking, Cigarette smoking, Exercise dependence, Illicit substance use, Physical activity, Sport

  18. Sleep quality during exam stress: the role of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Zunhammer

    Full Text Available Academic exam stress is known to compromise sleep quality and alter drug consumption in university students. Here we evaluated if sleeping problems and changes in legal drug consumption during exam stress are interrelated. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI to survey sleep quality before, during, and after an academic exam period in 150 university students in a longitudinal questionnaire study. Self-reports of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumption were obtained. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20 was used as a measure of stress. Sleep quality and alcohol consumption significantly decreased, while perceived stress and caffeine consumption significantly increased during the exam period. No significant change in nicotine consumption was observed. In particular, students shortened their time in bed and showed symptoms of insomnia. Mixed model analysis indicated that sex, age, health status, as well as the amounts of alcohol and caffeine consumed had no significant influence on global sleep quality. The amount of nicotine consumed and perceived stress were identified as significant predictors of diminished sleep quality. Nicotine consumption had a small-to-very-small effect on sleep quality; perceived stress had a small-to-moderate effect. In conclusion, diminished sleep quality during exam periods was mainly predicted by perceived stress, while legal drug consumption played a minor role. Exam periods may pose an interesting model for the study of stress-induced sleeping problems and their mechanisms.

  19. The role of anxiety sensitivity in the relation between anxious arousal and cannabis and alcohol use problems among low-income inner city racial/ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel J; Manning, Kara; Hogan, Julianna B D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    The current study explored anxiety sensitivity as a factor accounting for the association between anxious arousal and problems related to use of cannabis and alcohol among a health disparity sample (low income minorities). Specifically, participants were 130 low-income racial/ethnic minorities who reported daily cannabis use (M age =37.7 SD=10.0; 28.5% female). There were significant indirect associations of anxious arousal via anxiety sensitivity in relation to: cannabis use problems, cannabis withdrawal symptoms, use of cannabis to cope, as well as hazardous drinking, alcohol use problems, and alcohol consumption. These data indicate anxiety sensitivity is a possible mechanism underlying the relation between anxious arousal and substance use problems among low-income racial/ethnic minorities. Future work could evaluate the efficacy of cannabis and alcohol use treatments incorporating anxiety sensitivity reduction techniques to facilitate amelioration of anxiety and substance use and offset mental health inequalities for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol Use Problems Mediate the Relation between Cannabis Use Frequency and College Functioning among Students Mandated to an Alcohol Diversion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…

  1. Psychosis and cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Häfner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1 the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2 Can cannabis use - and for comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3 Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4 What consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? Results from recent literature and the ABC Schizophrenia Study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. In most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. There is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. Cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. Cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.

  2. Is dependence on one drug associated with dependence on other drugs? The cases of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Oliveto, A H; MacLaughlin, M

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have correlated the use of one drug with that of another drug; however, whether dependence on one drug is associated with dependence on another drug, independent of any use/use association, is unclear. We asked 196 randomly-selected subjects the DSM-IV criteria for dependence as applied to alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. Among ever users, the severity of alcohol vs nicotine dependence and alcohol vs caffeine dependence was related, but this relationship was weak (r = .22 & .31). Nicotine and caffeine dependence were not correlated. These results fail to confirm theories of commonality that hypothesize dependence on one drug predisposes to dependence on another drug.

  3. Mechanisms and genetic factors underlying co-use of nicotine and alcohol or other drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah J; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Leslie, Frances M

    2017-03-01

    Concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol or psychostimulants represents a major public health concern, with use of one substance influencing consumption of the other. Co-abuse of these drugs leads to substantial negative health outcomes, reduced cessation, and high economic costs, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Epidemiological data suggest that tobacco use during adolescence plays a particularly significant role. Adolescence is a sensitive period of development marked by major neurobiological maturation of brain regions critical for reward processing, learning and memory, and executive function. Nicotine exposure during this time produces a unique and long-lasting vulnerability to subsequent substance use, likely via actions at cholinergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems. In this review, we discuss recent clinical and preclinical data examining the genetic factors and mechanisms underlying co-use of nicotine and alcohol or cocaine and amphetamines. We evaluate the critical role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors throughout, and emphasize the dearth of preclinical studies assessing concurrent drug exposure. We stress important age and sex differences in drug responses, and highlight a brief, low-dose nicotine exposure paradigm that may better model early use of tobacco products. The escalating use of e-cigarettes among youth necessitates a closer look at the consequences of early adolescent nicotine exposure on subsequent alcohol and drug abuse.

  4. DRD2 and DRD4 in relation to regular alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents: does parenting modify the impact of genetic vulnerability? The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, H E; Harakeh, Z; Dick, D M; Meyers, J; Vollebergh, W A M; Ormel, J; Verhulst, F C; Huizink, A C

    2011-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the direct effect of DRD2 and DRD4, as well as their interaction with parenting (i.e. rejection, overprotection and emotional warmth), on the development of regular alcohol and cannabis use in 1192 Dutch adolescents from the general population. Information was obtained by self-report questionnaires. Perceived rejection, overprotection and emotional warmth were assessed at age 10-12. Regular alcohol and cannabis use were determined at age 15-18 and defined as the consumption of alcohol on 10 or more occasions in the past four weeks, and the use of cannabis on 4 or more occasions in the past four weeks. Models were adjusted for age, sex, parental alcohol or cannabis use, and externalizing behavior. Carrying the A1 allele of the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism, or the 7 repeat DRD4, was not directly related to regular alcohol or cannabis use. In addition, adolescent carriers of these genetic risk markers were not more susceptible to the influence of less optimal parenting. Main effects for parenting indicated that overprotection increased the risk of regular alcohol use, whereas the risk of cannabis use was enhanced by parental rejection and buffered by emotional warmth. Our findings do not support an association between DRD2/DRD4 and regular alcohol and cannabis use in adolescents. Given the substance-specific influences of rejection, overprotection and emotional warmth, these parenting factors might be promising candidates for prevention work. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, anxiety and depression among second-year medical students. Identify in order to act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaysse, Benoît; Gignon, Maxime; Zerkly, Salah; Ganry, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and illicit drug use among students have negative repercussions on their health, education and society in general. Medical students are no exception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis as well as levels of anxiety and depression of students admitted to the second year of medical studies based on anonymous self-administered questionnaires containing the following tests: AUDIT, Fagerstrom, CAST and HAD. 198 of the 207 students involved agreed to participate. Excessive alcohol consumption was higher among women than among men (35% versus 22%), but fewer women were alcohol-dependent (2% versus 8%) (p students were tobacco smokers, with no signs of dependence in 80% of cases. 15% of students smoked cannabis and 52% of them presented problem use. 21% of women had a suspected anxiety disorder and 23% had a proven anxiety disorder, versus 17% and 6% of men, respectively (p = 0.002). 3% had a suspected depressive disorder and 0.5% had a proven depressive disorder. High-risk alcohol consumption was significantly correlated with high-risk cannabis use. No correlation was demonstrated between anxiety or depression and these consumptions. Doctors appear to be particularly affected by psychological disorders or addictions and medical students are paradoxically less likely than the general population to receive appropriate care. Universities must provide monitoring and support for students in order to improve their health, but also to enable them to provide care and appropriate educational messages to their patients.

  6. Alcohol and Cannabis: Young People Talking about How Parents Respond to Their Use of These Two Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, Gill

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern over rising levels of alcohol and cannabis use among young people. This paper reports findings from a qualitative investigation of young people's cannabis-related beliefs and behaviour. Fifty-nine boys and girls aged 13 to 15 years were interviewed, mostly in self-selected friendship pairs, in six…

  7. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiolero Arnaud

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors" are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92% of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI was 30% (26–34/21% (18–25 for smoking, 49% (45–54/48% (43–52 for drinking, and 17% (15–20/8% (6–10 for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs.

  8. Use of micronutrients attenuates cannabis and nicotine abuse as evidenced from a reversal design: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rachel; Rucklidge, Julia J; Blampied, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Prior research shows that micronutrients, particularly amino acids, can assist individuals with substance dependence to quit various drugs of abuse, including cannabis, alcohol, and cocaine. As part of a wider investigation of the impact of micronutrients (mostly vitamins and minerals) on psychiatric symptoms, such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety, we observed that many participants reduced or eliminated use of alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis. One case using a single-case reversal (off-on-off-on-off) design is presented and shows not only on-off control of psychiatric symptoms as micronutrients are consumed or withdrawn, but also simultaneous on-off use of cannabis and cigarettes, despite not directly targeting this substance use as part of the treatment protocol. This case adds to a growing body of research supporting the use of micronutrients in the treatment of psychiatric symptoms and suggests it may extend to substance dependence. Micronutrients, by assisting with mood regulation and reductions in anxiety, may assist with successful cessation of drug use. Alternatively, they may directly impact on the brain reward circuitry believed to be involved in the expression of addictions, thereby providing the appropriate precursors and cofactors necessary for adequate neurotransmitter synthesis. This case should continue to stimulate researchers to consider the role of nutrients, in particular vitamins and minerals, in drug treatment programs and encourage more rigorous trials.

  9. Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption causes nicotinic acid deficiency. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid supplementation provides beneficial effects on alcohol-induced endotoxin signaling and the possible mechanisms at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin for eight weeks, with or without dietary supplementation with 750 mg/liter nicotinic acid. Chronic alcohol feeding elevated the plasma endotoxin level and activated hepatic endotoxin signaling cascade, which were attenuated by nicotinic acid supplementation. Alcohol consumption remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of claudin-1, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the distal intestine, whereas nicotinic acid significantly up-regulated these genes. The concentrations of endotoxin, ethanol, and acetaldehyde in the intestinal contents were increased by alcohol exposure, and niacin supplementation reduced the intestinal endotoxin and acetaldehyde levels. Nicotinic acid supplementation upregulated the intestinal genes involved in aldehyde detoxification via transcriptional regulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin production accounts for the inhibitory effects of nicotinic acid on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and hepatic inflammation.

  10. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom profiles and concurrent problems with alcohol and cannabis: sex differences in a representative, population survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kolla, Nathan J.; van der Maas, Mark; Toplak, Maggie E.; Erickson, Patricia G.; Mann, Robert E.; Seeley, Jane; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a robust association with alcohol and cannabis misuse, and these relationships are expressed differently in males and females. Manifestation of specific ADHD symptom profiles, even in the absence of the full disorder, may also be related to problems with alcohol and cannabis, although these relationships have not been investigated in epidemiological studies. To address this question, we studied the sex-specific association...

  11. Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Do students with mild-intellectual disability mimic students in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacoricona Alfaro, Dibia Liz; Ehlinger, Virginie; Spilka, Stanislas; Ross, Jim; Sentenac, Mariane; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2017-04-01

    Education policies encourage inclusion of students with mild-intellectual disability (mild-ID) in community/school life. However, such policies potentially increase exposure to substance use. This article examines tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among French students enrolled in special units for students with disabilities (ULIS) at mainstream junior high schools compared to those of general population of the equivalent age; and explores factors associated with substance use among ULIS students, known to present mostly mild-ID. In 2014, a questionnaire adapted from the international HBSC/WHO study was administered to 700 ULIS students (mean-age 14.2). Comparative data were gathered from 7023 junior high-school students (mean-age 13.6) in the general population. Among students <14 years-old, tobacco and alcohol use rates were similar between ULIS and general population. For students ≥14, alcohol use remained comparable, while tobacco and cannabis use were higher in general population. Among ULIS students, low perceived health/life satisfaction, divorced/separated parents and high perceived academic demands were associated with tobacco use. Bullying, not liking school very much and attending schools outside a deprived area were associated with alcohol use. Having had sexual intercourse and not perceiving one's health as excellent were associated with cannabis use. Having dated was associated with using all three substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

  13. Demographic and Social Correlates of Tobacco, Alcohol and Cannabis Use Among 15-16-Year-Old Students in Albania: Results of the ESPAD Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toçi Ervin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Our aim was to assess the demographic and social factors associated with lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among school students aged 15–16 in Albania in order to make information and knowledge available for health promotion specialists working on substance use prevention. DESIGN – This cross-sectional study was conducted in March–May 2011 in the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. In total, 3189 students born in 1995 participated in the survey. The standardised ESPAD questionnaire was used to collect data about substance use. RESULTS – Our multivariable adjustment analysis showed that being a male and having easy access to cigarettes were the only universal factors significantly increasing the likelihood of ever using tobacco, alcohol or cannabis. Own smoking was strongly and significantly associated with alcohol and cannabis use. The associations of own substance use with peer substance consumption were weak to moderate. CONCLUSIONS – Own smoking seems to be the most important single independent risk factor which strongly and significantly predicted alcohol and cannabis use among Albanian school students. Policy makers need to strengthen the rule of law whereas health promotion professionals should firmly address smoking in adolescence through target interventions.

  14. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Garry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC. Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  15. Universal Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use reduces truancy, psychological distress and moral disengagement: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Andrews, Gavin; Champion, Katrina E; Teesson, Maree

    2014-08-01

    A universal Internet-based preventive intervention has been shown to reduce alcohol and cannabis use. The aim of this study was to examine if this program could also reduce risk-factors associated with substance use in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in Sydney, Australia in 2007-2008 to assess the effectiveness of the Internet-based Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, consists of two sets of six lessons delivered approximately six months apart. A total of 764 students (mean 13.1years) from 10 secondary schools were randomly allocated to receive the preventive intervention (n=397, five schools), or their usual health classes (n=367, five schools) over the year. Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and six and twelve months following the intervention on their levels of truancy, psychological distress and moral disengagement. Compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant reductions in truancy, psychological distress and moral disengagement up to twelve months following completion of the intervention. These intervention effects indicate that Internet-based preventive interventions designed to prevent alcohol and cannabis use can concurrently reduce risk-factors associated with substance use in adolescents. Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN: 012607000312448. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The neuropsychology of cannabis and other substance use in schizophrenia: review of the literature and critical evaluation of methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulston, Carissa M; Perdices, Michael; Tennant, Christopher C

    2007-11-01

    Research on the neuropsychology of substance use in schizophrenia has been steadily growing over the past decade. However, significant gaps remain in the knowledge of individual substances and their relationship to cognition in the schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Approximately 65 studies to date have directly examined this relationship. Of these, approximately 20 have focused on nicotine, 15 on alcohol, 10 on cocaine, three on stimulants/hallucinogens, one on benzodiazepines, 10 on polydrug abuse, and seven on cannabis. Research on cannabis is especially lacking, given that worldwide it is the most commonly used illicit drug in schizophrenia, is used at higher rates in schizophrenia than in the general population, and makes its own unique contribution to the onset and prognosis of schizophrenia. In the present paper an overview of the neuropsychology literature on substance use in schizophrenia is presented, with special emphasis on cannabis. This incorporates a discussion of the methodological limitations inherent in these studies, and range of potential confounding variables that were not considered or controlled, providing directions for future research into the cognitive correlates of cannabis and other substance use in schizophrenia.

  17. Cannabis and related impairment: the unique roles of cannabis use to cope with social anxiety and social avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to using cannabis to cope in social situations and to avoiding social situations if marijuana is unavailable. Yet, the relative impact of cannabis use to cope with social anxiety relative to use to cope with negative affect more broadly has yet to be examined. The present study used the Marijuana to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) to examine the incremental validity of using cannabis use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if cannabis is unavailable (MCSAS-Avoid) in a community-recruited sample of 123 (34.1% female) current cannabis users. After controlling for age of first cannabis use, gender, alcohol and tobacco use, other cannabis use motives, and cannabis expectancies, MCSAS-Cope remained significantly positively related to cannabis use frequency and cannabis-related problems. After controlling for age of first cannabis use, gender, alcohol and tobacco use, and experiential avoidance, MCSAS-Avoid remained significantly related to cannabis problems but not frequency. The present findings suggest that cannabis use to manage social forms of anxiety may be important to understanding cannabis use behaviors. The current findings identify cognitive/motivational factors implicated in more frequent cannabis use and in cannabis-related impairment, which may be essential to inform efforts to further refine prevention and treatment efforts. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Differential behavioral and molecular alterations upon protracted abstinence from cocaine versus morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jérôme A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Le Merrer, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Unified theories of addiction are challenged by differing drug-seeking behaviors and neurobiological adaptations across drug classes, particularly for narcotics and psychostimulants. We previously showed that protracted abstinence to opiates leads to despair behavior and social withdrawal in mice, and we identified a transcriptional signature in the extended amygdala that was also present in animals abstinent from nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol. Here we examined whether protracted abstinence to these four drugs would also share common behavioral features, and eventually differ from abstinence to the prototypic psychostimulant cocaine. We found similar reduced social recognition, increased motor stereotypies and increased anxiety with relevant c-fos response alterations in morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol abstinent mice. Protracted abstinence to cocaine, however, led to strikingly distinct, mostly opposing adaptations at all levels, including behavioral responses, neuronal activation and gene expression. Together, these data further document the existence of common hallmarks for protracted abstinence to opiates, nicotine, THC and alcohol that develop within motivation/emotion brain circuits. In our model, however, these do not apply to cocaine, supporting the notion of unique mechanisms in psychostimulant abuse. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. The association between delusional-like experiences, and tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use: a nationwide population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Sukanta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous population-based studies have found that delusional-like experiences (DLE are prevalent in the community, and are associated with a wide range of mental health disorders including substance use. The aim of the study was to explore the association between DLE and three commonly used substances - tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. Methods Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLE, common psychiatric disorders, and substance use. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Of 8 773 participants, 8.4% (n = 776 subjects endorsed one or more DLE. With respect to tobacco use, compared to nonusers, DLE were more common in those who (a had daily use, (b commenced usage aged 15 years or less, and (c those who smoked heavily (23 or more cigarettes per day. Participants with cannabis use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE; this association was most prominent in those with an onset of 16 years or younger. In contrast, the pattern of association between DLE versus alcohol use or dependence was less consistent, however those with early onset alcohol use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE probe items. Conclusions While cannabis use disorders have been previously linked with DLE, our findings linking alcohol and tobacco use and DLE suggest that the influence of these substances on psychosis-related outcomes warrants closer scrutiny in longitudinal prospective studies.

  20. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  1. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  2. Verbal Learning and Memory in Cannabis and Alcohol Users: An Event-Related Potential Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette L. Smith

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Long-term heavy use of cannabis and alcohol are known to be associated with memory impairments. In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine verbal learning and memory processing in a commonly used behavioral task.Method: We conducted two studies: first, a small pilot study of adolescent males, comprising 13 Drug-Naive Controls (DNC, 12 heavy drinkers (HD and 8 cannabis users (CU. Second, a larger study of young adults, comprising 45 DNC (20 female, 39 HD (16 female, and 20 CU (9 female. In both studies, participants completed a modified verbal learning task (the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RAVLT while brain electrical activity was recorded. ERPs were calculated for words which were subsequently remembered vs. those which were not remembered, and for presentations of learnt words, previously seen words, and new words in a subsequent recognition test. Pre-planned principal components analyses (PCA were used to quantify the ERP components in these recall and recognition phases separately for each study.Results: Memory performance overall was slightly lower than published norms using the standardized RAVLT delivery, but was generally similar and showed the expected changes over trials. Few differences in performance were observed between groups; a notable exception was markedly poorer delayed recall in HD relative to DNC (Study 2. PCA identified components expected from prior research using other memory tasks. At encoding, there were no between-group differences in the usual P2 recall effect (larger for recalled than not-recalled words. However, alcohol-related differences were observed in a larger P540 (indexing recollection in HD than DNC, and cannabis-related differences were observed in a smaller N340 (indexing familiarity and a lack of previously seen > new words effect for P540 in Study 2.Conclusions: This study is the first examination of ERPs in the RAVLT in healthy control participants, as well as substance

  3. Perceived parenting styles and tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among French adolescents: gender and family structure differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, Marie; Hassler, Christine; Morin, Delphine; Falissard, Bruno; Chau, Nearkasen

    2008-01-01

    To assess associations between parental control or parental emotional support and current tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use among 12-18-year-old students, according to gender and family structure (intact family, reconstituted family, single-parent family). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a national representative sample in France (2003) of 6-12th grade students (N = 16,532), as a part of the ESPAD study (European Study Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs). The self-administered questionnaire included questions on last 30 days' consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis as well as on socio-demographic characteristics, school characteristics, and some simple questions on parental control and parental emotional support. Logistic modelling was carried out and (adjusted Odds Ratio) Ora calculated, adjusted for age, parental educational and characteristics of the school. A negative relationship exists between parental control and substance use, but this relationship is more marked for tobacco (OR a between 1.8 and 5.6 according to level of control, family status and gender) and cannabis (OR between 1.5 and 6.4) than for alcohol (OR a between 1.0 and 2.7). Parental control is more markedly related to substance use in girls than in boys. These tendencies were observed for intact families as well as for single-parent families or reconstituted families. Parental control has a greater impact than emotional support. Among girls, emotional support has a greater impact than among boys. There is a gradient relationship between parental control and current consumption, especially among girls. Thus, there may be a need for parental control, whatever the family structure.

  4. Greater Prevalence of Proposed ICD-11 Alcohol and Cannabis Dependence Compared to ICD-10, DSM-IV, and DSM-5 in Treated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tammy; Cornelius, Jack; Clark, Duncan; Martin, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition (ICD-11), criteria for substance use disorder (SUD) radically simplify the algorithm used to diagnose substance dependence. Major differences in case identification across DSM and ICD impact determinations of treatment need and conceptualizations of substance dependence. This study compared the draft algorithm for ICD-11 SUD against DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10, for alcohol and cannabis. Adolescents (n = 339, ages 14 to 18) admitted to intensive outpatient addictions treatment completed, as part of a research study, a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM SUDs adapted for use with adolescents and which has been used to assess DSM and ICD SUD diagnoses. Analyses examined prevalence across classification systems, diagnostic concordance, and sources of diagnostic disagreement. Prevalence of any past-year proposed ICD-11 alcohol or cannabis use disorder was significantly lower compared to DSM-IV and DSM-5 (ps DSM-5, and ICD-10 (ps DSM-5 SUD diagnoses showed only moderate concordance. For both alcohol and cannabis, youth typically met criteria for an ICD-11 dependence diagnosis by reporting tolerance and much time spent using or recovering from the substance, rather than symptoms indicating impaired control over use. The proposed ICD-11 dependence algorithm appears to "overdiagnose" dependence on alcohol and cannabis relative to DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence, and DSM-5 moderate/severe use disorder, generating potential "false-positive" cases of dependence. Among youth who met criteria for proposed ICD-11 dependence, few reported impaired control over substance use, highlighting ongoing issues in the conceptualization and diagnosis of SUD. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Cardiovascular manifestations of substance abuse: part 2: alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, cannabis, and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishman, William H; Del Vecchio, Alexander; Sanal, Shirin; Ismail, Anjum

    2003-01-01

    The abuse of alcohol is associated with chronic cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and arrhythmia. Abstinence or using alcohol in moderation can reverse these cardiovascular problems. Alcohol is also distinguished among the substances of abuse by having possible protective effects against coronary artery disease and stroke when used in moderate amounts. Amphetamines (eg, speed, ice, ecstasy) have many of the cardiovascular toxicities seen with cocaine, including acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Heroin and other opiates can cause arrhythmias and noncardiac pulmonary edema, and may reduce cardiac output. Cardiovascular problems are less common with cannabis (marijuana) than with opiates, but major cognitive disorders may be seen with its chronic use. It is still controversial whether caffeine can cause hypertension and coronary artery disease, and questions have been raised about its safety in patients with heart failure and arrhythmia.

  6. Implicit associations and explicit expectancies towards cannabis in heavy cannabis users and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eBeraha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations towards cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT’s and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between these implicit affective associations and explicit expectancies, subjective craving, cannabis use, and cannabis related problems. Results show that heavy cannabis users had stronger implicit positive-arousal associations but weaker implicit negative associations towards cannabis compared to controls. Moreover, heavy cannabis users had stronger sedation but weaker negative explicit expectancies towards cannabis compared to controls. Within heavy cannabis users, more cannabis use was associated with stronger implicit negative associations whereas more cannabis use related problems was associated with stronger explicit negative expectancies, decreasing the overall difference on negative associations between cannabis users and controls. No other associations were observed between implicit associations, explicit expectancies, measures of cannabis use, cannabis use related problems, or subjective craving. These findings indicate that, in contrast to other substances of abuse like alcohol and tobacco, the relationship between implicit associations and cannabis use appears to be weak in heavy cannabis users.

  7. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cannabis abuse and addiction: a contemporary literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyalomhe, G B S

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction, particularly among teenagers and young adults, has become a serious public health problem globally. Drugs with addictive potential include the non-therapeutic drugs that are licit/legal (caffeine, tobacco or nicotine, alcohol) and those that are illegal/illicit for common use such as benzodiazepines, amphetamines, cocaine and crack, heroin and cannabis. Worldwide, the challenge of cannabis abuse and addiction is particularly devastating, nay in Nigeria. Despite this ugly scenario, the use of cannabis continues unabated and its control remains enigmatic. The aim of the present review is to provide a contemporary comprehensible overview of exciting recent developments in the understanding of brain circuits related to the nature and effects of cannabis abuse and addiction as well as to highlight the current therapeutic approach to effective management. A thorough manual literature and internet (Medline and HINARI databases) search were conducted. It was found that recent advances in the neurobiology of drug abuse and addiction have led to the identification of neuronal substrates (eg dopamine, 5-hydroxyltrypytamine etc) as being responsible for the rewarding effects of cannabis and are also crucial to the addictive process/behaviour. There is increasing evidence that prolonged exposure to drugs of abuse including cannabis, produces long-lasting effects in cognitive and drug-rewarding brain circuits. Hence, addiction is now generally considered a chronic brain disease. Chronic use of cannabis impairs cognitive functions, perception, reaction time, learning, memory, concentration, social skills and control of emotions. There may also be panic reactions, hallucinations, paranoid states with fixed delusions and even acute psychosis. These impairments have obvious negative implications for the operation of a motor vehicle or machinery and performance at school or workplace as well as the development of a healthy family, a strong national economy and a

  9. Changes in the α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine system during chronic controlled alcohol exposure in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Tudorascu, Dana L; Wooten, Dustin W; Lao, Patrick J; Barnhart, Todd E; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Resch, Leslie M; Larson, Julie A; Converse, Alexander K; Moore, Colleen F; Schneider, Mary L; Christian, Bradley T

    2014-05-01

    The precise nature of modifications to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system in response to chronic ethanol exposure is poorly understood. The present work used PET imaging to assay α4β2* nAChR binding levels of eight rhesus monkeys before and during controlled chronic ethanol intake. [(18)F]Nifene PET scans were conducted prior to alcohol exposure, and then again after at least 8 months controlled ethanol exposure, including 6 months at 1.5 g/kg/day following a dose escalation period. Receptor binding levels were quantified with binding potentials (BPND) using the cerebellum as a reference region. Alcohol self-administration was assessed as average daily alcohol intake during a 2 month free drinking period immediately following controlled alcohol. Significant decreases in α4β2* nAChR binding were observed in both frontal and insular cortex in response to chronic ethanol exposure. During chronic alcohol exposure, BPND in the lateral geniculate region correlated positively with the amount of alcohol consumed during free drinking. The observed decreases in nAChR availability following chronic alcohol consumption suggest alterations to this receptor system in response to repeated alcohol administration, making this an important target for further study in alcohol abuse and alcohol and nicotine codependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlates of cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge among U.S. college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Frohe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The proliferation of electronic devices, such as vape-pens, has provided alternative means for cannabis use. Research has found cannabis-vaping (i.e., vape-pen use is associated with lower perceived risks and higher cannabis use. Knowledge of these products may increase likelihood of subsequent use. As policies for cannabis shift, beliefs that peers and family approve of this substance use (injunctive norms increase and there has been an increase in vape-pen use among young adults (18–35year olds; however, correlates thereof remain unknown. Young adults often engage in cross-substance use with cannabis and alcohol, making alcohol a potential correlate of cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge. Therefore, we examined alcohol use and other potential correlates of vape-pen use and knowledge among a sample of university students. Methods: This secondary data analysis utilized surveys at multiple colleges in the U.S. (N=270. Alcohol use, social anxiety, cannabis expectancies, injunctive and descriptive norms and facets of impulsivity were examined as correlates of vape-pen use and knowledge using bivariate correlations and logistic regressions. Results: Alcohol use was correlated with cannabis vape-pen use and knowledge. Frequency of cannabis use, peer injunctive norms, and positive expectancies were associated with increased likelihood of vape-pen use. Lack of premeditation, a facet of impulsivity, was associated with cannabis vape-pen knowledge. Conclusions: Given the unknown nature and consequences of cannabis vape-pens, the present findings offer valuable information on correlates of this behavior. Further, correlates of knowledge of vape-pens may point to areas for education and clinical intervention to prevent heavy cannabis vape-pen use. Keywords: Marijuana, Vaporizer, College students, Substance use, Attitudes, Cannabis

  11. Problem alcohol use and healthcare utilization among persons with cannabis use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, William S; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2017-09-01

    The emergency department (ED) and hospital settings represent crucial opportunities for engaging treatment for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Thus, there is a need to identify factors associated with healthcare utilization among persons with CUD to improve screening and intervention approaches. Problematic alcohol use may be a salient risk factor. Using data from the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, we determined factors, including different patterns of alcohol use, associated with past-year ED admission and inpatient hospitalization among persons aged 12 years or older meeting criteria for CUD in the past year (N=16,757). We also determined the prevalence and correlates of problem alcohol use among persons with CUD to further inform its association with healthcare utilization. Among persons with CUD, 40.15% and 10.04% reported past-year ED admission and inpatient hospitalization, respectively. Severe alcohol use disorder (AUD) (≥6 AUD symptoms), female sex, Black race, low income, major depressive episode (MDE), and other substance use disorders were associated with increased odds of healthcare utilization; current (i.e., last month) alcohol use patterns were not. Persons with CUD that were males, ages 18-25 (vs. ages 12-17), Hispanic (vs. White), and with low income, other drug use disorders, or MDE had increased odds of AUD. Findings suggest that screening and intervention efforts for improving treatment initiation or engagement for CUD may target cannabis-using women, blacks, low-income adults or those with severe AUD in the past year, another substance use disorder, or MDE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer misbrug og psykose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthoj, C.; Nordentoft, M.; Fink-Jensen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic...

  13. Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer--misbrug og psykose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic...

  14. Prevalence of alcohol and cannabis use and reported knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding its relationship with health and safety on mines in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pick, W

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available is one of the most significant public health concerns facing South Africa today. Globally, cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, with an estimated 144 million people using it annually (1). It constitutes the main drug of abuse in Africa (2... research on alcohol and cannabis use among mineworkers is limited. 1.1 Prevalence of substance use It is estimated that 6% to 16% of the average workforce is likely to be alcohol dependent and that a further 20% is likely to experience drug...

  15. Exposure to cannabis in popular music and cannabis use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Douglas, Erika L; Kraemer, Kevin L

    2010-03-01

    Cannabis use is referenced frequently in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is associated independently with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large US urban high schools. We estimated participants' exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists' songs. Outcomes included current (past 30 days) and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. Each of the 959 participants was exposed to an estimated 27 cannabis references per day [correction added on 19 January 2010, after first online publication: 40 has been changed to 27] (standard deviation = 73 [correction added on 19 January 2010, after first online publication: 104 has been changed to 73]). Twelve per cent (n = 108) were current cannabis users and 32% (n = 286) had ever used cannabis. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of total cannabis exposure in music, those in the highest tertile of exposure were almost twice as likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.22), even after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, personality characteristics and parenting style. As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use. This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents.

  16. Association between alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit substance abuse and risk of developing schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M

    2017-01-01

    .04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.84-6.26]. Cannabis (HR 5.20, 95% CI 4.86-5.57) and alcohol (HR 3.38, 95% CI 3.24-3.53) presented the strongest associations. Abuse of hallucinogens (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.43-2.41), sedatives (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.49-1.90), and other substances (HR 2.85, 95% CI 2.58-3.15) also...

  17. Cannabis Use and Risk of Psychiatric Disorders: Prospective Evidence From a US National Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos; Hasin, Deborah S; Wall, Melanie M; Flórez-Salamanca, Ludwing; Hoertel, Nicolas; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley T; Olfson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    With rising rates of marijuana use in the general population and an increasing number of states legalizing recreational marijuana use and authorizing medical marijuana programs, there are renewed clinical and policy concerns regarding the mental health effects of cannabis use. To examine prospective associations between cannabis use and risk of mental health and substance use disorders in the general adult population. A nationally representative sample of US adults aged 18 years or older was interviewed 3 years apart in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (wave 1, 2001-2002; wave 2, 2004-2005). The primary analyses were limited to 34 653 respondents who were interviewed in both waves. Data analysis was conducted from March 15 to November 30, 2015. We used multiple regression and propensity score matching to estimate the strength of independent associations between cannabis use at wave 1 and incident and prevalent psychiatric disorders at wave 2. Psychiatric disorders were measured with a structured interview (Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV). In both analyses, the same set of wave 1 confounders was used, including sociodemographic characteristics, family history of substance use disorder, disturbed family environment, childhood parental loss, low self-esteem, social deviance, education, recent trauma, past and present psychiatric disorders, and respondent's history of divorce. In the multiple regression analysis of 34 653 respondents (14 564 male [47.9% weighted]; mean [SD] age, 45.1 [17.3] years), cannabis use in wave 1 (2001-2002), which was reported by 1279 respondents, was significantly associated with substance use disorders in wave 2 (2004-2005) (any substance use disorder: odds ratio [OR], 6.2; 95% CI, 4.1-9.4; any alcohol use disorder: OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.9-3.8; any cannabis use disorder: OR, 9.5; 95% CI, 6.4-14.1; any other drug use disorder: OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.4; and

  18. Online Survey Characterizing Vaporizer Use among Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dustin C.; Crosier, Benjamin S.; Borodovsky, Jacob T.; Sargent, James D.; Budney, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Along with changes in cannabis laws in the United States and other countries, new products for consuming cannabis are emerging, with unclear public health implications. Vaporizing or “vaping” cannabis is gaining popularity, but little is known about its prevalence or consequences. Methods This study characterized the prevalence and current patterns of vaping cannabis among a large national sample of cannabis users. An online survey was distributed through Facebook ads targeting individuals with interests related to cannabis use. The sample comprised 2,910 cannabis users (age: 18-90, 84% male, 74% Caucasian). Results A majority (61%) endorsed lifetime prevalence of ever vaping, 37% reported vaping in the past 30 days, 20% reported vaping more than 100 lifetime days, and 12% endorsed vaping as their preferred method. Compared to those that had never vaped, vaporizer users were younger, more likely to be male, initiated cannabis at an earlier age, and were less likely to be African American. Those that preferred vaping reported it to be healthier, better tasting, produced better effects, and more satisfying. Only 14% reported a reduction in smoking cannabis since initiating vaping, and only 5% mixed cannabis with nicotine in a vaporizer. Many cannabis users report vaping cannabis, but currently only a small subset prefers vaping to smoking and reports frequent vaping. Conclusion Increases in availability and marketing of vaping devices, and the changing legal status of cannabis in the United States and other countries may influence patterns of use. Frequent monitoring is needed to assess the impact of changing cannabis laws and regulations. PMID:26774946

  19. Online survey characterizing vaporizer use among cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dustin C; Crosier, Benjamin S; Borodovsky, Jacob T; Sargent, James D; Budney, Alan J

    2016-02-01

    Along with changes in cannabis laws in the United States and other countries, new products for consuming cannabis are emerging, with unclear public health implications. Vaporizing or "vaping" cannabis is gaining popularity, but little is known about its prevalence or consequences. This study characterized the prevalence and current patterns of vaping cannabis among a large national sample of cannabis users. An online survey was distributed through Facebook ads targeting individuals with interests related to cannabis use. The sample comprised 2910 cannabis users (age: 18-90, 84% male, 74% Caucasian). A majority (61%) endorsed lifetime prevalence of ever vaping, 37% reported vaping in the past 30 days, 20% reported vaping more than 100 lifetime days, and 12% endorsed vaping as their preferred method. Compared to those that had never vaped, vaporizer users were younger, more likely to be male, initiated cannabis at an earlier age, and were less likely to be African American. Those that preferred vaping reported it to be healthier, better tasting, produced better effects, and more satisfying. Only 14% reported a reduction in smoking cannabis since initiating vaping, and only 5% mixed cannabis with nicotine in a vaporizer. Many cannabis users report vaping cannabis, but currently only a small subset prefers vaping to smoking and reports frequent vaping. Increases in availability and marketing of vaping devices, and the changing legal status of cannabis in the United States and other countries may influence patterns of use. Frequent monitoring is needed to assess the impact of changing cannabis laws and regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does smoking cannabis affect work commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyggen, Christer

    2012-07-01

      This study aimed to examine the associations between cannabis use and work commitment.   We used a 25-year panel survey initiated in 1985 with follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993, 2003 and 2010. Registered data from a range of public registers were matched with individual responses for the entire period.   The panel survey was a nation-wide study set in Norway.   A total of 1997 respondents born between 1965 and 1968 were included in the panel.   Work involvement scale (WIS) was used to assess work commitment. Involvement with cannabis was based on self-reported smoking of cannabis within the last 12 months and exposure to cannabis through friends. This information was categorized into 'abstaining', 'exposed', 'experimented' and 'involved'. Control measures included socio-economic background, mental health (HSCL-10), education, work satisfaction, unemployment, receipt of social assistance, consumption of alcohol, alcohol-related problems and use of other illicit drugs.   The level of work commitment was associated with involvement with cannabis. In 1993, when the respondents were in their mid-20s, those who were involved or had experimented with cannabis displayed lower levels of work commitment than those who were abstaining or merely exposed to cannabis through friends (P labour market experiences, mental health and family characteristics (P Norway the use of cannabis is associated with a reduction in work commitment among adults. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Demographic Characteristics, Components of Sexuality and Gender, and Minority Stress and Their Associations to Excessive Alcohol, Cannabis, and Illicit (Noncannabis) Drug Use Among a Large Sample of Transgender People in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cesar A; Gallego, Joseph D; Bockting, Walter O

    2017-08-01

    The current study examined demographics, sexual orientation, gender characteristics, and gender minority stress and their association to excessive alcohol, cannabis, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among 1210 transgender adults living in the United States. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of data that included 680 transgender women (M age  = 32.63, SD age  = 12.29) and 530 transgender men (M age  = 26.14, SD age  = 7.42). A modified version of the Risk Behavioral Assessment quantified participants' alcohol, cannabis, and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Overall, 21.5% of participants reported excessive alcohol use; no significant differences were found on the rates of excessive alcohol use between transgender women and men. Cannabis use among our sample was 24.4%; trangender men reported significantly higher rates of cannabis use compared to transgender women. Illicit drug (noncannabis) use among our sample was 11.6%; transgender men also reported significantly higher rates of illicit drug use compared to transgender women. Multivariate analyses suggested that gender dysphoria was significantly associated with: excessive alcohol use for transgender women, cannabis use among both transgender women and men, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among transgender women. A nonheterosexual orientation was associated with increased odds of cannabis use among transgender women and men; a nonheterosexual orientation was associated with greater odds of illicit substance use among transgender men but not among transgender women. Gender minority stressors were independently associated with excessive alcohol use among transgender men and cannabis use among transgender women. The authors suggest that minority stress may only partially account for substance use among transgender people. Consequently, the authors suggest that in addition to minority stress, other biopsychosocial mechanisms should continue to be examined to identify pathways that may lead

  2. Weeding Out the Truth: Adolescents and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Seth; Tau, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The use of cannabis for both legal (similar to alcohol) and medical purposes is becoming more common. Although cannabis remains an illegal Schedule 1 drug federally, as of November 2015, 23 states and the District of Columbia have legalized "medical" cannabis, and 4 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for adults aged 21 years and older. It is very likely that more and more states will sooner rather than later allow cannabis for both medical and legal purposes. This review article will focus on a variety of issues relevant to the current debate about cannabis, and will address the following.

