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Sample records for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent

  1. A novel twist on molecular interactions between thioredoxin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent thioredoxin reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine Groth; Hägglund, Per; Shahpiri, Azar

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous disulfide reductase thioredoxin (Trx) regulates several important biological processes such as seed germination in plants. Oxidized cytosolic Trx is regenerated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR) in a multistep transfer...... dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domain of HvNTR2 to strongly affect the interaction with Trx. In particular, Trp42 and Met43 play key roles for recognition of the endogenous HvTrxh2. Trx from Arabidopsis thaliana is also efficiently recycled by HvNTR2 but turnover in this case appears to be less dependent...

  2. Enzymatic synthesis of 13N-β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.H.D.; Slegers, G.; Claeys, A.; Vandecasteele, C.

    1985-01-01

    Nitrogen-13-labelled β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( 13 N-NAD) is an interesting new compound for positron emission tomography. A semi-automatic production method is developed that yields a solution of 13 N-NAD of radiopharmaceutical quality, suitable for human intravenous administration. The 13 N-NAD is prepared enzymatically in one step from cyclotron-produced 13 NH 3 and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (deamido-NAD). The enzyme NAD synthetase (E.C. 6.3.1.5), catalysing this reaction, is extracted and purified from Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme is immobilized by glutaraldehyde coupling to γ-aminopropylsilane-coated porous glass beads. The enzyme-loaded glass beads are packed in a column. The kinetic properties of the column are optimized. For synthetizing 13 N-NAD, the mixture of co-factors and substrates, containing 13 NH 3 , is pumped over the enzyme column. The unreacted 13 NH 3 is separated from 13 N-NAD by on-line passage over a cation exchanger. After passing over a millipore filter, a sterile solution of radiochemically pure 13 N-NAD is obtained, containing 70 mCi in 10 mL. The total synthesis time is 10 minutes. The specific activity is about 120 mCi/μmol at EOB. Quality control includes sterility and pyrogen tests, HPLC and HPTLC analysis. (author)

  3. Development of a simple and efficient method for assaying cytidine monophosphate sialic acid synthetase activity using an enzymatic reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide converting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akiko; Sato, Chihiro; Münster-Kühnel, Anja-K; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Kitajima, Ken

    2005-02-01

    A new reliable method to assay the activity of cytidine monophosphate sialic acid (CMP-Sia) synthetase (CSS) has been developed. The activation of sialic acids (Sia) to CMP-Sia is a prerequisite for the de novo synthesis of sialoglycoconjugates. In vertebrates, CSS has been cloned from human, mouse, and rainbow trout, and the crystal structure has been resolved for the mouse enzyme. The mouse and rainbow trout enzyme have been compared with respect to substrate specificity, demonstrating that the mouse enzyme exhibits a pronounced specificity for N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), while the rainbow trout CSS is equally active with either of three Sia species, Neu5Ac, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and deaminoneuraminic acid (KDN). However, molecular details that explain the pronounced substrate specificities are unknown. Understanding the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes is of major importance, since CSSs play crucial roles in cellular sialylation patterns and thus are potential drug targets in a number of pathophysiological situations. The availability of the cDNAs and the obtained structural data enable rational approaches; however, these efforts are limited by the lack of a reliable high-throughput assay system. Here we describe a new assay system that allows product quantification in a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent color reaction. The activation reaction catalyzed by CSS, CTP+Sia-->CMP-Sia+pyrophosphate, was evaluated by a consumption of Sia, which corresponds to that of NADH on the following two successive reactions: (i) Sia-->pyruvate+ManNAc (or Man), catalyzed by a sialic acid lyase (SAL), and (ii) pyruvate+NADH-->lactate+oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), catalyzed by a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Consumption of NADH can be photometrically monitored on a microtiter plate reader for a number of test samples at the same time. Furthermore, based on the quantification of CSS used in the SAL/LDH assay

  4. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin del Campo, Julia S.; Patino, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The reaction catalyzed by one enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway was studied. → A spectrophotometric method is proposed for kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. → The pH and the temperature influences are reported on physical chemical properties. → Relative concentrations of substrates are also important in the catalytic process. - Abstract: The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC 1.1.1.49) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides has a dual coenzyme specificity with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ox ) and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as electron acceptors. The G6PD coenzyme selection is determined by the metabolic cellular prevailing conditions. In this study a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis is presented for the reaction catalyzed by G6PD from L. mesenteroides with NAD ox as coenzyme in phosphate buffer. For this work, an in situ spectrophotometric technique was employed based on the detection of one product of the reaction. Substrate and coenzyme concentrations as well as temperature and pH effects were evaluated. The apparent equilibrium constant, the Michaelis constant, and the turnover number were determined as a function of each experimental condition. The standard transformed Gibbs energy of reaction was determined from equilibrium constants at different initial conditions. For the product 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone, a value of the standard Gibbs energy of formation is proposed, Δ f G o = -1784 ± 5 kJ mol -1 .

  5. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo, Julia S. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados - Unidad Merida, Carretera antigua a Progreso Km. 6, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, Rodrigo, E-mail: rtarkus@mda.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados - Unidad Merida, Carretera antigua a Progreso Km. 6, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2011-04-20

    Research highlights: {yields} The reaction catalyzed by one enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway was studied. {yields} A spectrophotometric method is proposed for kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. {yields} The pH and the temperature influences are reported on physical chemical properties. {yields} Relative concentrations of substrates are also important in the catalytic process. - Abstract: The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC 1.1.1.49) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides has a dual coenzyme specificity with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sub ox}) and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as electron acceptors. The G6PD coenzyme selection is determined by the metabolic cellular prevailing conditions. In this study a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis is presented for the reaction catalyzed by G6PD from L. mesenteroides with NAD{sub ox} as coenzyme in phosphate buffer. For this work, an in situ spectrophotometric technique was employed based on the detection of one product of the reaction. Substrate and coenzyme concentrations as well as temperature and pH effects were evaluated. The apparent equilibrium constant, the Michaelis constant, and the turnover number were determined as a function of each experimental condition. The standard transformed Gibbs energy of reaction was determined from equilibrium constants at different initial conditions. For the product 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone, a value of the standard Gibbs energy of formation is proposed, {Delta}{sub f}G{sup o} = -1784 {+-} 5 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  6. Cleavage of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide by the ribosome-inactivating protein from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkovic, M; Dunn, G; Wood, G E; Husain, J; Wood, S P; Gill, R

    2015-09-01

    The interaction of momordin, a type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from Momordica charantia, with NADP(+) and NADPH has been investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis of complexes generated by co-crystallization and crystal soaking. It is known that the proteins of this family readily cleave the adenine-ribose bond of adenosine and related nucleotides in the crystal, leaving the product, adenine, bound to the enzyme active site. Surprisingly, the nicotinamide-ribose bond of oxidized NADP(+) is cleaved, leaving nicotinamide bound in the active site in the same position but in a slightly different orientation to that of the five-membered ring of adenine. No binding or cleavage of NADPH was observed at pH 7.4 in these experiments. These observations are in accord with current views of the enzyme mechanism and may contribute to ongoing searches for effective inhibitors.

  7. Rho-kinase inhibitor and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor prevent impairment of endothelium-dependent cerebral vasodilation by acute cigarette smoking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Hiroki; Iida, Mami; Takenaka, Motoyasu; Fukuoka, Naokazu; Dohi, Shuji

    2008-06-01

    We previously reported that acute cigarette smoking can cause a dysfunction of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in cerebral vessels, and that blocking the angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor with valsartan prevented this impairment. Our aim was to investigate the effects of a Rho-kinase inhibitor (fasudil) and a Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide PHosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor (apocynin) on smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction in cerebral arterioles. In Sprague-Dawley rats, we used a closed cranial window preparation to measure changes in pial vessel diameters following topical acetylcholine (ACh) before smoking. After one-minute smoking, we again examined the arteriolar responses to ACh. Finally, after intravenous fasudil or apocynin pre-treatment we re-examined the vasodilator responses to topical ACh (before and after cigarette smoking). Under control conditions, cerebral arterioles were dose-dependently dilated by topical ACh (10(-6) M and 10(-5) M). One hour after a one-minute smoking (1 mg-nicotine cigarette), 10(-5) M ACh constricted cerebral arterioles. However, one hour after a one-minute smoking, 10(-5) M ACh dilated cerebral pial arteries both in the fasudil pre-treatment and the apocynin pre-treatment groups, responses that were significantly different from those obtained without fasudil or apocynin pre-treatment. Thus, inhibition of Rho-kinase and NADPH oxidase activities may prevent the above smoking-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation.

  8. Kynureninase-type enzymes and the evolution of the aerobic tryptophan-to-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, F.H.; Shetty, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    Kynureninase-type (L-kynurenine hydrolase, EC 3.7.1.3) activity has been found to be present in the livers of fish, amphibia, reptiles, and birds. In addition to past information concerning this enzyme activity in mammalian liver, it is now clear that all the major classes of vertebrates carry a highly specialized kynureninase-type enzyme, which we have termed a hydroxykynureninase. To compare the reactivities of these enzymes with L-kynurenine and L-3-hydroxykynurenine, ratios of tau values (K/sub m//V) were used. Based on this comparison, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens carries the most efficient kynureninase, whereas the amphibian Xenopus laevis has the most efficient hydroxykynurenase. In these two cases, the ratio of tau values differs by a factor of 38,000. It is hypothesized that the tryptophan-to-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathway evolved from a catabolic system of enzymes, and that the differences observed in the kynureninase-type enzymes between lower and higher organisms reflect the specialization of the function of these enzymes from a strictly catabolic role to an anabolic one during the course of evolution.

  9. Preclinical evidence of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an effective alarm parameter under hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hua; Sun, Nannan; Mayevsky, Avraham; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of tissue hypoxia in the intensive care unit is essential for effective treatment. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been suggested to be the most sensitive indicator of tissue oxygenation at the mitochondrial level. However, no experimental evidence comparing the kinetics of changes in NADH and other physiological parameters has been provided. The aim of this study is to obtain the missing data in a systematic and reliable manner. We constructed four acute hypoxia models, including hypoxic hypoxia, hypemic hypoxia, circulatory hypoxia, and histogenous hypoxia, and measured NADH fluorescence, tissue reflectance, cerebral blood flow, respiration, and electrocardiography simultaneously from the induction of hypoxia until death. We found that NADH was not always the first onset parameter responding to hypoxia. The order of responses was mainly affected by the cause of hypoxia. However, NADH reached its alarm level earlier than the other monitored parameters, ranging from several seconds to >10 min. As such, we suggest that the NADH can be used as a hypoxia indicator, although the exact level that should be used must be further investigated. When the NADH alarm is detected, the body still has a chance to recover if appropriate and timely treatment is provided.

  10. Changes in phosphorylation of adenosine phosphate and redox state of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) in Geobacter sulfurreducens in response to electron acceptor and anode potential variation

    KAUST Repository

    Rose, Nicholas D.; Regan, John M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Geobacter sulfurreducens is one of the dominant bacterial species found in biofilms growing on anodes in bioelectrochemical systems. The intracellular concentrations of reduced and oxidized forms of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD+, respectively) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and NADP+, respectively) as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) were measured in G. sulfurreducens using fumarate, Fe(III)-citrate, or anodes poised at different potentials (110, 10, -90, and -190mV (vs. SHE)) as the electron acceptor. The ratios of CNADH/CNAD+ (0.088±0.022) and CNADPH/CNADP+ (0.268±0.098) were similar under all anode potentials tested and with Fe(III)-citrate (reduced extracellularly). Both ratios significantly increased with fumarate as the electron acceptor (0.331±0.094 for NAD and 1.96±0.37 for NADP). The adenylate energy charge (the fraction of phosphorylation in intracellular adenosine phosphates) was maintained near 0.47 under almost all conditions. Anode-growing biofilms demonstrated a significantly higher molar ratio of ATP/ADP relative to suspended cultures grown on fumarate or Fe(III)-citrate. These results provide evidence that the cellular location of reduction and not the redox potential of the electron acceptor controls the intracellular redox potential in G. sulfurreducens and that biofilm growth alters adenylate phosphorylation.

  11. Changes in phosphorylation of adenosine phosphate and redox state of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) in Geobacter sulfurreducens in response to electron acceptor and anode potential variation

    KAUST Repository

    Rose, Nicholas D.

    2015-12-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Geobacter sulfurreducens is one of the dominant bacterial species found in biofilms growing on anodes in bioelectrochemical systems. The intracellular concentrations of reduced and oxidized forms of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD+, respectively) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and NADP+, respectively) as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) were measured in G. sulfurreducens using fumarate, Fe(III)-citrate, or anodes poised at different potentials (110, 10, -90, and -190mV (vs. SHE)) as the electron acceptor. The ratios of CNADH/CNAD+ (0.088±0.022) and CNADPH/CNADP+ (0.268±0.098) were similar under all anode potentials tested and with Fe(III)-citrate (reduced extracellularly). Both ratios significantly increased with fumarate as the electron acceptor (0.331±0.094 for NAD and 1.96±0.37 for NADP). The adenylate energy charge (the fraction of phosphorylation in intracellular adenosine phosphates) was maintained near 0.47 under almost all conditions. Anode-growing biofilms demonstrated a significantly higher molar ratio of ATP/ADP relative to suspended cultures grown on fumarate or Fe(III)-citrate. These results provide evidence that the cellular location of reduction and not the redox potential of the electron acceptor controls the intracellular redox potential in G. sulfurreducens and that biofilm growth alters adenylate phosphorylation.

  12. Pyridine nucleotide cycle of Salmonella typhimurium: isolation and characterization of pncA, pncB, and pncC mutants and utilization of exogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J W; Kinney, D M; Moat, A G

    1979-03-01

    Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium LT-2 deficient in nicotinamidase activity (pncA) or nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase activity (pncB) were isolated as resistant to analogs of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Information obtained from interrupted mating experiments placed the pncA gene at 27 units and the pncB gene at 25 units on the S. typhimurium LT-2 linkage map. A major difference in the location of the pncA gene was found between the S. typhimurium and Escherichia coli linkage maps. The pncA gene is located in a region in which there is a major inversion of the gene order in S. typhimurium as compared to that in E. coli. Growth experiments using double mutants blocked in the de novo pathway to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) (nad) and in the pyridine nucleotide cycle (pnc) at either the pncA or pncB locus, or both, have provided evidence for the existence of an alternate recycling pathway in this organism. Mutants lacking this alternate cycle, pncC, have been isolated and mapped via cotransduction at 0 units. Utilization of exogenous NAD was examined through the use of [14C]carbonyl-labeled NAD and [14C]adenine-labeled NAD. The results of these experiments suggest that NAD is degraded to nicotinamide mononucleotide at the cell surface. A portion of this extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide is then transported across the cell membrane by nicotinamide mononucleotide glycohydrolase and degraded to nicotinamide in the process. The remaining nicotinamide mononucleotide accumulates extracellularly and will support the growth of nadA pncB mutants which cannot utilize the nicotinamide resulting from the major pathway of NAD degradation. A model is presented for the utilization of exogenous NAD by S. typhimurium LT-2.

  13. Fluorimetric study of the interaction between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and tetracycline-europium complex and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Qian; Hou Faju; Ge Xiaoxia; Jiang Chongqiu; Gong Shubo

    2005-01-01

    A new spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of trace amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Using europium (Eu 3+ )-tetracycline (TC) complex as a fluorescent probe, in the buffer solution of pH 7.60. NADP can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the Eu 3+ -TC complex at λ = 612 nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Eu 3+ ion is in proportion to the concentration of NADP. Optimum conditions for the determination of NADP were also investigated. The dynamic range for the determination of NADP is 4.4 x 10 -7 to 2.2 x 10 -6 mol l -1 with detection limit of 6.9 x 10 -8 mol l -1 . This method is simple, practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of NADP in synthetic water samples and in serum samples. Moreover, the enhancement mechanisms of the fluorescence intensity in the Eu 3+ -TC system and the Eu 3+ -TC-NADP system have been also discussed

  14. Magnitude of malate-aspartate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide shuttle activity in intact respiring tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, W V; Lehninger, A L

    1977-11-01

    Measurements of respiration, CO2 and lactate production, and changes in the levels of various key metabolites of the glycolytic sequence and tricarboxylic acid cycle were made on five lines of rodent ascites tumor cells (two strains of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, Krebs II carcinoma, AS-30D carcinoma, and L1210 cells) incubated aerobically in the presence of uniformly labeled D-[14C]glucose. From these data, as well as earlier evidence demonstrating that the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) shuttle in these cells requires a transaminase step and is thus identified as the malate-aspartate shuttle (W.V.V. Greenhouse and A.L. Lehninger, Cancer Res., 36: 1392-1396, 1976), metabolic flux diagrams were constructed for the five cell lines. These diagrams show the relative rates of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport, and the malate-aspartate shuttle in these tumors. Large amounts of cytosolic NADH were oxidized by the mitochondrial respiratory chain via the NADH shuttle, comprising anywhere from about 20 to 80% of the total flow of reducing equivalents to oxygen in these tumors. Calculations of the sources of energy for adenosine triphosphate synthesis indicated that on the average about one-third of the respiratory adenosine triphosphate is generated by electron flow originating from cytosolic NADH via the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  15. Studies of yeast cell oxygenation and energetics by laser fluorometry of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fu-shih; Chen, Stephen; Mintzer, Robert A.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Schumacker, Paul

    1991-03-01

    It is of fundamental importance for biological scientists to assess cellular energetics. Under aerobic conditions, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) is coupled with the mitochondrial electron cascade pathway to provide the cell with energy. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-conjugated pair (NAD and NADH) is the coenzyme in numerous important biomedical reactions which include several important dehydrogenase reactions in the TCA cycle. Based on Le Chatelier's principle, NADH will accumulate when this energy production mechanism is impaired. The relative amounts of NAD and NADH in a cell are defined as the redox state of the cell (Williamson et.al. 1967) which provides a valuable index of cellular energetics. The sum of the amounts of NAD and NADH in a cell may be assumed to be constant during a finite time; therefore, a reliable means of measuring the NADH concentration would provide us with a useful indicator of tissue viability. Traditionally, the quantities of NADH and NAD may be measured by chemical assay methods. We can avoid these tediois analyses by exploiting the significant difference between the ultraviolet absorption spectra of this redox pair. However, because of the opacity of biological samples and the interference of other biochemicals that also absorb ultraviolet radiation, measurement of NADH and NAD+ concentrations in vivo by absorption spectroscopy is not feasible.

  16. The human amygdaloid complex: a cytologic and histochemical atlas using Nissl, myelin, acetylcholinesterase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, K S; Williams, R S

    1990-01-01

    We examined the distribution of acetylcholinesterase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase enzyme activity in the human amygdala using histochemical techniques. Both methods revealed compartments of higher or lower enzyme activity, in cells or neuropil, which corresponded to the nuclear subdivisions of the amygdala as defined with classical Nissl and myelin methods. The boundaries between the histochemical compartments were usually so sharp that the identification of these nuclear subdivisions was enhanced. There was also variation of staining intensity within many of the nuclear subdivisions, such as the lateral and central nuclei, anterior amygdaloid area and the intercalated groups. This histochemical difference corresponded to more subtle differences in Nissl and myelin staining patterns, and suggests further structural subdivisions of potential functional significance. We present a revised scheme of anatomical parcellation of the human amygdala based upon serial analysis with all four techniques. Our expectation is that this will allow the delineation of a clearer homology between the cytoarchitectonic subdivisions of the human amygdala and those of experimental animals.

  17. Mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) oxidation links the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with methionine metabolism and nuclear DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, Oswaldo A; Martinez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Wang, Tianyuan; Grenet, Dagoberto; Bushel, Pierre; Li, Jianying; Chandel, Navdeep; Woychik, Richard P; Santos, Janine H

    2018-04-18

    Mitochondrial function affects many aspects of cellular physiology, and, most recently, its role in epigenetics has been reported. Mechanistically, how mitochondrial function alters DNA methylation patterns in the nucleus remains ill defined. Using a cell culture model of induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion, in this study we show that progressive mitochondrial dysfunction leads to an early transcriptional and metabolic program centered on the metabolism of various amino acids, including those involved in the methionine cycle. We find that this program also increases DNA methylation, which occurs primarily in the genes that are differentially expressed. Maintenance of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) oxidation in the context of mtDNA loss rescues methionine salvage and polyamine synthesis and prevents changes in DNA methylation and gene expression but does not affect serine/folate metabolism or transsulfuration. This work provides a novel mechanistic link between mitochondrial function and epigenetic regulation of gene expression that involves polyamine and methionine metabolism responding to changes in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Given the implications of these findings, future studies across different physiological contexts and in vivo are warranted.

  18. Signal-enhanced electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on synergistic catalysis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangjie; Jin, Feng; Dai, Nan; Zhong, Zhaoyang; Qing, Yi; Li, Mengxia; Yuan, Ruo; Wang, Dong

    2012-03-01

    A new metal-organic nanocomposite with synergistic catalysis function was prepared and developed to construct an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of tumor biomarker CA125. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) that can participate and catalyze the ECL reaction of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) were employed as the metal component and the organic component to synthesize the metal-organic nanocomposite of NADH-AgNPs (NA). The novel ECL immunosensor was assembled via Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-doped silica nanoparticles (Ru-SiO(2)) modified electrode with the NA as immune labels. First, the chitosan-suspended Ru-SiO(2) nanoparticles were cast on the gold electrode surface to immobilize the ECL probes of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and link gold nanoparticles. Then, the primary antibodies were loaded onto the modified electrode via the gold sulfhydryl covalent binding. After immunobinding the analytes of antigen, NA-attached secondary antibodies could be captured as a sandwich type on the electrode. Finally, based on the circularly synergistic catalysis by the silver and NADH for the solid-phase ECL of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+), the proposed immunosensor sensed the concentration of antigen. The synergistic ECL catalysis of metal-organic nanocomposite amplified response signal and pushed the detection limit down to 0.03 U ml(-1), which initiated a new ECL labeling field and has great significance for ECL immunoassays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Wear Particles Promote Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Inflammation via the Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase Pathway in Macrophages Surrounding Loosened Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weishen Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prosthesis loosening is closely associated with chronic inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages, which are activated by wear particles or inflammatory stimulants such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are critical regulators of inflammation, but their enzymatic sources in response to wear particles and their effects on peri-implant LPS-tolerance remain unclear. Methods: Three ROS-related enzymes—nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX-1 and -2 and catalase—were investigated in interface membrane tissues and in titanium (Ti particle-stimulated macrophages in vitro. The generation of ROS and downstream inflammatory effects were measured with or without pre-incubation with apocynin, an NOX inhibitor. Results: Pre-exposure to Ti particles attenuated NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated macrophages, indicating that wear particles suppress immune response, which may lead to chronic inflammation. NOX-1 and -2 were highly expressed in aseptically loosened interface membranes and in macrophages stimulated with Ti particles; the particles induced a moderate amount of ROS generation, NF-κB activation, and TNF-a secretion in macrophages, and these effects were suppressed by apocynin. Conclusion: Wear particles induce ROS generation through the NOX signaling pathway, resulting in persistent inflammation and delayed loosening. Thus, the suppression of NOX activity may be a useful strategy for preventing prosthesis loosening.

  20. Protective effect of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury via reducing oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Wang, Zhenfei; Li, Changwei; Yang, Kai; Liang, Yu

    2017-02-01

    As previous studies demonstrate that oxidative stress and apoptosis play crucial roles in ischemic pathogenesis and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) treatment attenuates oxidative stress-induced cell death among primary neurons and astrocytes as well as significantly reduce cerebral ischemic injury in rats. We used a spinal cord ischemia injury (SCII) model in rats to verify our hypothesis that NAD + could ameliorate oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Adult male rats were subjected to transient spinal cord ischemia for 60min, and different doses of NAD + were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the start of reperfusion. Neurological function was determined by Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores. The oxidative stress level was assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The degree of apoptosis was analyzed by deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining and protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 and AIF (apoptosis inducing factor). The results showed that NAD + at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly decreased the oxidative stress level and neuronal apoptosis in the spinal cord of ischemia-reperfusion rats compared with saline, as accompanied with the decreased oxidative stress, NAD + administration significantly restrained the neuronal apoptosis after ischemia injury while improved the neurological and motor function. These findings suggested that NAD + might protect against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion via reducing oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protonation mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-malic enzyme reaction from isotope effects and pH studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiick, D.M.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters and the primary deuterium isotope effects with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and also thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) as the nucleotide substrates were determined in order to obtain information about the chemical mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction. The maximum velocity with thio-NAD as the nucleotide is pH-independent from pH 4.2 to 9.6, while with NAD, V decreases below a pK of 4.8. V/K for both nucleotides decreases below a pK of 5.6 and above a pK of 8.9. Both the tartronate pKi and V/Kmalate decrease below a pK of 4.8 and above a pK of 8.9. Oxalate is competitive vs. malate above pH 7 and noncompetitive below pH 7 with NAD as the nucleotide. The oxalate Kis increases from a constant value above a pK of 4.9 to another constant value above a pK of 6.7. The oxalate Kii also increases above a pK of 4.9, and this inhibition is enhanced by NADH. In the presence of thio-NAD the inhibition by oxalate is competitive vs. malate below pH 7. For thio-NAD, both DV and D(V/K) are pH-independent and equal to 1.7. With NAD as the nucleotide, DV decreases to 1.0 below a pK of 4.9, while D(V/KNAD) and D(V/Kmalate) are pH-independent. Above pH 7 the isotope effects on V and the V/K values for NAD and malate are equal to 1.45, the pH-independent value of DV above pH 7. Results indicate that substrates bind to only the correctly protonated form of the enzyme. Two enzyme groups are necessary for binding of substrates and catalysis. Both NAD and malate are released from the Michaelis complex at equal rates which are equal to the rate of NADH release from E-NADH above pH 7. Below pH 7 NADH release becomes more rate-determining as the pH decreases until at pH 4.0 it completely limits the overall rate of the reaction

  2. Spectroscopy and Speciation Studies on the Interactions of Aluminum (III with Ciprofloxacin and β-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, both experimental and theoretical approaches, including absorption spectra, fluorescence emission spectra, 1H- and 31P-NMR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, pH-potentiometry and theoretical approaches using the BEST & SPE computer programs were applied to study the competitive complexation between ciprofloxacin (CIP and b-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP with aluminum (III in aqueous solutions. Rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA was used to analyze the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of the ligands, the binary complexes and the ternary complexes. It is found, at the mM total concentration level and pH = 7.0, the bidentate mononuclear species [Al(CIP]2+ and [Al(NADP] predominate in the aqueous solutions of the Al(III-CIP and Al(III-NADP systems, and the two complexes have similar conditional stability constants. However, the pH-potentiometry results show at the mM total concentration level and pH = 7.0, the ternary species [Al(CIP(HNADP] predominates in the ternary complex system. Comparing predicted NMR spectra with the experimental NMR results, it can be concluded that for the ternary complex, CIP binds to aluminum ion between the 3-carboxylic and 4-carbonyl groups, while the binding site of oxidized coenzyme II is through the oxygen of phosphate, which is linked to adenosine ribose, instead of pyrophosphate. The results also suggested CIP has the potential to be a probe molecular for the detection of NADP and the Al(III-NADP complexes under physiological condition.

  3. Genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1 deficiency)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, P.B.; Footitt, E.J.; Mills, K.A.; Tuschl, K.; Aylett, S.; Varadkar, S.; Hemingway, C.; Marlow, N.; Rennie, J.; Baxter, P.; Dulac, O.; Nabbout, R.; Craigen, W.J.; Schmitt, B.; Feillet, F.; Christensen, E.; de Lonlay, P.; Pike, M.G.; Hughes, M.I.; Struijs, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Zuberi, S.M.; Clayton, P.T.

    2010-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy was recently shown to be due to mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene, which encodes antiquitin, an enzyme that catalyses the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent dehydrogenation of l-α-aminoadipic semialdehyde/l-Δ

  4. Effects of aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens and its ingredients on cytochrome P450, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH-quinone oxidoreductase in mice

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    Yune-Fang Ueng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (the common rue has been used for various therapeutic purposes, including relief of rheumatism and treatment of circulatory disorder. To elucidate the effects of rue on main drug-metabolizing enzymes, effects of an aqueous extract of the aerial part of rue and its ingredients on cytochrome P450 (P450/CYP, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase were studied in C57BL/6JNarl mice. Oral administration of rue extract to males increased hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities in a dose-dependent manner. Under a 7-day treatment regimen, rue extract (0.5 g/kg induced hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities and protein levels in males and females. This treatment increased hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity only in males. However, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase activity remained unchanged. Based on the contents of rutin and furanocoumarins of mouse dose of rue extract, rutin increased hepatic Cyp1a activity and the mixture of furanocoumarins (Fmix increased Cyp2b activities in males. The mixture of rutin and Fmix increased Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities. These results revealed that rutin and Fmix contributed at least in part to the P450 induction by rue.

  5. Nicotinamide riboside kinase structures reveal new pathways to NAD+.

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    Wolfram Tempel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic nicotinamide riboside kinase (Nrk pathway, which is induced in response to nerve damage and promotes replicative life span in yeast, converts nicotinamide riboside to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ by phosphorylation and adenylylation. Crystal structures of human Nrk1 bound to nucleoside and nucleotide substrates and products revealed an enzyme structurally similar to Rossmann fold metabolite kinases and allowed the identification of active site residues, which were shown to be essential for human Nrk1 and Nrk2 activity in vivo. Although the structures account for the 500-fold discrimination between nicotinamide riboside and pyrimidine nucleosides, no enzyme feature was identified to recognize the distinctive carboxamide group of nicotinamide riboside. Indeed, nicotinic acid riboside is a specific substrate of human Nrk enzymes and is utilized in yeast in a novel biosynthetic pathway that depends on Nrk and NAD+ synthetase. Additionally, nicotinic acid riboside is utilized in vivo by Urh1, Pnp1, and Preiss-Handler salvage. Thus, crystal structures of Nrk1 led to the identification of new pathways to NAD+.

  6. Deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of mitochondrial reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in an infant with congenital lactic acidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreadith, R W; Batshaw, M L; Ohnishi, T; Kerr, D; Knox, B; Jackson, D; Hruban, R; Olson, J; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1984-01-01

    We report the case of an infant with hypoglycemia, progressive lactic acidosis, an increased serum lactate/pyruvate ratio, and elevated plasma alanine, who had a moderate to profound decrease in the ability of mitochondria from four organs to oxidize pyruvate, malate plus glutamate, citrate, and other NAD+-linked respiratory substrates. The capacity to oxidize the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked substrate, succinate, was normal. The most pronounced deficiency was in skeletal muscle, the le...

  7. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide acts at prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors to suppress inhibitory musculomotor neurotransmission in guinea pig colon and human jejunum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Xia, Yun; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Needleman, Bradley J.; Mikami, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record neurogenic inhibitory junction potentials in the intestinal circular muscle coat. Electrical field stimulation was used to stimulate intramural neurons and evoke contraction of the smooth musculature. Exposure to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) did not alter smooth muscle membrane potential in guinea pig colon or human jejunum. ATP, ADP, β-NAD, and adenosine, as well as the purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS 2179 and MRS 2500 and the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, each suppressed inhibitory junction potentials in guinea pig and human preparations. β-NAD suppressed contractile force of twitch-like contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in guinea pig and human preparations. P2Y1 receptor antagonists did not reverse this action. Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine suppressed the force of twitch contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in like manner to the action of β-NAD. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine suppressed the inhibitory action of β-NAD on the force of electrically evoked contractions. The results do not support an inhibitory neurotransmitter role for β-NAD at intestinal neuromuscular junctions. The data suggest that β-NAD is a ligand for the adenosine A1 receptor subtype expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system. The influence of β-NAD on intestinal motility emerges from adenosine A1 receptor-mediated suppression of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25813057

  8. Genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1 deficiency)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Philippa B; Footitt, Emma J; Mills, Kevin A

    2010-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy was recently shown to be due to mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene, which encodes antiquitin, an enzyme that catalyses the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent dehydrogenation of l-alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde/L-Delta1-piperideine 6-carboxylate. However, whilst t...

  9. The distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial and spinal nerves of frog, Microhyla ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Arun G; Biswas, Saikat P; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Pinelli, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) enzymatic activity has been reported in few amphibian species. In this study, we report its unusual localization in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and ganglions of the frog, Microhyla ornata. In the rhombencephalon, at the level of facial and vagus nerves, the NADPH-d labeling was noted in the nucleus of the abducent and facial nerves, dorsal nucleus of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the nucleus of hypoglossus nerve, dorsal and lateral column nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal field of spinal grey, the lateral and medial motor fields of spinal grey and radix ventralis and dorsalis (2-10). Many ependymal cells around the lining of the fourth ventricle, both facial and vagus nerves and dorsal root ganglion, were intensely labeled with NADPH-d. Most strikingly the NADPH-d activity was seen in small and large sized motoneurons in both medial and lateral motor neuron columns on the right and left sides of the brain. This is the largest stained group observed from the caudal rhombencephalon up to the level of radix dorsalis 10 in the spinal cord. The neurons were either oval or elongated in shape with long processes and showed significant variation in the nuclear and cellular diameter. A massive NADPH-d activity in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and spinal nerves implied an important role of this enzyme in the neuronal signaling as well as in the modulation of motor functions in the peripheral nervous systems of the amphibians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptors and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the heart and aorta in type 2 diabetic rats

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    Guo Zhixin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic cardiovascular disease is associated with decreased adiponectin and increased oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (adipoR2 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase subunits in the heart and the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1 in aorta in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet and intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ. Heart function, adipoR2, p22phox, NOX4, glucose transporter 4(GLUT4, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGFin the heart, and adipoR1, MCP-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB in aorta were analyzed in controls and diabetic rats treated with or without telmisartan (5mg/kg/d by gavage for 12 weeks. Results Heart function, plasma and myocardial adiponectin levels, the expression of myocardial adipoR2 and GLUT4 were significantly decreased in diabetic rats (P Conclusions Our results suggest that telmisartan upregulates the expression of myocardial adiponectin, its receptor 2 and GLUT4. Simultaneously, it downregulates the expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF, contributing so to the improvement of heart function in diabetic rats. Telmisartan also induces a protective role on the vascular system by upregulating the expression of adipoR1 and downregulating the expression of MCP-1 and NF-κB in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats.

  11. Defects in Nicotinamide-adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase Genes NOX1 and DUOX2 in Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseSummary

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    Patti Hayes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Defects in intestinal innate defense systems predispose patients to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidases in the mucosal barrier maintain gut homeostasis and defend against pathogenic attack. We hypothesized that molecular genetic defects in intestinal NADPH oxidases might be present in children with IBD. Methods: After targeted exome sequencing of epithelial NADPH oxidases NOX1 and DUOX2 on 59 children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEOIBD, the identified mutations were validated using Sanger Sequencing. A structural analysis of NOX1 and DUOX2 variants was performed by homology in silico modeling. The functional characterization included ROS generation in model cell lines and in in vivo transduced murine crypts, protein expression, intracellular localization, and cell-based infection studies with the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Results: We identified missense mutations in NOX1 (c.988G>A, p.Pro330Ser; c.967G>A, p.Asp360Asn and DUOX2 (c.4474G>A, p.Arg1211Cys; c.3631C>T, p.Arg1492Cys in 5 of 209 VEOIBD patients. The NOX1 p.Asp360Asn variant was replicated in a male Ashkenazi Jewish ulcerative colitis cohort. Patients with both NOX1 and DUOX2 variants showed abnormal Paneth cell metaplasia. All NOX1 and DUOX2 variants showed reduced ROS production compared with wild-type enzymes. Despite appropriate cellular localization and comparable pathogen-stimulated translocation of altered oxidases, cells harboring NOX1 or DUOX2 variants had defective host resistance to infection with C. jejuni. Conclusions: This study identifies the first inactivating missense variants in NOX1 and DUOX2 associated with VEOIBD. Defective ROS production from intestinal epithelial cells constitutes a risk factor for developing VEOIBD. Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, NADPH Oxidase

  12. The role of exogenous electron carriers in NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenase cytochemistry studied in vitro and with a model system of polyacrylamide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Tas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of phenazine methosulfate, 1-methoxyphenazine methosulfate, menadione, and meldola blue as exogenous electron carriers for the cytochemical staining of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P))-dependent dehydrogenases has been studied quantitatively with tetranitro BT

  13. Dynamic changes in nicotinamide pyridine dinucleotide content in normal human epidermal keratinocytes and their effect on retinoic acid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkas-Sarafova, Adriana; Markova, N.G.; Simon, M.

    2005-01-01

    The function of many enzymes that regulate metabolism and transcription depends critically on the nicotinamide pyridine dinucleotides. To understand the role of NAD(P)(H) in physiology and pathophysiology, it is imperative to estimate both their amount and ratios in a given cell type. In human epidermis and in cultured epidermal keratinocytes, we found that the total dinucleotide content is in the low millimolar range. The dinucleotide pattern changes during proliferation and maturation of keratinocytes in culture. Differences in the concentrations of NAD(P)(H) of 1.5- to 12-fold were observed. This resulted in alteration of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P) ratio, which could impact the differential regulation of both transcriptional and metabolic processes. In support of this notion, we provide evidence that the two-step oxidation of retinol to retinoic acid, a nuclear hormone critical for epidermal homeostasis, can be regulated by the relative physiological amounts of the pyridine dinucleotides

  14. NAD+-Dependent Deacetylase Hst1p Controls Biosynthesis and Cellular NAD+ Levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Bedalov, Antonio; Hirao, Maki; Posakony, Jeffrey; Nelson, Melisa; Simon, Julian A.

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) performs key roles in electron transport reactions, as a substrate for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases. In the latter two processes, NAD+ is consumed and converted to ADP-ribose and nicotinamide. NAD+ levels can be maintained by regeneration of NAD+ from nicotinamide via a salvage pathway or by de novo synthesis of NAD+ from tryptophan. Both pathways are conserved from yeast to humans. We describe a critical role of the ...

  15. Distinctive Spectral Features of Exciton and Excimer States in the Ultrafast Electronic Deactivation of the Adenine Dinucleotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhldreier, Mayra C.; Röttger, Katharina; Temps, Friedrich

    We report the observation by transient absorption spectroscopy of distinctive spectro-temporal signatures of delocalized exciton versus relaxed, weakly bound excimer states in the ultrafast electronic deactivation after UV photoexcitation of the adenine dinucleotide.

  16. Metabolomics analysis of metabolic effects of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT inhibition on human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tolstikov

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT plays an important role in cellular bioenergetics. It is responsible for converting nicotinamide to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an essential molecule in cellular metabolism. NAMPT has been extensively studied over the past decade due to its role as a key regulator of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-consuming enzymes. NAMPT is also known as a potential target for therapeutic intervention due to its involvement in disease. In the current study, we used a global mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of FK866, a small molecule inhibitor of NAMPT currently in clinical trials, on metabolic perturbations in human cancer cells. We treated A2780 (ovarian cancer and HCT-116 (colorectal cancer cell lines with FK866 in the presence and absence of nicotinic acid. Significant changes were observed in the amino acids metabolism and the purine and pyrimidine metabolism. We also observed metabolic alterations in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (TCA, and the pentose phosphate pathway. To expand the range of the detected polar metabolites and improve data confidence, we applied a global metabolomics profiling platform by using both non-targeted and targeted hydrophilic (HILIC-LC-MS and GC-MS analysis. We used Ingenuity Knowledge Base to facilitate the projection of metabolomics data onto metabolic pathways. Several metabolic pathways showed differential responses to FK866 based on several matches to the list of annotated metabolites. This study suggests that global metabolomics can be a useful tool in pharmacological studies of the mechanism of action of drugs at a cellular level.

  17. The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside decreases exercise performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtzidis, Ioannis A; Stoupas, Andreas T; Gioris, Ioannis S; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Tsantarliotou, Maria; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its phosphorylated form (NADP(+)) are key molecules in ubiquitous bioenergetic and cellular signaling pathways, regulating cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Thus, supplementation with NAD(+) and NADP(+) precursors emerged as a promising strategy to gain many and multifaceted health benefits. In this proof-of-concept study, we sought to investigate whether chronic nicotinamide riboside administration (an NAD(+) precursor) affects exercise performance. Eighteen Wistar rats were equally divided in two groups that received either saline vehicle or nicotinamide riboside at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight/day for 21 days via gavage. At the end of the 21-day administration protocol, both groups performed an incremental swimming performance test. The nicotinamide riboside group showed a tendency towards worse physical performance by 35 % compared to the control group at the final 10 % load (94 ± 53 s for the nicotinamide riboside group and 145 ± 59 s for the control group; P = 0.071). Our results do not confirm the previously reported ergogenic effect of nicotinamide riboside. The potentially negative effect of nicotinamide riboside administration on physical performance may be attributed to the pleiotropic metabolic and redox properties of NAD(+) and NADP(+).

  18. Meat and Nicotinamide: A Causal Role in Human Evolution, History, and Demographics

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    Adrian C Williams

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hunting for meat was a critical step in all animal and human evolution. A key brain-trophic element in meat is vitamin B 3 /nicotinamide. The supply of meat and nicotinamide steadily increased from the Cambrian origin of animal predators ratcheting ever larger brains. This culminated in the 3-million-year evolution of Homo sapiens and our overall demographic success. We view human evolution, recent history, and agricultural and demographic transitions in the light of meat and nicotinamide intake. A biochemical and immunological switch is highlighted that affects fertility in the ‘de novo’ tryptophan-to-kynurenine-nicotinamide ‘immune tolerance’ pathway. Longevity relates to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide consumer pathways. High meat intake correlates with moderate fertility, high intelligence, good health, and longevity with consequent population stability, whereas low meat/high cereal intake (short of starvation correlates with high fertility, disease, and population booms and busts. Too high a meat intake and fertility falls below replacement levels. Reducing variances in meat consumption might help stabilise population growth and improve human capital.

  19. The reported human NADsyn2 is ammonia-dependent NAD synthetase from a pseudomonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieganowski, Pawel; Brenner, Charles

    2003-08-29

    Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthetases catalyze the last step in NAD+ metabolism in the de novo, import, and salvage pathways that originate from tryptophan (or aspartic acid), nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide, respectively, and converge on nicotinic acid mononucleotide. NAD+ synthetase converts nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide to NAD+ via an adenylylated intermediate. All of the known eukaryotic NAD+ synthetases are glutamine-dependent, hydrolyzing glutamine to glutamic acid to provide the attacking ammonia. In the prokaryotic world, some NAD+ synthetases are glutamine-dependent, whereas others can only use ammonia. Earlier, we noted a perfect correlation between presence of a domain related to nitrilase and glutamine dependence and then proved in the accompanying paper (Bieganowski, P., Pace, H. C., and Brenner, C. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 33049-33055) that the nitrilase-related domain is an essential, obligate intramolecular, thiol-dependent glutamine amidotransferase in the yeast NAD+ synthetase, Qns1. Independently, human NAD+ synthetase was cloned and shown to depend on Cys-175 for glutamine-dependent but not ammonia-dependent NAD+ synthetase activity. Additionally, it was claimed that a 275 amino acid open reading frame putatively amplified from human glioma cell line LN229 encodes a human ammonia-dependent NAD+ synthetase and this was speculated largely to mediate NAD+ synthesis in human muscle tissues. Here we establish that the so-called NADsyn2 is simply ammonia-dependent NAD+ synthetase from Pseudomonas, which is encoded on an operon with nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase and, in some Pseudomonads, with nicotinamidase.

  20. Antimutagenic activity of oxidase enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agabeili, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    By means of a cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in plant cells (Welsh onion, wheat) it was found that the cofactors nicotinamide adenine phosphate (NAD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and riboflavin possess antimutagenic activity

  1. Electron-transfer studies with a new flavin adenine dinucleotide dependent glucose dehydrogenase and osmium polymers of different redox potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Wang, Xiaoju; Sygmund, Christoph; Ludwig, Roland; Leech, Dónal; Gorton, Lo

    2012-01-03

    A new extracellular flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from Glomerella cingulata (GcGDH) was electrochemically studied as a recognition element in glucose biosensors. The redox enzyme was recombinantly produced in Pichia pastoris and homogeneously purified, and its glucose-oxidizing properties on spectrographic graphite electrodes were investigated. Six different Os polymers, the redox potentials of which ranged in a broad potential window between +15 and +489 mV versus the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE), were used to immobilize and "wire" GcGDH to the spectrographic graphite electrode's surface. The GcGDH/Os polymer modified electrodes were evaluated by chronoamperometry using flow injection analysis. The current response was investigated using a stepwisely increased applied potential. It was observed that the ratio of GcGDH/Os polymer and the overall loading of the enzyme electrode significantly affect the performance of the enzyme electrode for glucose oxidation. The best-suited Os polymer [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(PVI)Cl](+) had a potential of +309 mV versus NHE, and the optimum GcGDH/Os polymer ratio was 1:2 yielding a maximum current density of 493 μA·cm(-2) at a 30 mM glucose concentration. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Meat Intake and the Dose of Vitamin B – Nicotinamide: Cause of the Causes of Disease Transitions, Health Divides, and Health Futures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J Hill

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Meat and vitamin B 3 – nicotinamide – intake was high during hunter-gatherer times. Intake then fell and variances increased during and after the Neolithic agricultural revolution. Health, height, and IQ deteriorated. Low dietary doses are buffered by ‘welcoming’ gut symbionts and tuberculosis that can supply nicotinamide, but this co-evolved homeostatic metagenomic strategy risks dysbioses and impaired resistance to pathogens. Vitamin B 3 deficiency may now be common among the poor billions on a low-meat diet. Disease transitions to non-communicable inflammatory disorders (but longer lives may be driven by positive ‘meat transitions’. High doses of nicotinamide lead to reduced regulatory T cells and immune intolerance. Loss of no longer needed symbiotic ‘old friends’ compounds immunological over-reactivity to cause allergic and auto-immune diseases. Inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide consumers and loss of methyl groups or production of toxins may cause cancers, metabolic toxicity, or neurodegeneration. An optimal dosage of vitamin B 3 could lead to better health, but such a preventive approach needs more equitable meat distribution. Some people may require personalised doses depending on genetic make-up or, temporarily, when under stress.

  3. Glaucoma as a Metabolic Optic Neuropathy: Making the Case for Nicotinamide Treatment in Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pete A; Harder, Jeffrey M; John, Simon W M

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction may be an important, if not essential, component of human glaucoma. Using transcriptomics followed by molecular and neurobiological techniques, we have recently demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction within retinal ganglion cells is an early feature in the DBA/2J mouse model of inherited glaucoma. Guided by these findings, we discovered that the retinal level of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, a key molecule for mitochondrial health) declines in an age-dependent manner. We hypothesized that this decline in NAD renders retinal ganglion cells susceptible to damage during periods of elevated intraocular pressure. To replete NAD levels in this glaucoma, we administered nicotinamide (the amide of vitamin B3). At the lowest dose tested, nicotinamide robustly protected from glaucoma (~70% of eyes had no detectable glaucomatous neurodegeneration). At this dose, nicotinamide had no influence on intraocular pressure and so its effect was neuroprotective. At the highest dose tested, 93% of eyes had no detectable glaucoma. This represents a ~10-fold decrease in the risk of developing glaucoma. At this dose, intraocular pressure still became elevated but there was a reduction in the degree of elevation showing an additional benefit. Thus, nicotinamide is unexpectedly potent at preventing this glaucoma and is an attractive option for glaucoma therapeutics. Our findings demonstrate the promise for both preventing and treating glaucoma by interventions that bolster metabolism during increasing age and during periods of elevated intraocular pressure. Nicotinamide prevents age-related declines in NAD (a decline that occurs in different genetic contexts and species). NAD precursors are reported to protect from a variety of neurodegenerative conditions. Thus, nicotinamide may provide a much needed neuroprotective treatment against human glaucoma. This manuscript summarizes human data implicating mitochondria in glaucoma, and argues for studies to

  4. Assimilation of endogenous nicotinamide riboside is essential for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-06-19

    NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD(+) metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD(+) metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD(+)-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD(+) metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD(+) precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD(+) homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility.

  5. Deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of mitochondrial reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in an infant with congenital lactic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreadith, R W; Batshaw, M L; Ohnishi, T; Kerr, D; Knox, B; Jackson, D; Hruban, R; Olson, J; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1984-09-01

    We report the case of an infant with hypoglycemia, progressive lactic acidosis, an increased serum lactate/pyruvate ratio, and elevated plasma alanine, who had a moderate to profound decrease in the ability of mitochondria from four organs to oxidize pyruvate, malate plus glutamate, citrate, and other NAD+-linked respiratory substrates. The capacity to oxidize the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked substrate, succinate, was normal. The most pronounced deficiency was in skeletal muscle, the least in kidney mitochondria. Enzymatic assays on isolated mitochondria ruled out defects in complexes II, III, and IV of the respiratory chain. Further studies showed that the defect was localized in the inner membrane mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). When ferricyanide was used as an artificial electron acceptor, complex I activity was normal, indicating that electrons from NADH could reduce the flavin mononucleotide cofactor. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy performed on liver submitochondrial particles showed an almost total loss of the iron-sulfur clusters characteristic of complex I, whereas normal signals were noted for other mitochondrial iron-sulfur clusters. This infant is presented as the first reported case of congenital lactic acidosis caused by a deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

  6. Big Brains, Meat, Tuberculosis, and the Nicotinamide Switches: Co-Evolutionary Relationships with Modern Repercussions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat-eating was a game changer for human evolution. We suggest that the limiting factors for expanding brains earlier were scarcities of nicotinamide and tryptophan. In humans and some other omnivores, lack of meat causes these deficiencies. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH is necessary to synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP via either glycolysis or via the mitochondrial respiratory chain. NAD consumption is also necessary for developmental and repair circuits. Inadequate supplies result in “de-evolutionary” brain atrophy, as seen with pellagra. If trophic nicotinamide/tryptophan was a “prime mover” in building bigger brains, back-up mechanisms should have evolved. One strategy may be to recruit extra gut symbionts that produce NADH precursors or export nicotinamide (though this may cause diarrhea. We propose a novel supplier TB that co-evolved early, which did not originally and does not now inevitably cause disease. TB has highly paradoxical immunology for a pathogen, and secretes and is inhibited by nicotinamide and its analogue, isoniazid. Sharp declines in TB and diarrhea correlated with increased meat intake in the past, suggesting that dietary vitamin B 3 and tryptophan deficiencies (also associated with poor cognition and decreased lifespans are still common where meat is unaffordable.

  7. galactosidase and α

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, fructose-1- phosphate, α -nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (α ..... compared with that of α -nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (16.3 ± 0.6%) and sodium phytate. (15.2 ± 1.8%) ..... 47: 829–835. Aritajat S., Saenphet K. & Srikalayanukul C., 2005. The toxicity of a crude enzyme extract from.

  8. Nicotinamide starvation and inhibition of poly(ADP-Ribose) synthesis enhance the induced mutation in Chinese hamster V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Gensaku; Kaneko, Ichiro; Mitsui, Hideki.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of nicotinamide (NA) deficiency and added NA and 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) on the cytotoxicity and the induction of mutations in Chinese hamster V79-14 cells were investigated. In NA deficiency the addition of NA (up to 4 mM) and 3AB (up to 7.5 mM) was not cytotoxic. The presence of NA prior to exposure to mitomycin C (MMC) or γ-rays produced a dose-dependent increase in the relative cloning ability of DNA-damaged cells. The lethality of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was significantly potentiated by pre-treatment with 5 mM 3AB, but no potentiation by 3AB was observed for MMC, ultraviolet (UV)-B light, or γ-rays. Among cells pre-cultured in NA-free medium there were increased frequencies of mutations at both the hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) and the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) loci following DNA damage. The enhancing effect by NA deficiency was time-dependent. Incubation with NA prior to DNA damage produced a significant reduction in the frequency of mutations. The addition of 3AB to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-depleted cell cultures before or after the DNA damage also strongly increased the frequency of induced mutations, with increasing concentrations of 3AB up to 5 mM, but the frequency was reduced at higher concentrations. The interaction between NA deficiency and the addition of 3AB appears to act synergistically on mutation induction. A correlation was observed between the potential of inhibiting poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and the enhancement of mutation frequency. (author)

  9. Kongenit methaemoglobinaemi: en sjaelden årsag til neonatal cyanose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Birgitte; Pryds, Ole Axel; Christensen, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    We present a case study of a newborn girl with a reduced erythrocytic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent methaemoglobin reductase level. Within the first days of life she developed cyanosis due to a methaemoglobin level of 21%. The hyperoxia test was characteristic, with normal in...

  10. The conserved baculovirus protein p33 (Ac92) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, C.M.; Rohrmann, G.F.; Merrill, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Open reading frame 92 of the Autographa californica baculovirus (Ac92) is one of about 30 core genes present in all sequenced baculovirus genomes. Computer analyses predicted that the Ac92 encoded protein (called p33) and several of its baculovirus orthologs were related to a family of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Alignment of these proteins indicated that, although they were highly diverse, a number of amino acids in common with the Erv1p/Alrp family of sulfhydryl oxidases are present. Some of these conserved amino acids are predicted to stack against the isoalloxazine and adenine components of FAD, whereas others are involved in electron transfer. To investigate this relationship, Ac92 was expressed in bacteria as a His-tagged fusion protein, purified, and characterized both spectrophotometrically and for its enzymatic activity. The purified protein was found to have the color (yellow) and absorption spectrum consistent with it being a FAD-containing protein. Furthermore, it was demonstrated to have sulfhydryl oxidase activity using dithiothreitol and thioredoxin as substrates.

  11. Study on preventive effects of i.v. administration of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) before irradiation on radiation stomatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masao; Houzawa, Jiro; Hakamada, Masaru

    1984-01-01

    In order to compare the preventive effect on radiation stomatitis, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or vitamin C was administered intravenously until the blood level reached the maximum at the time of irradiation. Thirtyfive patients with cranial or cervical tumors were allocated into the group with FAD (15), the group with vitamin C (10), and the group with irradiation alone (10). The incidence of stomititis was significantly lower and the number of patients in whom the drug was withdrawn due to stomatitis was extremely smaller in the group with FAD than in the other groups. FAD administered before irradiation was considered very useful in preventing radiation stomatitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. A quick look at biochemistry : Carbohydrate metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashty, Monireh

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, there are different metabolic pathways in cells that break down fuel molecules to transfer their energy into high energy compounds such as adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH2), reduced flavin adenine

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of alcohol dehydrogenases in the silkworm Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH are a class of enzymes that catalyze the reversible oxidation of alcohols to corresponding aldehydes or ketones, by using either nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP, as coenzymes. In this study, a short-chain ADH gene was identified in Bombyx mori by 5'-RACE PCR. This is the first time the coding region of BmADH has been cloned, expressed, purified and then characterized. The cDNA fragment encoding the BmADH protein was amplified from a pool of silkworm cDNAs by PCR, and then cloned into E. coli expression vector pET-30a(+. The recombinant His-tagged BmADH protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3, and then purified by metal chelating affinity chromatography. The soluble recombinant BmADH, produced at low-growth temperature, was instrumental in catalyzing the ethanol-dependent reduction of NAD+, thereby indicating ethanol as one of the substrates of BmADH.

  14. Nicotinamidase modulation of NAD+ biosynthesis and nicotinamide levels separately affect reproductive development and cell survival in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrablik, Tracy L; Huang, Li; Lange, Stephanie E; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2009-11-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a central molecule in cellular metabolism and an obligate co-substrate for NAD(+)-consuming enzymes, which regulate key biological processes such as longevity and stress responses. Although NAD(+) biosynthesis has been intensely studied, little analysis has been done in developmental models. We have uncovered novel developmental roles for a nicotinamidase (PNC), the first enzyme in the NAD(+) salvage pathway of invertebrates. Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans nicotinamidase PNC-1 cause developmental and functional defects in the reproductive system; the development of the gonad is delayed, four uterine cells die by necrosis and the mutant animals are egg-laying defective. The temporal delay in gonad development results from depletion of the salvage pathway product NAD(+), whereas the uv1 cell necrosis and egg-laying defects result from accumulation of the substrate nicotinamide. Thus, regulation of both substrate and product level is key to the biological activity of PNC-1. We also find that diet probably affects the levels of these metabolites, as it affects phenotypes. Finally, we identified a secreted isoform of PNC-1 and confirmed its extracellular localization and functional activity in vivo. We demonstrate that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), the equivalent enzyme in nicotinamide recycling to NAD(+) in vertebrates, can functionally substitute for PNC-1. As Nampt is also secreted, we postulate an evolutionarily conserved extracellular role for NAD(+) biosynthetic enzymes during development and physiology.

  15. Niacin, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and genomic stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, G.J.; Stierum, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NAM), commonly called niacin, are the dietary precursors for NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), which is required for DNA synthesis, as well as for the activity of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1; EC 2.4.2.30) for which NAD+ is the sole

  16. Sylwan manuscript revised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    이영준

    mature adipocytes and accumulate lipids, as an obesity model with cytotoxicity and ... 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide; NAC = N-acetyl-L-cysteine; NADPH = Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; OD = ..... ovariectomized rats.

  17. Yield of DNA strand breaks and their relationship to DNA polymerase I-dependent repair synthesis and ligation following x-ray exposure of toluene-treated Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.

    1981-01-01

    In Escherichia coli made permeable to nucleotides by toluene treatment, a DNA polymerase I-directed repair synthesis is observed. This is an exaggerated repair synthesis which can be abruptly terminated by the addition of the DNA ligase cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. This communication describes experiments which bear on the relationship between measurable strand breaks, DNA polymerase I-directed, exaggerated repair synthesis, and strand-break repair

  18. The Role of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase in Diabetes and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Kyu Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC is an emerging target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. To maintain a steady-state concentration of adenosine triphosphate during the feed-fast cycle, cells require efficient utilization of fatty acid and glucose, which is controlled by the PDC. The PDC converts pyruvate, coenzyme A (CoA, and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ into acetyl-CoA, reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, and carbon dioxide. The activity of the PDC is up- and down-regulated by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, respectively. In addition, pyruvate is a key intermediate of glucose oxidation and an important precursor for the synthesis of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and nonessential amino acids.

  19. Nicotinamide mononucleotide inhibits post-ischemic NAD(+) degradation and dramatically ameliorates brain damage following global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji H; Long, Aaron; Owens, Katrina; Kristian, Tibor

    2016-11-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential cofactor for multiple cellular metabolic reactions and has a central role in energy production. Brain ischemia depletes NAD(+) pools leading to bioenergetics failure and cell death. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is utilized by the NAD(+) salvage pathway enzyme, nicotinamide adenylyltransferase (Nmnat) to generate NAD(+). Therefore, we examined whether NMN could protect against ischemic brain damage. Mice were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia and treated with NMN or vehicle at the start of reperfusion or 30min after the ischemic insult. At 2, 4, and 24h of recovery, the proteins poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR), hippocampal NAD(+) levels, and expression levels of NAD(+) salvage pathway enzymes were determined. Furthermore, animal's neurologic outcome and hippocampal CA1 neuronal death was assessed after six days of reperfusion. NMN (62.5mg/kg) dramatically ameliorated the hippocampal CA1 injury and significantly improved the neurological outcome. Additionally, the post-ischemic NMN treatment prevented the increase in PAR formation and NAD(+) catabolism. Since the NMN administration did not affect animal's temperature, blood gases or regional cerebral blood flow during recovery, the protective effect was not a result of altered reperfusion conditions. These data suggest that administration of NMN at a proper dosage has a strong protective effect against ischemic brain injury. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Synthesis, conformational analysis, and biological activity of new analogues of thiazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide (TAD) as IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Palmarisa; Cappellacci, Loredana; Pasqualini, Michela; Petrelli, Riccardo; Jayaprakasan, Vetrichelvan; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N; Boyd, Donald B; Jain, Manojkumar D; Grifantini, Mario

    2005-03-15

    Thiazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide (TAD) analogues T-2'-MeAD (1) and T-3'-MeAD (2) containing, respectively, a methyl group at the ribose 2'-C-, and 3'-C-position of the adenosine moiety, were prepared as potential selective human inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) type II inhibitors. The synthesis of heterodinucleotides was carried out by CDI-catalyzed coupling reaction of unprotected 2'-C-methyl- or 3'-C-methyl-adenosine 5'-monophosphate with 2',3'-O-isopropylidene-tiazofurin 5'-monophosphate, and then deisopropylidenation. Biological evaluation of dinucleotides 1 and 2 as inhibitors of recombinant human IMPDH type I and type II resulted in a good activity. Inhibition of both isoenzymes by T-2'-MeAD and T-3'-MeAD was noncompetitive with respect to NAD substrate. Binding of T-3'-MeAD was comparable to that of parent compound TAD, while T-2'-MeAD proved to be a weaker inhibitor. However, no significant difference was found in inhibition of the IMPDH isoenzymes. T-2'-MeAD and T-3'-MeAD were found to inhibit the growth of K562 cells (IC(50) 30.7 and 65.0muM, respectively).

  1. Biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol using Mycoplana dimorpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... dation kinetic models have been developed, proposed and used in ... kinetic models. ..... Dihydroxycyclohexa-3, 5-Diene (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) .... (KMUP-3) in rat trachea: The involvement of soluble guanylate.

  2. Do diosgenin ameliorate urinary bladder toxic effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... experimental animal models? ... BSO doses using a Swiss albino mouse model. Toxicity modulation ... bladder inflammation induced by CP in rats and mice .... 0.1 ml NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate.

  3. S-Adenosyl-L-Homocysteine Hydrolase Inhibition by a Synthetic Nicotinamide Cofactor Biomimetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn L. Kailing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH hydrolases (SAHases are involved in the regulation of methylation reactions in many organisms and are thus crucial for numerous cellular functions. Consequently, their dysregulation is associated with severe health problems. The SAHase-catalyzed reaction is reversible and both directions depend on the redox activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ as a cofactor. Therefore, nicotinamide cofactor biomimetics (NCB are a promising tool to modulate SAHase activity. In the present in vitro study, we investigated 10 synthetic truncated NAD+ analogs against a SAHase from the root-nodulating bacterium Bradyrhizobium elkanii. Among this set of analogs, one was identified to inhibit the SAHase in both directions. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC and crystallography experiments suggest that the inhibitory effect is not mediated by a direct interaction with the protein. Neither the apo-enzyme (i.e., deprived of the natural cofactor, nor the holo-enzyme (i.e., in the NAD+-bound state were found to bind the inhibitor. Yet, enzyme kinetics point to a non-competitive inhibition mechanism, where the inhibitor acts on both, the enzyme and enzyme-SAH complex. Based on our experimental results, we hypothesize that the NCB inhibits the enzyme via oxidation of the enzyme-bound NADH, which may be accessible through an open molecular gate, leaving the enzyme stalled in a configuration with oxidized cofactor, where the reaction intermediate can be neither converted nor released. Since the reaction mechanism of SAHase is quite uncommon, this kind of inhibition could be a viable pharmacological route, with a low risk of off-target effects. The NCB presented in this work could be used as a template for the development of more potent SAHase inhibitors.

  4. Pyridine nucleotide cycling and control of intracellular redox state in relation to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and nuclear localization of glutathione during exponential growth of Arabidopsis cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellny, Till K; Locato, Vittoria; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Markovic, Jelena; De Gara, Laura; Pallardó, Federico V; Foyer, Christine H

    2009-05-01

    Pyridine nucleotides, ascorbate and glutathione are major redox metabolites in plant cells, with specific roles in cellular redox homeostasis and the regulation of the cell cycle. However, the regulation of these metabolite pools during exponential growth and their precise functions in the cell cycle remain to be characterized. The present analysis of the abundance of ascorbate, glutathione, and pyridine nucleotides during exponential growth of Arabidopsis cells in culture provides evidence for the differential regulation of each of these redox pools. Ascorbate was most abundant early in the growth cycle, but glutathione was low at this point. The cellular ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and reduced glutathione (GSH) to glutathione disulphide ratios were high and constant but the pyridine nucleotide pools were largely oxidized over the period of exponential growth and only became more reduced once growth had ceased. The glutathione pool increased in parallel with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activities and with increases in the abundance of PARP1 and PARP2 mRNAs at a time of high cell cycle activity as indicated by transcriptome information. Marked changes in the intracellular partitioning of GSH between the cytoplasm and nucleus were observed. Extension of the exponential growth phase by dilution or changing the media led to increases in the glutathione and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form (NAD)-plus-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form (NADH) pools and to higher NAD/NADH ratios but the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, oxidized form (NADP)-plus-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH) pool sizes, and NAPD/NADPH ratios were much less affected. The ascorbate, glutathione, and pyridine nucleotide pools and PARP activity decreased before the exponential growth phase ended. We conclude that there are marked changes in intracellular redox state during the growth cycle but that redox homeostasis is

  5. Nicotinamide: a vitamin able to shift macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with restricted inflammatory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ronald; Schilling, Erik; Grahnert, Anja; Kölling, Valeen; Dorow, Juliane; Ceglarek, Uta; Sack, Ulrich; Hauschildt, Sunna

    2015-11-01

    The differentiation of human monocytes into macrophages is influenced by environmental signals. Here we asked in how far nicotinamide (NAM), a vitamin B3 derivative known to play a major role in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-mediated signaling events, is able to modulate monocyte differentiation into macrophages developed in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-MØ) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-MØ). We found that GM-MØ undergo biochemical, morphological and functional modifications in response to NAM, whereas M-MØ were hardly affected. GM-MØ exposed to NAM acquired an M-MØ-like structure while the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-derived eicosanoids were down-regulated. In contrast, NAM had no effect on the production of IL-10 or the cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids. Administration of NAM enhanced intracellular NAD concentrations; however, it did not prevent the LPS-mediated drain on NAD pools. In search of intracellular molecular targets of NAM known to be involved in LPS-induced cytokine and eicosanoid synthesis, we found NF-κB activity to be diminished. In conclusion, our data show that vitamin B3, when present during the differentiation of monocytes into GM-MØ, interferes with biochemical pathways resulting in strongly reduced pro-inflammatory features. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Chromium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In most models two nicotinate ligands are ... However, both biological extracts and synthetic GTF models have ..... chromium (III)-β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phos- ... and free fatty acids levels in diabetic rats; J. Inorg. Biochem.

  7. Biokemistri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chibuike

    2011-12-31

    Dec 31, 2011 ... domain housing the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)- binding site and the ..... compared to wild-type animals, in experimental models of excitotoxicity .... Factor during transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat. Brain Res.

  8. Roles of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+ in Biological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmiro Poltronieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available NAD+ has emerged as a crucial element in both bioenergetic and signaling pathways since it acts as a key regulator of cellular and organism homeostasis. NAD+ is a coenzyme in redox reactions, a donor of adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADPr moieties in ADP-ribosylation reactions, a substrate for sirtuins, a group of histone deacetylase enzymes that use NAD+ to remove acetyl groups from proteins; NAD+ is also a precursor of cyclic ADP-ribose, a second messenger in Ca++ release and signaling, and of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A and oligoadenylates (oligo2′-5′A, two immune response activating compounds. In the biological systems considered in this review, NAD+ is mostly consumed in ADP-ribose (ADPr transfer reactions. In this review the roles of these chemical products are discussed in biological systems, such as in animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. In the review, two types of ADP-ribosylating enzymes are introduced as well as the pathways to restore the NAD+ pools in these systems.

  9. Aerobic Swim Training Restores Aortic Endothelial Function by Decreasing Superoxide Levels in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila P. Jordão

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether aerobic training decreases superoxide levels, increases nitric oxide levels, and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY were distributed into 2 groups: sedentary (SHRsd and WKYsd, n=10 each and swimming-trained (SHRtr, n=10 and WKYtr, n=10, respectively. The trained group participated in training sessions 5 days/week for 1 h/day with an additional work load of 4% of the animal’s body weight. After a 10-week sedentary or aerobic training period, the rats were euthanized. The thoracic aortas were removed to evaluate the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (10-10 to 10-4 M with or without preincubation with L-NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10-4 M in vitro. The aortic tissue was also used to assess the levels of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoforms 1 and 4 proteins, as well as the superoxide and nitrite contents. Blood pressure was measured using a computerized tail-cuff system. RESULTS: Aerobic training significantly increased the acetylcholine-induced maximum vasodilation observed in the SHRtr group compared with the SHRsd group (85.9±4.3 vs. 71.6±5.2%. Additionally, in the SHRtr group, superoxide levels were significantly decreased, nitric oxide bioavailability was improved, and the levels of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 protein were decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Moreover, after training, the blood pressure of the SHRtr group decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Exercise training had no effect on the blood pressure of the WKYtr group. CONCLUSIONS: In SHR, aerobic swim training decreased vascular superoxide generation by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 and increased nitric oxide bioavailability, thereby improving

  10. The change of intracellular NAD level at the process of fusarium sambucinum growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyamova, T.G.; Ehshtukhtarova, M.Kh.; Umarova, G.D.; Kerbalaeva, A.M.; Khalmuradov, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Alterations of intracellular NAD(Nicotinamide-Adenine Dinucleotide) level have been studied in the process of growth and development of Fusanium sambucinum, selected earlier as a potential NAD producer. It was established that essential fluctuations of NAD concentration are dependent on growth phase, morphological cell type and DNA biosynthesis, that allowed to propose a real linkage between coenzyme pool and replicative activity of cells. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs

  11. The effect of blood ozonation on mitochondrial function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... form); NAD+, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidised form);. ROS, reactive .... Isolation of rat liver mitochondria. Liver from healthy ... Respiration was measured using a MitocellTM (model MT 200) oxy- gen electrode and ...

  12. Protective effect of Euphorbia neriifolia saponin fraction on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... ALP, alkaline phosphatase; NAD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide .... Laboratory bred Wistar albino rats of both sexes (150 - 200 g) were maintained .... experimental animals is a commonly used model for the screening of ...

  13. Decreased visfatin after exercise training correlates with improved glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    Nampt/pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor/visfatin (visfatin) release from adipocytes has recently been suggested to be nutrient responsive and linked to systemic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis and regulation of pancreatic beta-cell function....

  14. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    in the rat vitamin C is synthesised from glucose via the glucuronic pathway of ..... guinea pig model, we have demonstrated that moderately large doses of vitamin C ... of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to microsomal ...

  15. CD38 Dictates Age-Related NAD Decline and Mitochondrial Dysfunction through an SIRT3-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Pereira, Juliana; Tarragó, Mariana G; Chini, Claudia C S; Nin, Veronica; Escande, Carlos; Warner, Gina M; Puranik, Amrutesh S; Schoon, Renee A; Reid, Joel M; Galina, Antonio; Chini, Eduardo N

    2016-06-14

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels decrease during aging and are involved in age-related metabolic decline. To date, the mechanism responsible for the age-related reduction in NAD has not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that expression and activity of the NADase CD38 increase with aging and that CD38 is required for the age-related NAD decline and mitochondrial dysfunction via a pathway mediated at least in part by regulation of SIRT3 activity. We also identified CD38 as the main enzyme involved in the degradation of the NAD precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in vivo, indicating that CD38 has a key role in the modulation of NAD-replacement therapy for aging and metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Visualization of Nicotine Adenine Dinucleotide Redox Homeostasis with Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuzheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Zou, Yejun; Yang, Yi

    2018-01-20

    Beyond their roles as redox currency in living organisms, pyridine dinucleotides (NAD + /NADH and NADP + /NADPH) are also precursors or cosubstrates of great significance in various physiologic and pathologic processes. Recent Advances: For many years, it was challenging to develop methodologies for monitoring pyridine dinucleotides in situ or in vivo. Recent advances in fluorescent protein-based sensors provide a rapid, sensitive, specific, and real-time readout of pyridine dinucleotide dynamics in single cells or in vivo, thereby opening a new era of pyridine dinucleotide bioimaging. In this article, we summarize the developments in genetically encoded fluorescent sensors for NAD + /NADH and NADP + /NADPH redox states, as well as their applications in life sciences and drug discovery. The strengths and weaknesses of individual sensors are also discussed. These sensors have the advantages of being specific and organelle targetable, enabling real-time monitoring and subcellular-level quantification of targeted molecules in living cells and in vivo. NAD + /NADH and NADP + /NADPH have distinct functions in metabolic and redox regulation, and thus, a comprehensive evaluation of metabolic and redox states must be multiplexed with a combination of various metabolite sensors in a single cell. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 213-229.

  17. Three cases of intentional isoniazid overdose – a life-threatening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Lactic acidosis is thought to occur by INH inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase via its effect on the co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. This is exacerbated by increased lactate production during seizures. For the management of an ...

  18. Energy-responsive timekeeping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... involved lesions of the parabrachial nucleus in rats (David- son et al. 2000); however .... loops (figure 2). The current model involves a primary loop with CLOCK and .... of reduced to oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.

  19. Original Article Pubertal Development of Penile Nitric Oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    penile tissue in different age groups in the rat and to measure serum testosterone levels ... shaft specimen was taken for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase ..... The rat as a model for the study of penile erection.

  20. Acrolein inhibits NADH-linked mitochondrial enzyme activity: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocernich, Chava B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2003-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain increased lipid peroxidation and decreased energy utilization are found. Mitochondria membranes contain a significant amount of arachidonic and linoleic acids, precursors of lipid peroxidation products, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 2-propen-1-al (acrolein), that are extremely reactive. Both alkenals are increased in AD brain. In this study, we examined the effects of nanomolar levels of acrolein on the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH), both reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-linked mitochondrial enzymes. Acrolein decreased PDH and KGDH activities significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), acrolein was found to bind lipoic acid, a component in both the PDH and KGDH complexes, most likely explaining the loss of enzyme activity. Acrolein also interacted with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) in such a way as to decrease the production of NADH. Acrolein, which is increased in AD brain, may be partially responsible for the dysfunction of mitochondria and loss of energy found in AD brain by inhibition of PDH and KGDH activities, potentially contributing to the neurodegeneration in this disorder.

  1. Modeling of NAD+ analogues in horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer, N.A.; Buck, H.M.; Sluyterman, L.A.A.E.; Meijer, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    So far, the interactions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) derivatives with dehydrogenases are not very well understood. This hampers the introduction of NAD+ analogues with improved characteristics concerning industrial application. We have developed an AMBER molecular mechanics model in

  2. Can we predict and/or prevent type I diabetes?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-10-20

    Oct 20, 1990 ... detecting 64KA using Western bloning with rat islet prepara- tions has been ... Although the model appears to give a good correlation, it must be .... DNA repair using cyrosolic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. (NAD) as a ...

  3. Nicotinamidase participates in the salvage pathway of NAD biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Pichersky, Eran

    2007-03-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), which is derived from NAD, have important roles as a redox carriers in metabolism. A combination of de novo and salvage pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of NAD in all organisms. The pathways and enzymes of the NAD salvage pathway in yeast and animals, which diverge at nicotinamide, have been extensively studied. Yeast cells convert nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, while mammals lack the enzyme nicotinamidase and instead convert nicotinamide to nicotinamide mononucleotide. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana gene At2g22570 encodes a nicotinamidase, which is expressed in all tissues, with the highest levels observed in roots and stems. The 244-residue protein, designated AtNIC1, converts nicotinamide to nicotinic acid and has a Km value of 118 +/- 17 microM and a Kcat value of 0.93 +/- 0.13 sec(-1). Plants homozygous for a null AtNIC1 allele, nic1-1, have lower levels of NAD and NADP under normal growth conditions, indicating that AtNIC1 participates in a yeast-type NAD salvage pathway. Mutant plants also exhibit hypersensitivity to treatments of abscisic acid and NaCl, which is correlated with their inability to increase the cellular levels of NAD(H) under these growth conditions, as occurs in wild-type plants. We also show that the growth of the roots of wild-type but not nic1-1 mutant plants is inhibited and distorted by nicotinamide.

  4. NAD+ biosynthesis, aging, and disease [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ biosynthesis and its regulation have recently been attracting markedly increasing interest. Aging is marked by a systemic decrease in NAD+ across multiple tissues. The dysfunction of NAD+ biosynthesis plays a critical role in the pathophysiologies of multiple diseases, including age-associated metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and mental disorders. As downstream effectors, NAD+-dependent enzymes, such as sirtuins, are involved in the progression of such disorders. These recent studies implicate NAD+ biosynthesis as a potential target for preventing and treating age-associated diseases. Indeed, new studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of supplementing NAD+ intermediates, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside, providing a proof of concept for the development of an effective anti-aging intervention.

  5. Two X-linked chronic granulomatous disease patients with unusual NADPH oxidase properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolach, Baruch; Broides, Arnon; Zeeli, Tal; Gavrieli, Ronit; de Boer, Martin; van Leeuwen, Karin; Levy, Jacov; Roos, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an immune deficiency syndrome caused by defects in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, the enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytizing leukocytes. This study evaluates the NADPH oxidase capacity in two

  6. Kinetic and modelling studies of NAD+ and poly(ethylene glycol)-bound NAD+ in horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhommerig, S.A.M.; Sluyterman, L.A.A.E.; Meijer, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-bound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (PEG-NAD+) has been successfully employed in the continuous production of L-amino acids from the corresponding alpha-keto acids by stereospecific reductive amination. Like many other dehydrogenases also horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

  7. Nitric oxide synthase in the gill of Atlantic salmon: colocalization with and inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tipsmark, Christian K; Holmqvist, Bo

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in the gill of anadromous Atlantic salmon. Cells containing NO-producing enzymes were revealed by means of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunocytochemistry and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphor...

  8. Electrochemical oxidation of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Jacob M; Favela, Carlos A; Stevenson, Keith J

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) substantially lower the overpotential necessary for dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation compared to nondoped CNTs or traditional carbon electrodes such as glassy carbon (GC). We observe a 370 mV shift in the peak potential (Ep) from GC to CNTs and another 170 mV shift from CNTs to 7.4 atom % N-CNTs in a sodium phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0) with 2.0 mM NADH (scan rate 10 mV/s). The sensitivity of 7.4 atom % N-CNTs to NADH was measured at 0.30 ± 0.04 A M(-1) cm(-2), with a limit of detection at 1.1 ± 0.3 μM and a linear range of 70 ± 10 μM poised at a low potential of -0.32 V (vs Hg/Hg2SO4). NADH fouling, known to occur to the electrode surface during NADH oxidation, was investigated by measuring both the change in Ep and the resulting loss of electrode sensitivity. NADH degradation, known to occur in phosphate buffer, was characterized by absorbance at 340 nm and correlated with the loss of NADH electroactivity. N-CNTs are further demonstrated to be an effective platform for dehydrogenase-based biosensing by allowing glucose dehydrogenase to spontaneously adsorb onto the N-CNT surface and measuring the resulting electrode's sensitivity to glucose. The glucose biosensor had a sensitivity of 0.032 ± 0.003 A M(-1) cm(-2), a limit of detection at 6 ± 1 μM, and a linear range of 440 ± 50 μM.

  9. Gold electrodes modified with 16H, 18H-dibenzo[c,l]-7,9-dithia-16,18-diazapentacene for electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, V.; Muresan, L.; Popescu, I.C.; Cristea, C.; Silberg, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    16H,18H-Dibenzo[c,l]-7,9-dithia-16,18-diazapentacene (DDDP), a new phenothiazine derivative containing two linearly condensed phenothiazine rings, strongly adsorbs on polyoriented gold resulting in a modified electrode with electrocatalytic activity for ß-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)

  10. Deficiency of the Mitochondrial NAD Kinase Causes Stress-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Kezhong; Kim, Hyunbae; Fu, Zhiyao; Qiu, Yining; Yang, Zhao; Wang, Jiemei; Zhang, Deqiang; Tong, Xin; Yin, Lei; Li, Jing; Wu, Jianmei; Qi, Nathan R.; Houten, Sander M.; Zhang, Ren

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) kinase (NADK2, also called MNADK) catalyzes phosphorylation of NAD to yield NADP. Little is known about the functions of mitochondrial NADP and MNADK in liver physiology and pathology. We investigated the effects of reduced mitochondrial NADP

  11. An NAD+-dependent transcriptional program governs self-renewal and radiation resistance in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Amit D; Le, Son; Mao, Diane D; Dadey, David Y A; Turski, Alice; Sasaki, Yo; Aum, Diane; Luo, Jingqin; Dahiya, Sonika; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith M; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Hallahan, Dennis E; Yano, Hiroko; Tran, David D; Kim, Albert H

    2016-12-20

    Accumulating evidence suggests cancer cells exhibit a dependency on metabolic pathways regulated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ). Nevertheless, how the regulation of this metabolic cofactor interfaces with signal transduction networks remains poorly understood in glioblastoma. Here, we report nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting step in NAD + synthesis, is highly expressed in glioblastoma tumors and patient-derived glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). High NAMPT expression in tumors correlates with decreased patient survival. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of NAMPT decreased NAD + levels and GSC self-renewal capacity, and NAMPT knockdown inhibited the in vivo tumorigenicity of GSCs. Regulatory network analysis of RNA sequencing data using GSCs treated with NAMPT inhibitor identified transcription factor E2F2 as the center of a transcriptional hub in the NAD + -dependent network. Accordingly, we demonstrate E2F2 is required for GSC self-renewal. Downstream, E2F2 drives the transcription of members of the inhibitor of differentiation (ID) helix-loop-helix gene family. Finally, we find NAMPT mediates GSC radiation resistance. The identification of a NAMPT-E2F2-ID axis establishes a link between NAD + metabolism and a self-renewal transcriptional program in glioblastoma, with therapeutic implications for this formidable cancer.

  12. Functional and structural analysis of yeast trx system reveals structural elements of substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio; Discola, Karen Fulan; Alves, Simone Vidigal; Netto, Luis Eduardo Soares; Amorim, Gisele Cardoso; Pinheiro, Anderson Sa; Valente, Ana Paula; Almeida, Fabio Ceneviva Lacerda; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Guimaraes, Beatriz Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Thioredoxin reductases (Trr) are members of the nucleotide pyridine disulfide oxide reductase family, which includes glutathione reductase (Gr), alkyl hydroperoxide reductase F (AhpF) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd). Constituents of this family are homodimeric flavoproteins containing one redoxactive disulfide and one tightly bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) per subunit. Trr catalyzes the disulfide reduction of oxidized Thioredoxin (Trx) using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) via a FAD molecule and a redox-active cysteine motif. In this context, FAD transfers the reducing equivalents from NADPH molecule to the reactive cysteines and then to the Trx. Trx, Trr and NADPH comprise the Trx system. Trx are low molecular weight proteins (∼12 KDa) which are involved in several thiol-dependent cellular reactions such as synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, sulphur metabolism, regulation of the gene expression and oxidative stress defenses. Remarkably, Trr - Trx interactions presents high species and organelle specificities. (author)

  13. NAD(+) metabolism: A therapeutic target for age-related metabolic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouchiroud, Laurent; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a central metabolic cofactor by virtue of its redox capacity, and as such regulates a wealth of metabolic transformations. However, the identification of the longevity protein silent regulator 2 (Sir2), the founding member of the sirtuin protein

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Given the potential application of xylose reductase enzymes that preferentially utilize the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) rather than NADPH in the fermentation of five carbon sugars by genetically engineered microorganisms, the coenzyme selectivity of TeXR was altered by site-directed ...

  15. Mitochondrial respiratory complex I probed by delayed luminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Irina; Ionescu, Diana; Privitera, Simona; Scordino, Agata; Mocanu, Maria Magdalena; Musumeci, Francesco; Grasso, Rosaria; Gulino, Marisa; Iftime, Adrian; Tofolean, Ioana Teodora; Garaiman, Alexandru; Goicea, Alexandru; Irimia, Ruxandra; Dimancea, Alexandru; Ganea, Constanta

    2013-12-01

    The role of mitochondrial complex I in ultraweak photon-induced delayed photon emission [delayed luminescence (DL)] of human leukemia Jurkat T cells was probed by using complex I targeting agents like rotenone, menadione, and quercetin. Rotenone, a complex I-specific inhibitor, dose-dependently increased the mitochondrial level of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), decreased clonogenic survival, and induced apoptosis. A strong correlation was found between the mitochondrial levels of NADH and oxidized flavin mononucleotide (FMNox) in rotenone-, menadione- and quercetin-treated cells. Rotenone enhanced DL dose-dependently, whereas quercetin and menadione inhibited DL as well as NADH or FMNox. Collectively, the data suggest that DL of Jurkat cells originates mainly from mitochondrial complex I, which functions predominantly as a dimer and less frequently as a tetramer. In individual monomers, both pairs of pyridine nucleotide (NADH/reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) sites and flavin (FMN-a/FMN-b) sites appear to bind cooperatively their specific ligands. Enhancement of delayed red-light emission by rotenone suggests that the mean time for one-electron reduction of ubiquinone or FMN-a by the terminal Fe/S center (N2) is 20 or 284 μs, respectively. All these findings suggest that DL spectroscopy could be used as a reliable, sensitive, and robust technique to probe electron flow within complex I in situ.

  16. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase in Smooth Muscle Cells Maintains Genome Integrity, Resists Aortic Medial Degeneration, and Is Suppressed in Human Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alanna; Nong, Zengxuan; Yin, Hao; O'Neil, Caroline; Fox, Stephanie; Balint, Brittany; Guo, Linrui; Leo, Oberdan; Chu, Michael W A; Gros, Robert; Pickering, J Geoffrey

    2017-06-09

    The thoracic aortic wall can degenerate over time with catastrophic consequences. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can resist and repair artery damage, but their capacities decline with age and stress. Recently, cellular production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) via nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) has emerged as a mediator of cell vitality. However, a role for Nampt in aortic SMCs in vivo is unknown. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system exists within the aortic media and is required for aortic health. Ascending aortas from patients with dilated aortopathy were immunostained for NAMPT, revealing an inverse relationship between SMC NAMPT content and aortic diameter. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system in SMCs impacts aortic integrity, mice with Nampt -deficient SMCs were generated. SMC- Nampt knockout mice were viable but with mildly dilated aortas that had a 43% reduction in NAD + in the media. Infusion of angiotensin II led to aortic medial hemorrhage and dissection. SMCs were not apoptotic but displayed senescence associated-ß-galactosidase activity and upregulated p16, indicating premature senescence. Furthermore, there was evidence for oxidized DNA lesions, double-strand DNA strand breaks, and pronounced susceptibility to single-strand breakage. This was linked to suppressed poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity and was reversible on resupplying NAD + with nicotinamide riboside. Remarkably, we discovered unrepaired DNA strand breaks in SMCs within the human ascending aorta, which were specifically enriched in SMCs with low NAMPT. NAMPT promoter analysis revealed CpG hypermethylation within the dilated human thoracic aorta and in SMCs cultured from these tissues, which inversely correlated with NAMPT expression. The aortic media depends on an intrinsic NAD + fueling system to protect against DNA damage and premature SMC senescence, with relevance to human thoracic aortopathy. © 2017 American Heart

  17. Uptake in the pancreatic islets of nicotimamide, nicotinic acid and tryptophan and their ability to prevent streptozotocin diabetes in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjaelve, H; Wilander, E [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1976-01-01

    The uptake of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-precursors nicotinamide, nicotinic acid and tryptophan in the pancreatic islets of mice was studied by use of autoradio-graphical methods. The ability of these substances to prevent streptozotocin diabetes was studied in the same species. It was found that only nicotinamide was strongly accumulated in the pancreatic islets and nicotinamide was also the only NAD-precursor which protected against the streptozotocin diabetes. Apparently there is a relationship between the ability of the NAD-precursors to be taken up in the pancreatic islets and their ability to prevent streptozotocin diabetes.

  18. Gene cloning and characterization of NADH oxidase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genome search of Thermococcus kodakarensis revealed three open reading frames, Tk0304, Tk1299 and Tk1392 annotated as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidases. This study deals with cloning, and characterization of Tk0304. The gene, composed of 1320 nucleotides, encodes a protein of 439 ...

  19. Leishmania infantum nicotinamidase is required for late-stage development in its natural sand fly vector, Phlebotomus perniciosus

    OpenAIRE

    Gazanion, Elodie; Seblova, V.; Votypka, J.; Vergnes, Baptiste; Garcia, Deborah; Volf, P.; Sereno, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania infantum nicotinamidase, encoded by the Lipnc1 gene, converts nicotinamide into nicotinic acid to ensure Nicotinamide-Adenine-Dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis. We were curious to explore the role of this enzyme during L infantum development in its natural sand fly vector, Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera, Phlebotominae), using null mutants with a deleted Lipnc1 gene. The null mutants developed as well as the wild type L infantum at the early time points post their ingestion withi...

  20. Improved Ethanol Production from Xylose by Candida shehatae Induced by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Air Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huixia; Xiu Zhilong; Bai Fengwu

    2014-01-01

    Xylose fermentation is essential for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Exposure of the xylose-fermenting yeast Candida shehatae (C. shehatae) CICC1766 to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma yields a clone (designated as C81015) with stability, which exhibits a higher ethanol fermentation rate from xylose, giving a maximal enhancement in ethanol production of 36.2% compared to the control (untreated). However, the biomass production of C81015 is lower than that of the control. Analysis of the NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)- and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-linked xylose reductases and NAD + -linked xylitol dehydrogenase indicates that their activities are enhanced by 34.1%, 61.5% and 66.3%, respectively, suggesting that the activities of these three enzymes are responsible for improving ethanol fermentation in C81015 with xylose as a substrate. The results of this study show that DBD air plasma could serve as a novel and effective means of generating microbial strains that can better use xylose for ethanol fermentation

  1. Regulation of hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes by external NADH and NAD{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chong; Ma, Kun; Xing, Xin-Hui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Experiments involving the addition of external nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form (NADH) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) have been designed to examine how the hydrogen in Enterobacter aerogenes is liberated by NADH or NAD{sup +}. The addition of external NADH or NAD{sup +} was found to regulate hydrogen production by E. aerogenes in resting cells, batch cultures, and chemostat cultures. Particularly in chemostat cultivation, with the external addition of NADH, hydrogen production via the NADH pathway was decreased, while that via the formate pathway was increased; in the end, the overall hydrogen p was decreased. The addition of NAD{sup +}, on the other hand, gave the opposite results. The membrane-bound hydrogenase was found to play a central role in regulating hydrogen production. The occurrence of NADH oxidation (NAD{sup +} reduction) on the cell membrane resulted in an electron flow across the membrane; this changed the oxidation state and metabolic pattern of the cells, which eventually affected the hydrogen evolution. (author)

  2. Improved Ethanol Production from Xylose by Candida shehatae Induced by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Air Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huixia; Xiu, Zhilong; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-06-01

    Xylose fermentation is essential for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Exposure of the xylose-fermenting yeast Candida shehatae (C. shehatae) CICC1766 to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma yields a clone (designated as C81015) with stability, which exhibits a higher ethanol fermentation rate from xylose, giving a maximal enhancement in ethanol production of 36.2% compared to the control (untreated). However, the biomass production of C81015 is lower than that of the control. Analysis of the NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)- and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-linked xylose reductases and NAD+-linked xylitol dehydrogenase indicates that their activities are enhanced by 34.1%, 61.5% and 66.3%, respectively, suggesting that the activities of these three enzymes are responsible for improving ethanol fermentation in C81015 with xylose as a substrate. The results of this study show that DBD air plasma could serve as a novel and effective means of generating microbial strains that can better use xylose for ethanol fermentation.

  3. Effect of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity%烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸对布比卡因所致神经细胞毒性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艇; 徐世元; 赖露颖; 李乐; 李亚文; 周树勤

    2017-01-01

    Objective Investigating whether bupivacaine induces decline of intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) level,and whether NAD level decreasing is involved in bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity.Methods SH-SY5Y cell were treated with 1 mmol/L for indicated time points (30 min to 7 h),the intracellular NAD content and cell viability were detected.SH-SY5Y cells were treated with bupivacaine at concentrations varying from 1 mmol/L to 10 mmol/L for 30 min.The intracellular NAD content and cell viability were then detected.SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 5 mmol/L bupivacaine for 30 min,upon 30 min pre-,postNAD treatment at different concentrations.The intracellular NAD levels and the cell viabilities in all groups were examined.Results The intracellular NAD level began to decline after 3 h bupivacaine treatment.The level was decreased to (27.8±8.47)% at 7 h time point of treatment.The intracellular NAD content of SH-SY5Y cells were decreased to (21.50±3.15)%,(25.73±7.22)%,and (16.07±13.93)% respectively after receiving 2,5,10 mmol/L bupivacaine treatment for 30 min.Thus,the content levels of NAD were significantly lower than untreated control (P<0.05).Upon same conditions,there were no significant differences among different experimental groups with 1 mmol/L bupivacaine treatment at indicated time points (P>0.05).And cell viability were also decreased while concentrations of bupivacaine increasing [cell viability significantly declined to (49.44±8.55)%,(35.75±15.83)%,and (25.58±4.45)%,respectively,at the concentration of 2,5,10 mmol/L (P<0.05).The cellular NAD levels reached (85.87±11.82)%,(89.21±11.55)%,and (105.05±58.82)% in 2.5,5,10 mmol/L NAD pre-treatment groups respectively.The cellular NAD levels were significantly higher than the levels in bupivacaine groups (P<0.05).The cell viabilities were higher in cells receiving NAD pretreatment or post-treatment than viability of cells were treated with 5 mmol/L bupivacaine alone

  4. Extracellular visfatin activates gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells through the classical PKA/CREB-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y J; Choi, S-E; Ha, E S; Kang, Y; Han, S J; Kim, D J; Lee, K W; Kim, H J

    2014-04-01

    Adipokines reportedly affect hepatic gluconeogenesis, and the adipokine visfatin is known to be related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, whether visfatin contributes to hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Visfatin, also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), modulates sirtuin1 (SIRT1) through the regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of extracellular visfatin on glucose production in HepG2 cells, and evaluated whether extracellular visfatin affects hepatic gluconeogenesis via an NAD+-SIRT1-dependent pathway. Treatment with visfatin significantly increased glucose production and the mRNA expression and protein levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in HepG2 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Knockdown of SIRT1 had no remarkable effect on the induction of gluconeogenesis by visfatin. Subsequently, we evaluated if extracellular visfatin stimulates the production of gluconeogenic enzymes through the classical protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB)-dependent process. The phosphorylation of CREB and PKA increased significantly in HepG2 cells treated with visfatin. Additionally, knockdown of CREB and PKA inhibited visfatin-induced gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells. In summary, extracellular visfatin modulates glucose production in HepG2 cells through the PKA/CREB pathway, rather than via SIRT1 signaling. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Efficient regeneration of NADPH in a 3-enzyme cascade reaction by in situ generation of glucose 6-phosphate from glucose and pyrophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, A.F.; van Herk, T.; Wever, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report here a promising method to regenerate NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) using the intermediate formation of glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) from glucose and pyrophosphate (PPi) catalyzed by the acid phosphatase from Shigella flexneri (PhoN-Sf). The G6P formed is used in turn by

  6. Unprecedented head-to-head right-handed cross-links between the antitumor bis(mu-N,N'-di-p-tolylformamidinate) dirhodium(II,II) core and the dinucleotide d(ApA) with the adenine bases in the rare imino form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifotides, Helen T; Dunbar, Kim R

    2007-10-17

    Reactions of the anticancer active compound cis-[Rh2(DTolF)2(CH3CN)6](BF4)2 with 9-ethyladenine (9-EtAdeH) or the dinucleotide d(ApA) proceed with bridging adenine bases in the rare imino form (A*), spanning the Rh-Rh bond at equatorial positions via N7/N6. The inflection points for the pH-dependent H2 and H8 NMR resonance curves of cis-[Rh2(DTolF)2(9-EtAdeH)2](BF4)2 correspond to N1H deprotonation of the metal-stabilized rare imino tautomer, which takes place at pKa approximately 7.5 in CD3CN-d3, a considerably reduced value as compared to that of the imino form of 9-EtAdeH. Similarly, coordination of the metal atoms to the N7/N6 adenine sites in Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} induces formation of the rare imino tautomer of the bases with a concomitant substantial decrease in the basicity of the N1H sites (pKa approximately 7.0 in CD3CN-d3), as compared to the imino form of the free dinucleotide. The presence of the adenine bases in the rare imino form, due to bidentate metalation of the N6/N7 sites, is further corroborated by DQF-COSY H2/N1H and ROE N1H/N6H cross-peaks in the 2D NMR spectra of Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} in CD3CN-d3 at -38 degrees C. Due to the N7/N6 bridging mode of the adenine bases in Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)}, only the anti orientation of the imino tautomer is possible. The imino form A* of adenine in DNA may result in AT-->CG transversions or AT-->GC transitions, which can eventually lead to lethal mutations. The HH arrangement of the bases in Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} is indicated by the H8/H8 NOE cross-peaks in the 2D ROESY NMR spectrum, whereas the formamidinate bridging groups dictate the presence of one right-handed conformer HH1R in solution. Complete characterization of Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} by 2D NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling supports the presence of the HH1R conformer, anti orientation of both sugar residues about the glycosyl bonds, and N-type conformation for the 5'-A base.

  7. Characterization of the type 2 NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductases from Staphylococcus aureus and the bactericidal action of phenothiazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurig-Briccio, Lici A; Yano, Takahiro; Rubin, Harvey; Gennis, Robert B

    2014-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is currently one of the principal multiple drug resistant bacterial pathogens causing serious infections, many of which are life-threatening. Consequently, new therapeutic targets are required to combat such infections. In the current work, we explore the type 2 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH) dehydrogenases (NDH-2s) as possible drug targets and look at the effects of phenothiazines, known to inhibit NDH-2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. NDH-2s are monotopic membrane proteins that catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADH via flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) to the quinone pool. They are required for maintaining the NADH/Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) redox balance and contribute indirectly to the generation of proton motive force. NDH-2s are not present in mammals, but are the only form of respiratory NADH dehydrogenase in several pathogens, including S. aureus. In this work, the two putative ndh genes present in the S. aureus genome were identified, cloned and expressed, and the proteins were purified and characterized. Phenothiazines were shown to inhibit both of the S. aureus NDH-2s with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values as low as 8μM. However, evaluating the effects of phenothiazines on whole cells of S. aureus was complicated by the fact that they are also acting as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Microsomal Proteomics View of H2O2- and ABA-Dependent Responses

    KAUST Repository

    Alquraishi, May Majed; Thomas, Ludivine; Gehring, Chris; Marondedze, Claudius

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) modulates a number of plant developmental processes and responses to stress. In planta, ABA has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through the action of plasma membrane-associated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidases. Although quantitative proteomics studies have been performed to identify ABA- or hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-dependent proteins, little is known about the ABA- and H₂O₂-dependent microsomal proteome changes. Here, we examined the effect of 50 µM of either H₂O₂ or ABA on the Arabidopsis microsomal proteome using tandem mass spectrometry and identified 86 specifically H₂O₂-dependent, and 52 specifically ABA-dependent proteins that are differentially expressed. We observed differential accumulation of proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle notably in response to H₂O₂. Of these, aconitase 3 responded to both H₂O₂ and ABA. Additionally, over 30 proteins linked to RNA biology responded significantly to both treatments. Gene ontology categories such as 'response to stress' and 'transport' were enriched, suggesting that H₂O₂ or ABA directly and/or indirectly cause complex and partly overlapping cellular responses. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006513.

  9. A Microsomal Proteomics View of H2O2- and ABA-Dependent Responses

    KAUST Repository

    Alquraishi, May Majed

    2017-08-21

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) modulates a number of plant developmental processes and responses to stress. In planta, ABA has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through the action of plasma membrane-associated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidases. Although quantitative proteomics studies have been performed to identify ABA- or hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-dependent proteins, little is known about the ABA- and H₂O₂-dependent microsomal proteome changes. Here, we examined the effect of 50 µM of either H₂O₂ or ABA on the Arabidopsis microsomal proteome using tandem mass spectrometry and identified 86 specifically H₂O₂-dependent, and 52 specifically ABA-dependent proteins that are differentially expressed. We observed differential accumulation of proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle notably in response to H₂O₂. Of these, aconitase 3 responded to both H₂O₂ and ABA. Additionally, over 30 proteins linked to RNA biology responded significantly to both treatments. Gene ontology categories such as \\'response to stress\\' and \\'transport\\' were enriched, suggesting that H₂O₂ or ABA directly and/or indirectly cause complex and partly overlapping cellular responses. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006513.

  10. 108 - 114_Tanko_ Anti-Diabetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... excessive nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate- oxidase ... Acute toxicity study. The lethal dose (LD50) of the plant extract was determined by the method of Lorke (1983) using 12 mice. In the first phase, mice were divided into 3 groups of 3 ... They were observed for 24 hours for signs of toxicity.

  11. Effective immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase on carbon nanoscaffolds for ethanol biofuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasankar, Yogeswaran; Adhikari, Bal-Ram; Chen, Aicheng

    2017-12-01

    An efficient approach for immobilizing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) while enhancing its electron transfer ability has been developed using poly(2-(trimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (MADQUAT) cationic polymer and carbon nanoscaffolds. The carbon nanoscaffolds were comprised of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The ADH entrapped within the MADQUAT that was present on the carbon nanoscaffolds exhibited a high electron exchange capability with the electrode through its cofactor β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate and β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced disodium salt hydrate (NAD + /NADH) redox reaction. The advantages of the carbon nanoscaffolds used as the support matrix and the MADQUAT employed for the entrapment of ADH versus physisorption were demonstrated via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Our experimental results showed a higher electron transfer, electrocatalytic activity, and rate constant for MADQUAT entrapped ADH on the carbon nanoscaffolds. The immobilization of ADH using both MADQUAT and carbon nanoscaffolds exhibited strong potential for the development of an efficient bio-anode for ethanol powered biofuel cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnosis and epidemiology of red blood cell enzyme disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Wijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The red blood cell possess an active metabolic machinery that provides the cell with energy to pump ions against electrochemical gradients, to maintain its shape, to keep hemoglobin iron in the reduced (ferrous form, and to maintain enzyme and hemoglobin sulfhydryl groups. The main source of metabolic energy comes from glucose. Glucose is metabolized through the glycolytic pathway and through the hexose monophosphate shunt. Glycolysis catabolizes glucose to pyruvate and lactate, which represent the end products of glucose metabolism in the erythrocyte. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is phosphorylated to adenosine triphosphate (ATP, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is reduced to NADH in glycolysis. 2,3- Bisphosphoglycerate, an important regulator of the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, is generated during glycolysis by the Rapoport-Luebering shunt. The hexose monophosphate shunt oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate, reducing NADP+ to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. The red cell lacks the capacity for de novo purine synthesis but has a salvage pathway that permits synthesis of purine nucleotides from purine bases...

  13. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Upregulation by Phenylephrine Reduces Radiation Injury in Submandibular Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lichi; Wang, Xinyue; Tang, Ling; Li, Kailiang; Li, Xiuxiu; Zhao, Xibo; Xia, Miaomiao; Zhou, Xixi; Zhang, Fuyin; Liu, Ke Jian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer commonly leads to radiation sialadenitis. Emerging evidence has indicated that phenylephrine pretreatment reduces radiosensitivity in the salivary gland; however, the underlying cytoprotective mechanism remains unclear. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is not only a key enzyme for the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, but also a cytokine participating in cell survival, metabolism, and longevity, with a broad effect on cellular functions in physiology and pathology. However, the regulatory events of NAMPT in response to the irradiated salivary gland are unknown. Methods and Materials: The cell viability of primary cultured submandibular gland cells was determined using the PrestoBlue assay. NAMPT expression was measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in vitro and in vivo. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and phosphorylated Akt protein levels were examined by Western blotting. The cellular locations of NAMPT and SIRT1 were detected by immunohistochemistry. NAMPT promoter activity was assessed using the luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: NAMPT was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of granular convoluted tubule cells and ductal cells in normal submandibular glands. mRNA and protein expression of NAMPT was downregulated after radiation but upregulated with phenylephrine pretreatment both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the protein expression of phosphorylated Akt and SIRT1 was decreased in irradiated glands, and phenylephrine pretreatment restored the expression of both. SIRT1 was mainly located in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm in the normal submandibular gland. Phenylephrine dramatically enhanced the expression of SIRT1, which was significantly reduced by radiation. Furthermore, phenylephrine induced a marked increase of NAMPT promoter activity. Conclusions: These findings reveal the regulatory mechanisms of NAMPT expression

  14. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Upregulation by Phenylephrine Reduces Radiation Injury in Submandibular Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Bin, E-mail: xiangbin72@163.com [Laboratory of Oral and Maxillofacial Disease, Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Han, Lichi [Department of Oral Medicine and Medical Research Center of Medical College, Dalian University, Dalian (China); Wang, Xinyue [Laboratory of Oral and Maxillofacial Disease, Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Tang, Ling [Life Sciences and Technology College, Dalian University, Dalian (China); Li, Kailiang [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Li, Xiuxiu [Department of Oral Medicine and Medical Research Center of Medical College, Dalian University, Dalian (China); Zhao, Xibo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Xia, Miaomiao [Department of Oral Medicine and Medical Research Center of Medical College, Dalian University, Dalian (China); Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Zhang, Fuyin [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer commonly leads to radiation sialadenitis. Emerging evidence has indicated that phenylephrine pretreatment reduces radiosensitivity in the salivary gland; however, the underlying cytoprotective mechanism remains unclear. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is not only a key enzyme for the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, but also a cytokine participating in cell survival, metabolism, and longevity, with a broad effect on cellular functions in physiology and pathology. However, the regulatory events of NAMPT in response to the irradiated salivary gland are unknown. Methods and Materials: The cell viability of primary cultured submandibular gland cells was determined using the PrestoBlue assay. NAMPT expression was measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in vitro and in vivo. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and phosphorylated Akt protein levels were examined by Western blotting. The cellular locations of NAMPT and SIRT1 were detected by immunohistochemistry. NAMPT promoter activity was assessed using the luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: NAMPT was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of granular convoluted tubule cells and ductal cells in normal submandibular glands. mRNA and protein expression of NAMPT was downregulated after radiation but upregulated with phenylephrine pretreatment both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the protein expression of phosphorylated Akt and SIRT1 was decreased in irradiated glands, and phenylephrine pretreatment restored the expression of both. SIRT1 was mainly located in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm in the normal submandibular gland. Phenylephrine dramatically enhanced the expression of SIRT1, which was significantly reduced by radiation. Furthermore, phenylephrine induced a marked increase of NAMPT promoter activity. Conclusions: These findings reveal the regulatory mechanisms of NAMPT expression

  15. Enzymatic production by tissue extracts of a metabolite of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide with calcium-releasing ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tich, N.R.

    1989-01-01

    This research investigated the occurrence and characterization of the metabolite in mammalian tissues. In all mammalian tissues tested, including rabbit liver, heart, spleen, kidney, and brain, the factor to convert NAD into its active metabolite was present. The conversion exhibited many characteristics of an enzymatic process such as temperature sensitivity, concentration dependence and protease sensitivity. Production of the NAD metabolite occurred within a time frame of 15-45 minutes at 37 degree C, depending upon the particular preparation. The metabolite was isolated using high performance liquid chromatography from all mammalian tissues. This purified metabolite was then tested for its effectiveness in releasing intracellular calcium in an intact cell by microinjecting it into unfertilized sea urchin eggs. These eggs undergo a massive morphological change upon fertilization which is dependent upon the release of calcium from inside the cell. Upon injection of the NAD metabolite into unfertilized eggs, this same morphological change was observed showing indirectly that the metabolite released intracellular calcium from an intact, viable cell. In addition, radioactive studies using 45 Ca 2+ loaded into permeabilized hepatocytes, indicated in preliminary studies that the NAD metabolite could also release calcium from intracellular stores of mammalian cells

  16. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  17. Adipose tissue NAD+ biology in obesity and insulin resistance: From mechanism to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Yoshino, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) biosynthetic pathway, mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a key NAD + biosynthetic enzyme, plays a pivotal role in controlling many biological processes, such as metabolism, circadian rhythm, inflammation, and aging. Over the past decade, NAMPT-mediated NAD + biosynthesis, together with its key downstream mediator, namely the NAD + -dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1, has been demonstrated to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism in a tissue-dependent manner. These discoveries have provided novel mechanistic and therapeutic insights into obesity and its metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, an important risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review will focus on the importance of adipose tissue NAMPT-mediated NAD + biosynthesis and SIRT1 in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance. We will also critically explore translational and clinical aspects of adipose tissue NAD + biology. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Restoring NAD(+) Levels with NAD(+) Intermediates, the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Aging Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Milisav, Irina

    2018-04-26

    The hypothesis regarding the role of increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels with reference to the fundamental concepts of ageing and entropy is presented. Considering the second law of thermodynamics, NAD+ seems the appropriate candidate for reversing many aging-associated pathologies. NAD+ is presented as an essential compound that enables organisms to stay highly organized and well-maintained, with a lower entropy state.