  3. The potential impact of cannabis legalization on the development of cannabis use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, Alan J; Borodovsky, Jacob T

    2017-11-01

    Specific provisions of legal cannabis legislation and regulation could influence cannabis initiation, frequency and quantity of use, and progression to cannabis use disorder. This brief essay highlights scientifically based principles and risk factors that underlie substance use and addiction that can be leveraged to inform policies that might mitigate the development and consequences of cannabis use disorder. Specifically, pharmacologic, access/availability, and environmental factors are discussed in relation to their influence on substance use disorders to illustrate how regulatory provisions can differentially affect these factors and risk for addiction. Relevant knowledge from research and experience with alcohol and tobacco regulation are also considered. Research designed to inform regulatory policy and to evaluate the impact of cannabis legislation on cannabis use and problems is progressing. However, definitive findings will come slowly, and more concerted efforts and resources are needed to expedite this process. In the meantime, policymakers should take advantage of the large body of scientific literature on substance use to foster empirically-guided, common sense approaches to cannabis policy that focus on prevention of addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Avoiding emotional bonds: An examination of the dimensions of therapeutic alliance among cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison eHealey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to provide treatment for cannabis users, yet engaging and maintaining this population in treatment is particularly difficult. Although past research has focused on the importance of therapeutic alliance on drug treatment outcomes, this is the first study to examine the dimensions of therapeutic alliance for cannabis users compared with users of alcohol or other drugs in a naturalistic setting. The acceptability of Internet-delivered interventions for drug and alcohol treatments is also investigated. Participants (N = 77 included clients who were receiving outpatient drug and alcohol treatment at a publicly-funded health service, including a Specialist Cannabis Clinic. The results indicated that one particular domain of alliance, Bond, was consistently lower, from both client and clinician perspectives, for current cannabis users relative to those not currently using cannabis. Client perceptions of Bond decreased as the severity of cannabis use increased (r =-0.373, p=0.02. Cannabis Clinic clients did not report a significantly lower Bond with their clinicians, suggesting that specialised cannabis services may be better placed to provide appropriate treatment for this population than embedding cannabis treatment within traditional drug and alcohol treatment teams. In addition, Internet/computer based treatments may be one potential way to engage, transition or retain cannabis users in treatment.Trial Registration: Australian Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611000382976

  5. Cannabis use and dating violence among college students: A call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Haynes, Ellen; Strauss, Catherine; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem on college campuses. Although there is a robust literature documenting that alcohol use is consistently associated with increased risk for perpetrating dating violence, little research has examined the role of cannabis in dating violence perpetration. With increasing legalisation of cannabis throughout the world, it is imperative to understand what role, if any, cannabis may play in the important public health problem of dating violence. In this commentary, we discuss the current state of the research on cannabis and dating violence and suggest avenues for additional research in this area. It is critical that we conduct methodologically sound research on the association between cannabis and dating violence so that we can understand what role, if any, cannabis exerts on this important problem. [Shorey RC, Haynes E, Strauss C, Temple JR, Stuart GL. Cannabis use and dating violence among college students: A call for research. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:17-19]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. A review of the additive health risk of cannabis and tobacco co-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ellen; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and tobacco are the most widely used substances, and are often used together. The present review examines the toxicant exposure associated with co-use (e.g., carbon monoxide, carcinogens), co-use via electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and problematic methodological issues present across co-use studies. An extensive literature search through PubMed was conducted and studies utilizing human subjects and in vitro methods were included. Keywords included tobacco, cigarette, e-cigarette, ENDS, smoking, or nicotine AND marijuana OR cannabis OR THC. Co-use may pose additive risk for toxicant exposure as certain co-users (e.g., blunt users) tend to have higher breath carbon monoxide levels and cannabis smoke can have higher levels of some carcinogens than tobacco smoke. Cannabis use via ENDS is low and occurs primarily among established tobacco or cannabis users, but its incidence may be increasing and expanding to tobacco/cannabis naïve individuals. There are several methodological issues across co-use research including varying definitions of co-use, sample sizes, lack of control for important covariates (e.g., time since last cigarette), and inconsistent measurement of outcome variables. There are some known additive risks for toxicant exposure as a result of co-use. Research utilizing consistent methodologies is needed to further establish the additive risk of co-use. Future research should also be aware of novel technologies (e.g., ENDS) as they likely alter some toxicant exposure when used alone and with cannabis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cannabis use in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Sven Robert; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Hagen, Ellen Merete

    2017-01-01

    /larger cities, tobacco-smoking, high alcohol intake and higher muscle stiffness were significantly associated with cannabis use. Those who had never tried cannabis reported that they would mainly use cannabis to alleviate pain and spasticity if it were legalized. CONCLUSION: Cannabis use is more frequent among...

  8. Cannabis Withdrawal in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauchard, Emeline; Hartwell, Karen J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Sherman, Brian J; Gorelick, David A

    2018-02-22

    Cannabis withdrawal has not been studied in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have high rates of cannabis use. We aimed to describe cannabis withdrawal, motivations to quit, and strategies to quit cannabis use in cannabis-dependent adults with ADHD. Twenty-three adults with ADHD enrolled in a controlled clinical trial of pharmacotherapy (atomoxetine) for cannabis dependence (DSM-IV criteria) completed the Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ) to provide information on their "most serious" quit attempt made without formal treatment. The study was conducted between November 2005 and June 2008. Participants were predominantly male (82.6%, n = 19), with a mean (SD) age of 27.4 (8.5) years (range, 18-53) at the start of their index quit attempt. The most common motive for quitting cannabis was "to save money" (87%, n = 20); the most common strategy to maintain abstinence was "stopped associating with people who smoke marijuana" (43%, n = 10). Almost all (96%, n = 22) subjects reported ≥ 1 cannabis withdrawal symptom; 7 (30%) met DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Participants with comorbid ADHD and cannabis dependence reported withdrawal symptoms similar to other samples of non-treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults with no psychiatric comorbidity. These findings suggest that ADHD does not influence cannabis withdrawal in the way that it does tobacco (nicotine) withdrawal. Data used in this secondary analysis came from ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00360269. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Cigarette and cannabis use trajectories among adolescents in treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin M; Riggs, Paula D; Min, Sung-Joon; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Winhusen, Theresa

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUD). However, little is known about the relationship between cigarette and cannabis use trajectories in the context of treatment for both ADHD and SUD. To address this research gap, we report collateral analyses from a 16-week randomized, controlled trial (n=303) of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adolescents with ADHD concurrently receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting non-nicotine SUD. Participants completed cigarette and cannabis use self-report at baseline and throughout treatment. Analyses were performed to explore the relationships between cigarette smoking, cannabis use, and other factors, such as medication treatment assignment (OROS-MPH versus placebo). Baseline (pre-treatment) cigarette smoking was positively correlated with cannabis use. Negligible decline in cigarette smoking during treatment for non-nicotine SUD was observed in both medication groups. Regular cigarette and cannabis users at baseline who reduced their cannabis use by >50% also reduced cigarette smoking (from 10.8±1.1 to 6.2±1.1 cigarettes per day). Findings highlight the challenging nature of concurrent cannabis and cigarette use in adolescents with ADHD, but demonstrate that changes in use of these substances during treatment may occur in parallel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. When Marijuana Is Used before Cigarettes or Alcohol: Demographic Predictors and Associations with Heavy Use, Cannabis Use Disorder, and Other Drug-related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Brian J; Furr-Holden, C Debra; Johnson, Renee M

    2018-05-17

    Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559). We first examined the degree to which initiating marijuana use first was associated with sex, age, race/ethnicity, and survey year. Then, we examined whether using marijuana first predicted heavy marijuana use, cannabis use disorder (CUD), alcohol use disorder (AUD), nicotine dependence (ND), or lifetime use of other illegal drugs. Among all survey youth (substance users and non-users), the proportion using marijuana first increased from 4.8 to 8.8% from 2004 to 2014. Those using marijuana first (vs. alcohol or cigarettes first) were more likely to be male and older and Black, American Indian/Alaskan Native, multiracial, or Hispanic than White or Asian. Among substance users and adjusting for age of onset and the number of substances used, using marijuana first was associated higher odds of heavy current marijuana use and CUD. In recent years, youth have been increasingly likely to use marijuana as their first drug and sequence of initiation is associated with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Using marijuana first might increase the chance of heavy use and CUD.

  11. Drinking, cannabis use and driving among Ontario students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Paglia, Angela

    2003-03-04

    Little is known about the risk of injury among adolescents who drive after the use of alcohol or cannabis or ride in cars driven by drunk drivers. We examined data from self-administered interviews with 1846 students in grades 7 to 13 who participated in the 2001 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey about their experiences related to alcohol, cannabis and driving during the 12 months preceding the survey. In all, 31.9% of the students reported being a passenger in a car driven by a drunk driver; of the students in grades 10 to 13 who had a driver's licence, 15.1% reported driving within an hour after consuming 2 or more drinks, and 19.7% reported driving within an hour after using cannabis. Our study shows that a sizeable proportion of adolescents are exposed to alcohol- and drug-related driving risks.

  12. Neural correlates of the severity of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use in polysubstance abusers: a resting-PET brain metabolism study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moreno-López

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Functional imaging studies of addiction following protracted abstinence have not been systematically conducted to look at the associations between severity of use of different drugs and brain dysfunction. Findings from such studies may be relevant to implement specific interventions for treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between resting-state regional brain metabolism (measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET and the severity of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis in a sample of polysubstance users with prolonged abstinence from all drugs used. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 49 polysubstance users enrolled in residential treatment. We conducted correlation analyses between estimates of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis and brain metabolism (BM (using Statistical Parametric Mapping voxel-based (VB whole-brain analyses. In all correlation analyses conducted for each of the drugs we controlled for the co-abuse of the other drugs used. RESULTS: The analysis showed significant negative correlations between severity of heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use and BM in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and temporal cortex. Alcohol use was further associated with lower metabolism in frontal premotor cortex and putamen, and stimulants use with parietal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Duration of use of different drugs negatively correlated with overlapping regions in the DLPFC, whereas severity of cocaine, heroin and alcohol use selectively impact parietal, temporal, and frontal-premotor/basal ganglia regions respectively. The knowledge of these associations could be useful in the clinical practice since different brain alterations have been associated with different patterns of execution that may affect the rehabilitation of these patients.

  13. Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexie Zhiyan Jin

    Full Text Available Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136 of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight gain between adolescence and midlife was not related to cannabis exposure during adolescence in either crude or adjusted models, and associations were not modified by baseline alcohol intake or smoking. However, cannabis use was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (p<0.001 and alcohol intake (p<0.001 and inversely associated with physical activity levels (p = 0.04. In conclusion, this study does not provide evidence of an association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change from adolescence to midlife.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of "Vaping" as a route of cannabis administration in medical cannabis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Bourque, Carrie; Ilgen, Mark

    2016-12-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of vaporization (i.e., "vaping") as a route of cannabis administration in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Adults ages 21 and older (N=1485M age=45.1) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed a screening assessment. Participants completed measures of route of cannabis administration, cannabis use, alcohol and other substance use. An estimated 39% (n=511) of the sample reported past-month cannabis vaping, but vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration was rare. Specifically, only 30 participants (2.3% of the full sample and 5.9% of those who reported any vaping) indicated vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration. The majority (87.3%) of those who reported vaping also reported smoking (combustion) as a route of cannabis administration. Being younger than age 44, having more than a high school education, engaging in nonmedical stimulant use, being a returning medical cannabis patient, and greater frequency of cannabis use were associated with higher odds of vaping at the bivariate level and with all variables considered simultaneously. Vaping appears to be relatively common among medical cannabis patients, but is seldom used as the sole route of cannabis administration. highlight the importance of monitoring trends in vaping and other substance use behaviors in this population and underscore the need for longitudinal research into the motives, correlates, and consequences of cannabis vaping in medical cannabis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of risk perception and substance use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among adolescents and emerging adults: evidence of directional influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevenstein, Dennis; Nagy, Ede; Kroeninger-Jungaberle, Henrik

    2015-02-01

    While several studies have investigated the relationship between risk perception and substance use, surprisingly little is known about mutual influences between both variables over time. The present study aimed to explore two different hypotheses separately for tobacco, alcohol and cannabis: influences from risk perception on behavior (motivational hypothesis) and influences from behavior on risk perception (risk reappraisal hypothesis). A prospective and longitudinal cross-lagged panel design was used with substance use and risk perception measured five times over the course of 10 years. Participants were 318 German youths aged 14-15 at the beginning of the study. Risk perception and substance use frequency were measured using self-reports. Structural equation modeling indicated significant influences of risk perception on substance use behavior for all substances, which supports the motivational hypothesis. Changes in risk perception predict changes in future substance use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. Specifically for cannabis, influences of substance use on risk perception can also be shown, thus, supporting the risk reappraisal hypothesis. While there is support for the rationale behind adequate risk perception as a goal of preventive interventions, the possibility of risk reappraisal should not be neglected, especially regarding illicit substances.

  16. Determination of the Antimicrobial Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Multiple Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Nosocomial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sarmadyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The science of identification and employment of medicinal plants dates back to the early days of man on earth. Cannabis (hashish is the most common illegal substance used in the United States and was subjected to extensive research as a powerful local disinfecting agent for mouth cavity and skin and an anti-tubercular agent in 1950. Methods: Clinical strains were isolated from hospitalized patients in Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Arak. The hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis (5 g was prepared following liquid-liquid method and drying in 45˚C. The antimicrobial properties of the extract were determined through disk diffusion and determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. Results: First, the sensitivity of bacteria was detected based on disk diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was obtained for MRSA (12 mm, S.aureus 25923 (14 mm, E. coli ESBL+: (10 mm, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 mm. Disk diffusion for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter demonstrated no inhibitory zones. Through Broth dilution method, MIC of cannabis extract on the bacteria was determined: E.coli 25922: 50µg/ml, E.coli ESBL+:100 µg/ml, S.aureus 25923:25 µg/ml, MRSA: 50 µg/ml, Pseudomona aeroginosaESBL+> 100 µg/ml, Pseudomonas: 100 µg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae: 100 µg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii> 1000. Conclusion: The maximum anti-microbial effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis was seen for gram positive cocci, especially S. aureus, whereas non-fermentative gram negatives presented resistance to the extract. This extract had intermediate effect on Enterobacteriacae family. Cannabis components extracted through chemical analysis can perhaps be effective in treatment of nosocomial infections.

  17. Temperament and character traits associated with the use of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and hallucinogens: evidence from a large Brazilian web survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schneider Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate how personality traits are associated with occasional use, abuse, and dependence of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and hallucinogens in a large availability sample of adults via online questionnaires. Methods: The sample consisted of 8,646 individuals (24.7% men and 75.3% women who completed an anonymous web survey. Involvement with drugs and temperament/character traits were assessed through the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST and the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R, respectively. Interactions among variables were analyzed using MANOVA with Bonferroni adjustment. Results: Novelty seeking was the trait most associated with increased involvement with alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine. There was a significant association between harm avoidance and benzodiazepine use. Persistence was lower in cannabis-, benzodiazepine-, and cocaine-dependent subjects, as well as in hallucinogen abusers. Self-directedness was reduced in dependents of all drug classes. No strong relationships were found between other temperament or character dimensions and the severity of drug use. Conclusions: Novelty seeking was associated with increased involvement with all drugs studied in this sample, although to a lesser extent with benzodiazepines and hallucinogens. The temperament and character profile for benzodiazepine use was different from that of other drugs due to the relationship with higher harm avoidance and self-transcendence and lower self-directedness.

  18. Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Marie

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation following oral administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental conditions with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. Conclusion While the oral route of administration achieves only limited blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur.

  19. Attitudes Toward Medical Cannabis Legalization Among Serbian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcic, Isidora; Pavlovic, Aleksandar; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2017-07-29

    Currently, medical cannabis polices are experiencing rapid changes, and an increasing number of nations around the world legalize medical cannabis for certain groups of patients, including those in Serbia. To determine medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization and to examine the factors influencing their attitudes. Fourth-year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, had participated in a cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an anonymous questionnaire. Overall, 63.4% students supported medical cannabis legalization, and only 20.8% supported its legalization for recreational use. Students who previously used marijuana (p medical cannabis legalization compared with students who never used them. Support for marijuana recreational use was also related to prior marijuana (p cancer (90.4%) and chronic pain (74.2%) were correctly reported approved medical indications by more than half the students. Students who supported medical cannabis legalization showed better knowledge about indications, in contrast to opponents for legalization who showed better knowledge about side effects. Beliefs that using medical cannabis is safe and has health benefits were correlated with support for legalization, and previous marijuana and alcohol use, while beliefs that medical cannabis poses health risks correlated most strongly with previous marijuana use. Conclusions/Importance: The medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization were significantly correlated with previous use of marijuana and alcohol, knowledge about medical indications and side effects, and their beliefs regarding medical cannabis health benefits and risks.

  20. US Adult Illicit Cannabis Use, Cannabis Use Disorder, and Medical Marijuana Laws: 1991-1992 to 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S; Sarvet, Aaron L; Cerdá, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M; Stohl, Malka; Galea, Sandro; Wall, Melanie M

    2017-06-01

    Over the last 25 years, illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders have increased among US adults, and 28 states have passed medical marijuana laws (MML). Little is known about MML and adult illicit cannabis use or cannabis use disorders considered over time. To present national data on state MML and degree of change in the prevalence of cannabis use and disorders. Differences in the degree of change between those living in MML states and other states were examined using 3 cross-sectional US adult surveys: the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES; 1991-1992), the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; 2001-2002), and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III; 2012-2013). Early-MML states passed MML between NLAES and NESARC ("earlier period"). Late-MML states passed MML between NESARC and NESARC-III ("later period"). Past-year illicit cannabis use and DSM-IV cannabis use disorder. Overall, from 1991-1992 to 2012-2013, illicit cannabis use increased significantly more in states that passed MML than in other states (1.4-percentage point more; SE, 0.5; P = .004), as did cannabis use disorders (0.7-percentage point more; SE, 0.3; P = .03). In the earlier period, illicit cannabis use and disorders decreased similarly in non-MML states and in California (where prevalence was much higher to start with). In contrast, in remaining early-MML states, the prevalence of use and disorders increased. Remaining early-MML and non-MML states differed significantly for use (by 2.5 percentage points; SE, 0.9; P = .004) and disorder (1.1 percentage points; SE, 0.5; P = .02). In the later period, illicit use increased by the following percentage points: never-MML states, 3.5 (SE, 0.5); California, 5.3 (SE, 1.0); Colorado, 7.0 (SE, 1.6); other early-MML states, 2.6 (SE, 0.9); and late-MML states, 5.1 (SE, 0.8). Compared with never-MML states, increases in use were

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of “Vaping” as a Route of Cannabis Administration in Medical Cannabis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A.; Bohnert, Kipling M.; Perron, Brian E.; Bourque, Carrie; Ilgen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prevalence and correlates of vaporization (i.e., “vaping”) as a route of cannabis administration in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Procedures Adults ages 21 and older (N = 1,485 M age = 45.1) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed a screening assessment. Participants completed measures of route of cannabis administration, cannabis use, alcohol and other substance use. Findings An estimated 39% (n=511) of the sample reported past-month cannabis vaping, but vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration was rare. Specifically, only 30 participants (2.3% of the full sample and 5.9% of those who reported any vaping) indicated vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration. The majority (87.3%) of those who reported vaping also reported smoking (combustion) as a route of cannabis administration. Being younger than age 44, having more than a high school education, engaging in nonmedical stimulant use, being a returning medical cannabis patient, and greater frequency of cannabis use were associated with higher odds of vaping at the bivariate level and with all variables considered simultaneously. Conclusions Vaping appears to be relatively common among medical cannabis patients, but is seldom used as the sole route of cannabis administration. Results highlight the importance of monitoring trends in vaping and other substance use behaviors in this population and underscore the need for longitudinal research into the motives, correlates, and consequences of cannabis vaping in medical cannabis patients. PMID:27770657

  2. Child maltreatment and cannabis use in young adulthood: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan; Kisely, Steve; Alati, Rosa; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate whether: (1) child maltreatment is associated with life-time cannabis use, early-onset cannabis use, daily cannabis use and DSM-IV cannabis abuse in young adulthood; and (2) behaviour problems, tobacco use and alcohol use at age 14 are associated with cannabis use. Birth cohort using linked government agency child protection data to define exposure to child maltreatment. The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy in Brisbane, Australia. Of the original cohort of 7223 mother and child pairs, obtained from consecutive presentations for prenatal care at a hospital serving a cross-section of the community, 3778 (52.3%) of the young people participated at age 21 years. Exposure to child maltreatment was established by substantiated government agency reports. Cannabis outcomes were by self-report questionnaire and Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)-Auto at age 21. Associations were adjusted for a range of potential confounders. Additional adjustment was carried out for variables measured at age 14-youth behaviour problems [Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)], tobacco use and alcohol use. After adjustment, substantiated child maltreatment was associated with any life-time cannabis use [odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-2.39], cannabis use prior to age 17 (OR = 2.47, 95 % CI = 1.67-3.65), daily cannabis use (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.49-4.81) and DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.07-2.77). Externalizing behaviour and tobacco and alcohol use at age 14 were associated significantly with almost all cannabis outcomes (P maltreated are more likely to go on to use cannabis before the age of 17, use cannabis as an adult, use cannabis daily and meet DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence. Externalizing behaviour in adolescence appears partly to mediate the association with adult cannabis use. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Psychosocial functioning among regular cannabis users with and without cannabis use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Katherine T; Arterberry, Brooke J; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Hicks, Brian M

    2017-11-27

    In the United States, cannabis accessibility has continued to rise as the perception of its harmfulness has decreased. Only about 30% of regular cannabis users develop cannabis use disorder (CUD), but it is unclear if individuals who use cannabis regularly without ever developing CUD experience notable psychosocial impairment across the lifespan. Therefore, psychosocial functioning was compared across regular cannabis users with or without CUD and a non-user control group during adolescence (age 17; early risk) and young adulthood (ages 18-25; peak CUD prevalence). Weekly cannabis users with CUD (n = 311), weekly users without CUD (n = 111), and non-users (n = 996) were identified in the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Groups were compared on alcohol and illicit drug use, psychiatric problems, personality, and social functioning at age 17 and from ages 18 to 25. Self-reported cannabis use and problem use were independently verified using co-twin informant report. In both adolescence and young adulthood, non-CUD users reported significantly higher levels of substance use problems and externalizing behaviors than non-users, but lower levels than CUD users. High agreement between self- and co-twin informant reports confirmed the validity of self-reported cannabis use problems. Even in the absence of CUD, regular cannabis use was associated with psychosocial impairment in adolescence and young adulthood. However, regular users with CUD endorsed especially high psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial impairment. The need for early prevention and intervention - regardless of CUD status - was highlighted by the presence of these patterns in adolescence.

  4. Prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation, alcohol intake and nicotine consumption in rural Central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideations, alcohol and nicotine consumption in adults in an agrarian society mostly unchanged by the effects of urbanization.The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study in rural Central India close to the tribal belt and included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD, suicidal ideation by six standardized questions, nicotine use by the Fagerstroem Nicotine Tolerance Questionnaire (FTNQ, and alcohol consumption by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT.Mild to moderate depression (CESD sum score: 15-21 was detected in 1862 (39.6% individuals (33.5% of men, 44.8 of women, and major depression (CESD sum score >21 in 613 (13.0% individuals (8.1 of men, 17.3% of women. Suicide attempt was reported by 199 (4.2% participants and suicidal thoughts during the last 6 months by 238 (5.1% individuals. There were 887 (18.9% smokers and smokeless tobacco was consumed by 1968 (41.8% subjects. Alcohol consumption was reported by 1081 (23.0% participants; 283 (6.0% subjects had an AUDIT score ≥ 8 (hazardous drinking, and 108 (4.63% subjects a score ≥ 13 (women or ≥ 15 (men (alcohol dependence.In rural Central India, prevalence of major depression was comparable to figures reported from other developing countries. Prevalence of smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption was higher than as reported from urban regions. Measures should be taken to address the relatively high prevalence of suicide attempts and thoughts on suicide in rural Central India.

  5. In the weeds: a baseline view of cannabis use among legalizing states and their neighbours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Jacobson, Mireille; Maksabedian, Ervant J

    2016-06-01

    To describe patterns of cannabis use, the degree of overlap between medicinal and recreational users, and their differential use patterns, modes of consumption and sources of cannabis. An ongoing probability-based internet panel maintained by the market research firm GfK Group. Households in Colorado, Washington, Oregon and New Mexico, USA. A total of 2009 individuals from Washington (n = 787), Oregon (n = 506), Colorado (n = 503) and New Mexico (n = 213). Post stratification sampling weights were provided so that estimates could be made representative of the household population in each of these states. Respondents were aged between 18 and 91 years, with a mean age of 53 years. We compare patterns of cannabis consumption for medicinal and recreational users as well as simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis. We also examine the extent to which patterns of use differ across states that chose to legalize (Washington and Colorado) and those that did not (New Mexico and Oregon). Rates of life-time medical cannabis use are similar in Colorado and Washington (8.8% and 8.2%) but lower in Oregon and New Mexico (6.5% and 1%). Recreational use is considerably higher than medical use across all states (41%), but highest in Oregon and Washington. Approximately 86% of people who report ever using cannabis for medicinal purposes also use it recreationally. Medical users are more likely to vaporize and consume edibles and report a higher amount (in grams) consumed, and spend more money per month than recreational users. Individuals who use cannabis do not commonly use it with alcohol, irrespective of whether they are consuming cannabis recreationally or medically. Fewer than one in five recreational users report simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis most or all of the time and fewer than 3% of medicinal users report frequent simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis. In the United States, the degree of overlap between medicinal and recreational cannabis users is 86

  6. Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) of cannabinoid replacement therapy (Nabiximols) for the management of treatment-resistant cannabis dependent patients: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anjali K; Allsop, David J; Copeland, Jan; McGregor, Iain S; Dunlop, Adrian; Shanahan, Marian; Bruno, Raimondo; Phung, Nghi; Montebello, Mark; Sadler, Craig; Gugusheff, Jessica; Jackson, Melissa; Luksza, Jennifer; Lintzeris, Nicholas

    2018-05-18

    The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpatient cannabis dependent patients who have not responded to previous conventional treatment approaches. A phase III multi-site outpatient, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled parallel design, comparing a 12-week course of nabiximols to placebo, with follow up at 24 weeks after enrolment. Four specialist drug and alcohol outpatient clinics in New South Wales, Australia. One hundred forty-two treatment seeking cannabis dependent adults, with no significant medical, psychiatric or other substance use disorders. Nabiximols is an oromucosal spray prescribed on a flexible dose regimen to a maximum daily dose of 32 sprays; 8 sprays (total 21.6 mg tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 20 mg cannabidiol (CBD)) four times a day, or matching placebo, dispensed weekly. All participants will receive six-sessions of individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and weekly clinical reviews. Primary endpoints are use of non-prescribed cannabis (self-reported cannabis use days, urine toxicology), safety measures (adverse events and abuse liability), and cost effectiveness (incremental cost effectiveness in achieving additional Quality Adjusted Life Years). Secondary outcomes include, improvement in physical and mental health parameters, substance use other than cannabis, cognitive functioning and patient satisfaction measures. This is the first outpatient community-based randomised controlled study of nabiximols as an agonist replacement medication for treating cannabis dependence, targeting individuals who have not previously responded to conventional treatment approaches. The study and treatment design is modelled upon an earlier study with

  7. ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, and substance use and misuse in adult Australian twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, Duneesha; Agrawal, Arpana; Reiersen, Angela M; Constantino, John N; Henders, Anjali; Martin, Nicholas G; Lynskey, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder frequently co-occur. Several studies show increased risk of substance use disorders in ADHD, yet there is limited information related to how ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, and their combined effects are associated with nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and use disorders in the general population. Cross-sectional interview and self-report questionnaire data from 3,080 young adult Australian twins (mean age 31.9 years) were used to assess ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance use disorders. Substance use disorders-based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria-were assessed in the full sample as well as in those who reported substance use. Logistic regression analyses were used for comparing the associations between ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance misuse after conduct disorder, sex, age, and zygosity were controlled for. Greater ADHD symptoms and autistic traits scores were associated with elevated levels of regular smoking; cannabis use; and nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorders, even after conduct disorder was adjusted for. In contrast, for alcohol use, those with high autistic traits scores were less likely to report drinking to intoxication. However, upon initiation, and similar to the findings for nicotine and cannabis, they were at elevated risk for developing alcohol dependence. Increased liability to ADHD and elevated autistic traits scores were associated with substance use and misuse, with the exception of alcohol use. Given the social underpinnings of drinking, persons with autistic traits may be less likely to engage in it; however, upon engagement in drinking, their vulnerability to alcohol dependence is elevated.

  8. Cannabis effects on driving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-03-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis' effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2-5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention, and include occasional and

  9. Cannabis Withdrawal Among Detained Adolescents: Exploring the Impact of Nicotine and Race

    OpenAIRE

    Soenksen, Shayna; Stein, L.A.R.; Brown, Joanna D.; Stengel, JoAnn R.; Rossi, Joseph S.; Lebeau, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Rates of marijuana use among detained youths are exceptionally high. Research suggests a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is valid and clinically significant; however, these studies have mostly been conducted in highly controlled laboratory settings with treatment-seeking, White adults. The present study analyzed archival data to explore the magnitude of cannabis withdrawal symptoms within a diverse sample of detained adolescents while controlling for tobacco use and investigating the impact of r...

  10. “In the Weeds: A Baseline View of Cannabis Use Among Legalizing States and Their Neighbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mireille; Maksabedian, Ervant J

    2016-01-01

    Aims To describe patterns of cannabis use, the degree of overlap between medicinal and recreational users, and their differential use patterns, modes of consumption and sources of cannabis. Design An ongoing probability-based internet panel maintained by the market research firm GfK Group. Setting Households in Colorado, Washington, Oregon and New Mexico, USA. Participants 2009 individuals from Washington (n=787), Oregon (n=506), Colorado (n=503), and New Mexico (N=213). Post stratification sampling weights were provided so that estimates could be made representative of the household population in each of these states. Respondents were between 18 and 91 years old with a mean age of 53. Methods We compare patterns of cannabis consumption for medicinal and recreational users as well as simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis. We also examine the extent to which patterns of use differ across states that chose to legalize (Washington and Colorado) and those that did not (New Mexico and Oregon). Findings Rates of lifetime medical cannabis use are similar in Colorado and Washington (8·8% and 8·2%) but lower in Oregon and New Mexico (6.5% and 1%). Recreational use is considerably higher than medical use across all states (41%) but highest in Oregon and Washington. About 86% of people who report ever using cannabis for medicinal purposes also use it recreationally. Medical users are more likely to vaporize and consume edibles, and report a higher amount (in grams) consumed, and spend more money per month than recreational users. Individuals who use cannabis do not commonly use it with alcohol, irrespective of whether they are consuming cannabis recreationally or medically. Fewer than 1 in 5 recreational users report simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis most or all of the time and less than 3% of medicinal users report frequent simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis. Conclusions In the USA, the degree of overlap between medicinal and recreational cannabis users is

  11. The Use of Substances Other Than Nicotine in Electronic Cigarettes Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne, Deric R; Fischbein, Rebecca L; Tan, Andy Sl; Banks, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have grown in popularity, especially among youth and young adults. Although e-cigarettes were originally intended to vaporize a liquid mixture containing nicotine, there appears to be an increasing trend in other substance use in e-cigarettes (OSUE). Cross-sectional data from 1542 undergraduate college student e-cigarette users from a large Midwestern university were collected via online survey to assess prevalence of e-cigarette use, reasons for use, perceived harm, and prevalence and predictors of OSUE. Nearly 7% (6.94%) reported using an e-cigarette to vaporize and inhale a substance other than nicotine. Current tobacco cigarette smokers were significantly more likely to report OSUE (51.0%) as compared with never (33.7%) and former (15.4%) smokers. Among respondents reporting OSUE, the primary reason for e-cigarette use was "safer than cigarettes" (21.7%), followed by "experimentation" (18.9%) and "friends use" (17.0%). Most (77.9%) reported using cannabis or some derivative of cannabis in an e-cigarette. Binomial logistic regression found that women were less likely to report OSUE by a factor of 0.60, former tobacco cigarette smokers as compared with never smokers were more likely to report OSUE by a factor of 1.87, and e-cigarette users who reported using e-cigarettes for "cool or trendy" reasons were more likely to report OSUE by a factor of 2.89. Little is known regarding the health effects of cannabis and cannabis derivatives delivered through e-cigarettes. Concern may also be warranted regarding the potential dangers of this young population using substances more dangerous than cannabis in e-cigarettes. Knowledge is limited regarding the public health impact of vaping cannabis or other illicit substances among college student populations. This study stresses the need for continued research regarding the vaping of cannabis and other illicit substances among college students.

  12. Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention

  13. The effects of price and perceived quality on the behavioural economics of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, Andrew J; Sumnall, Harry R; Field, Matt; Clayton, Hannah; Cole, Jon C

    2007-07-10

    Behavioural economic models of substance use describe the relationship between changes in unit price and consumption. However, these models rarely take account of the perceived quality (i.e. potency) of controlled drugs. Therefore we investigated the effects of both price and quality on the decision to purchase controlled drugs by polysubstance misusers. Forty current polysubstance misusers (29 males, 11 females; mean age 23.8) were recruited into the study. Participants were asked to hypothetically purchase drugs from a price list of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy at different levels of quality and price (i.e. better quality drugs cost more money). The disposable income available for those purchases was systematically varied in order to determine the impact of income on the decision to purchase drugs. Demand for both normal and strong alcohol was income inelastic. Demand for both poor and average quality cannabis and ecstasy was income inelastic, but demand for good quality cannabis and ecstasy was income elastic. The demand for poor quality cocaine was income inelastic, with the demand for both average and good quality cocaine being income elastic. Participants reported too few purchases of amphetamine, which precluded behavioural economic analysis. These results suggest that, like other goods, controlled drugs are purchased based upon the consumer's interpretations of their relative value. Therefore, it is probable that the purchase and subsequent use of controlled drugs by polysubstance misusers will be heavily influenced by the economic environment.

  14. Daily Patterns of Marijuana and Alcohol Co-Use Among Individuals with Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrik, Jane; Gunn, Rachel L; Jackson, Kristina M; Sokolovsky, Alexander W; Borsari, Brian

    2018-04-15

    The study aims were to examine daily associations between marijuana and alcohol use and the extent to which the association differs as a function of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and/or alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis. Timeline Followback interview data was collected in a study of veterans (N = 127) recruited from a Veterans Affairs hospital who reported at least 1 day of co-use of marijuana and alcohol in the past 180 days (22,860 observations). Participants reported 40% marijuana use days, 28% drinking days, with 37% meeting DSM-5 criteria for CUD, 40% for AUD, and 15% for both. Use of marijuana on a given day was used to predict a 3-level gender-adjusted drinking variable (heavy: ≥5 (men)/4 (women) drinks; moderate: 1 to 4/3 drinks; or none: 0 drinks). A categorical 4-level variable (no diagnosis, AUD, CUD, or both) was tested as a moderator of the marijuana-alcohol relationship. Multilevel modeling analyses demonstrated that participants were more likely to drink heavily compared to moderately (OR = 2.34) and moderately compared to not drinking (OR = 1.61) on marijuana use days relative to nonuse days. On marijuana use days, those with AUD and those with AUD + CUD were more likely to drink heavily (OR = 1.91; OR = 2.51, respectively), but those with CUD were less likely to drink heavily (OR = 0.32) compared to moderately, nonsignificant differences between any versus moderate drinking in interaction models. Heavy drinking occurs on days when marijuana is also used. This association is particularly evident in individuals diagnosed with both AUD and CUD and AUDs alone but not in those with only CUDs. Findings suggest that alcohol interventions may need to specifically address marijuana use as a risk factor for heavy drinking and AUD. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. The mediation role of licit drugs in the influence of socializing on cannabis use among adolescents: A quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, Aurélie; Legleye, Stéphane; Chau, Nearkasen; Falissard, Bruno

    2010-10-01

    Licit substance use could be an early stage leading on to cannabis use. The aim of the study was to test a hypothetical sequential process leading from socializing to cannabis use so as to evaluate the mediator role of tobacco and alcohol. Data was derived from a French nationwide survey carried out in 2005 involving 29,393 teenagers aged 17. The analysis used structural equation modelling. The sequence tested was: socializing with friends-tobacco/alcohol use-cannabis use-cannabis use disorders (CUD). Tobacco and alcohol consumptions appeared to be similarly influenced by the time spent with friends. However, tobacco mediation explained 57% of the sequence leading to cannabis use and 61% of the sequence leading to CUD, while the role of alcohol was weaker, at around 13%. Our results underline the effect of peer influence, in the course of night-out socializing, on substance use among adolescents, and the importance of tobacco mediation in the process leading to cannabis use and misuse. This suggests that prevention in places frequented by adolescents should primarily target tobacco consumption, which explains the largest part of cannabis use variance. However, processes linking substance uses seem to be more complex, with the existence of reverse pathways from cannabis to licit drugs. Thus, the gateway effects of tobacco and alcohol require further exploration in relation to simultaneous polysubstance use. 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers' ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Hellen, Florence; Mindiashvili, Nona; Rickert, Annette; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Grieser, Almut; Monticelli, Fabio; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

  17. Pothead or pot smoker? a taxometric investigation of cannabis dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxometric methods were used to discern the latent structure of cannabis dependence. Such methods help determine if a construct is categorical or dimensional. Taxometric analyses (MAXEIG and MAMBAC were conducted on data from 1,474 cannabis-using respondents to the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC. Respondents answered questions assessing DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence. Results Both taxometric methods provided support for a dimensional structure of cannabis dependence. Conclusion Although the MAMBAC results were not entirely unequivocal, the majority of evidence favored a dimensional structure of cannabis dependence.

  18. Cannabis use in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Sven R; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Hagen, Ellen Merete; Nielsen, Jørgen F; Bach, Flemming W; Finnerup, Nanna B

    2017-01-31

    To evaluate recreational and medical cannabis use in individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury, including reasons and predictors for use, perceived benefits and negative consequences. Cross-sectional survey in Denmark. A 35-item questionnaire was sent to 1,101 patients with spinal cord injury who had been in contact with a rehabilitation centre between 1990 and 2012. A total of 537 participants completed the questionnaire. Of these, 36% had tried cannabis at least once and 9% were current users. Of current users, 79% had started to use cannabis before their spinal cord injury. The main reason for use was pleasure, but 65% used cannabis partly for spinal cord injury-related consequences and 59% reported at least good effect on pain and spasticity. Negative consequences of use were primarily inertia and feeling quiet/subdued. Lower age, living in rural areas/larger cities, tobacco-smoking, high alcohol intake and higher muscle stiffness were significantly associated with cannabis use. Those who had never tried cannabis reported that they would mainly use cannabis to alleviate pain and spasticity if it were legalized. Cannabis use is more frequent among individuals with spinal cord injury in Denmark than among the general population. High muscle stiffness and various demographic characteristics (lower age, living in rural areas/larger cities, tobacco-smoking and high alcohol intake) were associated with cannabis use. Most participants had started using cannabis before their spinal cord injury. There was considerable overlap between recreational and disability-related use.

  19. Cannabis use and abuse correlates in a homogeneous South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-01

    Mar 1, 2009 ... antisocial personality disorder.3,7-9. Although ... the longer-term outcome of cannabis use in this illness have both ... the teenage years, was more prevalent among males than females, and ... specialised alcohol and drug treatment centres, cannabis-related ... To limit confounding factors, a decision was.

  20. [Cannabis and lung. What we know and everything we don't know yet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, T; Hureaux, J

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use increased sharply from 2010 to 2014 in France. Cannabis is often consumed with tobacco, although the use of marijuana is developing. Tobacco and cannabis smoke have many common characteristics in terms of irritants, carcinogens and carbon monoxide. They also differentiate by their dependence mechanisms, with nicotine and its receptors for tobacco and tetra-hydro-cannabinol (THC) and its specific receptors for cannabis. Chronic inhalation (700,000 daily users in France) over a long period most likely increases the relative risk of bronchial cancer. But long-term cohort studies targeting this group of strong cannabis users, especially over time, are lacking. Inhalation of cannabis smoke, despite an acute bronchodilator effect, is associated with the risk of chronic bronchitis in the case of regular use. However, the risk of developing COPD in the exclusive marijuana smoker group with no associated tobacco is not yet clear, with studies yielding discordant results. There is also a lack of long-term follow-up studies of respiratory investigations in large cannabis users. Finally, cannabis smoke contains various cannabinoids, for example cannabidiol which also have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties, with the unconfirmed hypothesis that these properties can partially modulate the deleterious action of cannabis smoke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The GABAA Receptor α2 Subunit Activates a Neuronal TLR4 Signal in the Ventral Tegmental Area that Regulates Alcohol and Nicotine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Balan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism initiates with episodes of excessive alcohol drinking, known as binge drinking, which is one form of excessive drinking (NIAAA Newsletter, 2004 that is related to impulsivity and anxiety (Ducci et al., 2007; Edenberg et al., 2004 and is also predictive of smoking status. The predisposition of non-alcohol exposed subjects to initiate binge drinking is controlled by neuroimmune signaling that includes an innately activated neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signal. This signal also regulates cognitive impulsivity, a heritable trait that defines drug abuse initiation. However, the mechanism of signal activation, its function in dopaminergic (TH+ neurons within the reward circuitry implicated in drug-seeking behavior [viz. the ventral tegmental area (VTA], and its contribution to nicotine co-abuse are still poorly understood. We report that the γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor (GABAAR α2 subunit activates the TLR4 signal in neurons, culminating in the activation (phosphorylation/nuclear translocation of cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB but not NF-kB transcription factors and the upregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. The signal is activated through α2/TLR4 interaction, as evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation, and it is present in the VTA from drug-untreated alcohol-preferring P rats. VTA infusion of neurotropic herpes simplex virus (HSV vectors for α2 (pHSVsiLA2 or TLR4 (pHSVsiTLR4 but not scrambled (pHSVsiNC siRNA inhibits signal activation and both binge alcohol drinking and nicotine sensitization, suggesting that the α2-activated TLR4 signal contributes to the regulation of both alcohol and nicotine abuse.

  2. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Results Over 2500 adult daily cannabis users completed an Internet survey consisting of measures of cannabis and other drug use, in addition to measures of commonly reported negative problems resulting from cannabis use. We compared those who met a proxy measure of DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence (N = 1111 to those who did not meet the criteria (N = 1770. Cannabis dependent subjects consumed greater amounts of cannabis, alcohol, and a variety of other drugs. They also had lower levels of motivation, happiness, and satisfaction with life, with higher levels of depression and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Although all of our subjects reported daily use, only those meeting proxy criteria for cannabis dependence reported significant associated problems. Our data suggest that dependence need not arise from daily use, but consuming larger amounts of cannabis and other drugs undoubtedly increases problems.

  3. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Roskams, Tania [Department of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, University of Leuven (Belgium); Oben, Jude A., E-mail: j.oben@ucl.ac.uk [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  4. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI; Roskams, Tania; Oben, Jude A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. ► Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). ► Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. ► Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. ► Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine – which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed – RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-α2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type (α1, β1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type (α3, α6, α7, β2 and β4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, α3, α7, β1 and ε were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-α2 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by mecamylamine. α1 and α3-nAChR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in NASH fibrosis compared to normal livers. Conclusion: Nicotine at levels in smokers’ blood is pro-fibrogenic, through

  5. Correlates of cannabis use among high school students in Shamva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Eight percent of the students in our sample reported current use of cannabis. Associations were found between cannabis use and alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), cigarette smoking (P < 0.001), and having had engaged in sexual intercourse (P < 0.001). Significant relationships were found between recreational ...

  6. The Use of Substances Other Than Nicotine in Electronic Cigarettes Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deric R Kenne

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes have grown in popularity, especially among youth and young adults. Although e-cigarettes were originally intended to vaporize a liquid mixture containing nicotine, there appears to be an increasing trend in other substance use in e-cigarettes (OSUE. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional data from 1542 undergraduate college student e-cigarette users from a large Midwestern university were collected via online survey to assess prevalence of e-cigarette use, reasons for use, perceived harm, and prevalence and predictors of OSUE. Results: Nearly 7% (6.94% reported using an e-cigarette to vaporize and inhale a substance other than nicotine. Current tobacco cigarette smokers were significantly more likely to report OSUE (51.0% as compared with never (33.7% and former (15.4% smokers. Among respondents reporting OSUE, the primary reason for e-cigarette use was “safer than cigarettes” (21.7%, followed by “experimentation” (18.9% and “friends use” (17.0%. Most (77.9% reported using cannabis or some derivative of cannabis in an e-cigarette. Binomial logistic regression found that women were less likely to report OSUE by a factor of 0.60, former tobacco cigarette smokers as compared with never smokers were more likely to report OSUE by a factor of 1.87, and e-cigarette users who reported using e-cigarettes for “cool or trendy” reasons were more likely to report OSUE by a factor of 2.89. Discussion: Little is known regarding the health effects of cannabis and cannabis derivatives delivered through e-cigarettes. Concern may also be warranted regarding the potential dangers of this young population using substances more dangerous than cannabis in e-cigarettes. Knowledge is limited regarding the public health impact of vaping cannabis or other illicit substances among college student populations. This study stresses the need for continued research regarding the vaping of cannabis and other

  7. Effects of the nicotinic agonist varenicline, nicotinic antagonist r-bPiDI, and DAT inhibitor (R)-modafinil on co-use of ethanol and nicotine in female P rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Sarah E; Saunders, Meredith A; Baxter, Thomas A; Nixon, Kimberly; Prendergast, Mark A; Zheng, Guangrong; Crooks, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P; Slack, Rachel D; Newman, Amy H; Bell, Richard L; Bardo, Michael T

    2018-05-01

    Co-users of alcohol and nicotine are the largest group of polysubstance users worldwide. Commonalities in mechanisms of action for ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine proposes the possibility of developing a single pharmacotherapeutic to treat co-use. Toward developing a preclinical model of co-use, female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained for voluntary EtOH drinking and i.v. nicotine self-administration in three phases: (1) EtOH alone (0 vs. 15%, two-bottle choice), (2) nicotine alone (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, active vs. inactive lever), and (3) concurrent access to both EtOH and nicotine. Using this model, we examined the effects of (1) varenicline, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist with high affinity for the α4β2* subtype; (2) r-bPiDI, a subtype-selective antagonist at α6β2* nAChRs; and (3) (R)-modafinil, an atypical inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT). In phases 1 and 2, pharmacologically relevant intake of EtOH and nicotine was achieved. In the concurrent access phase (phase 3), EtOH consumption decreased while nicotine intake increased relative to phases 1 and 2. For drug pretreatments, in the EtOH access phase (phase 1), (R)-modafinil (100 mg/kg) decreased EtOH consumption, with no effect on water consumption. In the concurrent access phase, varenicline (3 mg/kg), r-bPiDI (20 mg/kg), and (R)-modafinil (100 mg/kg) decreased nicotine self-administration but did not alter EtOH consumption, water consumption, or inactive lever pressing. These results indicate that therapeutics which may be useful for smoking cessation via selective inhibition of α4β2* or α6β2* nAChRs, or DAT inhibition, may not be sufficient to treat EtOH and nicotine co-use.

  8. Cannabis and stroke: systematic appraisal of case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackam, Daniel G

    2015-03-01

    An increasing number of case reports link cannabis consumption to cerebrovascular events. Yet these case reports have not been scrutinized using criteria for causal inference. All case reports on cannabis and cerebrovascular events were retrieved. Four causality criteria were addressed: temporality, adequacy of stroke work-up, effects of rechallenge, and concomitant risk factors that could account for the cerebrovascular event. There were 34 case reports on 64 patients. Most cases (81%) exhibited a temporal relationship between cannabis exposure and the index event. In 70%, the evaluation was sufficiently comprehensive to exclude other sources for stroke. About a quarter (22%) of patients had another stroke after subsequent re-exposure to cannabis. Finally, half of patients (50%) had concomitant stroke risk factors, most commonly tobacco (34%) and alcohol (11%) consumption. Many case reports support a causal link between cannabis and cerebrovascular events. This accords well with epidemiological and mechanistic research on the cerebrovascular effects of cannabis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. EVALUACIÓN DE LA EFECTIVIDAD DE LOS PROGRAMAS ESCOLARES DE PREVENCIÓN DEL CONSUMO DE TABACO, ALCOHOL Y CANNABIS: ¿QUÉ NOS DICEN LOS META-ANÁLISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Fernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de tabaco, alcohol y otras drogas constituye un problema prioritario en salud pública en los países desarrollados. El objetivo del estudio es describir el impacto de los programas escolares de prevención de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis, así como las características de las intervenciones más efectivas. Se revisan los meta-análisis de programas de prevención escolar de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis publicados en las bases de datos médicas Cochrane Library y Medline desde 1990 a 1999, que incluyen una o más de las palabras clave programs, education, drugs prevention, prevention, smoking, alcohol, school, adolescence, teenagers, young people, evaluation, health education, effectiveness, review, meta-analysis. Se han identificado 5 meta-análisis que en su gran mayoría revisan programas de prevención unitaria del consumo y abuso de sustancias, incluyendo tabaco, alcohol y cannabis, aunque la evaluación del impacto sobre las conductas se refiere en general al consumo de tabaco. Las intervenciones más efectivas abordan la influencia social del consumo, usan una metodología activa y son aplicadas por los profesores con la participación de los iguales. Se destaca la importancia de las sesiones de refuerzo, la calidad de la implementación y la evaluación rigurosa. Los meta-análisis de los programas evaluados indican un efecto preventivo de magnitud discreta, pero que puede tener un impacto potencial considerable. Las limitaciones detectadas apuntan futuras líneas de investigación.

  10. A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-11-01

    Substitution is operationalised as a conscious choice made by users to use one drug instead of, or in conjunction with another based on: perceived safety, level of addiction potential, effectiveness in relieving symptoms, access and level of acceptance. Harm reduction is a set of strategies that aim to minimise problems associated with drug use while recognising that for some users, abstinence may be neither a realistic nor a desirable goal. In this paper, we aim for deeper understandings of older adult cannabis users' beliefs and substitution practices as part of the harm reduction framework. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) marijuana users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Although the sample consisted of primary cannabis users, many had personal experience with other drugs throughout their lifetimes. Data collection consisted of an audio-recorded, semi-structured in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analysed to discover users' harm reduction beliefs and cannabis substitution practices. Study participants described using cannabis as a safer alternative for alcohol, illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals based on their perceptions of less adverse side effects, low-risk for addiction and greater effectiveness at relieving symptoms, such as chronic pain. Cannabis substitution can be an effective harm reduction method for those who are unable or unwilling to stop using drugs completely. More research is needed on cannabis as a safer alternative. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Unique prediction of cannabis use severity and behaviors by delay discounting and behavioral economic demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated delay discounting and behavioral economic demand to determine their unique contribution to drug use. A recent study in cannabis users found that monetary delay discounting uniquely predicted cannabis dependence symptoms, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency. This study sought to replicate and extend this research by evaluating delay discounting and behavioral economic demand measures for multiple commodities and including a use quantity measure. Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk was used to sample individuals reporting recent cannabis use (n=64) and controls (n=72). Participants completed measures of monetary delay discounting as well as alcohol and cannabis delay discounting and demand. Cannabis users and controls did not differ on monetary delay discounting or alcohol delay discounting and demand. Among cannabis users, regression analyses indicated that cannabis delay discounting uniquely predicted use severity, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency and quantity. These effects remained significant after controlling for other delay discounting and demand measures. This research replicates previous outcomes relating delay discounting and demand with cannabis use and extends them by accounting for the contribution of multiple commodities. This research also demonstrates the ability of online crowdsourcing methods to complement traditional human laboratory techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol and cannabis among Ontario students: Associations with graduated licensing, risk taking, and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Shank, Danielle; Bruno, Tara; Turner, Nigel E; Mann, Robert E

    2017-07-04

    This article describes the patterns of self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) and driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) among licensed Ontario students in 2009 and examines their associations with graduated licensing, risk taking, and substance use problems for understanding DUIA and DUIC behaviors. Ontario's graduated licensing system requires new drivers to hold a G1 license for a minimum of 8 months and a G2 license for a minimum of 12 months before a full and unrestricted G license can be obtained. Among other restrictions, G1 drivers must maintain a 0 blood alcohol content (BAC), have an experienced driver in the passenger seat, not drive on any high-speed expressways, and not drive between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m. A G2 license is more similar to a G license, with fewer restrictions. This study analyzed data from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). The OSDUHS is a biennial population-based survey of students (grades 7 to 12) in Ontario, Canada. The results showed that 16.3% of licensed students in Ontario reported DUIC and 11.5% reported DUIA during the past year. After controlling for the effect of age, type of license emerged as a robust predictor for both DUIA and DUIC behavior, because students with a G2 and full license were significantly more likely to report DUIA and DUIC than drivers with a G1 license. Multivariate analyses suggested that risk-seeking behaviors were more important for understanding DUIA behavior than for DUIC behavior. Elevated problem indicators for alcohol and for cannabis were associated with DUIA and DUIC, respectively. Though much attention has been paid to drinking and driving among adolescents, this research shows that more Ontario students now report driving after cannabis use than after drinking alcohol. The results identify important correlates of both behaviors that may be useful for prevention purposes.

  13. Cannabis Withdrawal Among Detained Adolescents: Exploring the Impact of Nicotine and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenksen, Shayna; Stein, L A R; Brown, Joanna D; Stengel, JoAnn R; Rossi, Joseph S; Lebeau, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    Rates of marijuana use among detained youths are exceptionally high. Research suggests a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is valid and clinically significant; however, these studies have mostly been conducted in highly controlled laboratory settings with treatment-seeking, White adults. The present study analyzed archival data to explore the magnitude of cannabis withdrawal symptoms within a diverse sample of detained adolescents while controlling for tobacco use and investigating the impact of race on symptom reports. Adolescents recruited from a juvenile correctional facility (N=93) completed a background questionnaire and the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Analyses revealed a significant main effect for level of tobacco use on severity of irritability, and for level of marijuana use on severity of craving to smoke marijuana and strange/wild dreams. Furthermore, a significant main effect for race was found with Black adolescents reporting lower withdrawal discomfort scores and experiencing less severe depressed mood, difficulty sleeping, nervousness/anxiety, and strange/wild dreams. Although exploratory, these findings may have significant clinical implications for providers in juvenile detention facilities, allowing the execution of proper medical and/or behavioral interventions to assist adolescents presenting with problematic cannabis and/or tobacco withdrawal.

  14. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y. Holgate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs. It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD.

  15. Cannabis Allergy: What do We Know Anno 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Ine; Ryckebosch, Hanne; Van Gasse, Athina L; Sabato, Vito; Faber, Margaretha; Bridts, Chris H; Ebo, Didier G

    2015-10-01

    For about a decade, IgE-mediated cannabis (marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may lead to a cannabis sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical manifestations of a cannabis allergy can vary from mild to life-threatening reactions, often depending on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can trigger various secondary cross-allergies, mostly for plant-derived food. This clinical entity, which we have designated as the "cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome" might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, latex and plant-food derived alcoholic beverages. These secondary cross-allergies are mainly described in Europe and appear to result from cross-reactivity between non-specific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in Cannabis sativa and their homologues that are ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures including a stop of any further cannabis (ab)use.

  16. Measuring cannabis consumption: Psychometric properties of the Daily Sessions, Frequency, Age of Onset, and Quantity of Cannabis Use Inventory (DFAQ-CU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Spradlin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We created the Daily Sessions, Frequency, Age of Onset, and Quantity of Cannabis Use Inventory (DFAQ-CU) because the current lack of psychometrically sound inventories for measuring these dimensions of cannabis use has impeded research on the effects of cannabis in humans. A sample of 2,062 cannabis users completed the DFAQ-CU and was used to assess the DFAQ-CU's factor structure and reliability. To assess validity, a subsample of 645 participants completed additional measures of cannabis dependence and problems (Marijuana Smoking History Questionnaire [MSHQ], Timeline Followback [TLFB], Cannabis Abuse Screening Test [CAST], Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test Revised [CUDIT-R], Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test [CUPIT], and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [AUDIT]). A six-factor structure was revealed, with factors measuring: daily sessions, frequency, age of onset, marijuana quantity, cannabis concentrate quantity, and edibles quantity. The factors were reliable, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from .69 (daily sessions) to .95 (frequency). Results further provided evidence for the factors' convergent (MSHQ, TLFB), predictive (CAST, CUDIT-R, CUPIT), and discriminant validity (AUDIT). The DFAQ-CU is the first psychometrically sound inventory for measuring frequency, age of onset, and quantity of cannabis use. It contains pictures of marijuana to facilitate the measurement of quantity of marijuana used, as well as questions to assess the use of different forms of cannabis (e.g., concentrates, edibles), methods of administering cannabis (e.g., joints, hand pipes, vaporizers), and typical THC levels. As such, the DFAQ-CU should help facilitate research on frequency, quantity, and age of onset of cannabis use.

  17. Measuring cannabis consumption: Psychometric properties of the Daily Sessions, Frequency, Age of Onset, and Quantity of Cannabis Use Inventory (DFAQ-CU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Cuttler

    Full Text Available We created the Daily Sessions, Frequency, Age of Onset, and Quantity of Cannabis Use Inventory (DFAQ-CU because the current lack of psychometrically sound inventories for measuring these dimensions of cannabis use has impeded research on the effects of cannabis in humans.A sample of 2,062 cannabis users completed the DFAQ-CU and was used to assess the DFAQ-CU's factor structure and reliability. To assess validity, a subsample of 645 participants completed additional measures of cannabis dependence and problems (Marijuana Smoking History Questionnaire [MSHQ], Timeline Followback [TLFB], Cannabis Abuse Screening Test [CAST], Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test Revised [CUDIT-R], Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test [CUPIT], and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [AUDIT].A six-factor structure was revealed, with factors measuring: daily sessions, frequency, age of onset, marijuana quantity, cannabis concentrate quantity, and edibles quantity. The factors were reliable, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from .69 (daily sessions to .95 (frequency. Results further provided evidence for the factors' convergent (MSHQ, TLFB, predictive (CAST, CUDIT-R, CUPIT, and discriminant validity (AUDIT.The DFAQ-CU is the first psychometrically sound inventory for measuring frequency, age of onset, and quantity of cannabis use. It contains pictures of marijuana to facilitate the measurement of quantity of marijuana used, as well as questions to assess the use of different forms of cannabis (e.g., concentrates, edibles, methods of administering cannabis (e.g., joints, hand pipes, vaporizers, and typical THC levels. As such, the DFAQ-CU should help facilitate research on frequency, quantity, and age of onset of cannabis use.

  18. Changes in tobacco consumption in cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia versus non-psychiatric controls during 28-days of cannabis abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Rachel A; Dermody, Sarah S; George, Tony P

    2018-04-01

    Tobacco and cannabis are highly co-morbid in the general population and in patients with schizophrenia. Given the putative causal mechanisms facilitating co-use, it is important to determine how cannabis cessation may influence concurrent tobacco use. Using a 28-day cannabis abstinence paradigm, we prospectively examined changes in tobacco consumption in patients with schizophrenia and controls with cannabis dependence and daily cigarette use. Cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) and controls (n = 20) completed the study with abstinence rates of 42% and 55%, respectively. Participants completed measures of substance use, withdrawal, and clinical symptoms weekly. Urine samples were collected twice weekly to biochemically verify abstinence. Patients reported a greater increase in cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) on Day 7 relative to baseline (2.97 cigarette increase for abstinent subgroup, p cannabis use related to greater increases in CPD relative to baseline in the patient subsample (simple slope = -2.31, p = .05), but by Day 28, CPD returned to baseline levels independent of cannabis use. CPD changes were unrelated to cannabis withdrawal. Results were similar for changes in caffeine consumption, but not for alcohol. Findings suggest transient tobacco substitution for cannabis in patients with schizophrenia. This provides further support for a strong association between cannabis and tobacco in schizophrenia. Future studies should focus on targeting underlying mechanisms that promote co-use to better address potential changes in concurrent substance use during treatment interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship of nicotine dependence, subsyndromal and pathological gambling, and other psychiatric disorders: data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2009-03-01

    Nicotine dependence frequently co-occurs with subsyndromal and pathological levels of gambling. The relationship of nicotine dependence, levels of gambling pathology, and other psychiatric disorders, however, is incompletely understood. To use nationally representative data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions to examine the influence of DSM-IV nicotine dependence on the association between pathological gambling severities and other psychiatric disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 43,093 adults living in households and group-quarters in the United States. The main outcome measure was the co-occurrence of current nicotine dependence and Axis I and II disorders and severity of gambling based on the 10 inclusionary diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. The study was conducted from 2001 to 2002. Among non-nicotine-dependent respondents, increasing gambling severity was associated with greater psychopathology for the majority of Axis I and II disorders. This pattern was not uniformly observed among nicotine-dependent subjects. Significant nicotine-by-gambling-group interactions were observed for multiple Axis I and II disorders. All significant interactions involved stronger associations between gambling and psychopathology in the non-nicotine-dependent group. In a large national sample, nicotine dependence influences the associations between gambling and multiple psychiatric disorders. Subsyndromal levels of gambling are associated with significant psychopathology. Nicotine dependence accounts for some of the elevated risks for psychopathology associated with subsyndromal and problem/pathological levels of gambling. Additional research is needed to examine specific prevention and treatment for individuals with problem/pathological gambling with and without nicotine dependence. ©Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Salvatore, Stefania; Gracia-Lor, Emma

    2016-01-01

    for the comparison. RESULTS: High agreement was found between wastewater and other data sources for pharmaceuticals and cocaine, whereas amphetamines, alcohol and caffeine showed a moderate correlation. methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and nicotine did not correlate with other sources...

  1. Dose-response effect between cannabis use and psychosis liability in a non-clinical population: evidence from a snowball sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; Barrigón, María Luisa; Hernández, Laureano; Rubio, José Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel; Sarramea, Fernando; Cervilla, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Blanca; James, Anthony; Ferrin, Maite

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations between daily cannabis use and the specific profiles of subclinical symptoms in a non-clinical population obtained through snowball sampling, taking into account alcohol use, other drug use, social exclusion and age at onset of cannabis use. We included 85 daily cannabis users and 100 non-daily cannabis users. Both the case and the control populations were identified by snowball sampling. Daily cannabis use was associated with more alcohol intake and other drug use, as well as with early onset in the use of cannabis. Daily cannabis use appeared to exert a dose-response effect on first-rank symptoms, mania symptoms and auditory hallucinations, even after adjusting for sex, age, other drug use, social exclusion and age at onset of cannabis use. The paranoid dimension was only associated with the heaviest consumption of cannabis. Initial age of cannabis use modified the effects of daily cannabis use on the first-rank and voices experiences. Daily cannabis use was associated with significantly more first-rank and voices experiences among those subjects who started to use cannabis before 17 years of age. Our study supports the association of psychotic experiences with cannabis use even among non-psychotic subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunolocalization of androgen and oestrogen receptors in the ventral lobe of rat (Rattus norvegicus) prostate after long-term treatment with ethanol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, W J; Cagnon, V H A

    2008-12-01

    Nicotine and alcohol adversely affect prostate gland function. In this work, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the immunoreactivity and distribution of androgen and alpha, beta-oestrogen receptors following chronic treatment with alcohol, nicotine or a combination of both substances, as well as to relate these results to the development of possible prostatic pathologies. Forty male rats were divided into four groups: the Control group received tap water; the Alcoholic group received diluted 10% Gay Lussac ethanol; the Nicotine group received a 0.125 mg/100 g body weight dose of nicotine injected subcutaneously on a daily basis (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO, USA); the Nicotine-Alcohol group received simultaneous alcohol and nicotine treatment. After 90 days of treatment, samples of the ventral lobe of the prostate were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry, light microscopy and the quantification of serum hormonal concentrations. The results showed significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased serum oestrogen levels in the animals from the nicotine-alcohol, the alcoholic and the nicotine groups, as well as their hormonal receptor levels. Then, it was concluded that ethanol and nicotine compromised the prostatic hormonal balance, which is a crucial factor to maintain the morphological and physiological features of this organ.

  3. Cannabis, Tobacco, Alcohol Use, and the Risk of Early Stroke: A Population-Based Cohort Study of 45 000 Swedish Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkstedt, Daniel; Wolff, Valerie; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Danielsson, Anna-Karin

    2017-02-01

    Current knowledge on cannabis use in relation to stroke is based almost exclusively on clinical reports. By using a population-based cohort, we aimed to find out whether there was an association between cannabis use and early-onset stroke, when accounting for the use of tobacco and alcohol. The cohort comprises 49 321 Swedish men, born between 1949 and 1951, who were conscripted into compulsory military service between the ages of 18 and 20. All men answered 2 detailed questionnaires at conscription and were subject to examinations of physical aptitude, psychological functioning, and medical status. Information on stroke events up to ≈60 years of age was obtained from national databases; this includes strokes experienced before 45 years of age. No associations between cannabis use in young adulthood and strokes experienced ≤45 years of age or beyond were found in multivariable models: cannabis use >50 times, hazard ratios=0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-2.57) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.59-1.53). Although an almost doubled risk of ischemic stroke was observed in those with cannabis use >50 times, this risk was attenuated when adjusted for tobacco usage: hazards ratio=1.47 (95% CI, 0.83-2.56). Smoking ≥20 cigarettes per day was clearly associated both with strokes before 45 years of age, hazards ratio=5.04 (95% CI, 2.80-9.06), and with strokes throughout the follow-up, hazards ratio=2.15 (95% CI, 1.61-2.88). We found no evident association between cannabis use in young adulthood and stroke, including strokes before 45 years of age. Tobacco smoking, however, showed a clear, dose-response shaped association with stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Medical cannabis access, use, and substitution for prescription opioids and other substances: A survey of authorized medical cannabis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Philippe; Walsh, Zach

    2017-04-01

    In 2014 Health Canada replaced the Marihuana for Medical Access Regulations (MMAR) with the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations (MMPR). One of the primary changes in the new program has been to move from a single Licensed Producer (LP) of cannabis to multiple Licensed Producers. This is the first comprehensive survey of patients enrolled in the MMPR. Patients registered to purchase cannabis from Tilray, a federally authorized Licenced Producer (LP) within the MMPR, were invited to complete an online survey consisting of 107 questions on demographics, patterns of use, and cannabis substitution effect. The survey was completed by 271 respondents. Cannabis is perceived to be an effective treatment for diverse conditions, with pain and mental health the most prominent. Findings include high self-reported use of cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs (63%), particularly pharmaceutical opioids (30%), benzodiazepines (16%), and antidepressants (12%). Patients also reported substituting cannabis for alcohol (25%), cigarettes/tobacco (12%), and illicit drugs (3%). A significant percentage of patients (42%) reported accessing cannabis from illegal/unregulated sources in addition to access via LPs, and over half (55%) were charged to receive a medical recommendation to use cannabis, with nearly 25% paying $300 or more. The finding that patients report its use as a substitute for prescription drugs supports prior research on medical cannabis users; however, this study is the first to specify the classes of prescription drugs for which cannabis it is used as a substitute, and to match this substitution to specific diagnostic categories. The findings that some authorized patients purchase cannabis from unregulated sources and that a significant percentage of patients were charged for medical cannabis recommendations highlight ongoing policy challenges for this federal program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A new approach to formulating and appraising drug policy: A multi-criterion decision analysis applied to alcohol and cannabis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogeberg, Ole; Bergsvik, Daniel; Phillips, Lawrence D; van Amsterdam, Jan; Eastwood, Niamh; Henderson, Graeme; Lynskey, Micheal; Measham, Fiona; Ponton, Rhys; Rolles, Steve; Schlag, Anne Katrin; Taylor, Polly; Nutt, David

    2018-02-16

    Drug policy, whether for legal or illegal substances, is a controversial field that encompasses many complex issues. Policies can have effects on a myriad of outcomes and stakeholders differ in the outcomes they consider and value, while relevant knowledge on policy effects is dispersed across multiple research disciplines making integrated judgements difficult. Experts on drug harms, addiction, criminology and drug policy were invited to a decision conference to develop a multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA) model for appraising alternative regulatory regimes. Participants collectively defined regulatory regimes and identified outcome criteria reflecting ethical and normative concerns. For cannabis and alcohol separately, participants evaluated each regulatory regime on each criterion and weighted the criteria to provide summary scores for comparing different regimes. Four generic regulatory regimes were defined: absolute prohibition, decriminalisation, state control and free market. Participants also identified 27 relevant criteria which were organised into seven thematically related clusters. State control was the preferred regime for both alcohol and cannabis. The ranking of the regimes was robust to variations in the criterion-specific weights. The MCDA process allowed the participants to deconstruct complex drug policy issues into a set of simpler judgements that led to consensus about the results. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. effect of nicotine administration on weight and histology of some vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    However it is not certain whether this effect is produced entirely by nicotine as cigarettes contain other toxic ... nicotine treatment while weights of the heart and liver increased with 60days treatment with the appearance of .... carried out in ascending grade of alcohol. .... This study showed that chronic nicotine treatment.

  7. Early childhood predictors of age of initiation to use of cannabis: a birth prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Williams, Gail M; Bor, William; Najman, Jake M

    2013-05-01

    Early age of cannabis use predicts subsequent illicit drug abuse and other psychosocial problems. Identification of factors associated with early cannabis use may contribute to the development of preventive interventions. This study aimed to examine the early life predictors of age of initiation to cannabis. Data were from Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a population-based prospective birth cohort study. Participants were a cohort of 3488 young adults who self-reported frequency and age of onset of cannabis use at the 21 year follow up. Of 3488 young adults, 48.9% (51.8% men and 46.4% women) reported having ever used cannabis. For those who had ever used cannabis, age of onset had mean and median of 15.8 and 16.0 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis child's gender, change in maternal marital status, quality of marital relationship, maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and maternal depression when the child was 5 years statistically significantly predicted age of initiation to cannabis use. The present study explores the impact of early childhood factors associated with age of onset of cannabis use. It is suggested that the family environment within which children are reared, including factors such as parents' marital circumstances, has a major influence on initiation to cannabis use in adolescence. Research is needed to disentangle the pathways of association between these early life factors and early initiation to use of cannabis. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Psychotic-like symptomatology and reward responsivity in chronic ketamine and cannabis users

    OpenAIRE

    Joye, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses psychotic-like symptomatology and reward responsivity in chronic users of two illicit drugs, cannabis and ketamine. As use of these drugs is steadily increasing, with cannabis being the most widely used drug worldwide (following alcohol, caffeine and tobacco) and the recent proliferation of ketamine misuse in parts of Asia, Europe and the United States, it is important to examine the effects of their habitual use. While research has linked cannabis use to sub-clinical psy...

  9. Histopathological and Morphometric Evaluation in the Testis and Epididymis of Adult Rats Submitted To A Recovery Period after Treatment with Anabolic Steroid, Alcohol and/or Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Ribeiro de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Frequently, reproductive toxic substances such as androgenic anabolic steroids, alcohol and nicotine are used in association by adolescents and adults, in an indiscriminate manner. This study investigated the testicular and epididymal tissue of adult rats submitted to a recovery period after treatment with anabolic steroid, alcohol and /or nicotine. Materials and Methods: The animals (n=42 were divided into three control groups simulating the drugs administration routes (CI: distilled water, oral; CII: saline solution, subcutaneous; CIII: water and saline solution and groups treated with a testosterone esters mixture (T: 7.5 mg/kg body weight - b.w., subcutaneous, alcohol (AL: 3.5 g/kg b.w. of ethanol 25%, oral, nicotine (N: 2.0 mg/kg b.w., subcutaneous, and co-administration of these three substances (T/AL/N. After 15 consecutive days of treatment (once a day, the animals were kept for 30 days in recovery. At the end of this period, the testes and epididymides were collected, weighed and processed for histological and morphometric analysis by light microscope. Results: All groups treated with toxic substances presented histopathological changes in testes and epididymis after the recovery period. There was a significant decrease (p [J Interdiscip Histopathol 2017; 5(3.000: 92-98

  10. The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Rooij, Antonius J; Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D; Shorter, Gillian W; Schoenmakers, M Tim; VAN DE Mheen, Dike

    2014-09-01

    The current study explored the nature of problematic (addictive) video gaming (PVG) and the association with game type, psychosocial health, and substance use. Data were collected using a paper and pencil survey in the classroom setting. Three samples were aggregated to achieve a total sample of 8478 unique adolescents. Scales included measures of game use, game type, the Video game Addiction Test (VAT), depressive mood, negative self-esteem, loneliness, social anxiety, education performance, and use of cannabis, alcohol and nicotine (smoking). Findings confirmed problematic gaming is most common amongst adolescent gamers who play multiplayer online games. Boys (60%) were more likely to play online games than girls (14%) and problematic gamers were more likely to be boys (5%) than girls (1%). High problematic gamers showed higher scores on depressive mood, loneliness, social anxiety, negative self-esteem, and self-reported lower school performance. Nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis using boys were almost twice more likely to report high PVG than non-users. It appears that online gaming in general is not necessarily associated with problems. However, problematic gamers do seem to play online games more often, and a small subgroup of gamers - specifically boys - showed lower psychosocial functioning and lower grades. Moreover, associations with alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use are found. It would appear that problematic gaming is an undesirable problem for a small subgroup of gamers. The findings encourage further exploration of the role of psychoactive substance use in problematic gaming.

  11. Evaluación de la efectividad de los programas escolares de prevención del consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis: ¿Qué nos dicen los meta-análisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Susanna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de tabaco, alcohol y otras drogas constituye un problema prioritario en salud pública en los países desarrollados. El objetivo del estudio es describir el impacto de los programas escolares de prevención de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis, así como las características de las intervenciones más efectivas. Se revisan los meta-análisis de programas de prevención escolar de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis publicados en las bases de datos médicas Cochrane Library y Medline desde 1990 a 1999, que incluyen una o más de las palabras clave programs, education, drugs prevention, prevention, smoking, alcohol, school, adolescence, teenagers, young people, evaluation, health education, effectiveness, review, meta-analysis. Se han identificado 5 meta-análisis que en su gran mayoría revisan programas de prevención unitaria del consumo y abuso de sustancias, incluyendo tabaco, alcohol y cannabis, aunque la evaluación del impacto sobre las conductas se refiere en general al consumo de tabaco. Las intervenciones más efectivas abordan la influencia social del consumo, usan una metodología activa y son aplicadas por los profesores con la participación de los iguales. Se destaca la importancia de las sesiones de refuerzo, la calidad de la implementación y la evaluación rigurosa. Los meta-análisis de los programas evaluados indican un efecto preventivo de magnitud discreta, pero que puede tener un impacto potencial considerable. Las limitaciones detectadas apuntan futuras líneas de investigación.

  12. Who are the adolescents saying "No" to cannabis offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdzovic Andreas, Jasmina; Pape, Hilde; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who refuse direct cannabis offers and remain non-users represent a potentially very informative, yet surprisingly understudied group. We examined a range of risk and protective factors putatively associated with this poorly understood "cannabis-resilient" profile. Paper-and-pencil questionnaires assessing substance use, peer and family relations, and behavioral and personality characteristics were completed by 19,303 middle- and high-school students from 82 schools in Norway (response rate 84%) The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use was 7.6%. Another 10.4% reported no use of the drug despite having received recent cannabis offers. Results from the multinomial logistic regression revealed a set of characteristics differentiating adolescents who resisted such offers from those who: (a) neither received the offers nor used, and, more importantly, (b) used the drug. Specifically, parent-child relationship quality, negative drug-related beliefs, absence of close relationships with cannabis-users, low delinquency, no regular tobacco use, and infrequent alcohol intoxication were all associated with increased odds of being in the cannabis-resilient vs. cannabis-user group. This pattern of results was comparable across middle- and high-school cohorts, but the parent-child relationship quality and delinquency were significantly associated with cannabis-resilient vs. cannabis-use outcome only among younger and older adolescents, respectively. Among other low-risk characteristics, better relationships with parents and beliefs that drug use is problematic were associated with adolescents' refusals to accept cannabis offers. These results may have implications for novel preventive strategies targeting cannabis-exposed adolescents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. PACAP Protects Against Ethanol and Nicotine Toxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells: Implications for Drinking-Smoking Co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavalan, Sridharan; Getachew, Bruk; Manaye, Kebreten F; Khundmiri, Syed J; Csoka, Antonei B; McKinley, Raechel; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Tizabi, Yousef

    2017-07-01

    The detrimental effects of heavy drinking and smoking are multiplied when the two are combined. Treatment modalities for each and especially for the combination are very limited. Although in low concentration, alcohol and nicotine, each may have beneficial effects including neuroprotection, their combination, instead of providing additive protection, may actually lead to toxicity in cell cultures. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous 38 amino-acid peptide with demonstrated protection against neuronal injury, trauma as well as various endogenous and exogenous toxic agents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PACAP may also protect against toxicity induced by high alcohol, high nicotine, or the combination of low alcohol and nicotine concentrations, and if so, whether this effect was mediated via PAC1 receptor. We used the neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cells and applied various colorimetric assays for determination of cell viability or toxicity. Results indicate that PACAP blocks toxicity induced by high alcohol and high nicotine as well as their combination at low concentrations. The effects of PACAP in turn were blocked by the PACAP antagonist (PACAP 6-38), indicating involvement of the PACAP receptor PAC1 and possibly vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in PACAP's protection. Moreover, no combined toxicity of low alcohol and low nicotine could be detected in calcium-free medium. These findings suggest possible beneficial effects of PACAP in preventing alcohol and nicotine toxicity and that calcium contributes to the damage induced by combination of low alcohol and nicotine in SH-SY5Y cells.

  14. Associations between substance use disorders and major depression in parents and late adolescent-emerging adult offspring: an adoption study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marmorstein, N. R.; Iacono, W. G.; McGue, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To examine whether major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance use disorders [SUDs: specifically, nicotine dependence (ND), alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and cannabis use disorders (CUDs)] in parents predicted increased risk for these disorders in late adolescentemerging adult offspring and...

  15. Legal substance use and the development of a DSM-IV cannabis use disorder during adolescence: the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince van Leeuwen, Andrea; Creemers, Hanneke E; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Ormel, Johan; van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja C

    2014-02-01

    To examine whether early onset of tobacco or alcohol use, and continued use of tobacco or alcohol in early adolescence, are related to a higher likelihood of developing a cannabis use disorder during adolescence. Data were used from four consecutive assessment waves of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a general Dutch population study. TRAILS is an ongoing longitudinal study that will follow the same group of adolescents from the ages of 10 to 24 years. The sample consisted of 1108 (58% female) adolescents (mean ages at the four assessment waves are 11.09, 13.56, 16.27 and 19.05 years, respectively) Cannabis use disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 (CIDI). Adolescent tobacco and alcohol use were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Early-onset tobacco use [odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-3.14, P  0.05), was associated with a higher likelihood of developing a cannabis use disorder. Similarly, adolescents who reported continued use of tobacco (OR = 2.47, CI = 1.02-5.98, P  0.05), were more likely to develop a cannabis use disorder. Early-onset and continued tobacco use appear to predict the development of a cannabis use disorder in adolescence, whereas early onset and continued alcohol use do not. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Maternal use of cannabis and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Northstone, Kate

    2002-01-01

    To document the prevalence of cannabis use in a large sample of British women studied during pregnancy, to determine the association between cannabis use and social and lifestyle factors and assess any independent effects on pregnancy outcome. Self-completed questionnaire on use of cannabis before and during pregnancy. Over 12,000 women expecting singletons at 18 to 20 weeks of gestation who were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Any association with the use of cannabis before and during pregnancy with pregnancy outcome was examined, taking into account potentially confounding factors including maternal social background and other substance use during pregnancy. Late fetal and perinatal death, special care admission of the newborn infant, birthweight, birth length and head circumference. Five percent of mothers reported smoking cannabis before and/or during pregnancy; they were younger, of lower parity, better educated and more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, coffee, tea and hard drugs. Cannabis use during pregnancy was unrelated to risk of perinatal death or need for special care, but, the babies of women who used cannabis at least once per week before and throughout pregnancy were 216 g lighter than those of non-users, had significantly shorter birth lengths and smaller head circumferences. After adjustment for confounding factors, the association between cannabis use and birthweight failed to be statistically significant (P = 0.056) and was clearly non-linear: the adjusted mean birthweights for babies of women using cannabis at least once per week before and throughout pregnancy were 90 g lighter than the offspring of other women. No significant adjusted effects were seen for birth length and head circumference. The results of this study suggest that the use of cannabis during pregnancy was not associated with increased risk of perinatal mortality or morbidity in this sample. However, frequent and regular use of cannabis

  17. Childhood and current ADHD symptom dimensions are associated with more severe cannabis outcomes in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L C; Henry, E A; Willcutt, E G; Kinnear, M K; Ito, T A

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated higher risk of cannabis use disorders (CUD). However, these studies are limited in that most did not: (a) differentiate the role of hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) and inattention (IN); (b) control for associated psychopathology; and (c) consider more fine-grained CUD-related measures. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to age of cannabis initiation and DSM-IV cannabis dependence, craving, and severity of problems related to cannabis use while statistically controlling for symptoms of comorbid psychopathology in a non-clinical sample of young adults. Cannabis variables, current use of cigarettes and alcohol, current and childhood ADHD, and comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were assessed in 376 male and female undergraduates. Results indicate that current and childhood IN were independently associated with more severe cannabis use, craving, and problem use-related outcomes in young adulthood (p'scannabis (pcannabis use. Associations with ADHD symptom dimensions and current use of alcohol and cigarettes were also present. Thus, current and childhood inattention symptoms as well as childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms emerged as significant factors in cannabis-related outcomes in young adults, even after statistically controlling for important confounding variables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. DRD2 and DRD4 in relation to regular alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents : Does parenting modify the impact of genetic vulnerability? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.E.; Harakeh, Z.; Dick, D.M.; Meyers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The aims of the present study were to determine the direct effect of DRD2 and DRD4, as well as their interaction with parenting (i.e. rejection, overprotection and emotional warmth), on the development of regular alcohol and cannabis use in 1192 Dutch adolescents from the general population.

  19. DRD2 and DRD4 in relation to regular alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents: does parenting modify the impact of genetic vulnerability? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.E.; Harakeh, Z.; Dick, D.M.; Meyers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aims of the present study were to determine the direct effect of DRD2 and DRD4, as well as their interaction with parenting (i.e. rejection, overprotection and emotional warmth), on the development of regular alcohol and cannabis use in 1192 Dutch adolescents from the general population.

  20. Common single nucleotide variants underlying drug addiction: more than a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Kora-Mareen; Giné, Elena; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Calleja-Conde, Javier; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Drug-related phenotypes are common complex and highly heritable traits. In the last few years, candidate gene (CGAS) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a huge number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with drug use, abuse or dependence, mainly related to alcohol or nicotine. Nevertheless, few of these associations have been replicated in independent studies. The aim of this study was to provide a review of the SNPs that have been most significantly associated with alcohol-, nicotine-, cannabis- and cocaine-related phenotypes in humans between the years of 2000 and 2012. To this end, we selected CGAS, GWAS, family-based association and case-only studies published in peer-reviewed international scientific journals (using the PubMed/MEDLINE and Addiction GWAS Resource databases) in which a significant association was reported. A total of 371 studies fit the search criteria. We then filtered SNPs with at least one replication study and performed meta-analysis of the significance of the associations. SNPs in the alcohol metabolizing genes, in the cholinergic gene cluster CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, and in the DRD2 and ANNK1 genes, are, to date, the most replicated and significant gene variants associated with alcohol- and nicotine-related phenotypes. In the case of cannabis and cocaine, a far fewer number of studies and replications have been reported, indicating either a need for further investigation or that the genetics of cannabis/cocaine addiction are more elusive. This review brings a global state-of-the-art vision of the behavioral genetics of addiction and collaborates on formulation of new hypothesis to guide future work. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Lexie Zhiyan; Rangan, Anna; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight...... is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self......-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136) of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight...

  2. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nicole L.; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Method: Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Results: Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Conclusions: Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference. PMID:27172585

  3. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nicole L; Heinz, Adrienne J; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference.

  4. U-shaped curve of psychosis according to cannabis use: New evidence from a snowball sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas, Antía; Barrigón, María L; Garrido-Torres, Nathalia; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Rodriguez-Testal, Juan F; Lahera, Guillermo; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experience (CAPE) questionnaire and the pattern of cannabis use in a non-clinical sample collected by snowball sampling. Our sample was composed of 204 subjects, distributed into three groups by their cannabis use pattern: 68 were non-cannabis users, 40 were moderate cannabis users and 96 were daily cannabis users. We assessed the psychotic experiences in each group with the CAPE questionnaire; and then controlled for the effect of possible confounding factors like sex, age, social exclusion, age of onset of cannabis use, alcohol use and other drug use. We found a significant quadratic association between the frequency of cannabis use and positive (β = -1.8; p = 0.004) and negative dimension scores (β = -1.2; p = 0.04). The first-rank and mania factors showed a significant quadratic association (p < 0.05), while the voices factor showed a trend (p = 0.07). Scores for the different groups tended to maintain a U-shape in their values for the different factors. When we adjusted for gender, age, social exclusion, age of onset of cannabis use, and use of alcohol and other drugs, only the first-rank experiences remained significant. We found there was a U-shaped curve in the association between cannabis use and the positive and negative dimensions of the CAPE score. We also found this association in mania and first-rank experiences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. ASSOCIATION OF GUTKA/CANNABIS MISUSE AND DEVELOPMENT OF MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: History of drug abuse which included Gutka/cannabis and not alcohol intake has been found in psychiatric patients attending Psychiatry outpatients. AIMS: To find out prevalence of cannabis/Gutka misuse among psychiatric patients , to find out socio - demographic variables , and pattern of psychiatric disorders among cannabis/g utka misusers. METHOD: Out of 150 psychiatric patients 18 were identified for cannabis/gutka misuse. These patients were examined and categorized according to socio - demographic characteristics and types of mental disorders diagnosed by using DSM - IV. RESULT S: Most of the psychiatric patients who had history of cannabis/Gutka intake were male (96.4% and 76% were in age group of 15 - 35 years. 48.6% bipolar type - 1 , 23% schizophreniform psychosis , 14% had drug induced psychosis and 1.4% psychosis NOS patients we re found in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Young male patients were more commonly involved in drug misuse and most of them belong to rural area.