  19. Common genetic variants are associated with lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations across the year among children at northern latitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal study including 642 healthy 8-11-year-old Danish children, we investigated associations between vitamin D dependent SNP and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations across a school year (August-June). Serum 25(OH)D was measured three times for every child, which...... reductase/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase-1(DHCR7/NADSYN1); group-specific complement (GC); and vitamin D receptor were genotyped. We found minor alleles of CYP2R1 rs10500804, and of GC rs4588 and rs7041 to be associated with lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations across the three seasons (all P...

  20. A novel strategy involved in [corrected] anti-oxidative defense: the conversion of NADH into NADPH by a metabolic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranji Singh

    Full Text Available The reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH is pivotal to the cellular anti-oxidative defence strategies in most organisms. Although its production mediated by different enzyme systems has been relatively well-studied, metabolic networks dedicated to the biogenesis of NADPH have not been fully characterized. In this report, a metabolic pathway that promotes the conversion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, a pro-oxidant into NADPH has been uncovered in Pseudomonas fluorescens exposed to oxidative stress. Enzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase (PC, malic enzyme (ME, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, malate synthase (MS, and isocitrate lyase (ICL that are involved in disparate metabolic modules, converged to create a metabolic network aimed at the transformation of NADH into NADPH. The downregulation of phosphoenol carboxykinase (PEPCK and the upregulation of pyruvate kinase (PK ensured that this metabolic cycle fixed NADH into NADPH to combat the oxidative stress triggered by the menadione insult. This is the first demonstration of a metabolic network invoked to generate NADPH from NADH, a process that may be very effective in combating oxidative stress as the increase of an anti-oxidant is coupled to the decrease of a pro-oxidant.

  1. Deproteinization is Necessary for the Accurate Determination of Ammonia Levels by Glutamate Dehydrogenase Assay in Blood Plasma From Subjects With Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodenicarovova, Melita; Skalska, Hana; Holecek, Milan

    2017-11-08

    To determine the effect of presence of high concentrations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-consuming enzymes on the accuracy of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) assay for ammonia. We measured ammonia concentrations using GLDH and NADH or NADPH in blood-plasma specimens and specimens deproteinized by sulfosalicylic acid from CCl4-treated or control rats. The nonspecific oxidation of NADH and NADPH was measured in mixtures without GLDH. We observed a gradual decrease (~0.5%) in absorbance in the plasma of controls after the addition of NADH but not after adding NADPH. The decrease in absorbance in plasma of CCl4-treated animals was 13.2% and 5.2% after the addition of NADH and NADPH, respectively. The decrease in absorbance was not detected in deproteinized specimens. The values of ammonia concentration were higher in the plasma specimens compared with the deproteinized ones. Deproteinization is necessary for accurate measurement of ammonia using GLDH assay in the blood plasma of subjects with liver injury. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. The Caenorhabditis elegans nicotinamidase PNC-1 enhances survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Armando; Schavemaker, Jolanda M; Pellis-van Berkel, Wendy; Burgering, Boudewijn M T

    2007-04-01

    In yeast, increasing the copy number of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase Sir2 extends lifespan, which can be inhibited by nicotinamide (Nam), the end-product of Sir2-mediated NAD-breakdown. Furthermore, the yeast pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase PNC-1 can extend yeast lifespan by converting Nam. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), increased dosage of the gene encoding SIR-2.1 also increases lifespan. Here, we report that knockdown of the C. elegans homologue of yeast PNC-1 as well as growing worms on Nam-containing medium significantly decreases adult lifespan. Accordingly, increased gene dosage of pnc-1 increases adult survival under conditions of oxidative stress. These data show for the first time the involvement of PNC-1/Nam in the survival of a multicellular organism and may also contribute to our understanding of lifespan regulation in mammals.

  3. Synthesis of coenzyme A and nicotineamide-adenine dinucleotide labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Zverkov, Yu.B.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Isotopic exchange in solution with tritium water and with gaseous tritium and solid-phase reaction of isotopic exchange of NAD with tritium were investigated. For synthesis of labelled with tritium coenzyme A solid-phase reaction of isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium was used. It was determined that 98% of tritium was contained in nicotineamide part of molecule of NAD. In the case of coenzyme A studying of intramolecular distribution of tritium demonstrated that 90% of tritium were localized in adenine fragment [ru

  4. Blue light induced reactive oxygen species from flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide on lethality of HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Yeh; Chang, Chih-Jui; Chen, Liang-Yü

    2017-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a safe and non-invasive treatment for cancers and microbial infections. Various photosensitizers and light sources have been developed for clinical cancer therapies. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are the cofactor of enzymes and are used as photosensitizers in this study. Targeting hypoxia and light-triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS) are experimental strategies for poisoning tumor cells in vitro. HeLa cells are committed to apoptosis when treated with FMN or FAD and exposed to visible blue light (the maximum emitted wavelength of blue light is 462nm). Under blue light irradiation at 3.744J/cm 2 (=0.52mW/cm 2 irradiated for 2h), the minimal lethal dose is 3.125μM and the median lethal doses (LD 50 ) for FMN and FAD are 6.5μM and 7.2μM, respectively. Individual exposure to visible blue light irradiation or riboflavin photosensitizers does not produce cytotoxicity and no side effects are observed in this study. The western blotting results also show that an intrinsic apoptosis pathway is activated by the ROS during photolysis of riboflavin analogues. Blue light triggers the cytotoxicity of riboflavins on HeLa cells in vitro. Based on these results, this is a feasible and efficient of PDT with an intrinsic photosensitizer for cancer research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on in situ reconstituted cholesterol oxidase on an immobilized monolayer of flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan-C; Espuelas, Javier; Castillo, Juan-R

    2004-10-01

    A new amperometric biosensor for determining cholesterol based on deflavination of the enzyme cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and subsequent reconstitution of the apo-protein with a complexed flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) monolayer is described. The charge transfer mediator pyrroquinoline quinone (PQQ) was covalently bound to a cystamine self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on an Au electrode. Boronic acid (BA) was then bound to PQQ using the carbodiimide procedure, and the BA ligand was complexed to the FAD molecules on which the apo-ChOx was subsequently reconstituted. The effective release of the FAD from the enzyme and the successful reconstitution were verified using molecular fluorescence and cyclic voltammetry. The optimal orientation of FAD toward the PQQ mediator and the distances between FAD and PQQ and between PQQ and electrode enhance the charge transfer, very high sensitivity (about 2,500 nAmM(-1)cm(-2)) being obtained for cholesterol determination. The biosensor is selective toward electroactive interferents (ascorbic acid and uric acid) and was tested in reference serum samples, demonstrating excellent accuracy (relative errors below 3% in all cases). The biosensor activity can be successfully regenerated in a simple process by successive reconstitution with batches of recently prepared apo-ChOx on the same immobilized Au/SAM-PQQ-BA-FAD monolayer (it was tested five times); the lifetime of the biosensor is about 45-60 days.

  6. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase contributes to skeletal muscle homeostasis independent of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semjonous, Nina M

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) metabolism by the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) within the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen generates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) to provide the redox potential for the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) to activate glucocorticoid (GC). H6PDH knockout (KO) mice have a switch in 11β-HSD1 activity, resulting in GC inactivation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Importantly, H6PDHKO mice develop a type II fiber myopathy with abnormalities in glucose metabolism and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). GCs play important roles in muscle physiology, and therefore, we have examined the importance of 11β-HSD1 and GC metabolism in mediating aspects of the H6PDHKO myopathy. To achieve this, we examined 11β-HSD1\\/H6PDH double-KO (DKO) mice, in which 11β-HSD1 mediated GC inactivation is negated. In contrast to H6PDHKO mice, DKO mice GC metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis set point is similar to that observed in 11β-HSD1KO mice. Critically, in contrast to 11β-HSD1KO mice, DKO mice phenocopy the salient features of the H6PDHKO, displaying reduced body mass, muscle atrophy, and vacuolation of type II fiber-rich muscle, fasting hypoglycemia, increased muscle glycogen deposition, and elevated expression of UPR genes. We propose that muscle G6P metabolism through H6PDH may be as important as changes in the redox environment when considering the mechanism underlying the activation of the UPR and the ensuing myopathy in H6PDHKO and DKO mice. These data are consistent with an 11β-HSD1-independent function for H6PDH in which sarcoplasmic reticulum G6P metabolism and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-(oxidized)\\/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) redox status are important for maintaining muscle homeostasis.

  7. An open-label, non-randomized study of the pharmacokinetics of the nutritional supplement nicotinamide riboside (NR) and its effects on blood NAD+ levels in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhart, Sophia E; Shireman, Laura M; Risler, Linda J; Anderson, Gail D; Nagana Gowda, G A; Raftery, Daniel; Tian, Rong; Shen, Danny D; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2017-01-01

    The co-primary objectives of this study were to determine the human pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral NR and the effect of NR on whole blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels. Though mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and progression of heart failure, no mitochondria-targeted therapies have been translated into clinical practice. Recent murine studies have reported associations between imbalances in the NADH/NAD+ ratio with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues, including myocardium. Moreover, an NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide, improved cardiac function, while another NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside (NR), improved mitochondrial function in muscle, liver and brown adipose. Thus, PK studies of NR in humans is critical for future clinical trials. In this non-randomized, open-label PK study of 8 healthy volunteers, 250 mg NR was orally administered on Days 1 and 2, then uptitrated to peak dose of 1000 mg twice daily on Days 7 and 8. On the morning of Day 9, subjects completed a 24-hour PK study after receiving 1000 mg NR at t = 0. Whole-blood levels of NR, clinical blood chemistry, and NAD+ levels were analyzed. Oral NR was well tolerated with no adverse events. Significant increases comparing baseline to mean concentrations at steady state (Cave,ss) were observed for both NR (p = 0.03) and NAD+ (p = 0.001); the latter increased by 100%. Absolute changes from baseline to Day 9 in NR and NAD+ levels correlated highly (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.008). Because NR increases circulating NAD+ in humans, NR may have potential as a therapy in patients with mitochondrial dysfunction due to genetic and/or acquired diseases.

  8. An open-label, non-randomized study of the pharmacokinetics of the nutritional supplement nicotinamide riboside (NR and its effects on blood NAD+ levels in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia E Airhart

    Full Text Available The co-primary objectives of this study were to determine the human pharmacokinetics (PK of oral NR and the effect of NR on whole blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ levels.Though mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and progression of heart failure, no mitochondria-targeted therapies have been translated into clinical practice. Recent murine studies have reported associations between imbalances in the NADH/NAD+ ratio with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues, including myocardium. Moreover, an NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide, improved cardiac function, while another NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside (NR, improved mitochondrial function in muscle, liver and brown adipose. Thus, PK studies of NR in humans is critical for future clinical trials.In this non-randomized, open-label PK study of 8 healthy volunteers, 250 mg NR was orally administered on Days 1 and 2, then uptitrated to peak dose of 1000 mg twice daily on Days 7 and 8. On the morning of Day 9, subjects completed a 24-hour PK study after receiving 1000 mg NR at t = 0. Whole-blood levels of NR, clinical blood chemistry, and NAD+ levels were analyzed.Oral NR was well tolerated with no adverse events. Significant increases comparing baseline to mean concentrations at steady state (Cave,ss were observed for both NR (p = 0.03 and NAD+ (p = 0.001; the latter increased by 100%. Absolute changes from baseline to Day 9 in NR and NAD+ levels correlated highly (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.008.Because NR increases circulating NAD+ in humans, NR may have potential as a therapy in patients with mitochondrial dysfunction due to genetic and/or acquired diseases.

  9. Solution conformation of 2-aminopurine dinucleotide determined by ultraviolet two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widom, Julia R; Marcus, Andrew H; Johnson, Neil P; Von Hippel, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the conformation-dependent electronic coupling between the monomeric subunits of a dinucleotide of 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analogue of the nucleic acid base adenine. This was accomplished by extending two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D FS)—a fluorescence-detected variation of 2D electronic spectroscopy—to excite molecular transitions in the ultraviolet (UV) regime. A collinear sequence of four ultrafast laser pulses centered at 323 nm was used to resonantly excite the coupled transitions of 2-AP dinucleotide. The phases of the optical pulses were continuously swept at kilohertz frequencies, and the ensuing nonlinear fluorescence was phase-synchronously detected at 370 nm. Upon optimization of a point–dipole coupling model to our data, we found that in aqueous buffer the 2-AP dinucleotide adopts an average conformation in which the purine bases are non-helically stacked (center-to-center distance R 12 = 3.5 ± 0.5 Å , twist angle θ 12 = 5° ± 5° ), which differs from the conformation of such adjacent bases in duplex DNA. These experiments establish UV–2D FS as a method for examining the local conformations of an adjacent pair of fluorescent nucleotides substituted into specific DNA or RNA constructs, which will serve as a powerful probe to interpret, in structural terms, biologically significant local conformational changes within the nucleic acid framework of protein–nucleic acid complexes. (paper)

  10. Selective and membrane-permeable small molecule inhibitors of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase reverse high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Harshini; Vance, Virginia; Wetzel, Michael D; Wang, Hua-Yu Leo; McHardy, Stanton F; Finnerty, Celeste C; Hommel, Jonathan D; Watowich, Stanley J

    2018-01-01

    There is a critical need for new mechanism-of-action drugs that reduce the burden of obesity and associated chronic metabolic comorbidities. A potentially novel target to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes is nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT), a cytosolic enzyme with newly identified roles in cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. To validate NNMT as an anti-obesity drug target, we investigated the permeability, selectivity, mechanistic, and physiological properties of a series of small molecule NNMT inhibitors. Membrane permeability of NNMT inhibitors was characterized using parallel artificial membrane permeability and Caco-2 cell assays. Selectivity was tested against structurally-related methyltransferases and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) salvage pathway enzymes. Effects of NNMT inhibitors on lipogenesis and intracellular levels of metabolites, including NNMT reaction product 1-methylnicotianamide (1-MNA) were evaluated in cultured adipocytes. Effects of a potent NNMT inhibitor on obesity measures and plasma lipid were assessed in diet-induced obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Methylquinolinium scaffolds with primary amine substitutions displayed high permeability from passive and active transport across membranes. Importantly, methylquinolinium analogues displayed high selectivity, not inhibiting related SAM-dependent methyltransferases or enzymes in the NAD + salvage pathway. NNMT inhibitors reduced intracellular 1-MNA, increased intracellular NAD + and S-(5'-adenosyl)-l-methionine (SAM), and suppressed lipogenesis in adipocytes. Treatment of diet-induced obese mice systemically with a potent NNMT inhibitor significantly reduced body weight and white adipose mass, decreased adipocyte size, and lowered plasma total cholesterol levels. Notably, administration of NNMT inhibitors did not impact total food intake nor produce any observable adverse effects. These results support development of small molecule NNMT inhibitors as therapeutics to

  11. Nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide level in dimethylsulfate-treated or UV-irradiated mouse epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balard, B.; Giacomoni, P.U.

    1989-01-01

    The level of nicotinamide (NAD) has been determined in the epidermis of 30 mice. Its value is 0.63+-0.15 μg/mg protein. Upon treatment with dimethylsulfate (DMS), the level of NAD drops in a dosedependent fashion. This diminution is reversible when low doses of DMS are used. Upon irradiation with ultraviolet light, the level of NAD drops in the irradiated epidermis, the treshold of saturation being below 1200 J/m 2 . There is also a drop in the level of NAD in the epidermis protected against irradiation with a black rubber sheet. (author). 17 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Prevention of acute/severe hypoglycemia-induced neuron death by lactate administration

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Seok Joon; Jang, Bong Geom; Yoo, Byung Hoon; Sohn, Min; Lee, Min Woo; Choi, Bo Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

    2012-01-01

    Hypoglycemia-induced cerebral neuropathy can occur in patients with diabetes who attempt tight control of blood glucose and may lead to cognitive dysfunction. Accumulating evidence from animal models suggests that hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death is not a simple result of glucose deprivation, but is instead the end result of a multifactorial process. In particular, the excessive activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) consumes cytosolic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+...

  13. Uncoupling the Mitogenic and Metabolic Functions of FGF1 by Tuning FGF1-FGF Receptor Dimer Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is involved in various biological processes and is considered a key reversible post-translational modification in the regulation of gene expression, enzyme activity, and subcellular localization. This post-translational modification is therefore highly relevant in the context of circadian biology, but its characterization on the proteome-wide scale and its circadian clock dependence are still poorly described. Here, we provide a comprehensive and rhythmic acetylome map of the mouse liver. Rhythmic acetylated proteins showed subcellular localization-specific phases that correlated with the related metabolites in the regulated pathways. Mitochondrial proteins were over-represented among the rhythmically acetylated proteins and were highly correlated with SIRT3-dependent deacetylation. SIRT3 activity being nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ level-dependent, we show that NAD+ is orchestrated by both feeding rhythms and the circadian clock through the NAD+ salvage pathway but also via the nicotinamide riboside pathway. Hence, the diurnal acetylome relies on a functional circadian clock and affects important diurnal metabolic pathways in the mouse liver.

  14. Ebselen Reversibly Inhibits Human Glutamate Dehydrogenase at the Catalytic Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yanhong; Li, Di; Lu, Shiying; Zhao, Han; Chen, Zhao; Hou, Wei; Ruan, Benfang Helen

    Human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plays an important role in neurological diseases, tumor metabolism, and hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS). However, there are very few inhibitors known for human GDH. Recently, Ebselen was reported to crosslink with Escherichia coli GDH at the active site cysteine residue (Cys321), but the sequence alignment showed that the corresponding residue is Ala329 in human GDH. To investigate whether Ebselen could be an inhibitor for human GDH, we cloned and expressed an N-terminal His-tagged human GDH in E. coli. The recombinant human GDH enzyme showed expected properties such as adenosine diphosphate activation and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dual recognition. Further, we developed a 2-(3-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-tetrazol-3-ium-5-yl) benzenesulfonate sodium salt (EZMTT)-based assay for human GDH, which was highly sensitive and is suitable for high-throughput screening for potent GDH inhibitors. In addition, ForteBio binding assays demonstrated that Ebselen is a reversible active site inhibitor for human GDH. Since Ebselen is a multifunctional organoselenium compound in Phase III clinical trials for inflammation, an Ebselen-based GDH inhibitor might be valuable for future drug discovery for HHS patients.

  15. Ultrafast photo-initiated molecular quantum dynamics in the DNA dinucleotide d(ApG) revealed by broadband transient absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhldreier, Mayra C; Temps, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    The ultrafast photo-initiated quantum dynamics of the adenine-guanine dinucleotide d(ApG) in aqueous solution (pH 7) has been studied by femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy after excitation at lambda = 260 nm. The results reveal a hierarchy of processes on time scales from tau 100 ps. Characteristic spectro-temporal signatures are observed indicating the transformation of the molecules in the electronic relaxation from the photo-excited state to a long-lived exciplex. In particular, broadband UV/VIS excited-state absorption (ESA) measurements detected a distinctive absorption by the excited dinucleotide around lambda = 335 nm, approximately 0.5 eV to the blue compared to the maximum of the broad and unstructured ESA spectrum after excitation of an equimolar mixture of the mononucleotides dAMP and dGMP. A similar feature has been identified as signature of the excimer in the dynamics of the adenine dinucleotide d(ApA). The lifetime of the d(ApG) exciplex was found to be tau = 124 +/- 4 ps both from the ESA decay time and from the ground-state recovery time, far longer than the sub-picosecond lifetimes of excited dAMP or dGMP. Fluorescence-time profiles measured by the up-conversion technique indicate that the exciplex state is reached around approximately 6 ps after excitation. Very weak residual fluorescence at longer times red-shifted to the emission from the photo-excited state shows that the exciplex is almost optically dark, but still has enough oscillator strength to give rise to the dual fluorescence of the dinucleotide in the static fluorescence spectrum.

  16. Glucose 6 phosphatase dehydrogenase (G6PD) and neurodegenerative disorders: Mapping diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Manju Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key and rate limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The physiological significance of enzyme is providing reduced energy to specific cells like erythrocyte by maintaining co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). There are preponderance research findings that demonstrate the enzyme (G6PD) role in the energy balance, and it is associated with blood-related diseases and disorders, primarily the anemia resulted f...

  17. Printable Organic Nanoelectronics for Memory, Sensors and Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    voltammetry establishing the value of 0.88V for bias potential for oxidation. The realisation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH...resistor R and capacitor C , connected in parallel. The net current I is the sum of the circulating current and displacement components in the form...for 0 I  . The gold forms an Ohmic contact with metal free phthalocyanine and the value of the capacitance C may thus be taken to be

  18. Two-photon NADH imaging exposes boundaries of oxygen diffusion in cortical vascular supply regions

    OpenAIRE

    Kasischke, Karl A; Lambert, Elton M; Panepento, Ben; Sun, Anita; Gelbard, Harris A; Burgess, Robert W; Foster, Thomas H; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen transport imposes a possible constraint on the brain's ability to sustain variable metabolic demands, but oxygen diffusion in the cerebral cortex has not yet been observed directly. We show that concurrent two-photon fluorescence imaging of endogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the cortical microcirculation exposes well-defined boundaries of tissue oxygen diffusion in the mouse cortex. The NADH fluorescence increases rapidly over a narrow, very low pO2 range with a p ...

  19. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus; the H+/H- ratio and the activation state of the enzyme during reduction of acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, T; Jackson, J B

    1992-02-21

    Chromatophores from Rhodobacter capsulatus were incubated in the dark with NADPH and acetylpyridineadenine dinucleotide (AcPdAD+) in the presence of different concentrations of myxothiazol. The transhydrogenase activity was monitored until an appropriate mass action ratio, [AcPdAD+][NADPH]/[AcPdADH][NADP+], was reached. The sample was then illuminated and the initial rate of either AcPdAD+ reduction by NADPH or AcPdADH oxidation by NADP+ was recorded. The ratio of H+ translocated per H- equivalent transferred by transhydrogenase was calculated from the value of the membrane potential (delta pH = 0) at which illumination caused no net reaction in either direction. The mean value for the H+/H- ratio was 0.55. At greater values of [AcPdAD+][NADPH]/[AcPdADH][NADP+] than were employed in the above experiments and over a wider range of concentrations of myxothiazol, it was found that incremental increases in the membrane potential always gave rise to a decrease, never an increase in the rate of AcPdAD+ reduction. In contrast to the H(+)-ATP synthase, there is no evidence of any activation/deactivation of H(+)-transhydrogenase by the protonmotive force.

  20. Streptozotocin Diabetes CORRELATION WITH EXTENT OF DEPRESSION OF PANCREATIC ISLET NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tom; Schein, Philip S.; McMenamin, Mary G.; Cooney, David A.

    1974-01-01

    The diabetogenic activity of streptozotocin has been correlated with a reduction in pyridine nucleotide synthesis in the mouse pancreatic islet. To determine the specificity of this reduction for diabetogenicity, a comparative study of streptozotocin, its cytotoxic moiety, 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea, and alloxan was performed. Streptozotocin administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) producd a dose-related reduction in islet NAD which was proportional to the degree of diabetogenicity. A diabetogenic dose, 200 mg/kg, attained a peak plasma N-nitroso intact streptozotocin concentration of 0.224 μmol/ml and reduced the mean islet NAD from a control of 0.78 to 0.15 pmol. At borderline, 150 mg/kg, and nondiabetogenic, 100 mg/kg, doses, plasma concentrations reached 0.161 and 0.136 μmol/ml, and NAD was 0.36 and 0.86 pmol/islet, respectively. 1-Methyl-1-nitrosourea, 100 mg/kg, attained a maximum N-nitroso intact 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea concentration of 0.162 μmol/ml and reduced the mean NAD to 0.58 pmol/islet, and was nondiabetogenic; 200 mg/kg attained a peak plasma concentration of 0.344 μmol/ml and depressed NAD to 0.38 pmol/islet, and was inconsistently diabetogenic. Islet NAD of 0.4 pmol/islet or greater is required for integrity of the beta cell. A diabetogenic dose of alloxan, 500 mg/kg, did not depress NAD, 0.85 pmol/islet, therefore confirming that its mechanism of diabetogenicity differs from that of streptozotocin. In vivo uptake of [methyl-14C]streptozotocin by islets was 3.8 times that of [methyl-14C]-1-methyl-1-nitrosourea, whereas uptake by the exocrine pancreas favored 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea over streptozotocin 2.4:1. The decreased islet uptake of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea correlates with the 3.5 times increased molar dosage required to produce islet NAD depression comparable to that of streptozotocin, 150 mg/kg. These studies indicate that the glucose carrier of streptozotocin facilitates uptake of its cytotoxic group, 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea, into islets. PMID:4369217

  1. A Method for the Determination of Bi-substrate Kinetic Coefficients: the Example of the b-D-glucose- NAD-GDH Enzymatic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean BERTHIER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorimetric detection of glucose in sample liquids such as human plasma is made by using enzymatic reactions. Either glucose oxidase (GOX or glucose dehydrogenase (GDH can be used to convert glucose. In the multi reactional scheme, the first enzymatic reaction is determinant. We focused here on the study of the enzyme GDH together with the enzymatic cofactor NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. This reaction falls in the category of ternary enzymatic reactions. Such reactions depend on four parameters. A method to determine these four parameters is presented in this work, based on a comparison between a series of experiments and the theory. The best values of the parameters are indicated.

  2. Leukocyte Overexpression of Intracellular NAMPT Attenuates Atherosclerosis by Regulating PPARγ-Dependent Monocyte Differentiation and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Beatriz; Dahl, Tuva Borresdatter; Medina, Indira; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Holm, Sverre; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Rousch, Mat; Otten, Jeroen; Herias, Veronica; Varela, Lourdes M; Ranheim, Trine; Yndestad, Arne; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Abia, Rocio; Nagy, Laszlo; Aukrust, Pal; Muriana, Francisco J G; Halvorsen, Bente; Biessen, Erik Anna Leonardus

    2017-06-01

    Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) mediates inflammatory and potentially proatherogenic effects, whereas the role of intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT), the rate limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + generation, in atherogenesis is largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of iNAMPT overexpression in leukocytes on inflammation and atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice with hematopoietic overexpression of human iNAMPT (iNAMPT hi ), on a western type diet, showed attenuated plaque burden with features of lesion stabilization. This anti-atherogenic effect was caused by improved resistance of macrophages to apoptosis by attenuated chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2-dependent monocyte chemotaxis and by skewing macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. The iNAMPT hi phenotype was almost fully reversed by treatment with the NAMPT inhibitor FK866, indicating that iNAMPT catalytic activity is instrumental in the atheroprotection. Importantly, iNAMPT overexpression did not induce any increase in eNAMPT, and eNAMPT had no effect on chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 expression and promoted an inflammatory M1 phenotype in macrophages. The iNAMPT-mediated effects at least partly involved sirtuin 1-dependent molecular crosstalk of NAMPT and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Finally, iNAMPT and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ showed a strong correlation in human atherosclerotic, but not healthy arteries, hinting to a relevance of iNAMPT/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ pathway also in human carotid atherosclerosis. This study highlights the functional dichotomy of intracellular versus extracellular NAMPT, and unveils a critical role for the iNAMPT-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ axis in atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Enhancing NAD+ salvage metabolism is neuroprotective in a PINK1 model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Lehmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD caused by mutations in PINK1 are linked to mitochondrial impairment. Defective mitochondria are also found in Drosophila models of PD with pink1 mutations. The co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is essential for both generating energy in mitochondria and nuclear DNA repair through NAD+-consuming poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs. We found alterations in NAD+ salvage metabolism in Drosophila pink1 mutants and showed that a diet supplemented with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide rescued mitochondrial defects and protected neurons from degeneration. Additionally, a mutation of Parp improved mitochondrial function and was neuroprotective in the pink1 mutants. We conclude that enhancing the availability of NAD+ by either the use of a diet supplemented with NAD+ precursors or the inhibition of NAD+-dependent enzymes, such as PARPs, which compete with mitochondria for NAD+, is a viable approach to preventing neurotoxicity associated with mitochondrial defects.

  4. An azoreductase, aerobic NADH-dependent flavoprotein discovered from Bacillus sp.: functional expression and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Toshihiko; Shibata, Takeshi; Sato, Reiko; Ohno, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shinichi; Thuoc, Tran Linh; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2007-05-01

    The gene coding for an azoreductase, designated as an azrA, was cloned by polymerase chain reaction amplification from the genomic DNA of Bacillus sp. strain B29 isolated from soil. The azrA encoded a protein of 208 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 22,766 Da. The enzyme was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli with a strong band of 23 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified recombinant AzrA was a homodimer with a native molecular mass of 48 kDa containing two molecules of flavin mononucleotide (FMN; oxidized). This activity was oxygen insensitive and was nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form; NADH) dependent. Recombinant AzrA exhibited a broad pH stability between 6 and 10 with a temperature optimum of 60-80 degrees C. The enzyme cleaved the model azo compound of methyl red [MR, 4'-(dimethylamino)-azobenzene-2-carboxylic acid] into 2-aminobenzoic acid and N, N'-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine by ping-pong mechanism. The enzyme was not only able to decolorize MR but also able to decolorize sulfonated azo dyes such as Orange I and Acid Red 88.

  5. Application of Negative Curvature Hollow-Core Fiber in an Optical Fiber Sensor Setup for Multiphoton Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenda, Maciej Andrzej; Stawska, Hanna Izabela; Mazur, Leszek Mateusz; Jakubowski, Konrad; Kosolapov, Alexey; Kolyadin, Anton; Bereś-Pawlik, Elżbieta

    2017-10-06

    In this paper, an application of negative curvature hollow core fiber (NCHCF) in an all-fiber, multiphoton fluorescence sensor setup is presented. The dispersion parameter (D) of this fiber does not exceed the value of 5 ps/nm × km across the optical spectrum of (680-750) nm, making it well suited for the purpose of multiphoton excitation of biological fluorophores. Employing 1.5 m of this fiber in a simple, all-fiber sensor setup allows us to perform multiphoton experiments without any dispersion compensation methods. Multiphoton excitation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) with this fiber shows a 6- and 9-fold increase, respectively, in the total fluorescence signal collected when compared with the commercial solution in the form of a hollow-core photonic band gap fiber (HCPBF). To the author's best knowledge, this is the first time an NCHCF was used in an optical-fiber sensor setup for multiphoton fluorescence experiments.

  6. Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy in type 2 diabetic patients who have no signs of diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Deutsch, Lydia; Klemm, Matthias; Jentsch, Susanne; Hammer, Martin; Peters, Sven; Haueisen, Jens; Müller, Ulrich A.; Dawczynski, Jens

    2015-06-01

    The time-resolved autofluorescence of the eye is used for the detection of metabolic alteration in diabetic patients who have no signs of diabetic retinopathy. One eye from 37 phakic and 11 pseudophakic patients with type 2 diabetes, and one eye from 25 phakic and 23 pseudophakic healthy subjects were included in the study. After a three-exponential fit of the decay of autofluorescence, histograms of lifetimes τi, amplitudes αi, and relative contributions Qi were statistically compared between corresponding groups in two spectral channels (490diabetic patients and age-matched controls (p450 ps, and the shift of τ3 from ˜3000 to 3700 ps in ch1 of diabetic patients when compared with healthy subjects indicate an increased production of free flavin adenine dinucleotide, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), and, probably, a change from free to protein-bound reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at the fundus. AGE also accumulated in the crystalline lens.

  7. Non-canonical transcription initiation: the expanding universe of transcription initiating substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barvík, I.; Rejman, Dominik; Panova, Natalya; Šanderová, Hana; Krásný, Libor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2017), s. 131-138 ISSN 0168-6445 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05228S; GA ČR GA15-11711S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : RNA polymerase * non-canonical transcription initiation * transcription initiating substrate * nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) * coenzymes * RNA stability Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology; Microbiology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 12.198, year: 2016

  8. Sirtuins, Cell Senescence, and Vascular Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Yujiro; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    The sirtuins (SIRTs) constitute a class of proteins with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase or adenosine diphosphate-ribosyltransferase activity. Seven SIRT family members have been identified in mammals, from SIRT1, the best studied for its role in vascular aging, to SIRT7. SIRT1 and SIRT2 are localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are mitochondrial, and SIRT6 and SIRT7 are nuclear. Extensive studies have clearly revealed that SIRT proteins regulate diverse cell functions and responses to stressors. Vascular aging involves the aging process (senescence) of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Two types of cell senescence have been identified: (1) replicative senescence with telomere attrition; and (2) stress-induced premature senescence without telomere involvement. Both types of senescence induce vascular cell growth arrest and loss of vascular homeostasis, and contribute to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Previous mechanistic studies have revealed in detail that SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT6 show protective functions against vascular aging, and definite vascular function of other SIRTs is under investigation. Thus, direct SIRT modulation and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide stimulation of SIRT are promising candidates for cardiovascular disease therapy. A small number of pilot studies have been conducted to assess SIRT modulation in humans. These clinical studies have not yet provided convincing evidence that SIRT proteins alleviate morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The outcomes of multiple ongoing clinical trials are awaited to define the efficacy of SIRT modulators and SIRT activators in cardiovascular diseases, along with the potential adverse effects of chronic SIRT modulation. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase Suppression Participates in Nickel-Induced Histone H3 Lysine9 Dimethylation in BEAS-2B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens with weak mutagenic activity. Histone methylation has been proposed to play an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT decreases histone methylation in several cancer cells by altering the cellular ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH. However, the role of NNMT in nickel-induced histone methylation remains unclear. Methods: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2 for 72 h or 200 μM NiCl2 for different time periods. Histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9 mono-, di-, and trimethylation and NNMT protein levels were measured by western blot analysis. Expressions of NNMT mRNA and the H3k9me2-associated genes, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAP2K3 and dickkopf1 (DKK1, were determined by qPCR analysis. The cellular ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to reduced NAD (NADH and SAM/SAH ratio were determined. Results: Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to nickel increased H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2, suppressed the expressions of H3K9me2-associated genes (MAP2K3 and DKK1, and induced NNMT repression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, over-expression of NNMT inhibited nickel-induced H3K9me2 and altered the cellular SAM/SAH ratio. Additionally, the NADH oxidant phenazine methosulfate (PMS not only reversed the nickel-induced reduction in NAD+/NADH but also inhibited the increase in H3K9me2. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the repression of NNMT may underlie nickel-induced H3K9 dimethylation by altering the cellular SAM/SAH ratio.

  10. REDOX IMAGING OF THE p53-DEPENDENT MITOCHONDRIAL REDOX STATE IN COLON CANCER EX VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, HE N.; FENG, MIN; MOON, LILY; DOLLOFF, NATHAN; EL-DEIRY, WAFIK; LI, LIN Z.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial redox state and its heterogeneity of colon cancer at tissue level have not been previously reported. Nor has how p53 regulates mitochondrial respiration been measured at (deep) tissue level, presumably due to the unavailability of the technology that has sufficient spatial resolution and tissue penetration depth. Our prior work demonstrated that the mitochondrial redox state and its intratumor heterogeneity is associated with cancer aggressiveness in human melanoma and breast cancer in mouse models, with the more metastatic tumors exhibiting localized regions of more oxidized redox state. Using the Chance redox scanner with an in-plane spatial resolution of 200 μm, we imaged the mitochondrial redox state of the wild-type p53 colon tumors (HCT116 p53 wt) and the p53-deleted colon tumors (HCT116 p53−/−) by collecting the fluorescence signals of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins [Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)] from the mouse xenografts snap-frozen at low temperature. Our results show that: (1) both tumor lines have significant degree of intratumor heterogeneity of the redox state, typically exhibiting a distinct bi-modal distribution that either correlates with the spatial core–rim pattern or the “hot/cold” oxidation-reduction patches; (2) the p53−/− group is significantly more heterogeneous in the mitochondrial redox state and has a more oxidized tumor core compared to the p53 wt group when the tumor sizes of the two groups are matched; (3) the tumor size dependence of the redox indices (such as Fp and Fp redox ratio) is significant in the p53−/− group with the larger ones being more oxidized and more heterogeneous in their redox state, particularly more oxidized in the tumor central regions; (4) the H&E staining images of tumor sections grossly correlate with the redox images. The present work is the first to reveal at the submillimeter scale the intratumor heterogeneity pattern

  11. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Benjamin A.; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R.; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C.; Vargas, Marcelo R.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) participates in redox reactions and NAD+-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD+-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD+ as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1–7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD+ salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD+ from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD+ levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD+ salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD+ precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD+ levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1–2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD+ content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD+ salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. PMID:27002158

  12. Synthesizing and salvaging NAD: lessons learned from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawen Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ plays important roles in metabolic reactions and cell regulation in all organisms. Bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals use different pathways to synthesize NAD+. Our molecular and genetic data demonstrate that in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas NAD+ is synthesized from aspartate (de novo synthesis, as in plants, or nicotinamide, as in mammals (salvage synthesis. The de novo pathway requires five different enzymes: L-aspartate oxidase (ASO, quinolinate synthetase (QS, quinolate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPT, nicotinate/nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT, and NAD+ synthetase (NS. Sequence similarity searches, gene isolation and sequencing of mutant loci indicate that mutations in each enzyme result in a nicotinamide-requiring mutant phenotype in the previously isolated nic mutants. We rescued the mutant phenotype by the introduction of BAC DNA (nic2-1 and nic13-1 or plasmids with cloned genes (nic1-1 and nic15-1 into the mutants. NMNAT, which is also in the de novo pathway, and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT constitute the nicotinamide-dependent salvage pathway. A mutation in NAMPT (npt1-1 has no obvious growth defect and is not nicotinamide-dependent. However, double mutant strains with the npt1-1 mutation and any of the nic mutations are inviable. When the de novo pathway is inactive, the salvage pathway is essential to Chlamydomonas for the synthesis of NAD+. A homolog of the human SIRT6-like gene, SRT2, is upregulated in the NS mutant, which shows a longer vegetative life span than wild-type cells. Our results suggest that Chlamydomonas is an excellent model system to study NAD+ metabolism and cell longevity.

  13. Interactive response of photosynthetic characteristics in Haloxylon ammodendron and Hedysarum scoparium exposed to soil water and air vapor pressure deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunmei; Wang, Jiajia; Hu, Congxia; Wang, Junhui; Ning, Pengbo; Bai, Juan

    2015-08-01

    C4 plants possess better drought tolerance than C3 plants. However, Hedysarum scoparium, a C3 species, is dominant and widely distributed in the desert areas of northwestern China due to its strong drought tolerance. This study compared it with Haloxylon ammodendron, a C4 species, regarding the interactive effects of drought stress and different leaf-air vapor pressure deficits. Variables of interest included gas exchange, the activity levels of key C4 photosynthetic enzymes, and cellular anatomy. In both species, gas exchange parameters were more sensitive to high vapor pressure deficit than to strong water stress, and the net CO2 assimilation rate (An) was enhanced as vapor pressure deficits increased. A close relationship between An and stomatal conductance (gs) suggested that the species shared a similar response mechanism. In H. ammodendron, the activity levels of key C4 enzymes were higher, including those of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-malate enzyme (NADP-ME), whereas in H. scoparium, the activity level of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-malate enzyme (NAD-ME) was higher. Meanwhile, H. scoparium utilized adaptive structural features, including a larger relative vessel area and a shorter distance from vein to stomata, which facilitated the movement of water. These findings implied that some C4 biochemical pathways were present in H. scoparium to respond to environmental challenges. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Ethanol and liver: Recent insights into the mechanisms of ethanol-induced fatty liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyao

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), a potentially pathologic condition, can progress to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis, leading to an increased probability of hepatic failure and death. Alcohol induces fatty liver by increasing the ratio of reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in hepatocytes; increasing hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and early growth response-1 activity; and decreasing hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activity. Alcohol activates the innate immune system and induces an imbalance of the immune response, which is followed by activated Kupffer cell-derived tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α overproduction, which is in turn responsible for the changes in the hepatic SREBP-1 and PAI-1 activity. Alcohol abuse promotes the migration of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the liver and then reprograms TNF-α expression from BMDCs. Chronic alcohol intake triggers the sympathetic hyperactivity-activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) feedback loop that in turn activates the HSCs, resulting in HSC-derived TNF-α overproduction. Carvedilol may block this feedback loop by suppressing sympathetic activity, which attenuates the progression of AFLD. Clinical studies evaluating combination therapy of carvedilol with a TNF-α inhibitor to treat patients with AFLD are warranted to prevent the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25356030

  15. Perturbations of NAD+ salvage systems impact mitochondrial function and energy homeostasis in mouse myoblasts and intact skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne Agerholm; Dall, Morten; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    2018-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) can be synthesized by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). We aimed to determine the role of NAMPT for maintaining NAD+ levels, mitochondrial function, and metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells. We generated stable Nampt knockdown (sh......Nampt KD) C2C12 cells using a shRNA lentiviral approach. Moreover, we applied gene electrotransfer to express cre recombinase in tibialis anterior muscle of floxed Nampt mice. In shNampt KD C2C12 myoblasts, Nampt and NAD+ levels were reduced by 70% and 50%, respectively, and maximal respiratory capacity...... was reduced by 25%. Moreover, anaerobic glycolytic flux increased by 55% and 2-deoxyglucose uptake increased by 25% in shNampt KD cells. Treatment with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside restored NAD+ levels in shNampt cells and increased maximal respiratory capacity by 18% and 32% in control and sh...

  16. Anticancer agent CHS-828 inhibits cellular synthesis of NAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, U.H.; Christensen, M.K.; Bjorkling, F.

    2008-01-01

    Malignant cells display increased demands for energy production and DNA repair. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is required for both processes and is also continuously degraded by cellular enzymes. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is a crucial factor in the resynthesis of NAD......, and thus in cancer cell survival. Here, we establish the cytotoxic mechanism of action of the small molecule inhibitor CHS-828 to result from impaired synthesis of NAD. Initially, we detected cross-resistance in cells between CHS-828 and a known inhibitor of Nampt, FK866, a compound of a structurally...... different class. We then showed that nicotinamide protects against CHS-828-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, we observed that treatment with CHS-828 depletes cellular NAD levels in sensitive cancer cells. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that, like FK866, CHS-828 kills cancer cells by depleting...

  17. The active site of oxidative phosphorylation and the origin of hyperhomocysteinemia in aging and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2015-01-01

    The active site of oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in mitochondria is proposed to consist of two molecules of thioretinamide bound to cobalamin, forming thioretinaco, complexed with ozone, oxygen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. and inorganic phosphate, TR2CoO3O2NAD(+)H2PO4(-). Reduction of the pyridinium nitrogen of the nicotinamide group by an electron from electron transport complexes initiates polymerization of phosphate with adenosine diphosphate, yielding nicotinamide riboside and ATP bound to thioretinaco ozonide oxygen. A second electron reduces oxygen to hydroperoxyl radical, releasing ATP from the active site. A proton gradient is created within F1F0 ATPase complexes of mitochondria by reaction of protons with reduced nicotinamide riboside and with hydroperoxyl radical, yielding reduced nicotinamide riboside and hydroperoxide. The hyperhomocysteinemia of aging and dementia is attributed to decreased synthesis of adenosyl methionine by thioretinaco ozonide and ATP, causing decreased allosteric activation of cystathionine synthase and decreased allosteric inhibition of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and resulting in dysregulation of methionine metabolism. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  18. Modulating NAD+ metabolism, from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsyuba, Elena; Auwerx, Johan

    2017-09-15

    Discovered in the beginning of the 20 th century, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) has evolved from a simple oxidoreductase cofactor to being an essential cosubstrate for a wide range of regulatory proteins that include the sirtuin family of NAD + -dependent protein deacylases, widely recognized regulators of metabolic function and longevity. Altered NAD + metabolism is associated with aging and many pathological conditions, such as metabolic diseases and disorders of the muscular and neuronal systems. Conversely, increased NAD + levels have shown to be beneficial in a broad spectrum of diseases. Here, we review the fundamental aspects of NAD + biochemistry and metabolism and discuss how boosting NAD + content can help ameliorate mitochondrial homeostasis and as such improve healthspan and lifespan. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Spermidine and resveratrol induce autophagy by distinct pathways converging on the acetylproteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Mariño, Guillermo; Bennetzen, Martin V

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy protects organelles, cells, and organisms against several stress conditions. Induction of autophagy by resveratrol requires the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). In this paper, we show that the acetylase inhibitor spermidine stimulates autophagy...... independent of SIRT1 in human and yeast cells as well as in nematodes. Although resveratrol and spermidine ignite autophagy through distinct mechanisms, these compounds stimulate convergent pathways that culminate in concordant modifications of the acetylproteome. Both agents favor convergent deacetylation...... and acetylation reactions in the cytosol and in the nucleus, respectively. Both resveratrol and spermidine were able to induce autophagy in cytoplasts (enucleated cells). Moreover, a cytoplasm-restricted mutant of SIRT1 could stimulate autophagy, suggesting that cytoplasmic deacetylation reactions dictate...

  20. Crystal structures of complexes of NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase from methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 101 with formate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, E. V.; Polyakov, K. M.; Tikhonova, T. V.; Stekhanova, T. N.; Boiko, K. M.; Sadykhov, I. G.; Tishkov, V. I.; Popov, V. O.; Labru, N.

    2006-01-01

    Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from the methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 101 catalyzes oxidation of formate to NI 2 with the coupled reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ). The three-dimensional structures of the apo form (the free enzyme) and the holo form (the ternary FDH-NAD + -azide complex) of FDH have been established earlier. In the present study, the structures of FDH complexes with formate are solved at 2.19 and 2.28 A resolution by the molecular replacement method and refined to the R factors of 22.3 and 20.5%, respectively. Both crystal structures contain four protein molecules per asymmetric unit. These molecules form two dimers identical to the dimer of the apo form of FDH. Two possible formatebinding sites are found in the active site of the FDH structure. In the complexes the sulfur atom of residue Cys354 exists in the oxidized state

  1. Nicotinamide pharmacokinetics in humans and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsman, M.R.; Hoyer, M.; Overgaard, J.; Honess, D.J.; Dennis, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    Healthy human volunteers orally ingested escalating doses of up to 6 g nicotinamide in capsule form on an empty stomach. Some side-effects were seen although these were mild and transient. HPLC analysis of blood samples showed peak plasma levels, typically within 45 min after ingestion, which were linearly dependent on dose ingested. The elimination half-life and AUC were also found to increase with drug dose, although these increases were non-linear. Pharmacokinetic studies were also performed to female CDF1 mice with C3H mammary carcinomas grown in the right rear foot. Analysis of blood and tumour samples taken from mice injected i.p. with nicotinamide doses between 100-1000 mg/kg showed similar characteristics as the human data, although the elimination half-lives were not dose-dependent. The average peak plasma concentration of 160 μg/ml measured in humans after taking 6 g of nicotinamide was equivalent to that seen in mice after injecting 171 mg/kg. Using a regrowth delay assay the enhancement of radiation damage by nicotinamide in this mouse tumour was found to be independent of drug dose from 100-1000 mg/kg, resulting in a constant 1.3-fold increase in radiation response. Doses of nicotinamide that can be tolerated clinically should therefore produce adequate enhancements of radiation damage in human tumours. (author)

  2. Inhibition of bovine kidney alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in the presence or absence of calcium ion and effect of adenosine 5'-diphosphate on reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlis, V B; Roche, T E

    1981-04-28

    Micromolar Ca2+ markedly reduces NADH inhibition of bovine kidney alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex [Lawlis, V. B., & Roche, T. E. (1980) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 32, 147-152]. Product inhibition patterns from initial velocity studies conducted at less than 10(-9) M or at 1.5 X 10(-5) M Ca2+ with NAD+, CoA, or alpha-ketoglutarate as the variable substrate showed that NADH was a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to each of these substrates, except at high NAD+ concentrations, where reciprocal plots were nonlinear and the inhibition pattern for NADH vs. NAD+ changed from a noncompetitive to a competitive pattern. From slope and intercept replots, 2-fold to 12-fold higher inhibition constants were estimated for inhibition by NADH vs. the various substrates in the presence of 1.5 X 10(-5) M Ca2+ than for inhibition at less than 10(-9) M Ca2+. These inhibition patterns and the lack of an effect of Ca2+ on the inhibition of the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase component suggested that Ca2+-modulated NADH inhibition occurs at an allosteric site with competitive binding at the site by high levels of NAD+. Decarboxylation of alpha-keto[1-14C]glutarate by the resolved alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase component was investigated in the presence of 5.0 mM glyoxylate which served as an efficient acceptor. NADH (0.2 mM) or 1.0 mM ATP inhibited the partial reaction whereas 15 muM Ca2+, 1.0 mM ADP, or 10 mM NAD+ stimulated the partial reaction and reduced NADH inhibition of this reaction. Thus these effectors alter the activity of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by binding at allosteric sites on the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase component. Inhibition by NADH over a wide range of NADH/NAD+ ratios was measured under conditions in which the level of alpha-ketoglutarate was adjusted to give matching control activities at less than 10(-9) M Ca2+ or 1.5 X 10(-5) M Ca2+ in either the presence or the absence of 1.6 mM ADP. These studies establish that both Ca2+ and ADP decreased NADH inhibition under conditions compensating for the effects of Ca2+ and ADP on S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate. ADP was particularly effective in reducing NADH inhibition; further studies are required to determine whether this occurs through binding of NADH and ADP at the same, overlapping, or interacting sites.

  3. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Benjamin A; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2016-05-13

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) participates in redox reactions and NAD(+)-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD(+)-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD(+) as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD(+) salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD(+) from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD(+) precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1-2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD(+) content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular

  4. Pancreatic Beta-Cell Purification by Altering FAD and NAD(PH Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. de Vos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of primary beta cells from other cells within in the pancreatic islets is of importance for many fields of islet research. However, up to now, no satisfactory method has been developed that gained high numbers of viable beta cells, without considerable alpha-cell contamination. In this study, we investigated whether rat beta cells can be isolated from nonbeta endocrine cells by manipulating the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(PH autofluorescence. Beta cells were isolated from dispersed islets by flow cytometry, based on their high FAD and NAD(PH fluorescence. To improve beta cell yield and purity, the cellular FAD and NAD(PH contents were altered by preincubation in culture media containing varying amounts of D-glucose and amino acids. Manipulation of the cellular FAD and NAD(PH fluorescence improves beta cell yield and purity after sorting. This method is also a fast and reliable method to measure beta cell functional viability. A conceivable application is assessing beta cell viability before transplantation.

  5. Correlating two-photon excited fluorescence imaging of breast cancer cellular redox state with seahorse flux analysis of normalized cellular oxygen consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Wright, Heather J.; Chan, Nicole; Tran, Richard; Razorenova, Olga V.; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-06-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of the cellular cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide is widely used to measure cellular metabolism, both in normal and pathological cells and tissues. When dual-wavelength excitation is used, ratiometric TPEF imaging of the intrinsic cofactor fluorescence provides a metabolic index of cells-the "optical redox ratio" (ORR). With increased interest in understanding and controlling cellular metabolism in cancer, there is a need to evaluate the performance of ORR in malignant cells. We compare TPEF metabolic imaging with seahorse flux analysis of cellular oxygen consumption in two different breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). We monitor metabolic index in living cells under both normal culture conditions and, for MCF-7, in response to cell respiration inhibitors and uncouplers. We observe a significant correlation between the TPEF-derived ORR and the flux analyzer measurements (R=0.7901, p<0.001). Our results confirm that the ORR is a valid dynamic index of cell metabolism under a range of oxygen consumption conditions relevant for cancer imaging.

  6. A fiber-optic sorbitol biosensor based on NADH fluorescence detection toward rapid diagnosis of diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessei, Tomoko; Arakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-09-21

    Accumulation of sorbitol in the tissue is known to cause microvascular diabetic complications. In this paper, a fiber-optic biosensor for sorbitol which is used as a biomarker of diabetic complications was developed and tested. The biosensor used a sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas with high substrate specificity and detected the fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by the enzymatic reaction. An ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED) was used as the excitation light source of NADH. The fluorescence of NADH was detected using a spectrometer or a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The UV-LED and the photodetector were coupled using a Y-shaped optical fiber. In the experiment, an optical fiber probe with a sorbitol dehydrogenase immobilized membrane was placed in a cuvette filled with a phosphate buffer containing the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). The changes in NADH fluorescence intensity were measured after adding a standard sorbitol solution. According to the experimental assessment, the calibration range of the sorbitol biosensor systems using a spectrometer and a PMT was 5.0-1000 μmol L(-1) and 1.0-1000 μmol L(-1), respectively. The sorbitol biosensor system using the sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas has high selectivity and sensitivity compared with that from sheep liver. The sorbitol biosensor allows for point-of-care testing applications or daily health care tests for diabetes patients.

  7. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Plays a Critical Role in Naive and Effector Murine T Cells but Not Natural Regulatory T Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ramadan A.; Camick, Christina; Wiles, Katherine; Walseth, Timothy F.; Slama, James T.; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Giovannucci, David R.; Wall, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), the most potent Ca2+ mobilizing second messenger discovered to date, has been implicated in Ca2+ signaling in some lymphomas and T cell clones. In contrast, the role of NAADP in Ca2+ signaling or the identity of the Ca2+ stores targeted by NAADP in conventional naive T cells is less clear. In the current study, we demonstrate the importance of NAADP in the generation of Ca2+ signals in murine naive T cells. Combining live-cell imaging methods and a pharmacological approach using the NAADP antagonist Ned-19, we addressed the involvement of NAADP in the generation of Ca2+ signals evoked by TCR stimulation and the role of this signal in downstream physiological end points such as proliferation, cytokine production, and other responses to stimulation. We demonstrated that acidic compartments in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum were the Ca2+ stores that were sensitive to NAADP in naive T cells. NAADP was shown to evoke functionally relevant Ca2+ signals in both naive CD4 and naive CD8 T cells. Furthermore, we examined the role of this signal in the activation, proliferation, and secretion of effector cytokines by Th1, Th2, Th17, and CD8 effector T cells. Overall, NAADP exhibited a similar profile in mediating Ca2+ release in effector T cells as in their counterpart naive T cells and seemed to be equally important for the function of these different subsets of effector T cells. This profile was not observed for natural T regulatory cells. PMID:26728458

  8. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivyna Pau Ni Bong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a malignancy of B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Our array-based comparative genomic hybridization findings revealed chromosomal gains at 7q22.3 and 1q42.3, where nicotinamide (NAM phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST genes are localized, respectively. This led us to further study the functions of these genes in myeloma cells. NAMPT is a key enzyme involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. In contrast, little is known about the function of LYST in cancer. The expression of LYST is shown to affect lysosomal size, granule size, and autophagy in human cells. In this study, the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated silencing of NAMPT and LYST on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in RPMI 8226 myeloma cells. Transfection efficiencies were determined by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay. The NAMPT protein expression in siRNA-treated cells was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that NAMPT and LYST were successfully knockdown by siRNA transfection (p < 0.05. NAMPT or LYST gene silencing significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in RPMI 8226 cells (p < 0.05. Silencing of NAMPT gene also decreased NAMPT protein levels (p < 0.01. Our study demonstrated that NAMPT and LYST play pivotal roles in the molecular pathogenesis of MM. This is the first report describing the possible functions of LYST in myelomagenesis and its potential role as a therapeutic target in MM.