  6. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada-Villa Jose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that

  7. Gene expression signatures affected by ethanol and/or nicotine in normal human normal oral keratinocytes (NHOKs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that nicotine/alcohol alters epigenetic control and leads to abrogated DNA methylation and histone modifications, which could subsequently perturb transcriptional regulation critically important in cellular transformation. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular mechanisms of nicotine/alcohol-induced epigenetic alterations and their mechanistic roles in transcriptional regulation in human adult stem cells. We hypothesized that nicotine/alcohol induces deregulation of epigenetic machinery and leads to epigenetic alterations, which subsequently affect transcriptional regulation in oral epithelial stem cells. As an initiating step we have profiled transcriptomic alterations induced by the combinatory administration of EtOH and nicotine in primary normal human oral keratinocytes. Here we provide detailed experimental methods, analysis and information associated with our data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under GSE57634. Our data provide comprehensive transcriptomic map describing molecular changes induced by EtOH and nicotine on normal human oral keratinocytes.

  8. Cannabis, possible cardiac deaths and the coroner in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tormey, W P

    2012-01-10

    BACKGROUND: The elevated risk of triggering a myocardial infarction by smoking cannabis is limited to the first 2 h after smoking. AIM: To examine the possible role of cannabis in cardiac deaths. CASES AND RESULTS: From 3,193 coroners\\' cases over 2 years, there were 13 cases where the clinical information was compatible with a primary cardiac cause of death. An inquest was held in three cases. Myocardial infarction was the primary cause of death in 54%. Other causes were sudden adult death syndrome, sudden death in epilepsy, and poisoning by alcohol and diazepam. Cannabis was mentioned once only on a death certificate, but not as a cause of death. Blood delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was recorded in one case and in no case was plasma tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measured. CONCLUSIONS: To attribute sudden cardiac death to cannabis, plasma THC should be measured in the toxicology screen in coroners\\' cases where urine cannabinoids are positive. A positive urine cannabinoids immunoassay alone is insufficient evidence in the linkage of acute cardiac death and cannabis.

  9. Cannabis, possible cardiac deaths and the coroner in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormey, W P

    2012-12-01

    The elevated risk of triggering a myocardial infarction by smoking cannabis is limited to the first 2 h after smoking. To examine the possible role of cannabis in cardiac deaths. CASES AND RESULTS: From 3,193 coroners' cases over 2 years, there were 13 cases where the clinical information was compatible with a primary cardiac cause of death. An inquest was held in three cases. Myocardial infarction was the primary cause of death in 54%. Other causes were sudden adult death syndrome, sudden death in epilepsy, and poisoning by alcohol and diazepam. Cannabis was mentioned once only on a death certificate, but not as a cause of death. Blood delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was recorded in one case and in no case was plasma tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measured. To attribute sudden cardiac death to cannabis, plasma THC should be measured in the toxicology screen in coroners' cases where urine cannabinoids are positive. A positive urine cannabinoids immunoassay alone is insufficient evidence in the linkage of acute cardiac death and cannabis.

  10. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Palali, A. (Ali); Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis. While the self-interest effect is not very surprising, the effect of inside information suggests that cannabis use is not as harmful as cannabis users originally thought it was be...

  11. Cannabis Use, Employment, and Income: Fixed-effects Analysis of Panel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the direction and magnitude of the association between cannabis use and labor market outcomes. Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), the current paper estimates the associations between several patterns of cannabis use during the past year, current employment, and annual personal income. In the single-equation models (Wave 2 data), nearly all patterns of cannabis use are significantly associated with worse labor market outcomes (ptechniques to address unobserved and time invariant individual heterogeneity, the estimates are generally smaller in magnitude and less likely to be statistically significant vis-à-vis the benchmark estimates. These findings suggest that unobserved individual heterogeneity is an important source of bias in models of cannabis use and labor market outcomes. Moreover, cannabis use may be less detrimental in the labor market than other studies have reported. PMID:23793384

  12. Dissociation between implicit and explicit expectancies of cannabis use in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmits, Emilie; Maurage, Pierre; Thirion, Romain; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-12-30

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly drugs used by teenagers. Expectancies about its effects play a crucial role in cannabis consumption. Various tools have been used to assess expectancies, mainly self-report questionnaires measuring explicit expectancies, but implicit measures based on experimental tasks have also been developed, measuring implicit expectancies. The aim of this study was to simultaneously assess implicit/explicit expectancies related to cannabis among adolescent users and non-users. 130 teenagers attending school (55 girls) were enrolled (Age: M=16.40 years); 43.84% had never used cannabis ("non-users") and 56.16% had used cannabis ("users"). They completed self-report questionnaires evaluating cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, effect expectancies (explicit expectancies), alcohol use, social and trait anxiety, depression, as well as three Implicit Association Tests (IAT) assessing implicit expectancies. Adolescents manifested more implicit affective associations (relaxation, excitation, negative) than neutral ones regarding cannabis. These were not related to explicit expectancies. Cannabis users reported more implicit relaxation expectancies and less negative explicit expectancies than non-users. The frequency of use and related problems were positively associated with the explicit expectancies regarding relaxation and enhancement, and were negatively associated with negative explicit expectancies and negative implicit expectancies. Findings indicate that implicit and explicit expectancies play different roles in cannabis use by adolescents. The implications for experimentation and prevention are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic Nicotine Exposure Initiated in Adolescence and Unpaired to Behavioral Context Fails to Enhance Sweetened Ethanol Seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aric C. Madayag

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine use in adolescence is pervasive in the United States and, according to the Gateway Hypothesis, may lead to progression towards other addictive substances. Given the prevalence of nicotine and ethanol comorbidity, it is difficult to ascertain if nicotine is a gateway drug for ethanol. Our study investigated the relationship between adolescent exposure to nicotine and whether this exposure alters subsequent alcohol seeking behavior. We hypothesized that rats exposed to nicotine beginning in adolescence would exhibit greater alcohol seeking behavior than non-exposed siblings. To test our hypothesis, beginning at P28, female rats were initially exposed to once daily nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, SC or saline for 5 days. Following these five initial injections, animals were trained to nose-poke for sucrose reinforcement (10%, w/v, gradually increasing to sweetened ethanol (10% sucrose; 10% ethanol, w/v on an FR5 reinforcement schedule. Nicotine injections were administered after the behavioral sessions to minimize acute effects of nicotine on operant self-administration. We measured the effects of nicotine exposure on the following aspects of ethanol seeking: self-administration, naltrexone (NTX-induced decreases, habit-directed behavior, motivation, extinction and reinstatement. Nicotine exposure did not alter self-administration or the effectiveness of NTX to reduce alcohol seeking. Nicotine exposure blocked habit-directed ethanol seeking. Finally, nicotine did not alter extinction learning or cue-induced reinstatement to sweetened ethanol seeking. Our findings suggest that nicotine exposure outside the behavioral context does not escalate ethanol seeking. Further, the Gateway Hypothesis likely applies to scenarios in which nicotine is either self-administered or physiologically active during the behavioral session.

  14. A longitudinal study of cannabis use initiation among high school students: Effects of social anxiety, expectancies, peers and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmits, Emilie; Mathys, Cécile; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-06-01

    This study identified protective and risk factors of cannabis use initiation, including expectancies and social anxiety. A questionnaire was completed twice by 877 teenagers. Logistic regressions, mediation and moderation analyses were performed. Significant risk factors were alcohol use, peer users, perceptual enhancement, and craving expectancies. Protective factors were negative behavior expectancies and social anxiety. Social anxiety protected from initiation through the mediating role of perceptual enhancement and craving expectancies, whatever the role of peer users and alcohol use. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and protection, in an overall approach including internalizing factors. Results support the identification of an internalizing profile of adolescents for prevention or treatment and the importance of social anxiety and expectancies in intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tobacco and cannabis use trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Suris, J.C.; Berchtold, A.; Bélanger, R.; Akre, C.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this longitudinal research is to answer the following question: What is the relationship between tobacco and cannabis use trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood? And more specifically we are interested in: A. If the use of one of the substances (tobacco or cannabis) decreases overtime, does the use of the other one increase to compensate? Are other substances (such as alcohol, for example) also used to compensate in these cases? B. Does the probability...

  16. [Heavy episodic drinking, cannabis use and unsafe sex among university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco

    To determine the incidence of unsafe sex among university students and its association with heavy episodic drinking (HED) and cannabis use. A cohort study was carried out from 2005 to 2011 among university students of the Compostela Cohort (n=517). HED was measured using the third question of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Unsafe sex was considered to be sex under the influence of alcohol (SUA) and sex without a condom (SWC). Logistic regression models were created. The incidence of SUA was 40.9% for women and 53.0% for men, while the SWC incidence ranged from 13.7% for women to 25.7% for men. HED and cannabis use were associated with SUA in both women (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.03-4.21; OR=2.78, 95%CI: 1.57-4.92) and men (OR=4.74 (95%CI: 1.49-15.09; OR=4.37, 95%CI: 1.17- 16.36). Moreover, cannabis use in women was associated with SWC (OR=2.96, 95%CI: 1.52-5.75). The population attributable fractions of SUA for HED were 24.7% and 52.9% for women and men, respectively. HED and cannabis use represent a public health problem due to their association with a variety of problems, including engagement in unsafe sex. Our results suggest that a significant proportion of unsafe sex could be avoided by reducing this consumption pattern of alcohol. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN ROOIJ, ANTONIUS J.; KUSS, DARIA J.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.; SHORTER, GILLIAN W.; SCHOENMAKERS, M. TIM; VAN DE MHEEN, DIKE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The current study explored the nature of problematic (addictive) video gaming (PVG) and the association with game type, psychosocial health, and substance use. Methods: Data were collected using a paper and pencil survey in the classroom setting. Three samples were aggregated to achieve a total sample of 8478 unique adolescents. Scales included measures of game use, game type, the Video game Addiction Test (VAT), depressive mood, negative self-esteem, loneliness, social anxiety, education performance, and use of cannabis, alcohol and nicotine (smoking). Results: Findings confirmed problematic gaming is most common amongst adolescent gamers who play multiplayer online games. Boys (60%) were more likely to play online games than girls (14%) and problematic gamers were more likely to be boys (5%) than girls (1%). High problematic gamers showed higher scores on depressive mood, loneliness, social anxiety, negative self-esteem, and self-reported lower school performance. Nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis using boys were almost twice more likely to report high PVG than non-users. Conclusions: It appears that online gaming in general is not necessarily associated with problems. However, problematic gamers do seem to play online games more often, and a small subgroup of gamers – specifically boys – showed lower psychosocial functioning and lower grades. Moreover, associations with alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use are found. It would appear that problematic gaming is an undesirable problem for a small subgroup of gamers. The findings encourage further exploration of the role of psychoactive substance use in problematic gaming. PMID:25317339

  18. Internet-based attentional bias modification training as add-on to regular treatment in alcohol and cannabis dependent outpatients: a study protocol of a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Janika; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; Vermeulen, Karin M; Ostafin, Brian D; MacLeod, Colin; Wiers, Reinout W; DeFuentes-Merillas, Laura; Fledderus, Martine; Markus, Wiebren; de Jong, Peter J

    2017-05-23

    The automatic tendency to attend to and focus on substance-related cues in the environment (attentional bias), has been found to contribute to the persistence of addiction. Attentional bias modification (ABM) interventions might, therefore, contribute to treatment outcome and the reduction of relapse rates. Based on some promising research findings, we designed a study to test the clinical relevance of ABM as an add-on component of regular intervention for alcohol and cannabis patients. The current protocol describes a study which will investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a newly developed home-delivered, multi-session, internet-based ABM (iABM) intervention as an add-on to treatment as usual (TAU). TAU consists of cognitive behavioural therapy-based treatment according to the Dutch guidelines for the treatment of addiction. Participants (N = 213) will be outpatients from specialized addiction care institutions diagnosed with alcohol or cannabis dependency who will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions: TAU + iABM; TAU + placebo condition; TAU-only. Primary outcome measures are substance use, craving, and rates of relapse. Changes in attentional bias will be measured to investigate whether changes in primary outcome measures can be attributed to the modification of attentional bias. Indices of cost-effectiveness and secondary physical and psychological complaints (depression, anxiety, and stress) are assessed as secondary outcome measures. This randomized control trial will be the first to investigate whether a home-delivered, multi-session iABM intervention is (cost-) effective in reducing relapse rates in alcohol and cannabis dependency as an add-on to TAU, compared with an active and a waiting list control group. If proven effective, this ABM intervention could be easily implemented as a home-delivered component of current TAU. Netherlands Trial Register, NTR5497 , registered on 18th September 2015.

  19. Trends of Cannabis Use Disorder in the Inpatient: 2002 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charilaou, Paris; Agnihotri, Kanishk; Garcia, Pablo; Badheka, Apurva; Frenia, Douglas; Yegneswaran, Balaji

    2017-06-01

    The nationwide prevalence of cannabis use/abuse has more than doubled from 2002 to 2011. Whether the outpatient trend is reflected in the inpatient setting is unknown. We examined the prevalence and incidence of cannabis abuse/dependence as determined by discharge coding in a 10-year (2002-2011) National Inpatient Sample, as well as various trends among demographics, comorbidities, and hospitalization outcomes. Cannabis abuse/dependence was identified on the basis of International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes 304.3* and 305.2* in adults aged 18 years or more. We excluded cases coded "in remission." National estimates of trends and matched-regression analyses were conducted. Overall, 2,833,567 (0.91%) admissions with documented cannabis abuse/dependence were identified, patients had a mean age of 35.12 ± 0.06 years, 62% were male, and there was an increasing trend in prevalence from 0.52% to 1.34% (P <.001). The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 0.47 ± 0.006, and inpatient mortality was 0.41%. All of the above demonstrated an increasing trend (P <.001). Mean length of stay was 6.23 ± 0.06 days. The top primary discharge diagnoses were schizoaffective/mood disorders, followed by psychotic disorders and alcoholism. Asthma prevalence in nontobacco smokers had a steeper increase in the cannabis subgroup than in the noncannabis subgroup (P = .002). Among acute pancreatitis admissions, cannabis abusers had a shorter length of stay (-11%) and lower hospitalization costs (-7%) than nonabusers. Cannabis abuse/dependence is on the rise in the inpatient population, with an increasing trend toward older and sicker patients with increasing rates of moderate to severe disability. Psychiatric disorders and alcoholism are the main associated primary conditions. Cannabis abuse is associated with increased asthma incidence in nontobacco smokers and decreased hospital resource use in acute pancreatitis admissions. Copyright © 2017

  20. Ecological momentary assessment of daily discrimination experiences and nicotine, alcohol, and drug use among sexual and gender minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Szalda-Petree, Allen; Cochran, Bryan N

    2017-12-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals experience elevated rates of minority stress, which has been linked to higher rates of nicotine and substance use. Research on this disparity to date is largely predicated on methodology that is insensitive to within day SGM-based discrimination experiences, or their relation to momentary nicotine and substance use risk. We address this knowledge gap in the current study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Fifty SGM individuals, between 18 and 45 years of age, were recruited from an inland northwestern university, regardless of their nicotine or substance use history, and invited to participate in an EMA study. Each were prompted to provide data, six times daily (between 10:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m.) for 14 days, regarding SGM-based discrimination, other forms of mistreatment, and nicotine, drug, and alcohol use since their last prompt. Discrimination experiences that occurred since individuals' last measurement prompt were associated with greater odds of nicotine and substance use during the same measurement window. Substance use was also more likely to occur in relation to discrimination reported two measurements prior in lagged models. Relative to other forms of mistreatment, discrimination effects were consistently larger in magnitude and became stronger throughout the day/evening. This study adds to existing minority stress research by highlighting the both immediate and delayed correlates of daily SGM-based discrimination experiences. These results also contribute to our understanding of daily stress processes and provide insight into ways we might mitigate these effects using real-time monitoring and intervention technology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. [Short- and long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, L; Cazas, O; Danel, T; Reynaud, M

    2006-02-01

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly used drugs by pregnant women. The objective of this review of literature was to examine the association between cannabis use during pregnancy and effects upon growth, cognitive development (memory, attention, executive functions...) and behavior of newborns, children and teenagers. We searched for articles indexed in the medline database from 1970 to 2005. The following terms were used in the literature search: cannabis/marijuana, pregnancy, fetal development, newborn, prenatal exposure, neurobehavioral deficits, cognitive deficits, executive functions, cannabinoids, reproduction. Most of the articles were published in English. Cannabis use during pregnancy is related to diverse neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes, including symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, deficits in learning and memory, and a deficiency in aspects of executive functions. It seems difficult to identify complications, such as lower birth weight, only attributable to cannabis as opposed to the multiple perinatal complications associated with tobacco smoking. In addition to alcohol and cigarettes, information should be given to women about the potentially harmful effects on fetal development, newborns, children and teenagers of smoking cannabis. Therefore, it seems necessary to develop prevention programs on this subject.

  2. Associations of adolescent cannabis use with academic performance and mental health: A longitudinal study of upper middle class youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Hill, Melanie L; Small, Phillip J; Luthar, Suniya S

    2015-11-01

    There is a hypothesis that low socioeconomic status (SES) may explain the link between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. A key question, therefore, is whether adolescent cannabis use is associated with poorer academic performance and mental health in high SES communities where there is reduced potential for confounding. Youth (n=254) from an upper middle class community were followed prospectively through the four years of high school (from age 14/15 to age 17/18). Past-year frequency of cannabis use was assessed annually. Official school records of academic performance and self-reported mental health symptoms (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) were assessed in grades 9 and 12. Persistent cannabis use across the four years of high school was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.18, p=.006), lower Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score (β=-0.13, p=.038), and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.29, pgrade, but not with greater internalizing symptoms (β=0.04, p=.53). Moreover, persistent cannabis use was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.13, p=.014) and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.24, p=.002) in 12th grade, even after controlling for 9th grade levels of these outcomes. Similar associations were observed for persistent alcohol and tobacco use. Effects for persistent cannabis use became non-significant after controlling for persistent alcohol and tobacco use, reflecting the difficulties of disentangling effects of cannabis from effects of alcohol and tobacco. Low SES cannot fully explain associations between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stroke with neuropsychiatric sequelae after cannabis use in a man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giroud Maurice

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The outcome of cerebral ischemic stroke associated with cannabis use is usually favorable. Here we report the first case of cannabis-related stroke followed by neuropsychiatric sequelae. Case presentation A 24-year-old Caucasian man was discovered in a deeply comatose non-reactive state after cannabis use. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his brain showed bilateral multiple ischemic infarcts. The patient remained deeply comatose for four days, after which time he developed other behavioral impairments and recurrent seizures. Conclusion Stroke related to cannabis use can be followed by severe neuropsychiatric sequelae. Concomitant alcohol intoxication is essential neither to the occurrence of this neurologic event nor to its severity.

  4. Cannabis Use and Support for Cannabis Legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalizationfinding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis use.

  5. Two Drugs, Different Messages: Media and Marijuana and Alcohol Regulation in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Coitiño

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Uruguay’s cannabis market became regulated while the alcohol market regulation was discussed. Cannabis regulation policy receives more strong opposition than support among Uruguayan public opinion (Boidi, Queirolo y Cruz, 2016a. In contrast, alcohol regulation receives majoritarian approval (Cifra, 2015. Why are these two regulations, both discussed at the same historical time, receiving such a different support from citizens? Is it possible that media coverage on alcohol regulation is positive, while cannabis regulation is mostly negative? This article analyzes Uruguayan main press media coverage on both regulations, and identifies which are the predominant frames and the differences among the treatment received by each regulation.

  6. Cannabis sativa allergy: looking through the fog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, I I; Van Gasse, A L; Cop, N; Sabato, V; Faber, M A; Mertens, C; Bridts, C H; Hagendorens, M M; De Clerck, L; Rihs, H P; Ebo, D G

    2017-02-01

    IgE-mediated Cannabis (C. sativa, marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may trigger a C. sativa sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical presentation of a C. sativa allergy varies from mild to life-threatening reactions and often seems to depend on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can result in various cross-allergies, mostly for plant foods. This clinical entity, designated as the 'cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome', might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, natural latex and plant-food-derived alcoholic beverages. Hitherto, these cross-allergies are predominantly reported in Europe and appear mainly to rely upon cross-reactivity between nonspecific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in C. sativa and their homologues, ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies predominantly rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from crushed buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures. Whether avoidance of further use will halt the extension of related cross-allergies remains uncertain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Identifying experimental methods to determine the effect of pain on attention: a review of pain, caffeine, alcohol and nicotine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David J; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    To review published studies of the effects that pain and common psychopharmacological substances have on the attentional performance of healthy adults. To identify which attentional tasks have the greatest potential to investigate the effect of pain on attention and provide recommendations for future research. A search was conducted for reports of experimental studies of attention in the context of pain. This was supplemented with studies on attention and caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Studies were included if they used a healthy adult sample, used experimental or quasi-experimental methods, were relevant to the study of attention or interruption of pain and/or examined the acute effects of a substance on attention. Thirty-two papers, with 49 different experimental studies were identified (12 pain, 21 nicotine, 7 caffeine, 9 alcohol). Fourteen different tasks were reviewed across six domains of attention. The most promising measures of attention were the continuous performance task, flanker task, endogenous pre-cuing task, n-back task, inhibition task and dual task. There are reliable tasks that could be used to determine the effects of pain on attention. Future research is required that develops the utility of these tasks to improve our understanding of the effects pain and analgesia have on attentional performance. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Abeeb olufemi Salaam Community Reintegration Oyo, Oyo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rates of cannabis, tobacco (nicotine), rophynol, codeine ... their children in Islamic education, called alm- ajiri (Abdulmalik ... cause there are few resources at the teachers' disposal .... graphic profiles, different types of drug and ..... (1996). Drug use among street in southern. Brazil. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 43.

  9. Patterns of alcohol, cigarette, and caffeine and other drug use in two drug abusing populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, L T; Henningfield, J E; Keenan, R M; Lei, H; Leigh, G; Jelinek, L C; Pope, M A; Haertzen, C A

    1993-01-01

    Relationships were explored among the frequencies of use of various drugs by a sample of drug-abusing clients of the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Toronto and by drug abusers volunteering to participate in research at the Addiction Research Center (ARC) in Baltimore. The two groups of drug-abusing individuals differed in a number of characteristics. Those from ARF were admitted primarily for diagnosis and possible treatment for alcohol and non-opioid drug problems, whereas those from the ARC were admitted for participation in research on other drugs of abuse, primarily involving opioids. Patterns of use of certain drugs tended to covary in both groups. Of particular interest was the finding that severity of alcoholism was directly related to various measures of tobacco and caffeinated beverage use. In contrast, there was little correlation between the frequency of use among other drugs of abuse (e.g., heroin, cannabis, glue) and the use of tobacco and caffeine. These findings suggest that dependence on nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol may be governed by the same factors and possibly should be considered jointly in the treatment of alcoholic persons. Frequency of use of other drugs examined may be controlled by other factors than those which determine level of use of tobacco and caffeine.

  10. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  11. Neurocognitive Correlates in Driving Under the Influence of Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco P; Pellegrini, Manuela; Klein, Julia; di Luca, Natale M

    2017-01-01

    Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis and is frequently identified in blood samples from apprehended drivers suspected for driving under the influence of drugs. Changing social norms towards cannabis and higher acceptability towards the drug emphasize the need for in-depth understanding of the acute neurocognitive and psychomotor effects caused by cannabis and how these effects are correlated to driving skills and performance. In this review, PubMed, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases were used to identify and select publications up to January 2017 dealing with acute and chronic neurocognitive effects induced by cannabis and ability to drive. Thirty-six publications were selected for this review. The studies conducted were experimental, using simulators or on-road studies and brain imaging (structural and functional) to better understand the acute and chronic effects on cognitive functions comprised in the short and long-term fitness to drive after cannabis consumption. In a case-crossover self-report study a significant odds ratio increase was found for driving- related injury after combined exposure to cannabis and alcohol compared to cannabis alone (OR of 10.9 and 5.8 respectively). Both, experimental and epidemiological studies have revealed that THC affects negatively both, psychomotor skills and cognitive functions. Studies of the acute effects of cannabis on driving have shown that drivers under the influence of this substance are impaired. Indeed, driving under the influence of cannabis doubles or triples the risk of a crash. Specifically, cannabis use impairs critical-tracking tasks, increases lane weaving, decreases reaction time, and divided attention. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Cannabis use: a perspective in relation to the proposed UK drug-driving legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kim; Johnston, Atholl

    2014-01-01

    With regard to THC (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol), the main psychoactive constituent identified in the plant Cannabis sativa L, several facts are indisputable. Cannabis remains the most commonly used drug in the UK among those who reported driving under the influence of illegal drugs in the previous 12 months. There is a significant dose-related decrement in driving performance following cannabis use; raised blood THC concentrations are significantly associated with increased traffic crash and death risk. When cannabis and alcohol are detected together, there is a greater risk to road safety than when either drug is used alone. Patterns of use are important when interpreting blood concentration data: Smoking infrequently a single cannabis cigarette leads to peak plasma THC concentrations (21-267 µg/L) causing acute intoxication. In habitual, daily users, plasma THC concentrations range from 1.0 to 11.0 µg/L and are maintained by sequestration of the drug from the tissues. These facts undoubtedly make setting thresholds for drug-driving legislation difficult but there is clearly a case for cannabis. Determining minimum blood THC concentrations at which a driver becomes sufficiently impaired to be unable to safely drive a vehicle is of particular concern given the increasing medicinal use of the drug. Internationally legislation for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is based on either a proof of impairment or a per se approach. For the latter this can be either zero-tolerance or based on concentration limits such as those used for alcohol. The different approaches are considered against current scientific evidence. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Cannabis use among middle and high school students in Ontario: a school-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A.; LeBlanc, Allana G.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cannabis use can have serious detrimental effects in children and adolescents. It is therefore important to continually assess the use of cannabis among young people in order to inform prevention efforts. We assessed the prevalence of cannabis use among middle and high school students in Ontario and examined its association with demographic and behavioural factors. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2015 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide school-based survey of students in grades 7 through 12. Analyses included a representative sample of 9920 middle and high school students. Bivariate cross-tabulations and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the factors associated with cannabis use. Results: Overall, 21.5% and 13.9% of students reported using cannabis in the previous year and previous month, respectively. The conditional probability that an adolescent who reported cannabis use in the previous year would report daily use was 12.5%. There was a significant dose-response gradient with age, with older students being more likely to use cannabis than younger students. In multivariable analyses, being in grades 10 through 12 (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 3.71 to 3.85), being black (OR 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.76-4.05]), using tobacco cigarettes (OR 10.10 [95% CI 8.68-13.92]) and being an occasional (OR 5.35 [95% CI 4.01-7.13]) or regular (OR 14.6 [95% CI 10.8-19.89]) alcohol user were associated with greater odds of cannabis use. Being an immigrant was associated with lower odds of cannabis use (OR 0.55 [95% CI 0.39-0.78]). Interpretation: The findings suggest that cannabis use is prevalent among middle and high school students in Ontario and is strongly associated with tobacco cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Future research should document trends in cannabis use over time, including its risks, especially when the legalization of recreational cannabis comes into effect. PMID:29367264

  14. The effects of nicotine on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversions in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Jennifer A; Busse, Gregory D; Roma, Peter G; Chen, Scott A; Barr, Christina S; Riley, Anthony L

    2008-04-01

    Overall drug acceptability is thought to be a function of the balance between its rewarding and aversive effects, the latter of which is reportedly affected by polydrug use. Given that nicotine and alcohol are commonly co-used, the present experiments sought to assess nicotine's impact on ethanol's aversive effects within a conditioned taste aversion design. Experiment 1 examined various doses of nicotine (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 mg/kg) to determine a behaviorally active dose, and experiment 2 examined various doses of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg) to determine a dose that produced intermediate aversions. Experiment 3 then examined the aversive effects of nicotine (0.8 mg/kg) and ethanol (1.0 g/kg) alone and in combination. Additionally, nicotine's effects on blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and ethanol-induced hypothermia were examined. Nicotine and ethanol combined produced aversions significantly greater than those produced by either drug alone or the summed aversive effects of the individual compounds. These effects were unrelated to changes in BAC, but nicotine and ethanol combined produced a prolonged hypothermic effect which may contribute to the increased aversions induced by the combination. These data demonstrate that nicotine may interact with ethanol, increasing ethanol's aversive effects. Although the rewarding effects of concurrently administered nicotine and ethanol were not assessed, these data do indicate that the reported high incidence of nicotine and ethanol co-use is unlikely due to reductions in the aversiveness of ethanol with concurrently administered nicotine. It is more likely attributable to nicotine-related changes in ethanol's rewarding effects.

  15. A prospective study of the substance use and mental health outcomes of young adult former and current cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silins, Edmund; Swift, Wendy; Slade, Tim; Toson, Barbara; Rodgers, Bryan; Hutchinson, Delyse M

    2017-09-01

    The extent to which young adult former cannabis users fare better than infrequent users is unclear. We investigated the association between cannabis use status at age 23 and substance use and mental health outcomes at age 27. Data were from the 20+ year cohort of the PATH Through Life Study. Lifetime cannabis users (n = 1410) at age 23 were classified as former/occasional/regular users. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between cannabis use status at age 23 and six outcomes assessed at age 27. Compared with occasional cannabis users: (i) former users had odds of subsequent tobacco use [odds ratio (OR) = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.85], illicit drug use (cannabis, OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.28; other illicit drugs, OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.22-0.39) and mental health impairment (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.92) that were 29-78% lower; and (ii) regular users had odds of subsequent frequent alcohol use (OR = 2.34, 95% CI 0.67-1.34), tobacco use (OR = 3.67, 95% CI 2.54-5.30), cannabis use (OR = 11.73, 95% CI 6.81-20.21) and dependence symptoms (OR = 12.60, 95% CI 8.38-18.94), and other illicit drug use (OR = 2.95, 95% CI 2.07-4.21) that were 2-13 times greater. Associations attenuated after covariate adjustment, and most remained significant. Clear associations exist between cannabis use status in young adulthood and subsequent mental health and substance use. While early intervention remains important to prevent regular cannabis use and the associated harms, experimentation with cannabis use in the years leading into young adulthood may not necessarily determine an immutable pathway to mental health problems and illicit substance use. [Silins E, Swift W, Slade T, Toson B, Rodgers B, Hutchinson DM. A prospective study of the substance use and mental health outcomes of young adult former and current cannabis users. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other

  16. Impact of ADHD and cannabis use on executive functioning in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Lisdahl, Krista M; Molina, Brooke; Tapert, Susan; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Arnold, L Eugene; Velanova, Katerina; Abikoff, Howard; Swanson, James M

    2013-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use are each associated with specific cognitive deficits. Few studies have investigated the neurocognitive profile of individuals with both an ADHD history and regular cannabis use. The greatest cognitive impairment is expected among ADHD Cannabis Users compared to those with ADHD-only, Cannabis use-only, or neither. Young adults (24.2 ± 1.2 years) with a childhood ADHD diagnosis who did (n=42) and did not (n=45) report past year ≥ monthly cannabis use were compared on neuropsychological measures to a local normative comparison group (LNCG) who did (n=20) and did not (n=21) report past year regular cannabis use. Age, gender, IQ, socioeconomic status, and past year alcohol and smoking were statistical covariates. The ADHD group performed worse than LNCG on verbal memory, processing speed, cognitive interference, decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition. No significant effects for cannabis use emerged. Interactions between ADHD and cannabis were non-significant. Exploratory analyses revealed that individuals who began using cannabis regularly before age 16 (n=27) may have poorer executive functioning (i.e., decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition), than users who began later (n=32); replication is warranted with a larger sample. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD, but not cannabis use in adulthood, was associated with executive dysfunction. Earlier initiation of cannabis use may be linked to poor cognitive outcomes and a significantly greater proportion of the ADHD group began using cannabis before age 16. Regular cannabis use starting after age 16 may not be sufficient to aggravate longstanding cognitive deficits characteristic of ADHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. During pregnancy, recreational drug-using women stop taking ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) and reduce alcohol consumption, but continue to smoke tobacco and cannabis: initial findings from the Development and Infancy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Derek G; Turner, John D; Parrott, Andrew C; Goodwin, Julia E; Fulton, Sarah E; Min, Meeyoung O; Fox, Helen C; Braddick, Fleur M B; Axelsson, Emma L; Lynch, Stephanie; Ribeiro, Helena; Frostick, Caroline J; Singer, Lynn T

    2010-09-01

    While recreational drug use in UK women is prevalent, to date there is little prospective data on patterns of drug use in recreational drug-using women immediately before and during pregnancy. A total of 121 participants from a wide range of backgrounds were recruited to take part in the longitudinal Development and Infancy Study (DAISY) study of prenatal drug use and outcomes. Eighty-six of the women were interviewed prospectively while pregnant and/or soon after their infant was born. Participants reported on use immediately before and during pregnancy and on use over their lifetime. Levels of lifetime drug use of the women recruited were high, with women reporting having used at least four different illegal drugs over their lifetime. Most users of cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) and other stimulants stopped using these by the second trimester and levels of use were low. However, in pregnancy, 64% of the sample continued to use alcohol, 46% tobacco and 48% cannabis. While the level of alcohol use reduced substantially, average tobacco and cannabis levels tended to be sustained at pre-pregnancy levels even into the third trimester (50 cigarettes and/or 11 joints per week). In sum, while the use of 'party drugs' and alcohol seems to reduce, levels of tobacco and cannabis use are likely to be sustained throughout pregnancy. The data provide polydrug profiles that can form the basis for the development of more realistic animal models.

  18. Alcohol misuse and gateway theory: a longitudinal study among adolescents in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Akre, Christina; Surís, Joan-Carles

    2016-04-11

    Adolescence is a transitory and exploratory stage during which risky behaviors such as substance use take place. This study aims to assess the characteristics and predictive risk factors of alcohol misuse among adolescents. A sample of 621 youths was followed from ages 14 to 16 years in Switzerland between spring 2012 (T0) and spring 2014 (T1). Participants were divided into two groups according to their alcohol misuse evolution: those who increased it (Misusers) and those who decreased or never experimented it (Non-misusers). The final sample consisted of 574 adolescents. At T0, participants reported demographic data, substance use data and emotional well-being. A multivariate regression was performed to assess the explanatory variables of alcohol misuse at T1 using Non-misusers as the reference category. Alcohol misuse in the previous month increased dramatically from 2.4% (T0) to 29.2% (T1). At the bivariate level, alcohol misuse was associated with residence, use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. Compared to Non-misusers, Misusers were significantly more likely to live in a rural area (aOR: 1.75 [1.1:2.8]), use cannabis (aOR: 3.2 [1.0:9.8]) and have consumed alcohol (aOR: 2.65 [1.6:4.3]) at T0. Alcohol misuse increases dramatically with age. However, the only demographic difference between groups was that young adolescents living in rural areas were more likely to misuse alcohol. Moreover, having consumed alcohol without drunkenness and using cannabis at age 14 years predicted alcohol misuse at age 16 years. This finding is in line with the reverse gateway theory, where cannabis use precedes the use of legal substances.

  19. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Salvatore, Stefania; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bade, Richard; Castiglioni, Sara; Castrignanò, Erika; Causanilles, Ana; Hernandez, Felix; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Kinyua, Juliet; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; van Nuijs, Alexander; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Ramin, Pedram; Reid, Malcolm; Rousis, Nikolaos I; Ryu, Yeonsuk; de Voogt, Pim; Bramness, Jorgen; Thomas, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater analysis and other sources of information. Wastewater samples were collected in 2015 from 8 different European cities over a one week period, representing a population of approximately 5 million people. Published pharmaceutical sale, illicit drug seizure and alcohol, tobacco and caffeine use data were used for the comparison. High agreement was found between wastewater and other data sources for pharmaceuticals and cocaine, whereas amphetamines, alcohol and caffeine showed a moderate correlation. methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and nicotine did not correlate with other sources of data. Most of the poor correlations were explained as part of the uncertainties related with the use estimates and were improved with other complementary sources of data. This work confirms the promising future of WBE as a complementary approach to obtain a more accurate picture of substance use situation within different communities. Our findings suggest further improvements to reduce the uncertainties associated with both sources of information in order to make the data more comparable.

  20. Mechanisms underlying the lifetime co-occurrence of tobacco and cannabis use in adolescent and young adult twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Silberg, Judy L.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Maes, Hermine H.; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2009-01-01

    Using twins assessed during adolescence (Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development: 8–17 years) and followed up in early adulthood (Young Adult Follow-Up, 18–27 years), we tested 13 genetically informative models of co-occurrence, adapted for the inclusion of covariates. Models were fit, in Mx, to data at both assessments allowing for a comparison of the mechanisms that underlie the lifetime co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use in adolescence and early adulthood. Both cannabis and tobacco use were influenced by additive genetic (38–81%) and non-shared environmental factors with the possible role of non-shared environment in the adolescent assessment only. Causation models, where liability to use cannabis exerted a causal influence on the liability to use tobacco fit the adolescent data best, while the reverse causation model (tobacco causes cannabis) fit the early adult data best. Both causation models (cannabis to tobacco and tobacco to cannabis) and the correlated liabilities model fit data from the adolescent and young adult assessments well. Genetic correlations (0.59–0.74) were moderate. Therefore, the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use is fairly similar during adolescence and early adulthood with reciprocal influences across the two psychoactive substances. However, our study could not exclude the possibility that ‘gateways’ and ‘reverse gateways’, particularly within a genetic context, exist, such that predisposition to using one substance (cannabis or tobacco) modifies predisposition to using the other. Given the high addictive potential of nicotine and the ubiquitous nature of cannabis use, this is a public health concern worthy of considerable attention. PMID:20047801

  1. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its association with substance use and substance use disorders in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, N; Dey, M; Eich-Höchli, D; Foster, S; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2016-06-01

    Functional and mental health impairments that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience may be exacerbated by regular substance use and co-morbidity with substance use disorders (SUD). This may be especially true during young adulthood, which represents a critical stage of life associated with increased substance use and associated problems. However, previous studies investigating the association between ADHD and substance use and SUD have demonstrated inconsistent results, probably due to methodological limitations (e.g., small and non-representative samples). Thus, the relationship of ADHD with substance use and related disorders remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ADHD and both the use of licit and illicit substances and the presence of SUD in a large, representative sample of young men. The sample included 5677 Swiss men (mean age 20 ± 1.23 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed using the adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). The association between ADHD and substance use and SUD was assessed for alcohol, nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drugs, while controlling for socio-demographic variables and co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depression (MD) and anti-social personality disorder (ASPD)). Men with ADHD were more likely to report having used nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drugs at some time in their life, but not alcohol. ADHD was positively associated with early initiation of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use, the risky use of these substances, and the presence of alcohol use disorders, and nicotine and cannabis dependence. Additionally, our analyses revealed that these patterns are also highly associated with ASPD. After adjusting for this disorder, the association between ADHD and licit and illicit substance use and the presence of SUDs was reduced, but remained significant. Our findings

  2. The importance of family relations for cannabis users: the case of serbian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic Supic, Zorica; Santric Milicevic, Milena; Sbutega, Isidora; Vasic, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption. A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational - professional, and vocational - handicraft) during May - June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user. Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P related to cannabis use (P study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture.

  3. Cannabis arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Omri, Naoual; Eljaoudi, Rachid; Mekouar, Fadwa; Jira, Mohammed; Sekkach, Youssef; Amezyane, Taoufik; Ghafir, Driss

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis is the most consumed psychoactive substance by young people. Chronic use of cannabis can lead to cannabis arteritis, which is a very rare peripheral vascular disease similar to Buerger's disease. It is affecting young adults, especially men, consuming cannabis. A 27-year old woman, with no particular past medical history except for long-term use of cannabis and tobacco developed a digital necrosis in the left hand. She denied using other illicit drugs. Doppler ultrasound examination of the upper limbs was unremarkable. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of cannabis in both biological fluid and hair strand. Despite medical treatment, cessation of the cannabis and tobacco consumption and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an amputation of necrotic parts was then required. This case shows the prolonged use of cannabis could be a risk factor for young adult arteritis. Faced with a rapidly progressive arteritis occurring in young adult, the physician should consider the history of use of cannabis. Hair analysis can be useful for confirmation of the chronic consumption of drugs.

  4. Effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Marijuana is the second most widely used intoxicant in adolescence, and teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning. It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories.

  5. Effects of Cannabis on the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Marijuana is the second most widely used intoxicant in adolescence, and teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning. It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories. PMID:23829363

  6. Comparing adults who use cannabis medically with those who use recreationally: Results from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lewei A; Ilgen, Mark A; Jannausch, Mary; Bohnert, Kipling M

    2016-10-01

    Cannabis has been legalized for medical use in almost half of the states in the U.S. Although laws in these states make the distinction between medical and recreational use of cannabis, the prevalence of people using medical cannabis and how distinct this group is from individuals using cannabis recreationally is unknown at a national level. Data came from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). All adults endorsing past year cannabis use who reported living in a state that had legalized medical cannabis were divided into recreational cannabis use only and medical cannabis use. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared across these two groups. 17% of adults who used cannabis in the past year used cannabis medically. There were no significant differences between those who used medically versus recreationally in race, education, past year depression and prevalence of cannabis use disorders. In adjusted analyses, those with medical cannabis use were more likely to have poorer health and lower levels of alcohol use disorders and non-cannabis drug use. A third of those who reported medical cannabis use endorsed daily cannabis use compared to 11% in those who reported recreational use exclusively. Adults who use medical and recreational cannabis shared some characteristics, but those who used medical cannabis had higher prevalence of poor health and daily cannabis use. As more states legalize cannabis for medical use, it is important to better understand similarities and differences between people who use cannabis medically and recreationally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of health motive to cannabis use among high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Henri; Beck, Charline; Laconi, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM), which is derived from a scale measuring alcohol use motives, has been the main instrument used to explore the role of motives in cannabis use and related problems. Two studies attempted to developed specific cannabis use motives but none of them showed a unique association to cannabis use and problems when controlling for MMM motives. The aim of our study was to examine if additional motives contributed to problematic use beyond MMM motives and psychopathological symptoms. Participants were 249 high-school students who completed the Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test-Revised (CUDIT-R) assessing cannabis use and problematic use, the MMM and a new scale measuring motives derived from clinical experience with adolescents using cannabis (CED motives), and scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms and borderline personality traits. Among the 107 participants using cannabis, 39 reached the cut-off score for problematic cannabis use. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for psychopathological variables showed that only one CED motives, Health (sleep, form, energy, appetite, health), was a significant predictor of both frequency of use and problematic use symptoms. The importance of Health motive may be linked to the role of depressive symptoms and may have implication for treatment. We suggest to add the Health subscale to the MMM and to further study the role of health motive in both use and dependence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Isaac C; Fleming, Charles B; Vander Stoep, Ann; Nicodimos, Semret; Zheng, Cheng; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Although they often co-occur, the longitudinal relationship between depression and substance use disorders during adolescence remains unclear. This study estimated the effects of cumulative depression during early adolescence (ages 13-15 years) on the likelihood of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) at age 18. Prospective cohort study of youth assessed at least annually between 6th and 9th grades (~ age 12-15) and again at age 18. Marginal structural models based on a counterfactual framework that accounted for both potential fixed and time-varying confounders were used to estimate cumulative effects of depressive symptoms over early adolescence. The sample originated from four public middle schools in Seattle, Washington, USA. The sample consisted of 521 youth (48.4% female; 44.5% were non-Hispanic White). Structured in-person interviews with youth and their parents were conducted to assess diagnostic symptom counts of depression during early adolescence; diagnoses of CUD and AUD at age 18 was based the Voice-Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Cumulative depression was defined as the sum of depression symptom counts from grades 7-9. The past-year prevalence of cannabis and alcohol use disorder at the age 18 study wave was 20.9 and 19.8%, respectively. A 1 standard deviation increase in cumulative depression during early adolescence was associated with a 50% higher likelihood of CUD [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07, 2.10]. Although similar in direction, there was no statistically significant association between depression and AUD (PR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.94, 2.11). Further, there were no differences in associations according to gender. Youth with more chronic or severe forms of depression during early adolescence may be at elevated risk for developing cannabis use disorder compared with otherwise similar youth who experience fewer depressive symptoms during early adolescence. © 2017 Society

  9. Evaluating the relationship between cannabis use and IQ in youth and young adults at clinical high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, Lisa; Seidman, Larry J; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Stone, William; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel H; Addington, Jean

    2015-12-30

    Among people with psychosis, those with a history of cannabis use show better cognitive performance than those who are cannabis naïve. It is unknown whether this pattern is present in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. We evaluated relationships between IQ and cannabis use while controlling for use of other substances known to impact cognition in 678 CHR and 263 healthy control (HC) participants. IQ was estimated using the Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Drug and alcohol use severity and frequency were assessed with the Alcohol and Drug Use Scale, and we inquired participants' age at first use. CHR were further separated into early and late age at onset of cannabis use sub-groups, and low-, moderate- and high-frequency sub-groups. No significant differences in IQ emerged between CHR or HC cannabis users vs. non-users, or between use frequency groups. CHR late-onset users showed significantly higher IQ than CHR early-onset users. Age at onset of cannabis use was significantly and positively correlated with IQ in CHR only. Results suggest that age at onset of cannabis may be a more important factor for IQ than use current use or use frequency in CHR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

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    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of

  11. Association between age at onset of psychosis and age at onset of cannabis use in non-affective psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Buccollini, Juan A; Proal, Ashley C; Tomaselli, Veronica; Trachtenberg, Melissa; Coconcea, Cristinel; Chun, Jinsoo; Manschreck, Theo; Fleming, Jerry; Delisi, Lynn E

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have associated cannabis use with the development of schizophrenia. However, it has been difficult to disentangle the effects of cannabis from that of other illicit drugs, as previous studies have not evaluated pure cannabis users. To test whether the onset of cannabis use had an effect on the initiation of psychosis, we examined the time relationship between onset of use and onset of psychosis, restricting our analysis to a cohort of individuals who only used cannabis and no other street drugs. Fifty-seven subjects with non-affective psychoses who used cannabis prior to developing a psychosis were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). The Family Interview for Genetic Studies (FIGS) was also used to interview a family informant about psychiatric illness in the patient and the entire family. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to estimate the association between variables. After adjusting for potential confounding factors such as sex, age, lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence, and family history of schizophrenia, the age at onset of cannabis was significantly associated with age at onset of psychosis (β=0.4, 95% CI=0.1-0.7, p=0.004) and age at first hospitalization (β=0.4, 95% CI=0.1-0.8, p=0.008). The mean time between beginning to use cannabis and onset of psychosis was 7.0±4.3. Age at onset of alcohol use was not associated with age at onset of psychosis or age at first hospitalization. Age at onset of cannabis is directly associated with age at onset of psychosis and age at first hospitalization. These associations remain significant after adjusting for potential confounding factors and are consistent with the hypothesis that cannabis could cause or precipitate the onset of psychosis after a prolonged period of time. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. [Does consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis in adolescents and young adults with cancer affect the use of analgesics during hospitalizations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, A; Boyle, H; Moreaux, J; Guillot, L; Chvetzoff, G; Charbonnel, J-F; Marec-Berard, P

    2016-04-01

    The specificities of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-25 years with cancer are now well recognized. Dedicated care was initiated in 2012 in France under the leadership of the INCa (National Cancer Institute). Research on supportive care and particularly pain management are still rare. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of toxic substances (tobacco, cannabis, alcohol) in AYAs with cancer as well as its progression during the month following the diagnosis and to analyze its influence on opioid analgesic prescriptions during treatment. This is a prospective study including all new patients aged 15-25 years in two centers between January and June 2013. Data on consumption of psychoactive substances were obtained during an individual interview with a questionnaire. National surveys were used to compare this cohort with the general population. Data on opioid treatments were collected from the computerized prescription software and computerized patient record. Thirty-seven AYAs were eligible and 30 were included; 67% of them were male and the median age was 18.7 years. The questionnaire on tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption at diagnosis was well accepted. Consumption profiles were comparable to the general population. Changes in behavior were observed during the 1st month after diagnosis, with a decrease or cessation of consumption, particularly among young people. This study showed differences in the use and requirements for opioid analgesics during hospitalization according to these consumption data. Prevention and support for AYAs who are regular consumers of toxic substances must be organized during initial care in oncology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Attitudes of cannabis growers to regulation of cannabis cultivation under a non-prohibition cannabis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Simon; Frank, Vibeke A; Barratt, Monica J; Dahl, Helle Vibeke; Potter, Gary R

    2015-03-01

    How cannabis cultivation is dealt with under various examples of cannabis legalization or regulation is an important consideration in design of such schemes. This study aimed to (i) investigate support among current or recent cannabis growers, for various potential policy options for cannabis cultivation if prohibition were repealed, and (ii) explore the support for these options across countries, scale of growing operations, demographics, drug use and cannabis supply involvement variables. This study utilized data from the online web survey of largely 'small-scale' cannabis cultivators, aged 18yrs and over, in eleven countries conducted by the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC). Data from 1722 current and recent cannabis growers in Australia, Denmark and the UK, who were all asked about policy, were included in the analysis. It investigated support for various frameworks for cultivation: (no regulation (free market); adult only; growing licenses; restrictions on plant numbers; licensed business-only sale; approved commercial growing; etc.). Among current growers, support for these options were compared across countries, across scale of growing operations, and by demographics, drug use and crime variables. Although there were some between country differences in support for the various policy options, what was striking was the similarity of the proportions for each of the eight most popular policy options. Among current growers, many of these positions were predicted by demographic, drug use and cannabis growing variables which were conceptually congruent with these positions. The results have relevance for the provisions regarding cannabis cultivation in the design of new non-prohibitionist models of cannabis which are increasingly under consideration. It should be of interest to policy makers, drug policy researchers, law enforcement and cannabis cultivators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-Dependent and Dependent Daily Cannabis Users Differ in Mental Health but Not Prospective Memory Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Braidwood

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that daily cannabis users have impaired memory for past events, but it is not clear whether they are also impaired in prospective memory (PM for future events. The present study examined PM in daily cannabis users who were either dependent (n = 18 or non-dependent (n = 18, and compared them with non-using controls (n = 18. The effect of future event simulation (FES on PM performance was also examined. Participants were matched across groups on age, gender, and highest level of education. The virtual week (VW was used to objectively assess PM abilities, both at baseline and following FES. Other measures used were: cannabis use variables, immediate and delayed prose recall, phonemic and category fluency, spot-the-word test (premorbid intelligence, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and a measure of schizotypy (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences: unusual experiences subscale. No group differences were found in PM performance on the VW, and FES did not improve PM performance in any group. Dependent cannabis users scored higher on depression, anxiety, and schizotypy than both other groups with non-dependent cannabis users scoring at a similar level to controls. There were no group differences in alcohol use. Findings suggest that when carefully matched on baseline variables, and not differing in premorbid IQ or alcohol use, young, near-daily cannabis users do not differ from non-using controls in PM performance.

  15. Cream of the Crop: Clinical Representativeness of Eligible and Ineligible Cannabis Users in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Alexis S; Sodos, Louise M; Hirst, Rayna B; Vaughn, Dylan; Lorkiewicz, Sara A

    2018-03-06

    Experts have recommended criteria (Gonzalez et al., 2002) for recruiting pure chronic cannabis users (i.e., those without polysubstance use or psychiatric illness) when evaluating cannabis' non-acute effects on cognition. We sought to demonstrate the implications of using such criteria by examining characteristics of respondents who completed an eligibility screening for a parent study evaluating the cognitive effects of chronic cannabis use. Over a 3-year, 8-month period, 612 respondents from the community completed an eligibility screening based on recommendations in the cannabis literature. Using independent samples t-tests and chi-square tests, we examined whether qualified/eligible respondents (n = 219) differed from non-qualified/ineligible respondents (n = 393). Compared to ineligible cannabis users, eligible cannabis-using respondents were significantly younger, used cannabis more frequently, used alcohol less frequently, and were less likely to have a history of other drug use, a psychiatric diagnosis, or to have used psychiatric medication. Conclusions/Importance: Our findings indicate that eligible/pure cannabis users are not representative of typical cannabis users in the general community (i.e., ineligible users with polysubstance use and/or psychiatric diagnoses) who ultimately comprised the majority of our cannabis-using sample (65.2%). Thus, typical cannabis users may be more accurately characterized as polysubstance users, posing a number of challenges related to the generalizability of findings from studies utilizing pure samples of cannabis users. Recruiting samples of typical cannabis users will improve external validity in research. Furthermore, reporting comprehensive characteristics of such samples will enable consumers to gauge the applicability of study findings to populations of interest.

  16. Cannabis and Neuropsychiatry, 2: The Longitudinal Risk of Psychosis as an Adverse Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-06-01

    Psychosis is one of the most serious among the adverse effects associated with cannabis use. The association between cannabis use and psychosis has been variously explored in a series of recent meta-analyses. The results of these meta-analyses show that persons who develop psychosis experience onset of psychosis about 2-3 years earlier if they are cannabis users; this effect is not observed with alcohol or other substance use. Higher levels of cannabis use are associated with greater risk of psychosis. Current cannabis abuse or dependence (but not past use or lower levels of current use) increases the risk of transition into psychosis in persons at ultrahigh risk of psychosis. About a third of patients with first-episode psychosis are cannabis users, and, at follow-up, about half of these users are found to continue their cannabis use. Continued cannabis use (in those who are treated after developing psychosis) is associated with higher risk of relapse into psychosis, and discontinuation of cannabis use reduces the risk of relapse to that in cannabis nonusers. Finally, persons with psychosis who continue to use cannabis have more severe positive symptoms and poorer levels of functioning. Because experimental studies in humans show that cannabinoids and cannabis can induce psychotic symptoms, it is reasonable to assume that the epidemiologic data indicate a causal effect of cannabis in anticipating, triggering, or exacerbating psychosis in vulnerable individuals and in worsening the course and outcome of the illness in those who continue to use the substance. Given the public health implications of these findings, the trend to legalize medical marijuana must be viewed with concern, and efforts are necessary to educate patients and the public about the serious mental and physical health risks associated with cannabis use and abuse. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  17. Assessing cannabis use in adolescents and young adults: what do urine screen and parental report tell you?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Martin; Wilens, Timothy E; Biederman, Joseph; Kwon, A; Mick, E; Swezey, A

    2005-10-01

    Our analysis compares three approaches to detect the most common drug abused in early adulthood, cannabis: (1) report on direct structured interview; (2) indirect parental report; and (3) urine toxicology screen. We examined data on 207 subjects (36% also met criteria for alcohol abuse; 9% for alcohol dependence) derived from two prospective and ongoing family studies of boys and girls with or without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Assessments relied on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-E; under 18 years of age) and on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV; over 18 years of age). Urine samples were analyzed with Auccusign DOA5 (on-site screening assay). Ninety-seven percent (97%) of individuals, who reported no use of cannabis within the past month, had a negative urine screening and 79% of individuals, who endorsed cannabis abuse/dependence, had a positive urine screening. The sensitivity of the direct structured interview report was 91%, the specificity 87%, the positive predicting value 67%, and the negative predictive value 97%. Indirect parental reports were found to be less informative on cannabis use than direct report. Direct report of cannabis use, abuse, or dependence during the structured interview is both sensitive and specific when compared to urine toxicology screens and indirect parental reports.

  18. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. Method This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater analysis and other sources of information. Wastewater samples were collected in 2015 from 8 different European cities over a one week period, representing a population of approximately 5 million people. Published pharmaceutical sale, illicit drug seizure and alcohol, tobacco and caffeine use data were used for the comparison. Results High agreement was found between wastewater and other data sources for pharmaceuticals and cocaine, whereas amphetamines, alcohol and caffeine showed a moderate correlation. methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA and nicotine did not correlate with other sources of data. Most of the poor correlations were explained as part of the uncertainties related with the use estimates and were improved with other complementary sources of data. Conclusions This work confirms the promising future of WBE as a complementary approach to obtain a more accurate picture of substance use situation within different communities. Our findings suggest further improvements to reduce the uncertainties associated with both sources of information in order to make the data more comparable.

  19. Aggression among male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoke cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatcioglu, Omer; Erim, Rahsan

    2009-12-01

    The authors aimed to explore the relation between nicotine dependence and the severity of aggression among Turkish male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoked cigarettes, as well as the effect of aggression in these groups. Participants were 126 male alcohol-dependent inpatients who were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Substance Use Disorder Module (A. Corapcioglu, O. Aydemir, & M. Yildiz, 1999; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, & J. B. W. Williams, 1997), the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (K. O. Fagerstrom, 1978), and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS; S. C. Yudofsky, J. M. Silver, W. Jackson, J. Endicott, & D. Williams, 1986). The authors found differences between male alcohol-dependent inpatients with nicotine dependence (n = 94) and those with nondependence (n = 32) in OAS subtypes. The authors' findings showed that smoking cigarettes-an addiction frequently observed with alcoholism-was positively correlated with aggressive behaviors. The authors suggest that smoking cigarettes may cause aggression or aggression may cause smoking. Observing and evaluating how aggression and smoking cigarettes are associated with alcohol dependence may help relapse prevention and improve effectiveness of treatment interventions in alcoholism.

  20. Self-reported cannabis products and other illicit drugs consumption in older school-age children in Northern Lithuania: a comparison between 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniauskienė, Dalia; Jurgaitienė, Dalia; Strukčinskienė, Birutė

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is widespread among young people in Europe. The aim of this study was to analyze and to compare the associations between the self-reported consumption of cannabis products and other illicit drugs among older schoolchildren in 2006 and in 2012. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2012 in Northern Lithuania. In total 3447 young people aged 17-19 years were investigated (1585 male and 1862 female). For this survey, the ESPAD questionnaire was used. In Northern Lithuania, the schoolchildren aged 17-19 years self-reported that 16.7% in 2006 and 23.9% in 2012 of them tried cannabis products. The consumption of cannabis products in the age group of 17 years increased from 14.9% in 2006 to 21.5% in 2012. The consumption of cannabis together with alcohol increased from 7.6% to 14.3%. Cannabis consumers more often tried amphetamines, heroin, LSD, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, hallucinogenic mushrooms, and injective drugs. In 2012, cannabis consumers girls less than boys used only crack and injective drugs; all other illicit drugs they used the same often as boys. The cannabis products consumption in schoolchildren has increased by 7%. Nearly twofold increase was observed in the consumption of cannabis together with alcohol. Young people who used cannabis products more often tried other illicit drugs. There were no differences by gender in the consumption of illicit drugs among cannabis consumers. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.

  2. Driving under the influence behaviours among high school students who mix alcohol with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N; Cumming, Tammy; Burkhalter, Robin; Langille, Donald B; Ogilvie, Rachel; Asbridge, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol and energy drinks are commonly used substances by youth in Canada, and are often mixed (AmED). While several studies have shown that AmED can have dangerous effects, less well understood is how AmED is associated with driving under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. This study sought to determine whether youth who use AmED were more likely to engage in driving, or being a passenger of a driver, under the influence of alcohol or cannabis compared to youth who use either alcohol or energy drinks alone. This study used data from grade 10-12 students who took part in the 2014/2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (N=17,450). The association of past-year AmED use with past-30day: driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, and riding with an alcohol- or cannabis-influenced driver, was assessed using logistic regression. One in four youth had consumed AmED in the previous 12months. AmED users were more likely to engage in all risk behaviours except riding with a drinking driver, relative to youth who only consumed alcohol. No association was observed for youth who consumed alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions. Youth who use AmED demonstrate a higher risk profile for driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, than youth who use alcohol alone. Future research should explore the biopsychosocial pathways that may explain why using energy drinks enhances the already heightened risk posed by alcohol on other health-related behaviours such as driving under the influence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long

  4. The association between lifetime cannabis use and dysthymia across six birth decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Ofir; Razon, Liat; Rehm, Jürgen; Hasin, Deborah S; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2018-07-01

    Though high rates of co-occurring cannabis use and depression are well-documented, data regarding the association between cannabis use and dysthymia is scarce. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore clinical correlations of cannabis use among individuals with dysthymia, as well as the changes in the association between cannabis use and dysthymia across six decades of birth cohorts. Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III; 2012-2013; N = 36,309). Participants were divided into six birth cohorts (1940s-1990s), based on their decade of birth, and individuals with dysthymia were further categorized by 3 levels of lifetime cannabis use: non-users, non-CUD users, and CUD-users. We compared rates of co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders among cannabis users vs non-users and conducted logistic regression analyses in order to determine the odds of dysthymia among cannabis users across six decades. Rates of several psychiatric disorders, such as personality disorders, and substance use disorders were higher among individuals with dysthymia who used cannabis compared to those who did not. The interaction between cannabis use (without a CUD) and birth cohort was associated with a decrease in the odds of dysthymia (OR=0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97) and remained significant after controlling for confounding variables. Similar changes over time were not demonstrated for CUD users. Likelihood for recall bias and misclassification based on cross-sectional nature of the study and on respondents' self-reports of symptoms throughout their lifetime. Our study's findings demonstrate that the association between cannabis use (but not CUDs) and dysthymia has weakened over time. These findings highlight the need for further research examining changes over time in the relationship between cannabis use and associated psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Profiles of medicinal cannabis patients attending compassion centers in rhode island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Nickolas; Topletz, Ariel; Frater, Susan; Yates, Gail; Lally, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood regarding medicinal marijuana dispensary users. We sought to characterize socio-demographics and reasons for medicinal marijuana use among medical cannabis dispensary patients in Rhode Island. Participants (n=200) were recruited from one of two Compassion Centers in Rhode Island and asked to participate in a short survey, which included assessment of pain interference using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). The majority of participants were male (73%), Caucasian (80%), college educated (68%), and had health insurance (89%). The most common reason for medicinal marijuana use was determined to be chronic pain management. Participants were more likely to have BPI pain interference scores of > 5 if they were older (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.78) or reported using cannabis as a substitute for prescription medications (OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.23-4.95), and were less likely to have interference scores of >5 if they had higher income levels (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.40-0.70) or reported having ever received treatment for an alcohol use disorder. One-fifth of participants had a history of a drug or alcohol use disorder. Most participants report that medicinal cannabis improves their pain symptomology, and are interested in alternative treatment options to opioid-based treatment regimens.

  6. Distance to Cannabis-Shops and Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In the Netherlands cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis-shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis- shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a Mixed Proportional Hazard rate framework to take account of

  7. The toxicology of cannabis and cannabis prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2007-08-01

    The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients.

  8. Role of endocannabinoids in regulating drug dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Parolaro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Parolaro, Daniela Vigano’, Natalia Realini, Tiziana RubinoNeuroscience Center, DBSF, University of Insubria, Busto Arsizio, ItalyAbstract: This review will discuss the latest knowledge of how the endocannabinoid system might be involved in treating addiction to the most common illicit drugs. Experimental models are providing increasing evidence for the pharmacological management of endocannabinoid signaling not only to block the direct reinforcing effects of cannabis, opioids, nicotine and ethanol, but also for preventing relapse to the various drugs of abuse, including opioids, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol and metamphetamine. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that the endocannabinoid system can be manipulated by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, that might constitute a new generation of compounds for treating addiction across different classes of abused drugs.Keywords: Endocannabinoids, drug dependence, opioids, nicotine, alcohol, psychostimulants

  9. Cannabis publication analysis using density-equalising mapping and research output benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B H Vogelzang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cannabis has been a topic of political and medical controversy in many countries over the past century. Although many publications on this topic are available, there is currently no comprehensive evaluation of global research activities in the field. Objective. This study was conducted in order to provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the worldwide research output on cannabis. Methods. In a quantitative approach, items concerning cannabis published between 1900 and 2008 were retrieved from the ISI Web of Science databases developed by the Thompson Institute of Scientific Information and analysed using scientometric methods. In a second step, research fields of growing interest were identified. Results. We found that publications on this topic increased during the late 1960s, as well as during the period 1990 - 2008. We noted that South Africa was one of the countries with a high research output, having published numerous articles on cannabis. A comparison of cannabis with other drugs (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, cocaine and heroin showed that in relation to the proportion of respective drug users, cocaine and heroin are overly represented in terms of research output. When analysing the main subjects of the publications, psychiatry was prominent, especially with regard to research on psychosis. Conclusion. There is increasing interest in research on cannabis. The research only partially reflects the drug’s importance with regard to number of users.

  10. Cannabis species and cannabinoid concentration preference among sleep-disturbed medicinal cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Babson, Kimberly A; Vandrey, Ryan; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-11-01

    Individuals report using cannabis for the promotion of sleep, and the effects of cannabis on sleep may vary by cannabis species. Little research has documented preferences for particular cannabis types or cannabinoid concentrations as a function of use for sleep disturbances. 163 adults purchasing medical cannabis for a physical or mental health condition at a cannabis dispensary were recruited. They provided self-report of (a) whether cannabis use was intended to help with sleep problems (e.g. insomnia, nightmares), (b) sleep quality (PSQI), (c) cannabis use (including preferred type), and (d) symptoms of DSM-5 cannabis dependence. 81 participants reported using cannabis for the management of insomnia and 14 participants reported using cannabis to reduce nightmares. Individuals using cannabis to manage nightmares preferred sativa to indica strains (Fisher's exact test (2) = 6.83, p < 0.05), and sativa users were less likely to endorse DSM-5 cannabis dependence compared with those who preferred indica strains (χ(2)(2) = 4.09, p < 0.05). Individuals with current insomnia (t(9) = 3.30, p < 0.01) and greater sleep latency (F(3,6) = 46.7, p < 0.001) were more likely to report using strains of cannabis with significantly higher concentrations of CBD. Individuals who reported at least weekly use of hypnotic medications used cannabis with lower THC concentrations compared to those who used sleep medications less frequently than weekly (t(17) = 2.40, p < 0.05). Associations between sleep characteristics and the type of cannabis used were observed in this convenience sample of individuals using cannabis for the management of sleep disturbances. Controlled prospective studies are needed to better characterize the impact that specific components of cannabis have on sleep. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The effects of alcohol-containing e-cigarettes on young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Gerald W; Jatlow, Peter I; Coffman, Marcedes; Nadim, Haleh; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    The liquids (e-liquids) used in an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) contain myriad chemicals without adequate human inhalation safety data. Furthermore, the absence of e-liquid labeling requirements poses a formidable challenge to understanding how e-liquid constituents may promote nicotine addiction and/or have independent or synergistic biological effects when combined with nicotine. Ethyl alcohol is such a constituent, but has received little scientific interest in this context. Using a randomized, double blind, crossover design, acute changes in subjective drug effects, motor performance and biochemical measures of alcohol and nicotine intake were evaluated after directed and ad lib puffing from two commercially available e-liquids containing nicotine (8 mg/ml), vanilla flavor and either 23.5% (high) or 0.4% (trace) alcohol. While no differences in subjective drug effects were observed between alcohol conditions, performance on the Purdue Pegboard Dexterity Test (PPDT) improved under the trace, but not under the 23.5% alcohol condition. Although plasma alcohol levels remained undetectable during testing, urine ethyl glucuronide (EtG), an alcohol metabolite, became measurable in three participants after puffing from the 23.5% alcohol e-cigarette. Brief use of a widely available type of e-cigarette containing an e-liquid purchased from an internet vendor can negatively impact psychomotor performance and in some instances, produce detectable levels of a urine alcohol metabolite. Given the widespread and unregulated use of e-cigarettes, especially by youth and other vulnerable populations, further studies are needed to evaluate both the acute safety and long-term health risks of using alcohol-containing e-cigarettes. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Lifecourse SEP and tobacco and cannabis use.

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    Bowes, Lucy; Chollet, Aude; Fombonne, Eric; Galéra, Cédric; Melchior, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Social inequalities in substance use have been well-documented; however, the impact of changes in socio-economic position from childhood to adulthood is unclear. We examined the relationship between intergenerational trajectories of social position and tobacco and cannabis use among young adults. Data come from 1103 participants (mean age: 28.9 years) of the Trajectoires Epidémiologiques en Population (TEMPO) study and their parents, participants of the GAZEL study, France. Multinomial regression analyses were used to examine associations between lifecourse socio-economic position (SEP) assessed using the parent's reports of family income (1989 and 2002) and the participant's educational attainment, occupational grade and job stability in 2009, with self-reported tobacco and cannabis use in 2009. Compared with participants with stable intermediate/high SEP, those with stable low SEP and those with declining SEP were more likely to use tobacco (age- and sex-adjusted ORs = 2.03 and 2.26). Participants who experienced declining SEP were also disproportionately likely to use and abuse cannabis (adjusted ORs = 2.22 and 2.73). Associations remained significant after adjusting for family (parental smoking, alcohol use, ill health, unemployment, depression and divorce) and individual (early tobacco and cannabis use, academic difficulties, juvenile internalizing and externalizing problems) risk factors. Cross-sectional studies indicate social inequalities in substance use. Our longitudinal findings suggest that individuals who experienced declining SEP from childhood to adulthood may be twice as likely to use tobacco and cannabis compared with individuals with a stable/high trajectory. Interventions targeting substance abuse should take into account lifecourse determinants including the interplay between individuals' socio-economic origins and later attainment.

  13. Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study

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    Mokrysz, C; Landy, R; Gage, SH; Munafò, MR; Roiser, JP; Curran, HV

    2016-01-01

    There is much debate about the impact of adolescent cannabis use on intellectual and educational outcomes. We investigated associations between adolescent cannabis use and IQ and educational attainment in a sample of 2235 teenagers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. By the age of 15, 24% reported having tried cannabis at least once. A series of nested linear regressions was employed, adjusted hierarchically by pre-exposure ability and potential confounds (e.g. cigarette and alcohol use, childhood mental-health symptoms and behavioural problems), to test the relationships between cumulative cannabis use and IQ at the age of 15 and educational performance at the age of 16. After full adjustment, those who had used cannabis ⩾50 times did not differ from never-users on either IQ or educational performance. Adjusting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both outcomes, and further analyses demonstrated robust associations between cigarette use and educational outcomes, even with cannabis users excluded. These findings suggest that adolescent cannabis use is not associated with IQ or educational performance once adjustment is made for potential confounds, in particular adolescent cigarette use. Modest cannabis use in teenagers may have less cognitive impact than epidemiological surveys of older cohorts have previously suggested. PMID:26739345

  14. Perfilando los consumidores de cannabis que autocultivan a pequeña escala

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    Manuel Isorna

    Full Text Available El cannabis es la sustancia ilícita más consumida a nivel mundial, con una prevalencia estimada entre el 2.8 y el 5.0% de la población adulta. El auge del consumo de cannabis ha llevado a un aumento en el cultivo para el propio consumo. Como consecuencia, nos planteamos un estudio de campo con el objetivo de contrastar si consumidores con y sin autocultivo se diferencian en el perfil sociodemográfico, patrones de consumo, riesgo de consumo problemático, dependencia, y síntomas y trastornos asociados. Para ello, 761 consumidores de cannabis, 480 hombres y 281 mujeres, de los cuales 251 autocultivaban para su consumo (182 hombres y 69 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 60 años (M = 26.36, DT = 5.68, respondieron a un cuestionario sociodemográfico y de patrones de consumo, a escalas de medida del consumo problemático de cannabis, dependencia del cannabis, abuso del cannabis, y de dependencia de la nicotina y del alcohol. Los resultados mostraron que el autocultivo es característico mayoritariamente de los varones, con bajo nivel académico y laboralmente activos. Asimismo, la práctica del autocultivo se relaciona con un mayor consumo de cannabis, una mayor implicación en la venta ilegal del producto, policonsumo y con problemáticas psicosociales derivadas de dicho consumo. Adicionalmente, los que autocultivan informan de mayores niveles de dependencia y de riesgo de consumo problemático de cannabis. Se discuten las implicaciones para la prevención y tratamiento de los trastornos por consumo de cannabis.

  15. Cannabis use in adolescents: the impact of risk and protective factors and social functioning.

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    Best, David; Gross, Samantha; Manning, Victoria; Gossop, Michael; Witton, John; Strang, John

    2005-11-01

    The study uses a school-based sample to test the social and familial risk and protective factors relating to cannabis use. Based on a self-completion survey of 2078 14-16-year-olds (mean age of 15 years) attending seven standard state-run secondary schools in south London, an assessment was made of rates and risk factors for cannabis use. Twenty-four per cent of the total sample had ever used cannabis, with 15% having done so in the month prior to assessment. In addition to greater likelihood of illicit drug use, lifetime cannabis users were less likely to spend time regularly with both their mothers and fathers, but more likely to spend free time with friends who smoked, drank alcohol and used illicit drugs, and with friends involved in criminal activities. Among those who had ever used cannabis, frequency of cannabis use was predicted (using linear regression) by two onset factors (earlier initiation of drinking and cannabis use were both linked to more frequent use) and two social factors (more time spent with drug-using friends and less time spent with the mother). Overall, the study showed that early onset, itself predicted by social networks, is linked to more frequent use of cannabis and that this appears to be sustained by less time spent with parents and more with drug-using peers.

  16. Solitary cannabis use in adolescence as a correlate and predictor of cannabis problems.

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    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    Most adolescent cannabis use occurs in social settings among peers. Solitary cannabis use during adolescence may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior with important implications for understanding risk for cannabis problems. This longitudinal study examined associations of adolescent solitary cannabis use with levels of cannabis use and problems in adolescence and in young adulthood. Cannabis using-adolescents aged 12-18 were recruited from clinical programs (n=354; 43.8% female; 83.3% Caucasian) and community sources (n=93; 52.7% female; 80.6% Caucasian). Participants reported on cannabis use patterns and diagnostic symptoms at baseline and multiple follow-ups into young adulthood. Compared to social-only users, adolescent solitary cannabis users were more likely to be male and reported more frequent cannabis use and more DSM-IV cannabis use disorder (CUD) symptoms. Regression analyses showed that solitary cannabis use in adolescence predicted CUD symptom counts in young adulthood (age 25) after controlling for demographic variables and the frequency of adolescent cannabis use. However, solitary adolescent cannabis use was no longer predictive of age 25 CUD symptoms after additionally controlling for adolescent CUD symptoms. Solitary cannabis use is associated with greater cannabis use and problems during adolescence, but evidence is mixed that it predicts young adult cannabis problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Demographic trends among older cannabis users in the United States, 2006–13

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    Han, Benjamin H.; Sherman, Scott; Mauro, Pia M.; Martins, Silvia S.; Rotenberg, James; Palamar, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims The ageing US population is providing an unprecedented population of older adults who use recreational drugs. We aimed to estimate the trends in the prevalence of past-year use of cannabis, describe the patterns and attitudes and determine correlates of cannabis use by adults age 50 years and older. Design Secondary analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health survey from 2006 to 2013, a cross-sectional survey given to a nationally representative probability sample of populations living in US households. Setting USA. Participants A total of 47 140 survey respondents aged ≥ 50 years. Measures Estimates and trends of past-year use of cannabis. Findings The prevalence of past-year cannabis use among adults aged ≥ 50 increased significantly from 2006/07 to 2012/13, with a 57.8% relative increase for adults aged 50–64 (linear trend P aged ≥ 65 (linear trend P = 0.002). When combining data from 2006 to 2013, 6.9% of older cannabis users met criteria for cannabis abuse or dependence, and the majority of the sample reported perceiving no risk or slight risk associated with monthly cannabis use (85.3%) or weekly use (79%). Past-year users were more likely to be younger, male, non-Hispanic, not have multiple chronic conditions and use tobacco, alcohol or other drugs compared with non-past-year cannabis users. Conclusions The prevalence of cannabis use has increased significantly in recent years among US adults aged ≥ 50 years. PMID:27767235

  18. Persistency of Cannabis Use Predicts Violence following Acute Psychiatric Discharge

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    Jules R. Dugré

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundViolence is a major concern and is prevalent across several mental disorders. The use of substances has been associated with an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms as well as with violence. Compared to other substances such as alcohol and cocaine, existing literature on the cannabis–violence relationship has been more limited, with most studies being conducted in the general population, and has shown controversial results. Evidence has suggested a stronger relationship when examining the effects of the persistency of cannabis use on future violent behaviors. Though, while cannabis use is highly prevalent amid psychiatric patients, far less literature on the subject has been conducted in this population. Hence, the present prospective study aims to investigate the persistency of cannabis use in psychiatric patients.MethodThe sample comprised of 1,136 recently discharged psychiatric patients provided by the MacArthur Risk Assessment Study. A multi-wave (five-assessment follow-up design was employed to allow temporal sequencing between substance use and violent behaviors. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to examine the effect of persistency of cannabis use on violence, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Potential bidirectional association was also investigated using the same statistical approach.ResultsOur results suggest a unidirectional association between cannabis use and violence. GEE model revealed that the continuity of cannabis use across more than one time wave was associated with increased risks of future violent behavior. Patients who reported having used cannabis at each follow-up periods were 2.44 times more likely to display violent behaviors (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.06–5.63, p < 0.05.ConclusionThese findings are particularly relevant as they suggest that the longer individuals report having used cannabis after a psychiatric discharge, the more likely they are of being violent in the

  19. Waterpipe tobacco products: nicotine labelling versus nicotine delivery.

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    Vansickel, Andrea R; Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco package labelling typically indicates "0.0% tar" and "0.05% or 0.5% nicotine". To determine the extent to which nicotine labeling is related to nicotine delivery. 110 waterpipe smokers engaged in a 45-minute waterpipe smoking session. Puff topography and plasma nicotine were measured. Three waterpipe tobacco brands were used: Nakhla (0.5% nicotine), Starbuzz (0.05% nicotine), and Al Fakher (0.05% nicotine). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Topography did not differ across brands. Peak plasma nicotine varied significantly across brands. Al Fakher had the highest nicotine delivery (11.4 ng/ml) followed by Nakhla (9.8 ng/ml) and Starbuzz (5.8 ng/ml). Nicotine labelling on waterpipe tobacco products does not reflect delivery; smoking a brand with a "0.05% nicotine" label led to greater plasma nicotine levels than smoking a brand with a "0.5% nicotine" label. Waterpipe tobacco products should be labelled in a manner that does not mislead consumers.

  20. The tendency to sign-track predicts cue-induced reinstatement during nicotine self-administration, and is enhanced by nicotine but not ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaggi, Cassandra L.; King, Christopher P.; Meyer, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli (“cues”), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. Objectives To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food predictive cue (“sign-trackers”) or a reward-delivery location (“goal-trackers”). In a second experiment, we determined whether nicotine and ethanol altered the incentive value of a food cue. Methods Rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm. Rats then self-administered intravenous nicotine (0.03 mg/kg infusions) followed by extinction and cue induced reinstatement tests. We also tested the effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg base s.c.) or ethanol (0.7 g/kg i.p.) on the approach to, and reinforcing efficacy of, a food cue. Results Sign-trackers showed greater reinstatement in response to a nicotine cue. Further, nicotine enhanced sign-tracking but not goal-tracking to a food cue, and also enhanced responding for the food cue during the conditioned reinforcement test. Conversely, ethanol reduced sign-tracking and increased goal-tracking, but had no effect on conditioned reinforcement. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that the tendency to attribute incentive value to a food cue predicts enhanced cue-induced reinstatement. Additionally, the incentive value of food cues is differentially modulated by nicotine and ethanol, which may be related to the reinforcing effects of these drugs. PMID:27282365

  1. The tendency to sign-track predicts cue-induced reinstatement during nicotine self-administration, and is enhanced by nicotine but not ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaggi, Cassandra L; King, Christopher P; Meyer, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli ("cues"), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food-predictive cue ("sign-trackers") or a reward-delivery location ("goal-trackers"). In a second experiment, we determined whether nicotine and ethanol altered the incentive value of a food cue. Rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm. Rats then self-administered intravenous nicotine (0.03 mg/kg infusions) followed by extinction and cue-induced reinstatement tests. We also tested the effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg base s.c.) or ethanol (0.7 g/kg i.p.) on the approach to, and reinforcing efficacy of, a food cue. Sign-trackers showed greater reinstatement in response to a nicotine cue. Further, nicotine enhanced sign-tracking but not goal-tracking to a food cue and also enhanced responding for the food cue during the conditioned reinforcement test. Conversely, ethanol reduced sign-tracking and increased goal-tracking, but had no effect on conditioned reinforcement. Our studies demonstrate that the tendency to attribute incentive value to a food cue predicts enhanced cue-induced reinstatement. Additionally, the incentive value of food cues is differentially modulated by nicotine and ethanol, which may be related to the reinforcing effects of these drugs.

  2. Abuse or dependence on cannabis and other psychiatric disorders. Madrid study on dual pathology prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babin, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use has been associated to a wide variety of mental disorders, the possible causal role of this use in the etiology of severe mental disorders as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder standing out. Moreover, the cannabinoid system is involved in emotional regulation, so cannabis use could disturb this process and provoke anxiety and mood disorders. The main objective of this study was to analyze the cannabis addict subgroup from Madrid study of prevalence of dual disorders in community mental health and substance misuse services. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients under treatment in the mental health network or drug network of the Community of Madrid (Spain). Of these, 353 subjects had a lifetime diagnosis of cannabis abuse or dependence and 357 subjects did not have cannabis substance use disorder. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to evaluate axis I mental disorders, and Personality Disorder Questionnaire to evaluate personality disorders. It was considered that 76.5% of the cannabis addicts had a current dual disorder. The most prevalent ones were mood and anxiety disorders. Of those addicted to cannabis, 51% had a personality disorder. Most of them had several substance use disorders. Cannabis abuse or dependence subjects had an earlier onset in consumption of other drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, and tobacco than addicts without cannabis abuse or dependence. The cannabis addicts also differed from the other addicts because of an association to antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, psychosis and agoraphobia. The presence of these mental disorders was significantly associated to a lower age at initiation of cannabis use. Dual pathology is very high in cannabis addicts under treatment. Said consumption of cannabis, probably within a polysubstance use pattern, is associated to severe mental disorders as psychosis and bipolar disorder. An earlier age of onset in cannabis use is associated to a greater risk of

  3. Statistics on cannabis users skew perceptions of cannabis use

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    Rachel Melissa Burns

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight 1 differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; 2 how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and 3 the correlation between frequency of use in the past month and average grams consumed per day. Key findings: Focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanic. Further, data from a survey conducted in several European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations.

  4. [Medicinal cannabis].

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    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  5. Cannabis use predicts risks of heart failure and cerebrovascular accidents: results from the National Inpatient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Aditi; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram M; Gopalakrishnan, Akshaya; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2018-06-06

    Cannabis for medicinal and/or recreational purposes has been decriminalized in 28 states as of the 2016 election. In the remaining states, cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit drug. Cardiovascular effects of cannabis use are not well established due to a limited number of studies. We therefore utilized a large national database to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and events amongst patients with cannabis use. Patients aged 18-55 years with cannabis use were identified in the National Inpatient Sample 2009-2010 database using the Ninth Revision of International Classification of Disease code 304.3. Demographics, risk factors, and cardiovascular event rates were collected on these patients and compared with general population data. Prevalence of heart failure, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death, and hypertension were significantly higher in patients with cannabis use. After multivariate regression adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, tobacco use, and alcohol use, cannabis use remained an independent predictor of both heart failure (odds ratio = 1.1, 1.03-1.18, P < 0.01) and CVA (odds ratio = 1.24, 1.14-1.34, P < 0.001). Cannabis use independently predicted the risks of heart failure and CVA in individuals 18-55 years old. With continued legalization of cannabis, potential cardiovascular effects and their underlying mechanisms need to be further investigated.

  6. The Effect of Nicotine Dependence on Psychopathology in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Anne Yee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Our study aims to determine the prevalence of nicotine dependence and investigate the effect of nicotine dependence on psychopathology among schizophrenia patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an outpatient psychiatric clinic at a general hospital in Malaysia. 180 recruited subjects were administered the Malay version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, and the Malay version of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-M questionnaires. Results. The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the subjects was 38.1% (n=69 and they were mainly composed of male gender, Malay ethnicity, being treated with atypical antipsychotics, and taking other illicit drugs or alcohol. Subjects with severe nicotine dependence scored less in the negative subscale of PANSS compared with the nonsmokers (P=0.011. On performing the hierarchy multiple regressions, dependence status still significantly predicted negative scores after adjusting the confounders (t=-2.87, P=0.005. Conclusion. The rate of nicotine use disorder among schizophrenia patients in this study is higher than that of the general population in Malaysia. The significant association between nicotine dependence and negative psychopathology symptoms will help the healthcare practitioners in their management of nicotine dependence among schizophrenia patients.