  9. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Ivyna Pau Ni; Ng, Ching Ching; Fakiruddin, Shaik Kamal; Lim, Moon Nian; Zakaria, Zubaidah

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Our array-based comparative genomic hybridization findings revealed chromosomal gains at 7q22.3 and 1q42.3, where nicotinamide (NAM) phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) genes are localized, respectively. This led us to further study the fprotein expression in unctions of these genes in myeloma cells. NAMPT is a key enzyme involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. In contrast, little is known about the function of LYST in cancer. The expression of LYST is shown to affect lysosomal size, granule size, and autophagy in human cells. In this study, the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of NAMPT and LYST on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in RPMI 8226 myeloma cells. Transfection efficiencies were determined by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay. The NAMPT protein expression in siRNA-treated cells was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that NAMPT and LYST were successfully knockdown by siRNA transfection (p < 0.05). NAMPT or LYST gene silencing significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in RPMI 8226 cells (p < 0.05). Silencing of NAMPT gene also decreased NAMPT protein levels (p < 0.01). Our study demonstrated that NAMPT and LYST play pivotal roles in the molecular pathogenesis of MM. This is the first report describing the possible functions of LYST in myelomagenesis and its potential role as a therapeutic target in MM. PMID:27754828

  10. First-pass metabolism of ethanol in human beings: effect of intravenous infusion of fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, MH; Schäfer, C.

    2004-01-01

    Intravenous infusion of fructose has been shown to enhance reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reoxidation and, thereby, to enhance the metabolism of ethanol. In the current study, the effect of fructose infusion on first-pass metabolism of ethanol was studied in human volunteers....... A significantly higher first-pass metabolism of ethanol was obtained after administration of fructose in comparison with findings for control experiments with an equimolar dose of glucose. Because fructose is metabolized predominantly in the liver and can be presumed to have virtually no effects in the stomach...

  11. Immobilisation of enzymes on poly(aniline)-poly(anion) composite films. Preparation of bioanodes for biofuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Evelyne; Halliwell, Catherine M; Toh, Chee Seng; Cass, Anthony E G; Bartlett, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    Immobilisation of enzymes is important for applications such as biosensors or biofuel cells. A poly(histidine) tag had been introduced on the C terminus of a lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This mutant enzyme was then immobilised onto poly(aniline) (PANi)-poly(anion) composite films, PANi-poly(vinylsulfonate) (PVS) or PANi-poly(acrylate) (PAA). The NADH produced by the immobilised enzyme in the presence of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and lactate is oxidised at the poly(aniline)-coated electrode at 0.05 to 0.1 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) at 35 degrees C.

  12. Platelet graphite nanofibers for electrochemical sensing and biosensing: the influence of graphene sheet orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Sasaki, Toshio; Pumera, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate that platelet graphite nanofibers (PGNFs) exhibit fast heterogeneous electron-transfer rates for a wide variety of compounds such as FeCl(3), ferrocyanide, dopamine, uric acid, ascorbic acid, and the reduced form of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The electrochemical properties of PGNFs are superior to those of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or graphite microparticles (GMPs). Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy reveal that this arises from the unique graphene sheet orientation of such platelet nanofibers, which accounts for their unparalleled high ratio of graphene edge planes versus basal planes.

  13. Laser induced fluorescence of biochemical for UV LIDAR application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Sharma, R C; Razdan, A K; Maini, A K

    2014-05-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the ultraviolet regime has been used for the detection of biochemical through a fiber coupled CCD detector from a distance of 2 m. The effect of concentration and laser excitation energy on the fluorescence spectra of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been investigated. The signature fluorescence peak of NADH was centred about 460 nm. At lower concentration Raman peak centred at 405 nm was also observed. The origin of this peak has been discussed. Detection limit with the proposed set up is found to be 1 ppm.

  14. Head to head comparison of short-term treatment with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN and six weeks of exercise in obese female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Mezbah Uddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is well known to be a major cause of several chronic metabolic diseases, which can be partially counteracted by exercise. This is due, in part, to an upregulation of mitochondrial activity through increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+. Recent studies have shown that NAD+ levels can be increased by using the NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN leading to the suggestion that NMN could be a useful intervention in diet related metabolic disorders. In this study we compared the metabolic, and especially mitochondrial-associated, effects of exercise and NMN in ameliorating the consequences of high-fat diet (HFD induced obesity in mice. Sixty female 5 week old C57BL6/J mice were allocated across 5 interventions: Chow sedentary: CS; Chow exercise: CEX; HFD sedentary: HS; HFD NMN: HNMN; HFD exercise: HEX (12/group. After 6 weeks of diet, exercise groups underwent treadmill exercise (15 m/min for 45 minutes, 6 days per week for 6 weeks. NMN or vehicle (500 mg/kg body weight was injected (i.p. daily for the last 17 days. No significant alteration in body weight was observed in response to exercise or NMN. The HFD significantly altered adiposity, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, NADH levels and citrate synthase activity in muscle and liver. HEX and HNMN groups both showed significantly improved glucose tolerance compared to the HS group. NAD+ levels were increased significantly both in muscle and liver by NMN whereas exercise increased NAD+ only in muscle. Both NMN and exercise ameliorated the HFD-induced reduction in liver citrate synthase activity. However, exercise, but not NMN, ameliorated citrate synthase activity in muscle. Overall these data suggest that while exercise and NMN-supplementation can induce similar reversal of the glucose intolerance induced by obesity, they are associated with tissue-specific effects and differential alterations to mitochondrial function in muscle and liver.

  15. RNA interference targeting cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase exerts anti-obesity effect in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Woo Suk; Park, Kwon Moo; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2012-08-01

    A metabolic abnormality in lipid biosynthesis is frequently associated with obesity and hyperlipidemia. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) is an essential reducing equivalent for numerous enzymes required in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) has been proposed as a key enzyme for supplying cytosolic NADPH. We report here that knockdown of IDPc expression by Ribonucleic acid (RNA) interference (RNAi) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mice. Attenuated IDPc expression by IDPc small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a reduction of differentiation and triglyceride level and adipogenic protein expression as well as suppression of glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes. In addition, the attenuation of Nox activity and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation accompanied with knockdown of IDPc was associated with inhibition of adipogenesis and lipogenesis. The loss of body weight and the reduction of triglyceride level were also observed in diet-induced obese mice transduced with IDPc short-hairpin (shRNA). Taken together, the inhibiting effect of RNAi targeting IDPc on adipogenesis and lipid biosynthesis is considered to be of therapeutic value in the treatment and prevention of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of function in the "two dinucleotide binding domains" flavoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Ojha

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural and biochemical constraints force some segments of proteins to evolve more slowly than others, often allowing identification of conserved structural or sequence motifs that can be associated with substrate binding properties, chemical mechanisms, and molecular functions. We have assessed the functional and structural constraints imposed by cofactors on the evolution of new functions in a superfamily of flavoproteins characterized by two-dinucleotide binding domains, the "two dinucleotide binding domains" flavoproteins (tDBDF superfamily. Although these enzymes catalyze many different types of oxidation/reduction reactions, each is initiated by a stereospecific hydride transfer reaction between two cofactors, a pyridine nucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD. Sequence and structural analysis of more than 1,600 members of the superfamily reveals new members and identifies details of the evolutionary connections among them. Our analysis shows that in all of the highly divergent families within the superfamily, these cofactors adopt a conserved configuration optimal for stereospecific hydride transfer that is stabilized by specific interactions with amino acids from several motifs distributed among both dinucleotide binding domains. The conservation of cofactor configuration in the active site restricts the pyridine nucleotide to interact with FAD from the re-side, limiting the flow of electrons from the re-side to the si-side. This directionality of electron flow constrains interactions with the different partner proteins of different families to occur on the same face of the cofactor binding domains. As a result, superimposing the structures of tDBDFs aligns not only these interacting proteins, but also their constituent electron acceptors, including heme and iron-sulfur clusters. Thus, not only are specific aspects of the cofactor-directed chemical mechanism conserved across the superfamily, the constraints they impose are

  17. The evolutionary portrait of metazoan NAD salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, João; Duarte-Pereira, Sara; Azevedo, Luísa; Castro, L Filipe C; Aguiar, Paulo; Moreira, Irina S; Amorim, António; Silva, Raquel M

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) levels are essential for cellular homeostasis and survival. Main sources of intracellular NAD are the salvage pathways from nicotinamide, where Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferases (NAMPTs) and Nicotinamidases (PNCs) have a key role. NAMPTs and PNCs are important in aging, infection and disease conditions such as diabetes and cancer. These enzymes have been considered redundant since either one or the other exists in each individual genome. The co-occurrence of NAMPT and PNC was only recently detected in invertebrates though no structural or functional characterization exists for them. Here, using expression and evolutionary analysis combined with homology modeling and protein-ligand docking, we show that both genes are expressed simultaneously in key species of major invertebrate branches and emphasize sequence and structural conservation patterns in metazoan NAMPT and PNC homologues. The results anticipate that NAMPTs and PNCs are simultaneously active, raising the possibility that NAD salvage pathways are not redundant as both are maintained to fulfill the requirement for NAD production in some species.

  18. Advanced oxidation protein products induce chondrocyte apoptosis via receptor for advanced glycation end products-mediated, redox-dependent intrinsic apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Zhu, Si-Yuan; Liao, Cong-Rui; Pan, Ying; Zeng, Ji-Huan; Zheng, Shuai; Ding, Ruo-Ting; Lin, Qing-Song; Ye, Qing; Ye, Wen-Bin; Li, Wei; Chen, Jian-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced chondrocyte apoptosis is a primary cause of cartilage destruction in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), a novel pro-inflammatory mediator, have been confirmed to accumulate in patients with RA. However, the effect of AOPPs accumulation on chondrocyte apoptosis and the associated cellular mechanisms remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that the plasma formation of AOPPs was enhanced in RA rats compared with normal. Then, chondrocyte were treated with AOPPs-modified rat serum albumin (AOPPs-RSA) in vitro. Exposure of chondrocyte to AOPPs activated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, which was mediated by receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), but not scavenger receptor CD36. Moreover, AOPPs challenge triggered NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation which induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress resulted in activation of caspase family that eventually lead to apoptosis. Lastly, blockade of RAGE, instead of CD36, largely attenuated these signals. Our study demonstrated first time that AOPPs induce chondrocyte apoptosis via RAGE-mediated and redox-dependent intrinsic apoptosis pathway in vitro. These data implicates that AOPPs may represent a novel pathogenic factor that contributes to RA progression. Targeting AOPPs-triggered cellular mechanisms might emerge as a promising therapeutic option for patients with RA.

  19. Physical limits to autofluorescence signals in vivo recordings in the rat olfactory bulb: a Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, B.; Gurden, H.; Pinot, L.; Mastrippolito, R.; Lefebvre, F.; Lanièce, P.; Pain, F.

    2007-07-01

    Understanding the cellular mechanisms of energy supply to neurons following physiological activation is still challenging and has strong implications to the interpretation of clinical functional images based on metabolic signals such as Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging or 18F-Fluorodexoy-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography. Intrinsic Optical Signal Imaging provides with high spatio temporal resolution in vivo imaging in the anaesthetized rat. In that context, intrinsic signals are mainly related to changes in the optical absorption of haemoglobin depending on its oxygenation state. This technique has been validated for imaging of the rat olfactory bulb, providing with maps of the actived olfactory glomeruli, the functional modules involved in the first step of olfactory coding. A complementary approach would be autofluorescence imaging relying on the fluorescence properties of endogenous Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) or Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH) both involved in intracellular metabolic pathways. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of in vivo autofluorescence imaging in the rat olfactory bulb. We performed standard Monte Carlo simulations of photons scattering and absorption at the excitation and emission wavelengths of FAD and NADH fluorescence. Characterization of the fluorescence distribution in the glomerulus, effect of hemoglobin absorption at the excitation and absorption wavelengths as well as the effect of the blurring due to photon scattering and the depth of focus of the optical apparatus have been studied. Finally, optimal experimental parameters are proposed to achieve in vivo validation of the technique in the rat olfactory bulb.

  20. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Plays a Critical Role in Naive and Effector Murine T Cells but Not Natural Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ramadan A; Camick, Christina; Wiles, Katherine; Walseth, Timothy F; Slama, James T; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Giovannucci, David R; Wall, Katherine A

    2016-02-26

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), the most potent Ca(2+) mobilizing second messenger discovered to date, has been implicated in Ca(2+) signaling in some lymphomas and T cell clones. In contrast, the role of NAADP in Ca(2+) signaling or the identity of the Ca(2+) stores targeted by NAADP in conventional naive T cells is less clear. In the current study, we demonstrate the importance of NAADP in the generation of Ca(2+) signals in murine naive T cells. Combining live-cell imaging methods and a pharmacological approach using the NAADP antagonist Ned-19, we addressed the involvement of NAADP in the generation of Ca(2+) signals evoked by TCR stimulation and the role of this signal in downstream physiological end points such as proliferation, cytokine production, and other responses to stimulation. We demonstrated that acidic compartments in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum were the Ca(2+) stores that were sensitive to NAADP in naive T cells. NAADP was shown to evoke functionally relevant Ca(2+) signals in both naive CD4 and naive CD8 T cells. Furthermore, we examined the role of this signal in the activation, proliferation, and secretion of effector cytokines by Th1, Th2, Th17, and CD8 effector T cells. Overall, NAADP exhibited a similar profile in mediating Ca(2+) release in effector T cells as in their counterpart naive T cells and seemed to be equally important for the function of these different subsets of effector T cells. This profile was not observed for natural T regulatory cells. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Predicting Flavin and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide-Binding Sites in Proteins Using the Fragment Transformation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a computational method to identify NAD- and FAD-binding sites in proteins. First, we extracted from the Protein Data Bank structures of proteins that bind to at least one of these ligands. NAD-/FAD-binding residue templates were then constructed by identifying binding residues through the ligand-binding database BioLiP. The fragment transformation method was used to identify structures within query proteins that resembled the ligand-binding templates. By comparing residue types and their relative spatial positions, potential binding sites were identified and a ligand-binding potential for each residue was calculated. Setting the false positive rate at 5%, our method predicted NAD- and FAD-binding sites at true positive rates of 67.1% and 68.4%, respectively. Our method provides excellent results for identifying FAD- and NAD-binding sites in proteins, and the most important is that the requirement of conservation of residue types and local structures in the FAD- and NAD-binding sites can be verified.

  2. Oxygen sensing PLIM together with FLIM of intrinsic cellular fluorophores for metabolic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Sviatlana; Schaefer, Patrick; Breymayer, Jasmin; Bisinger, Dominik; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Rueck, Angelika

    2018-02-01

    Otical imaging techniques based on time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) has found wide applications in medicine and biology. Non-invasive and information-rich fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is successfully used for monitoring fluorescent intrinsic metabolic coenzymes as NAD(P)H (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)) and FAD+ (flavin adenine dinucleotide) in living cells and tissues. The ratio between proteinbound and free coenzymes gives an information about the balance between oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in the cells. The changes of the ratio reflects major cellular disorders. A correlation exists between metabolic activity, redox ratio and fluorescence lifetime during stem cell differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, and carcinogenesis. A multichannel FLIM detection system was designed for monitoring the redox state of NAD(P)H and FAD+ and other intrinsic fluorophores as protoporphyrin IX. In addition, the unique upgrade is useful to perform FLIM and PLIM (phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy) simultaneously. PLIM is a promising method to investigate oxygen sensing in biomedical samples. In detail, the oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence of some compounds as transition metal complexes enables measuring of oxygen partial pressure (pO2). Using a two-channel FLIM/PLIM system we monitored intrinsic pO2 by PLIM simultaneously with NAD(P)H by FLIM providing complex metabolic and redox imaging of living cells. Physico-chemical properties of oxygen sensitive probes define certain parameters including their localisation. We present results of some ruthenium based complexes including those specifically bound to mitochondria.

  3. SirT1 confers hypoxia-induced radioresistance via the modulation of c-Myc stabilization on hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yuexia; Zhang Jianghong; Shao Chunlin; Xu Yanwu

    2012-01-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia is an important contributory factor to tumor cell resistance to radiotherapy. SirT1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-dependent histone/protein deacetylase, has been linked to the decrease of radiation-induced DNA damage and seems to be critical for cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of SirT1 in hypoxia-induced radiation response on hepatoma cells. It was found that the administration with resveratrol, a putative SirT1 activator, enhanced the resistance of HepG2 cells against radiation-induced DNA damage of MN formation under hypoxia condition; while nicotinamide, a well-known SirT1 inhibitor, sensitized this radiation damage. Nevertheless, pretreatment of cells with 10058-F4, a specific inhibitor of c-Myc, almost eliminated the nicotinamide-induced radiosensitive effect. Further studies revealed that resveratrol inhibited c-Myc protein accumulation via up-regulation of SirT1 expression and deacetylase activity, and this loss of c-Myc protein was abolished by inhibiting its degradation in the presence of MG132, a potent inhibitor of proteasome. In contrast, nicotinamide attenuated c-Myc protein degradation induced by radiation under hypoxia through inhibition of SirT1 deacetylase activity. Our findings suggest that SirT1 could serve as a novel potent target of radiation-induced DNA damage and thus as a potential strategy to advance the efficiency of radiation therapy in hepatoma entities. (author)

  4. The impact of aging, hearing loss, and body weight on mouse hippocampal redox state, measured in brain slices using fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Kevin A; Choi, Hyun W; Ravindra, Aditya; Llano, Daniel Adolfo

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between oxidative stress in the hippocampus and other aging-related changes such as hearing loss, cortical thinning, or changes in body weight are not yet known. We measured the redox ratio in a number of neural structures in brain slices taken from young and aged mice. Hearing thresholds, body weight, and cortical thickness were also measured. We found striking aging-related increases in the redox ratio that were isolated to the stratum pyramidale, while such changes were not observed in thalamus or cortex. These changes were driven primarily by changes in flavin adenine dinucleotide, not nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride. Multiple regression analysis suggested that neither hearing threshold nor cortical thickness independently contributed to this change in hippocampal redox ratio. However, body weight did independently contribute to predicted changes in hippocampal redox ratio. These data suggest that aging-related changes in hippocampal redox ratio are not a general reflection of overall brain oxidative state but are highly localized, while still being related to at least one marker of late aging, weight loss at the end of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro characterization of the NAD+ synthetase NadE1 from Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskoski, Kerly; Santos, Adrian R S; Bonatto, Ana C; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Huergo, Luciano F

    2016-05-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase enzyme (NadE) catalyzes the amination of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD) to form NAD(+). This reaction represents the last step in the majority of the NAD(+) biosynthetic routes described to date. NadE enzymes typically use either glutamine or ammonium as amine nitrogen donor, and the reaction is energetically driven by ATP hydrolysis. Given the key role of NAD(+) in bacterial metabolism, NadE has attracted considerable interest as a potential target for the development of novel antibiotics. The plant-associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae encodes two putative NadE, namely nadE1 and nadE2. The nadE1 gene is linked to glnB encoding the signal transduction protein GlnB. Here we report the purification and in vitro characterization of H. seropedicae NadE1. Gel filtration chromatography analysis suggests that NadE1 is an octamer. The NadE1 activity was assayed in vitro, and the Michaelis-Menten constants for substrates NaAD, ATP, glutamine and ammonium were determined. Enzyme kinetic and in vitro substrate competition assays indicate that H. seropedicae NadE1 uses glutamine as a preferential nitrogen donor.

  6. Mapping absolute tissue endogenous fluorophore concentrations with chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang; Reilley, Michael; Li, Run; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    We report chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy for imaging the spatial distribution and concentration of endogenous fluorophores in thin tissue sections. Nonnegative factorization aided by spatial diversity is used to learn both the spectral signature and the spatial distribution of endogenous fluorophores from microscopic fluorescence color images obtained under broadband excitation and detection. The absolute concentration map of individual fluorophores is derived by comparing the fluorescence from "pure" fluorophores under the identical imaging condition following the identification of the fluorescence species by its spectral signature. This method is then demonstrated by characterizing the concentration map of endogenous fluorophores (including tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide) for lung tissue specimens. The absolute concentrations of these fluorophores are all found to decrease significantly from normal, perilesional, to cancerous (squamous cell carcinoma) tissue. Discriminating tissue types using the absolute fluorophore concentration is found to be significantly more accurate than that achievable with the relative fluorescence strength. Quantification of fluorophores in terms of the absolute concentration map is also advantageous in eliminating the uncertainties due to system responses or measurement details, yielding more biologically relevant data, and simplifying the assessment of competing imaging approaches.

  7. On-line measurements of oscillating mitochondrial membrane potential in glucose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Poulsen, Allan K.; Brasen, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    We employed the fluorescent cyanine dye DiOC(2)(3) to measure membrane potential in semi-anaerobic yeast cells under conditions where glycolysis was oscillating. Oscillations in glycolysis were studied by means of the naturally abundant nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). We found...... studies showed that glycolytic oscillations perturb the mitochondrial membrane potential and that the mitochondria do not have any controlling effect on the dynamics of glycolysis under these conditions. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane by addition of FCCP quenched mitochondrial membrane...... potential oscillations and delocalized DiOC(2)(3), while glycolysis continued to oscillate unaffected....

  8. NAD+ : A key metabolic regulator with great therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultani, G; Samsudeen, A F; Osborne, B; Turner, N

    2017-10-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) is a ubiquitous metabolite that serves an essential role in the catabolism of nutrients. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in NAD + biology, with the recognition that NAD + influences many biological processes beyond metabolism, including transcription, signalling and cell survival. There are a multitude of pathways involved in the synthesis and breakdown of NAD + , and alterations in NAD + homeostasis have emerged as a common feature of a range of disease states. Here, we provide an overview of NAD + metabolism and summarise progress on the development of NAD + -related therapeutics. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  9. Evaluation of the contribution of the renal capsule and cortex to kidney autofluorescence intensity under ultraviolet excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R N; Pivetti, C D; Rubenchik, A M; Matthews, D L; Troppmann, C; Demos, S G

    2008-12-12

    The use of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence to gain metabolic information on kidneys in response to an alteration in oxygen availability has previously been experimentally demonstrated, but signal quantification has not to date been addressed. In this work the relative contribution to rat kidney autofluorescence of the capsule vs. cortex under ultraviolet excitation is determined from experimental results obtained using autofluorescence microscopy and a suitable mathematical model. The results allow for a quantitative assessment of the relative contribution of the signal originating in the metabolically active cortex as a function of capsule thickness for different wavelengths.

  10. Lactococcus lactis Thioredoxin Reductase Is Sensitive to Light Inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Viennet, Thibault; Skjoldager, Nicklas

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin, involved in numerous redox pathways, is maintained in the dithiol state by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent flavoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Here, TrxR from Lactococcus lactis is compared with the well-characterized TrxR from Escherichia coli. The two...... enzymes belong to the same class of low-molecular weight thioredoxin reductases and display similar kcat values (∼25 s-1) with their cognate thioredoxin. Remarkably, however, the L. lactis enzyme is inactivated by visible light and furthermore reduces molecular oxygen 10 times faster than E. coli Trx......-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of heat-extracted FAD from light-damaged TrxR revealed a mass increment of 13.979 Da, relative to that of unmodified FAD, corresponding to the addition of one oxygen atom and the loss of two hydrogen atoms. Tandem mass spectrometry confined the increase in mass...

  11. Independent AMP and NAD signaling regulates C2C12 differentiation and metabolic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia George; Burkholder, Thomas J

    2016-12-01

    The balance of ATP production and consumption is reflected in adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) content and has been associated with phenotypic plasticity in striated muscle. Some studies have suggested that AMPK-dependent plasticity may be an indirect consequence of increased NAD synthesis and SIRT1 activity. The primary goal of this study was to assess the interaction of AMP- and NAD-dependent signaling in adaptation of C2C12 myotubes. Changes in myotube developmental and metabolic gene expression were compared following incubation with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) to activate AMPK- and NAD-related signaling. AICAR showed no effect on NAD pool or nampt expression but significantly reduced histone H3 acetylation and GLUT1, cytochrome C oxidase subunit 2 (COX2), and MYH3 expression. In contrast, NMN supplementation for 24 h increased NAD pool by 45 % but did not reduce histone H3 acetylation nor promote mitochondrial gene expression. The combination of AMP and NAD signaling did not induce further metabolic adaptation, but NMN ameliorated AICAR-induced myotube reduction. We interpret these results as indication that AMP and NAD contribute to C2C12 differentiation and metabolic adaptation independently.

  12. Zinc-dependent multi-conductance channel activity in mitochondria isolated from ischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Laura; Chachar, Mushtaque; Jover-Mengual, Teresa; Li, Hongmei; Jones, Adrienne; Yokota, Hidenori; Ofengeim, Dimitry; Flannery, Richard J; Miyawaki, Takahiro; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Polster, Brian M; Pypaert, Marc; Hardwick, J Marie; Sensi, Stefano L; Zukin, R Suzanne; Jonas, Elizabeth A

    2006-06-21

    Transient global ischemia is a neuronal insult that induces delayed cell death. A hallmark event in the early post-ischemic period is enhanced permeability of mitochondrial membranes. The precise mechanisms by which mitochondrial function is disrupted are, as yet, unclear. Here we show that global ischemia promotes alterations in mitochondrial membrane contact points, a rise in intramitochondrial Zn2+, and activation of large, multi-conductance channels in mitochondrial outer membranes by 1 h after insult. Mitochondrial channel activity was associated with enhanced protease activity and proteolytic cleavage of BCL-xL to generate its pro-death counterpart, deltaN-BCL-xL. The findings implicate deltaN-BCL-xL in large, multi-conductance channel activity. Consistent with this, large channel activity was mimicked by introduction of recombinant deltaN-BCL-xL to control mitochondria and blocked by introduction of a functional BCL-xL antibody to post-ischemic mitochondria via the patch pipette. Channel activity was also inhibited by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, indicative of a role for the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In vivo administration of the membrane-impermeant Zn2+ chelator CaEDTA before ischemia or in vitro application of the membrane-permeant Zn2+ chelator tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine attenuated channel activity, suggesting a requirement for Zn2+. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which ischemic insults disrupt the functional integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane and implicate deltaN-BCL-xL and VDAC in the large, Zn2+-dependent mitochondrial channels observed in post-ischemic hippocampal mitochondria.

  13. Neuronal death induced by misfolded prion protein is due to NAD+ depletion and can be relieved in vitro and in vivo by NAD+ replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghai; Ottenberg, Gregory; Sferrazza, Gian Franco; Hubbs, Christopher; Fallahi, Mohammad; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Brantley, Alicia F.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of neuronal death in protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases are poorly understood. We used a highly toxic misfolded prion protein (TPrP) model to understand neurotoxicity induced by prion protein misfolding. We show that abnormal autophagy activation and neuronal demise is due to severe, neuron-specific, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) depletion. Toxic prion protein-exposed neuronal cells exhibit dramatic reductions of intracellular NAD+ followed by decreased ATP production, and are completely rescued by treatment with NAD+ or its precursor nicotinamide because of restoration of physiological NAD+ levels. Toxic prion protein-induced NAD+ depletion results from PARP1-independent excessive protein ADP-ribosylations. In vivo, toxic prion protein-induced degeneration of hippocampal neurons is prevented dose-dependently by intracerebral injection of NAD+. Intranasal NAD+ treatment of prion-infected sick mice significantly improves activity and delays motor impairment. Our study reveals NAD+ starvation as a novel mechanism of autophagy activation and neurodegeneration induced by a misfolded amyloidogenic protein. We propose the development of NAD+ replenishment strategies for neuroprotection in prion diseases and possibly other protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25678560

  14. Novel p47(phox)-related organizers regulate localized NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Davide; Diaz, Begoña; Taulet, Nicolas; Fowler, Bruce; Courtneidge, Sara A; Bokoch, Gary M

    2009-09-15

    The mechanisms that determine localized formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase (Nox) family members in nonphagocytic cells are unknown. We show that the c-Src substrate proteins Tks4 (tyrosine kinase substrate with four SH3 domains) and Tks5 are functional members of a p47(phox)-related organizer superfamily. Tks proteins selectively support Nox1 and Nox3 (and not Nox2 and Nox4) activity in reconstituted cellular systems and interact with the NoxA1 activator protein through an Src homology 3 domain-mediated interaction. Endogenous Tks4 is required for Rac guanosine triphosphatase- and Nox1-dependent ROS production by DLD1 colon cancer cells. Our results are consistent with the Tks-mediated recruitment of Nox1 to invadopodia that form in DLD1 cells in a Tks- and Nox-dependent fashion. We propose that Tks organizers represent previously unrecognized members of an organizer superfamily that link Nox to localized ROS formation.

  15. The evolutionary portrait of metazoan NAD salvage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carneiro

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD levels are essential for cellular homeostasis and survival. Main sources of intracellular NAD are the salvage pathways from nicotinamide, where Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferases (NAMPTs and Nicotinamidases (PNCs have a key role. NAMPTs and PNCs are important in aging, infection and disease conditions such as diabetes and cancer. These enzymes have been considered redundant since either one or the other exists in each individual genome. The co-occurrence of NAMPT and PNC was only recently detected in invertebrates though no structural or functional characterization exists for them. Here, using expression and evolutionary analysis combined with homology modeling and protein-ligand docking, we show that both genes are expressed simultaneously in key species of major invertebrate branches and emphasize sequence and structural conservation patterns in metazoan NAMPT and PNC homologues. The results anticipate that NAMPTs and PNCs are simultaneously active, raising the possibility that NAD salvage pathways are not redundant as both are maintained to fulfill the requirement for NAD production in some species.

  16. Granzyme B of cytotoxic T cells induces extramitochondrial reactive oxygen species production via caspase-dependent NADPH oxidase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Juan I; Anel, Alberto; Catalán, Elena; Sebastián, Alvaro; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Naval, Javier; Wallich, Reinhard; Simon, Markus M; Pardo, Julián

    2010-07-01

    Induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a hallmark of granzyme B (gzmB)-mediated pro-apoptotic processes and target cell death. However, it is unclear to what extent the generated ROS derive from mitochondrial and/or extra-mitochondrial sources. To clarify this point, we have produced a mutant EL4 cell line, termed EL4-rho(0), which lacks mitochondrial DNA, associated with a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and a defective ROS production through the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation. When incubated with either recombinant gzmB plus streptolysin or ex vivo gzmB(+) cytotoxic T cells, EL4-rho(0) cells showed phosphatydylserine translocation, caspase 3 activation, Bak conformational change, cytochrome c release and apoptotic morphology comparable to EL4 cells. Moreover, EL4-rho(0) cells produced ROS at levels similar to EL4 under these conditions. GzmB-mediated ROS production was almost totally abolished in both cell lines by the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk. However, addition of apocynin, a specific inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, led to a significant reduction of ROS production and cell death only in EL4-rho(0) but not EL4 cells. These data suggest that gzmB-induced cell death is accompanied by a caspase-dependent pathway of extra-mitochondrial ROS production, most probably through activation of NADPH oxidase.

  17. Investigation of the Ionization Mechanism of NAD+/NADH-Modified Gold Electrodes in ToF-SIMS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xin; Zhao, Li-Jun; Long, Yi-Tao

    2018-06-04

    Analysis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + /NADH)-modified electrodes is important for in vitro monitoring of key biological processes. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to analyze NAD + /NADH-modified gold electrodes. Interestingly, no obvious characteristic peaks of nicotinamide fragment could be observed in the mass spectra of NAD + /NADH in their neutral sodium pyrophosphate form. However, after acidification, the characteristic peaks for both NAD + and NADH were detected. This was due to the suppression effect of inner pyrophosphoric salts in both neutral molecules. Besides, it was proved that the suppression by inner salt was intramolecular. No obvious suppression was found between neighboring molecules. These results demonstrated the suppression effect of inner salts in ToF-SIMS analysis, providing useful evidence for the study of ToF-SIMS ionization mechanism of organic molecule-modified electrodes. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Studying Catabolism of Protein ADP-Ribosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Luca; James, Dominic I; Waddell, Ian D; Ahel, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Protein ADP-ribosylation is a conserved posttranslational modification that regulates many major cellular functions, such as DNA repair, transcription, translation, signal transduction, stress response, cell division, aging, and cell death. Protein ADP-ribosyl transferases catalyze the transfer of an ADP-ribose (ADPr) group from the β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD + ) cofactor onto a specific target protein with the subsequent release of nicotinamide. ADP-ribosylation leads to changes in protein structure, function, stability, and localization, thus defining the appropriate cellular response. Signaling processes that are mediated by modifications need to be finely tuned and eventually silenced and one of the ways to achieve this is through the action of enzymes that remove (reverse) protein ADP-ribosylation in a timely fashion such as PARG, TARG1, MACROD1, and MACROD2. Here, we describe several basic methods used to study the enzymatic activity of de-ADP-ribosylating enzymes.

  19. Raman spectroscopic study of acute oxidative stress induced changes in mice skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Alimova, Alexandra; Chakraverty, Rahul; Katz, A.; Gayen, S. K.; Larsson, L.; Savage, H. E.; Alfano, R. R.

    2008-02-01

    The oxidative stress due to free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in diseases such as muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer dementia, diabetes mellitus, and mitochrondrial myopathies. In this study, the acute oxidative stress induced changes in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in mouse skeletal muscles are studied in vitro using Raman spectroscopy. Mammalian skeletal muscles are rich in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in both reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD) states, as they are sites of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The relative levels of NAD and NADH are altered in certain physiological and pathological conditions of skeletal muscles. In this study, near infrared Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the molecular fingerprints of NAD and NADH in five-week-old mice biceps femoris muscles. A Raman vibrational mode of NADH is identified in fresh skeletal muscle samples suspended in buffered normal saline. In the same samples, when treated with 1% H IIO II for 5 minutes and 15 minutes, the Raman spectrum shows molecular fingerprints specific to NAD and the disappearance of NADH vibrational bands. The NAD bands after 15 minutes were more intense than after 5 minutes. Since NADH fluoresces and NAD does not, fluorescence spectroscopy is used to confirm the results of the Raman measurements. Fluorescence spectra exhibit an emission peak at 460 nm, corresponding to NADH emission wavelength in fresh muscle samples; while the H IIO II treated muscle samples do not exhibit NADH fluorescence. Raman spectroscopy may be used to develop a minimally invasive, in vivo optical biopsy method to measure the relative NAD and NADH levels in muscle tissues. This may help to detect diseases of muscle, including mitochondrial myopathies and muscular dystrophies.

  20. Ligand-based virtual screening and inductive learning for identification of SIRT1 inhibitors in natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunan; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hongmei; Leung, Siu-wai

    2016-01-25

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase, and its dysregulation can lead to ageing, diabetes, and cancer. From 346 experimentally confirmed SIRT1 inhibitors, an inhibitor structure pattern was generated by inductive logic programming (ILP) with DMax Chemistry Assistant software. The pattern contained amide, amine, and hetero-aromatic five-membered rings, each of which had a hetero-atom and an unsubstituted atom at a distance of 2. According to this pattern, a ligand-based virtual screening of 1 444 880 active compounds from Chinese herbs identified 12 compounds as inhibitors of SIRT1. Three compounds (ZINC08790006, ZINC08792229, and ZINC08792355) had high affinity (-7.3, -7.8, and -8.6 kcal/mol, respectively) for SIRT1 as estimated by molecular docking software AutoDock Vina. This study demonstrated a use of ILP and background knowledge in machine learning to facilitate virtual screening.

  1. Acridone-based inhibitors of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase: discovery and SAR leading to the identification of N-(2-(6-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)propan-2-yl)-2- fluoro-9-oxo-9,10-dihydroacridine-3-carboxamide (BMS-566419).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Scott H; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yufen; Gu, Henry H; Dhar, T G Murali; Xiao, Zili; Ballentine, Shelley K; Shen, Zhongqi; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Obermeier, Mary; Yang, Zheng; McIntyre, Kim W; Shuster, David J; Witmer, Mark; Dambach, Donna; Chao, Sam; Mathur, Arvind; Chen, Bang-Chi; Barrish, Joel C; Robl, Jeffrey A; Townsend, Robert; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2007-07-26

    Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a key enzyme in the de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides, catalyzes the irreversible nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide dependent oxidation of inosine-5'-monophosphate to xanthosine-5'-monophosphate. Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF), a prodrug of mycophenolic acid, has clinical utility for the treatment of transplant rejection based on its inhibition of IMPDH. The overall clinical benefit of MMF is limited by what is generally believed to be compound-based, dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity that is related to its specific pharmacokinetic characteristics. Thus, development of an IMPDH inhibitor with a novel structure and a different pharmacokinetic profile may reduce the likelihood of GI toxicity and allow for increased efficacy. This article will detail the discovery and SAR leading to a novel and potent acridone-based IMPDH inhibitor 4m and its efficacy and GI tolerability when administered orally in a rat adjuvant arthritis model.

  2. pHP-Tethered N-Acyl Carbamate: A Photocage for Nicotinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahi, Farbod; Purohit, Vatsal; Ferraudi, Guillermo; Stauffacher, Cynthia; Wiest, Olaf; Helquist, Paul

    2018-05-04

    The synthesis of a new photocaged nicotinamide having an N-acyl carbamate linker and a p-hydroxyphenacyl (pHP) chromophore is described. The photophysical and photochemical studies showed an absorption maximum at λ = 330 nm and a quantum yield for release of 11% that are dependent upon both pH and solvent. While the acyl carbamate releases nicotinamide efficiently, a simpler amide linker was inert to photocleavage. This photocaged nicotinamide has significant advantages with respect to quantum yield, absorbance wavelength, rate of release, and solubility that make it the first practical example of a photocaged amide.

  3. Superoxide production and expression of NAD(P)H oxidases by transformed and primary human colonic epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Andresen, Lars; Pedersen, G

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)) generation through the activity of reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) or reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases has been demonstrated in a variety of cell types, but not in human colonic epithelial cells....

  4. fMLP-Induced IL-8 Release Is Dependent on NADPH Oxidase in Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Hidalgo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available N-Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP and platelet-activating factor (PAF induce similar intracellular signalling profiles; but only fMLP induces interleukin-8 (IL-8 release and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH oxidase activity in neutrophils. Because the role of ROS on IL-8 release in neutrophils is until now controversial, we assessed if NADPH oxidase is involved in the IL-8 secretions and PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB pathways activity induced by fMLP. Neutrophils were obtained from healthy volunteers. IL-8 was measured by ELISA, IL-8 mRNA by qPCR, and ROS production by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, reduction of ferricytochrome c, and FACS. Intracellular pH changes were detected by spectrofluorescence. ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation were analysed by immunoblotting and NF-κB was analysed by immunocytochemistry. Hydroxy-3-methoxyaceto-phenone (HMAP, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, and siRNA Nox2 reduced the ROS and IL-8 release in neutrophils treated with fMLP. HMAP, DPI, and amiloride (a Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor inhibited the Akt phosphorylation and did not affect the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activity. DPI and HMAP reduced NF-κB translocation induced by fMLP. We showed that IL-8 release induced by fMLP is dependent on NADPH oxidase, and ROS could play a redundant role in cell signalling, ultimately activating the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways in neutrophils.

  5. Intrinsic fluorescence biomarkers in cells treated with chemopreventive drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Brands, William R.; Zou, Changping; Brewer, Molly A.; Utzinger, Urs

    2005-03-01

    Non-invasive monitoring of cellular metabolism offers promising insights into areas ranging from biomarkers for drug activity to cancer diagnosis. Fluorescence spectroscopy can be utilized in order to exploit endogenous fluorophores, typically metabolic co-factors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and estimate the redox status of the sample. Fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to follow metabolic changes in epithelial ovarian cells as well as bladder epithelial cancer cells during treatment with a chemopreventive drug that initiates cellular quiescence. Fluorescence signals consistent with NADH, FAD, and tryptophan were measured to monitor cellular activity, redox status, and protein content. Cells were treated with varying concentrations of N-4-(hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) and measured in a stable environment with a sensitive fluorescence spectrometer. A subset of measurements was completed on a low concentration of cells to demonstrate feasibility for medical application such as in bladder or ovary washes. Results suggest that all of the cells responded with similar dose dependence but started at different estimated redox ratio baseline levels correlating with cell cycle, growth inhibition, and apoptosis assays. NADH and tryptophan related fluorescence changed significantly while FAD related fluorescence remained unaltered. Fluorescence data collected from approximately 1000 - 2000 cells, comparable to a bladder or ovary wash, was measurable and useful for future experiments. This study suggests that future intrinsic biomarker measurements may need to be most sensitive to changes in NADH and tryptophan related fluorescence while using FAD related fluorescence to help estimate the baseline redox ratio and predict response to chemopreventive agents.

  6. Compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system for quantifying intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio in brain cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Grant, Gerald; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Fangyao; Li, Shuqin; Wilson, Christy; Chen, Kui; Bigner, Darell; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2011-03-01

    We report the development of a compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system and two data analysis methods to quantify the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio and diagnose brain cancer in an orthotopic brain tumor rat model. Our system employs one compact cw diode laser (407 nm) to excite two primary endogenous fluorophores, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. The spectra were first analyzed using a spectral filtering modulation method developed previously to derive the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio, which has the advantages of insensitivty to optical coupling and rapid data acquisition and analysis. This method represents a convenient and rapid alternative for achieving intrinsic fluorescence-based redox measurements as compared to those complicated model-based methods. It is worth noting that the method can also extract total hemoglobin concentration at the same time but only if the emission path length of fluorescence light, which depends on the illumination and collection geometry of the optical probe, is long enough so that the effect of absorption on fluorescence intensity due to hemoglobin is significant. Then a multivariate method was used to statistically classify normal tissues and tumors. Although the first method offers quantitative tissue metabolism information, the second method provides high overall classification accuracy. The two methods provide complementary capabilities for understanding cancer development and noninvasively diagnosing brain cancer. The results of our study suggest that this portable system can be potentially used to demarcate the elusive boundary between a brain tumor and the surrounding normal tissue during surgical resection.

  7. Optical imaging of metabolic adaptability in metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Lisa; Rajaram, Narasimhan

    2018-02-01

    Accurate methods for determining metastatic risk from the primary tumor are crucial for patient survival. Cell metabolism could potentially be used as a marker of metastatic risk. Optical imaging of the endogenous fluorescent molecules nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) provides a non-destructive and label-free method for determining cell metabolism. The optical redox ratio (FAD/FAD+NADH) is sensitive to the balance between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We have previously established that hypoxia-reoxygenation stress leads to metastatic potential-dependent changes in optical redox ratio. The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in optical redox ratio in breast cancer cells in response to different periods of hypoxic stress as well various levels of hypoxia to establish an optimal protocol. We measured the optical redox ratio of highly metastatic 4T1 murine breast cancer cells under normoxic conditions and after exposure to 30, 60, and 120 minutes of 0.5% O2. This was followed by an hour of reoxygenation. We found an increase in the optical redox ratio following reoxygenation from hypoxia for all durations. Statistically significant differences were observed at 60 and 120 minutes (p˂0.01) compared with normoxia, implying an ability to adapt to OXPHOS after reoxygenation. The switch to OXPHOS has been shown to be a key promoter of cell invasion. We will present our results from these investigations in human breast cancer cells as well as non-metastatic breast cancer cells exposed to various levels of hypoxia.

  8. Racemization of enantiopure secondary alcohols by Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase

    KAUST Repository

    Musa, Musa M.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled racemization of enantiopure phenyl-ring-containing secondary alcohols is achieved in this study using W110A secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus (W110A TeSADH) and in the presence of the reduced and oxidized forms of its cofactor nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide. Racemization of both enantiomers of alcohols accepted by W110A TeSADH, not only with low, but also with reasonably high, enantiomeric discrimination is achieved by this method. Furthermore, the high tolerance of TeSADH to organic solvents allows TeSADH-catalyzed racemization to be conducted in media containing up to 50% (v/v) of organic solvents. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. One-step construction of an electrode modified with electrodeposited Au/SiO2 nanoparticles, and its application to the determination of NADH and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Li, B.; Wang, X.; Li, C.

    2010-01-01

    A new electrode was developed by one-step potentiostatic electrodeposition (at -2. 0 V for 20 s) of Au/SiO 2 nanoparticles on a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting electrode (nano-Au/SiO 2 /GCE) was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical behavior of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) at the nano-Au/SiO 2 /GCE were thoroughly investigated. Compared to the unmodified electrode, the overpotential decreased by about 300 mV, and the current response significantly increased. These changes indicated that the modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity in the oxidation of NADH. A linear relationship was obtained in the NADH concentration range from 1. 0 x 10 -6 to 1. 0 x 10 -4 mol L -1 . In addition, amperometric sensing of ethanol at the nano-Au/SiO 2 /GCE in combination with alcohol dehydrogenase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide was successfully demonstrated. A wide linear response was also found for ethanol in the range from 5. 0 x 10 -5 to 1. 0 x 10 -3 mol L -1 and 1. 0 x 10 -3 to 1. 0 x 10 -2 mol L -1 , respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine ethanol in beer and biological samples. (author)

  10. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A PUTATIVE OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.

  11. Rapid measurement of meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Dahlberg, Kevin; Gao, Xin; Smith, Jason; Bailin, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    Food spoilage is mainly caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria. In this study, we measure the autofluorescence in meat samples longitudinally over a week in an attempt to develop a method to rapidly detect meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy. Meat food is a biological tissue, which contains intrinsic fluorophores, such as tryptophan, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) etc. As meat spoils, it undergoes various morphological and chemical changes. The concentrations of the native fluorophores present in a sample may change. In particular, the changes in NADH and FAD are associated with microbial metabolism, which is the most important process of the bacteria in food spoilage. Such changes may be revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy and used to indicate the status of meat spoilage. Therefore, such native fluorophores may be unique, reliable and nonsubjective indicators for detection of spoiled meat. The results of the study show that the relative concentrations of all above fluorophores change as the meat samples kept in room temperature ( 19° C) spoil. The changes become more rapidly after about two days. For the meat samples kept in a freezer ( -12° C), the changes are much less or even unnoticeable over a-week-long storage.

  12. Characterization of a Novel Nicotine Hydroxylase from Pseudomonas sp. ZZ-5 That Catalyzes the Conversion of 6-Hydroxy-3-Succinoylpyridine into 2,5-Dihydroxypyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel nicotine hydroxylase was isolated from Pseudomonas sp. ZZ-5 (HSPHZZ. The sequence encoding the enzyme was 1206 nucleotides long, and encoded a protein of 401 amino acids. Recombinant HSPHZZ was functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Codon Plus (DE3-RIL cells and purified to homogeneity after Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analyses indicated that the enzyme could efficiently catalyze the conversion of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP into 2,5-dihydroxypyridine (2,5-DHP and succinic acid in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD. The kinetic constants (Km, kcat, and kcat/Km of HSPHZZ toward HSP were 0.18 mM, 2.1 s−1, and 11.7 s−1 mM−1, respectively. The optimum temperature, pH, and optimum concentrations of substrate and enzyme for 2,5-DHP production were 30 °C, 8.5, 1.0 mM, and 1.0 μM, respectively. Under optimum conditions, 85.3 mg/L 2,5-DHP was produced in 40 min with a conversion of 74.9%. These results demonstrated that HSPHZZ could be used for the enzymatic production of 2,5-DHP in biotechnology applications.

  13. Non-Euclidean phasor analysis for quantification of oxidative stress in ex vivo human skin exposed to sun filters using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseiran, Sam; Roider, Elisabeth M.; Wang, Hequn; Suita, Yusuke; Murphy, Michael; Fisher, David E.; Evans, Conor L.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical sun filters are commonly used as active ingredients in sunscreens due to their efficient absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Yet, it is known that these compounds can photochemically react with UV light and generate reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in vitro, though this has yet to be validated in vivo. One label-free approach to probe oxidative stress is to measure and compare the relative endogenous fluorescence generated by cellular coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides and flavin adenine dinucleotides. However, chemical sun filters are fluorescent, with emissive properties that contaminate endogenous fluorescent signals. To accurately distinguish the source of fluorescence in ex vivo skin samples treated with chemical sun filters, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy data were processed on a pixel-by-pixel basis using a non-Euclidean separation algorithm based on Mahalanobis distance and validated on simulated data. Applying this method, ex vivo samples exhibited a small oxidative shift when exposed to sun filters alone, though this shift was much smaller than that imparted by UV irradiation. Given the need for investigative tools to further study the clinical impact of chemical sun filters in patients, the reported methodology may be applied to visualize chemical sun filters and measure oxidative stress in patients' skin.

  14. CpG dinucleotide frequencies reveal the role of host methylation capabilities in parvovirus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mohita; Samal, Jasmine; Kandpal, Manish; Vasaikar, Suhas; Biswas, Banhi; Gomes, James; Vivekanandan, Perumal

    2013-12-01

    Parvoviruses are rapidly evolving viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including vertebrates and invertebrates. Extensive methylation of the parvovirus genome has been recently demonstrated. A global pattern of methylation of CpG dinucleotides is seen in vertebrate genomes, compared to "fractional" methylation patterns in invertebrate genomes. It remains unknown if the loss of CpG dinucleotides occurs in all viruses of a given DNA virus family that infect host species spanning across vertebrates and invertebrates. We investigated the link between the extent of CpG dinucleotide depletion among autonomous parvoviruses and the evolutionary lineage of the infected host. We demonstrate major differences in the relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides among autonomous parvoviruses which share similar genome organization and common ancestry, depending on the infected host species. Parvoviruses infecting vertebrate hosts had significantly lower relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides than parvoviruses infecting invertebrate hosts. The strong correlation of CpG dinucleotide depletion with the gain in TpG/CpA dinucleotides and the loss of TpA dinucleotides among parvoviruses suggests a major role for CpG methylation in the evolution of parvoviruses. Our data present evidence that links the relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides in parvoviruses to the methylation capabilities of the infected host. In sum, our findings support a novel perspective of host-driven evolution among autonomous parvoviruses.

  15. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1: A Novel Therapeutic Target in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Peter J.; Alcamo, Alicia A.; Schanbacher, Brandon L.; Nankervis, Craig A.; Besner, Gail E.; Bauer, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal disease of infancy, afflicting 11% of infants born 22–28 weeks gestational age. Both inflammation and oxidation may be involved in NEC pathogenesis through reactive nitrogen species production, protein oxidation and DNA damage. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a critical enzyme activated to facilitate DNA repair using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a substrate. However, in the presence of severe oxidative stress and DNA damage, PARP-1 over-activation may ensue, depleting cells of NAD+ and ATP, killing them by metabolic catastrophe. Here we tested the hypothesis that NO dysregulation in intestinal epithelial cells during NEC leads to marked PARP-1 expression and that administration of a PARP-1 inhibitor (nicotinamide) attenuates intestinal injury in a newborn rat model of NEC. In this model, 56% of control pups developed NEC (any stage), versus 14% of pups receiving nicotinamide. Forty-four percent of control pups developed high-grade NEC (grades 3–4), whereas only 7% of pups receiving nicotinamide developed high-grade NEC. Nicotinamide treatment protects pups against intestinal injury incurred in the newborn rat NEC model. We speculate that PARP-1 over-activation in NEC may drive mucosal cell death in this disease and that PARP-1 may be a novel therapeutic target in NEC. PMID:21399558

  16. Biochemical reasoning for radiation protection and screening methods for radiation sensitivity and potential carcinogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riklis, Emanuel; Emerit, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    Cells of different genetic characteristics respond differently to agents that modify radiation effects. When the modification is a result of chemical repair, reduction of the amount of damage by radical scavenging, production of hypoxia, or any other such mechanism, then the modification of the response will be the same for all types of cells, but not the same when biological or biochemical parameters are involved, because the differences between the cells affect the final outcome, and the genetic traits obviously become affected by chemical modifying agents. Some of these agents directly affect the repair of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by mechanisms not yet understood. Another agent nicotinamide (NA), is directly linked to a repair pathway. Thus, a system that uses NA as a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + , and uses NAD + to produce the polymer polyadenosine diphosphate ribose (PADPR) appears to be an interesting and important factor in the biochemical events that may be linked to improved radioprotection. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs

  17. NRK1 controls nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside metabolism in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Joffraud, Magali; Trammell, Samuel A J; Ras, Rosa; Canela, Núria; Boutant, Marie; Kulkarni, Sameer S; Rodrigues, Marcelo; Redpath, Philip; Migaud, Marie E; Auwerx, Johan; Yanes, Oscar; Brenner, Charles; Cantó, Carles

    2016-10-11

    NAD + is a vital redox cofactor and a substrate required for activity of various enzyme families, including sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Supplementation with NAD + precursors, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR), protects against metabolic disease, neurodegenerative disorders and age-related physiological decline in mammals. Here we show that nicotinamide riboside kinase 1 (NRK1) is necessary and rate-limiting for the use of exogenous NR and NMN for NAD + synthesis. Using genetic gain- and loss-of-function models, we further demonstrate that the role of NRK1 in driving NAD + synthesis from other NAD + precursors, such as nicotinamide or nicotinic acid, is dispensable. Using stable isotope-labelled compounds, we confirm NMN is metabolized extracellularly to NR that is then taken up by the cell and converted into NAD + . Our results indicate that mammalian cells require conversion of extracellular NMN to NR for cellular uptake and NAD + synthesis, explaining the overlapping metabolic effects observed with the two compounds.