  7. Extended nicotine self-administration increases sensitivity to nicotine, motivation to seek nicotine and the reinforcing properties of nicotine-paired cues.

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    Clemens, Kelly J; Lay, Belinda P P; Holmes, Nathan M

    2017-03-01

    An array of pharmacological and environmental factors influence the development and maintenance of tobacco addiction. The nature of these influences likely changes across the course of an extended smoking history, during which time drug seeking can become involuntary and uncontrolled. The present study used an animal model to examine the factors that drive nicotine-seeking behavior after either brief (10 days) or extended (40 days) self-administration training. In Experiment 1, extended training increased rats' sensitivity to nicotine, indicated by a leftward shift in the dose-response curve, and their motivation to work for nicotine, indicated by an increase in the break point achieved under a progressive ratio schedule. In Experiment 2, extended training imbued the nicotine-paired cue with the capacity to maintain responding to the same high level as nicotine itself. However, Experiment 3 showed that the mechanisms involved in responding for nicotine or a nicotine-paired cue are dissociable, as treatment with the partial nicotine receptor agonist, varenicline, suppressed responding for nicotine but potentiated responding for the nicotine-paired cue. Hence, across extended nicotine self-administration, pharmacological and environmental influences over nicotine seeking increase such that nicotine seeking is controlled by multiple sources, and therefore highly resistant to change. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Cannabis use as an indicator of risk for mental health problems in adolescents: a population-based study at secondary schools.

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    van Gastel, W A; Tempelaar, W; Bun, C; Schubart, C D; Kahn, R S; Plevier, C; Boks, M P M

    2013-09-01

    Although the association between cannabis use and a wide range of psychiatric symptoms is fairly well established, it is not clear whether cannabis use is also a risk factor for general mental health problems at secondary school. Method A total of 10 324 secondary school children aged 11-16 years, participating in an ongoing Public Health Service School Survey, gave information on demographics, substance use, school factors and stressful life events and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Cannabis use in the past month was associated with a clinically relevant score on the SDQ [unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.46-5.76]. Other risk factors associated with poor psychosocial functioning were: a low level of education, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, hard drug use, frequent truancy, an unfavourable school evaluation, feeling unsafe at school, being victimized, frequent absence due to illness, a mentally ill parent, molestation by a parent, financial problems and feeling distressed by an adverse event. In a full model adjusting for these risk factors, cannabis was not significantly associated with mental health problems, although an association at trend level was apparent. Of these risk factors, regular alcohol use, cigarette smoking, hard drug use, frequent truancy, an unfavourable school evaluation and frequent absence due to illness were also associated with cannabis use. The association between cannabis use and poor psychosocial functioning in adolescence is due, at least in part, to confounding by other risk factors. Thus, cannabis use can best be viewed as an indicator of risk for mental health problems in adolescence.

  9. Cannabis use in early adolescence: Evidence of amygdala hypersensitivity to signals of threat

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    Philip A. Spechler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use in adolescence may be characterized by differences in the neural basis of affective processing. In this study, we used an fMRI affective face processing task to compare a large group (n = 70 of 14-year olds with a history of cannabis use to a group (n = 70 of never-using controls matched on numerous characteristics including IQ, SES, alcohol and cigarette use. The task contained short movies displaying angry and neutral faces. Results indicated that cannabis users had greater reactivity in the bilateral amygdalae to angry faces than neutral faces, an effect that was not observed in their abstinent peers. In contrast, activity levels in the cannabis users in cortical areas including the right temporal-parietal junction and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex did not discriminate between the two face conditions, but did differ in controls. Results did not change after excluding subjects with any psychiatric symptomology. Given the high density of cannabinoid receptors in the amygdala, our findings suggest cannabis use in early adolescence is associated with hypersensitivity to signals of threat. Hypersensitivity to negative affect in adolescence may place the subject at-risk for mood disorders in adulthood.

  10. Cannabis use in early adolescence: Evidence of amygdala hypersensitivity to signals of threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, Philip A; Orr, Catherine A; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees-Jan; Mackey, Scott; Morton, Aaron; Snowe, Mitchell P; Hudson, Kelsey E; Althoff, Robert R; Higgins, Stephen T; Cattrell, Anna; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Whelan, Robert; Büchel, Christian; Bromberg, Uli; Conrod, Patricia; Frouin, Vincent; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jurgen; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Ittermann, Bernd; Gowland, Penny; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Smolka, Michael N; Schumann, Gunter; Garavan, Hugh

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis use in adolescence may be characterized by differences in the neural basis of affective processing. In this study, we used an fMRI affective face processing task to compare a large group (n=70) of 14-year olds with a history of cannabis use to a group (n=70) of never-using controls matched on numerous characteristics including IQ, SES, alcohol and cigarette use. The task contained short movies displaying angry and neutral faces. Results indicated that cannabis users had greater reactivity in the bilateral amygdalae to angry faces than neutral faces, an effect that was not observed in their abstinent peers. In contrast, activity levels in the cannabis users in cortical areas including the right temporal-parietal junction and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex did not discriminate between the two face conditions, but did differ in controls. Results did not change after excluding subjects with any psychiatric symptomology. Given the high density of cannabinoid receptors in the amygdala, our findings suggest cannabis use in early adolescence is associated with hypersensitivity to signals of threat. Hypersensitivity to negative affect in adolescence may place the subject at-risk for mood disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Psychosocial withdrawal characteristics of nicotine compared with alcohol and caffeine.

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    Miyata, Hisatsugu; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Takada, Kohji; Miyasato, Katsumasa; Nakamura, Koichi; Yanagita, Tomoji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers at a medial level of dependence on both cigarettes (nicotine, NCT) and either CAF or ALC, as judged by the DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence, participated in this study. The participants were required to abstain from smoking and either CAF or ALC for 7 days, each one after another, with a 7-day interval. The order of abstinence was counterbalanced among the participants. Psychosocial parameters, including a desire for substances, social activity function, well-being, withdrawal symptoms, and vital signs, were assessed during the withdrawal periods. The study protocol was approved by the Jikei University Review Board. The results indicated that there were no differences in the maximum level of desire for a substance and the influence on social activity function between NCT and other substances during the withdrawal periods. As for withdrawal symptoms, NCT caused a more intensive degree of irritability than CAF or ALC, and a more intensive degree of difficulty concentrating and restlessness than did withdrawal from ALC. However, the subjective well-being questionnaire indicated no differences in these symptoms between NCT and other substances. The present results suggest that there are no significant differences in psychosocial manifestations regarding the difficulty in abstaining from NCT, CAF, and ALC.

  12. Prevalence of Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) to Vape Recreational Drugs by Club Patrons in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurtle, Natalie; Abouchedid, Rachelle; Archer, John R H; Ho, James; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M

    2017-03-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, often called e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that heat nicotine into vapour that is inhaled, a process called 'vaping'. Use eclipsed nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) in 2014 but ENDS role in smoking cessation remains controversial. Safety has not been proven and there have been reports to US poison centres regarding potential ENDS-related nicotine toxicity. A further concern is use of ENDS to vape recreational drugs, but there is limited data to substantiate this. The aim of this study was to report on ENDS use to vape recreational drugs in patrons of a South London nightclub where high prevalence of recreational drug use has previously been shown. A convenience sample of 101 participants was surveyed in March 2015 as part of a larger survey on drug use. Individuals were asked if they used ENDS to vape nicotine and/or other substances (and if so which substances). Ninety (89.1 %) of respondents were male with median age of 28 years (IQR 23-34). Eighty (79.2 %) currently smoked cigarettes; 20 (19.8 %) currently used ENDS for nicotine. Six (5.9 %) reported using ENDS to take other substances: 2 for 'liquid cannabis' and 4 did not elaborate on the substance(s) used. Of these 6, 3 were using ENDS to vape nicotine and 3 had never used them for nicotine. 5.9 % of individuals in this sample reported using ENDS to vape substances other than nicotine. Further work is required in larger populations to determine how common this is, evaluate which agents are being vaped and to inform appropriate public education.

  13. Medical Cannabis in Arizona: Patient Characteristics, Perceptions, and Impressions of Medical Cannabis Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutt, William D; DiDonato, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Many advances have been made toward understanding the benefits of medical cannabis. However, less is known about medical cannabis patients themselves. Prior research has uncovered many important patient characteristics, but most of that work has been conducted with participants in California, who may not represent medical cannabis patients throughout the United States. Furthermore, it is unknown if medical cannabis legalization, which typically imposes strict regulations on cannabis cultivation and sale, impacts patients' experiences acquiring and using cannabis. The goal of this study was to address these limitations by (1) examining the characteristics, perceptions, and behaviors of medical cannabis patients in Arizona; and (2) questioning participants with a history of cannabis use regarding their experiences with cannabis before and after legalization. Patients in Arizona share many characteristics with those in California, but also key differences, such as average age and degree of cannabis consumption. Participants also had positive perceptions of the effect of medical cannabis legalization, reporting that feelings of safety and awareness were higher after legalization compared to before. The results are discussed in relation to evidence from patients in other states and in terms of their potential policy implications.

  14. Prediction of cannabis and cocaine use in adolescence using decision trees and logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso L. Palmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain is one of the European countries with the highest prevalence of cannabis and cocaine use among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors related to the consumption of cocaine and cannabis among adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 9,284 students between 14 and 18 years of age in Palma de Mallorca (47.1% boys and 52.9% girls whose mean age was 15.59 years. Logistic regression and decision trees were carried out in order to model the consumption of cannabis and cocaine. The results show the use of legal substances and committing fraudulence or theft are the main variables that raise the odds of consuming cannabis. In boys, cannabis consumption and a family history of drug use increase the odds of consuming cocaine, whereas in girls the use of alcohol, behaviours of fraudulence or theft and difficulty in some personal skills influence their odds of consuming cocaine. Finally, ease of access to the substance greatly raises the odds of consuming cocaine and cannabis in both genders. Decision trees highlight the role of consuming other substances and committing fraudulence or theft. The results of this study gain importance when it comes to putting into practice effective prevention programmes.

  15. Cannabis Decriminalization and the Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Chomynova, Pavla; Mravcik, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a change in drugs policy on the age of onset of cannabis use. We use 2012 survey data from the Czech Republic where in 2010 a law was introduced decriminalizing personal possession of small quantities of several illicit drugs, including cannabis. We estimate the effect of the policy change using a mixed proportional hazards framework that models the starting rate of cannabis use, i.e. the transition to first cannabis use. We find that the decriminalization of...

  16. Self-reported cannabis use characteristics, patterns and helpfulness among medical cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bucossi, Meggan M; Babson, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Little research has investigated the demographic and symptom profile of medical cannabis users in states in the USA that have legalized cannabis use. In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the demographic profile of 217 adults currently receiving medical cannabis, as well as differences in problematic use and perceived helpfulness in terms of (i) symptoms of psychological disorders and pain, and (ii) motives for use. Findings indicated that medical cannabis users (i) use and perceive cannabis to be beneficial for multiple conditions, some for which cannabis is not specifically prescribed or allowed at the state level; and (ii) report similar rates of disordered use as compared with population estimates among regular users. Furthermore, problematic cannabis use was predicted by several symptoms of psychological disorders (e.g. depression) and a variety of use motives (e.g. coping), while cannabis was reported as particularly helpful among those with several psychological symptoms (e.g. traumatic intrusions), as well as those reporting use for social anxiety reasons. Results are discussed in terms of future directions for research given the current debates regarding legalization of cannabis for medical purposes and, more generally, the lack of empirical data to inform such debates.

  17. Cannabis-associated arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Anne Claire; Cacoub, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the different arterial complications reported in cannabis smokers. This study was a literature review. Cannabis use was found to be associated with stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb arteritis. Arterial disease involved especially young men. There was a very strong temporal link between arterial complications and cannabis use for stroke and myocardial infarction episodes. Patient outcome was closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal and relapses associated with cannabis rechallenge. Cannabis use was associated with particular characteristics of arterial disease. The increased risk of myocardial infarction onset occurred within 1 hour of smoking marijuana compared with periods of non-use. Strokes occurred mainly in the posterior cerebral circulation. Compared with cohorts of thromboangiitis obliterans patients, those with cannabis-associated limb arteritis were younger, more often male, and had more frequent unilateral involvement of the lower limbs at clinical presentation. Cannabis use is associated with arterial disease such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and limbs arteritis. It appears essential to investigate cannabis use in young patients presenting with such arterial manifestations, as outcome is closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Individual and contextual factors associated with tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use among Chilean adolescents: A multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Araya, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    We studied the association between individual and contextual variables and the use of tobacco, alcohol, or cannabis in the last 30 days preceding the study, considering the hierarchical nature of students nested in schools. We used the 7th Chilean National School Survey of Substance Use (2007) covering 45,273 students (aged 12-21 years old) along with information from 1465 schools provided by the Chilean Ministry of Education. Multilevel univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were performed. We found a significant intra-class correlation within schools for all substances in the study. Common (e.g., availability of pocket money, more time spent with friends, poor parental monitoring, poor school bonding, bullying others, and lower risk perception of substance use) and unique predictors (e.g., school achievement on national tests) were identified. These findings may help in planning and conducting preventive interventions to reduce substance use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Cannabis use and the course and outcome of major depressive disorder: A population based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Daniel; Rehm, Jürgen; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis use has been reported to affect the course of various psychiatric disorders, however its effect on the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not yet clear. We used data from Wave 1 and Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Individuals with baseline MDD (N=2,348) were included in the study. Cannabis users without a Cannabis Use Disorder (CUDs) and individuals with a CUD were compared to nonusers using linear and logistic regression analyses controlling for sociodemographics, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders at baseline. No differences were found in rates of remission between the groups. Level of cannabis use was associated with significantly more depressive symptoms at follow-up, particularly anhedonia, changes in body weight, insomnia or hypersomnia and psychomotor problems. After adjusting for baseline confounding factors, no associations were found between cannabis use and suicidality, functionality and quality of life. We conclude that many of the associations between cannabis use and a more severe course of MDD do not seem to be attributed to cannabis use itself but to associated sociodemographic and clinical factors. Further longitudinal studies using depression severity indices are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Cannabis Information Helpline: Assessing Interest in the Medicinal Use of Cannabis in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J; Albertella, Lucy

    2017-10-15

    The majority of Australians support a change in legislation to allow the use of cannabis for medical purposes. Despite strong public support, very little is known about the patterns of medicinal cannabis use among Australians. This study aims to gain a better understanding of Australian medicinal cannabis users and their patterns of use. The nature of calls to the Cannabis Information and Helpline (N = 15701), a free national service for Australians with concerns regarding cannabis use, were investigated to determine the number of calls made by those who inquired about the medicinal use of cannabis (N = 275) and the implied reasons for use among those who identify using cannabis in this way. The majority of medicinal cannabis inquirers mentioned cannabis to alleviate pain. Further, compared to other callers, medicinal cannabis inquirers were more likely to be male, unemployed, older, and have recently started using cannabis. These findings highlight the need for future research to better understand the issues faced by Australians regarding the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes and how they may be meaningfully addressed. Particular focus should be placed toward older, unemployed males.

  1. Cannabis and psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Murphy, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: While research has consistently identified an association between cannabis use and psychosis, few studies have examined this relationship in a polydrug context (i.e. combining cannabis with other illicit substances). The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach: The ......Purpose: While research has consistently identified an association between cannabis use and psychosis, few studies have examined this relationship in a polydrug context (i.e. combining cannabis with other illicit substances). The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design....../methodology/approach: The present study sought to examine the association between recreational drug use (cannabis only vs polydrug) and psychotic disorders. Analysis was conducted on a large, representative survey of young Danish people aged 24 (n=4,718). Participants completed self-report measures of lifetime drug use...... and this information was linked to the Danish psychiatric registry system. Findings: Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between drug use (no drug use, cannabis only, cannabis and other drug) and ICD-10 psychotic disorders, while controlling for gender and parental...

  2. [Cannabis: A Cognitive Illusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Gonzalo; Guerrero-Martelo, Manuel; Vásquez De la Hoz, Francisco

    The vision of cannabis as a soft drug is due to the low risk perception that young and old people have of the drug. This perception is based on erroneous beliefs that people have about the drug. To compare the beliefs of cannabis use and consequences among adolescents with a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use and those without a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use. Quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 156 high school students who completed an ad-hoc questionnaire that included sociodemographic data and 22 questions about the beliefs that young people had about cannabis use and its consequences. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use was 13.5%. The prevalence group consisted mostly of males. Statistically significant differences between different groups and different beliefs were found. The group with no lifetime prevalence of cannabis use perceived higher risk as regards the damage that cannabis can cause to memory, other cognitive functions, neurons, mental health, and general health. The group with a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use perceived a lower risk as regards the use of cannabis, and think that intelligent people smoke cannabis, and that cannabis has positive effects on the brain, increasing creativity. and is used to cure mental diseases. Those who used cannabis once in their life perceive the use of the substance as less harmful or less potential danger to health compared to those who never consumed. In fact those who consumed at some time even have beliefs that suggest positive effects in those people that consume it. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Cannabis Use in Psychiatrie Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, S; Sudarsanan, S; Salujha, S K; Srivastava, K

    2005-02-01

    Cannabis abuse has been associated with psychiatric disorders. The pattern of cannabis use and incidence of cannabis dependence and cannabis psychosis among 471 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary care psychiatric center was investigated. Cannabis use was reported by 67 (14.23%) patients of whom 42 (8.92%) were occasional users, 18 (3.82%) were classified as frequent users while 7 (1.49%) fulfilled criteria for cannabis dependence. 3 (0.64%) patients showed symptoms which were characteristic of cannabis psychosis. Among the 67 cannabis users, 56 (83.58%) had their first exposure to cannabis before entering service at 13-19 years of age. The remaining 14 (16.09%) began consuming cannabis 1-5 years after joining service. The reasons given for using cannabis were curiosity about its effects 32 (47.76%), peer pressure 17 (25.37%) or traditional use during festivals 18 (26.87%).

  4. The dopamine theory of addiction: 40 years of highs and lows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Erritzoe, David; Stokes, Paul R A

    2015-05-01

    For several decades, addiction has come to be viewed as a disorder of the dopamine neurotransmitter system; however, this view has not led to new treatments. In this Opinion article, we review the origins of the dopamine theory of addiction and discuss the ability of addictive drugs to elicit the release of dopamine in the human striatum. There is robust evidence that stimulants increase striatal dopamine levels and some evidence that alcohol may have such an effect, but little evidence, if any, that cannabis and opiates increase dopamine levels. Moreover, there is good evidence that striatal dopamine receptor availability and dopamine release are diminished in individuals with stimulant or alcohol dependence but not in individuals with opiate, nicotine or cannabis dependence. These observations have implications for understanding reward and treatment responses in various addictions.

  5. African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies - Vol 9, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African health care providers' recognition of the links between alcohol and HIV ... Determination of Caffeine Content in Non-Alcoholic Beverages and Energy Drinks Using Hplc-Uv Method. ... Is Cannabis Use Related to Road Crashes?

  6. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Garry, Aurélia; Rigourd, Virginie; Amirouche, Ammar; Fauroux, Valérie; Aubry, Sylvie; Serreau, Raphaël

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at ...

  7. Cannabis (medical marijuana) treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease: an open-label observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Itay; Treves, Therese A; Roditi, Yaniv; Djaldetti, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The use of cannabis as a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions has been well documented. However, clinical trials in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have yielded conflicting results. The aim of the present open-label observational study was to assess the clinical effect of cannabis on motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Twenty-two patients with PD attending the motor disorder clinic of a tertiary medical center in 2011 to 2012 were evaluated at baseline and 30 minutes after smoking cannabis using the following battery: Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, visual analog scale, present pain intensity scale, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, as well as Medical Cannabis Survey National Drug and Alcohol Research Center Questionnaire. Mean (SD) total score on the motor Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale score improved significantly from 33.1 (13.8) at baseline to 23.2 (10.5) after cannabis consumption (t = 5.9; P effects of the drug were observed. The study suggests that cannabis might have a place in the therapeutic armamentarium of PD. Larger, controlled studies are needed to verify the results.

  8. The International Cannabis Consortium: What did we learn about the genetics of cannabis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Minica, C.C.; Stringer, S.; Most, P.J. van der; Mbarek, H.; Nivard, M.G.; Abdellaoui, A.; Hottenga, J.J.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Gillespie, N.A.; Derks, E.M.; Vink, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is the most frequently used and abused illicit drug worldwide and cannabis (ab)use is associated with social, physical, and psychological problems. Twin and family studies have shown that cannabis use and abuse are heritable traits. The International Cannabis Consortium was

  9. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-01-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4–6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects (‘good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of ‘good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  10. First positive reactions to cannabis constitute a priority risk factor for cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas; Horwood, John; Falissard, Bruno; Hassler, Christine; Romo, Lucia; Choquet, Marie; Fergusson, David; Gorwood, Philip

    2009-10-01

    To assess the association between first reactions to cannabis and the risk of cannabis dependence. A cross-sectional population-based assessment in 2007. A campus in a French region (Champagne-Ardennes). A total of 1472 participants aged 18-21 years who reported at least one life-time cannabis consumption, of 3056 students who were screened initially [the Susceptibility Addiction Gene Environment (SAGE) study]. Positive and negative effects of first cannabis consumptions, present cannabis dependence and related risk factors were assessed through questionnaires.   The effects of first cannabis consumptions were associated dose-dependently with cannabis dependence at age 18-21 years, both according to the transversal approach of the SAGE study and to the prospective cohort of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) assessed at the age of 25 years. Participants of the SAGE study who reported five positive effects of their first cannabis consumption had odds of life-time cannabis dependence that were 28.7 (95% confidence interval: 14.6-56.5) higher than those who reported no positive effects. This association remains significant after controlling for potentially confounding factors, including individual and familial variables. This study suggests an association between positive reactions to first cannabis uses and risk of life-time cannabis dependence, this variable having a central role among, and through, other risk factors. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Cannabis use and its socio-demographic correlates among in-school adolescents in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Besa, Chola; Babaniyi, Olusegun; Songolo, Peter; Kankiza, Njinga; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2013-02-15

    Cannabis dependence in adolescents predicts increased risks of using other illicit drugs, poor academic performance and reporting psychotic symptoms. The prevalence of cannabis use was estimated two decades ago in Zambia among secondary school students. There are no recent estimates of the extent of the problem; further, correlates for its use have not been documented in Zambia. The objective of study was to estimate the current prevalence of cannabis use and its socio-demographic correlates among in-school adolescents. We conducted secondary analysis of data that was obtained from the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with cannabis use. A total of 2,257 adolescents participated in the survey of which 53.9% were females. The overall prevalence of self reported ever-used cannabis was 37.2% (34.5% among males and 39.5% among females). In multivariate analysis, males were 8% (AOR = 0.92; 95% CI [0.89, 0.95]) less likely to have ever smoked cannabis. Compared to adolescents aged 16 years or older, adolescents aged 14 years were 45% (AOR = 1.45; 95% CI [1.37, 1.55]) more likely, and those aged 15 years were 44% (AOR = 0.56; 95% CI [0.53, 0.60]) less likely to report to have ever smoked cannabis. Other factors that were significantly associated with cannabis use were history of having engaged in sexual intercourse (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI [2.46, 2.64]), alcohol use (AOR = 4.38; 95% CI [4.24, 4.53]), and having been bullied (AOR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.71, 1.83]). Adolescents who reported being supervised by parents during free time were less likely to have smoked cannabis (AOR = 0.92; 95% CI [0.88, 0.95]). The use of cannabis is prevalent among Zambian in-school adolescents. Efforts to prevent adolescents' psychoactive drug use in Zambia should be designed considering the significant factors associated with drug use in the current study.

  12. Cannabis careers revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of today's sociological research on recreational drug use is (explicitly or implicitly) inspired by Howard Becker's classical model of deviant careers. The aim of the present paper is to directly apply Becker's theory to empirical data on present-day cannabis use and to suggest...... in treatment for cannabis problems in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest a revision of Becker's career model in relation to four aspects: initiation of cannabis use, differentiation between socially integrated and individualised, disintegrated use, social control from non-users, and the users' moral stance...... on cannabis. A central point of the paper is that social interaction may both motivate cannabis use, as Becker proposed, and serve as a protective factor against extensive, problematic use....

  13. Reduced-Nicotine Cigarettes in Young Smokers: Impact of Nicotine Metabolism on Nicotine Dose Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paul; Ghahremani, Dara G; Tyndale, Rachel F; Cox, Chelsea M; Kazanjian, Ari S; Paterson, Neil; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Petersen, Nicole; Vigil, Celia; London, Edythe D

    2017-07-01

    The use of cigarettes delivering different nicotine doses allows evaluation of the contribution of nicotine to the smoking experience. We compared responses of 46 young adult smokers to research cigarettes, delivering 0.027, 0.110, 0.231, or 0.763 mg nicotine, and conventional cigarettes. On five separate days, craving, withdrawal, affect, and sustained attention were measured after overnight abstinence and again after smoking. Participants also rated each cigarette, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) was used to identify participants as normal or slow metabolizers. All cigarettes equally alleviated craving, withdrawal, and negative affect in the whole sample, but normal metabolizers reported greater reductions of craving and withdrawal than slow metabolizers, with dose-dependent effects. Only conventional cigarettes and, to a lesser degree, 0.763-mg nicotine research cigarettes increased sustained attention. Finally, there were no differences between ratings of lower-dose cigarettes, but the 0.763-mg cigarettes and (even more so) conventional cigarettes were rated more favorably than lower-dose cigarettes. The findings indicate that smoking-induced relief of craving and withdrawal reflects primarily non-nicotine effects in slow metabolizers, but depends on nicotine dose in normal metabolizers. By contrast, relief of withdrawal-related attentional deficits and cigarette ratings depend on nicotine dose regardless of metabolizer status. These findings have bearing on the use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes to facilitate smoking cessation and on policy regarding regulation of nicotine content in cigarettes. They suggest that normal and slow nicotine metabolizers would respond differently to nicotine reduction in cigarettes, but that irrespective of metabolizer status, reductions to <0.763 mg/cigarette may contribute to temporary attentional deficits.

  14. When cannabis is available and visible at school - A multilevel analysis of students' cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    Aims - To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers’ reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis

  15. Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye, Genevieve; Karila, Laurent; Blecha, Lisa; Benyamina, Amine

    2017-09-01

    Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance in the world. Though it was long considered to be a "soft" drug, studies have proven the harmful psychiatric and addictive effects associated with its use. A number of elements are responsible for the increased complications of cannabis use, including the increase in the potency of cannabis and an evolution in the ratio between the two primary components, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and cannabidiol (toward a higher proportion of Δ 9 -THC), Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has rapidly progressed over the last few years, primarily among frequent cannabis users, because SCs provide similar psychoactive effects to cannabis. However, their composition and pharmacological properties make them dangerous substances. Cannabis does have therapeutic properties for certain indications. These therapeutic applications pertain only to certain cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives. The objective of this article is to summarize current developments concerning cannabis and the spread of SCs. Future studies must further explore the benefit-risk profile of medical cannabis use.

  16. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K.; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample (n=2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes. PMID:28861492

  17. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample ( n =2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes.

  18. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine is found in: Chewing tobacco Cigarettes E-cigarettes Liquid nicotine Nicotine gum (Nicorette) Nicotine patches (Habitrol, Nicoderm) Pipe tobacco Some insecticides Tobacco leaves Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  19. Chronic toxicology of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. As societies reconsider the legal status of cannabis, policy makers and clinicians require sound knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of cannabis. This review focuses on the latter. A systematic review of Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar using the search terms "cannabis," "marijuana," "marihuana," "toxicity," "complications," and "mechanisms" identified 5,198 papers. This list was screened by hand, and papers describing mechanisms and those published in more recent years were chosen preferentially for inclusion in this review. There is evidence of psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone toxicity associated with chronic cannabis use. Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state. Respiratory conditions linked with cannabis include reduced lung density, lung cysts, and chronic bronchitis. Cannabis has been linked in a dose-dependent manner with elevated rates of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrythmias. It is known to affect bone metabolism and also has teratogenic effects on the developing brain following perinatal exposure. Cannabis has been linked to cancers at eight sites, including children after in utero maternal exposure, and multiple molecular pathways to oncogenesis exist. Chronic cannabis use is associated with psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone effects. It also has oncogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects all of which depend upon dose and duration of use.

  20. Cannabis use and brain structural alterations of the cingulate cortex in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Charlotte; Walter, Anna; Studerus, Erich; Bugra, Hilal; Tamagni, Corinne; Röthlisberger, Michel; Borgwardt, Stefan; Aston, Jacqueline; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2013-11-30

    As cannabis use is more frequent in patients with psychosis than in the general population and is known to be a risk factor for psychosis, the question arises whether cannabis contributes to recently detected brain volume reductions in schizophrenic psychoses. This study is the first to investigate how cannabis use is related to the cingulum volume, a brain region involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, in a sample of both at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first episode psychosis (FEP) subjects. A cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of manually traced cingulum in 23 FEP and 37 ARMS subjects was performed. Cannabis use was assessed with the Basel Interview for Psychosis. By using repeated measures analyses of covariance, we investigated whether current cannabis use is associated with the cingulum volume, correcting for age, gender, alcohol consumption, whole brain volume and antipsychotic medication. There was a significant three-way interaction between region (anterior/posterior cingulum), hemisphere (left/right cingulum) and cannabis use (yes/no). Post-hoc analyses revealed that this was due to a significant negative effect of cannabis use on the volume of the posterior cingulum which was independent of the hemisphere and diagnostic group and all other covariates we controlled for. In the anterior cingulum, we found a significant negative effect only for the left hemisphere, which was again independent of the diagnostic group. Overall, we found negative associations of current cannabis use with grey matter volume of the cingulate cortex, a region rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors. As this finding has not been consistently found in healthy controls, it might suggest that both ARMS and FEP subjects are particularly sensitive to exogenous activation of these receptors. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of in vivo nicotine exposure on chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Kwang; Poet, Torka S.; Smith, Jordan N.; Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-03-30

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most studied and widely used broad spectrum organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. The neurotoxicity of CPF results from inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) by its metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon), which subsequently leads to cholinergic hyperstimulation. The routine consumption of alcoholic beverages and tobacco products will modify a number of metabolic and physiological processes which may impact the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of other xenobiotics including pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of repeated ethanol and nicotine co-exposure on in vivo CPF pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The major CPF metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in blood and urine along with changes in plasma and brain AChE activities were measured in male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. Animals were repeatedly treated with either saline or ethanol (1 g/kg/day, po) and nicotine (1 mg/kg/day, sc) in addition to CPF (1 or 5 mg/kg/day, po) for 7 days. Rats were sacrificed at times from 1 to 24 hr post-last dosing of CPF. There were apparent differences in blood TCPy pharmacokinetics following ethanol and nicotine pretreatments in both CPF dose groups, which showed higher TCPy peak concentrations and increased blood TCPy AUC in ethanol and nicotine groups over CPF-only (~1.8- and 3.8-fold at 1 and 5 mg CPF doses, respectively). Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities from both ethanol and nicotine-treated groups showed substantially less inhibition following repeated 5 mg CPF/kg dosing compared to CPF-only controls (96 ± 13 and 66 ± 7% of naïve at 4 hr post-last CPF dosing, respectively). Inhibition of brain AChE activities was minimal in both 1 mg CPF/kg/day dosing groups, but a similar trend indicating less inhibition following ethanol/nicotine pretreatment was apparent. No differences were observed in plasma ChE activities due to the combined alcohol and nicotine treatments. In vitro, CPF

  2. Cannabis Liberalization and Adolescent Cannabis Use: A Cross-National Study in 38 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan; Lenzi, Michela; An, Ruopeng

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the associations between types of cannabis control policies at country level and prevalence of adolescent cannabis use. Setting, Participants and Design Multilevel logistic regressions were performed on 172,894 adolescents 15 year of age who participated in the 2001/2002, 2005/2006, or 2009/2010 cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey in 38 European and North American countries. Measures Self-reported cannabis use status was classified into ever use in life time, use in past year, and regular use. Country-level cannabis control policies were categorized into a dichotomous measure (whether or not liberalized) as well as 4 detailed types (full prohibition, depenalization, decriminalization, and partial prohibition). Control variables included individual-level sociodemographic characteristics and country-level economic characteristics. Findings Considerable intra-class correlations (.15-.19) were found at country level. With respect to the dichotomized cannabis control policy, adolescents were more likely to ever use cannabis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, p = .001), use in past year (OR = 1.09, p = .007), and use regularly (OR = 1.26, p = .004). Although boys were substantially more likely to use cannabis, the correlation between cannabis liberalization and cannabis use was smaller in boys than in girls. With respect to detailed types of policies, depenalization was associated with higher odds of past-year use (OR = 1.14, p = .013) and regular use (OR = 1.23, p = .038), and partial prohibition was associated with higher odds of regular use (OR = 2.39, p = .016). The correlation between cannabis liberalization and regular use was only significant after the policy had been introduced for more than 5 years. Conclusions Cannabis liberalization with depenalization and partial prohibition policies was associated with higher levels of regular cannabis use among adolescents. The correlations were heterogeneous between genders and

  3. Dopaminergic function in cannabis users and its relationship to cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Michael A P; Morgan, Celia J A; Egerton, Alice; Kapur, Shitij; Curran, H Valerie; Howes, Oliver D

    2014-03-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug globally, and users are at increased risk of mental illnesses including psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Substance dependence and schizophrenia are both associated with dopaminergic dysfunction. It has been proposed, although never directly tested, that the link between cannabis use and schizophrenia is mediated by altered dopaminergic function. We compared dopamine synthesis capacity in 19 regular cannabis users who experienced psychotic-like symptoms when they consumed cannabis with 19 nonuser sex- and age-matched control subjects. Dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as the influx rate constant [Formula: see text] ) was measured with positron emission tomography and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine ([(18)F]-DOPA). Cannabis users had reduced dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum (effect size: .85; t36 = 2.54, p = .016) and its associative (effect size: .85; t36 = 2.54, p = .015) and limbic subdivisions (effect size: .74; t36 = 2.23, p = .032) compared with control subjects. The group difference in dopamine synthesis capacity in cannabis users compared with control subjects was driven by those users meeting cannabis abuse or dependence criteria. Dopamine synthesis capacity was negatively associated with higher levels of cannabis use (r = -.77, p < .001) and positively associated with age of onset of cannabis use (r = .51, p = .027) but was not associated with cannabis-induced psychotic-like symptoms (r = .32, p = .19). These findings indicate that chronic cannabis use is associated with reduced dopamine synthesis capacity and question the hypothesis that cannabis increases the risk of psychotic disorders by inducing the same dopaminergic alterations seen in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Substance use and misuse in burn patients: Testing the classical hypotheses of the interaction between post-traumatic symptomatology and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco Jose; Giannoni-Pastor, Anna; Fidel-Kinori, Sara Guila; Argüello, José María

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to test whether the three classical hypotheses of the interaction between post-traumatic symptomatology and substance use (high risk of trauma exposure, susceptibility for post-traumatic symptomatology, and self-medication of symptoms), may be useful in the understanding of substance use among burn patients. Substance use data (nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and tranquilizers) and psychopathology measures among burn patients admitted to a burn unit and enrolled in a longitudinal observational study were analyzed. Lifetime substance use information (n = 246) was incorporated to analyses aiming to test the high risk hypothesis. Only patients assessed for psychopathology in a 6-month follow-up (n = 183) were included in prospective analyses testing the susceptibility and self-medication hypotheses. Regarding the high risk hypothesis, results show a higher proportion of heroin and tranquilizer users compared to the general population. Furthermore, in line with the susceptibility hypothesis, higher levels of symptomatology were found in lifetime alcohol, tobacco, and drug users during recovery. The self-medication hypothesis could be tested partially due to the hospital stay "cleaning" effect, but severity of symptoms was linked to the amount of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use after discharge. It was found that the 3 classical hypotheses could be used to understand the link between traumatic experiences and substance use explaining different patterns of burn patient's risk for trauma exposure and emergence of symptomatology.

  5. Nicotine Vapor Method to Induce Nicotine Dependence in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallupi, Marsida; George, Olivier

    2017-07-05

    Nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, induces potentiation of brain stimulation reward, increases locomotor activity, and induces conditioned place preference. Nicotine cessation produces a withdrawal syndrome that can be relieved by nicotine replacement therapy. In the last decade, the market for electronic cigarettes has flourished, especially among adolescents. The nicotine vaporizer or electronic nicotine delivery system is a battery-operated device that allows the user to simulate the experience of tobacco smoking without inhaling smoke. The device is designed to be an alternative to conventional cigarettes that emits vaporized nicotine inhaled by the user. This report describes a procedure to vaporize nicotine in the air to produce blood nicotine levels in rodents that are clinically relevant to those that are observed in humans and produce dependence. We also describe how to construct the apparatus to deliver nicotine vapor in a stable, reliable, and consistent manner, as well as how to analyze air for nicotine content. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Substance use and regional gray matter volume in individuals at high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Barker, Gareth J; McGuire, Philip K

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with an at risk mental state (ARMS) are at greatly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. Risk of transition to psychosis is associated with regionally reduced cortical gray matter volume. There has been considerable interest in the interaction between psychosis risk and substance use. In this study we investigate the relationship between alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use with gray matter volume in ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers. Twenty seven ARMS subjects and 27 healthy volunteers took part in the study. All subjects underwent volumetric MRI imaging. The relationship between regional gray matter volume and cannabis use, smoking, and alcohol use in controls and ARMS subjects was analysed using voxel-based morphometry. In any region where a significant relationship with drug was present, data were analysed to determine if there was any group difference in this relationship. Alcohol intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in cerebellum, cannabis intake was use was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex and tobacco intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in left temporal cortex. There were no significant interactions by group in any region. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis of increased susceptibility to harmful effects of drugs and alcohol on regional gray matter in ARMS subjects. However, alcohol, tobacco and cannabis at low to moderate intake may be associated with lower gray matter in both ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers-possibly representing low-level cortical damage or change in neural plasticity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Derik; Klages, Eckard; Welzel, Helga; Mann, Karl; Croissant, Bernhard

    2005-06-01

    Opioid withdrawal, stress or cues associated with opioid consumption can induce opioid craving. If opioids are not available, opioid-dependent patients usually search for alternative drugs. Because several non-opioid drugs stimulate the endogenous opioidergic system, this concept may explain their frequent use by opioid-dependent patients. We hypothesized that non-opioid drugs alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms and are therefore consumed by opioid addicts. We asked 89 opioid-dependent patients participating in an out-patient opioid maintenance program to estimate the potential of several non-opioid drugs in being able to alleviate opioid withdrawal. We applied a five-point Lickert scale (1 = very good reduction of opioid withdrawal; 5 = no reduction of opioid withdrawal). Patients could also indicate a worsening of opioid withdrawal. Values (mean +/- SD) were: for benzodiazepines, 3.2 +/- 1.1; tricyclic antidepressants, 3.6 +/- 1.1; cannabis, 3.6 +/- 1.0; alcohol, 4.1 +/- 1.1; cocaine, 4.2 +/- 1.1; amphetamine, 4.4 +/- 0.9; nicotine, 4.7 +/- 0.7; and caffeine, 4.9 +/- 0.5. A worsening of opioid withdrawal was reported by 62% of the patients for cocaine, 62% for amphetamine, 50% for caffeine, 37.5% for cannabis, 27% for nicotine, 26% for alcohol, 8% for tricyclic antidepressants and 3% for benzodiazepines. Our study shows a low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms. The data basis of this study was good and the sample was suitable to be asked for estimations of drug-drug interactions. Of the patients, 26 - 62% even reported a worsening of opioid withdrawal for cannabis, alcohol, cocaine and amphetamine. Only benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were reported to have a moderate positive effect on opioid withdrawal.

  8. When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

  9. Prevalence of Cannabis Residues in Psychiatric Patients: A Case Study of Two Mental Health Referral Hospitals in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epaenetus A. Awuzu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have reported that abuse of cannabis is a risk factor for psychosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of delta 9-tetrahydrocanabinol (Δ 9 -THC, a major metabolite of cannabis, in psychiatric patients in Uganda, and to assess the diagnostic capacity of two referral mental health hospitals to screen patients for exposure to cannabis in Uganda. Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were collected through questionnaires and review of medical records. Urine samples were collected from 100 patients and analyzed using Δ 9 -THC immunochromatographic kit (Standard Diagnostics®, South Korea. Seventeen percent of the patients tested positive for Δ 9 -THC residues in their urine. There was strong association ( p < 0.05 between history of previous abuse of cannabis and presence of Δ 9 -THC residues in the urine. Alcohol, cocaine, heroin, pethidine, tobacco, khat and kuber were the other substances abused in various combinations. Both referral hospitals lacked laboratory diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis in psychiatric patients. In conclusion, previous abuse of cannabis is associated with occurrence of the residues in psychiatric patients, yet referral mental health facilities in Uganda do not have the appropriate diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis residues as a basis for evidence-based psychotherapy.

  10. Examining the profile of high-potency cannabis and its association with severity of cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, T P; Winstock, A R

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use is decreasing in England and Wales, while demand for cannabis treatment in addiction services continues to rise. This could be partly due to an increased availability of high-potency cannabis. Adults residing in the UK were questioned about their drug use, including three types of cannabis (high potency: skunk; low potency: other grass, resin). Cannabis types were profiled and examined for possible associations between frequency of use and (i) cannabis dependence, (ii) cannabis-related concerns. Frequent use of high-potency cannabis predicted a greater severity of dependence [days of skunk use per month: b = 0.254, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.161-0.357, p effect became stronger as age decreased (b = -0.006, 95% CI -0.010 to -0.002, p = 0.004). By contrast, use of low-potency cannabis was not associated with dependence (days of other grass use per month: b = 0.020, 95% CI -0.029 to 0.070, p = 0.436; days of resin use per month: b = 0.025, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.067, p = 0.245). Frequency of cannabis use (all types) did not predict severity of cannabis-related concerns. High-potency cannabis was clearly distinct from low-potency varieties by its marked effects on memory and paranoia. It also produced the best high, was preferred, and most available. High-potency cannabis use is associated with an increased severity of dependence, especially in young people. Its profile is strongly defined by negative effects (memory, paranoia), but also positive characteristics (best high, preferred type), which may be important when considering clinical or public health interventions focusing on cannabis potency.