  18. NAD+ Supplementation Attenuates Methylmercury Dopaminergic and Mitochondrial Toxicity in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caito, Samuel W.; Aschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxic contaminant of our fish supply that has been linked to dopaminergic (DAergic) dysfunction that characterizes Parkinson’s disease. We have previously shown that MeHg causes both morphological and behavioral changes in the Caenorhabditis elegans DAergic neurons that are associated with oxidative stress. We were therefore interested in whether the redox sensitive cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) may be affected by MeHg and whether supplementation of NAD + may prevent MeHg-induced toxicities. Worms treated with MeHg showed depletion in cellular NAD + levels, which was prevented by NAD + supplementation prior to MeHg treatment. NAD + supplementation also prevented DAergic neurodegeneration and deficits in DAergic-dependent behavior upon MeHg exposure. In a mutant worm line that cannot synthesize NAD + from nicotinamide, MeHg lethality and DAergic behavioral deficits were more sensitive to MeHg than wildtype worms, demonstrating the importance of NAD + in MeHg toxicity. In wildtype worms, NAD + supplementation provided protection from MeHg-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These data show the importance of NAD + levels in the response to MeHg exposure. NAD + supplementation may be beneficial for MeHg-induced toxicities and preventing cellular damage involved in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26865665

  19. Versatile charge transfer through anthraquinone films for electrochemical sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venarusso, Luna B.; Tammeveski, Kaido; Maia, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to study the effect of anthraquinone (AQ) films on the charge transfer rate of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), dopamine (DA), and ferricyanide on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in solutions of different pH. Maximum blocking action on the Fe(CN) 6 3- redox probe was observed at pH 7 and open-circuit potential (OCP). However, maximum electron hopping effect was observed at pH 9 at both -0.58 V and -0.85 V for Fe(CN) 6 3- , pH 7 at -0.58 V for NAD + , and pH 9 at -0.58 V for DA, suggesting that electron hopping in AQ films on a GC surface is dependent on both pH and electrode potential. These findings lend support for the application of these films in the detection of soluble redox probes such as NAD + and DA at biological pH values (from 7 to 9).

  20. Complementation of mitochondrial electron transport chain by manipulation of the NAD+/NADH ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Denis V; Cracan, Valentin; Goodman, Russell P; Peng, Jun; Grabarek, Zenon; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2016-04-08

    A decline in electron transport chain (ETC) activity is associated with many human diseases. Although diminished mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production is recognized as a source of pathology, the contribution of the associated reduction in the ratio of the amount of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to that of its reduced form (NADH) is less clear. We used a water-forming NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis (LbNOX) as a genetic tool for inducing a compartment-specific increase of the NAD(+)/NADH ratio in human cells. We used LbNOX to demonstrate the dependence of key metabolic fluxes, gluconeogenesis, and signaling on the cytosolic or mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADH ratios. Expression of LbNOX in the cytosol or mitochondria ameliorated proliferative and metabolic defects caused by an impaired ETC. The results underscore the role of reductive stress in mitochondrial pathogenesis and demonstrate the utility of targeted LbNOX for direct, compartment-specific manipulation of redox state. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Spermidine and resveratrol induce autophagy by distinct pathways converging on the acetylproteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Mariño, Guillermo; Bennetzen, Martin V; Eisenberg, Tobias; Megalou, Evgenia; Schroeder, Sabrina; Cabrera, Sandra; Bénit, Paule; Rustin, Pierre; Criollo, Alfredo; Kepp, Oliver; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Shen, Shensi; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Horio, Yoshiyuki; López-Otín, Carlos; Andersen, Jens S; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2011-02-21

    Autophagy protects organelles, cells, and organisms against several stress conditions. Induction of autophagy by resveratrol requires the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). In this paper, we show that the acetylase inhibitor spermidine stimulates autophagy independent of SIRT1 in human and yeast cells as well as in nematodes. Although resveratrol and spermidine ignite autophagy through distinct mechanisms, these compounds stimulate convergent pathways that culminate in concordant modifications of the acetylproteome. Both agents favor convergent deacetylation and acetylation reactions in the cytosol and in the nucleus, respectively. Both resveratrol and spermidine were able to induce autophagy in cytoplasts (enucleated cells). Moreover, a cytoplasm-restricted mutant of SIRT1 could stimulate autophagy, suggesting that cytoplasmic deacetylation reactions dictate the autophagic cascade. At doses at which neither resveratrol nor spermidine stimulated autophagy alone, these agents synergistically induced autophagy. Altogether, these data underscore the importance of an autophagy regulatory network of antagonistic deacetylases and acetylases that can be pharmacologically manipulated.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of rosmarinic acid on ciguatoxin in primary human neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidy, N; Matin, A; Rossi, F; Chinain, M; Laurent, D; Guillemin, G J

    2014-02-01

    Ciguatoxin (CTX), is a toxic compound produced by microalgae (dinoflagellate) Gambierdiscus spp., and is bio-accumulated and bio-transformed through the marine food chain causing neurological deficits. To determine the mechanism of CTX-mediated cytotoxicity in human neurons, we measured extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, intracellular levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and H2AX phosphorylation at serine 139 as a measure for DNA damage in primary cultures of human neurons treated with Pacific (P)-CTX-1B and P-CTX-3C. We found these marine toxins can induce a time and dose-dependent increase in extracellular LDH activity, with a concomitant decline in intracellular NAD(+) levels and increased DNA damage at the concentration range of 5-200 nM. We also showed that pre- and post-treatment with rosmarinic acid (RA), the active constituent of the Heliotropium foertherianum (Boraginaceae) can attenuate CTX-mediated neurotoxicity. These results further highlight the potential of RA in the treatment of CTX-induced neurological deficits.

  3. Differential effects of exposure to parasites and bacteria on stress response in turbot Scophthalmus maximus simultaneously stressed by low water depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Quiroga, J J; Otero-Rodiño, C; Suárez, P; Nieto, T P; García Estévez, J M; San Juan, F; Soengas, J L

    2017-07-01

    The stress response of turbot Scophthalmus maximus was evaluated in fish maintained 8 days under different water depths, normal (NWD, 30 cm depth, total water volume 40 l) or low (LWD, 5 cm depth, total water volume 10 l), in the additional presence of infection-infestation of two pathogens of this species. This was caused by intraperitoneal injection of sublethal doses of the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or the parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora:Scuticociliatida). The LWD conditions were stressful for fish, causing increased levels of cortisol in plasma, decreased levels of glycogen in liver and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) and increased activities of G6Pase and GSase. The presence of bacteria or parasites in fish under NWD resulted in increased cortisol levels in plasma whereas in liver, changes were of minor importance including decreased levels of lactate and GSase activity. The simultaneous presence of bacteria and parasites in fish under NWD resulted a sharp increase in the levels of cortisol in plasma and decreased levels of glucose. Decreased levels of glycogen and lactate and activities of GSase and glutathione reductase (GR), as well as increased activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) and levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) occurred in the same fish in liver. Finally, the presence of pathogens in S. maximus under stressful conditions elicited by LWD resulted in synergistic actions of both type of stressors in cortisol levels. In liver, the presence of bacteria or parasites induced a synergistic action on several variables such as decreased activities of G6Pase and GSase as well as increased levels of NADP and NADPH and increased activities of GPase, G6PDH and 6PGDH. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Effect on oxidative stress, hepatic chemical metabolizing parameters, and genotoxic damage of mad honey intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraslan, G; Kanbur, M; Karabacak, M; Arslan, K; Siliğ, Y; Soyer Sarica, Z; Tekeli, M Y; Taş, A

    2017-01-01

    A total of 66 male Wistar rats were used and six groups (control: 10 animals and experimental: 12 animals) were formed. While a separate control group was established for each study period, mad honey application to the animals in the experimental group was carried out with a single dose (12.5 g kg -1 body weight (b.w.); acute stage), at a dose of 7.5 g kg -1 b.w. for 21 days (subacute stage), and at a dose of 5 g kg -1 b.w. for 60 days (chronic stage). Tissue and blood oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), hepatic chemical metabolizing parameters in the liver (cytochrome P450 2E1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-cytochrome b5 reductase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome c reductase (CYTC), GSH S-transferase (GST), and GSH), and micronucleus and comet test in some samples were examined. Findings from the study showed that single and repeated doses given over the period increased MDA, NO, and HNE levels while decreasing/increasing tissue and blood antioxidant enzyme activities. From hepatic chemical metabolizing parameters, GST activity increased in the subacute and chronic stages and CYTC activity increased in the acute period, whereas GSH level decreased in the subacute stage. Changes in tail and head intensities were found in most of the comet results. Mad honey caused oxidative stresses for each exposure period and made some significant changes on the comet test in certain periods for some samples obtained. In other words, according to the available research results obtained, careless consumption of mad honey for different medical purposes is not appropriate.

  5. Construction of a restriction map and gene map of the lettuce chloroplast small single-copy region using Southern cross-hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelson, K R

    1996-01-01

    The small single-copy region (SSCR) of the chloroplast genome of many higher plants typically contain ndh genes encoding proteins that share homology with subunits of the respiratory-chain reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase complex of mitochondria. A map of the lettuce chloroplast SSCR has been determined by Southern cross-hybridization, taking advantage of the high degree of homology between a tobacco small single-copy fragment and a corresponding lettuce chloroplast fragment. The gene order of the SSCR of lettuce and tobacco chloroplasts is similar. The cross-hybridization method can rapidly create a primary gene map of unknown chloroplast fragments, thus providing detailed information of the localization and arrangement of genes and conserved open reading frame regions.

  6. Time-resolved spectroscopic imaging reveals the fundamentals of cellular NADH fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Zheng, Wei; Qu, Jianan Y

    2008-10-15

    A time-resolved spectroscopic imaging system is built to study the fluorescence characteristics of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), an important metabolic coenzyme and endogenous fluorophore in cells. The system provides a unique approach to measure fluorescence signals in different cellular organelles and cytoplasm. The ratios of free over protein-bound NADH signals in cytosol and nucleus are slightly higher than those in mitochondria. The mitochondrial fluorescence contributes about 70% of overall cellular fluorescence and is not a completely dominant signal. Furthermore, NADH signals in mitochondria, cytosol, and the nucleus respond to the changes of cellular activity differently, suggesting that cytosolic and nuclear fluorescence may complicate the well-known relationship between mitochondrial fluorescence and cellular metabolism.

  7. Enhancement of ethanol-oxygen biofuel cell output using a CNT based nano-composite as bioanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouranlou, Farideh; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah

    2016-04-15

    The present research, describes preparation and application of a novel bioanode for ethanol-oxygen biofuel cells. We applied an enzyme based nanocomposite consisting of polymethylene green as electron transfer mediator, carboxylated-multiwall carbon nanotubes as electron transfer accelerator, alcohol dehydrogenase as biocatalyst and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride as supporting agent. In the presence of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as cofactor, and ethanol as fuel, the feasibility of the bioanode for increasing the power was evaluated under the ambient conditions. In the optimum conditions the biofuel cell produced the power density of 1.713 mW cm(-2) and open circuit voltage of 0.281 V. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Purine nucleotide synthesis from exogenous adenine and guanine in rodent small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, C.J.; Karlberg, P.K.; Savaiano, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    14 C-Adenine and 14 C-guanine uptake was studied in isolated guinea pig enterocytes. Cells were incubated in Hank's buffer and separated from the medium by centrifugation through silicone oil into 1M PCA. Uptake was temperature and concentration dependent. Both compounds were incorporated into nucleotides as measured by HPLC and HVE. Adenine was more extensively incorporated into nucleotides than was guanine. Adenine nucleotides accounted for about 70% of the intracellular label after 30 min with a majority being ADP and ATP (medium concentration = 10 μM). Guanine nucleotides accounted for only 30% of the intracellular label after 30 min. Labeled intracellular free adenine or guanine were not detected. Significantly more guanine vs. adenine was converted to uric acid. After 30 min, 11.5 +/- 3.9% (n=3) and 83.0 +/- 8.4% (n=4) of the label was present as uric acid in the medium when adenine and guanine, respectively, were the substrate. After 1 min, 34.8 +/- 3.4% (n=4) of the label in the medium was present as uric acid when guanine was the substrate. Decreasing the concentration of adenine resulted in an increase in the percent of uric acid in the medium. 14 C-adenine (75 nmol) was injected into 1 gm segments of rat jejunum. After 5 min., segments were quickly flushed and the tissue homogenized in 1M PCA. Only uric acid was present after 5 min (n=6). In contrast, in animals fasted 3 to 5 days, less conversion to uric acid was observed in the intestinal content (50-80% of the same dose was still present as adenine after 5 min) and nucleotide formation was observed in the tissue. The results indicate that uric acid and nucleotide synthesis from exogenous adenine and guanine are concentration dependent and affected by nutritional state

  9. Permeability of Rickettsia prowazekii to NAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, W.H.; Winkler, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    Rickettsia prowazekii accumulated radioactivity from [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD but not from [nicotinamide-4-3H]NAD, which demonstrated that NAD was not taken up intact. Extracellular NAD was hydrolyzed by rickettsiae with the products of hydrolysis, nicotinamide mononucleotide and AMP, appearing in the incubation medium in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The particulate (membrane) fraction contained 90% of this NAD pyrophosphatase activity. Rickettsiae which had accumulated radiolabel after incubation with [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD were extracted, and the intracellular composition was analyzed by chromatography. The cells contained labeled AMP, ADP, ATP, and NAD. The NAD-derived intracellular AMP was transported via a pathway distinct from and in addition to the previously described AMP translocase. Exogenous AMP (1 mM) inhibited uptake of radioactivity from [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD and hydrolysis of extracellular NAD. AMP increased the percentage of intracellular radiolabel present as NAD. Nicotinamide mononucleotide was not taken up by the rickettsiae, did not inhibit hydrolysis of extracellular NAD, and was not a good inhibitor of the uptake of radiolabel from [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD. Neither AMP nor ATP (both of which are transported) could support the synthesis of intracellular NAD. The presence of intracellular [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD within an organism in which intact NAD could not be transported suggested the resynthesis from AMP of [adenine-2,8-3H]NAD at the locus of NAD hydrolysis and translocation

  10. Optical imaging of mitochondrial redox state in rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Sepideh; Gopalakrishnan, Sandeep; Ghanian, Zahra; Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Schmitt, Heather; Eells, Janis; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to photoreceptor cell loss in retinal degenerative disorders. The metabolic state of the retina in a rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was investigated using a cryo-fluorescence imaging technique. The mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are autofluorescent and can be monitored without exogenous labels using optical techniques. The cryo-fluorescence redox imaging technique provides a quantitative assessment of the metabolism. More specifically, the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of these fluorophores (NADH/FAD), the NADH redox ratio (RR), is a marker of the metabolic state of the tissue. The NADH RR and retinal function were examined in an established rodent model of RP, the P23H rat compared to that of nondystrophic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The NADH RR mean values were 1.11±0.03 in the SD normal and 0.841±0.01 in the P23H retina, indicating increased OS in the P23H retina. Electroretinographic data revealed a significant reduction in photoreceptor function in P23H animals compared to SD nozrmal rats. Thus, cryo-fluorescence redox imaging was used as a quantitative marker of OS in eyes from transgenic rats and demonstrated that alterations in the oxidative state of eyes occur during the early stages of RP.

  11. NONLINEAR SPECTRAL IMAGING OF ELASTIC CARTILAGE IN RABBIT EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JING CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Elastic cartilage in the rabbit external ear is an important animal model with attractive potential value for researching the physiological and pathological states of cartilages especially during wound healing. In this work, nonlinear optical microscopy based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation were employed for imaging and quantifying the intact elastic cartilage. The morphology and distribution of main components in elastic cartilage including cartilage cells, collagen and elastic fibers were clearly observed from the high-resolution two-dimensional nonlinear optical images. The areas of cell nuclei, a parameter related to the pathological changes of normal or abnormal elastic cartilage, can be easily quantified. Moreover, the three-dimensional structure of chondrocytes and matrix were displayed by constructing three-dimensional image of cartilage tissue. At last, the emission spectra from cartilage were obtained and analyzed. We found that the different ratio of collagen over elastic fibers can be used to locate the observed position in the elastic cartilage. The redox ratio based on the ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH over flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD fluorescence can also be calculated to analyze the metabolic state of chondrocytes in different regions. Our results demonstrated that this technique has the potential to provide more accurate and comprehensive information for the physiological states of elastic cartilage.

  12. Nicotinamide extends replicative lifespan of human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Tae; Lee, Hyung Il; Hwang, Eun Seong

    2006-10-01

    We found that an ongoing application of nicotinamide to normal human fibroblasts not only attenuated expression of the aging phenotype but also increased their replicative lifespan, causing a greater than 1.6-fold increase in the number of population doublings. Although nicotinamide by itself does not act as an antioxidant, the cells cultured in the presence of nicotinamide exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage products associated with cellular senescence, and a decelerated telomere shortening rate without a detectable increase in telomerase activity. Furthermore, in the treated cells growing beyond the original Hayflick limit, the levels of p53, p21WAF1, and phospho-Rb proteins were similar to those in actively proliferating cells. The nicotinamide treatment caused a decrease in ATP levels, which was stably maintained until the delayed senescence point. Nicotinamide-treated cells also maintained high mitochondrial membrane potential but a lower respiration rate and superoxide anion level. Taken together, in contrast to its demonstrated pro-aging effect in yeast, nicotinamide extends the lifespan of human fibroblasts, possibly through reduction in mitochondrial activity and ROS production.

  13. Dual emission fluorescent silver nanoclusters for sensitive detection of the biological coenzyme NAD+/NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yufeng; Huang, Kehan; Chang, Mengfang; Qin, Cuifang; Zhang, Sanjun; Pan, Haifeng; Chen, Yan; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs) displaying dual-excitation and dual-emission properties have been developed for the specific detection of NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form). With the increase of NAD(+) concentrations, the longer wavelength emission (with the peak at 550 nm) was gradually quenched due to the strong interactions between the NAD(+) and Ag NCs, whereas the shorter wavelength emission (peaking at 395 nm) was linearly enhanced. More important, the dual-emission intensity ratio (I395/I550), fitting by a single-exponential decay function, can efficiently detect various NAD(+) levels from 100 to 4000 μM, as well as label NAD(+)/NADH (reduced form of NAD) ratios in the range of 1-50. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. NAMPT and NAMPT-controlled NAD Metabolism in Vascular Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Li, Wen-Lin; Liu, Jian-Min; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2016-06-01

    Vascular repair plays important roles in postischemic remodeling and rehabilitation in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a well-known coenzyme involved in electron transport chain for generation of adenosine triphosphate, has emerged as an important controller regulating various biological signaling pathways. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme for NAD biosynthesis in mammals. NAMPT may also act in a nonenzymatic manner, presumably mediated by unknown receptor(s). Rapidly accumulating data in the past decade show that NAMPT and NAMPT-controlled NAD metabolism regulate fundamental biological functions in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and endothelial progenitor cells. The NAD-consuming proteins, including sirtuins, poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs), and CD38, may contribute to the regulatory effects of NAMPT-NAD axis in these cells and vascular repair. This review discusses the current data regarding NAMPT and NAMPT-controlled NAD metabolism in vascular repair and the clinical potential translational application of NAMPT-related products in treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.

  15. P7C3 Neuroprotective Chemicals Block Axonal Degeneration and Preserve Function after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry C. Yin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The P7C3 class of neuroprotective aminopropyl carbazoles has been shown to block neuronal cell death in models of neurodegeneration. We now show that P7C3 molecules additionally preserve axonal integrity after injury, before neuronal cell death occurs, in a rodent model of blast-mediated traumatic brain injury (TBI. This protective quality may be linked to the ability of P7C3 molecules to activate nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage. Initiation of daily treatment with our recently reported lead agent, P7C3-S243, 1 day after blast-mediated TBI blocks axonal degeneration and preserves normal synaptic activity, learning and memory, and motor coordination in mice. We additionally report persistent neurologic deficits and acquisition of an anxiety-like phenotype in untreated animals 8 months after blast exposure. Optimized variants of P7C3 thus offer hope for identifying neuroprotective agents for conditions involving axonal damage, neuronal cell death, or both, such as occurs in TBI.

  16. Dinucleotide controlled null models for comparative RNA gene prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Tanja; Washietl, Stefan

    2008-05-27

    Comparative prediction of RNA structures can be used to identify functional noncoding RNAs in genomic screens. It was shown recently by Babak et al. [BMC Bioinformatics. 8:33] that RNA gene prediction programs can be biased by the genomic dinucleotide content, in particular those programs using a thermodynamic folding model including stacking energies. As a consequence, there is need for dinucleotide-preserving control strategies to assess the significance of such predictions. While there have been randomization algorithms for single sequences for many years, the problem has remained challenging for multiple alignments and there is currently no algorithm available. We present a program called SISSIz that simulates multiple alignments of a given average dinucleotide content. Meeting additional requirements of an accurate null model, the randomized alignments are on average of the same sequence diversity and preserve local conservation and gap patterns. We make use of a phylogenetic substitution model that includes overlapping dependencies and site-specific rates. Using fast heuristics and a distance based approach, a tree is estimated under this model which is used to guide the simulations. The new algorithm is tested on vertebrate genomic alignments and the effect on RNA structure predictions is studied. In addition, we directly combined the new null model with the RNAalifold consensus folding algorithm giving a new variant of a thermodynamic structure based RNA gene finding program that is not biased by the dinucleotide content. SISSIz implements an efficient algorithm to randomize multiple alignments preserving dinucleotide content. It can be used to get more accurate estimates of false positive rates of existing programs, to produce negative controls for the training of machine learning based programs, or as standalone RNA gene finding program. Other applications in comparative genomics that require randomization of multiple alignments can be considered. SISSIz

  17. Dinucleotide controlled null models for comparative RNA gene prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesell Tanja

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative prediction of RNA structures can be used to identify functional noncoding RNAs in genomic screens. It was shown recently by Babak et al. [BMC Bioinformatics. 8:33] that RNA gene prediction programs can be biased by the genomic dinucleotide content, in particular those programs using a thermodynamic folding model including stacking energies. As a consequence, there is need for dinucleotide-preserving control strategies to assess the significance of such predictions. While there have been randomization algorithms for single sequences for many years, the problem has remained challenging for multiple alignments and there is currently no algorithm available. Results We present a program called SISSIz that simulates multiple alignments of a given average dinucleotide content. Meeting additional requirements of an accurate null model, the randomized alignments are on average of the same sequence diversity and preserve local conservation and gap patterns. We make use of a phylogenetic substitution model that includes overlapping dependencies and site-specific rates. Using fast heuristics and a distance based approach, a tree is estimated under this model which is used to guide the simulations. The new algorithm is tested on vertebrate genomic alignments and the effect on RNA structure predictions is studied. In addition, we directly combined the new null model with the RNAalifold consensus folding algorithm giving a new variant of a thermodynamic structure based RNA gene finding program that is not biased by the dinucleotide content. Conclusion SISSIz implements an efficient algorithm to randomize multiple alignments preserving dinucleotide content. It can be used to get more accurate estimates of false positive rates of existing programs, to produce negative controls for the training of machine learning based programs, or as standalone RNA gene finding program. Other applications in comparative genomics that require

  18. Identification of a flavin-containing S-oxygenating monooxygenase involved in alliin biosynthesis in garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Naoko; Onuma, Misato; Mizuno, Shinya; Sugino, Yuka; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Imai, Shinsuke; Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Sumi, Shin-ichiro; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-09-01

    S-Alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides are cysteine-derived secondary metabolites highly accumulated in the genus Allium. Despite pharmaceutical importance, the enzymes that contribute to the biosynthesis of S-alk-(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in Allium plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a flavin-containing monooxygenase, AsFMO1, in garlic (Allium sativum), which is responsible for the S-oxygenation reaction in the biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin). Recombinant AsFMO1 protein catalyzed the stereoselective S-oxygenation of S-allyl-l-cysteine to nearly exclusively yield (RC SS )-S-allylcysteine sulfoxide, which has identical stereochemistry to the major natural form of alliin in garlic. The S-oxygenation reaction catalyzed by AsFMO1 was dependent on the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), consistent with other known flavin-containing monooxygenases. AsFMO1 preferred S-allyl-l-cysteine to γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine as the S-oxygenation substrate, suggesting that in garlic, the S-oxygenation of alliin biosynthetic intermediates primarily occurs after deglutamylation. The transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins indicated that AsFMO1 is localized in the cytosol. AsFMO1 mRNA was accumulated in storage leaves of pre-emergent nearly sprouting bulbs, and in various tissues of sprouted bulbs with green foliage leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that AsFMO1 functions as an S-allyl-l-cysteine S-oxygenase, and contributes to the production of alliin both through the conversion of stored γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine to alliin in storage leaves during sprouting and through the de novo biosynthesis of alliin in green foliage leaves. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Drug: D07633 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07633 Mixture ... Drug Chondroitin sulfate sodium - flavin adenine dinucleotide sodium... mixt; Chondroitin sulfate sodium - FAD sodium mixt; Mucofadin (TN); Mucotear (TN) Chondroitin sulfate sodium... [DR:D04078], Flavin adenine dinucleotide sodium [DR:D02011] ... Therapeutic category: 1319 ... PubChem: 96024455 ...

  20. Protective Effects of Maillard Reaction Products of Whey Protein Concentrate against Oxidative Stress through an Nrf2-Dependent Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Min Cheol; Yang, Sung-Yong; Chun, Su-Hyun; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC), which contains α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, is utilized widely in the food industry. The Maillard reaction is a complex reaction that produces Maillard reaction products (MRPs), which are associated with the formation of antioxidant compounds. In this study, the hepatoprotection activity of MRPs of WPC against oxidative stress through the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent antioxidant pathway in HepG2 cells was examined. Glucose-whey protein concentrate conjugate (Glc-WPC) was obtained from Maillard reaction between WPC and glucose. The fluorescence intensity of Glc-WPC increased after 7 d compared to native WPC, and resulted in loss of 48% of the free amino groups of WPC. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns of Glc-WPC showed the presence of a high-molecular-weight portion. Treatment of HepG2 cells with Glc-WPC increased cell viability in the presence of oxidative stress, inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), and increased the glutathione level. Nrf2 translocation and Nrf2, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H)-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NOQ1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-L-cysteine ligase (GCL)M and GCLC mRNA levels were increased by Glc-WPC. Also, Glc-WPC increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The results of this study demonstrate that Glc-WPC activates the Nrf2-dependent pathway through the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK in HepG2 cells, and induces production of antioxidant enzymes and phase II enzymes.

  1. Detection of NADH via electrocatalytic oxidation at single-walled carbon nanotubes modified with Variamine blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radoi, A.; Compagnone, D.; Valcarcel, M.A.; Placidi, P.; Materazzi, S.; Moscone, D.; Palleschi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with Variamine blue (VB), covalently attached to the oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH), were developed and used as chemical sensors for the detection of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The Variamine blue redox mediator was covalently linked to the SWCNTs-COOH by the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry. Infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of the amide bands situated at 1623 cm -1 (I band), 1577 cm -1 (II band) and 1437 cm -1 (III band) demonstrating the covalent linkage of Variamine blue to SWCNTs-COOH. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate, k obs. , was 13,850 M -1 s -1 , and the k s and α were 0.8 s -1 and 0.56, respectively. The pH dependence was also investigated. SPEs modified with Variamine blue by using the DCC/NHS conjugation method, showed a variation of -36 mV per pH unit. A successful application was the development of a lactate biosensor obtained by the immobilization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase on the NADH sensor

  2. Sirtuins: Molecular Traffic Lights in the Crossroad of Oxidative Stress, Chromatin Remodeling, and Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Rajendran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcription is regulated by acetylation/deacetylation reactions of histone and nonhistone proteins mediated by enzymes called KATs and HDACs, respectively. As a major mechanism of transcriptional regulation, protein acetylation is a key controller of physiological processes such as cell cycle, DNA damage response, metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy. The deacetylase activity of class III histone deacetylases or sirtuins depends on the presence of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and therefore, their function is closely linked to cellular energy consumption. This activity of sirtuins connects the modulation of chromatin dynamics and transcriptional regulation under oxidative stress to cellular lifespan, glucose homeostasis, inflammation, and multiple aging-related diseases including cancer. Here we provide an overview of the recent developments in relation to the diverse biological activities associated with sirtuin enzymes and stress responsive transcription factors, DNA damage, and oxidative stress and relate the involvement of sirtuins in the regulation of these processes to oncogenesis. Since the majority of the molecular mechanisms implicated in these pathways have been described for Sirt1, this sirtuin family member is more extensively presented in this paper.

  3. A conducting polymer/ferritin anode for biofuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamuddin; Shin, Kwang Min; Kim, Sun I.; So, Insuk; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2009-01-01

    An enzyme anode for use in biofuel cells (BFCs) was constructed using an electrically connected bilayer based on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode immobilized with the conducting polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) as electron transfer enhancer, and with horse spleen ferritin protein (Frt) as electron transfer mediator. The surface-coupled redox system of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) catalyzed with diaphorase (Di) was used for the regeneration of NAD + in the inner layer and the NAD + -dependent enzyme catalyst glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the outer layer. The outer layer of the GC-Ppy-Frt-Di-NADH-GDH electrode effectively catalyzes the oxidation of glucose biofuel continuously; using the NAD + generated at the inner layer of the Di-catalyzed NADH redox system mediated by Frt and Ppy provides electrical communication with enhancement in electron transport. The electrochemical characteristics of the electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). This anode provides a current density of 1.2 mA cm -2 in a 45 mM glucose solution and offers a good possibility for application in biofuel cells.

  4. Role of NAD+ and mitochondrial sirtuins in cardiac and renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Kathleen A; Martin, Angelical S; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2017-04-01

    The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) has key roles in the regulation of redox status and energy metabolism. NAD + depletion is emerging as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiac and renal diseases and NAD + repletion strategies have shown therapeutic potential as a means to restore healthy metabolism and physiological function. The pleotropic roles of NAD + enable several possible avenues by which repletion of this coenzyme could have therapeutic efficacy. In particular, NAD + functions as a co-substrate in deacylation reactions carried out by the sirtuin family of enzymes. These NAD + -dependent deacylases control several aspects of metabolism and a wealth of data suggests that boosting sirtuin activity via NAD + supplementation might be a promising therapy for cardiac and renal pathologies. This Review summarizes the role of NAD + metabolism in the heart and kidney, and highlights the mitochondrial sirtuins as mediators of some of the beneficial effects of NAD + -boosting therapies in preclinical animal models. We surmise that modulating the NAD + -sirtuin axis is a clinically relevant approach to develop new therapies for cardiac and renal diseases.

  5. Versatile charge transfer through anthraquinone films for electrochemical sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venarusso, Luna B. [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Caixa Postal 549, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900 (Brazil); Tammeveski, Kaido [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Maia, Gilberto, E-mail: gilberto.maia@ufms.br [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Caixa Postal 549, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900 (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to study the effect of anthraquinone (AQ) films on the charge transfer rate of {beta}-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), dopamine (DA), and ferricyanide on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in solutions of different pH. Maximum blocking action on the Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} redox probe was observed at pH 7 and open-circuit potential (OCP). However, maximum electron hopping effect was observed at pH 9 at both -0.58 V and -0.85 V for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-}, pH 7 at -0.58 V for NAD{sup +}, and pH 9 at -0.58 V for DA, suggesting that electron hopping in AQ films on a GC surface is dependent on both pH and electrode potential. These findings lend support for the application of these films in the detection of soluble redox probes such as NAD{sup +} and DA at biological pH values (from 7 to 9).

  6. Redox-dependent regulation of the Na⁺-K⁺ pump: new twists to an old target for treatment of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chi; Fry, Natasha A S; Hamilton, Elisha J; Chia, Karin K M; Garcia, Alvaro; Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Figtree, Gemma A; Clarke, Ronald J; Bundgaard, Henning; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2013-08-01

    By the time it was appreciated that the positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides is due to inhibition of the membrane Na(+)-K(+) pump, glycosides had been used for treatment of heart failure on an empiric basis for ~200 years. The subsequent documentation of their lack of clinical efficacy and possible harmful effect largely coincided with the discovery that a raised Na(+) concentration in cardiac myocytes plays an important role in the electromechanical phenotype of heart failure syndromes. Consistent with this, efficacious pharmacological treatments for heart failure have been found to stimulate the Na(+)-K(+) pump, effectively the only export route for intracellular Na(+) in the heart failure. A paradigm has emerged that implicates pump inhibition in the raised Na(+) levels in heart failure. It invokes protein kinase-dependent activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase) and glutathionylation, a reversible oxidative modification, of the Na(+)-K(+) pump molecular complex that inhibits its activity. Since treatments of proven efficacy reverse the oxidative Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition, the pump retains its status as a key pharmacological target in heart failure. Its role as a target is well integrated with the paradigms of neurohormonal abnormalities, raised myocardial oxidative stress and energy deficiency implicated in the pathophysiology of the failing heart. We propose that targeting oxidative inhibition of the pump is useful for the exploration of future treatment strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Na(+)Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes". Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel fiber optic-based needle redox imager for cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniyappan, Udayakumar; Xu, He N.; Tang, Qinggong; Gaitan, Brandon; Liu, Yi; Li, Lin Z.; Chen, Yu

    2018-02-01

    Despite various technological advancements in cancer diagnosis, the mortality rates were not decreased significantly. We aim to develop a novel optical imaging tool to assist cancer diagnosis effectively. Fluorescence spectroscopy/imaging is a fast, rapid, and minimally invasive technique which has been successfully applied to diagnosing cancerous cells/tissues. Recently, the ratiometric imaging of intrinsic fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), as pioneered by Britton Chance and the co-workers in 1950-70's, has gained much attention to quantify the physiological parameters of living cells/tissues. The redox ratio, i.e., FAD/(FAD+NADH) or FAD/NADH, has been shown to be sensitive to various metabolic changes in in vivo and in vitro cells/tissues. Optical redox imaging has also been investigated for providing potential imaging biomarkers for cancer transformation, aggressiveness, and treatment response. Towards this goal, we have designed and developed a novel fiberoptic-based needle redox imager (NRI) that can fit into an 11G clinical coaxial biopsy needle for real time imaging during clinical cancer surgery. In the present study, the device is calibrated with tissue mimicking phantoms of FAD and NADH along with various technical parameters such as sensitivity, dynamic range, linearity, and spatial resolution of the system. We also conducted preliminary imaging of tissues ex vivo for validation. We plan to test the NRI on clinical breast cancer patients. Once validated this device may provide an effective tool for clinical cancer diagnosis.

  8. cGAS produces a 2'-5'-linked cyclic dinucleotide second messenger that activates STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablasser, Andrea; Goldeck, Marion; Cavlar, Taner; Deimling, Tobias; Witte, Gregor; Röhl, Ingo; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Ludwig, Janos; Hornung, Veit

    2013-06-20

    Detection of cytoplasmic DNA represents one of the most fundamental mechanisms of the innate immune system to sense the presence of microbial pathogens. Moreover, erroneous detection of endogenous DNA by the same sensing mechanisms has an important pathophysiological role in certain sterile inflammatory conditions. The endoplasmic-reticulum-resident protein STING is critically required for the initiation of type I interferon signalling upon detection of cytosolic DNA of both exogenous and endogenous origin. Next to its pivotal role in DNA sensing, STING also serves as a direct receptor for the detection of cyclic dinucleotides, which function as second messenger molecules in bacteria. DNA recognition, however, is triggered in an indirect fashion that depends on a recently characterized cytoplasmic nucleotidyl transferase, termed cGAMP synthase (cGAS), which upon interaction with DNA synthesizes a dinucleotide molecule that in turn binds to and activates STING. We here show in vivo and in vitro that the cGAS-catalysed reaction product is distinct from previously characterized cyclic dinucleotides. Using a combinatorial approach based on mass spectrometry, enzymatic digestion, NMR analysis and chemical synthesis we demonstrate that cGAS produces a cyclic GMP-AMP dinucleotide, which comprises a 2'-5' and a 3'-5' phosphodiester linkage >Gp(2'-5')Ap(3'-5')>. We found that the presence of this 2'-5' linkage was required to exert potent activation of human STING. Moreover, we show that cGAS first catalyses the synthesis of a linear 2'-5'-linked dinucleotide, which is then subject to cGAS-dependent cyclization in a second step through a 3'-5' phosphodiester linkage. This 13-membered ring structure defines a novel class of second messenger molecules, extending the family of 2'-5'-linked antiviral biomolecules.

  9. Biosynthesis of NAD from nicotinic acid and nicotinamide by resting cells of Arthrobacter globiformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Masaaki

    1978-01-01

    Isotopically labeled nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were incorporated into the metabolites of nicotinic acid-dependent pathway (Preiss-Handler pathway) of the NAD biosynthesis by resting cells of Arthrobacter globiformis. Azaserine and adenosine markedly stimulated the accumulation of NAD in the cells. Radioactive nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were also incorporated into an unknown compound when the cells were incubated in the presence of azaserine. Cell-free extract of the organism showed the NAD synthetase activity, which required ammonium ion and ATP for the amidation of deamido-NAD. Adenosine inhibited the enzyme activity. The organism possessed nicotinamidase, suggesting deamidation is the first step in the biosynthesis of NAD from nicotinamide. The activity was inhibited by NAD, NADP and NMN. (auth.)

  10. First Report of Echinococcus equinus in a Donkey in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Sami; Roinioti, Erifylli; Eroksuz, Hatice

    2015-12-01

    A 2-year-old female donkey (Equus asinus) was euthanized in the Pathology Department of Firat University, Elazig, Turkey. Necropsy disclosed the presence of 7 hydatid cysts distributed throughout the lung parenchyma. One of those cysts represented the parasite material of the present study and was molecularly identified through sequencing of a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH1) gene, as Echinococcus equinus. The generated CO1 sequence supports the presence of the dominant haplotype as has been described in Europe and Africa. The NADH1 sequence was found similar to sequences reported in equids in Egypt and the United Kingdom. The molecular identification of E. equinus in a donkey is being reported for the first time in Turkey.

  11. Silver nanoparticles embedded in amine-functionalized silicate sol–gel network assembly for sensing cysteine, adenosine and NADH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduraiveeran, Govindhan; Ramaraj, Ramasamy

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles embedded in amine-functionalized silicate sol–gel network were synthesized and used for sensing biomolecules such as cysteine, adenosine, and β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The sensing of these biomolecules by the assembly of silver nanoparticles was triggered by the optical response of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. The optical sensor exhibited the lowest detection limit (LOD) of 5, 20, and 5 μM for cysteine, adenosine, and NADH, respectively. The sensing of biomolecules in the micromolar range by using the amine-functionalized silicate sol–gel embedded silver nanoparticles was studied in the presence of interference molecules like uridine, glycine, guanine, and guanosine. Thus, the present approach might open up a new avenue for the development of silver nanoparticles-based optical sensor devices for biomolecules.

  12. Partial transformation from fast to slow muscle fibers induced by deafferentation of capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, O; Barazzoni, A M; Della Torre, G; Clavenzani, P; Pettorossi, V E; Bortolami, R

    1997-11-01

    Mechanical and histochemical characteristics of the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle of the rat were examined 21 days after capsaicin injection into the LG muscle. The capsaicin caused a decrease in generation rate of twitch and tetanic tension and an increase in fatigue resistance of LG muscle. The histochemical muscle fiber profile evaluated by myosin adenosine triphosphatase and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase methods showed an increase of type I and IIC fibers and a decrease of the type IIB in whole muscle, and a decrease of the IIA, IIX fibers in the red part accompanied by their increase in the white part. Therefore the capsaicin treatment, which selectively eliminated fibers belonging to the III and IV groups of muscle afferents, induced muscle fiber transformation from fast contracting fatiguing fibers to slowly contracting nonfatiguing ones.

  13. Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism in Clostridium sp. BC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarlagadda V. N.; Francis A.; Gupta, A.; Dodge, C. J.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the influence exogenous electron shuttles on the growth and glucose fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. BC1 was investigated. Bicarbonate addition to mineral salts (MS) medium accelerated growth and glucose fermentation which shifted acidogenesis (acetic- and butyric-acids) towards solventogenesis (ethanol and butanol). Addition of ferrihydrite, anthraquinone disulfonate, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in bicarbonate to growing culture showed no significant influence on fermentative metabolism. In contrast, methyl viologen (MV) enhanced ethanol- and butanol-production by 28- and 12-fold, respectively with concomitant decrease in hydrogen, acetic- and butyric-acids compared to MS medium. The results show that MV addition affects hydrogenase activity with a significant reduction in hydrogen production and a shift in the direction of electron flow towards enhanced production of ethanol and butanol.

  14. Primordial oscillations in life: Direct observation of glycolytic oscillations in individual HeLa cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Takashi; Shibata, Kenichi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Kiminori; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2017-10-01

    We report the first direct observation of glycolytic oscillations in HeLa cervical cancer cells, which we regard as primordial oscillations preserved in living cells. HeLa cells starved of glucose or both glucose and serum exhibited glycolytic oscillations in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), exhibiting asynchronous intercellular behaviors. Also found were spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous intracellular NADH oscillations in the individual cells. Our results demonstrate that starved HeLa cells may be induced to exhibit glycolytic oscillations by either high-uptake of glucose or the enhancement of a glycolytic pathway (Crabtree effect or the Warburg effect), or both. Their asynchronous collective behaviors in the oscillations were probably due to a weak intercellular coupling. Elucidation of the relationship between the mechanism of glycolytic dynamics in cancer cells and their pathophysiological characteristics remains a challenge in future.

  15. Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Anna Marta; Terne, Cindy; Jankowski, Vera

    2014-01-01

    chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. The effect on enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase was quantified within an incubation time of 120 min. RESULTS: Thirty-nine of the 48 uraemic retention solutes tested had a significant decreasing effect on NADPH oxidase activity. Oxalate has been characterized......BACKGROUND: Uraemia and cardiovascular disease appear to be associated with an increased oxidative burden. One of the key players in the genesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Based on initial experiments demonstrating a decreased...... inhibitory effect on NADPH oxidase activity in the presence of plasma from patients with CKD-5D after dialysis compared with before dialysis, we investigated the effect of 48 known and commercially available uraemic retention solutes on the enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase. METHODS: Mononuclear leucocytes...

  16. TARGETED, LCMS-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF NAD+ METABOLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel AJ Trammell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is a coenzyme for hydride transfer reactions and a substrate for sirtuins and other NAD+-consuming enzymes. The abundance of NAD+, NAD+ biosynthetic intermediates, and related nucleotides reflects the metabolic state of cells and tissues. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC followed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis of NAD+ metabolites does not offer the specificity and sensitivity necessary for robust quantification of complex samples. Thus, we developed a targeted, quantitative assay of the NAD+ metabolome with the use of HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. Here we discuss NAD+ metabolism as well as the technical challenges required for reliable quantification of the NAD+ metabolites. The new method incorporates new separations and improves upon a previously published method that suffered from the problem of ionization suppression for particular compounds.

  17. Improved Model for Predicting the Free Energy Contribution of Dinucleotide Bulges to RNA Duplex Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcho, Jeremy C; Tillman, Magdalena R; Znosko, Brent M

    2015-09-01

    Predicting the secondary structure of RNA is an intermediate in predicting RNA three-dimensional structure. Commonly, determining RNA secondary structure from sequence uses free energy minimization and nearest neighbor parameters. Current algorithms utilize a sequence-independent model to predict free energy contributions of dinucleotide bulges. To determine if a sequence-dependent model would be more accurate, short RNA duplexes containing dinucleotide bulges with different sequences and nearest neighbor combinations were optically melted to derive thermodynamic parameters. These data suggested energy contributions of dinucleotide bulges were sequence-dependent, and a sequence-dependent model was derived. This model assigns free energy penalties based on the identity of nucleotides in the bulge (3.06 kcal/mol for two purines, 2.93 kcal/mol for two pyrimidines, 2.71 kcal/mol for 5'-purine-pyrimidine-3', and 2.41 kcal/mol for 5'-pyrimidine-purine-3'). The predictive model also includes a 0.45 kcal/mol penalty for an A-U pair adjacent to the bulge and a -0.28 kcal/mol bonus for a G-U pair adjacent to the bulge. The new sequence-dependent model results in predicted values within, on average, 0.17 kcal/mol of experimental values, a significant improvement over the sequence-independent model. This model and new experimental values can be incorporated into algorithms that predict RNA stability and secondary structure from sequence.

  18. Sirtuin 6 prevents matrix degradation through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Liang [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Hu, Jia [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Weng, Yuxiong [Department of Hand Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Jia, Jie [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zhang, Yukun, E-mail: zhangyukuncom@126.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is marked by imbalanced metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs. This study aimed to determine whether sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, protects the NP from ECM degradation in IDD. Our study showed that expression of SIRT6 markedly decreased during IDD progression. Overexpression of wild-type SIRT6, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, prevented IL-1β-induced NP ECM degradation. SIRT6 depletion by RNA interference in NP cells caused ECM degradation. Moreover, SIRT6 physically interacted with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) catalytic subunit p65, transcriptional activity of which was significantly suppressed by SIRT6 overexpression. These results suggest that SIRT6 prevented NP ECM degradation in vitro via inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity and that this effect depended on its deacetylase activity. - Highlights: • SIRT6 expression is decreased in degenerative nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues. • SIRT6 overexpression lowers IL-1β-induced matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 inhibition induces matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 prevents matrix degradation of NP via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  19. Sirtuin 6 prevents matrix degradation through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Liang; Hu, Jia; Weng, Yuxiong; Jia, Jie; Zhang, Yukun

    2017-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is marked by imbalanced metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs. This study aimed to determine whether sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, protects the NP from ECM degradation in IDD. Our study showed that expression of SIRT6 markedly decreased during IDD progression. Overexpression of wild-type SIRT6, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, prevented IL-1β-induced NP ECM degradation. SIRT6 depletion by RNA interference in NP cells caused ECM degradation. Moreover, SIRT6 physically interacted with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) catalytic subunit p65, transcriptional activity of which was significantly suppressed by SIRT6 overexpression. These results suggest that SIRT6 prevented NP ECM degradation in vitro via inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity and that this effect depended on its deacetylase activity. - Highlights: • SIRT6 expression is decreased in degenerative nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues. • SIRT6 overexpression lowers IL-1β-induced matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 inhibition induces matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 prevents matrix degradation of NP via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  20. Hypertonic Saline Suppresses NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Promotes Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajantha Nadesalingam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tonicity of saline (NaCl is important in regulating cellular functions and homeostasis. Hypertonic saline is administered to treat many inflammatory diseases, including cystic fibrosis. Excess neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation, or NETosis, is associated with many pathological conditions including chronic inflammation. Despite the known therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effects of hypertonic saline in modulating NETosis. For this purpose, we purified human neutrophils and induced NETosis using agonists such as diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS, calcium ionophores (A23187 and ionomycin from Streptomyces conglobatus, and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We then analyzed neutrophils and NETs using Sytox green assay, immunostaining of NET components and apoptosis markers, confocal microscopy, and pH sensing reagents. This study found that hypertonic NaCl suppresses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH2 or NOX2-dependent NETosis induced by agonists PMA, Escherichia coli LPS (0111:B4 and O128:B12, and P. aeruginosa. Hypertonic saline also suppresses LPS- and PMA- induced reactive oxygen species production. It was determined that supplementing H2O2 reverses the suppressive effect of hypertonic saline on NOX2-dependent NETosis. Many of the aforementioned suppressive effects were observed in the presence of equimolar concentrations of choline chloride and osmolytes (d-mannitol and d-sorbitol. This suggests that the mechanism by which hypertonic saline suppresses NOX2-dependent NETosis is via neutrophil dehydration. Hypertonic NaCl does not significantly alter the intracellular pH of neutrophils. We found that hypertonic NaCl induces apoptosis while suppressing NOX2-dependent NETosis. In contrast, hypertonic

  1. Watson-Crick Base Pairing, Electronic and Photophysical Properties of Triazole Modified Adenine Analogues: A Computational Study

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shubhajit

    2015-09-17

    We employ first-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) to elucidate structural, electronic and optical properties of a few recently reported triazole adenine nucleobase analogues. The results are compared against the findings obtained for both natural adenine nucleobase and available experimental data. The optical absorption of these adenine analogues are calculated both in gas-phase and in solvent (methanol) using Polarized Continuum Model (PCM). We find that all the analogues show a red-shifted absorption profile as compared to adenine. Our simulated emission spectra in solvent compare fairly well with experimentally observed results. We investigate base paring ability of these adenine analogues with thymine. The calculations on the intrinsic stability of these base pairs ascertain that all the adenine analogues form the hydrogen bonded Watson-Crick base pair with similar H-bonding energy as obtained for natural adenine-thymine base pair. In our study, we provide a microscopic origin of the low-energy absorption and emission peaks, observed experimentally.

  2. Watson-Crick Base Pairing, Electronic and Photophysical Properties of Triazole Modified Adenine Analogues: A Computational Study

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shubhajit; Samanta, Pralok Kumar; Pati, Swapan

    2015-01-01

    We employ first-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) to elucidate structural, electronic and optical properties of a few recently reported triazole adenine nucleobase analogues. The results are compared against the findings obtained for both natural adenine nucleobase and available experimental data. The optical absorption of these adenine analogues are calculated both in gas-phase and in solvent (methanol) using Polarized Continuum Model (PCM). We find that all the analogues show a red-shifted absorption profile as compared to adenine. Our simulated emission spectra in solvent compare fairly well with experimentally observed results. We investigate base paring ability of these adenine analogues with thymine. The calculations on the intrinsic stability of these base pairs ascertain that all the adenine analogues form the hydrogen bonded Watson-Crick base pair with similar H-bonding energy as obtained for natural adenine-thymine base pair. In our study, we provide a microscopic origin of the low-energy absorption and emission peaks, observed experimentally.

  3. Essential role of Bordetella NadC in a quinolinate salvage pathway for NAD biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Timothy J; Suhadolc, Ryan J; McKelvey, Pamela J; Armstrong, Sandra K

    2017-02-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is produced via de novo biosynthesis pathways and by salvage or recycling routes. The classical Bordetella bacterial species are known to be auxotrophic for nicotinamide or nicotinic acid. This study confirmed that Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis have the recycling/salvage pathway genes pncA and pncB, for use of nicotinamide or nicotinic acid, respectively, for NAD synthesis. Although these Bordetellae lack the nadA and nadB genes needed for de novo NAD biosynthesis, remarkably, they have one de novo pathway gene, nadC, encoding quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase. Genomic analyses of taxonomically related Bordetella and Achromobacter species also indicated the presence of an 'orphan' nadC and the absence of nadA and nadB. When supplied as the sole NAD precursor, quinolinate promoted B. bronchiseptica growth, and the ability to use it required nadC. Co-expression of Bordetella nadC with the nadB and nadA genes of Paraburkholderia phytofirmans allowed B. bronchiseptica to grow in the absence of supplied pyridines, indicative of de novo NAD synthesis and functional confirmation of Bordetella NadC activity. Expression of nadC in B. bronchiseptica was influenced by nicotinic acid and by a NadQ family transcriptional repressor, indicating that these organisms prioritize their use of pyridines for NAD biosynthesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of NAD metabolome in aged mice tissue using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaku, Keisuke; Okabe, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a major co-factor that mediates multiple biological processes including redox reaction and gene expression. Recently, NAD metabolism has received considerable attention because administration of NAD precursors exhibited beneficial effects against aging-related metabolic disorders in animals. Although numerous studies have reported that NAD levels decline with aging in multiple animal tissues, the pathway and kinetics of NAD metabolism in aged organs are not completely understood. To determine the NAD metabolism upon aging, we developed targeted metabolomics based on an LC/MS/MS system. Our method is simple and applicable to crude biological samples, including culture cells and animal tissues. Unlike a conventional enzymatic cycling assay, our approach can determine NAD and NADH (reduced form of NAD) by performing a single sample preparation. Further, we validated our method using biological samples and investigated the alteration of the NAD metabolome during aging. Consistent with previous reports, the NAD levels in the liver and skeletal muscle decreased with aging. Further, we detected a significant increase in nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside in the kidney upon aging. The LC/MS/MS-based NAD metabolomics that we have developed is extensively applicable to biomedical studies, and the results will present innovative ideas for the aging studies, especially for that of NAD metabolism. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Identification of novel resistance mechanisms to NAMPT inhibition via the de novo NAD+ biosynthesis pathway and NAMPT mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Lam, Lloyd T; Longenecker, Kenton L; Bui, Mai H; Idler, Kenneth B; Glaser, Keith B; Wilsbacher, Julie L; Tse, Chris; Pappano, William N; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan

    2017-09-23

    Cancer cells have an unusually high requirement for the central and intermediary metabolite nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), and NAD + depletion ultimately results in cell death. The rate limiting step within the NAD + salvage pathway required for converting nicotinamide to NAD + is catalyzed by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). Targeting NAMPT has been investigated as an anti-cancer strategy, and several highly selective small molecule inhibitors have been found to potently inhibit NAMPT in cancer cells, resulting in NAD + depletion and cytotoxicity. To identify mechanisms that could cause resistance to NAMPT inhibitor treatment, we generated a human fibrosarcoma cell line refractory to the highly potent and selective NAMPT small molecule inhibitor, GMX1778. We uncovered novel and unexpected mechanisms of resistance including significantly increased expression of quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase (QPRT), a key enzyme in the de novo NAD + synthesis pathway. Additionally, exome sequencing of the NAMPT gene in the resistant cells identified a single heterozygous point mutation that was not present in the parental cell line. The combination of upregulation of the NAD + de novo synthesis pathway through QPRT over-expression and NAMPT mutation confers resistance to GMX1778, but the cells are only partially resistant to next-generation NAMPT inhibitors. The resistance mechanisms uncovered herein provide a potential avenue to continue exploration of next generation NAMPT inhibitors to treat neoplasms in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nicotinamide and PNC1 govern lifespan extension by calorie restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rozalyn M; Bitterman, Kevin J; Wood, Jason G; Medvedik, Oliver; Sinclair, David A

    2003-05-08

    Calorie restriction extends lifespan in a broad range of organisms, from yeasts to mammals. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including decreased oxidative damage and altered energy metabolism. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lifespan extension by calorie restriction requires the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, Sir2 (ref. 1). We have recently shown that Sir2 and its closest human homologue SIRT1, a p53 deacetylase, are strongly inhibited by the vitamin B3 precursor nicotinamide. Here we show that increased expression of PNC1 (pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase 1), which encodes an enzyme that deaminates nicotinamide, is both necessary and sufficient for lifespan extension by calorie restriction and low-intensity stress. We also identify PNC1 as a longevity gene that is responsive to all stimuli that extend lifespan. We provide evidence that nicotinamide depletion is sufficient to activate Sir2 and that this is the mechanism by which PNC1 regulates longevity. We conclude that yeast lifespan extension by calorie restriction is the consequence of an active cellular response to a low-intensity stress and speculate that nicotinamide might regulate critical cellular processes in higher organisms.

  7. Nicotinamide inhibits vasculogenic mimicry, an alternative vascularization pathway observed in highly aggressive melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Itzhaki

    Full Text Available Vasculogenic mimicry (VM describes functional vascular channels composed only of tumor cells and its presence predicts poor prognosis in melanoma patients. Inhibition of this alternative vascularization pathway might be of clinical importance, especially as several anti-angiogenic therapies targeting endothelial cells are largely ineffective in melanoma. We show the presence of VM structures histologically in a series of human melanoma lesions and demonstrate that cell cultures derived from these lesions form tubes in 3D cultures ex vivo. We tested the ability of nicotinamide, the amide form of vitamin B3 (niacin, which acts as an epigenetic gene regulator through unique cellular pathways, to modify VM. Nicotinamide effectively inhibited the formation of VM structures and destroyed already formed ones, in a dose-dependent manner. Remarkably, VM formation capacity remained suppressed even one month after the complete withdrawal of Nicotimamid. The inhibitory effect of nicotinamide on VM formation could be at least partially explained by a nicotinamide-driven downregulation of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-Cadherin, which is known to have a central role in VM. Further major changes in the expression profile of hundreds of genes, most of them clustered in biologically-relevant clusters, were observed. In addition, nicotinamide significantly inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, but had an opposite effect on their invasion capacity. Cell cycle analysis indicated moderate changes in apoptotic indices. Therefore, nicotinamide could be further used to unravel new biological mechanisms that drive VM and tumor progression. Targeting VM, especially in combination with anti-angiogenic strategies, is expected to be synergistic and might yield substantial anti neoplastic effects in a variety of malignancies.

  8. NMR-based metabonomic analysis of MnO-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles as potential dual-modal contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinquan; Zhou, Zijian; Feng, Jianghua; Cai, Shuhui; Gao, Jinhao; Chen, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    MnO-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles (MnIO-NPs) can be treated as potential dual-modal contrast agents. However, their overall bio-effects and potential toxicity remain unknown. In this study, the metabolic effects of MnIO-NPs (dosed at 1 and 5 mg Fe/kg) on Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated using metabonomic analysis, histopathological examination, and conventional biochemical analysis. The histological changes included a focal inflammation in the liver at high-dose and a slightly enlarged area of splenic white pulp after 48 h post-dose. Blood biochemical analysis showed that albumin, globulins, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose changed distinctly compared to the control. The metabonomic analysis of body fluids (serum and urine) and tissues (liver, kidney, and spleen) indicated that MnIO-NPs induced metabolic perturbation in rats including energy, nucleotides, amino acids and phospholipid metabolisms. Besides, the variations of supportive nutrients: valine, leucine, isoleucine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), and nicotinamide, and the conjugation substrates: glycine, taurine, glutamine, glutathione, and methyl donors (formate, sarcosine, dimethylglycine, choline, and betaine) were involved in detoxification reaction of MnIO-NPs. The obtained information would provide identifiable ground for the candidate selection and optimization.

  9. Evaluation of nicotinamide microemulsion on the skin penetration enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonme, Prapaporn; Boonthongchuay, Chalida; Wongpoowarak, Wibul; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study purposed to evaluate a microemulsion containing nicotinamide for its characteristics, stability, and skin penetration and retention comparing with a solution of nicotinamide in 2:1 mixture of water and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The microemulsion system was composed of 1:1 mixture of Span80 and Tween80 as a surfactant mixture, isopropyl palmitate (IPP) as an oil phase, and 2:1 mixture of water and IPA as an aqueous phase. Nicotinamide microemulsion was prepared by dissolving the active in the aqueous phase before simply mixing with the other components. It was determined for its characteristics and stability under various conditions. The skin penetration and retention studies of nicotinamide microemulsion and solution were performed by modified Franz diffusion cells, using newborn pig skin as the membrane. The results showed that nicotinamide microemulsion could be obtained as clear yellowish liquid, was water-in-oil (w/o) type, possessed Newtonian flow, and exhibited physicochemical stability when kept at 4 °C and room temperature (≈30 ± 2 °C) during 3 months. From the skin penetration data, the microemulsion could enhance the skin penetration of nicotinamide comparing with the solution. Additionally, nicotinamide microemulsion could provide much higher amount of skin retention than that of skin penetration, resulting in suitability for a cosmeceutical product.

  10. Nicotinamide dependence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli UTI89 and application of nadB as a neutral insertion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoli; Bouckaert, Julie; Deboeck, Francine; De Greve, Henri; Hernalsteens, Jean-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    NAD and NADP are ubiquitous in the metabolism of Escherichia coli K-12. NAD auxotrophy can be rendered by mutation in any of the three genes nadB, nadA and nadC. The nadB and nadA genes were defined as antivirulence loci in Shigella spp., as a mutation (mainly in nadB) disrupting the synthesis of quinolinate is required for virulence. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates from acute cystitis patients, exhibiting nicotinamide auxotrophy, were of serotype O18 : K1 : H7. E. coli UTI89, the model uropathogenic and O18 : K1 : H7 strain, requires nicotinamide or quinolinate for growth. A mutation in the nadB gene, encoding L-aspartate oxidase, was shown to be responsible for the nicotinamide requirement of UTI89. This was further confirmed by complementation of UTI89 with a recombinant plasmid harbouring the nadB gene of E. coli K-12. An Ala28Val point mutant of the recombinant plasmid failed to support the growth of UTI89 in minimal medium. This proves that the Ala28Val mutation in the NadB gene of UTI89 completely impedes de novo synthesis of nicotinamide. In spontaneous prototrophic revertants of UTI89, the nadB gene has a Val28Ala mutation. Both analyses implicate that the nicotinamide auxotrophy of UTI89 is caused by a single Ala28Val mutation in NadB. We showed that the same mutation is also present in other NAD auxotrophic E. coli O18 strains. No significant differences were observed between the virulence of isogenic NAD auxotrophic and prototrophic strains in the murine ascending urinary tract infection model. Considering these data, we applied the nadB locus as a neutral site for DNA insertions in the bacterial chromosome. We successfully restored the parental phenotype of a fimH mutant by inserting fimH, with a synthetic em7 promoter, into the nadB gene. This neutral insertion site is of significance for further research on the pathogenicity of UPEC.

  11. 21 CFR 573.625 - Menadione nicotinamide bisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Menadione nicotinamide bisulfite. 573.625 Section 573.625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.625 Menadione nicotinamide bisulfite. The food additive may be safely...

  12. SNAP23-Dependent Surface Translocation of Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) Receptor 1 Is Essential for NOX2-Mediated Exocytotic Degranulation in Human Mast Cells Induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-Secreted LTB4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Arim; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; El-Benna, Jamel; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite that causes vaginitis in women and itself secretes lipid mediator leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ). Mast cells are important effector cells of tissue inflammation during infection with parasites. Membrane-bridging SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complexes are critical for fusion during exocytosis. Although T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP) have been shown to induce exocytosis in mast cells, information regarding the signaling mechanisms between mast cell activation and TvSP is limited. In this study, we found that SNAP23-dependent surface trafficking of LTB 4 receptor 1 (BLT1) is required for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2)-mediated exocytotic degranulation of mast cells induced by TvSP. First, stimulation with TvSP induced exocytotic degranulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HMC-1 cells. Next, TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytosis were strongly inhibited by transfection of BLT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). TvSP induced trafficking of BLT1 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. We also found that knockdown of SNAP23 abrogated TvSP-induced ROS generation, exocytosis, and surface trafficking of BLT1 in HMC-1 cells. By coimmunoprecipitation, there was a physical interaction between BLT1 and SNAP23 in TvSP-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SNAP23-dependent surface trafficking of BLT1 is essential for exocytosis in human mast cells induced by T. vaginalis-secreted LTB 4 Our data collectively demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism for SNAP23-dependent mast cell activation of T. vaginalis-secreted LTB 4 involving surface trafficking of BLT1. These results can help to explain how the cross talk mechanism between parasite and host can govern deliberately tissue inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Different effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors nicotinamide and trichostatin A (TSA) in C17.2 neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Cheng, Hua; Wang, Kai; Wen, Tieqiao

    2012-11-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors are involved in proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, mRNA transcription, and protein expression in various cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying such functions is still not fully clear. In this study, we used C17.2 neural stem cell (NSC) line as a model to evaluate the effects of nicotinamide and trichostatin A (TSA) on cell characteristics. Results show that nicotinamide and TSA greatly inhibit cell growth, lead to cell morphology changes, and effectively induce cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analyses confirmed that nicotinamide significantly decreases the expression of bcl-2 and p38. Further insight into the molecular mechanisms shows the suppression of phosphorylation in eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) by nicotinamide, whereas, an increased expression of bcl-2 and p38 and phosphorylation of 4EBP1 by TSA. However, both nicotinamide and TSA significantly increase the expression of cytochrome c (cyt c). These results strongly suggest that bcl-2, p38, cyt c, and p-4EBP1 could suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis of C17.2 NSCs mediated by histone deacetylase inhibitors, nicotinamide and TSA, involving different molecular mechanisms.

  14. Qian Yang Yu Yin Granule-containing serum inhibits angiotensin II-induced proliferation, reactive oxygen species production, and inflammation in human mesangial cells via an NADPH oxidase 4-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kang; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Weimin; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Hongping; Fang, Zhuyuan

    2015-03-25

    Qian Yang Yu Yin Granule (QYYYG), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been indicated for renal damage in hypertension for decades in China, but little remains known regarding its underlying molecular mechanism. Therefore, we performed the current study in order to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of QYYYG in the treatment of hypertensive renal damage. We hypothesize that QYYYG relieves hypertensive renal injury through an angiotensin II (Ang II)-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH)-oxidase (NOX)-reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of QYYYG-containing serum (QYGS) in human mesangial cells (HMCs) against Ang II-induced cell proliferation, ROS production, and inflammation through the seropharmacological method. We found that QYGS could inhibit cell proliferation in Ang II-treated HMCs. In addition, QYGS considerably suppressed production of ROS, decreased mRNA and protein expression of NAPDH-oxidase 4 (NOX4), p22 (phox) , and activated Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (GTP-Rac1); as well as counteracted the up-regulation of inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, and interleukin 6 (IL-6). These effects were further confirmed in HMCs transfected with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NOX4. Taken together, these results suggest that a NOX4-dependent pathway plays an important role in regulating the inhibitory effect of QYGS. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of QYYYG and their role in the treatment of hypertensive nephropathy.

  15. NAD+ repletion improves muscle function in muscular dystrophy and counters global PARylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dongryeol; Zhang, Hongbo; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Mázala, Davi A G; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Marshall, Philip L; Campbell, Matthew D; Ali, Amir Safi; Knowels, Gary M; Bellemin, Stéphanie; Iyer, Shama R; Wang, Xu; Gariani, Karim; Sauve, Anthony A; Cantó, Carles; Conley, Kevin E; Walter, Ludivine; Lovering, Richard M; Chin, Eva R; Jasmin, Bernard J; Marcinek, David J; Menzies, Keir J; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-10-19

    Neuromuscular diseases are often caused by inherited mutations that lead to progressive skeletal muscle weakness and degeneration. In diverse populations of normal healthy mice, we observed correlations between the abundance of mRNA transcripts related to mitochondrial biogenesis, the dystrophin-sarcoglycan complex, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) synthesis, consistent with a potential role for the essential cofactor NAD + in protecting muscle from metabolic and structural degeneration. Furthermore, the skeletal muscle transcriptomes of patients with Duchene's muscular dystrophy (DMD) and other muscle diseases were enriched for various poly[adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerases (PARPs) and for nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), enzymes that are major consumers of NAD + and are involved in pleiotropic events, including inflammation. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, we observed significant reductions in muscle NAD + levels, concurrent increases in PARP activity, and reduced expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme for NAD + biosynthesis. Replenishing NAD + stores with dietary nicotinamide riboside supplementation improved muscle function and heart pathology in mdx and mdx/Utr -/- mice and reversed pathology in Caenorhabditis elegans models of DMD. The effects of NAD + repletion in mdx mice relied on the improvement in mitochondrial function and structural protein expression (α-dystrobrevin and δ-sarcoglycan) and on the reductions in general poly(ADP)-ribosylation, inflammation, and fibrosis. In combination, these studies suggest that the replenishment of NAD + may benefit patients with muscular dystrophies or other neuromuscular degenerative conditions characterized by the PARP/NNMT gene expression signatures. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Bacterial flavin-containing monooxygenase is trimethylamine monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Patel, Nisha A; Crombie, Andrew; Scrivens, James H; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-10-25

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are one of the most important monooxygenase systems in Eukaryotes and have many important physiological functions. FMOs have also been found in bacteria; however, their physiological function is not known. Here, we report the identification and characterization of trimethylamine (TMA) monooxygenase, termed Tmm, from Methylocella silvestris, using a combination of proteomic, biochemical, and genetic approaches. This bacterial FMO contains the FMO sequence motif (FXGXXXHXXXF/Y) and typical flavin adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-binding domains. The enzyme was highly expressed in TMA-grown M. silvestris and absent during growth on methanol. The gene, tmm, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant protein had high Tmm activity. Mutagenesis of this gene abolished the ability of M. silvestris to grow on TMA as a sole carbon and energy source. Close homologs of tmm occur in many Alphaproteobacteria, in particular Rhodobacteraceae (marine Roseobacter clade, MRC) and the marine SAR11 clade (Pelagibacter ubique). We show that the ability of MRC to use TMA as a sole carbon and/or nitrogen source is directly linked to the presence of tmm in the genomes, and purified Tmm of MRC and SAR11 from recombinant E. coli showed Tmm activities. The tmm gene is highly abundant in the metagenomes of the Global Ocean Sampling expedition, and we estimate that 20% of the bacteria in the surface ocean contain tmm. Taken together, our results suggest that Tmm, a bacterial FMO, plays an important yet overlooked role in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles.

  17. Nicotinamide exacerbates hypoxemia in ventilator-induced lung injury independent of neutrophil infiltration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather D Jones

    Full Text Available Ventilator-induced lung injury is a form of acute lung injury that develops in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation and has a high degree of mortality. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase is an enzyme that is highly upregulated in ventilator-induced lung injury and exacerbates the injury when given exogenously. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 directly inhibits downstream pathways activated by Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and is protective in other models of acute lung injury.We administered nicotinamide i.p. to mice undergoing mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes to study the effects of nicotinamide on ventilator-induced lung injury. Measures of injury included oxygen saturations and bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil counts, protein, and cytokine levels. We also measured expression of nicotinamide phosophoribosyltransferase, and its downstream effectors Sirt1 and Cebpa, Cebpb, Cebpe. We assessed the effect of nicotinamide on the production of nitric oxide during ventilator-induced lung injury. We also studied the effects of ventilator-induced lung injury in mice deficient in C/EBPε.Nicotinamide treatment significantly inhibited neutrophil infiltration into the lungs during ventilator-induced lung injury, but did not affect protein leakage or cytokine production. Surprisingly, mice treated with nicotinamide developed significantly worse hypoxemia during mechanical ventilation. This effect was not linked to increases in nitric oxide production or alterations in expression of Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase, Sirt1, or Cebpa and Cebpb. Cebpe mRNA levels were decreased with either nicotinamide treatment or mechanical ventilation, but mice lacking C/EBPε developed the same degree of hypoxemia and ventilator-induced lung injury as wild-type mice.Nicotinamide treatment during VILI inhibits neutrophil infiltration of the lungs consistent with a strong anti-inflammatory effect, but paradoxically also leads to the

  18. Nicotinamide -Methyltransferase in Health and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Ramsden

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the roles of nicotinamide N -methyltransferase and its product 1-methyl nicotinamide have emerged from playing merely minor roles in phase 2 xenobiotic metabolism as actors in some of the most important scenes of human life. In this review, the structures of the gene, messenger RNA, and protein are discussed, together with the role of the enzyme in many of the common cancers that afflict people today.

  19. disease patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mamishi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is an inherited disorder of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase complex. This disorder results in recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Aspergillus species are the most common fungal infections in these patients. Case Report: Herein, we present a case of fungal infection in a girl with CGD. We confirmed aspergillosis through the positive microscopic and macroscopic examinations, as well as radiology results. Invasive aspergillosis in this patient with pneumonia, lung abscess, and osteomyelitis of the ribs was not initially treated with amphotericin B (Am B and recombinant interferon-gamma. Conclusion: Among infectious diseases, fungal infections, in particular aspergillosis, remain a serious problem in CGD patients. Considering poor clinical response and deficient immune system, rapid diagnosis of fungal infection and optimizing the treatment of these patients are recommended.

  20. Fabrication of Flexible Arrayed Lactate Biosensor Based on Immobilizing LDH-NAD+ on NiO Film Modified by GO and MBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Siao-Jie; Liao, Yi-Hung; Lai, Chih-Hsien; Wu, You-Xiang; Wu, Cian-Yi; Chen, Hsiang-Yi; Huang, Hong-Yu; Wu, Tong-Yu

    2017-01-01

    We proposed the flexible arrayed lactate biosensor based on immobilizing l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) on nickel oxide (NiO) film, and which the average sensitivity could be enhanced by using graphene oxide (GO) and magnetic beads (MBs). By using GO and MBs, it exhibits excellent sensitivity (45.397 mV/mM) with a linearity of 0.992 in a range of 0.2 mM to 3 mM. According to the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the electron transfer resistance of LDH-NAD+-MBs/GPTS/GO/NiO film was smaller than those of LDH-NAD+/GPTS/GO/NiO film and LDH-NAD+/GPTS/NiO film, and it presented the outstanding electron transfer ability. After that, the limit of detection, anti-interference effect and bending test were also investigated. PMID:28704960

  1. Fabrication of Flexible Arrayed Lactate Biosensor Based on Immobilizing LDH-NAD+ on NiO Film Modified by GO and MBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chuan Chou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We proposed the flexible arrayed lactate biosensor based on immobilizing l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( NAD + on nickel oxide (NiO film, and which the average sensitivity could be enhanced by using graphene oxide (GO and magnetic beads (MBs. By using GO and MBs, it exhibits excellent sensitivity (45.397 mV/mM with a linearity of 0.992 in a range of 0.2 mM to 3 mM. According to the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, the electron transfer resistance of LDH- NAD + -MBs/GPTS/GO/NiO film was smaller than those of LDH-NAD+/GPTS/GO/NiO film and LDH- NAD + /GPTS/NiO film, and it presented the outstanding electron transfer ability. After that, the limit of detection, anti-interference effect and bending test were also investigated.

  2. Biosensor reveals multiple sources for mitochondrial NAD⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronne, Xiaolu A; Stewart, Melissa L; Kim, DongHo; Jones-Brunette, Amber M; Morgan, Rory K; Farrens, David L; Cohen, Michael S; Goodman, Richard H

    2016-06-17

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential substrate for sirtuins and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), which are NAD(+)-consuming enzymes localized in the nucleus, cytosol, and mitochondria. Fluctuations in NAD(+) concentrations within these subcellular compartments are thought to regulate the activity of NAD(+)-consuming enzymes; however, the challenge in measuring compartmentalized NAD(+) in cells has precluded direct evidence for this type of regulation. We describe the development of a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor for directly monitoring free NAD(+) concentrations in subcellular compartments. We found that the concentrations of free NAD(+) in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria approximate the Michaelis constants for sirtuins and PARPs in their respective compartments. Systematic depletion of enzymes that catalyze the final step of NAD(+) biosynthesis revealed cell-specific mechanisms for maintaining mitochondrial NAD(+) concentrations. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. A conserved NAD+ binding pocket that regulates protein-protein interactions during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Bonkowski, Michael S; Moniot, Sébastien; Zhang, Dapeng; Hubbard, Basil P; Ling, Alvin J Y; Rajman, Luis A; Qin, Bo; Lou, Zhenkun; Gorbunova, Vera; Aravind, L; Steegborn, Clemens; Sinclair, David A

    2017-03-24

    DNA repair is essential for life, yet its efficiency declines with age for reasons that are unclear. Numerous proteins possess Nudix homology domains (NHDs) that have no known function. We show that NHDs are NAD + (oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) binding domains that regulate protein-protein interactions. The binding of NAD + to the NHD domain of DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1) prevents it from inhibiting PARP1 [poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase], a critical DNA repair protein. As mice age and NAD + concentrations decline, DBC1 is increasingly bound to PARP1, causing DNA damage to accumulate, a process rapidly reversed by restoring the abundance of NAD + Thus, NAD + directly regulates protein-protein interactions, the modulation of which may protect against cancer, radiation, and aging. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Interrogation of metabolic and oxygen states of tumors with fiber-based luminescence lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, Maria; Orlova, Anna; Shirmanova, Marina; Shirokov, Daniil; Pavlikov, Anton; Neubauer, Antje; Studier, Hauke; Becker, Wolfgang; Zagaynova, Elena; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Shcheslavskiy, Vladislav

    2017-02-15

    The study of metabolic and oxygen states of cells in a tumor in vivo is crucial for understanding of the mechanisms responsible for tumor development and provides background for the relevant tumor's treatment. Here, we show that a specially designed implantable fiber-optic probe provides a promising tool for optical interrogation of metabolic and oxygen states of a tumor in vivo. In our experiments, the excitation light from a ps diode laser source is delivered to the sample through an exchangeable tip via a multimode fiber, and the emission light is transferred to the detector by another multimode fiber. Fluorescence lifetime of a nicotinamid adenine dinucleotide (NAD(P)H) and phosphorescence lifetime of an oxygen sensor based on an iridium (III) complex of enzothienylpyridine (BTPDM1) are explored both in model experiment in solutions and in living mice.

  5. Electroactive Properties of 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium Ionic Liquid Covalently Bonded on Mesoporous Silica Surface: Development of an Electrochemical Sensor Probed for NADH, Dopamine and Uric Acid Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroneze, Camila M.; Rahim, Abdur; Fattori, Natália; Costa, Luiz P. da; Sigoli, Fernando A.; Mazali, Italo O.; Custodio, Rogério; Gushikem, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: A hybrid organic-inorganic porous material was successfully prepared through chemical modification of a non-ordered mesoporous silica, obtained by the sol-gel process, with 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium groups. The porous material was evaluated as a platform for the development of electrochemical sensors, here probed toward the electrooxidation of NADH (β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), uric acid (UA) and dopamine (DA). The presence of cationic imidazolium groups on the surface of the hybrid silica-based material allowed the electrochemical detection of these biomolecules without any other electron mediator or biomolecular recognition component. Such behavior highlights the potentiality of this material to be applied in the development of new electrochemical sensing devices. Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory emphasizes that the cationic character of imidazolium group provides better oxidation conditions if the solvent effect is minimized

  6. Modulation of IgE-dependent COX-2 gene expression by reactive oxygen species in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Antonio; Chacón, Pedro; Alba, Gonzalo; El Bekay, Rajaa; Martín-Nieto, José; Sobrino, Francisco

    2006-07-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme in prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. Up-regulation of its COX-2 isoform is responsible for the increased PG release, taking place under inflammatory conditions, and also, is thought to be involved in allergic and inflammatory diseases. In the present work, we demonstrate that COX-2 expression becomes highly induced by anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and by antigens in human neutrophils from allergic patients. This induction was detected at mRNA and protein levels and was accompanied by a concomitant PGE(2) and thromboxane A(2) release. We also show evidence that inhibitors of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, such as 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulphonyl fluoride and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyaceto-phenone, completely cancelled anti-IgE-induced COX-2 protein up-regulation, suggesting that this process is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidase activity. Moreover, the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and also, the transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, are involved in the up-regulation of COX-2 expression, as specific chemical inhibitors of these two kinases, such as SB203580 and PD098059, and of the NF-kappaB pathway, such as N(alpha)-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-leucyl-l-leucyl-l-leucinal, abolished IgE-dependent COX-2 induction. Evidence is also presented, using Fe(2)(+)/Cu(2)(+) ions, that hydroxyl radicals generated from hydrogen peroxide through Fenton reactions could constitute candidate modulators able to directly trigger anti-IgE-elicited COX-2 expression through MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways. Present results underscore a new role for ROS as second messengers in the modulation of COX-2 expression by human neutrophils in allergic conditions.

  7. Adenine-N-oxide produced from adenine with gamma-rays and its binding to SH protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, O [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-labeled adenine aqueous solution was irradiated with /sup 60/Co gamma-rays. The yield of adenine-7-N-oxide, a radiolytic product, was determined by Sephadex G-10 column chromatography and TLC autoradiography. The apparent productive yield was very low, but the true yield should be much higher because of the reversible reaction to adenine and the easy decomposition of the N-oxide itself. Using synthesized /sup 14/C-adenine-7-N-oxide, noncovalent binding of this N-oxide to urease, an SH protein, was confirmed in comparison between the presence and absence of SDS by Ultrogel AcA 22 column chromatography. The noncovalent binding of the gamma-irradiated /sup 35/S-cysteine was also observed. The yield reached a limit in O/sub 2/ easier than in N/sub 2/ as the atmosphere for DNA irradiation. These results support an interaction structure, chemical bonds N-O---H-S-, for noncovalent binding which may be applied to the biological system as a radiation-induced damage.

  8. Nicotinic Acid-Mediated Activation of Both Membrane and Nuclear Receptors towards Therapeutic Glucocorticoid Mimetics for Treating Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Todd Penberthy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute attacks of multiple sclerosis (MS are most commonly treated with glucocorticoids, which can provide life-saving albeit only temporary symptomatic relief. The mechanism of action (MOA is now known to involve induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO and interleukin-10 (IL-10, where IL-10 requires subsequent heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX-1 induction. Ectopic expression studies reveal that even small changes in expression of IDO, HMOX-1, or mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2 can prevent demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE animal models of MS. An alternative to glucocorticoids is needed for a long-term treatment of MS. A distinctly short list of endogenous activators of both membrane G-protein-coupled receptors and nuclear peroxisome proliferating antigen receptors (PPARs demonstrably ameliorate EAE pathogenesis by MOAs resembling that of glucocorticoids. These dual activators and potential MS therapeutics include endocannabinoids and the prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2. Nicotinamide profoundly ameliorates and prevents autoimmune-mediated demyelination in EAE via maintaining levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, without activating PPAR nor any G-protein-coupled receptor. By comparison, nicotinic acid provides even greater levels of NAD than nicotinamide in many tissues, while additionally activating the PPAR-dependent pathway already shown to provide relief in animal models of MS after activation of GPR109a/HM74a. Thus nicotinic acid is uniquely suited for providing therapeutic relief in MS. However nicotinic acid is unexamined in MS research. Nicotinic acid penetrates the blood brain barrier, cures pellagric dementia, has been used for over 50 years clinically without toxicity, and raises HDL concentrations to a greater degree than any pharmaceutical, thus providing unparalleled benefits against lipodystrophy. Summary analysis reveals that the expected therapeutic benefits of high-dose nicotinic

  9. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  10. Engineering cofactor flexibility enhanced 2,3-butanediol production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Keming; Shen, Claire R

    2017-12-01

    Enzymatic reduction of acetoin into 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) typically requires the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) or its phosphate form (NADPH) as electron donor. Efficiency of 2,3-BD biosynthesis, therefore, is heavily influenced by the enzyme specificity and the cofactor availability which varies dynamically. This work describes the engineering of cofactor flexibility for 2,3-BD production by simultaneous overexpression of an NADH-dependent 2,3-BD dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpBudC) and an NADPH-specific 2,3-BD dehydrogenase from Clostridium beijerinckii (CbAdh). Co-expression of KpBudC and CbAdh not only enabled condition versatility for 2,3-BD synthesis via flexible utilization of cofactors, but also improved production stereo-specificity of 2,3-BD without accumulation of acetoin. With optimization of medium and fermentation condition, the co-expression strain produced 92 g/L of 2,3-BD in 56 h with 90% stereo-purity for (R,R)-isoform and 85% of maximum theoretical yield. Incorporating cofactor flexibility into the design principle should benefit production of bio-based chemical involving redox reactions.

  11. Extract from Edible Red Seaweed (Gelidium amansii) Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and ROS Production during Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Jung; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2012-06-01

    Gelidium (G.) amansii is a red alga widely distributed in the shallow waters around East Asian countries. We investigated the effect of G. amansii on lipid accumulation and ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production in 3T3-L1 cells. G. amansii extracts dose-dependently inhibited lipid formation and ROS generation in cultured cells. Our results showed that anti-adipogenic effect of G. amansii was due to the reduction in mRNA expressions of PPARγ peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and aP2 (adipocyte protein 2). G. amansii extracts significantly decreased mRNA levels of a ROS-generator, NOX4 (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen oxidase 4), and increased the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes including SOD1/2 (superoxide dis-mutases), Gpx (glutathione peroxidase), and GR (glutathione reductase), which can lead to the reduction of ROS in the cell. In addition, the G. amansii extract enhanced mRNA levels of adiponectin, one of the adipokines secreted from adipocytes, and GLUT4, glucose uptake protein. Taken together, our study shows that G. amansii extract inhibited lipid accumulation and ROS production by controlling adipogenic signals and ROS regulating genes.

  12. Structure of conjugated polyketone reductase from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 reveals conformational changes for substrate recognition upon NADPH binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hui-Min; Yamamura, Akihiro; Miyakawa, Takuya; Kataoka, Michihiko; Nagai, Takahiro; Kitamura, Nahoko; Urano, Nobuyuki; Maruoka, Shintaro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated polyketone reductase C2 (CPR-C2) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708, identified as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent ketopantoyl lactone reductase, belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. This enzyme reduces ketopantoyl lactone to D-pantoyl lactone in a strictly stereospecific manner. To elucidate the structural basis of the substrate specificity, we determined the crystal structures of the apo CPR-C2 and CPR-C2/NADPH complex at 1.70 and 1.80 Å resolutions, respectively. CPR-C2 adopted a triose-phosphate isomerase barrel fold at the core of the structure. Binding with the cofactor NADPH induced conformational changes in which Thr27 and Lys28 moved 15 and 5.0 Å, respectively, in the close vicinity of the adenosine 2'-phosphate group of NADPH to form hydrogen bonds. Based on the comparison of the CPR-C2/NADPH structure with 3-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and mutation analyses, we constructed substrate binding models with ketopantoyl lactone, which provided insight into the substrate specificity by the cofactor-induced structure. The results will be useful for the rational design of CPR-C2 mutants targeted for use in the industrial manufacture of ketopantoyl lactone.

  13. Sequence variants in the bovine silent information regulator 6, their linkage and their associations with body measurements and carcass quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Linsheng; Jiang, Bijie; Zhang, Yaran; Zan, Linsen

    2015-03-15

    Silent information regulator 6 (SIRT6) belongs to the family of class III nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase and plays an essential role in DNA repair and metabolism. This study was conducted to detect potential polymorphisms of the bovine SIRT6 gene and explore their relationships with body measurement and carcass quality in Qinchuan cattle. Four sequence variants (SVs) were identified in intron 6, exon 7, exon 9, and 3' UTR, via sequencing technology conducted in 468 individual Qinchuan cattle. Eleven different haplotypes were identified, of which two major haplotypes had a frequency of 45.7% (-CACT-) and 14.8% (-CGTC-). Three SVs (SV2, SV3 and SV4) were significantly associated with some of the body measurements and carcass quality traits (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the H2H7 (CC-GA-TT-TC) diplotype had better performance than other combinations. Our results suggest that some polymorphisms in SIRT6 are associated with production traits and may be used as candidates for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and management in beef cattle breeding programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism in X-irradiated Chinese hamster cells: its relation to repair of potentially lethal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hur, E.; Elkind, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) is the substrate used by cells in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis. X-irradiation of log-phase Chinese hamster cells caused a rapid decrease in NAD + levels which was linearly dependent on radiation dose. The activity of ADP-ribosyl transferase (ADPRT) also increased linearly with radiation dose. The decrease of NAD + was slower, and the increase in ADPRT activity was less pronounced, in a radiation sensitive line, V79-AL162/S-10. An inhibitor of ADPRT, m-aminobenzamide, largely prevented the depletion of cellular NAD + and reduced the rate at which ADPRT activity disappeared during post-irradiation incubation. Post-irradiation treatment with hypertonic buffer or with medium containing D 2 O-which inhibit repair of radiation-induced potentially lethal damage-enhanced the depletion of NAD + and prevented the reduction in ADPRT activity following irradiation. The characteristics of the effects of treatment with hypertonic buffer on NAD + metabolism were qualitatively similar to the effects that such treatment has on radiation-induced cell killing. These results suggest that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis after irradiation plays a role in the repair of potentially lethal damage. (author)

  15. Detection of Sirtuin-1 protein expression in peripheral blood leukocytes in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kuniko; Matsuu, Aya; Sasaki, Kai; Momoi, Yasuyuki

    2018-05-11

    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-dependent histone deacetylase with a large number of protein substrates. It has attracted a lot of attention in association with extending lifespan. The objective of this study was to enable the evaluation of SIRT1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs by flow cytometry. Three transcript variants were amplified from PBMCs by reverse transcription PCR and the nucleotide sequences were analyzed. On the basis deduced amino acid sequence, a monoclonal antibody against human SIRT1, 1F3, was selected to detect canine SIRT1. Canine SIRT1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was successfully detected by western blotting using this antibody. Intracellular canine SIRT1 was also detected in permeabilized 293T cells transfected with a canine SIRT1 expression plasmid by flow cytometry using this antibody. SIRT1 was detected in all leukocyte subsets including lymphocytes, granulocytes and monocytes. The expression level was markedly different among individual dogs. These results indicated that the method applied in this study is useful for evaluating canine SIRT1 levels in PBMCs from dogs.

  16. The proliferation potential of promastigotes of the main Leishmania species of the old world in NNN culture medium prepared using blood of four different mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladopoulos, Theodoros; Ntais, Pantelis; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Maria

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of the in vitro cultivation of promastigotes of four Leishmania spp. was tested in the biphasic Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium prepared using blood from different animals (horse, donkey, goat and sheep). The aim was to test which NNN preparation gave the best yield in the shortest time for different parasite species, in order to obtain a large crop of promastigotes for experimental work and for antigen preparation. Promastigotes of Leishmania infantum, Leishmania donovani, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, the four main parasite species occurring in the old world, were defrosted from -80 °C and placed, at equal numbers, in the 4 different NNN preparations. At the end of the 7th day, the NNN medium using horse blood produced the greatest number of promastigotes for all Leishmania spp. tested, whilst goat blood proved the poorest medium, providing culture results only for L. infantum. This finding may be explained by the fact that Leishmania is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) auxotroph and horse erythrocytes support NAD-dependent microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Research progress on the roles of aldose reductase in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Zhe Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aldose reductase(ARbelonging to nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate(NADPH-dependent aldehyde-keto reductase superfamily, is the key rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway which plays an important role in the body's high-sugar metabolism. AR is widely present in the kidneys, blood vessels, lens, retina, heart, skeletal muscle and other tissues and organs, converts glucose to sorbitol which easy permeability of cell membranes, cause cell swelling, degeneration, necrosis, and have a close relationship with the development of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic retinopathy(DRis a multifactorial disease, the exact cause is currently unknown, but polyol pathway has been demonstrated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of DR. Clinical risk factors such as blood sugar control, blood pressure and other treatments for DR only play a part effect of remission or invalid, if we can find out DR genes associated with the disease, this will contribute to a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms and contribute to the development of new treatments and drugs. The current research progress of AR, AR gene polymorphism, Aldose reductase inhibitors to DR was reviewed in this article.

  18. The Redox Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Sies, Helmut

    2015-09-20

    The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O₂ and H₂O₂ contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine.

  19. Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition in Human Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yi; Sartini, Davide; Pozzi, Valentina; Wilk, Dennis; Emanuelli, Monica; Yee, Vivien C. (Case Western); (Politecnica Valencia)

    2012-05-02

    Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of nicotinamide, pyridines, and other analogues using S-adenosyl-L-methionine as donor. NNMT plays a significant role in the regulation of metabolic pathways and is expressed at markedly high levels in several kinds of cancers, presenting it as a potential molecular target for cancer therapy. We have determined the crystal structure of human NNMT as a ternary complex bound to both the demethylated donor S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and the acceptor substrate nicotinamide, to 2.7 {angstrom} resolution. These studies reveal the structural basis for nicotinamide binding and highlight several residues in the active site which may play roles in nicotinamide recognition and NNMT catalysis. The functional importance of these residues was probed by mutagenesis. Of three residues near the nicotinamide's amide group, substitution of S201 and S213 had no effect on enzyme activity while replacement of D197 dramatically decreased activity. Substitutions of Y20, whose side chain hydroxyl interacts with both the nicotinamide aromatic ring and AdoHcy carboxylate, also compromised activity. Enzyme kinetics analysis revealed k{sub cat}/K{sub m} decreases of 2-3 orders of magnitude for the D197A and Y20A mutants, confirming the functional importance of these active site residues. The mutants exhibited substantially increased K{sub m} for both NCA and AdoMet and modestly decreased k{sub cat}. MD simulations revealed long-range conformational effects which provide an explanation for the large increase in K{sub m}(AdoMet) for the D197A mutant, which interacts directly only with nicotinamide in the ternary complex crystal structure.

  20. Membraneless enzymatic ethanol/O2 fuel cell: Transitioning from an air-breathing Pt-based cathode to a bilirubin oxidase-based biocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino Neto, Sidney; Milton, Ross D.; Hickey, David P.; De Andrade, Adalgisa R.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2016-08-01

    The bioelectrooxidation of ethanol was investigated in a fully enzymatic membraneless ethanol/O2 biofuel cell assembly using hybrid bioanodes containing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-decorated gold metallic nanoparticles with either a pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzyme or a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent ADH enzyme. The biofuel cell anode was prepared with the PQQ-dependent enzyme and designed using either a direct electron transfer (DET) architecture or via a mediated electron transfer (MET) configuration through a redox polymer, 1,1‧-dimethylferrocene-modified linear polyethyleneimine (FcMe2-C3-LPEI). In the case of the bioanode containing the NAD+-dependent enzyme, only the mediated electron transfer mechanism was employed using an electropolymerized methylene green film to regenerate the NAD+ cofactor. Regardless of the enzyme being employed at the anode, a bilirubin oxidase-based biocathode prepared within a DET architecture afforded efficient electrocatalytic oxygen reduction in an ethanol/O2 biofuel cell. The power curves showed that DET-based bioanodes via the PQQ-dependent ADH still lack high current densities, whereas the MET architecture furnished maximum power density values as high as 226 ± 21 μW cm-2. Considering the complete membraneless enzymatic biofuel cell with the NAD+-dependent ADH-based bioanode, power densities as high as 111 ± 14 μW cm-2 were obtained. This shows the advantage of PQQ-dependent ADH for membraneless ethanol/O2 biofuel cell applications.

  1. 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde–nicotinamide (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona N.-F. How

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C6H6N2O·C8H8O3, an equimolar co-crystal of nicotinamide and vanillin, the aromatic ring and the amide fragment of the nicotinamide molecule make a dihedral angle of 32.6 (2°. The vanillin molecule is almost planar, with an r.m.s. deviation for all non-H atoms of 0.0094 Å. The vaniline and nicotinamide aromatic rings are nearly coplanar, the dihedral angle between them being 3.20 (9°. In the crystal, the two components are linked through N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds into chains along the a axis. The chains are connected via C—H...O interactions, forming a three-dimensional polymeric structure.

  2. Immobilization of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) onto carbon cloth and its application as working electrode in an electroenzymatic bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, R; Sathishkumar, M; Jeong, E S; Mun, S P; Yun, S E

    2012-11-01

    A high porosity carbon cloth with immobilized FAD was employed as working electrode in electrochemical NADH-regeneration procedure. Carbon cloth was oxidized with hot acids to create surface carboxyl group and then coupled by adenine amino group of FAD with carbodiimide in the presence of N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide. The bioelectrocatalytic NADH-regeneration was coupled to the conversion of achiral substrate pyruvate into chiral product l-lactate by l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH) within the same reactor. The conversion was completed at 96h in bioreactor with FAD-modified carbon cloth, resulting in about 6mM of l-lactate from 10mM of pyruvate. While with bare carbon cloth, the yield at 120h was around 5mM. Immobilized FAD on the surface of carbon cloth electrode facilitated it to carry electrons from electrode to electron transfer enzymes; thereby NADH-regeneration was accelerated to drive the enzymatic reaction efficiently. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Silver-induced reconstruction of an adeninate-based metal-organic framework for encapsulation of luminescent adenine-stabilized silver clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Dries; Coutino-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Baekelant, Wouter; Bueken, Bart; Reinsch, Helge; Stassen, Ivo; Fenwick, Oliver; Richard, Fanny; Samorì, Paolo; Ameloot, Rob; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; De Vos, Dirk E

    2016-05-21

    Bright luminescent silver-adenine species were successfully stabilized in the pores of the MOF-69A (zinc biphenyldicarboxylate) metal-organic framework, starting from the intrinsically blue luminescent bio-MOF-1 (zinc adeninate 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate). Bio-MOF-1 is transformed to the MOF-69A framework by selectively leaching structural adenine linkers from the original framework using silver nitrate solutions in aqueous ethanol. Simultaneously, bright blue-green luminescent silver-adenine clusters are formed inside the pores of the recrystallized MOF-69A matrix in high local concentrations. The structural transition and concurrent changes in optical properties were characterized using a range of structural, physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques (steady-state and time-resolved luminescence, quantum yield determination, fluorescence microscopy). The presented results open new avenues for exploring the use of MOFs containing luminescent silver clusters for solid-state lighting and sensor applications.

  4. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient Leishmania donovani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, K.; Iovannisci, D.M.; Ullman, B.

    1986-01-01

    To elucidate the relative roles of two routes for adenine salvage, the authors use biochemical genetic approaches to isolate clonal strains of Leishmania donovani promasatigotes genetically deficient in APRTase activity. The studies suggest that the metabolic rate of adenine in these organisms is initiated by deamination. The radiolabel incorporation experiments and biochemical experiments are described in which the rate of uptake of radiolabelled purine nucleobases (C 14) was determined. Results are presented

  5. Evidence for the existence of a tyrosyl residue in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding site of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, T.; Nishino, T.

    1987-01-01

    Xanthine-NAD and NADH-methylene blue oxidoreductase activities of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase were inactivated by incubation with 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine (5'-FSBA), an active site directed reagent for nucleotide binding sites. The inactivation reaction displayed pseudo-first-order kinetics. A double-reciprocal plot of inactivation velocity vs. 5'-FSBA concentration showed that 5'-FSBA and enzyme formed a complex prior to inactivation. NAD protected the enzyme from inactivation by 5'-FSBA in a competitive fashion. The modified enzyme had the same xanthine-dichlorophenolindophenol and xanthine-O 2 oxidoreductase activities as the native enzyme, and on addition of xanthine to the modified enzyme, bleaching of the spectrum occurred in the visible region. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the enzyme by incubation with [ 14 C]-5'-FSBA was parallel to the loss of xanthine-NAD oxidoreductase activity, and the stoichiometry was 1 mol/mol of enzyme-bound FAD for complete inactivation. These results indicated that 5'-FSBA modified specifically the binding site for NAD of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase. The incorporated radioactivity was released slowly from 14 C-labeled enzyme by incubation with dithiothreitol with concomitant restoration of catalytic activity. The modified residue responsible for inactivation was identified as a tyrosine

  6. HepG2 cells develop signs of riboflavin deficiency within four days of culture in riboflavin-deficient medium*

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Ricarda; Manthey, Karoline C.; Griffin, Jacob B.; Zempleni, Janos

    2005-01-01

    Flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide are essential coenzymes in redox reactions. For example, flavin adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme for both glutathione reductase and enzymes that mediate the oxidative folding of secretory proteins. Here we investigated short-term effects of moderately riboflavin-deficient culture medium on flavin-related responses in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. Cells were cultured in riboflavin-deficient (3.1 nmol/L) medium for up to six days; controls ...

  7. Effect of the neurosphere size on the viability and metabolism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... substance metabolism mathematic model with which the substance distribution ..... dinucleotide (NADH) back to NAD+ and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) ... differentiated from rat neurospheres. Brain Res. 1101: 5-11.

  8. Comparative anatomy of the human APRT gene and enzyme: nucleotide sequence divergence and conservation of a nonrandom CpG dinucleotide arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, T.P.; Schaff, D.A.; Bertino, A.M.; Dush, M.K.; Tischfield, J.A.; Stambrook, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The functional human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) gene is <2.6 kilobases in length and contains five exons. The amino acid sequences of APRTs have been highly conserved throughout evolution. The human enzyme is 82%, 90%, and 40% identical to the mouse, hamster, and Escherichia coli enzymes, respectively. The promoter region of the human APRT gene, like that of several other housekeeping genes, lacks TATA and CCAAT boxes but contains five GC boxes that are potential binding sites for the Sp1 transcription factor. The distal three, however, are dispensable for gene expression. Comparison between human and mouse APRT gene nucleotide sequences reveals a high degree of homology within protein coding regions but an absence of significant homology in 5' flanking, 3' untranslated, and intron sequences, except for similarly positioned GC boxes in the promoter region and a 26-base-pair region in intron 3. This 26-base-pair sequence is 92% identical with a similarly positioned sequence in the mouse gene and is also found in intron 3 of the hamster gene, suggesting that its retention may be a consequence of stringent selection. The positions of all introns have been precisely retained in the human and both rodent genes. Retention of an elevated CpG dinucleotide content, despite loss of sequence homology, suggests that there may be selection for CpG dinucleotides in these regions and that their maintenance may be important for APRT gene function

  9. Research progress of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-shan ZHANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gene mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2 mainly occur in astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma and secondary glioblastoma. The IDH1/2 gene mutation can alter proteinase function, consume α-ketoglutarate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-reduced (NADPH and thus produce carcinogenic metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate. The intracellular accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate will induce a series of downstream effects which may result in the development of gliomas mentioned above. Both IDH1/2 mutations and other concomitant hereditary variations are biomarkers for differential diagnosis and IDH1/2 mutations are also independent factors for the prognosis of gliomas. The molecular targeting therapy for IDH1/2 mutations has become the research focus of glioma treatment. This review summarizes the recent progress of this field. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.017

  10. More to NAD+ than meets the eye: A regulator of metabolic pools and gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakière, Bertrand; Fernie, Alisdair R; Pétriacq, Pierre

    2018-01-05

    Since its discovery more than a century ago, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) is recognised as a fascinating cornerstone of cellular metabolism. This ubiquitous energy cofactor plays vital roles in metabolic pathways and regulatory processes, a fact emphasised by the essentiality of a balanced NAD + metabolism for normal plant growth and development. Research on the role of NAD in plants has been predominantly carried out in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with emphasis on the redox properties and cellular signalling functions of the metabolite. This review examines the current state of knowledge concerning how NAD can regulate both metabolic pools and gene expression in Arabidopsis. Particular focus is placed on recent studies highlighting the complexity of metabolic regulations involving NAD, more particularly in the mitochondrial compartment, and of signalling roles with respect to interactions with environmental fluctuations most specifically those involving plant immunity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. NAD+ protects against EAE by regulating CD4+ T-cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullius, Stefan G.; Biefer, Hector Rodriguez Cetina; Li, Suyan; Trachtenberg, Alexander J.; Edtinger, Karoline; Quante, Markus; Krenzien, Felix; Uehara, Hirofumi; Yang, Xiaoyong; Kissick, Haydn T.; Kuo, Winston P.; Ghiran, Ionita; de la Fuente, Miguel A.; Arredouani, Mohamed S.; Camacho, Virginia; Tigges, John C.; Toxavidis, Vasilis; El Fatimy, Rachid; Smith, Brian D.; Vasudevan, Anju; ElKhal, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    CD4+ T cells are involved in the development of autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) blocks experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, by inducing immune homeostasis through CD4+IFNγ+IL-10+ T cells and reverses disease progression by restoring tissue integrity via remyelination and neuroregeneration. We show that NAD+ regulates CD4+ T-cell differentiation through tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (Tph1), independently of well-established transcription factors. In the presence of NAD+, the frequency of T-bet−/− CD4+IFNγ+ T cells was twofold higher than wild-type CD4+ T cells cultured in conventional T helper 1 polarizing conditions. Our findings unravel a new pathway orchestrating CD4+ T-cell differentiation and demonstrate that NAD+ may serve as a powerful therapeutic agent for the treatment of autoimmune and other diseases. PMID:25290058

  12. Exploring NAD+ metabolism in host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Inês; Varela, Patrícia; Belinha, Ana; Gaifem, Joana; Laforge, Mireille; Vergnes, Baptiste; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a vital molecule found in all living cells. NAD(+) intracellular levels are dictated by its synthesis, using the de novo and/or salvage pathway, and through its catabolic use as co-enzyme or co-substrate. The regulation of NAD(+) metabolism has proven to be an adequate drug target for several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative or inflammatory diseases. Increasing interest has been given to NAD(+) metabolism during innate and adaptive immune responses suggesting that its modulation could also be relevant during host-pathogen interactions. While the maintenance of NAD(+) homeostatic levels assures an adequate environment for host cell survival and proliferation, fluctuations in NAD(+) or biosynthetic precursors bioavailability have been described during host-pathogen interactions, which will interfere with pathogen persistence or clearance. Here, we review the double-edged sword of NAD(+) metabolism during host-pathogen interactions emphasizing its potential for treatment of infectious diseases.

  13. Hydrolysis of a mixture of saccharides by cellulase from Aspergillus niger and its application for visible-light-induced hydrogen gas production system using Mg chlorophyll-a and platinum nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amao, Yutaka; Hirakawa, Takamasa [Department of Applied Chemistry, Oita University, Dannoharu 700, Oita 870-1192 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Cellulase obtained from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze a mixture of saccharides containing sucrose, maltose, and cellobiose; the reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), which is NADH, was produced during hydrolysis of the mixture of saccharides in the presence of NAD{sup +} and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). We have developed a visible-light-induced enzymatic biohydrogen production system involving the combination of cellulase-mediated hydrolysis of the mixture of saccharides and hydrogen production by platinum nanoparticles using photosensitization of Mg chlorophyll-a (Mg Chl-a). Continuous production of hydrogen gas was observed when the reaction mixture containing saccharides, cellulase, GDH, NAD{sup +}, Mg Chl-a, methylviologen (MV{sup 2+}, an electron donor), and platinum nanoparticles was irradiated by visible light. After 120 min of irradiation, the amount of hydrogen produced from the mixture of saccharides was approximately 2.8 {mu}mol. (author)

  14. Enhanced dark hydrogen fermentation by addition of ferric oxide nanoparticles using Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-05-01

    Ferric oxide nanoparticles (FONPs) were used to facilitate dark hydrogen fermentation using Enterobacter aerogenes. The hydrogen yield of glucose increased from 164.5±2.29 to 192.4±1.14mL/g when FONPs concentration increased from 0 to 200mg/L. SEM images of E. aerogenes demonstrated the existence of bacterial nanowire among cells, suggesting FONPs served as electron conduits to enhance electron transfer. TEM showed cellular internalization of FONPs, indicating hydrogenase synthesis and activity was potentially promoted due to the released iron element. When further increasing FONPs concentration to 400mg/L, the hydrogen yield of glucose decreased to 147.2±2.54mL/g. Soluble metabolic products revealed FONPs enhanced acetate pathway of hydrogen production, but weakened ethanol pathway. This shift of metabolic pathways allowed more nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for reducing proton to hydrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On-chip microfluidic systems for determination of L-glutamate based on enzymatic recycling of substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laiwattanapaisal, W.; Yakovleva, J.; Bengtsson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Two microfluidic systems have been developed for specific analysis of L-glutamate in food based on substrate recycling fluorescence detection. L-glutamate dehydrogenase and a novel enzyme, D-phenylglycine aminotransferase, were covalently immobilized on (i) the surface of silicon microchips....... The reaction was accompanied by reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to NADH, which was monitored by fluorescence detection (epsilon(ex)=340 nm, epsilon(em)=460 nm). First, the microchip-based system, L-glutamate was detected within a range of 3.1-50.0 mM. Second, to be automatically......). In the case of SIA, the beads were introduced and removed from the microchip automatically. The immobilized beads could be stored in a 20% glycerol and 0.5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution maintained at a pH of 7.0 using a phosphate buffer for at least 15 days with 72% of the activity remaining...

  16. Characterization of CobB kinetics and inhibition by nicotinamide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gallego-Jara

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation has emerged as a global protein regulation system in all domains of life. Sirtuins, or Sir2-like enzymes, are a family of histone deacetylases characterized by their employing NAD+ as a co-substrate. Sirtuins can deacetylate several acetylated proteins, but a consensus substrate recognition sequence has not yet been established. Product inhibition of many eukaryotic sirtuins by nicotinamide and its analogues has been studied in vitro due to their potential role as anticancer agents. In this work, the kinetics of CobB, the main Escherichia coli deacetylase, have been characterized. To our knowledge, this is the first kinetic characterization of a sirtuin employing a fully acetylated and natively folded protein as a substrate. CobB deacetylated several acetyl-CoA synthetase acetylated lysines with a single kinetic rate. In addition, in vitro nicotinamide inhibition of CobB has been characterized, and the intracellular nicotinamide concentrations have been determined under different growth conditions. The results suggest that nicotinamide can act as a CobB regulator in vivo. A nicotinamidase deletion strain was thus phenotypically characterized, and it behaved similarly to the ΔcobB strain. The results of this work demonstrate the potential regulatory role of the nicotinamide metabolite in vivo.

  17. Characterization of CobB kinetics and inhibition by nicotinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Jara, Julia; Écija Conesa, Ana; de Diego Puente, Teresa; Lozano Terol, Gema; Cánovas Díaz, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has emerged as a global protein regulation system in all domains of life. Sirtuins, or Sir2-like enzymes, are a family of histone deacetylases characterized by their employing NAD+ as a co-substrate. Sirtuins can deacetylate several acetylated proteins, but a consensus substrate recognition sequence has not yet been established. Product inhibition of many eukaryotic sirtuins by nicotinamide and its analogues has been studied in vitro due to their potential role as anticancer agents. In this work, the kinetics of CobB, the main Escherichia coli deacetylase, have been characterized. To our knowledge, this is the first kinetic characterization of a sirtuin employing a fully acetylated and natively folded protein as a substrate. CobB deacetylated several acetyl-CoA synthetase acetylated lysines with a single kinetic rate. In addition, in vitro nicotinamide inhibition of CobB has been characterized, and the intracellular nicotinamide concentrations have been determined under different growth conditions. The results suggest that nicotinamide can act as a CobB regulator in vivo. A nicotinamidase deletion strain was thus phenotypically characterized, and it behaved similarly to the ΔcobB strain. The results of this work demonstrate the potential regulatory role of the nicotinamide metabolite in vivo.