  11. Nicotine, alcohol and cocaine coupling to reward processes via endogenous morphine signaling: the dopamine-morphine hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, George B; Bianchi, Enrica; Guarna, Massimo; Fricchione, Gregory L; Zhu, Wei; Cadet, Patrick; Mantione, Kirk J; Casares, Federico M; Kream, Richard M; Esch, Tobias

    2007-06-01

    Pleasure is described as a state or feeling of happiness and satisfaction resulting from an experience that one enjoys. We examine the neurobiological factors underlying reward processes and pleasure phenomena. With regard to possible negative effects of pleasure, we focus on addiction and motivational toxicity. Pleasure can serve cognition, productivity and health, but simultaneously promotes addiction and other negative behaviors. It is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on reward circuitry or limbic activity. These processes involve dopaminergic signaling. Moreover, nicotine, cocaine and alcohol appear to exert their pleasure providing action via endogenous morphinergic mechanisms. Natural rewarding activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex and reproduction. Social contacts can further facilitate the positive effects exerted by pleasurable experiences. However, artificial stimulants can be detrimental, since flexibility and normal control of behavior are deteriorated. Additionally, addictive drugs are capable of directly acting on reward pathways, now, in part, via endogenous morphine processes.

  12. Use of Nicotine in Electronic Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems by US Adults, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Scott R; Kemp, Catherine B; Heath, J Wesley; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    Nicotine in electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/ENNDS) may present a risk of harm to those with cardiovascular disease and the fetuses of pregnant women. We assessed the extent to which adult users of ENDS/ENNDS used these products with nicotine. We obtained data for this study from a national probability survey of 6051 US adults that was conducted in August and September 2015. Of 399 adult ENDS/ENNDS users who were current smokers, 337 (80.7%) used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine, whereas only 29 of 71 (36.9%) ENDS/ENNDS users who were never smokers used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine. Assessments of the population health impact of ENDS/ENNDS use among never smokers should take into account the extent to which use involves nicotine.

  13. Health aspects of cannabis: revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Leo E.

    1998-07-01

    Literature pertaining to the effects of cannabis use and health which has been published during the past 11 years has been reviewed. Many older concerns about adverse effects on health (chromosomal damage, 'cannabinol psychosis', endocrine abnormalities, cardiac events, impaired immunity) no longer seem to elicit much interest. Continuing concerns about the adverse cognitive effects of chronic use indicate that these can be demonstrated by proper testing; some studies suggest that they may be long-lasting. Although cannabis does not produce a specific psychosis, the possibility exists that it may exacerbate schizophrenia in persons predisposed to that disorder. However, evidence from retrospective surveys must always be questioned. Tolerance and dependence have occurred in man, confirming previous findings in many other species. Addiction tends to be mild and is probably less severe than with other social drugs. Driving under the influence of cannabis is impaired acutely; how long such impairments last is still unknown. More exacting tasks, such as flying an airplane, may be impaired for as long as 24 hours. While there is no doubt that marijuana smoke contains carcinogens, an increase in cancer among users has thus far been anecdotal. Because of the long latent period between cancer induction and initiation of cigarette smoking, the full story is yet to be told. Marijuana use during pregnancy is not advised although the consequences are usually not greater than those of smoking cigarettes, and far less than those from alcohol use. Whether smoked marijuana should become a therapeutic agent requires a cost-benefit analysis of the potential benefits versus the adverse effects of such use as we now know them.

  14. Medicinsk cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Nazu; Lambert-Jensen, Mikkel Mørch; Hansen, Sebastian Lorentz; Hansen, Caroline Pulz; Nadir, Atifa Mohammad; Ernst, Line; Showiki, Omar Isac

    2016-01-01

    AbstractCannabis har, blandt nogle kulturer, været værdsat for sine medicinske egenskaber i årtusinder. Formålet med denne rapport er, at undersøge de helende effekter cannabis har på cancer og multipel sclerose. Dette gør vi, ved at se på moderne forskning indenfor emnet. Endvidere vil vi prøve at forudsige, hvilke fremtidige studier der skal foretages for at opnå implementering af medicinsk cannabis, ved at bruge Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations. VI har valgt at interviewe 3 forskellige per...

  15. Public opinion and medical cannabis policies: examining the role of underlying beliefs and national medical cannabis policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2015-01-01

    Background Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Methods Robust reg...

  16. The role of general parenting and cannabis-specific parenting practices in adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen-Smit, E; Verdurmen, J E E; Engels, R C M E; Vollebergh, W A M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate general and cannabis-specific parenting practices in relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use. Data were derived from the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use among students (N=3209; aged 12-16 years) and one of their parents in 2011. Logistic regression analyses revealed that 1) parental cannabis use was significantly related to more adolescent lifetime and recent cannabis use, and 2) restrictive cannabis-specific parental rules were associated with less adolescent recent cannabis and lifetime use of other illicit drugs, even when controlled for sociodemographic factors, general parenting, adolescent tobacco use, and tobacco-specific parenting. In addition, no significant interaction was observed between parental cannabis use and cannabis-specific rules in their relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use, indicating that cannabis rules are evenly associated with adolescent drug use for families with and without parental cannabis experience. In addition to general parenting practices, restrictive cannabis-specific rules are related to lower adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug rates. Parents who ever used cannabis have children with a higher prevalence of cannabis use. However, their restrictive cannabis-specific rules are equally related to a lower chance of adolescent cannabis use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Presentations to the Emergency Department Following Cannabis use--a Multi-Centre Case Series from Ten European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Alison M; Wood, David M; Galicia, Miguel; Yates, Christopher M; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik; Giraudon, Isabelle; Sedefov, Roumen; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in Europe, and is generally regarded as having low acute toxicity. We present the findings of the first 6 months of data collection from the Euro-DEN project on presentations related to cannabis use to further understand the acute toxicity related to the use of cannabis. Data was extracted on clinical features, treatment and outcome from the Euro-DEN minimum dataset for all cases of acute recreational drug toxicity reported 1st October 2013 to 31st March 2014 for all cannabis-related presentations. Of 2198 presentations reported by 14 of the 16 Euro-DEN centres, 356 (16.2 %) involved cannabis either alone or together with other drugs/alcohol. There were 36 that involved lone use of cannabis (1.6 % of all presentations). Of the 35 non-fatal lone cannabis presentations, the most commonly reported features were neuro-behavioural (agitation/aggression 8 (22.9 %), psychosis 7 (20.0 %), anxiety 7 (20.0 %)) and vomiting 6 (17.1 %). Most patients (25, 71.4 %) received no treatment and 30 (85.7 %) were discharged/self-discharged from the ED. There was one fatality amongst these lone-cannabis cases: an 18-year-old male collapsed with an asystolic cardiac arrest whilst smoking cannabis and suffered hypoxic brain injury related to prolonged cardiac arrest. THC was detected in a urine sample taken at ED arrival; no other drugs were detected. Lone acute cannabis toxicity was typically associated with neuro-behavioural symptoms and vomiting. Although uncommon, severe toxicity including cardiovascular toxicity and death may be under-recognised, and it is important that Emergency Physicians are aware of this.

  18. E-cigarette use, dual use of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes, and frequency of cannabis use among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2018-04-01

    The proliferation of electronic vaping products raises many concerns, including whether these products will lead to risky behaviors among adolescents. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may be used to vaporize cannabis (marijuana). The current study examined associations between e-cigarette use, dual use of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes, and frequency of cannabis use. Data on high school students (grades 9-12) were from the 2014-2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (n=23,429 respondents). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine frequency of cannabis use among those who reported using only e-cigarettes, only tobacco cigarettes, both products, and nonusers. Approximately 15% of respondents reported using cannabis at least once in the past month. Likelihood of using cannabis was significantly higher for e-cigarette only and cigarette- only users. Users of both products had increased odds for a higher frequency of cannabis use. These results indicated a sequential risk gradient in the use of cannabis for dual use, cigarette only, e-cigarette only, and non-use groups, respectively. Youth who reported use of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and both products showed a heightened risk of using cannabis more frequently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A survey of synthetic cannabinoid consumption by current cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erik W; Haughey, Heather M; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Joshi, Amruta S; Hart, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing concern about the increased rates of synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use and their effects, only limited data are available that addresses these issues. This study assessed the extent of SC product use and reported effects among a cohort of adult marijuana and tobacco users. A brief telephone interview was conducted with individuals who had given permission to be contacted for future research while screening for a cannabis/nicotine dependence medication development study (NCT01204723). Respondents (N = 42; 88% participation rate) were primarily young adults, male, racially diverse, and high school graduates. Nearly all currently smoked tobacco and cannabis, with 86% smoking cannabis on 5 or more days per week. Nearly all (91%) were familiar with SC products, half (50%) reported smoking SC products previously, and a substantial minority (24%) reported current use (i.e., past month). Despite a federal ban on 5 common SCs, which went into effect on March 1, 2011, a number of respondents reported continued SC product use. Common reasons reported for use included, but were not limited to, seeking a new "high" similar to that produced by marijuana and avoiding drug use detection via a positive urine screen. The primary side effects were trouble thinking clearly, headache, dry mouth, and anxiety. No significant differences were found between synthetic cannabinoid product users (ever or current) and nonusers by demographics or other characteristics. Among current marijuana and tobacco users, SC product consumption was common and persisted despite a federal ban. The primary reasons for the use of SC-containing products seem to be to evade drug detection and to experience a marijuana-like high.

  20. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    2010-01-01

      The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured...... stored in extracted form at room temperature the degradation rate of acidic THC increased significantly relative to resin material with concentration halve-lives of 35 and 91 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. Once cannabis material is extracted into organic solvents, care should be taken...

  1. Cannabis Smoking in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent legislative successes allowing expanded access to recreational and medicinal cannabis have been associated with its increased use by the public, despite continued debates regarding its safety within the medical and scientific communities. Despite legislative changes, cannabis is most commonly used by smoking, although alternatives to inhalation have also emerged. Moreover, the composition of commercially available cannabis has dramatically changed in recent years. Therefore, developing sound scientific information regarding its impact on lung health is imperative, particularly because published data conducted prior to widespread legalization are conflicting and inconclusive. In this commentary, we delineate major observations of epidemiologic investigations examining cannabis use and the potential associated development of airways disease and lung cancer to highlight gaps in pulmonary knowledge. Additionally, we review major histopathologic alterations related to smoked cannabis and define specific areas in animal models and human clinical translational investigations that could benefit from additional development. Given that cannabis has an ongoing classification as a schedule I medication, federal funding to support investigations of modern cannabis use in terms of medicinal efficacy and safety profile on lung health have been elusive. It is clear, however, that the effects of inhaled cannabis on lung health remain uncertain and given increasing use patterns, are worthy of further investigation. PMID:25996274

  2. Effects of Nicotine Metabolites on Nicotine Withdrawal Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Sagi; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-06-01

    Rodent studies suggest that nicotine metabolites and minor tobacco alkaloids such as nornicotine and cotinine may promote cigarette smoking by enhancing nicotine rewarding and reinforcing effects. However, there is little information on the effects of these minor tobacco alkaloids on nicotine withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to determine whether the minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine and cotinine exhibit nicotine-like behavioral effects in a mouse model of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. Mice were infused with nicotine or saline for 14 days. Experiments were conducted on day 15, 18-24 hours after minipump removal. Ten minutes prior to testing, nicotine-dependent ICR male mice received an acute injection of nicotine (0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg), nornicotine (2.5 and 25 mg/kg), or cotinine (5 and 50 mg/kg) to determine effects on somatic signs, anxiety-like behaviors, and hyperalgesia spontaneous signs of withdrawal. Nicotine and the minor tobacco alkaloid nornicotine, but not cotinine, produced dose-dependent reversal of nicotine withdrawal signs in the mouse. The minor tobacco alkaloid and nicotine metabolite nornicotine at high doses have nicotinic like effects that may contribute to tobacco consumption and dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Reaching out towards cannabis: approach-bias in heavy cannabis users predicts changes in cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousijn, Janna; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Repeated drug exposure can lead to an approach-bias, i.e. the relatively automatically triggered tendencies to approach rather that avoid drug-related stimuli. Our main aim was to study this approach-bias in heavy cannabis users with the newly developed cannabis Approach Avoidance Task

  4. Factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis: una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes Factors associated with the onset of cannabis use: a systematic review of cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Guxens

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis a partir de una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica informatizada utilizando diversas palabras clave y sus combinaciones. Entre los estudios identificados se seleccionaron los estudios originales de diseño longitudinal que utilizaran como variable dependiente el inicio de consumo de cannabis, así como los estudios de revisión, publicados entre enero de 1980 y mayo de 2004. Se evaluó la calidad metodológica de los estudios mediante 2 revisores, de manera independiente y a partir de unos criterios prestablecidos, clasificando los artículos en 3 categorías: alta, intermedia o baja calidad. Se midió el nivel de concordancia de los revisores a partir del coeficiente kappa. Resultados: Se identificaron 32 estudios que cumplían los criterios de selección, de los cuales 13 fueron determinados de alta calidad. Las causas de exclusión fueron el sesgo de selección, por la inclusión de consumidores al inicio de la cohorte estudiada, y la falta de ajuste por los potenciales confusores. Los factores que se relacionaron con una mayor evidencia con el inicio del consumo de cannabis fueron el sexo masculino, el consumo de tabaco y alcohol, tener una relación problemática con los padres y el consumo de cannabis por parte de los amigos. Conclusiones: Los resultados señalan la importancia de diversos factores individuales, familiares y del entorno en el inicio del consumo de cannabis, que deberían considerarse de forma conjunta en el abordaje preventivo entre los adolescentes.Objective: To determine the factors associated with the onset of cannabis use through a systematic review of cohort studies. Methods: An internet-based search was performed using several keywords and their combinations. Original studies with longitudinal design and the onset of cannabis use as dependent variable, as well as review studies

  5. Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kong M.; Arnold, Jonathon C.; McGregor, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales “Cannabis Cautioning” scheme. A further 26 “Known Provenance” samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The “Cannabis Cautioning” samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A = 14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A = 0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A = 1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:23894589

  6. Cannabis use patterns and motives: A comparison of younger, middle-aged, and older medical cannabis dispensary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A; Padula, Claudia B; Sottile, James E; Vandrey, Ryan; Heinz, Adrienne J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2017-09-01

    Medical cannabis is increasingly being used for a variety of health conditions as more states implement legislation permitting medical use of cannabis. Little is known about medical cannabis use patterns and motives among adults across the lifespan. The present study examined data collected at a medical cannabis dispensary in San Francisco, California. Participants included 217 medical cannabis patients who were grouped into age-defined cohorts (younger: 18-30, middle-aged: 31-50, and older: 51-72). The age groups were compared on several measures of cannabis use, motives and medical conditions using one-way ANOVAs, chi-square tests and linear regression analyses. All three age groups had similar frequency of cannabis use over the past month; however, the quantity of cannabis used and rates of problematic cannabis use were higher among younger users relative to middle-aged and older adults. The association between age and problematic cannabis use was moderated by age of regular use initiation such that earlier age of regular cannabis use onset was associated with more problematic use in the younger users, but not among older users. Middle-aged adults were more likely to report using medical cannabis for insomnia, while older adults were more likely to use medical cannabis for chronic medical problems such as cancer, glaucoma and HIV/AIDS. Younger participants reported cannabis use when bored at a greater rate than middle-aged and older adults. Findings suggest that there is an age-related risk for problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users, such that younger users should be monitored for cannabis use patterns that may lead to deleterious consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cannabis Use Patterns and Motives: A Comparison of Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Medical Cannabis Dispensary Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A.; Padula, Claudia B.; Sottile, James E.; Vandrey, Ryan; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Medical cannabis is increasingly being used for a variety of health conditions as more states implement legislation permitting medical use of cannabis. Little is known about medical cannabis use patterns and motives among adults across the lifespan. Methods The present study examined data collected at a medical cannabis dispensary in San Francisco, California. Participants included 217 medical cannabis patients who were grouped into age-defined cohorts (younger: 18–30, middle-aged: 31–50, and older: 51–72). The age groups were compared on several measures of cannabis use, motives and medical conditions using one-way ANOVAs, chi-square tests and linear regression analyses. Results All three age groups had similar frequency of cannabis use over the past month; however, the quantity of cannabis used and rates of problematic cannabis use were higher among younger users relative to middle-aged and older adults. The association between age and problematic cannabis use was moderated by age of regular use initiation such that earlier age of regular cannabis use onset was associated with more problematic use in the younger users, but not among older users. Middle-aged adults were more likely to report using medical cannabis for insomnia, while older adults were more likely to use medical cannabis for chronic medical problems such as cancer, glaucoma and HIV/AIDS. Younger participants reported cannabis use when bored at a greater rate than middle-aged and older adults. Conclusions Findings suggest that there is an age-related risk for problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users, such that younger users should be monitored for cannabis use patterns that may lead to deleterious consequences. PMID:28340421

  8. Antecedents and consequences of cannabis use among racially diverse cannabis users: an analysis from Ecological Momentary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Ecker, Anthony H; Richter, Ashley

    2015-02-01

    Cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit substance and use rates are rising. Notably, the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) nearly equals that of other illicit substance use disorders combined. Thus, the present study aimed to identify cognitive, affective, and situational predictors and consequences of ad-lib cannabis use in a racially diverse sample. The sample consisted of 93 current cannabis users (34.4% female; 57.1% non-Hispanic Caucasian), 87.1% of whom evinced a current CUD. Ecological Momentary Assessment was used to collect frequent ratings of cannabis withdrawal, craving, affect, cannabis use motives, and peer cannabis use over two weeks. Mixed effects linear models examined within- and between-day correlates and consequences of cannabis use. Withdrawal and craving were higher on cannabis use days than non-use days. Withdrawal, craving, and positive and negative affect were higher immediately prior to cannabis use compared to non-use episodes. Withdrawal and craving were higher among those who subsequently used cannabis than those who did not. Cannabis use resulted in less subsequent withdrawal, craving, and negative affect. Enhancement and coping motives were the most common reasons cited for use. Withdrawal and negative affect were related to using cannabis for coping motives and social motives. Participants were most likely to use cannabis if others were using, and withdrawal and craving were greater in social situations when others were using. Data support the contention that cannabis withdrawal and craving and affect and peer use play important roles in the maintenance of cannabis use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychiatric effects of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunving, K

    1985-09-01

    That cannabis use may provoke mental disturbances is well known to Scandinavian psychiatrists today. A review of the psychiatric aspects of cannabis use is given, and the clinical signs of 70 cases of cannabis psychoses collected in Sweden are described. The bluntness and "amotivation" following chronic cannabis use are discussed. Anxiety reactions, flashbacks, dysphoric reactions and an abstinence syndrome are all sequels of cannabis use. Three risk groups begin to emerge: a) Young teenage cannabis users who lose some of their capacity to learn complex functions and who flee from reality to a world of dreams. With its sedative effect, cannabis could modify such emotions as anger and anxiety and slow down the liberation process of adolescence. b) Heavy daily users, often persons who cannot cope with depression or their life circumstances. c) Psychiatric patients whose resistance to relapses into psychotic reactions might be diminished according to the psychotropic effects of cannabis.

  10. A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a brief cannabis universal prevention program among adolescents in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Maureen A; Resko, Stella; Barry, Kristen L; Chermack, Stephen T; Zucker, Robert A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Booth, Brenda M; Blow, Frederic C

    2014-05-01

    To examine the efficacy of a brief intervention delivered by a therapist (TBI) or a computer (CBI) in preventing cannabis use among adolescents in urban primary care clinics. A randomized controlled trial comparing: CBI and TBI versus control. Urban primary care clinics in the United States. Research staff recruited 714 adolescents (aged 12-18 years) who reported no life-time cannabis use on a screening survey for this study, which included a baseline survey, randomization (stratified by gender and grade) to conditions (control; CBI; TBI) and 3-, 6- and 12-month assessments. Using an intent-to-treat approach, primary outcomes were cannabis use (any, frequency); secondary outcomes included frequency of other drug use, severity of alcohol use and frequency of delinquency (among 85% completing follow-ups). Compared with controls, CBI participants had significantly lower rates of any cannabis use over 12 months (24.16%, 16.82%, respectively, P cannabis use at 3 and 6 months (P cannabis use or frequency, but had significantly less other drug use at 3 months (P prevent and reduce cannabis use. Both computer and therapist delivered brief interventions appeared to have small effects in reducing other risk behaviors, but these dissipated over time. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Adverse mental health effects of cannabis use in two indigenous communities in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia: exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; d'Abbs, Peter; Cairney, Sheree; Gray, Dennis; Maruff, Paul; Parker, Robert; O'Reilly, Bridie

    2005-07-01

    We investigated adverse mental health effects and their associations with levels of cannabis use among indigenous Australian cannabis users in remote communities in the Northern Territory. Local indigenous health workers and key informants assisted in developing 28 criteria describing mental health symptoms. Five symptom clusters were identified using cluster analysis of data compiled from interviews with 103 cannabis users. Agreement was assessed (method comparison approach, kappa-statistic) with a clinician's classification of the 28 criteria into five groups labelled: 'anxiety', 'dependency', 'mood', 'vegetative' and 'psychosis'. Participants were described as showing 'anxiety', 'dependency' etc., if they reported half or more of the symptoms comprising the cluster. Associations between participants' self-reported cannabis use and each symptom cluster were assessed (logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, other substance use). Agreement between two classifications of 28 criteria into five groups was 'moderate' (64%, kappa = 0.55, p < 0.001). When five clusters were combined into three, 'anxiety-dependency', 'mood-vegetative' and 'psychosis', agreement rose to 71% (kappa = 0.56, p < 0.001). 'Anxiety-dependency' was positively associated with number of 'cones' usually smoked per week and this remained significant when adjusted for confounders (p = 0.020) and tended to remain significant in those who had never sniffed petrol (p = 0.052). Users of more than five cones per week were more likely to display 'anxiety-dependency' symptoms than those who used one cone per week (OR = 15.8, 1.8-141.2, p = 0.013). A crude association between the 'mood-vegetative' symptom cluster and number of cones usually smoked per week (p = 0.014) also remained statistically significant when adjusted for confounders (p = 0.012) but was modified by interactions with petrol sniffing (p = 0.116) and alcohol use (p = 0.276). There were no associations between cannabis use and 'psychosis

  12. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Swift

    Full Text Available Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ(9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD. Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales "Cannabis Cautioning" scheme. A further 26 "Known Provenance" samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG, and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC, cannabinol (CBN and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V. The "Cannabis Cautioning" samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A = 14.88% and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A = 0.14%. A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A = 1.18% and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%. "Known Provenance" samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed.

  14. Cannabis and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugy, M; Avois, L; Saudan, C; Robinson, N; Giroud, C; Mangin, P; Dvorak, J

    2006-07-01

    Cannabis is on the list of prohibited substances in the practice of sport, although its performance enhancing effect has not yet been proved. Its popularity among the younger generations as a social drug puts cannabis at the top of the list of compounds detected by the anti-doping laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency worldwide. The management of the results of urine analysis is quite difficult for the medical and disciplinary committees not only because of the social use of the substance, but also because of the interpretation of the analytical data from urine samples. This paper gives an overview of what is presently known about cannabis in relation with the practice of sport. Review of literature on the cannabis and exercise, its effect in the body, and the problems with interpretation of results when it is detected in urine. The paper outlines the major effects of cannabis in the context of its social use and its use for sport activities. The difficulties in the interpretation of urine sample analysis results because of the protracted excretion time of the main metabolite, long after the intake, are described. There is an urgent need for sport authorities to take measures necessary to avoid players misusing cannabis.

  15. Cognitive enhancement therapy improves fronto-limbic regulation of emotion in alcohol and/or cannabis misusing schizophrenia: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ann Wojtalik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia who misuse substances are burdened with impairments in emotion regulation. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET may address these problems by enhancing prefrontal brain function. A small sample of outpatients with schizophrenia and alcohol and/or cannabis substance use problems participating in an 18-month randomized trial of CET (n = 10 or usual care (n = 4 completed post-treatment functional neuroimaging using an emotion regulation task. General linear models explored CET effects on brain activity in emotional neurocircuitry. Individuals treated with CET had significantly greater activation in broad regions of the prefrontal cortex, limbic and striatal systems implicated in emotion regulation compared to usual care. Differential activation favoring CET in prefrontal regions and the insula mediated behavioral improvements in emotional processing. Our data lend preliminary support of CET effects on neuroplasticity in fronto-limbic and striatal circuitries which mediate emotion regulation in people with schizophrenia and comorbid substance misuse problems.

  16. Cannabis Users' Recommended Warnings for Packages of Legally Sold Cannabis: An Australia-Centered Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Johnson, Caitlin E; Rooke, Sally E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although cannabis use creates health risks, governments have recently been legalizing either medical use or leisure use. These governments can mandate health warnings on cannabis packages. Prior research examined recommended warnings of cannabis experts. The aim of this study was to obtain suggested cannabis health and safety warnings from cannabis users. Methods: We used a media release, Facebook postings, and announcements in university classes to seek individuals who had used cannabis at least once according to their own report. Using online data collection software that keeps participants anonymous, we asked the individuals to suggest a warning that governments could mandate on cannabis packages. Results: In total, 288 users suggested warnings. Categorizing the warnings into content categories led to six warning topics: (1) risk of harm to mental health and psychological functioning; (2) risk of operating machinery while under the influence; (3) short-term physical side effects; (4) responsible use; (5) long-term negative physical effects; and (6) dependence, addiction, or abuse. The user-suggested warnings overlapped with six expert-recommended warnings identified in prior survey research and included two content areas that did not feature in expert-recommended warnings: short-term physical side effects and the importance of responsible use. Conclusions: The results are consistent with prior findings that some youths perceive cannabis use as potentially harmful. The current findings provide possible new content for warnings on cannabis packages.

  17. Cannabis and Pain: A Clinical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Kevin P.; Palastro, Matthew D.; Johnson, Brian; Ditre, Joseph W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cannabis has been used for medical purposes across the world for centuries. As states and countries implement medical and recreational cannabis policies, increasing numbers of people are using cannabis pharmacotherapy for pain. There is a theoretical rationale for cannabis' efficacy for pain management, although the subjective pain relief from cannabis may not match objective measurements of analgesia. As more patients turn to cannabis for pain relief, there is a need f...

  18. Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Solowij

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas utilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno.OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to

  19. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 12(2), 2013 Copyright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: alcohol, khat, tobacco, cannabis, students, Ethiopia. Corresponding author: Worku Abebe, Ph.D., Department of Oral Biology/Pharmacology, College of Dental Medicine,. Georgia .... lung diseases, including lung cancer, as a.

  20. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-08-12

    Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms "cannabis" and "marijuana." Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated "17+" years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated "high maturity" (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational (facts, strain classification), or recreational (games), likely

  1. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  2. Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, K; Kawachi, I; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ≤ 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers.

  3. Nicotine Lozenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine lozenges are used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine lozenges are in a class of medications called smoking cessation aids. They work by providing nicotine to your body to decrease the withdrawal symptoms ...

  4. Screening and managing cannabis use: comparing GP's and nurses' knowledge, beliefs, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Melissa M; Gates, Peter; Dillon, Paul; Kavanagh, David J; Manocha, Ramesh; Copeland, Jan

    2012-07-24

    General practitioners (GPs) and nurses are ideally placed to address the significant unmet demand for the treatment of cannabis-related problems given the numbers of people who regularly seek their care. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between GPs and nurses' perceived knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward cannabis use and its screening and management. This study involved 161 nurses and 503 GPs who completed a survey distributed via conference satchels to delegates of Healthed seminars focused on topics relevant to women and children's health. Differences between GPs and nurses were analyzed using χ(2)- tests and two-sample t-tests, while logistic regression examined predictors of service provision. GPs were more likely than nurses to have engaged in cannabis-related service provision, but also more frequently reported barriers related to time, interest, and having more important issues to address. Nurses reported less knowledge, skills, and role legitimacy. Perceived screening skills predicted screening and referral to alcohol and other drug (AOD) services, while knowing a regular user increased the likelihood of referrals only. Approaches to increase cannabis-related screening and intervention may be improved by involving nurses, and by leveraging the relationship between nurses and doctors, in primary care.

  5. Personality, lifestyles, alcohol and drug consumption in a sample of British medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, C H; Kamali, F

    1995-05-01

    Personality characteristics and lifestyle variables were assessed in two cohorts of second-year medical students at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK as part of a psychopharmacology 'teach-in' in 1993 and 1994. The pooled sample included 186 students: 77 men, 109 women, mean age 20.4 +/- 1.8 years. Measures included the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and a questionnaire concerning consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs, and physical exercise. The results were compared, where possible, with a similar survey in Newcastle upon Tyne medical students in 1983 and 1984. Personality variables, prevalence of cigarette smoking, levels of caffeine consumption and participation in sports had not changed significantly over the decade. There appeared to be a modest overall increase in alcohol consumption and in the 1993 and 1994 cohorts of students, 25.5% of those who drank alcohol exceeded recommended low risk levels (comparable data not available for 1983 and 1984). Reported use of cannabis and other illicit drugs had more than doubled, and in the present survey 49.2% of students recorded using cannabis and 22% had tried other illicit drugs. Corresponding figures for 1983 and 1984 were 20.9% for cannabis and 3.3% for other illicit drugs. Anxiety levels were not measured in 1983 and 1984 but in the present survey 39.3% of the students had anxiety ratings within the clinically significant range. The high levels of alcohol consumption and illicit drug use, and the high anxiety ratings, in this sample of medical students are a cause for concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  7. Do Clinicians Ask Pregnant Women about Exposures to Tobacco and Cannabis Smoking, Second-Hand-Smoke and E-Cigarettes? An Australian National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian S; Zeev, Yael Bar; Tywman, Laura; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Chiu, Simon; Clarke, Marilyn; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-12-16

    Clinicians often ask pregnant women about tobacco smoking, but their practices of asking about other smoking and nicotine exposures are unknown. This study analysed how often clinicians ask pregnant women about their use of e-cigarettes, cannabis, chewing tobacco, and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken. A random sample of 500 General Practitioner (GP) members were invited from the National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NFATSIH) to complete an on-line survey, and 5571 GP and Obstetrician (OBS) members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) were sent a paper survey by mail. Questions on frequency of asking about the exposures used Likert Scales, later dichotomized to "often-always" and "never-sometimes". Logistic regressions estimated associations between clinician type and asking about cannabis, e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and SHS. An adjusted model reduced potential confounders of location, guidelines, gender and population. n = 378 GPs and OBS participated (6.2% response). In total, 13-14% asked "often-always" about e-cigarettes; 58% cannabis; 38% cannabis with tobacco; 27% SHS, and 10% chewing tobacco-compared to 95% of the sample asking about cigarette smoking. After adjustment, the odds of RANZCOG GPs (OR 0.34) and OBS (OR 0.63) asking about cannabis were lower compared to NFATSIH GPs. Clinician type was non-significant for asking about e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco and SHS. Surveyed Australian GPs and obstetricians asked less frequently about e-cigarettes, chewing, SHS exposure, and cannabis, potentially missing important exposures for mother and child.

  8. Medicinsk cannabis : En litteraturstudie om användningen av medicinsk cannabis inom cancervården

    OpenAIRE

    Nygård, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om användningen av medicinsk cannabis inom cancervården. Syftet med examensarbetet var att undersöka vilken roll cannabis kan ha i cancervården. Frågeställningarna var: Hur upplever patienten användning av medicinsk cannabis? Vilken hjälp kan patienten väntas få av medicinsk cannabis? vilka attityder har vårdpersonal mot medicinsk cannabis? Som utgångsteorier i denna studie användes Ruland och Moors teori om ett fridfullt slut på livet samt Erikssons teori om ...

  9. Approach-bias predicts development of cannabis problem severity in heavy cannabis users: results from a prospective FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Cousijn

    Full Text Available A potentially powerful predictor for the course of drug (abuse is the approach-bias, that is, the pre-reflective tendency to approach rather than avoid drug-related stimuli. Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies. By elucidating the predictive power of neural approach-bias activations for future cannabis use and problem severity, we aimed at identifying new intervention targets. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, neural approach-bias activations were measured with a Stimulus Response Compatibility task (SRC and compared between 33 heavy cannabis users and 36 matched controls. In addition, associations were examined between approach-bias activations and cannabis use and problem severity at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Approach-bias activations did not differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. However, within the group of heavy cannabis users, a positive relation was observed between total lifetime cannabis use and approach-bias activations in various fronto-limbic areas. Moreover, approach-bias activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC independently predicted cannabis problem severity after six months over and beyond session-induced subjective measures of craving. Higher DLPFC/ACC activity during cannabis approach trials, but lower activity during cannabis avoidance trials were associated with decreases in cannabis problem severity. These findings suggest that cannabis users with deficient control over cannabis action tendencies are more likely to develop cannabis related problems. Moreover, the balance between cannabis approach and avoidance responses in the DLPFC and ACC may help identify individuals at-risk for cannabis use disorders and may be new targets for prevention and treatment.

  10. Approach-bias predicts development of cannabis problem severity in heavy cannabis users: results from a prospective FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousijn, Janna; Goudriaan, Anna E; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-01-01

    A potentially powerful predictor for the course of drug (ab)use is the approach-bias, that is, the pre-reflective tendency to approach rather than avoid drug-related stimuli. Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies. By elucidating the predictive power of neural approach-bias activations for future cannabis use and problem severity, we aimed at identifying new intervention targets. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), neural approach-bias activations were measured with a Stimulus Response Compatibility task (SRC) and compared between 33 heavy cannabis users and 36 matched controls. In addition, associations were examined between approach-bias activations and cannabis use and problem severity at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Approach-bias activations did not differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. However, within the group of heavy cannabis users, a positive relation was observed between total lifetime cannabis use and approach-bias activations in various fronto-limbic areas. Moreover, approach-bias activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) independently predicted cannabis problem severity after six months over and beyond session-induced subjective measures of craving. Higher DLPFC/ACC activity during cannabis approach trials, but lower activity during cannabis avoidance trials were associated with decreases in cannabis problem severity. These findings suggest that cannabis users with deficient control over cannabis action tendencies are more likely to develop cannabis related problems. Moreover, the balance between cannabis approach and avoidance responses in the DLPFC and ACC may help identify individuals at-risk for cannabis use disorders and may be new targets for prevention and treatment.

  11. Substance use and regional gray matter volume in individuals at high risk of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, James; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Barker, Gareth J; McGuire, Philip K; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with an at risk mental state (ARMS) are at greatly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. Risk of transition to psychosis is associated with regionally reduced cortical gray matter volume. There has been considerable interest in the interaction between psychosis risk and substance use. In this study we investigate the relationship between alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use with gray matter volume in ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers. Twenty seven ARMS subjects and 27...

  12. Cannabis smoke condensate III: the cannabinoid content of vaporised Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomahacova, B; Van der Kooy, F; Verpoorte, R

    2009-11-01

    Cannabis sativa is a well-known recreational drug and, as such, a controlled substance of which possession and use are illegal in most countries of the world. Due to the legal constraints on the possession and use of C. sativa, relatively little research on the medicinal qualities of this plant has been conducted. Interest in the medicinal uses of this plant has, however, increased in the last decades. The methods of administration for medicinal purposes are mainly through oral ingestion, smoking, and nowadays also inhalation through vaporization. During this study the commercially available Volcano vaporizing device was compared with cannabis cigarette smoke. The cannabis smoke and vapor (obtained at different temperatures) were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, different quantities of cannabis material were also tested with the vaporizer. The cannabinoids:by-products ratio in the vapor obtained at 200 degrees C and 230 degrees C was significantly higher than in the cigarette smoke. The worst ratio of cannabinoids:by-products was obtained from the vaporized cannabis sample at 170 degrees C.

  13. CANNABIS MEDICINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estupefacientes han estado presentes en la historia de la medicina desde la antigüedad. La materia médica china (Pen-ts’ao-Ching atribuida al emperador rojo Shen-nung, incluye a la Cannabis indica para reducir el dolor del reumatismo y por sus beneficios en desórdenes digestivos. El láudano (tintura alcohólica de opio, la esponja anestésica (mandrágora con opio, o la teriaca (polifármaco que contenía opio fueron pilar de la lucha contra el dolor y otros males. El opio proviene del jugo de la corteza verde de la adormidera –variedad de amapola- o Papaver somniferum y ha sido reemplazado como potente analgésico de acción central por su alcaloide morfina o por análogos como la meperidina (1. Desde sus orígenes, el ser humano ha buscado alivio en diversas plantas medicinales, la analgesia, la sedación pero también la euforia. El efecto pasajero y la taquifilaxia generada por el uso continuo impulsan un aumento en la frecuencia y en la cantidad de las dosis, perdiéndose sus beneficios y aumentando su toxicidad. En estos casos, disminuye el número y la sensibilidad de los diferentes receptores, fenómeno conocido como down-regulation. Al ser adictivos, el manejo de estos narcóticos debe ser estrictamente médico y fuertemente regulado, cosa de la que se han librado el alcohol y el tabaco. La prohibición del licor solo llevó al enriquecimiento de los contrabandistas. Hay alucinógenos menos villanos como los obtenidos de la Cannabis sativa, aunque no son demasiado benignos.

  14. Nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltenstein, Matthew W; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco addiction is a relapsing disorder that constitutes a substantial worldwide health problem, with evidence suggesting that nicotine and nicotine-associated stimuli play divergent roles in maintaining smoking behavior in men and women. While animal models of tobacco addiction that utilize nicotine self-administration have become more widely established, systematic examination of the multiple factors that instigate relapse to nicotine-seeking have been limited. Here, we examined nicotine self-administration and subsequent nicotine-seeking in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats using an animal model of self-administration and relapse. Rats lever pressed for nicotine (0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg/infusion, IV) during 15 daily 2-h sessions, followed by extinction of lever responding. Once responding was extinguished, we examined the ability of previously nicotine-paired cues (tone+light), the anxiogenic drug yohimbine (2.5mg/kg, IP), a priming injection of nicotine (0.3mg/kg, SC), or combinations of drug+cues to reinstate nicotine-seeking. Both males and females readily acquired nicotine self-administration and displayed comparable levels of responding and intake at both nicotine doses. Following extinction, exposure to the previously nicotine-paired cues or yohimbine, but not the nicotine-prime alone, reinstated nicotine-seeking in males and females. Moreover, when combined with nicotine-paired cues, both yohimbine and nicotine enhanced reinstatement. No significant sex differences or estrous cycle dependent changes were noted across reinstatement tests. These results demonstrate the ability to reinstate nicotine-seeking with multiple modalities and that exposure to nicotine-associated cues during periods of a stressful state or nicotine can increase nicotine-seeking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pericyazine in the treatment of cannabis dependence in general practice: a naturalistic pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley KC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten C Morley,1 Paul S Haber,1,2 Madeleine L Morgan,3 Fares Samara3,41Discipline of Addiction Medicine, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Drug Health Services, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 3Drug and Alcohol Services, North Coast Area Health Service, Kempsey and Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia; 4Durri Aboriginal Medical Service, Kempsey, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit drugs worldwide. However, while the rates of cannabis dependence and treatment increase, there remains no medications approved for this use. Due to its sedative effects and low abuse liability, the typical antipsychotic pericyazine has been utilized in some parts of Australia for the treatment of cannabis dependence. We aimed to provide documentation of preliminary outcomes and acceptability of pericyazine treatment in a small sample. A naturalistic case series study was conducted in which 21 patients were enrolled for a 4-week course of pericyazine (up to 8 × 2.5 mg tablets daily and weekly medical review. Levels of cannabis use were reported and side effects with electrocardiography and blood tests were monitored. Measures of dependence severity, depression, anxiety, and insomnia were taken at baseline and follow-up utilizing validated psychometric tools. Significant reductions in cannabis use, depression, anxiety, and insomnia severity occurred across time. Pericyazine appeared to be well tolerated and easily administered in the community clinics. The results provide some preliminary evidence that low-dose short-term pericyazine may be an acceptable mode of treatment in this population. Given the open-label nature of the design, we cannot conclude that pharmacotherapy was uniquely responsible for the treatment effect. Nonetheless, low-dose pericyazine may be a potentially effective approach to the treatment of cannabis dependence, and further evaluation via a randomized placebo

  16. Cannabis Use and Drug Related Problems Among Adolescents in 27 European Countries: The Utility of the Prevention Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romelsjö Anders

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – To study the prevalence of cannabis use and drug-related problems among European adolescents and the utility of the prevention paradox. METHODS – Survey data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD in 2007 in the 27 countries with information about drug use and drug-related problems was used. We analysed the proportion of all drug-related problems that occurred in a high risk group and among others who had used cannabis in the previous 12 months. The cut-off for the high risk group was chosen to include 10-15 % of the most frequent cannabis users. RESULTS – The high risk groups accounted for a substantial, but a minority, of drug-related problems among boys as well as girls. A minority of those who had used cannabis reported any drug-related problem. The proportion of adolescents with drug-related problems and the average number of problems increased with frequency of cannabis use. CONCLUSIONS – We find support for policy measures of more general character, supported by the prevention paradox. However, this does not exclude a policy supporting frequent drug users if they can be identified

  17. Cannabis og psykose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of the association between use of cannabis and later psychosis or schizophrenia were reviewed. Studies included were studies in the general population and in conscripts, using information from interviews about use of cannabis and register-based follow-up in psychiatric case......-registers or in personal interviews. There was a consistent finding that use of cannabis was associated with an increased risk of later psychosis with an odds ratio of approximately 2, when adjusted for predisposition to mental illness and socio-demographic risk factors....