  18. Endogenous Nampt upregulation is associated with diabetic nephropathy inflammatory-fibrosis through the NF-κB p65 and Sirt1 pathway; NMN alleviates diabetic nephropathy inflammatory-fibrosis by inhibiting endogenous Nampt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Liang, Yuzhen; Hu, Tingting; Wei, Riming; Cai, Congjie; Wang, Ping; Wang, Lingyu; Qiao, Wei; Feng, Leping

    2017-11-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is a key enzyme in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) biosynthetic pathway. Exogenous extra cellular Nampt has been reported to increase the synthesis of pro-fibrotic molecules in various types of renal cells. However, the role of endogenous Namptenzymatic activity in diabetic renal cells, particularly those associated with inflammation and fibrosis through the nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) pathway is still unknown. In the present study, a possible mechanism by which endogenous Nampt upregulation affects the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines in vivo and in vitro , is reported. The present results demonstrate that the expression of vimentin and fibronectin was directly implicated in endogenous Nampt upregulation. The expression levels of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, NF-κB p65, forkhead box protein O1 and B-cell lymphoma 2-like protein 4 were also significantly increased at 96 h compared with control group (Pendogenous Nampt upregulation. Furthermore, the expression level of Sirt1 was significantly reduced (Pendogenous Nampt upregulation may be critical in the treatment of DN pro-inflammatory fibrosis and NMN is likely to be a potential pharmacological agent for the treatment of resistant DN nephritic fibrosis.

  19. Upregulation of mitochondrial NAD+ levels impairs the clonogenicity of SSEA1+ glioblastoma tumor-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myung Jin; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Kim, Jae Yun; Kwon, Youjeong; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Mun, Seon Ju; Cho, Yee Sook

    2017-06-09

    Emerging evidence has emphasized the importance of cancer therapies targeting an abnormal metabolic state of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in which they retain stem cell-like phenotypes and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) metabolism. However, the functional role of NAD + metabolism in regulating the characteristics of TICs is not known. In this study, we provide evidence that the mitochondrial NAD + levels affect the characteristics of glioma-driven SSEA1 + TICs, including clonogenic growth potential. An increase in the mitochondrial NAD + levels by the overexpression of the mitochondrial enzyme nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) significantly suppressed the sphere-forming ability and induced differentiation of TICs, suggesting a loss of the characteristics of TICs. In addition, increased SIRT3 activity and reduced lactate production, which are mainly observed in healthy and young cells, appeared following NNT-overexpressed TICs. Moreover, in vivo tumorigenic potential was substantially abolished by NNT overexpression. Conversely, the short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of NNT facilitated the maintenance of TIC characteristics, as evidenced by the increased numbers of large tumor spheres and in vivo tumorigenic potential. Our results demonstrated that targeting the maintenance of healthy mitochondria with increased mitochondrial NAD + levels and SIRT3 activity could be a promising strategy for abolishing the development of TICs as a new therapeutic approach to treating aging-associated tumors.

  20. Adenine N6-methylation in diverse fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    A DNA modification - methylation of cytosines and adenines - has important roles in diverse processes such as regulation of gene expression and genome stability, yet until recently adenine methylation had been considered to be only a hallmark of prokaryotes. A new study identifies abundant

  1. Sensitive and selective detection of adenine using fluorescent ZnS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerabai Devi, L; Negi, Devendra P S

    2011-01-01

    We have used fluorescent ZnS nanoparticles as a probe for the determination of adenine. A typical 2 x 10 -7 M concentration of adenine quenches 39.3% of the ZnS fluorescence. The decrease in ZnS fluorescence as a function of adenine concentration was found to be linear in the concentration range 5 x 10 -9 -2 x 10 -7 M. The limit of detection (LOD) of adenine by this method is 3 nM. Among the DNA bases, only adenine quenched the fluorescence of ZnS nanoparticles in the submicromolar concentration range, thus adding selectivity to the method. The amino group of adenine was important in determining the quenching efficiency. Steady-state fluorescence experiments suggest that one molecule of adenine is sufficient to quench the emission arising from a cluster of ZnS consisting of about 20 molecules. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements indicate that the adenine molecules block the sites on the surface of ZnS responsible for emission with the longest lifetime component. This method may be applied for the determination of adenine in biological samples since the measurements have been carried out at pH 7.

  2. Dinucleotide Composition in Animal RNA Viruses Is Shaped More by Virus Family than by Host Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schlub, Timothy E; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-04-15

    Viruses use the cellular machinery of their hosts for replication. It has therefore been proposed that the nucleotide and dinucleotide compositions of viruses should match those of their host species. If this is upheld, it may then be possible to use dinucleotide composition to predict the true host species of viruses sampled in metagenomic surveys. However, it is also clear that different taxonomic groups of viruses tend to have distinctive patterns of dinucleotide composition that may be independent of host species. To determine the relative strength of the effect of host versus virus family in shaping dinucleotide composition, we performed a comparative analysis of 20 RNA virus families from 15 host groupings, spanning two animal phyla and more than 900 virus species. In particular, we determined the odds ratios for the 16 possible dinucleotides and performed a discriminant analysis to evaluate the capability of virus dinucleotide composition to predict the correct virus family or host taxon from which it was isolated. Notably, while 81% of the data analyzed here were predicted to the correct virus family, only 62% of these data were predicted to their correct subphylum/class host and a mere 32% to their correct mammalian order. Similarly, dinucleotide composition has a weak predictive power for different hosts within individual virus families. We therefore conclude that dinucleotide composition is generally uniform within a virus family but less well reflects that of its host species. This has obvious implications for attempts to accurately predict host species from virus genome sequences alone. IMPORTANCE Determining the processes that shape virus genomes is central to understanding virus evolution and emergence. One question of particular importance is why nucleotide and dinucleotide frequencies differ so markedly between viruses. In particular, it is currently unclear whether host species or virus family has the biggest impact on dinucleotide frequencies and

  3. Catalytic carbene transfer allows the direct customization of cyclic purine dinucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Na; Häussinger, Daniel; Blümli, Seraina; Laventie, Benoît-Joseph; Bizzini, Lorenzo D; Zimmermann, Kaspar; Jenal, Urs; Gillingham, Dennis

    2014-08-11

    We describe a simple method for the direct modification of nucleobases in cyclic purine dinucleotides, important signalling molecules in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The method tolerates all members of the cyclic dinucleotide family and could be used to modulate their function or introduce useful side-chains such as fluorophores and photo-crosslinking groups.

  4. A comparison of adenine and some derivatives on pig isolated tracheal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach-Dieterle, Y.; Holden, W. E.; Junod, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    We studied the muscle relaxation induced by adenine and several adenine derivatives in strips of tracheal smooth muscle from pigs; in addition their metabolism by the tissue was examined. Adenine relaxed tissue which was contracted by carbachol, histamine, or KCl. Adenine's potency was similar to that of adenosine and ATP (threshold about 4 X 10(-5)M). In tissues with carbachol-induced tone, the adenine effect differed from adenosine and ATP by being slower in onset and in 'washout' time. Furthermore, neither dipyridamole nor theophylline modified the response to adenine. The relationship was examined between pharmacological effects and the metabolism of [3H]-adenosine and [3H]-adenine. Both substrates were taken up by the tissue and converted to nucleotides, but relaxation correlated with nucleotide accumulation only in the case of [3H]-adenine. We conclude that the site and mechanism of adenine-induced relaxation is different from that of adenosine and ATP in porcine tracheal muscle. PMID:6571222

  5. Influence of Magnetic Microparticles Isolation on Adenine Homonucleotides Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kremplova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electroactivity of purine and pyrimidine bases is the most important property of nucleic acids that is very useful for determining oligonucleotides using square wave voltammetry. This study was focused on the electrochemical behavior of adenine-containing oligonucleotides before and after their isolation using paramagnetic particles. Two peaks were detected—peak A related to the reduction of adenine base and another peak B involved in the interactions between individual adenine strands and contributes to the formation of various spatial structures. The influence of the number of adenine bases in the strand in the isolation process using paramagnetic particles was investigated too.

  6. A Novel Conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-BSA Film for the Construction of a Durable HRP Biosensor Modified with NanoAu Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangcheng Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the contribution of bovine serum albumin (BSA to the durability of the electrochemically synthesized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT film on a platinum (Pt electrode. The electrode was capable to effectively adsorb the nano Au particles (AuNPs to form a uniform layout, which was then able to immobilize the horseradish peroxidase (HRP to construct a functional HRP/AuNPs/PEDOT(BSA/Pt biosensor. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to evaluate the performance of the biosensor through the measurement of hydrogen peroxide. Our results revealed a satisfied linear correlation between the cathodic current and the concentration of H2O2. Furthermore, the addition of oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or NAD+, as the electron transfer mediator in the detection solution could dramatically enhance the sensitivity of detection by about 35.5%. The main advantages of the current biosensor are its durability, sensitivity, reliability, and biocompatibility.

  7. NAD+ and SIRT3 control microtubule dynamics and reduce susceptibility to antimicrotubule agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkcom, William T.; Ghosh, Ananda K.; Sung, Matthew S.; Matov, Alexandre; Brown, Kevin D.; Giannakakou, Paraskevi; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an endogenous enzyme cofactor and cosubstrate that has effects on diverse cellular and physiologic processes, including reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and axonal degeneration. A major goal is to identify the NAD+-regulated cellular pathways that may mediate these effects. Here we show that the dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules is markedly altered by NAD+. Furthermore, we show that the disassembly of microtubule polymers elicited by microtubule depolymerizing agents is blocked by increasing intracellular NAD+ levels. We find that these effects of NAD+ are mediated by the activation of the mitochondrial sirtuin sirtuin-3 (SIRT3). Overexpression of SIRT3 prevents microtubule disassembly and apoptosis elicited by antimicrotubule agents and knockdown of SIRT3 prevents the protective effects of NAD+ on microtubule polymers. Taken together, these data demonstrate that NAD+ and SIRT3 regulate microtubule polymerization and the efficacy of antimicrotubule agents. PMID:24889606

  8. Treatment with NAD(+) inhibited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by activating AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway and modulating Th1/Th17 immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jueqiong; Zhao, Congying; Kong, Peng; Sun, Huanhuan; Sun, Zhe; Bian, Guanyun; Sun, Yafei; Guo, Li

    2016-10-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) plays vital roles in mitochondrial functions, cellular energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the effect of NAD(+) administration for the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. EAE, a classical animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), was induced by subcutaneous injection of myelin oligodendrocyteglycoprotein (MOG). The mice were treated with 250mg/kg (body weight) NAD(+) in PBS administered intraperitoneally once daily. We observed that NAD(+) treatment could lessen the severity of EAE. Additionally, NAD(+) treatment attenuated pathological injuries of EAE mice. We also found that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1(SIRT1) pathway was activated in the NAD(+)-treated mice and NAD(+) treatment suppressed pro-inflammatory T cell responses. Our findings demonstrated that NAD(+) could be an effective and promising agent to treat multiple sclerosis and its effects on other autoimmune diseases should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Renewable Molecular Flasks with NADH Models: Combination of Light-Driven Proton Reduction and Biomimetic Hydrogenation of Benzoxazinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Wei, Jianwei; Lu, Junhua; He, Cheng; Duan, Chunying

    2017-07-17

    Using small molecules with defined pockets to catalyze chemical transformations resulted in attractive catalytic syntheses that echo the remarkable properties of enzymes. By modulating the active site of a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) model in a redox-active molecular flask, we combined biomimetic hydrogenation with in situ regeneration of the active site in a one-pot transformation using light as a clean energy source. This molecular flask facilitates the encapsulation of benzoxazinones for biomimetic hydrogenation of the substrates within the inner space of the flask using the active sites of the NADH models. The redox-active metal centers provide an active hydrogen source by light-driven proton reduction outside the pocket, allowing the in situ regeneration of the NADH models under irradiation. This new synthetic platform, which offers control over the location of the redox events, provides a regenerating system that exhibits high selectivity and efficiency and is extendable to benzoxazinone and quinoxalinone systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Juvenile Leigh syndrome, optic atrophy, ataxia, dystonia, and epilepsy due to T14487C mutation in the mtDNA-ND6 gene: a mitochondrial syndrome presenting from birth to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Shuvalov, Ruslan; Inbar, Shani; Cohen, Sarit; Lev, Dorit; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2011-04-01

    An increasing number of reports describe mutations in mitochondrial DNA coding regions, especially in mitochondrial DNA- encoded nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit genes of the respiratory chain complex I, as causing early-onset Leigh syndrome. The authors report the molecular findings in a 24-year-old patient with juvenile-onset Leigh syndrome presenting with optic atrophy, ataxia dystonia, and epilepsy. A brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic hypointensities, and a magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed an increased lactate peak. The authors identified a T14487C change causing M63V substitution in the mitochondrial ND6 gene. The mutation was heteroplasmic in muscle and blood samples, with different mutation loads, and was absent in the patient's mother's urine and blood samples. They suggest that the T14487C mtDNA mutation should be analyzed in Leigh syndrome, presenting with optic atrophy, ataxia, dystonia, and epilepsy, regardless of age.

  11. Sample Handling and Chemical Kinetics in an Acoustically Levitated Drop Microreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Accurate measurement of enzyme kinetics is an essential part of understanding the mechanisms of biochemical reactions. The typical means of studying such systems use stirred cuvettes, stopped-flow apparatus, microfluidic systems, or other small sample containers. These methods may prove to be problematic if reactants or products adsorb to or react with the container’s surface. As an alternative approach, we have developed an acoustically-levitated drop reactor eventually intended to study enzyme-catalyzed reaction kinetics related to free radical and oxidative stress chemistry. Microliter-scale droplet generation, reactant introduction, maintenance, and fluid removal are all important aspects in conducting reactions in a levitated drop. A three capillary bundle system has been developed to address these needs. We report kinetic measurements for both luminol chemiluminescence and the reaction of pyruvate with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase, to demonstrate the feasibility of using a levitated drop in conjunction with the developed capillary sample handling system as a microreactor. PMID:19769373

  12. Oxidative stress as a mechanism of added sugar-induced cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kailash; Dhar, Indu

    2014-12-01

    Added sugars comprising of table sugar, brown sugar, corn syrup, maple syrup, honey, molasses, and other sweeteners in the prepared processed foods and beverages have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. This article deals with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a mechanism of sugar-induced cardiovascular diseases. There is an association between the consumption of high levels of serum glucose with cardiovascular diseases. Various sources of sugar-induced generation of ROS, including mitochondria, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, advanced glycation end products, insulin, and uric acid have been discussed. The mechanism by which ROS induce the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias have been discussed in detail. In conclusion, the data suggest that added sugars induce atherosclerosis, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias and that these effects of added sugars are mediated through ROS.

  13. Leopard Skin-Like Colonic Mucosa: A Novel Endoscopic Finding of Chronic Granulomatous Disease-Associated Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Naho; Arai, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Natsuko; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Kawai, Toshinao; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Tang, Julian; Onodera, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disorder in which phagocytes are unable to eradicate pathogens because of a deficit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Among CGD patients, ∼ 30% to 50% develop severe gastrointestinal tract symptoms. Although characteristic histologic findings of CGD-associated colitis have been reported, information on endoscopic features remained vague. A total of 8 male patients with CGD (ages 2-23 years) from 2 Japanese institutions underwent colonoscopy for the evaluation of their fever, diarrhea, bloody stool, and abdominal pain. The endoscopic and histologic findings were retrospectively reviewed. The endoscopic findings of CGD-associated colitis appeared varied. Notably, brownish dots over a yellowish edematous mucosa were observed in 3 of the 8 patients. Prominent pigment-laden macrophages were noted histologically on the mucosa. Although nonspecific endoscopic findings of CGD-associated colitis have been reported before, our observation of brownish dots spread across a yellowish edematous mucosa, termed "leopard sign," could be a unique feature of this condition.

  14. An enzymatic-fluorimetric method for monitoring of ethanol in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, M.; Voigt, G.; Klockow, D. [Institut fuer Spektrochemie und Angewandte Spektroskopie (ISAS), Dortmund (Germany); Tavares, T. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBa), Rua Augusto Viana, s/n - Canela, 40110-010 Salvador/Bahia (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    A method is described for the continuous monitoring of ethanol in ambient air. The system consists of a scrubber coil for enrichment of the analyte from air in an aqueous solution and a directly connected fluorescence detector. Because of using a reagent solution containing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) for absorption, ethanol can react directly with ADH and NAD{sup +} during air sampling, producing NADH, which can be measured by fluorescence detection. The influence of reagent concentrations, gas flow rate and scrubber solution flow rate on the performance of the instrument was tested. Possible ozone interferences can be avoided by placing a KI coated filter in front of the scrubber inlet. The response time of the system was found to be 2.3 min and the detection limit about 1 ppb{sub V}. The applicability of the developed method was demonstrated during a field campaign in Brazil. (orig.) With 7 figs., 35 refs.

  15. A model for evolution and regulation of nicotine biosynthesis regulon in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Sierro, Nicolas; Hashimoto, Takashi; Shoji, Tsubasa

    2017-06-03

    In tobacco, the defense alkaloid nicotine is produced in roots and accumulates mainly in leaves. Signaling mediated by jasmonates (JAs) induces the formation of nicotine via a series of structural genes that constitute a regulon and are coordinated by JA-responsive transcription factors of the ethylene response factor (ERF) family. Early steps in the pyrrolidine and pyridine biosynthesis pathways likely arose through duplication of the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthetic pathways, respectively, followed by recruitment of duplicated primary metabolic genes into the nicotine biosynthesis regulon. Transcriptional regulation of nicotine biosynthesis by ERF and cooperatively-acting MYC2 transcription factors is implied by the frequency of cognate cis-regulatory elements for these factors in the promoter regions of the downstream structural genes. Indeed, a mutant tobacco with low nicotine content was found to have a large chromosomal deletion in a cluster of closely related ERF genes at the nicotine-controlling NICOTINE2 (NIC2) locus.

  16. Effect of tricarboxylic acid cycle regulator on carbon retention and organic component transformation during food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Zhao, Yue; Gao, Xintong; Wu, Junqiu; Zhou, Haixuan; Tang, Pengfei; Wei, Qingbin; Wei, Zimin

    2018-05-01

    Composting is an environment friendly method to recycling organic waste. However, with the increasing concern about greenhouse gases generated in global atmosphere, it is significant to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This study analyzes tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle regulators on the effect of reducing CO 2 emission, and the relationship among organic component (OC) degradation and transformation and microorganism during composting. The results showed that adding adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) could enhance the transformation of OC and increase the diversity of microorganism community. Malonic acid (MA) as a competitive inhibitor could decrease the emission of CO 2 by inhibiting the TCA cycle. A structural equation model was established to explore effects of different OC and microorganism on humic acid (HA) concentration during composting. Furthermore, added MA provided an environmental benefit in reducing the greenhouse gas emission for manufacture sustainable products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A repeatedly refuelable mediated biofuel cell based on a hierarchical porous carbon electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shuji; Yamanoi, Shun; Murata, Kenichi; Mita, Hiroki; Samukawa, Tsunetoshi; Nakagawa, Takaaki; Sakai, Hideki; Tokita, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Biofuel cells that generate electricity from renewable fuels, such as carbohydrates, must be reusable through repeated refuelling, should these devices be used in consumer electronics. We demonstrate the stable generation of electricity from a glucose-powered mediated biofuel cell through multiple refuelling cycles. This refuelability is achieved by immobilizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an electron-transfer mediator, and redox enzymes in high concentrations on porous carbon particles constituting an anode while maintaining their electrochemical and enzymatic activities after the immobilization. This bioanode can be refuelled continuously for more than 60 cycles at 1.5 mA cm-2 without significant potential drop. Cells assembled with these bioanodes and bilirubin-oxidase-based biocathodes can be repeatedly used to power a portable music player at 1 mW cm-3 through 10 refuelling cycles. This study suggests that the refuelability within consumer electronics should facilitate the development of long and repeated use of the mediated biofuel cells as well as of NAD-based biosensors, bioreactors, and clinical applications.

  18. NADPH-d activity in rat thymus after the application of retinoid acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dorko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the localization of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d activity as the marker for synthesis of nitric oxide synthase (NOS in the rat thymus after the application of retinoid acid (RA on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days of gestation. The given results can build the basis for understanding of the role of NOS in rat thymus. NADPH-d positive cells were represented with dark-blue color and were localized on corticomedullar junction of the thymus. These cells were of different intensity of coloring and were shaped in oval, circle or irregular forms. NADPH-d positive nerve fibers were observed in perivascular topography. They were marked more strongly in the case of control group. The result of application of RA to gravid rats was that the birth weights of newborn rats and their thymuses were smaller, but without statistically significance.

  19. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease is associated with inherent changes in bioenergetics profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Kai-C; Ryu, Woo-In; Amirault, Kristopher M; Healy, Ryan A; Siegel, Arthur J; McPhie, Donna L; Forester, Brent; Cohen, Bruce M

    2017-10-25

    Body-wide changes in bioenergetics, i.e., energy metabolism, occur in normal aging and disturbed bioenergetics may be an important contributing mechanism underlying late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We investigated the bioenergetic profiles of fibroblasts from LOAD patients and healthy controls, as a function of age and disease. LOAD cells exhibited an impaired mitochondrial metabolic potential and an abnormal redox potential, associated with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and altered citric acid cycle activity, but not with disease-specific changes in mitochondrial mass, production of reactive oxygen species, transmembrane instability, or DNA deletions. LOAD fibroblasts demonstrated a shift in energy production to glycolysis, despite an inability to increase glucose uptake in response to IGF-1. The increase of glycolysis and the abnormal mitochondrial metabolic potential in LOAD appeared to be inherent, as they were disease- and not age-specific. Our findings support the hypothesis that impairment in multiple interacting components of bioenergetic metabolism may be a key mechanism contributing to the risk and pathophysiology of LOAD.

  20. Spectrofluorimetric determination of trace amount of coenzyme II using ciprofloxacin-terbium complex as a fluorescent probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Weiwei; Wang Yusheng; Zhu Xiaojing; Jiang Chongqiu

    2006-01-01

    A new spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of trace amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Using terbium ion (Tb 3+ )-ciprofloxacin (CIP) complex as a fluorescent probe, in the buffer solution of pH=9.00, NADP can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the Tb 3+ -CIP complex at λ=545nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Tb 3+ ion is in proportion to the concentration of NADP. Optimum conditions for the determination of NADP were also investigated. The dynamic range for the determination of NADP is 4.9x10 -7 -3.7x10 -6 molL -1 with detection limit of 1.3x10 -7 molL -1 . This method is simple, practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of NADP in synthetic water samples. Moreover, the enhancement mechanisms of the fluorescence intensity in the Tb 3+ -CIP system and the Tb 3+ -CIP-NADP system have been also discussed

  1. A role for NADPH oxidase in antigen presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail J Gardiner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase expressed in phagocytes is a multi-subunit enzyme complex that generates superoxide (O2.-. This radical is an important precursor of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS needed for microbicidal activity during innate immune responses. Inherited defects in NADPH oxidase give rise to chronic granulomatous disease (CGD, a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections and granulomatous inflammation. Interestingly, CGD, CGD carrier status, and oxidase gene polymorphisms have all been associated with autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, suggesting a potential role for NADPH oxidase in regulating adaptive immune responses. Here, NADPH oxidase function in antigen processing and presentation is reviewed. NADPH oxidase influences dendritic cell (DC crosspresentation by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I through regulation of the phagosomal microenvironment, while in B lymphocytes, NADPH oxidase alters epitope selection by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC-II.

  2. Hepatic NAD(+) deficiency as a therapeutic target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Can-Can; Yang, Xi; Hua, Xia; Liu, Jian; Fan, Mao-Bing; Li, Guo-Qiang; Song, Jie; Xu, Tian-Ying; Li, Zhi-Yong; Guan, Yun-Feng; Wang, Pei; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Ageing is an important risk factor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we investigated whether the deficiency of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ), a ubiquitous coenzyme, links ageing with NAFLD. Hepatic concentrations of NAD(+) , protein levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and several other critical enzymes regulating NAD(+) biosynthesis, were compared in middle-aged and aged mice or patients. The influences of NAD(+) decline on the steatosis and steatohepatitis were evaluated in wild-type and H247A dominant-negative, enzymically-inactive NAMPT transgenic mice (DN-NAMPT) given normal or high-fat diet (HFD). Hepatic NAD(+) level decreased in aged mice and humans. NAMPT-controlled NAD(+) salvage, but not de novo biosynthesis pathway, was compromised in liver of elderly mice and humans. Given normal chow, middle-age DN-NAMPT mice displayed systemic NAD(+) reduction and had moderate NAFLD phenotypes, including lipid accumulation, enhanced oxidative stress, triggered inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity in liver. All these NAFLD phenotypes, especially release of pro-inflammatory factors, Kupffer cell accumulation, monocytes infiltration, NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and hepatic fibrosis (Masson's staining and α-SMA staining), deteriorated further under HFD challenge. Oral administration of nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, completely corrected these NAFLD phenotypes induced by NAD(+) deficiency alone or HFD, whereas adenovirus-mediated SIRT1 overexpression only partially rescued these phenotypes. These results provide the first evidence that ageing-associated NAD(+) deficiency is a critical risk factor for NAFLD, and suggest that supplementation with NAD(+) substrates may be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat NAFLD. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Prevention of photoimmunosuppression and photocarcinogenesis by topical nicotinamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensler, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation leads to a potent immunosuppression of the capacity to reject syngeneic, antigenic tumors. If this immunosuppression is critical for the development of most skin tumors, then its prevention should result in prevention of photocarcinogenesis. We previously showed a correlation between the inhibition of photoimmunosuppression and prevention of photocarcinogenesis by dl-alpha-tocopherol, tannic acid, or alpha-difluoro methylornithine. The current study was designed to determine whether topical nicotinamide, the active form of vitamin B-3, or niacin, prevents immunosuppression and skin cancer in UV-irradiated mice. In a passive transfer assay for immunosuppression, splenocytes from UV-irradiated mice enhanced the growth of antigenic tumor challenges in recipient mice. Treatment of the UV-irradiated mice with 40 micromoles of nicotinamide twice weekly starting two weeks before UV irradiation and throughout the experiment prevented this immunosuppresion. UVB irradiation consisted of five weekly 30-minute exposures to banks of six FS40 Westinghouse fluorescent sunlamps. Mice received approximatety 6.2 x 10(5) J/m(2) in the passive transfer assays and 1.09 x 10(6) J/m(2) in the photocarcinogenesis studies. Application of nicotinamide to UV-irradiated mice reduced skin tumor incidence from 75% to 42.5% (p = 0.016, Cox proportional hazards analysis). Thus topical nicotinamide prevented the immunosuppression and skin tumor induction by UVB irradiation

  4. Novel concept of enzyme selective nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-modified inhibitors based on enzyme taxonomy from the diphosphate conformation of NAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mikio; Kitagawa, Yasuyuki; Iida, Shui; Kato, Keisuke; Ono, Machiko

    2015-11-15

    The dihedral angle θ of the diphosphate part of NAD(P) were investigated to distinguish the differences in the binding-conformation of NAD(P) to enzymes and to create an enzyme taxonomy. Furthermore, new inhibitors with fixed dihedral angles showed that enzymes could recognize the differences in the dihedral angle θ. We suggest the taxonomy and the dihedral angle θ are important values for chemists to consider when designing inhibitors and drugs that target enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyclic voltammetric response of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on a polycrystalline gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoxia; Yang Nianjun; Wan Qijin

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on a polycrystalline gold electrode occurred at almost same potentials but their reduction did at different peak potentials. The redox reaction mechanisms of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were rationalized by the formation/disappearance of the new nitrogen-oxygen bonds in the pyridine rings by means of cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The anodic currents of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were controlled by diffusion, while the cathodic ones by adsorption. The difference in the cathodic peak potentials of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on the polycrystalline gold electrode is attributed to the effect of the electron densities of remote substituents on the pyridine rings. The cathodic peak currents at about 0.20 V were linear with their concentrations in the range of 2.4 mM to 2.7 μM and 2.4 mM to 3.3 μM with detection limits of 0.27 and 0.33 μM for nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, respectively. Voltammetry was then adopted for the selective monitoring the content of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in pharmaceuticals

  6. Metabolic Response to NAD Depletion across Cell Lines Is Highly Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Kwong, Mandy; Daemen, Anneleen; Belvin, Marcia; Liang, Xiaorong; Hatzivassiliou, Georgia; O'Brien, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor involved in a wide range of cellular metabolic processes and is a key metabolite required for tumor growth. NAMPT, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, which converts nicotinamide (NAM) to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the immediate precursor of NAD, is an attractive therapeutic target as inhibition of NAMPT reduces cellular NAD levels and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. However, there is limited understanding of the metabolic response to NAD depletion across cancer cell lines and whether all cell lines respond in a uniform manner. To explore this we selected two non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines that are sensitive to the NAMPT inhibitor GNE-617 (A549, NCI-H1334), one that shows intermediate sensitivity (NCI-H441), and one that is insensitive (LC-KJ). Even though NAD was reduced in all cell lines there was surprising heterogeneity in their metabolic response. Both sensitive cell lines reduced glycolysis and levels of di- and tri-nucleotides and modestly increased oxidative phosphorylation, but they differed in their ability to combat oxidative stress. H1334 cells activated the stress kinase AMPK, whereas A549 cells were unable to activate AMPK as they contain a mutation in LKB1, which prevents activation of AMPK. However, A549 cells increased utilization of the Pentose Phosphate pathway (PPP) and had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels than H1334 cells, indicating that A549 cells are better able to modulate an increase in oxidative stress. Inherent resistance of LC-KJ cells is associated with higher baseline levels of NADPH and a delayed reduction of NAD upon NAMPT inhibition. Our data reveals that cell lines show heterogeneous response to NAD depletion and that the underlying molecular and genetic framework in cells can influence the metabolic response to NAMPT inhibition.

  7. Metabolic Response to NAD Depletion across Cell Lines Is Highly Variable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD is a cofactor involved in a wide range of cellular metabolic processes and is a key metabolite required for tumor growth. NAMPT, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, which converts nicotinamide (NAM to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN, the immediate precursor of NAD, is an attractive therapeutic target as inhibition of NAMPT reduces cellular NAD levels and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. However, there is limited understanding of the metabolic response to NAD depletion across cancer cell lines and whether all cell lines respond in a uniform manner. To explore this we selected two non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines that are sensitive to the NAMPT inhibitor GNE-617 (A549, NCI-H1334, one that shows intermediate sensitivity (NCI-H441, and one that is insensitive (LC-KJ. Even though NAD was reduced in all cell lines there was surprising heterogeneity in their metabolic response. Both sensitive cell lines reduced glycolysis and levels of di- and tri-nucleotides and modestly increased oxidative phosphorylation, but they differed in their ability to combat oxidative stress. H1334 cells activated the stress kinase AMPK, whereas A549 cells were unable to activate AMPK as they contain a mutation in LKB1, which prevents activation of AMPK. However, A549 cells increased utilization of the Pentose Phosphate pathway (PPP and had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS levels than H1334 cells, indicating that A549 cells are better able to modulate an increase in oxidative stress. Inherent resistance of LC-KJ cells is associated with higher baseline levels of NADPH and a delayed reduction of NAD upon NAMPT inhibition. Our data reveals that cell lines show heterogeneous response to NAD depletion and that the underlying molecular and genetic framework in cells can influence the metabolic response to NAMPT inhibition.

  8. European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial (ENDIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, E A M; Bingley, P J; Emmett, C L

    2004-01-01

    with a pseudorandom number generator and we used size balanced blocks of four and stratified by age and national group. Primary outcome was development of diabetes, as defined by WHO criteria. Analysis was done on an intention-to-treat basis. FINDINGS: There was no difference in the development of diabetes between...... secretion. INTERPRETATION: Large-scale controlled trials of interventions designed to prevent the onset of type 1 diabetes are feasible, but nicotinamide was ineffective at the dose we used.......BACKGROUND: Results of studies in animals and human beings suggest that type 1 diabetes is preventable. Nicotinamide prevents autoimmune diabetes in animal models, possibly through inhibition of the DNA repair enzyme poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and prevention of beta-cell NAD depletion. We aimed...

  9. HCV Core Protein Uses Multiple Mechanisms to Induce Oxidative Stress in Human Hepatoma Huh7 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander V.; Smirnova, Olga A.; Petrushanko, Irina Y.; Ivanova, Olga N.; Karpenko, Inna L.; Alekseeva, Ekaterina; Sominskaya, Irina; Makarov, Alexander A.; Bartosch, Birke; Kochetkov, Sergey N.; Isaguliants, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accompanied by the induction of oxidative stress, mediated by several virus proteins, the most prominent being the nucleocapsid protein (HCV core). Here, using the truncated forms of HCV core, we have delineated several mechanisms by which it induces the oxidative stress. The N-terminal 36 amino acids of HCV core induced TGFβ1-dependent expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases 1 and 4, both of which independently contributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The same fragment also induced the expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2, which, however, made no input into ROS production. Amino acids 37–191 of HCV core up-regulated the transcription of a ROS generating enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1. Furthermore, the same fragment induced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1α. The latter triggered efflux of Ca2+ from ER to mitochondria via mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, leading to generation of superoxide anions, and possibly also H2O2. Suppression of any of these pathways in cells expressing the full-length core protein led to a partial inhibition of ROS production. Thus, HCV core causes oxidative stress via several independent pathways, each mediated by a distinct region of the protein. PMID:26035647

  10. Tryptophan Biochemistry: Structural, Nutritional, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palego, Lionella; Betti, Laura; Rossi, Alessandra; Giannaccini, Gino

    2016-01-01

    L-Tryptophan is the unique protein amino acid (AA) bearing an indole ring: its biotransformation in living organisms contributes either to keeping this chemical group in cells and tissues or to breaking it, by generating in both cases a variety of bioactive molecules. Investigations on the biology of Trp highlight the pleiotropic effects of its small derivatives on homeostasis processes. In addition to protein turn-over, in humans the pathways of Trp indole derivatives cover the synthesis of the neurotransmitter/hormone serotonin (5-HT), the pineal gland melatonin (MLT), and the trace amine tryptamine. The breakdown of the Trp indole ring defines instead the "kynurenine shunt" which produces cell-response adapters as L-kynurenine, kynurenic and quinolinic acids, or the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). This review aims therefore at tracing a "map" of the main molecular effectors in human tryptophan (Trp) research, starting from the chemistry of this AA, dealing then with its biosphere distribution and nutritional value for humans, also focusing on some proteins responsible for its tissue-dependent uptake and biotransformation. We will thus underscore the role of Trp biochemistry in the pathogenesis of human complex diseases/syndromes primarily involving the gut, neuroimmunoendocrine/stress responses, and the CNS, supporting the use of -Omics approaches in this field.

  11. Depletion of CpG Dinucleotides in Papillomaviruses and Polyomaviruses: A Role for Divergent Evolutionary Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mohita; Vivekanandan, Perumal

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses are small ds-DNA viruses infecting a wide-range of vertebrate hosts. Evidence supporting co-evolution of the virus with the host does not fully explain the evolutionary path of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. Studies analyzing CpG dinucleotide frequencies in virus genomes have provided interesting insights on virus evolution. CpG dinucleotide depletion has not been extensively studied among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. We sought to analyze the relative abundance of dinucleotides and the relative roles of evolutionary pressures in papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. We studied 127 full-length sequences from papillomaviruses and 56 full-length sequences from polyomaviruses. We analyzed the relative abundance of dinucleotides, effective codon number (ENC), differences in synonymous codon usage. We examined the association, if any, between the extent of CpG dinucleotide depletion and the evolutionary lineage of the infected host. We also investigated the contribution of mutational pressure and translational selection to the evolution of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. All papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses are CpG depleted. Interestingly, the evolutionary lineage of the infected host determines the extent of CpG depletion among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. CpG dinucleotide depletion was more pronounced among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses infecting human and other mammals as compared to those infecting birds. Our findings demonstrate that CpG depletion among papillomaviruses is linked to mutational pressure; while CpG depletion among polyomaviruses is linked to translational selection. We also present evidence that suggests methylation of CpG dinucleotides may explain, at least in part, the depletion of CpG dinucleotides among papillomaviruses but not polyomaviruses. The extent of CpG depletion among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses is linked to the evolutionary lineage of the infected host. Our

  12. Optical biopsy - a new armamentarium to detect disease using light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been considered a promising method for cancer detection for past thirty years because of its advantages over the conventional diagnostic methods of no tissue removal, minimal invasiveness, rapid diagnoses, less time consumption and reproducibility since the first use in 1984. It offers a new armamentarium. Human tissue is mainly composed of extracellular matrix of collagen fiber, proteins, fat, water, and epithelial cells with key molecules in different structures. Tissues contain a number of key fingerprint native endogenous fluorophore molecules, such as tryptophan, collagen, elastin, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and porphyrins. It is well known that abnormalities in metabolic activity precede the onset of a lot of main diseases: carcinoma, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease, etc. Optical spectroscopy may help in detecting various disorders. Conceivably the biochemical or morphologic changes that cause the spectra variations would appear earlier than the histological aberration. Therefore, "optical biopsy" holds a great promise as clinical tool for diagnosing early stage of carcinomas and other deceases by combining with available photonic technology (e.g. optical fibers, photon detectors, spectrographs spectroscopic ratiometer, fiber-optic endomicroscope and nasopharyngoscope) for in vivo use. This paper focuses on various methods available to detect spectroscopic changes in tissues, for example to distinguish cancerous prostate tissues and/or cells from normal prostate tissues and/or cells. The methods to be described are fluorescence, stokes shift, scattering, Raman, and time-resolved spectroscopy will be reviewed. The underlying physical and biological basis for these optical approaches will be discussed with examples. The idea is to present some of the salient works to show the usefulness and methods of Optical Biopsy for cancer detection and

  13. Deracemization of Axially Chiral Nicotinamides by Dynamic Salt Formation with Enantiopure Dibenzoyltartaric Acid (DBTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitoshi Yagishita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic atroposelective resolution of chiral salts derived from oily racemic nicotinamides and enantiopure dibenzoyltartaric acid (DBTA was achieved by crystallization. The absolute structures of the axial chiral nicotinamides were determined by X-ray structural analysis. The chirality could be controlled by the selection of enantiopure DBTA as a chiral auxiliary. The axial chirality generated by dynamic salt formation was retained for a long period after dissolving the chiral salt in solution even after removal of the chiral acid. The rate of racemization of nicotinamides could be controlled based on the temperature and solvent properties, and that of the salts was prolonged compared to free nicotinamides, as the molecular structure of the pyridinium ion in the salts was different from that of acid-free nicotinamides.

  14. Nicotinamide induces differentiation of embryonic stem cells into insulin-secreting cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaca, Pilar; Berna, Genoveva; Araujo, Raquel; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Bedoya, Francisco J.; Soria, Bernat; Martin, Franz

    2008-01-01

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, nicotinamide, induces differentiation and maturation of fetal pancreatic cells. In addition, we have previously reported evidence that nicotinamide increases the insulin content of cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the possibility of nicotinamide acting as a differentiating agent on its own has never been completely explored. Islet cell differentiation was studied by: (i) X-gal staining after neomycin selection; (ii) BrdU studies; (iii) single and double immunohistochemistry for insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iv) insulin and C-peptide content and secretion assays; and (v) transplantation of differentiated cells, under the kidney capsule, into streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. Here we show that undifferentiated mouse ES cells treated with nicotinamide: (i) showed an 80% decrease in cell proliferation; (ii) co-expressed insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iii) had values of insulin and C-peptide corresponding to 10% of normal mouse islets; (iv) released insulin and C-peptide in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations; and (v) after transplantation into diabetic mice, normalized blood glucose levels over 7 weeks. Our data indicate that nicotinamide decreases ES cell proliferation and induces differentiation into insulin-secreting cells. Both aspects are very important when thinking about cell therapy for the treatment of diabetes based on ES cells

  15. Thioredoxin and Thioredoxin Target Proteins: From Molecular Mechanisms to Functional Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samuel; Kim, Soo Min

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The thioredoxin (Trx) system is one of the central antioxidant systems in mammalian cells, maintaining a reducing environment by catalyzing electron flux from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate through Trx reductase to Trx, which reduces its target proteins using highly conserved thiol groups. While the importance of protecting cells from the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species is clear, decades of research in this field revealed that there is a network of redox-sensitive proteins forming redox-dependent signaling pathways that are crucial for fundamental cellular processes, including metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Trx participates in signaling pathways interacting with different proteins to control their dynamic regulation of structure and function. In this review, we focus on Trx target proteins that are involved in redox-dependent signaling pathways. Specifically, Trx-dependent reductive enzymes that participate in classical redox reactions and redox-sensitive signaling molecules are discussed in greater detail. The latter are extensively discussed, as ongoing research unveils more and more details about the complex signaling networks of Trx-sensitive signaling molecules such as apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, Trx interacting protein, and phosphatase and tensin homolog, thus highlighting the potential direct and indirect impact of their redox-dependent interaction with Trx. Overall, the findings that are described here illustrate the importance and complexity of Trx-dependent, redox-sensitive signaling in the cell. Our increasing understanding of the components and mechanisms of these signaling pathways could lead to the identification of new potential targets for the treatment of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1165–1207. PMID:22607099

  16. Characterization of Two Mitochondrial Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide-Dependent Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases in Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škodová, Ingrid; Verner, Zdeněk; Bringaud, F.; Fabian, P.; Lukeš, Julius; Horváth, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 12 (2013), s. 1664-1673 ISSN 1535-9778 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2179; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk LH12104 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : alternative NADH dehydrogenase * inducible expression system * blood-stream forms * complex-I * procyclic trypanosomes * sleeping sickness * oxidase * localization * metabolism * cycle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2013

  17. Mature Microsatellites: Mechanisms Underlying Dinucleotide Microsatellite Mutational Biases in Human Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Baptiste, Beverly A.; Ananda, Guruprasad; Strubczewski, Noelle; Lutzkanin, Andrew; Khoo, Su Jen; Srikanth, Abhinaya; Kim, Nari; Makova, Kateryna D.; Krasilnikova, Maria M.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    Dinucleotide microsatellites are dynamic DNA sequences that affect genome stability. Here, we focused on mature microsatellites, defined as pure repeats of lengths above the threshold and unlikely to mutate below it in a single mutational event. We investigated the prevalence and mutational behavior of these sequences by using human genome sequence data, human cells in culture, and purified DNA polymerases. Mature dinucleotides (?10 units) are present within exonic sequences of >350 genes, re...

  18. Degradation of adenine in aqueous solution containing 3HHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Fuji, Izumi

    1986-01-01

    Aqueous adenine solutions of 5 x 10 -4 M (containing 14 C-adenine and buffered pH 7.0) were irradiated with 60 Co gamma-rays and 3 H beta-rays from tritiated water in the presence of N 2 , O 2 , N 2 O or t-BuOH-N 2 . Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was carried out bidimensionally for separation of the radiolytically produced products and autoradiography was performed. Considerable differences were observed in the dose-yield curves for the decomposition of adenine and for the product formation between gamma- and beta-radiolyses. As for the degradation yield, oxygen enhancement ratios, 3.19 in gamma-irradiation and 1.08 in beta-irradiation, were obtained at a dose of 3.0 x 10 3 Gy. Similar products were produced both under N 2 and O 2 , but there were found a specific reaction of t-butanol radical with adenine, the high yield of hypoxanthine under N 2 O, and the higher degradation of the TLC origin-fixed products in beta-irradiation. The present results on adenine suggest, as reported previously for thymine, that a specific oxidative species is produced from water in beta-radiolysis but not in gamma-radiolysis. (author)

  19. Synthesis of adenine-modified reduced graphene oxide nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huaqiang; Wu, Xiaoming; Yin, Gui; Warner, Jamie H

    2012-03-05

    We report here a facile strategy to synthesize the nanocomposite of adenine-modified reduced graphene oxide (AMG) via reaction between adenine and GOCl which is generated from SOCl(2) reacted with graphite oxide (GO). The as-synthesized AMG was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic discharge analysis. The AMG owns about one adenine group per 53 carbon atoms on a graphene sheet, which improves electronic conductivity compared with reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The AMG displays enhanced supercapacitor performance compared with RGO accompanying good stability and good cycling behavior in the supercapacitor.

  20. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy with or without carbogen and nicotinamide in inoperable biopsy-proven glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Jean-Marc; Noeel, Georges; Chiras, Jacques; Khe, H.-X.; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Baillet, Francois; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nicotinamide and carbogen have been shown to enhance the radiation effect in tumour models. Purpose: Prospective evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of carbogen and nicotinamide with external beam radiotherapy in the management of inoperable glioblastoma. Patients and methods: From April 1995 to December 1997, 33 patients with inoperable biopsy-proven glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) were enrolled in a phase II trial, to undergo radiotherapy (59.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fraction), intra-arterial cerebral chemotherapy (ACNU 100 mg/m 2 , three cycles), carbogen breathing (15 l/min), and nicotinamide (85 mg/kg). This experimental group was compared to a control group of 38 patients with inoperable GBM treated with radiotherapy and three cycles of nitrosourea-based chemotherapy from January 1990 to March 1995, in our institution. Results: In the experimental group, carbogen breathing was well tolerated, but only 51.5% of patients completed daily nicotinamide over the 6.5-week treatment period. Nausea and vomiting were the most frequent side effects of nicotinamide. No significant difference in overall survival was observed among the two treatment groups: median survival times were 36.7 and 35.3 weeks for patients treated with carbogen and nicotinamide, and for those treated in the control group, respectively. Conclusion: The association of carbogen and nicotinamide with radiotherapy is feasible, but tolerable only in 51.5% of patients with GBM. Carbogen and nicotinamide did not appear to modify the evolution of glioblastoma

  1. Catalytic Mechanism and Three-Dimensional Structure of Adenine Deaminase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamat, S.S.; Swaminathan, S.; Bagaria, A.; Kumaran, D.; Holmes-Hampton, G. P.; Fan, H.; Sali, A.; Sauder, J. M.; Burley, S. K.; Lindahl, P. A.; Raushel, F. M.

    2011-03-22

    Adenine deaminase (ADE) catalyzes the conversion of adenine to hypoxanthine and ammonia. The enzyme isolated from Escherichia coli using standard expression conditions was low for the deamination of adenine (k{sub cat} = 2.0 s{sup -1}; k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 2.5 x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). However, when iron was sequestered with a metal chelator and the growth medium was supplemented with Mn{sup 2+} prior to induction, the purified enzyme was substantially more active for the deamination of adenine with kcat and kcat/Km values of 200 s{sup -1} and 5 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The apoenzyme was prepared and reconstituted with Fe{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, or Mn{sup 2+}. In each case, two enzyme equivalents of metal were necessary for reconstitution of the deaminase activity. This work provides the first example of any member of the deaminase subfamily of the amidohydrolase superfamily to utilize a binuclear metal center for the catalysis of a deamination reaction. [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE was oxidized to [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with ferricyanide with inactivation of the deaminase activity. Reducing [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with dithionite restored the deaminase activity, and thus, the diferrous form of the enzyme is essential for catalytic activity. No evidence of spin coupling between metal ions was evident by electron paramagnetic resonance or Moessbauer spectroscopy. The three-dimensional structure of adenine deaminase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu4426) was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, and adenine was modeled into the active site on the basis of homology to other members of the amidohydrolase superfamily. On the basis of the model of the adenine-ADE complex and subsequent mutagenesis experiments, the roles for each of the highly conserved residues were proposed. Solvent isotope effects, pH-rate profiles, and solvent viscosity were utilized to propose a chemical reaction mechanism and the

  2. Studies on mixed ligand complexes of adenine and xanthine with some rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, P.R.; Singh, Mamta; Nayan, Ram

    1993-01-01

    Interactions of 6-aminopurine (adenine, HA) and 2,6-dihydroxypurine (xanthine, HB) with trivalent rare earth ions Y, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm, have been studied by pH-titration methods in aqueous solution at 20 o (μ = 0.1 M KNO 3 ). The ligands in their mixtures with tripositive rare earth ions (M 3+ ) form a number of mixed ligand complexes, M 3+ -adenine-xanthine, M 3+ -(adenine) 2 -xanthine, M 3+ -adenine-(xanthine) 2 in addition to the binary complexes, M 3+ -(adenine), M 3+ -(adenine) 2 , M 3+ -(adenine) 3 , M 3+ -(xanthine), M 3+ -(xanthine) 2 and M 3+ -(xanthine) 3 . The stability constants of these complexes have been evaluated and the results discussed. (author). 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Adenine and 2-aminopurine: paradigms of modern theoretical photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Andrés, Luis; Merchán, Manuela; Borin, Antonio C

    2006-06-06

    Distinct photophysical behavior of nucleobase adenine and its constitutional isomer, 2-aminopurine, has been studied by using quantum chemical methods, in particular an accurate ab initio multiconfigurational second-order perturbation theory. After light irradiation, the efficient, ultrafast energy dissipation observed for nonfluorescent 9H-adenine is explained here by the nonradiative internal conversion process taking place along a barrierless reaction path from the initially populated 1(pipi* La) excited state toward a low-lying conical intersection (CI) connected with the ground state. In contrast, the strong fluorescence recorded for 2-aminopurine at 4.0 eV with large decay lifetime is interpreted by the presence of a minimum in the 1(pipi* La) hypersurface lying below the lowest CI and the subsequent potential energy barrier required to reach the funnel to the ground state. Secondary deactivation channels were found in the two systems related to additional CIs involving the 1(pipi* Lb) and 1(npi*) states. Although in 9H-adenine a population switch between both states is proposed, in 7H-adenine this may be perturbed by a relatively larger barrier to access the 1(npi*) state, and, therefore, the 1(pipi* Lb) state becomes responsible for the weak fluorescence measured in aqueous adenine at approximately 4.5 eV. In contrast to previous models that explained fluorescence quenching in adenine, unlike in 2-aminopurine, on the basis of the vibronic coupling of the nearby 1(pipi*) and 1(npi*) states, the present results indicate that the 1(npi*) state does not contribute to the leading photophysical event and establish the prevalence of a model based on the CI concept in modern photochemistry.

  4. Hepatic NAD+ deficiency as a therapeutic target for non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease in ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Can‐Can; Yang, Xi; Hua, Xia; Liu, Jian; Fan, Mao‐Bing; Li, Guo‐Qiang; Song, Jie; Xu, Tian‐Ying; Li, Zhi‐Yong; Guan, Yun‐Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Ageing is an important risk factor of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we investigated whether the deficiency of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a ubiquitous coenzyme, links ageing with NAFLD. Experimental Approach Hepatic concentrations of NAD+, protein levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and several other critical enzymes regulating NAD+ biosynthesis, were compared in middle‐aged and aged mice or patients. The influences of NAD+ decline on the steatosis and steatohepatitis were evaluated in wild‐type and H247A dominant‐negative, enzymically‐inactive NAMPT transgenic mice (DN‐NAMPT) given normal or high‐fat diet (HFD). Key Results Hepatic NAD+ level decreased in aged mice and humans. NAMPT‐controlled NAD+ salvage, but not de novo biosynthesis pathway, was compromised in liver of elderly mice and humans. Given normal chow, middle‐age DN‐NAMPT mice displayed systemic NAD+ reduction and had moderate NAFLD phenotypes, including lipid accumulation, enhanced oxidative stress, triggered inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity in liver. All these NAFLD phenotypes, especially release of pro‐inflammatory factors, Kupffer cell accumulation, monocytes infiltration, NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and hepatic fibrosis (Masson's staining and α‐SMA staining), deteriorated further under HFD challenge. Oral administration of nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD+ precursor, completely corrected these NAFLD phenotypes induced by NAD+ deficiency alone or HFD, whereas adenovirus‐mediated SIRT1 overexpression only partially rescued these phenotypes. Conclusions and Implications These results provide the first evidence that ageing‐associated NAD+ deficiency is a critical risk factor for NAFLD, and suggest that supplementation with NAD+ substrates may be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat NAFLD. PMID:27174364

  5. Crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction studies of the flavoenzyme NAD(P)H:(acceptor) oxidoreductase (FerB) from the soil bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpler, Tomáš; Sedláček, Vojtěch; Marek, Jaromír; Wimmerová, Michaela; Kučera, Igor

    2010-01-01

    The flavin-dependent enzyme FerB from P. denitrificans has been purified and both native and SeMet-substituted FerB have been crystallized. The two variants crystallized in two different crystallographic forms belonging to the monoclinic space group P2 1 and the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2, respectively. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.75 Å resolution for both forms. The flavin-dependent enzyme FerB from Paracoccus denitrificans reduces a broad range of compounds, including ferric complexes, chromate and most notably quinones, at the expense of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactors NADH or NADPH. Recombinant unmodified and SeMet-substituted FerB were crystallized under similar conditions by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with microseeding using PEG 4000 as the precipitant. FerB crystallized in several different crystal forms, some of which diffracted to approximately 1.8 Å resolution. The crystals of native FerB belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 110.1, c = 65.2 Å, β = 118.2° and four protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, whilst the SeMet-substituted form crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 89.2, c = 71.5 Å and two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. Structure determination by the three-wavelength MAD/MRSAD method is now in progress

  6. Anaerobic Aryl Reductive Dehalogenation of Halobenzoates by Cell Extracts of “Desulfomonile tiedjei”

    OpenAIRE

    DeWeerd, Kim A.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the transformation of halogenated benzoates by cell extracts of a dehalogenating anaerobe, “Desulfomonile tiedjei.” We found that cell extracts possessed aryl reductive dehalogenation activity. The activity was heat labile and dependent on the addition of reduced methyl viologen, but not on that of reduced NAD, NADP, flavin mononucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide, desulfoviridin, cytochrome c3, or benzyl viologen. Dehalogenation activity in extracts was stimulated by formate, C...