  18. Evaluation of nicotine in tobacco-free-nicotine commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinghausen, Garrett; Lee, Jauh T; Weatherly, Choyce A; Lopez, Diego A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a variety of new tobacco-free-nicotine, TFN, products have been commercialized as e-liquids. Tobacco-derived nicotine contains predominantly (S)-(-)-nicotine, whereas TFN products may not. The TFN products are said to be cleaner, purer substances, devoid of toxic components that come from the tobacco extraction process. A variety of commercial tobacco and TFN products were analyzed to identify the presence and composition of each nicotine enantiomer. A rapid and effective enantiomeric separation of nicotine has been developed using a modified macrocyclic glycopeptide bonded to superficially porous particles. The enantiomeric assay can be completed in nicotine, which is present in much greater quantities in commercial TFN products compared to commercial tobacco-derived products. Such studies are required by the FDA for new enantiomeric pharmacological products. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effect of reclassification of cannabis on hospital admissions for cannabis psychosis: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Ian; Lloyd, Charlie; Hewitt, Catherine; Godfrey, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The UK Misuse of Drugs Act (1971) divided controlled drugs into three groups A, B and C, with descending criminal sanctions attached to each class. Cannabis was originally assigned by the Act to Group B but in 2004, it was transferred to the lowest risk group, Group C. Then in 2009, on the basis of increasing concerns about a link between high strength cannabis and schizophrenia, it was moved back to Group B. The aim of this study is to test the assumption that changes in classification lead to changes in levels of psychosis. In particular, it explores whether the two changes in 2004 and 2009 were associated with changes in the numbers of people admitted for cannabis psychosis. An interrupted time series was used to investigate the relationship between the two changes in cannabis classification and their impact on hospital admissions for cannabis psychosis. Reflecting the two policy changes, two interruptions to the time series were made. Hospital Episode Statistics admissions data was analysed covering the period 1999 through to 2010. There was a significantly increasing trend in cannabis psychosis admissions from 1999 to 2004. However, following the reclassification of cannabis from B to C in 2004, there was a significant change in the trend such that cannabis psychosis admissions declined to 2009. Following the second reclassification of cannabis back to class B in 2009, there was a significant change to increasing admissions. This study shows a statistical association between the reclassification of cannabis and hospital admissions for cannabis psychosis in the opposite direction to that predicted by the presumed relationship between the two. However, the reasons for this statistical association are unclear. It is unlikely to be due to changes in cannabis use over this period. Other possible explanations include changes in policing and systemic changes in mental health services unrelated to classification decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Aerobic exercise training reduces cannabis craving and use in non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej S Buchowski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise.To examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions.Participants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using heart rate (HR monitoring (60-70% HR reserve over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical oversight.Sedentary or minimally active non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 12, age 25±3 years, 8 females met criteria for primary cannabis dependence using the Substance Abuse module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID.Self-reported drug use was assessed for 1-week before, during, and 2-weeks after the study. Participants viewed visual cannabis cues before and after exercise in conjunction with assessment of subjective cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF.Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5.9 joints per day (SD = 3.1, range 1.8-10.9. Average cannabis use levels within the exercise (2.8 joints, SD = 1.6, range 0.9-5.4 and follow-up (4.1 joints, SD = 2.5, range 1.1-9.5 periods were lower than during the run-in period (both P<.005. Average MCQ factor scores for the pre- and post-exercise craving assessments were reduced for compulsivity (P  = .006, emotionality (P  = .002, expectancy (P  = .002, and purposefulness (P  = .002.The findings of this pilot study warrant larger, adequately powered controlled trials to test the efficacy of prescribed moderate aerobic exercise as a component of cannabis dependence treatment. The neurobiological mechanisms that account for these beneficial effects on cannabis use may lead to understanding of the physical and

  1. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00 in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  2. Cannabis use and first manic episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, Nathalie; Zullino, Daniele; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2014-08-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug among patients with bipolar disorder. Available data has shown that the risk of psychotic disorders increases with the frequency and intensity of cannabis abuse. The present purpose was to review relevant studies to investigate whether cannabis use can be linked to the onset of mania in bipolar disorder. Articles published between 1972 and December 2013 were searched on Medline and PsychInfo using the following keywords: first manic episode, or onset mania, or bipolar disorder and cannabis. Relevant papers cited in the references of selected articles were further considered for inclusion into the review. Lifetime use of cannabis among bipolar patients appears to be around 70% and approximately 30% of patients with a bipolar disorder present a comorbidity of cannabis abuse or dependence. Cannabis use is associated with younger age at onset of first mania and with more frequent depressive or manic episodes, although the evidence is somewhat inconsistent. Likewise cannabis consumption is related to poorer outcome and an increased risk of rapid cycling or mixed episodes. In contrast, neuro-cognitive functioning seems to be positively affected in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. While cannabis use often precedes first manic episodes, the causal direction remains to be determined. Variations in definition of cannabis use/dependence. Lack of controlled studies limiting definite conclusions about a putative causal relationship between cannabis and onset of mania. Further investigations are needed to clarify the relationships between cannabis use and first manic episode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. Methods The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms “cannabis” and “marijuana.” Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Results Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated “17+” years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated “high maturity” (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Conclusions Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational

  4. [Motivations for cannabis cessation, coping and adaptation strategies, and perceived benefits: impact on cannabis use relapse and abstinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauchard, E; Septfons, A; Chabrol, H

    2013-12-01

    While cannabis has been recognized as the most illicit drug use in the world, few studies focusing on cannabis self-change and cannabis relapse or abstinence in adult non-treatment samples have been conducted. The first aim of this study was to understand cannabis self-change motives, coping and adaptation strategies and evaluating perceived benefits from cannabis cessation. The second aim was to compare, in a convenience sample of non-treatment-seeking adult cannabis smokers, motivations to quit smoking cannabis, coping and adaptive strategies, as well as perceived benefit from cessation between cannabis abstinent and participants who relapse. Sixty-three participants (31 men and 32 women) who attempted to quit cannabis in a non-controlled environment without medical help and were enrolled. They completed the Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ), a self-report questionnaire collecting information in three areas: sociodemographic characteristics, cannabis use history (including any associated problems), and participants' characteristics regarding their "most difficult" (self-defined) attempt to quit in a non-controlled environment. For this study the index quit attempt was characterized in two areas: reasons for quitting marijuana, coping strategies used while quitting. Two additional questionnaires were added to the MJQQ; the Brief Cope, and a questionnaire assessing perceived benefit of the cannabis quit attempt. The participants were on average 28.5 years old (±5.1), and started using cannabis on average at 15.8 years (±2.8). Seventy-four percent (n=45) of the participants met the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence before cannabis cessation. T-tests were used to compare abstainers and participants who relapsed after the quit attempt. Realizing that cannabis induces disabling cognitive disorders such as affection of memory, concentration and attention were reported by 71% of the participant as a motivation for quitting cannabis use. Then, being more

  5. [Consumption of cannabis in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, O; Obradovic, I; Har, A

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the consumption of cannabis among adolescents has dramatically increased. Today, adolescent cannabis use is a major public health problem. Two forms of cannabis are commonly smoked: herb (marijuana) and resin. These forms have a high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active molecule of cannabis. Recent research has helped understand how the cannabinoid system works. This system combines specific receptors and specific molecules: the endocannabinoids. The effects of cannabis use are now well documented. Some adolescents report subjective positive effects. They use it not only on a recreational basis, but also to deal with their emotions. Over the long term, cannabis increases the risk of depression and schizophrenia for those adolescents who are at risk. Use, misuse, and dependence are frequently associated with heavy psychopathologic problems such as vulnerability and depression. Many cannabis dependence psychotherapies have shown their efficacy and efficiency. Motivational interviews, cognitive behavioral therapy, multidimensional family therapy (MDFT), and residential treatment have proved highly effective. MDFT seems very effective, especially in cases of heavy use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith K Booth

    Full Text Available Cannabis (Cannabis sativa plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E-β-ocimene, (--limonene, (+-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  7. Cannabis induced asystole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Marijuana (Cannabis) and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... progression of MS: Effect of oral dronabinol (a synthetic Cannabis/marijuana derivative) on progression in progressive MS: Previous ... the evidence regarding marijuana and its derivatives: Oral cannabis extract and synthetic THC (tetrahydrocannabinol — a major active component of cannabis) ...

  9. Effect of urinary pH and nicotine excretion rate on plasma nicotine during cigarette smoking and chewing nicotine gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, C.; Russell, M. A. H.

    1978-01-01

    1 Plasma nicotine levels produced by chewing nicotine gum were compared with those obtained by cigarette smoking under conditions of controlled urinary pH. 2 Although absorption was slower, plasma levels comparable to cigarette smoking were built up on 4 mg (but not 2 mg) nicotine gum. 3 Urinary excretion of nicotine was influenced markedly by pH and the rate of urine flow. 4 Plasma nicotine was higher under alkaline compared to acidic conditions (P < 0.001) but the rate of urinary nicotine excretion appeared to have little effect on the plasma level.

  10. Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the

  11. Neurobiologia da Cannabis: do sistema endocanabinoide aos transtornos por uso de Cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis G. Pinho Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diante das lacunas na efetividade das terapêuticas para transtornos por uso de Cannabis, a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, este trabalho propõe-se a rever os conhecimentos sobre o substrato neuroanatômico, biomolecular e celular do sistema endocanabinoide, descrever os mecanismos de neuroplasticidade dependente dos canabinoides e relacioná-los com a neurobiologia dos transtornos por uso de Cannabis (abuso e dependência. MÉTODOS: Recorreu-se às bases de dados Medline, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge; as palavras-chave pesquisadas foram "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" e "tetrahydrocannabinol". Foram incluídos 80 trabalhos nesta revisão. DISCUSSÃO: A distribuição neuroanatômica, celular e biomolecular do sistema endocanabinoide adequa-se perfeitamente às suas funções de neuromodulação (via neuroplasticidade e metaplasticidade, nomeadamente em vias relacionadas aos transtornos por uso de substâncias. Os canabinoides exógenos perturbam essas funções. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema endocanabinoide contribui para a definição de setpoints em diversas vias neuronais, incluindo vias cruciais na instalação de transtornos por uso de substâncias; com o uso de Cannabis, esses setpoints tornar-se-ão mais permissivos, facilitando os transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Os avanços no entendimento da neurobiologia da Cannabis abrem uma janela de oportunidades para novas estratégias terapêuticas nos transtornos por uso de Cannabis.

  12. Problematic Use of Prescription Opioids and Medicinal Cannabis Among Patients Suffering from Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Daniel; Goor-Aryeh, Itay; Bril, Silviu; Delayahu, Yael; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2017-02-01

    To assess prevalence rates and correlates of problematic use of prescription opioids and medicinal cannabis (MC) among patients receiving treatment for chronic pain. Cross-sectional study. Two leading pain clinics in Israel. Our sample included 888 individuals receiving treatment for chronic pain, of whom 99.4% received treatment with prescription opioids or MC. Problematic use of prescription opioids and MC was assessed using DSM-IV criteria, Portenoy’s Criteria (PC), and the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) questionnaire. Additional sociodemographic and clinical correlates of problematic use were also assessed. Among individuals treated with prescription opioids, prevalence of problematic use of opioids according to DSM-IV, PC, and COMM was 52.6%, 17.1%, and 28.7%, respectively. Among those treated with MC, prevalence of problematic use of cannabis according to DSM-IV and PC was 21.2% and 10.6%, respectively. Problematic use of opioids and cannabis was more common in individuals using medications for longer periods of time, reporting higher levels of depression and anxiety, and using alcohol or drugs. Problematic use of opioids was associated with higher self-reported levels of pain, and problematic use of cannabis was more common among individuals using larger amounts of MC. Problematic use of opioids is common among chronic pain patients treated with prescription opioids and is more prevalent than problematic use of cannabis among those receiving MC. Pain patients should be screened for risk factors for problematic use before initiating long-term treatment for pain-control.

  13. Screening and managing cannabis use: comparing GP’s and nurses’ knowledge, beliefs, and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) and nurses are ideally placed to address the significant unmet demand for the treatment of cannabis-related problems given the numbers of people who regularly seek their care. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between GPs and nurses’ perceived knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward cannabis use and its screening and management. Methods This study involved 161 nurses and 503 GPs who completed a survey distributed via conference satchels to delegates of Healthed seminars focused on topics relevant to women and children’s health. Differences between GPs and nurses were analyzed using χ2- tests and two-sample t-tests, while logistic regression examined predictors of service provision. Results GPs were more likely than nurses to have engaged in cannabis-related service provision, but also more frequently reported barriers related to time, interest, and having more important issues to address. Nurses reported less knowledge, skills, and role legitimacy. Perceived screening skills predicted screening and referral to alcohol and other drug (AOD) services, while knowing a regular user increased the likelihood of referrals only. Conclusions Approaches to increase cannabis-related screening and intervention may be improved by involving nurses, and by leveraging the relationship between nurses and doctors, in primary care. PMID:22827931

  14. Screening and managing cannabis use: comparing GP’s and nurses’ knowledge, beliefs, and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Melissa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs and nurses are ideally placed to address the significant unmet demand for the treatment of cannabis-related problems given the numbers of people who regularly seek their care. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between GPs and nurses’ perceived knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward cannabis use and its screening and management. Methods This study involved 161 nurses and 503 GPs who completed a survey distributed via conference satchels to delegates of Healthed seminars focused on topics relevant to women and children’s health. Differences between GPs and nurses were analyzed using χ2- tests and two-sample t-tests, while logistic regression examined predictors of service provision. Results GPs were more likely than nurses to have engaged in cannabis-related service provision, but also more frequently reported barriers related to time, interest, and having more important issues to address. Nurses reported less knowledge, skills, and role legitimacy. Perceived screening skills predicted screening and referral to alcohol and other drug (AOD services, while knowing a regular user increased the likelihood of referrals only. Conclusions Approaches to increase cannabis-related screening and intervention may be improved by involving nurses, and by leveraging the relationship between nurses and doctors, in primary care.

  15. Daily Use, Especially of High-Potency Cannabis, Drives the Earlier Onset of Psychosis in Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Forti, Marta; Sallis, Hannah; Allegri, Fabio; Trotta, Antonella; Ferraro, Laura; Stilo, Simona A.; Marconi, Arianna; La Cascia, Caterina; Reis Marques, Tiago; Pariante, Carmine; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Prata, Diana; Gaughran, Fiona; David, Anthony S.; Morgan, Craig; Stahl, Daniel; Khondoker, Mizanur; MacCabe, James H.; Murray, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of psychosis (AOP). However, the reasons for this remain debated. Methods: We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to 410 first-episode psychosis patients to investigate the association between gender, patterns of cannabis use, and AOP. Results: Patients with a history of cannabis use presented with their first episode of psychosis at a younger age (mean years = 28.2, SD = 8.0; median years = 27.1) than those who never used cannabis (mean years = 31.4, SD = 9.9; median years = 30.0; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.16–1.74; P cannabis at age 15 or younger had an earlier onset of psychosis (mean years = 27.0, SD = 6.2; median years = 26.9) than those who had started after 15 years (mean years = 29.1, SD = 8.5; median years = 27.8; HR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06–1.84; P = .050). Importantly, subjects who had been using high-potency cannabis (skunk-type) every day had the earliest onset (mean years = 25.2, SD = 6.3; median years = 24.6) compared to never users among all the groups tested (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.50- 2.65; P cannabis had an onset an average of 6 years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. Conclusions: Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users. PMID:24345517

  16. Dutch coffee shops and trends in cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Dirk J

    2002-01-01

    Conflicting predictions have been made to the influence of decriminalization on cannabis use. Prohibitionists forecast that decriminalization will lead to an increase in consumption of cannabis, while their opponents hypothesise that cannabis use will decline after decriminalization. Most probably cannabis use in the Netherlands so far evolved in two waves, with a first peak around 1970, a low during the late 1970s and early 1980s, and a second peak in the mid-1990s. It is striking that this trend in cannabis use among youth in the Netherlands rather parallels four identified stages in the availability of cannabis. The number of cannabis users peaked when the cannabis was distributed through an underground market (late 1960s and early 1970s). Then the number decreased as house dealers were superseeding the underground market (1970s), and went up again after coffee shops took over the sale of cannabis (1980s), and stabilised or slightly decreased by the end of the 1990s when the number of coffee shops was reduced. Although changes in cannabis policy went along with changes in availability of cannabis and prevalence of cannabis use, it is questionable whether changes in cannabis policy were causally related to trends in cannabis use. Cannabis use also developed in waves in other European countries that did not decriminalize cannabis, as well as in the US. Consequently, trends in cannabis use seem to develop rather independently of cannabis policy.

  17. [Topiramate in substance-related and addictive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Johan; Dervaux, Alain; Laqueille, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Drug treatments used in substance use disorders are not effective in all patients. To assess the effectiveness of topiramate use in the treatment of substance use disorders. Medline database from January 1966 to December 2013, Cochrane database and clinicaltrials.gov. We used keywords topiramate, addiction, substance abuse, alcohol, tobacco, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, opiate, heroin, benzodiazepine, cannabis, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, gambling. All clinical trials were included. Animal trials, laboratory tests, reviews, answers to writers, case-reports, case series and publications unrelated to the topic were excluded. Twenty-eight articles investigating the efficacy of topiramate in substance use were included. In alcohol-related disorder, several trials and a meta-analysis showed a reduction of days of consumption. In a single-center trial on tobacco-related disorder, topiramate was not found effective in reducing the carbon monoxide expired. In cocaine-related disorder, one single-center trial showed a reduction of days of consumption and two single-center trials have found a trend in favour of topiramate. In alcohol and cocaine co-dependency, a single-center trial found a trend in favour of topiramate. In methamphetamine-related disorder, a multicenter trial found a trend in favour of topiramate. In bulimia nervosa, two single-center trials showed a reduction in binge eating and compensatory behaviours. In binge eating disorder, several trials showed a reduction of binge eating and weight. In gambling, one single-center trial did not show any significant results. There were no randomized controlled trials found in opioid-related disorder, benzodiazepines-related disorder, and cannabis-related disorder. Definition of abstinence and methods to assess the efficacy of topiramate differed between trials. The methodological quality of included trials was variable, especially with no double-blind procedure in eight trials. Topiramate showed

  18. The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on verbal working memory: an fMRI study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Longo, Carmelinda; A Fried, Peter; Cameron, Ian; M Smith, Andra

    2014-11-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on verbal working memory were investigated in young adults. Participants were members of the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study, a longitudinal study that collected a unique body of information on participants from infancy to young adulthood. This allowed for the measurement of an unprecedented number of potentially confounding drug exposure variables including: prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and current marijuana, nicotine and alcohol use. Twelve young adults with prenatal nicotine exposure and 13 non-exposed controls performed a 2-Back working memory task while fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses were examined. Despite similar task performance, participants with more prenatal nicotine exposure demonstrated significantly greater activity in several regions of the brain that typically subserve verbal working memory including the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, the inferior parietal lobe and the cingulate gyrus. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure contributes to altered neural functioning during verbal working memory that continues into adulthood. Working memory is critical for a wide range of cognitive skills such as language comprehension, learning and reasoning. Thus, these findings highlight the need for continued educational programs and public awareness campaigns to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nicotine response and nicotinic receptors in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C M; Medhurst, L J; Collins, A C

    1987-01-01

    Nicotine response and nicotinic receptor binding were characterized in long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice which have been selectively bred for differential "sleep-time" following ethanol administration. LS mice are more sensitive than SS mice to nicotine as measured by a battery of behavioral and physiological tests and as measured by sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures. The greater sensitivity of the LS mice is not due to differences in binding of [3H]nicotine. Unlike inbred mouse strains which differ in sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures, these selected mouse lines do not differ in levels of binding of [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) in the hippocampus. Significant differences in BTX binding were found in the cerebellum and striatum. Although these two mouse lines do not differ in blood levels of nicotine following nicotine administration, they differ slightly in brain levels of nicotine indicating differential distribution of the drug. Since this distribution difference is much smaller than the observed behavioral differences, these mice probably differ in CNS sensitivity to nicotine; however, follow-up studies are necessary to test whether the differential response of these mice is due to subtle differences in distribution of nicotine to the brain.

  20. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cannabis Decriminalization and the Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Chomynova, Pavla; Mravcik, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a change in drugs policy on the age of onset of cannabis use. We use 2012 survey data from the Czech Republic where in 2010 a law was introduced decriminalizing personal possession of small quantities of several illicit drugs, including cannabis. We estimate the

  2. [CANNABIS: ALTERNATIVE REALITIES (CRA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Gonzalo Daniel; Guerrero, Manuel; Pinedo López, Jhon; García, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    In this cross sectional and descriptive study, secondary school students trom the city of Santa Rosa were questioned about their beliefs about cannabis and their risk perception derived from it. The sample consisted in 83 male and 71 female 17 year-old teenagers. On the one hand, it was found that the highest risk perceptions were related to the legal issues that might arise due to cannabis consumption, and to its effects on neurons. On the other hand, the lowest risk perceptions were associated with the belief/ idea that smoking tobacco affects the lungs more than smoking cannabis, which might create dependence, and its use can cause mental disorders. Several significant differences were found as regards gender, since the female students noticed more risk than male students in that the consumption of cannabis can develop mental disorders, amotivational syndrome, lack of enthusiasm and less satisfaction with life. The teenager's risk perception about cannabis is variable.

  3. Kwaliteitsnormen Medicinale Cannabis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slijkhuis C; Hoving R; Blok-Tip L; Kaste D de; KCF

    2004-01-01

    Medicinal Cannabis can be legally supplied by pharmacists to patients from the first of September 2003, although still only on prescription. The quality of this product is tested conform the monograph Cannabis flos. In this monograph tests and quality standards, such as characteristics, loss on

  4. Cannabis can augment thrombolytic properties of rtPA: Intracranial hemorrhage in a heavy cannabis user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shere, Amar; Goyal, Hemant

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in the United States and is considered to have several adverse health effects. There is evidence suggesting that its recreational use is associated with both increased cardio- and cerebrovascular events. Recently, multiple cases of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes associated with cannabis use were reported in the literature (Goyal et al., 2017). It has been suggested that cannabis can affect cerebral auto-regulation and vascular tone leading to vasoconstriction and acute ischemic stroke. However, hemorrhagic strokes, which are often seen with sympathomimetic illicit drugs (e.g. cocaine and amphetamines), have rarely been reported due to cannabis. Many cellular mechanisms within non-ischemic tissue post stroke may be augmented by heavy cannabis use. Here, we describe a rapid development of hemorrhage following thrombolytic therapy in a patient with heavy cannabis use with an ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute effects of nicotine amplify accumbal neural responses during nicotine-taking behavior and nicotine-paired environmental cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Guillem

    Full Text Available Nicotine self-administration (SA is maintained by several variables, including the reinforcing properties of nicotine-paired cues and the nicotine-induced amplification of those cue properties. The nucleus accumbens (NAc is implicated in mediating the influence of these variables, though the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are not yet understood. In the present study, Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer nicotine. During SA sessions each press of a lever was followed by an intravenous infusion of nicotine (30 µg/kg paired with a combined light-tone cue. Extracellular recordings of single-neuron activity showed that 20% of neurons exhibited a phasic change in firing during the nicotine-directed operant, the light-tone cue, or both. The phasic change in firing for 98% of neurons was an increase. Sixty-two percent of NAc neurons additionally or alternatively showed a sustained decrease in average firing during the SA session relative to a presession baseline period. These session decreases in firing were significantly less prevalent in a group of neurons that were activated during either the operant or the cue than in a group of neurons that were nonresponsive during those events (referred to as task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons, respectively. Moreover, the session decrease in firing was dose-dependent for only the task-nonactivated neurons. The data of the present investigation provide supportive correlational evidence for two hypotheses: (1 excitatory neurophysiological mechanisms mediate the NAc role in cue-maintenance of nicotine SA, and (2 a differential nicotine-induced inhibition of task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons mediates the NAc role in nicotine-induced amplification of cue effects on nicotine SA.

  6. Cannabis use and mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental

  7. Effects of nicotine and nicotine expectancy on attentional bias for emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sally; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine's effects on mood are thought to enhance its addictive potential. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on affect regulation have not been reliably demonstrated in human laboratory studies. We investigated the effects of nicotine abstinence (Experiment 1), and nicotine challenge and expectancy (Experiment 2) on attentional bias towards facial emotional stimuli differing in emotional valence. In Experiment 1, 46 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to either continue to abstain from smoking or to smoke immediately before testing. In Experiment 2, 96 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to smoke a nicotinized or denicotinized cigarette and to be told that the cigarette did or did not contain nicotine. In both experiments participants completed a visual probe task, where positively valenced (happy) and negatively valenced (sad) facial expressions were presented, together with neutral facial expressions. In Experiment 1, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location and abstinence on reaction time, indicating that abstinent smokers showed an attentional bias for neutral stimuli. In Experiment 2, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location, nicotine challenge and expectation on reaction time, indicating that smokers receiving nicotine, but told that they did not receive nicotine, showed an attentional bias for emotional stimuli. Our data suggest that nicotine abstinence appears to disrupt attentional bias towards emotional facial stimuli. These data provide support for nicotine's modulation of attentional bias as a central mechanism for maintaining affect regulation in cigarette smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Do Clinicians Ask Pregnant Women about Exposures to Tobacco and Cannabis Smoking, Second-Hand-Smoke and E-Cigarettes? An Australian National Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian S. Gould

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians often ask pregnant women about tobacco smoking, but their practices of asking about other smoking and nicotine exposures are unknown. This study analysed how often clinicians ask pregnant women about their use of e-cigarettes, cannabis, chewing tobacco, and second-hand smoke (SHS exposure. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken. A random sample of 500 General Practitioner (GP members were invited from the National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NFATSIH to complete an on-line survey, and 5571 GP and Obstetrician (OBS members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG were sent a paper survey by mail. Questions on frequency of asking about the exposures used Likert Scales, later dichotomized to “often-always” and “never-sometimes”. Logistic regressions estimated associations between clinician type and asking about cannabis, e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and SHS. An adjusted model reduced potential confounders of location, guidelines, gender and population. n = 378 GPs and OBS participated (6.2% response. In total, 13–14% asked “often-always” about e-cigarettes; 58% cannabis; 38% cannabis with tobacco; 27% SHS, and 10% chewing tobacco—compared to 95% of the sample asking about cigarette smoking. After adjustment, the odds of RANZCOG GPs (OR 0.34 and OBS (OR 0.63 asking about cannabis were lower compared to NFATSIH GPs. Clinician type was non-significant for asking about e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco and SHS. Surveyed Australian GPs and obstetricians asked less frequently about e-cigarettes, chewing, SHS exposure, and cannabis, potentially missing important exposures for mother and child.

  9. Cannabis exposure as an interactive cardiovascular risk factor and accelerant of organismal ageing: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Albert Stuart; Norman, Amanda; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2016-11-07

    Many reports exist of the cardiovascular toxicity of smoked cannabis but none of arterial stiffness measures or vascular age (VA). In view of its diverse toxicology, the possibility that cannabis-exposed patients may be ageing more quickly requires investigation. Cross-sectional and longitudinal, observational. Prospective. Single primary care addiction clinic in Brisbane, Australia. 11 cannabis-only smokers, 504 tobacco-only smokers, 114 tobacco and cannabis smokers and 534 non-smokers. known cardiovascular disease or therapy or acute exposure to alcohol, amphetamine, heroin or methadone. Radial arterial pulse wave tonometry (AtCor, SphygmoCor, Sydney) performed opportunistically and sequentially on patients between 2006 and 2011. Algorithmically calculated VA. other central haemodynamic variables. Differences between group chronological ages (CA, 30.47±0.48 to 40.36±2.44, mean±SEM) were controlled with linear regression. Between-group sex differences were controlled by single-sex analysis. Mean cannabis exposure among patients was 37.67±7.16 g-years. In regression models controlling for CA, Body Mass Index (BMI), time and inhalant group, the effect of cannabis use on VA was significant in males (p=0.0156) and females (p=0.0084). The effect size in males was 11.84%. A dose-response relationship was demonstrated with lifetime exposure (pcannabis was robust to adjustment and was unrelated to its acute effects. Significant power interactions between cannabis exposure and the square and cube of CA were demonstrated (from pCannabis is an interactive cardiovascular risk factor (additional to tobacco and opioids), shows a prominent dose-response effect and is robust to adjustment. Cannabis use is associated with an acceleration of the cardiovascular age, which is a powerful surrogate for the organismal-biological age. This likely underlies and bi-directionally interacts with its diverse toxicological profile and is of considerable public health and regulatory

  10. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  11. Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie Løberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis.

  12. Past year cannabis use and problematic cannabis use among adults by ethnicity in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Andrew; Hamilton, Hayley A; Agic, Branka; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; Mann, Robert E

    2017-10-01

    Rates of cannabis use differ around the world; in Ontario, the rate of use has been stable since about 2005. Understanding which population groups are at greater risk for problematic cannabis use can help reduce long-term health effects and service expenses. The aim of this study was to explore differences in cannabis use among Canadian adults of different ethnic origins living in Ontario. Data are based on telephone interviews with 11,560 respondents and are derived from multiple cycles (2005-2011) of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's (CAMH) Monitor survey, an ongoing cross-sectional survey of adults in Ontario, Canada, aged 18 years and older. Data were analyzed using bivariate cross-tabulations and logistic regression. Problematic cannabis use was determined with a score of 8+ on the ASSIST-CIS to identify moderate/high problematic users. Lifetime, past year and problematic cannabis use (in the past 3 months) occurs among all ethnic groups: Canadian, East Asian, South East Asian, South Asian, Caribbean, African, East European, South European, North European, and Central West European. When compared to the Canadian group the odds of past year cannabis use was significantly lower for East Asians and South Asians, but higher for the Caribbean group. Significantly higher odds of problematic cannabis use were found for Caribbeans and Northern Europeans compared to Canadians. These results of this study provide an important basis for considering the possible impact of the impending legalization of cannabis in Canada among different ethnic groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  14. Effect of continued cannabis use on medication adherence in the first two years following onset of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeler, Tabea; Petros, Natalia; Di Forti, Marta; Klamerus, Ewa; Foglia, Enrico; Murray, Robin; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2017-09-01

    Uncertainty exists whether the use of non-prescription psychoactive substances following onset of a first episode of psychosis (FEP), in particular cannabis use, affects medication adherence. Data from FEP patients (N=233) obtained through prospective assessments measured medication adherence and pattern of cannabis and other substance use in the first two years following onset of psychosis. Multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to compare the different substance use groups with regard to risk of medication non-adherence, while controlling for confounders. The proportion of non-adherent patients was higher in those who continued using high-potency forms of cannabis (skunk-like) following the onset (83%) when compared to never regular users (51%), corresponding to an Odds Ratio (OR) of 5.26[95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.91-15.68]. No significant increases in risk were present in those who used cannabis more sporadically or used milder forms of cannabis (hash-like). Other substances did not make an independent contribution in this model, including cigarette use ([OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.41-1.89]), alcohol use ([OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.27-1.64]) or regular use of other illicit drugs ([OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.34-3.15]) following the onset. These results suggest that continued use of high-potency cannabis following the onset of psychosis may adversely affect medication adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. No significant effect of cannabis use on the count and percentage of circulating CD4 T-cells in HIV-HCV co-infected patients (ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH French cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin, Fabienne; Lions, Caroline; Rosenthal, Eric; Roux, Perrine; Sogni, Philippe; Wittkop, Linda; Protopopescu, Camelia; Spire, Bruno; Salmon-Ceron, Dominique; Dabis, François; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia

    2017-03-01

    Despite cannabis use being very common in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), its effect on these patients' immune systems remains undocumented. Documenting the potential effect of cannabis use on HIV immunological markers would help caregivers make more targeted health recommendations to co-infected patients. We performed a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between cannabis use and peripheral blood CD4 T-cell measures in co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Cannabis use was assessed using annual self-administered questionnaires in 955 patients (2386 visits) enrolled in the ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH cohort. The effect of cannabis use on circulating CD4 T-cell count and percentage was estimated using multivariate linear regression models with generalised estimating equations. Sensitivity analyses were conducted after excluding visits where (i) tobacco use and (ii) smoking >=10 tobacco cigarettes/day were reported. At the first visit, 48% of patients reported cannabis use during the previous four weeks, and 58% of these patients also smoked ≥10 tobacco cigarettes/day. After multiple adjustment, cannabis use was not significantly associated with either circulating CD4 T-cell count [model coefficient (95% confidence interval): 0.27 (-0.07; 0.62), P = 0.12] or percentage [-0.04 (-0.45; 0.36), P = 0.83]. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. Findings show no evidence for a negative effect of cannabis use on circulating CD4 T-cell counts/percentages in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. In-depth immunological studies are needed to document whether cannabis has a harmful effect on CD4 levels in lungs and on cells' functional properties. [Marcellin F, Lions C, Rosenthal E, Roux P, Sogni P, Wittkop L, Protopopescu C, Spire B, Salmon-Ceron D, Dabis F, Carrieri MP, HEPAVIH ANRS CO13 Study Group. No significant effect of cannabis use on the count and percentage of circulating CD4 T-cells in HIV-HCV co-infected patients

  16. Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Moraes Ramos Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTODO: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência.Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la pr

  17. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, Robert J.; Shin, Hayden H.; Gray, Andrew R.; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, pcannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers. Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms. PMID:25837035

  18. Cannabis-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Jodie A; Nemeth, Zsuzsanna; Saluja, Ashok K; Barkin, Jamie S

    2017-09-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently consumed illicit drug in the world, with higher prevalence under the age of 35 years. Cannabis was first reported as a possible cause of acute pancreatitis (AP) in 2004. The aim of this systematic review is to examine cannabis use as an etiology of AP. A search using PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane was performed without language or year limitations to May 1, 2016. Search terms were "Cannabis" and "Acute Pancreatitis" with all permutations. The search yielded 239 results. Acute pancreatitis was defined by meeting 2 of 3 Revised Atlanta Classification criteria. Cannabis-induced AP was defined by preceding use of cannabis and exclusion of common causes of AP when reported. Sixteen papers met inclusion criteria dating from 2004 to 2016. There were 26 cases of cannabis-induced AP (23/26 men; 24/26 under the age of 35 y). Acute pancreatitis correlated with increased cannabis use in 18 patients. Recurrent AP related temporally to cannabis use was reported in 15 of 26. There are 13 reports of no further AP episodes after cannabis cessation. Cannabis is a possible risk factor for AP and recurrent AP, occurring primarily in young patients under the age of 35 years. Toxicology screens should be considered in all patients with idiopathic AP.

  19. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent cannabis users. A

  20. [Comorbidity in panic disorders and alcoholism (II). Alcoholism in a sample of 148 patients with panic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, J; Salvador, L; Canet, J; Aragón, C; Herrera, C

    1995-01-01

    Among 148 patients presenting Panic Disorder (DSM-III-R), 18.9% have an alcohol disorder, 8.8% present abuse and 10.1% dependence. Mean age of onset of alcoholism was much earlier than panic disorder. Patients with alcoholism: a) are males more frequently (0.001); b) present more alcoholism in first grade relatives (0.05); c) use more often other drugs like: tobacco (0.01), coffee (p cannabis (p < 0.001), d) patients with alcoholism refer a greater severity of their panic attacks when drinking large amounts of alcohol (25%) than the group without these problems (2.5%) (x2:14.8) (p < 0.001) e) according to the GAS the overall level of performance is lower in alcoholics (p < 0.005); f) present more anxiety measured by the HARS (p < 0.01), and therefore have more comorbid anxiety disorders according to DSM-III-R (p < 0.01). The clinical significance of these findings is discussed.

  1. Cannabis Use is Associated with Lower Odds of Prescription Opioid Analgesic Use Among HIV-Infected Individuals with Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohler, Nancy L; Starrels, Joanna L; Khalid, Laila; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Arnsten, Julia H; Nahvi, Shadi; Jost, John; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2018-01-17

    Chronic pain is common in the United States and prescribed opioid analgesics use for noncancer pain has increased dramatically in the past two decades, possibly accounting for the current opioid addiction epidemic. Co-morbid drug use in those prescribed opioid analgesics is common, but there are few data on polysubstance use patterns. We explored patterns of use of cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drugs in HIV-infected people with chronic pain who were prescribed opioid analgesics. We conducted a secondary data analysis of screening interviews conducted as part of a parent randomized trial of financial incentives to improve HIV outcomes among drug users. In a convenience sample of people with HIV and chronic pain, we collected self-report data on demographic characteristics; pain; patterns of opioid analgesic use (both prescribed and illicit); cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drug use (including cannabis, heroin, and cocaine) within the past 30 days; and current treatment for drug use and HIV. Almost half of the sample of people with HIV and chronic pain reported current prescribed opioid analgesic use (N = 372, 47.1%). Illicit drug use was common (N = 505, 63.9%), and cannabis was the most commonly used illicit substance (N = 311, 39.4%). In multivariate analyses, only cannabis use was significantly associated with lower odds of prescribed opioid analgesic use (adjusted odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.87). Conclusions/Importance: Our data suggest that new medical cannabis legislation might reduce the need for opioid analgesics for pain management, which could help to address adverse events associated with opioid analgesic use.

  2. Observations of the role of science in the United States medical cannabis state policies: Lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbic, Jelica; Goddard, Perilou; Ryder, David

    2017-04-01

    Clinical trials have shown cannabis to be effective in the treatment of some medical conditions and there is mounting public and political pressure to enact laws enabling the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. To date, 28 United States (U.S.) states and the District of Columbia have enacted medical cannabis laws. This study sought to identify the main issues pertaining to the development of medical cannabis laws in the U.S, including the role of scientific evidence. Data were collected from three groups of participants: government officials, lobbyists and medical professionals involved in the medical cannabis debate in five selected states in the U.S.; researchers from the same five states conducting funded research in the alcohol and other drugs field; and members of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Six major themes emerged in relation to the factors influencing policy: scientific evidence plays a limited role in the development of policy; the available research is limited and mixed; there is a need for clearer communication and active dissemination of evidence to policy makers; researchers need to consider what research is likely to impact on policy; scientific evidence is not a major factor in policy development; and there is a need to consider evidence within a political context. Researchers need to be aware of the political context in which medical cannabis laws are or are not enacted and consider ways in which research findings can achieve a higher profile within this context. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  4. Cannabis and Cannabinoids for Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso; Kolano, Ashley L; Alvarado-Vázquez, P Abigail

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide the most up-to-date scientific evidence of the potential analgesic effects, or lack thereof, of the marijuana plant (cannabis) or cannabinoids, and of safety or tolerability of their long-term use. We found that inhaled (smoked or vaporized) cannabis is consistently effective in reducing chronic non-cancer pain. Oral cannabinoids seem to improve some aspects of chronic pain (sleep and general quality of life), or cancer chronic pain, but they do not seem effective in acute postoperative pain, abdominal chronic pain, or rheumatoid pain. The available literature shows that inhaled cannabis seems to be more tolerable and predictable than oral cannabinoids. Cannabis or cannabinoids are not universally effective for pain. Continued research on cannabis constituents and improving bioavailability for oral cannabinoids is needed. Other aspects of pain management in patients using cannabis require further open discussion: concomitant opioid use, medical vs. recreational cannabis, abuse potential, etc.

  5. Cannabis; extracting the medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2007-01-01

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and migraine. The discovery of cannabinoid-receptors and the endocannabinoid system have opened up a new and exciting field of research. But despite the pharmaceutical potential of cannabis, its classifi...

  6. Cannabis 'tinny' houses in New Zealand: implications for the use and sale of cannabis and other illicit drugs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris; Reilly, James L; Casswell, Sally

    2005-07-01

    To examine the impact of the emergence of cannabis 'tinny' houses on the use and sale of cannabis and other illicit drugs in New Zealand. A national sample of 5800 people aged 13-45 years were interviewed about their drug use using a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system as part of the 2001 National Drug Survey. A question on cannabis procurement was used to create two subgroups of cannabis buyers for further analysis: (i) 'tinny' house buyers--those who had purchased 'some', 'most' or 'all' of their cannabis from a 'tinny' house (n = 145) and (ii) personal market buyers--those who had purchased 'none' or 'hardly any' of their cannabis from a 'tinny' house (n = 342). The two groups of cannabis buyers were compared for a range of variables. ['Tinny' houses are residential properties converted for the 'supermarket' sale of cannabis and other illicit drugs to anyone who attends the premises with cash.] Those purchasing cannabis from 'tinny' houses were significantly more likely than those purchasing cannabis from the personal market to smoke one joint or more on a typical occasion, to purchase cannabis weekly or more often, to purchase small weights of cannabis, to be sold lower quality cannabis than they paid for, to know their cannabis dealer sells other illicit drug types and to use high potency strains of cannabis. There was no significant difference between the 'tinny' house and personal market cannabis buyers with respect to the frequency of cannabis use, prices paid for the same weights of cannabis, levels of other victimization, levels of other drug use or levels of encouragement by cannabis sellers to purchase other drug types. Those purchasing cannabis from 'tinny' houses were more likely to be aged 15-17 years old and to be of Maori ethnicity than those purchasing cannabis from the personal market. Cannabis 'tinny' houses attracted more adolescent and more Maori clientele. However, 'tinny' houses did not appear to be contributing to the spread

  7. Medicinal cannabis (Bedrolite) substitution therapy in inpatients with a psychotic disorder and a comorbid cannabis use disorder: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Regi; Dekker, Mathilde; de Haan, Lieuwe; van den Brink, Wim

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis use disorders are frequently comorbid in patients with a psychotic disorder and are associated with worse outcomes. To date there are no proven effective strategies to achieve cannabis abstinence in this population. An alternative for abstinence might be harm reduction, i.e. replacing the use of street cannabis with high tetrahydrocannabinol and low cannabidiol levels by medicinal cannabis variants with relatively low tetrahydrocannabinol and relatively high cannabidiol levels, thereby reducing the psychosis inducing effects of cannabis and enhancing the antipsychotic effects of cannabis. Here we present the data of a case series with seven inpatients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder and a treatment-resistant cannabis use disorder who received substitution therapy with a low tetrahydrocannabinol medicinal cannabis variant (Bedrolite). The results suggest that the low tetrahydrocannabinol medicinal cannabis variant Bedrolite is not effective in the treatment of inpatients with a psychotic disorder and comorbid cannabis use disorder. Bedrolite is thus not very likely to become an effective harm reduction strategy in these patients.

  8. Cannabis use, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel Frederique Heleen

    2013-01-01

    During early adolescence, there is no association between internalizing behaviour and cannabis use. There is an association between externalizing behaviour and cannabis use, where externalizing behaviour precedes cannabis use rather than the other way around. Secondly, during adolescence, there is an association between psychosis vulnerability and cannabis use, where cannabis use predicts psychosis vulnerability and vice versa, suggesting a bi-directional cascading association. Thirdly, durin...

  9. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, James C; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-04

    Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field's five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/ control. The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7-8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to loc