  7. The catalase activity of diiron adenine deaminase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamat S. S.; Swaminathan S.; Holmes-Hampton, G. P.; Bagaria, A.; Kumaran, D.; Tichy, S. E.; Gheyi, T.; Zheng, X.; Bain, K.; Groshong, C.; Emtage, S.; Sauder, J. M.; Burley, S. K.; Lindahl, P. A.; Raushel, F. M.

    2011-12-01

    Adenine deaminase (ADE) from the amidohydrolase superfamily (AHS) of enzymes catalyzes the conversion of adenine to hypoxanthine and ammonia. Enzyme isolated from Escherichia coli was largely inactive toward the deamination of adenine. Molecular weight determinations by mass spectrometry provided evidence that multiple histidine and methionine residues were oxygenated. When iron was sequestered with a metal chelator and the growth medium supplemented with Mn{sup 2+} before induction, the post-translational modifications disappeared. Enzyme expressed and purified under these conditions was substantially more active for adenine deamination. Apo-enzyme was prepared and reconstituted with two equivalents of FeSO{sub 4}. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy demonstrated that this protein contained two high-spin ferrous ions per monomer of ADE. In addition to the adenine deaminase activity, [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE catalyzed the conversion of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The values of k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for the catalase activity are 200 s{sup -1} and 2.4 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE underwent more than 100 turnovers with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} before the enzyme was inactivated due to oxygenation of histidine residues critical for metal binding. The iron in the inactive enzyme was high-spin ferric with g{sub ave} = 4.3 EPR signal and no evidence of anti-ferromagnetic spin-coupling. A model is proposed for the disproportionation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE that involves the cycling of the binuclear metal center between the di-ferric and di-ferrous oxidation states. Oxygenation of active site residues occurs via release of hydroxyl radicals. These findings represent the first report of redox reaction catalysis by any member of the AHS.

  8. Nicotinamide induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis through oxidative stress in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Wang, Yonghua; Jiang, Chengrui; Fang, Zishui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lin, Xiaoying; Sun, Liwei; Jiang, Weiying

    2017-07-15

    Nicotinamide participates in energy metabolism and influences cellular redox status and modulates multiple pathways related with both cellular survival and death. Recent studies have shown that it induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in many cancer cells. However, little is known about the effects of nicotinamide on human cervical cancer cells. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the indicated concentrations nicotinamide on cell proliferation, apoptosis and redox-related parameters in HeLa cells and investigated the apoptotic mechanism. After the treatment of the indicated concentrations nicotinamide, HeLa cell proliferation was evaluated by the CCK-8 assay and the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) was measured using 2',7'-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate. The apoptotic effect was confirmed by observing the cellular and nuclear morphologies with fluorescence microscope and apoptotic rate of HeLa cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V method. Moreover, we examined the mitochondrial membrane potential by JC-1 method and measured the expression of apoptosis related genes using qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Nicotinamide restrained the HeLa cell proliferation and significantly increased the accumulation of ROS and depletion of GSH at relatively high concentrations. Furthermore, nicotinamide promoted HeLa cell apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Our study revealed that nicotinamide induced the apoptosis through oxidative stress and intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in HeLa cell. The results emerge that nicotinamide may be an inexpensive, safe and promising therapeutic agent or a neoadjuvant chemotherapy for cervical cancer patients, as well useful to find new drugs for cervical cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spinal SIRT1 activation attenuates neuropathic pain in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Shao

    Full Text Available Abnormal histone acetylation occurs during neuropathic pain through an epigenetic mechanism. Silent information regulator 1 (sir2 or SIRT1, a NAD-dependent deacetylase, plays complex systemic roles in a variety of processes through deacetylating acetylated histone and other specific substrates. But the role of SIRT1 in neuropathic pain is not well established yet. The present study was intended to detect SIRT1 content and activity, nicotinamide (NAM and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD in the spinal cord using immunoblotting or mass spectroscopy over time in mice following chronic constriction injury (CCI or sham surgery. In addition, the effect of intrathecal injection of NAD or resveratrol on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia was evaluated in CCI mice. Finally, we investigated whether SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 could reverse the anti-nociceptive effect of NAD or resveratrol. It was found that spinal SIRT1 expression, deacetylase activity and NAD/NAM decreased significantly 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after CCI surgery as compared with sham group. In addition, daily intrathecal injection of 5 µl 800 mM NAD 1 h before and 1 day after CCI surgery or single intrathecal injection of 5 µl 90 mM resveratrol 1 h before CCI surgery produced a transient inhibitory effect on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in CCI mice. Finally, an intrathecal injection of 5 µl 1.2 mM EX-527 1 h before NAD or resveratrol administration reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of NAD or resveratrol. These data indicate that the reduction in SIRT1 deacetylase activity may be a factor contributing to the development of neuropathic pain in CCI mice. Our findings suggest that the enhancement of spinal NAD/NAM and/or SIRT1 activity may be a potentially promising strategy for the prevention or treatment of neuropathic pain.

  10. Catalytic Mechanism and Three-Dimensional Structure of Adenine Deaminase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Kamat; A Bagaria; D Kumaran; G Holmes-Hampton; H Fan; A Sali; J Sauder; S Burley; P Lindahl; et. al.

    2011-12-31

    Adenine deaminase (ADE) catalyzes the conversion of adenine to hypoxanthine and ammonia. The enzyme isolated from Escherichia coli using standard expression conditions was low for the deamination of adenine (k{sub cat} = 2.0 s{sup -1}; k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 2.5 x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). However, when iron was sequestered with a metal chelator and the growth medium was supplemented with Mn{sup 2+} prior to induction, the purified enzyme was substantially more active for the deamination of adenine with k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} values of 200 s{sup -1} and 5 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The apoenzyme was prepared and reconstituted with Fe{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, or Mn{sup 2+}. In each case, two enzyme equivalents of metal were necessary for reconstitution of the deaminase activity. This work provides the first example of any member of the deaminase subfamily of the amidohydrolase superfamily to utilize a binuclear metal center for the catalysis of a deamination reaction. [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE was oxidized to [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with ferricyanide with inactivation of the deaminase activity. Reducing [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with dithionite restored the deaminase activity, and thus, the diferrous form of the enzyme is essential for catalytic activity. No evidence of spin coupling between metal ions was evident by electron paramagnetic resonance or Moessbauer spectroscopy. The three-dimensional structure of adenine deaminase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu4426) was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, and adenine was modeled into the active site on the basis of homology to other members of the amidohydrolase superfamily. On the basis of the model of the adenine-ADE complex and subsequent mutagenesis experiments, the roles for each of the highly conserved residues were proposed. Solvent isotope effects, pH-rate profiles, and solvent viscosity were utilized to propose a chemical reaction

  11. Concentrations of Nicotinamide in Plasma by RP-HPLC With Fluorescence Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a new method for detecting nicotinamide concentration in plasma. In the experiment, the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used, with a fluorescence detector. The nicotinamide in the plasma was first converted to N1- methylnicotinamide, then reacted with acetophenone under certain conditions to produce fluorescent derivatives for testing. The method is a kind of highly sensitive detection, of which the lower limit is 10 ng/mL, the recovery rate is between 92.75% and 105.13%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD is between 3.76% and 4.43%. The results showed that this measurement method is accurate, sensitive and rapid. It meets the requirements of the experiment, and applies to the detection of nicotinamide concentration in plasma.

  12. Levels of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) and of inorganic phosphate in needles of Picea abies, representing different stages of development and of pollution dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, T; Hampp, R; Horsch, F; Filby, G; Fund, N; Gross, S; Hanisch, B; Kilz, E; Seidel, A [comps.

    1986-04-01

    Levels of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) and of inorganic phosphate in needles of Picea abies, representing different stages of development and of pollution dependence. Lyophilized needles of Picea abies (Kaelbelescheuer, southern Black Forest) were analyzed for their content of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP: AdN) and of inorganic phosphate (Psub(i)). The metabolite levels were related to needle age, vegetation period and degree of damage (chlorophyll content). The results were as follows: 1) With increasing needle age there is a general decrease in the total AdN-pool. This decrease is most pronounced in very young needles and occurs in both healthy and damaged tissue. 2) The ATP/ADP-ratio of damaged needle is significantly higher than that of healthy ones. 3) Both phosphorylation potential (ATP.(ADP.Psub(i))/sup -1/) and adenylate energy charge ((ATP + 0.5.ADP).(AdN)/sup -1/) are significantly reduced in damaged needles. This is due to relatively higher levels of Psub(i) and of AMP. The results, although incomplete and preliminary, indicate metabolic alterations which have been described for other tissues in response to pollution by photooxidants.

  13. Age related changes in NAD+ metabolism oxidative stress and Sirt1 activity in wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nady Braidy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ has emerged as a key regulator of metabolism, stress resistance and longevity. Apart from its role as an important redox carrier, NAD+ also serves as the sole substrate for NAD-dependent enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, an important DNA nick sensor, and NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, Sirtuins which play an important role in a wide variety of processes, including senescence, apoptosis, differentiation, and aging. We examined the effect of aging on intracellular NAD+ metabolism in the whole heart, lung, liver and kidney of female wistar rats. Our results are the first to show a significant decline in intracellular NAD+ levels and NAD:NADH ratio in all organs by middle age (i.e.12 months compared to young (i.e. 3 month old rats. These changes in [NAD(H] occurred in parallel with an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls (o- and m- tyrosine formation and decline in total antioxidant capacity in these organs. An age dependent increase in DNA damage (phosphorylated H2AX was also observed in these same organs. Decreased Sirt1 activity and increased acetylated p53 were observed in organ tissues in parallel with the drop in NAD+ and moderate over-expression of Sirt1 protein. Reduced mitochondrial activity of complex I-IV was also observed in aging animals, impacting both redox status and ATP production. The strong positive correlation observed between DNA damage associated NAD+ depletion and Sirt1 activity suggests that adequate NAD+ concentrations may be an important longevity assurance factor.

  14. Cocrystal of Ibuprofen–Nicotinamide: Solid-State Characterization and In Vivo Analgesic Activity Evaluation

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    Yori Yuliandra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen is classified as a BCS class II drug which has low solubility and high permeability. We conducted the formation of the cocrystalline phase of ibuprofen with coformer nicotinamide to increase its solubility. The purpose of this study was to characterize the solid state of cocrystalline phase of ibuprofen-nicotinamide, determine the solubility, and evaluate its in vivo analgesic activity. The cocrystal of ibuprofen-nicotinamide was prepared by a slow evaporation method. The solid-state characterization was conducted by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. To investigate the in vivo analgesic activity, 28 male Swiss-Webster mice were injected with acetic acid 0.5% following oral administration of intact ibuprofen, physical mixture, and its cocrystalline phase with nicotinamide (equivalent to 26 mg/kg ibuprofen. The number of writhes was counted, and pain inhibition was calculated. All data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (95% confidence interval. The results revealed that a new cocrystalline phase was successfully formed. The solubility testing showed that the cocrystal formation enhanced the solubility significantly as compared with the physical mixture and intact ibuprofen. A significant increase in the analgesic activity of cocrystal ibuprofen-nicotinamide was also confirmed.

  15. Quantification of DNA in Neonatal Dried Blood Spots by Adenine Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durie, Danielle; Yeh, Ed; McIntosh, Nathan; Fisher, Lawrence; Bulman, Dennis E; Birnboim, H Chaim; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y

    2018-01-02

    Newborn screening programs have expanded to include molecular-based assays as first-tier tests and the success of these assays depends on the quality and yield of DNA extracted from neonatal dried blood spots (DBS). To meet high throughput and rapid turnaround time requirements, newborn screening laboratories adopted rapid DNA extraction methods that produce crude extracts. Quantification of DNA in neonatal DBS is not routinely performed due to technical challenges; however, this may enhance the performance of assays that are sensitive to amounts of input DNA. In this study, we developed a novel high throughput method to quantify total DNA in DBS. It is based on specific acid-catalyzed depurination of DNA followed by mass spectrometric quantification of adenine. The amount of adenine was used to calculate DNA quantity per 3.2 mm DBS. Reference intervals were established using archived, neonatal DBS (n = 501) and a median of 130.6 ng of DNA per DBS was obtained, which is in agreement with literature values. The intra- and interday variations were quantification were 12.5 and 37.8 nmol/L adenine, respectively. We demonstrated that DNA from neonatal DBS can be successfully quantified in high throughput settings using instruments currently deployed in NBS laboratories.

  16. One-electron transfer reactions of the couple NAD./NADH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodkowski, J.; Neta, P.; Carlson, B.W.; Miller, L.

    1983-01-01

    One-electron transfer reactions involving nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide in its oxidized and reducd forms (NAD./NADH) were studied by pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions. One-electron oxidation of NADH by various phenoxyl radicals and phenothiazine cation radicals was found to take place with rate constants in the range of 10 5 to 10 8 M -1 s -1 , depending on the redox potential of the oxidizing species. In all cases, NAD. is formed quantitatively with no indication for the existence of the protonated form (NADH + .). The spectrum of NAD., as well as the rates of oxidation of NADH by phenoxyl and by (chlorpromazine) + . were independent of pH between pH 4.5 and 13.5. Reaction of deuterated NADH indicated only a small kinetic isotope effect. All these findings point to an electron transfer mechanism. On the other hand, attempts to observe the reverse electron transfer, i.e., one-electron reduction of NAD. to NADH by radicals such as semiquinones, showed that k was less than 10 4 to 10 5 M -1 s -1 , so that it was unobservable. Consequently, it was not possible to achieve equilibrium conditions which would have permitted the direct measurement of the redox potential for NAD./NADH. One-electron reduction of NAD. appears to be an unlikely process. 1 table

  17. Respiration control of multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis by a complex of the cytochrome chain with a membrane-embedded histidine kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodkin-Gal, I; Elsholz, AKW; Muth, C; Girguis, PR; Kolter, R; Losick, R

    2013-04-29

    Bacillus subtilis forms organized multicellular communities known as biofilms wherein the individual cells are held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The environmental signals that promote matrix synthesis remain largely unknown. We discovered that one such signal is impaired respiration. Specifically, high oxygen levels suppressed synthesis of the extracellular matrix. In contrast, low oxygen levels, in the absence of an alternative electron acceptor, led to increased matrix production. The response to impaired respiration was blocked in a mutant lacking cytochromes caa(3) and bc and markedly reduced in a mutant lacking kinase KinB. Mass spectrometry of proteins associated with KinB showed that the kinase was in a complex with multiple components of the aerobic respiratory chain. We propose that KinB is activated via a redox switch involving interaction of its second transmembrane segment with one or more cytochromes under conditions of reduced electron transport. In addition, a second kinase (KinA) contributes to the response to impaired respiration. Evidence suggests that KinA is activated by a decrease in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))/NADH ratio via binding of NAD(+) to the kinase in a PAS domain A-dependent manner. Thus, B. subtilis switches from a unicellular to a multicellular state by two pathways that independently respond to conditions of impaired respiration.

  18. Arsenic trioxide (AT) is a novel human neutrophil pro-apoptotic agent: effects of catalase on AT-induced apoptosis, degradation of cytoskeletal proteins and de novo protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, François; Cavalli, Hélène; Moisan, Eliane; Girard, Denis

    2006-02-01

    The anti-cancer drug arsenic trioxide (AT) induces apoptosis in a variety of transformed or proliferating cells. However, little is known regarding its ability to induce apoptosis in terminally differentiated cells, such as neutrophils. Because neutropenia has been reported in some cancer patients after AT treatment, we hypothesised that AT could induce neutrophil apoptosis, an issue that has never been investigated. Herein, we found that AT-induced neutrophil apoptosis and gelsolin degradation via caspases. AT did not increase neutrophil superoxide production and did not induce mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species. AT-induced apoptosis in PLB-985 and X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cells (PLB-985 cells deficient in gp91(phox) mimicking CGD) at the same potency. Addition of catalase, an inhibitor of H2O2, reversed AT-induced apoptosis and degradation of the cytoskeletal proteins gelsolin, alpha-tubulin and lamin B1. Unexpectedly, AT-induced de novo protein synthesis, which was reversed by catalase. Cycloheximide partially reversed AT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that AT induces neutrophil apoptosis by a caspase-dependent mechanism and via de novo protein synthesis. H2O2 is of major importance in AT-induced neutrophil apoptosis but its production does not originate from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase activation and mitochondria. Cytoskeletal structures other than microtubules can now be considered as novel targets of AT.

  19. Respiration control of multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis by a complex of the cytochrome chain with a membrane-embedded histidine kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Elsholz, Alexander K.W.; Muth, Christine; Girguis, Peter R.; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis forms organized multicellular communities known as biofilms wherein the individual cells are held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The environmental signals that promote matrix synthesis remain largely unknown. We discovered that one such signal is impaired respiration. Specifically, high oxygen levels suppressed synthesis of the extracellular matrix. In contrast, low oxygen levels, in the absence of an alternative electron acceptor, led to increased matrix production. The response to impaired respiration was blocked in a mutant lacking cytochromes caa3 and bc and markedly reduced in a mutant lacking kinase KinB. Mass spectrometry of proteins associated with KinB showed that the kinase was in a complex with multiple components of the aerobic respiratory chain. We propose that KinB is activated via a redox switch involving interaction of its second transmembrane segment with one or more cytochromes under conditions of reduced electron transport. In addition, a second kinase (KinA) contributes to the response to impaired respiration. Evidence suggests that KinA is activated by a decrease in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)/NADH ratio via binding of NAD+ to the kinase in a PAS domain A-dependent manner. Thus, B. subtilis switches from a unicellular to a multicellular state by two pathways that independently respond to conditions of impaired respiration. PMID:23599347

  20. Role of Sirt1 during the ageing process: relevance to protection of synapses in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Juan A; Zolezzi, Juan M; Braidy, Nady; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-12-01

    Ageing is a stochastic process associated with a progressive decline in physiological functions which predispose to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. The intrinsic complexity of ageing remains a significant challenge to understand the cause of this natural phenomenon. At the molecular level, ageing is thought to be characterized by the accumulation of chronic oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids caused by free radicals. Increased oxidative stress and misfolded protein formations, combined with impaired compensatory mechanisms, may promote neurodegenerative disorders with age. Nutritional modulation through calorie restriction has been shown to be effective as an anti-ageing factor, promoting longevity and protecting against neurodegenerative pathology in yeast, nematodes and murine models. Calorie restriction increases the intracellular levels of the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), a co-substrate for the sirtuin 1 (Sirt1, silent mating-type information regulator 2 homolog 1) activity and a cofactor for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis. Promotion of intracellular NAD(+) anabolism is speculated to induce neuroprotective effects against amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) toxicity in some models for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, Sirt1, has been implicated in the ageing process. Sirt1 serves as a deacetylase for numerous proteins involved in several cellular pathways, including stress response and apoptosis, and plays a protective role in neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.

  1. Proposed physiologic functions of boron in plants pertinent to animal and human metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, D G; Lukaszewski, K M

    1994-01-01

    Boron has been recognized since 1923 as an essential micronutrient element for higher plants. Over the years, many roles for boron in plants have been proposed, including functions in sugar transport, cell wall synthesis and lignification, cell wall structure, carbohydrate metabolism, RNA metabolism, respiration, indole acetic acid metabolism, phenol metabolism and membrane transport. However, the mechanism of boron involvement in each case remains unclear. Recent work has focused on two major plant-cell components: cell walls and membranes. In both, boron could play a structural role by bridging hydroxyl groups. In membranes, it could also be involved in ion transport and redox reactions by stimulating enzymes like nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and reduced (NADH) oxidase. There is a very narrow window between the levels of boron required by and toxic to plants. The mechanisms of boron toxicity are also unknown. In nitrogen-fixing leguminous plants, foliarly applied boron causes up to a 1000% increase in the concentration of allantoic acid in leaves. In vitro studies show that boron inhibits the manganese-dependent allantoate amidohydrolase, and foliar application of manganese prior to application of boron eliminates allantoic acid accumulation in leaves. Interaction between borate and divalent cations like manganese may alter metabolic pathways, which could explain why higher concentrations of boron can be toxic to plants. PMID:7889877

  2. Method for the enzymatic production of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J.; Mattingly, S.M.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention is an enzymatic method for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (a) forming a reaction mixture within a reaction vessel comprising a substrate capable of undergoing oxidation within a catabolic reaction, such as glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, cellulose, xylan and starch; the reaction mixture also comprising an amount of glucose dehydrogenase in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate, an amount of hydrogenase sufficient to catalyze an electron-requiring reaction wherein a stoichiometric yield of hydrogen is produced, an amount of pH buffer in an amount sufficient to provide an environment that allows the hydrogenase and the glucose dehydrogenase to retain sufficient activity for the production of hydrogen to occur and also comprising an amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sufficient to transfer electrons from the catabolic reaction to the electron-requiring reaction; (b) heating the reaction mixture at a temperature sufficient for glucose dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase to retain sufficient activity and sufficient for the production of hydrogen to occur, and heating for a period of time that continues until the hydrogen is no longer produced by the reaction mixture, wherein the catabolic reaction and the electron-requiring reactions have rates of reaction dependent upon the temperature; and (c) detecting the hydrogen produced from the reaction mixture. 8 figs.

  3. Partially dissecting the steady-state electron fluxes in Photosystem I in wild-type and pgr5 and ndh mutants of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancun eKou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic electron flux (CEF around Photosystem I (PS I is difficult to quantify. We obtained the linear electron flux (LEFO2 through both photosystems and the total electron flux through PS I (ETR1 in Arabidopsis in CO2-enriched air. DeltaFlux = ETR1 – LEFO2 is an upper estimate of CEF, which consists of two components, an antimycin A-sensitive, PGR5 (proton gradient regulation 5 protein-dependent component and an insensitive component facilitated by a chloroplastic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH. Using wild type as well as pgr5 and ndh mutants, we observed that (1 40% of the absorbed light was partitioned to PS I; (2 at high irradiance a substantial antimycin A-sensitive CEF occurred in the wild type and the ndh mutant; (3 at low irradiance a sizable antimycin A-sensitive CEF occurred in the wild type but not in the ndh mutant, suggesting an enhancing effect of NDH in low light; and (4 in the pgr5 mutant, and the wild type and ndh mutant treated with antimycin A, a residual DeltaFlux existed at high irradiance, attributable to charge recombination and/or pseudo-cyclic electron flow. Therefore, in low-light-acclimated plants exposed to high light, DeltaFlux has contributions from various paths of electron flow through PS I.

  4. Spontaneous adsorption of 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid onto carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, Julieta I.; Strumia, Miriam C.; Passeggi, Mario C.G.; Ferron, Julio; Baruzzi, Ana M.; Brunetti, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic molecules contain multifunctional groups that can be used to efficiently control the properties of an electrode surface. We are developing strategies to generate a highly functionalized surface using multifunctional and rigid dendrons immobilized onto different substrates. In the present work, we explore the immobilization of a dendritic molecule: 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid (D-NO 2 ) onto carbon surfaces showing a simple and rapid way to produce conductive surfaces with electroactive chemical functions. The immobilized D-NO 2 layer has been characterized using atomic force microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. D-NO 2 adsorbs onto carbon surfaces spontaneously by dipping the electrode in dendron solutions. Reduction of this layer generates the hydroxylamine product. The resulting redox-active layer exhibits a well-behaved redox response for the adsorbed nitroso/hydroxylamine couple. The film permeability of the derivatized surface has been analyzed employing the electrochemical response of redox probes: Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ /Ru(NH 3 ) 6 2+ and Fe(CN) 6 3- /Fe(CN) 6 4- . Electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto a modified carbon surface was also observed.

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase protects Escherichia coli from tellurite-mediated oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Sandoval

    Full Text Available The tellurium oxyanion tellurite induces oxidative stress in most microorganisms. In Escherichia coli, tellurite exposure results in high levels of oxidized proteins and membrane lipid peroxides, inactivation of oxidation-sensitive enzymes and reduced glutathione content. In this work, we show that tellurite-exposed E. coli exhibits transcriptional activation of the zwf gene, encoding glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, which in turn results in augmented synthesis of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. Increased zwf transcription under tellurite stress results mainly from reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and not from a depletion of cellular glutathione. In addition, the observed increase of G6PDH activity was paralleled by accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P, suggesting a metabolic flux shift toward the pentose phosphate shunt. Upon zwf overexpression, bacterial cells also show increased levels of antioxidant molecules (NADPH, GSH, better-protected oxidation-sensitive enzymes and decreased amounts of oxidized proteins and membrane lipids. These results suggest that by increasing NADPH content, G6PDH plays an important role in E. coli survival under tellurite stress.

  6. Isolation of the Binding Protein of Periplocoside E from BBMVs in Midgut of the Oriental Amyworm Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae through Affinity Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Feng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Periplocosides, which are insecticidal compounds isolated from the root bark of Periploca sepium Bunge, can affect the digestive system of insects. However, the mechanism though which periplocosides induces a series of symptoms remains unknown. In this study, affinity chromatography was conducted by coupling periplocoside E-semi-succinic acid ester with epoxy amino hexyl (EAH sepharose 4B. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was performed to analyze the fraction eluted by periplocoside E. Eight binding proteins (luciferin 4-monooxygenase, aminopeptidase N, aminopeptidase N3, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide health (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 3-phosphatase myotubularin, actin, uncharacterized family 31 glucosidase KIAA1161, and 2OG-Fe(2 oxygenase superfamily protein were obtained and identified through liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS analysis of the midgut epithelium cells of Mythimna separata larvae. Aminopeptidase N and N3 are potential putative targets of periplocosides. This study establishes the foundation for further research on the mechanism of action and target localization of periplocosides in agricultural pests.

  7. Genetic Ablation of CD38 Protects against Western Diet-Induced Exercise Intolerance and Metabolic Inflexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Huey Chiang

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is a key cofactor required for essential metabolic oxidation-reduction reactions. It also regulates various cellular activities, including gene expression, signaling, DNA repair and calcium homeostasis. Intracellular NAD+ levels are tightly regulated and often respond rapidly to nutritional and environmental changes. Numerous studies indicate that elevating NAD+ may be therapeutically beneficial in the context of numerous diseases. However, the role of NAD+ on skeletal muscle exercise performance is poorly understood. CD38, a multi-functional membrane receptor and enzyme, consumes NAD+ to generate products such as cyclic-ADP-ribose. CD38 knockout mice show elevated tissue and blood NAD+ level. Chronic feeding of high-fat, high-sucrose diet to wild type mice leads to exercise intolerance and reduced metabolic flexibility. Loss of CD38 by genetic mutation protects mice from diet-induced metabolic deficit. These animal model results suggest that elevation of tissue NAD+ through genetic ablation of CD38 can profoundly alter energy homeostasis in animals that are maintained on a calorically-excessive Western diet.

  8. Combination Therapy with Losartan and Pioglitazone Additively Reduces Renal Oxidative and Nitrative Stress Induced by Chronic High Fat, Sucrose, and Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that combination therapy with losartan and pioglitazone provided synergistic effects compared with monotherapy in improving lesions of renal structure and function in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy. Losartan, pioglitazone, and their combination were orally administered for 8 weeks. The increased level of renal malondialdehyde and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox and nitrotyrosine as well as the decreased total superoxide dismutase activity and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase expression were tangible evidence for the presence of oxidative and nitrative stress in the kidney of model rats. Treatment with both drugs, individually and in combination, improved these abnormal changes. Combination therapy showed synergistic effects in reducing malondialdehyde level, p47phox, and nitrotyrosine expression to almost the normal level compared with monotherapy. All these results suggest that the additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy might be attributed to a further reduction of oxidative and nitrative stress.

  9. Mitochondrial mutations in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail K Mithani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. METHODOLOGY: The entire mitochondrial genome of 22 salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC of salivary glands and matched leukocyte DNA was sequenced to determine the frequency and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in ACC tumors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen of 22 ACCs (77% carried mitochondrial mutations, ranging in number from 1 to 37 mutations. A disproportionate number of mutations occurred in the D-loop. Twelve of 17 tumors (70.6% carried mutations resulting in amino acid changes of translated proteins. Nine of 17 tumors (52.9% with a mutation carried an amino acid changing mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH complex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondrial mutation is frequent in salivary ACCs. The high incidence of amino acid changing mutations implicates alterations in aerobic respiration in ACC carcinogenesis. D-loop mutations are of unclear significance, but may be associated with alterations in transcription or replication.

  10. Inhibiting the repair of DNA damage induced by gamma irradiation in rat thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, J.A.; Stark, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of 11 established and potential radiosensitizing agents to retard the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage with a view to enhancing the immunosuppressive effects of in vivo lymphoid irradiation. The capability of irradiated rat thymocytes to repair DNA damage was assessed by an adaptation of the fluorimetric unwinding method. Three compounds, 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), novobiocin and flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA), inhibited repair significantly. We also report the effect of low-dose irradiation combined with repair inhibitors on the relationship between DNA strand breaks, fragmentation, cell viability and use of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). DNA fragmentation was increased by 1 mM/l FAA, 1 mM/l novobiocin and 50 μM/l RS-61443 within 3 h of incubation. The latter two compounds also proved cytotoxic. All three drugs augmented the effect of ionizing radiation on the use of NAD. Of the agents investigated, FAA showed the most promise for augmenting the immunosuppressive action of irradiation at nontoxic, pharmacokinetically achievable concentrations. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Topographical distribution and morphology of NADPH-diaphorase-stained neurons in the human claustrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinova-Palova, Dimka V.; Edelstein, Lawrence; Landzhov, Boycho; Minkov, Minko; Malinova, Lina; Hristov, Stanislav; Denaro, Frank J.; Alexandrov, Alexandar; Kiriakova, Teodora; Brainova, Ilina; Paloff, Adrian; Ovtscharoff, Wladimir

    2014-01-01

    We studied the topographical distribution and morphological characteristics of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons and fibers in the human claustrum. These neurons were seen to be heterogeneously distributed throughout the claustrum. Taking into account the size and shape of stained perikarya as well as dendritic and axonal characteristics, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPHd)-positive neurons were categorized by diameter into three types: large, medium and small. Large neurons ranged from 25 to 35 μm in diameter and typically displayed elliptical or multipolar cell bodies. Medium neurons ranged from 20 to 25 μm in diameter and displayed multipolar, bipolar and irregular cell bodies. Small neurons ranged from 14 to 20 μm in diameter and most often displayed oval or elliptical cell bodies. Based on dendritic characteristics, these neurons were divided into spiny and aspiny subtypes. Our findings reveal two populations of NADPHd-positive neurons in the human claustrum—one comprised of large and medium cells consistent with a projection neuron phenotype, the other represented by small cells resembling the interneuron phenotype as defined by previous Golgi impregnation studies. PMID:24904317

  12. Carbon nanofiber vs. carbon microparticles as modifiers of glassy carbon and gold electrodes applied in electrochemical sensing of NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Briza; Del Valle, Manel; Alegret, Salvador; Merkoçi, Arben

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials (CMs), such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon microparticles (CMPs) are used as doping materials for electrochemical sensors. The efficiency of these materials (either before or after acidic treatments) while being used as electrocatalysts in electrochemical sensors is discussed for beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensitivity of the electrodes (glassy carbon (GC) and gold (Au)) modified with both treated and untreated materials have been deeply studied. The response efficiencies of the GC and Au electrodes modified with CNF and CMP, using dimethylformamide (DMF) as dispersing agent are significantly different due to the peculiar physical and chemical characteristics of each doping material. Several differences between the electrocatalytic activities of CMs modified electrodes upon NADH oxidation have been observed. The CNF film promotes better the electron transfer of NADH minimizing the oxidation potential at +0.352 V. Moreover higher currents for the NADH oxidation peak have been observed for these electrodes. The shown differences in the electrochemical reactivities of CNF and CMP modified electrodes should be with interest for future applications in biosensors.

  13. Delayed luminescence to monitor programmed cell death induced by berberine on thyroid cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordino, Agata; Campisi, Agata; Grasso, Rosaria; Bonfanti, Roberta; Gulino, Marisa; Iauk, Liliana; Parenti, Rosalba; Musumeci, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Correlation between apoptosis and UVA-induced ultraweak photon emission delayed luminescence (DL) from tumor thyroid cell lines was investigated. In particular, the effects of berberine, an alkaloid that has been reported to have anticancer activities, on two cancer cell lines were studied. The FTC-133 and 8305C cell lines, as representative of follicular and anaplastic thyroid human cancer, respectively, were chosen. The results show that berberine is able to arrest cell cycle and activate apoptotic pathway as shown in both cell lines by deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, caspase-3 cleavage, p53 and p27 protein overexpression. In parallel, changes in DL spectral components after berberine treatment support the hypothesis that DL from human cells originates mainly from mitochondria, since berberine acts especially at the mitochondrial level. The decrease of DL blue component for both cell lines could be related to the decrease of intra-mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and may be a hallmark of induced apoptosis. In contrast, the response in the red spectral range is different for the two cell lines and may be ascribed to a different iron homeostasis.

  14. Fungus-Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Yokoyama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due to the growing need to develop safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly technologies for nano-materials synthesis. In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized using a reduction of aqueous Ag+ ion with the culture supernatants of Aspergillus terreus. The reaction occurred at ambient temperature and in a few hours. The bioreduction of AgNPs was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and the AgNPs obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized AgNPs were polydispersed spherical particles ranging in size from 1 to 20 nm and stabilized in the solution. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH was found to be an important reducing agent for the biosynthesis, and the formation of AgNPs might be an enzyme-mediated extracellular reaction process. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs was systematically evaluated. The synthesized AgNPs could efficiently inhibit various pathogenic organisms, including bacteria and fungi. The current research opens a new avenue for the green synthesis of nano-materials.

  15. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to D-limonene-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jidong; Zhu, Yibo; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the mode of cell response induced by D-limonene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. D-limonene treatment was found to be accompanied by intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since ROS impair cell membranes, an engineered strain with enhanced membrane biosynthesis exhibited a higher tolerance to D-limonene. Subsequent addition of an ROS scavenger significantly reduced the ROS level and alleviated cell growth inhibition. Thus, D-limonene-induced ROS accumulation plays an important role in cell death in S. cerevisiae. In D-limonene-treated S. cerevisiae strains, higher levels of antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) were synthesized. Quantitative real-time PCR results also verified that D-limonene treatment triggered upregulation of genes involved in the antioxidant system and the regeneration of NADPH at the transcription level in S. cerevisiae. These data indicate that D-limonene treatment results in intracellular ROS accumulation, an important factor in cell death, and several antioxidant mechanisms in S. cerevisiae were enhanced in response to D-limonene treatment.

  16. Reduction of azo dyes by flavin reductase from Citrobacter freundii A1

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    Mohd Firdaus Abdul-Wahab

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrobacter freundii A1 isolated from a sewage treatment facility was demonstrated to be able to effectively decolorize azo dyes as pure and mixed culture. This study reports on the investigation on the enzymatic systems involved. An assay performed suggested the possible involvement of flavin reductase (Fre as an azo reductase. A heterologouslyexpressed recombinant Fre from C. freundii A1 was used to investigate its involvement in the azo reduction process. Three model dyes were used, namely Acid Red 27 (AR27, Direct Blue 15 (DB15 and Reactive Black 5 (RB5. AR27 was found to be reduced the fastest by Fre, followed by RB5, and lastly DB15. Redox mediators nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH and riboflavin enhance the reduction, suggesting the redox activity of the enzyme. The rate and extent of reduction of the model dyes correlate well with the reduction potentials (Ep. The data presented here strongly suggest that Fre is one of the enzymes responsible for azo reduction in C. freundii A1, acting via an oxidation-reduction reaction.

  17. A Disposable paper breathalyzer with an alcohol sensing organic electrochemical transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihar, Eloїse; Deng, Yingxin; Miyake, Takeo; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Malliaras, George G.; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Breathalyzers estimate Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) from the concentration of ethanol in the breath. Breathalyzers are easy to use but are limited either by their high price and by environmental concerns, or by a short lifetime and the need for continuous recalibration. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept disposable breathalyzer using an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) modified with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as the sensor. The OECT is made with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and is printed on paper. ADH and its cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are immobilized onto the OECT with an electrolyte gel. When the OECT-breathalyzer is exposed to ethanol vapor, the enzymatic reaction of ADH and ethanol transforms NAD+ into NADH, which causes a decrease in the OECT source drain current. In this fashion, the OECT-breathalyzer easily detects ethanol in the breath equivalent to BAC from 0.01% to 0.2%. The use of a printed OECT may contribute to the development of breathalyzers that are disposable, ecofriendly, and integrated with wearable devices for real-time BAC monitoring.

  18. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Organ-Protective Effects of Red Wine Extract, Resveratrol, in Oxidative Stress-Mediated Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a polyphenol extracted from red wine, possesses potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, including the reduction of free radicals and proinflammatory mediators overproduction, the alteration of the expression of adhesion molecules, and the inhibition of neutrophil function. A growing body of evidence indicates that resveratrol plays an important role in reducing organ damage following ischemia- and hemorrhage-induced reperfusion injury. Such protective phenomenon is reported to be implicated in decreasing the formation and reaction of reactive oxygen species and pro-nflammatory cytokines, as well as the mediation of a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including the nitric oxide synthase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, deacetylase sirtuin 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, hemeoxygenase-1, and estrogen receptor-related pathways. Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that involves multiple factors and pathways. The resveratrol is an effective reactive oxygen species scavenger that exhibits an antioxidative property. In this review, the organ-protective effects of resveratrol in oxidative stress-related reperfusion injury will be discussed.

  20. Hydrolytic cleavage of N-6-substituted adenine derivatives by eukaryotic adenine and adenosine deaminases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, H.; Šebela, M.; Novák, Ondřej; Frébort, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 6 (2008), s. 335-347 ISSN 0144-8463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/06/0022 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : adenine deaminase * adenosine deaminase (ADA) * aminohydrolase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.525, year: 2008

  1. Adenine and guanine nucleotide metabolism during platelet storage at 22 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenbrandt, C.M.; Murphy, S.

    1990-01-01

    Adenine and guanine nucleotide metabolism of platelet concentrates (PCs) was studied during storage for transfusion at 22 +/- 2 degrees C over a 7-day period using high-pressure liquid chromatography. There was a steady decrease in platelet adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which was balanced quantitatively by an increase in plasma hypoxanthine. As expected, ammonia accumulated along with hypoxanthine but at a far greater rate. A fall in platelet guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and guanosine diphosphate (GDP) paralleled the fall in ATP + ADP. When adenine was present in the primary anticoagulant, it was carried over into the PC and metabolized. ATP, GTP, total adenine nucleotides, and total guanine nucleotides declined more slowly in the presence of adenine than in its absence. With adenine, the increase in hypoxanthine concentration was more rapid and quantitatively balanced the decrease in adenine and platelet ATP + ADP. Plasma xanthine rose during storage but at a rate that exceeded the decline in GTP + GDP. When platelet ATP + ADP was labeled with 14C-adenine at the initiation of storage, half of the radioactivity was transferred to hypoxanthine (45%) and GTP + GDP + xanthine (5%) by the time storage was completed. The isotopic data were consistent with the presence of a radioactive (metabolic) and a nonradioactive (storage) pool of ATP + ADP at the initiation of storage with each pool contributing approximately equally to the decline in ATP + ADP during storage. The results suggested a continuing synthesis of GTP + GDP from ATP + ADP, explaining the slower rate of fall of GTP + GDP relative to the rate of rise of plasma xanthine. Throughout storage, platelets were able to incorporate 14C-hypoxanthine into both adenine and guanine nucleotides but at a rate that was only one fourth the rate of hypoxanthine accumulation

  2. The influence of nalidixic acid and nicotinamide of the radiation-induced cytogenetic injury to hexaploid wheat varities contrast by radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selezneva, E.M.; Sarapul'tsev, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    Nalidixic acid modifies the cytogenetic injury when only applied to seeds of a radiosensitive variety, Moskovskaya 35. The radioprotective effect of nicotinamide on both radiosensitive and radioresistant hexaploid wheat varities is observed being dependent on the extent which the genetic apparatus is impaired

  3. Dissociative Excitation of Adenine by Electron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, J. William; Trocchi, Joshuah; Dech, Jeffery; Kedzierski, Wladek

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative excitation of adenine (C6H5NH2) into excited atomic fragments has been studied in the electron impact energy range from threshold to 300 eV. A crossed beam system coupled to a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) monochromator is used to study emissions in the wavelength range from 110 to 200 nm. The beam of adenine vapor from a stainless steel oven is crossed at right angles by the electron beam and the resultant UV radiation is detected in a mutually orthogonal direction. The strongest feature in the spectrum is H Lyman- α. Financial support from NSERC and CFI, Canada, is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Identification of prophages in bacterial genomes by dinucleotide relative abundance difference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Srividhya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prophages are integrated viral forms in bacterial genomes that have been found to contribute to interstrain genetic variability. Many virulence-associated genes are reported to be prophage encoded. Present computational methods to detect prophages are either by identifying possible essential proteins such as integrases or by an extension of this technique, which involves identifying a region containing proteins similar to those occurring in prophages. These methods suffer due to the problem of low sequence similarity at the protein level, which suggests that a nucleotide based approach could be useful. METHODOLOGY: Earlier dinucleotide relative abundance (DRA have been used to identify regions, which deviate from the neighborhood areas, in genomes. We have used the difference in the dinucleotide relative abundance (DRAD between the bacterial and prophage DNA to aid location of DNA stretches that could be of prophage origin in bacterial genomes. Prophage sequences which deviate from bacterial regions in their dinucleotide frequencies are detected by scanning bacterial genome sequences. The method was validated using a subset of genomes with prophage data from literature reports. A web interface for prophage scan based on this method is available at http://bicmku.in:8082/prophagedb/dra.html. Two hundred bacterial genomes which do not have annotated prophages have been scanned for prophage regions using this method. CONCLUSIONS: The relative dinucleotide distribution difference helps detect prophage regions in genome sequences. The usefulness of this method is seen in the identification of 461 highly probable loci pertaining to prophages which have not been annotated so earlier. This work emphasizes the need to extend the efforts to detect and annotate prophage elements in genome sequences.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. Oleate ameliorates palmitate-induced reduction of NAMPT activity and NAD levels in primary human hepatocytes and hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penke, Melanie; Schuster, Susanne; Gorski, Theresa; Gebhardt, Rolf; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2017-10-03

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels are crucial for liver function. The saturated fatty acid palmitate and the unsaturated fatty acid oleate are the main free fatty acids in adipose tissue and human diet. We asked how these fatty acids affect cell survival, NAMPT and NAD levels in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were stimulated with palmitate (0.5mM), oleate (1mM) or a combination of both (0.5mM/1mM) as well as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) (0.5 mM) or the specific NAMPT inhibitor FK866 (10nM). Cell survival was measured by WST-1 assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. NAD levels were determined by NAD/NADH Assay or HPLC. Protein and mRNA levels were analysed by Western blot analyses and qPCR, respectively. NAMPT enzyme activity was measured using radiolabelled 14 C-nicotinamide. Lipids were stained by Oil red O staining. Palmitate significantly reduced cell survival and induced apoptosis at physiological doses. NAMPT activity and NAD levels significantly declined after 48h of palmitate. In addition, NAMPT mRNA expression was enhanced which was associated with increased NAMPT release into the supernatant, while intracellular NAMPT protein levels remained stable. Oleate alone did not influence cell viability and NAMPT activity but ameliorated the negative impact of palmitate on cell survival, NAMPT activity and NAD levels, as well as the increased NAMPT mRNA expression and secretion. NMN was able to normalize intracellular NAD levels but did not ameliorate cell viability after co-stimulation with palmitate. FK866, a specific NAMPT inhibitor did not influence lipid accumulation after oleate-treatment. Palmitate targets NAMPT activity with a consequent cellular depletion of NAD. Oleate protects from palmitate-induced apoptosis and variation of NAMPT and NAD levels. Palmitate-induced cell stress leads to an increase of NAMPT mRNA and accumulation in the supernatant. However

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  12. Pnc1p-mediated nicotinamide clearance modifies the epigenetic properties of rDNA silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Julie M; Gallo, Christopher M; Smith, Daniel L; Matecic, Mirela; Hontz, Robert D; Buck, Stephen W; Racette, Frances G; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2008-10-01

    The histone deacetylase activity of Sir2p is dependent on NAD(+) and inhibited by nicotinamide (NAM). As a result, Sir2p-regulated processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae such as silencing and replicative aging are susceptible to alterations in cellular NAD(+) and NAM levels. We have determined that high concentrations of NAM in the growth medium elevate the intracellular NAD(+) concentration through a mechanism that is partially dependent on NPT1, an important gene in the Preiss-Handler NAD(+) salvage pathway. Overexpression of the nicotinamidase, Pnc1p, prevents inhibition of Sir2p by the excess NAM while maintaining the elevated NAD(+) concentration. This growth condition alters the epigenetics of rDNA silencing, such that repression of a URA3 reporter gene located at the rDNA induces growth on media that either lacks uracil or contains 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), an unusual dual phenotype that is reminiscent of telomeric silencing (TPE) of URA3. Despite the similarities to TPE, the modified rDNA silencing phenotype does not require the SIR complex. Instead, it retains key characteristics of typical rDNA silencing, including RENT and Pol I dependence, as well as a requirement for the Preiss-Handler NAD(+) salvage pathway. Exogenous nicotinamide can therefore have negative or positive impacts on rDNA silencing, depending on the PNC1 expression level.

  13. NMDA receptor blockade alters the intracellular distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. de Bittencourt-Navarrete

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a molecular messenger involved in several events of synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. Ca2+ influx through the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR triggers the synthesis of NO by activating the enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in postsynaptic densities. Therefore, NMDAR and nNOS are part of the intricate scenario of postsynaptic densities. In the present study, we hypothesized that the intracellular distribution of nNOS in the neurons of superior colliculus (SC superficial layers is an NMDAR activity-dependent process. We used osmotic minipumps to promote chronic blockade of the receptors with the pharmacological agent MK-801 in the SC of 7 adult rats. The effective blockade of NMDAR was assessed by changes in the protein level of the immediate early gene NGFI-A, which is a well-known NMDAR activity-dependent expressing transcription factor. Upon chronic infusion of MK-801, a decrease of 47% in the number of cells expressing NGFI-A was observed in the SC of treated animals. Additionally, the filled dendritic extent by the histochemical product of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate diaphorase was reduced by 45% when compared to the contralateral SC of the same animals and by 64% when compared to the SC of control animals. We conclude that the proper intracellular localization of nNOS in the retinorecipient layers of SC depends on NMDAR activation. These results are consistent with the view that the participation of NO in the physiological and plastic events of the central nervous system might be closely related to an NMDAR activity-dependent function.

  14. Chloride Channel 3 Channels in the Activation and Migration of Human Blood Eosinophils in Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is responsible for respiratory burst in immune cells. Chloride channel 3 (CLC3) has been linked to the respiratory burst in eosinophils and neutrophils. The effect of cytokines and the involvement of CLC3 in the regulation of NADPH-dependent oxidative stress and on cytokine-mediated migration of eosinophils are not known. Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated from healthy individuals and from individuals with asthma by negative selection. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of NADPH oxidases in eosinophils. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement was done with flow cytometry. Superoxide generation was measured with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, eotaxin, and CLC3 blockers. CLC3 dependence of eosinophils in TGF-β- and eotaxin-induced migration was also examined. The messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, dual oxidase (DUOX) 1, and DUOX2 were detected in blood eosinophils, with very low expression of NOX1, NOX3, and NOX5 and no NOX4 mRNA. The level of NOX2 mRNA transcripts increased with disease severity in the eosinophils of subjects with asthma compared with healthy nonatopic volunteers. Change in granularity and size in eosinophils, but no change in intracellular ROS, was observed with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). PMA, TGF-β, and eotaxin used the CLC3-dependent pathway to increase superoxide radicals. TGF-β and eotaxin induced CLC3-dependent chemotaxis of eosinophils. These findings support the requirement of CLC3 in the activation and migration of human blood eosinophils and may provide a potential novel therapeutic target to regulate eosinophil hyperactivity in allergic airway inflammation in asthma.

  15. Visfatin expression analysis in association with recruitment and activation of human and rodent brown and brite adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani, Didier F.; Dumortier, Olivier; Beranger, Guillaume E.; Casamento, Virginie; Ghandour, Rayane A.; Giroud, Maude; Gautier, Nadine; Balaguer, Thierry; Chambard, Jean-Claude; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Nuutila, Pirjo; Niemi, Tarja; Taittonen, Markku; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Hinault, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Human brown adipocytes are able to burn fat and glucose and are now considered as a potential strategy to treat obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders. Besides their thermogenic function, brown adipocytes are able to secrete adipokines. One of these is visfatin, a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase involved in nicotinamide dinucleotide synthesis, which is known to participate in the synthesis of insulin by pancreatic β cells. In a therapeutic context, it is of interest to establ...

  16. Comparative Study between topical applications liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes and thymidine dinucleotide as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.H.; El-Bedewi, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The delivery of active agents to the skin by liposome carriers received great interest during the last three decades. This is based on their potential to enclose various types of biological materials and to deliver them to diverse cell types. Recent work suggests that liposomes as vehicles for topical drug delivery may be superior to conventional preparations. Also, topical application of DNA repair enzymes to irradiated skin increases the rate of repair of DNA potentially damaged cells. Moreover, thymidine dinucleotide is a new skin photo-protective agent against non-ionizing radiation through induction of DNA repair. Gamma irradiation can produce DNA damage in human skin. DNA mutations have an important role in the development of skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions. Albino rats were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation with different doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 Gy), and were treated by either thymidine dinucleotide or liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes topically 24 hours before irradiation. Evaluation was done histopathologically by H and E stain. Computerized image analyzer using Masson's trichrome stain was also done. Gamma radiation produced epidermal thinning and dermal inflammatory cells together with collagen fragmentation and clumping in a dose-dependent manner. Comparing between both thymidine dinucleotide and liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes pretreated and irradiated rats. Low dose irradiation (0.5 Gy) together with previous drugs showed preservation of epidermis with no inflammatory cells and also it maintained the normal architecture of collagen bundles. However, they were ineffective with higher doses. In conclusion our results may suggest that the effects of gamma radiation on the skin at low dose could be minimized by the use of these drugs before exposure

  17. Current Concepts of Hyperinflammation in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieber, Nikolaus; Hector, Andreas; Kuijpers, Taco; Roos, Dirk; Hartl, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is the most common inherited disorder of phagocytic functions, caused by genetic defects in the leukocyte nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Consequently, CGD phagocytes are impaired in destroying phagocytosed microorganisms, rendering the

  18. A therapeutic benefit from combining normobaric carbogen or oxygen with nicotinamide in fractionated X-ray treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellen, E.; Joiner, M.C.; Collier, J.M.; Johns, H.; Rojas, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of normobaric oxygen and carbogen (95 percent O 2 + 5 percent CO 2 ) combined with nicotinamide to enhance the radiosensitivity of two rodent adenocarcinomas and of mouse skin and kidneys was compared with the effects of radiation in air and without the drug. A comparison of the results in tumors and normal tissues showed that significant therapeutic benefit was obtained with normobaric oxygen and carbogen combined with nicotinamide. Toxic side effects of the treatment are unlikely, as prolonged administration of nicotinamide is well tolerated in man. The combination of normobaric carbogen with nicotinamide could be an effective method of enhancing tumor radiosensitivity in clinical radiotherapy where hypoxia limits the outcome of treatment. (author). 45 refs.; 4 fig.; 4 tabs

  19. Quantitative fluorescence kinetic analysis of NADH and FAD in human plasma using three- and four-way calibration methods capable of providing the second-order advantage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Wu, Hai-Long, E-mail: hlwu@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhou, Chang; Xiang, Shou-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong-Jie; Yu, Ru-Qin [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-03-03

    The metabolic coenzymes reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are the primary electron donor and acceptor respectively, participate in almost all biological metabolic pathways. This study develops a novel method for the quantitative kinetic analysis of the degradation reaction of NADH and the formation reaction of FAD in human plasma containing an uncalibrated interferent, by using three-way calibration based on multi-way fluorescence technique. In the three-way analysis, by using the calibration set in a static manner, we directly predicted the concentrations of both analytes in the mixture at any time after the start of their reactions, even in the presence of an uncalibrated spectral interferent and a varying background interferent. The satisfactory quantitative results indicate that the proposed method allows one to directly monitor the concentration of each analyte in the mixture as the function of time in real-time and nondestructively, instead of determining the concentration after the analytical separation. Thereafter, we fitted the first-order rate law to their concentration data throughout their reactions. Additionally, a four-way calibration procedure is developed as an alternative for highly collinear systems. The results of the four-way analysis confirmed the results of the three-way analysis and revealed that both the degradation reaction of NADH and the formation reaction of FAD in human plasma fit the first-order rate law. The proposed methods could be expected to provide promising tools for simultaneous kinetic analysis of multiple reactions in complex systems in real-time and nondestructively. - Highlights: • A novel three-way calibration method for the quantitative kinetic analysis of NADH and FAD in human plasma is proposed. • The method can directly monitor the concentration of each analyte in the reaction in real-time and nondestructively. • The method has the second-order advantage. • A

  20. Quantitative fluorescence kinetic analysis of NADH and FAD in human plasma using three- and four-way calibration methods capable of providing the second-order advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chao; Wu, Hai-Long; Zhou, Chang; Xiang, Shou-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong-Jie; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic coenzymes reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are the primary electron donor and acceptor respectively, participate in almost all biological metabolic pathways. This study develops a novel method for the quantitative kinetic analysis of the degradation reaction of NADH and the formation reaction of FAD in human plasma containing an uncalibrated interferent, by using three-way calibration based on multi-way fluorescence technique. In the three-way analysis, by using the calibration set in a static manner, we directly predicted the concentrations of both analytes in the mixture at any time after the start of their reactions, even in the presence of an uncalibrated spectral interferent and a varying background interferent. The satisfactory quantitative results indicate that the proposed method allows one to directly monitor the concentration of each analyte in the mixture as the function of time in real-time and nondestructively, instead of determining the concentration after the analytical separation. Thereafter, we fitted the first-order rate law to their concentration data throughout their reactions. Additionally, a four-way calibration procedure is developed as an alternative for highly collinear systems. The results of the four-way analysis confirmed the results of the three-way analysis and revealed that both the degradation reaction of NADH and the formation reaction of FAD in human plasma fit the first-order rate law. The proposed methods could be expected to provide promising tools for simultaneous kinetic analysis of multiple reactions in complex systems in real-time and nondestructively. - Highlights: • A novel three-way calibration method for the quantitative kinetic analysis of NADH and FAD in human plasma is proposed. • The method can directly monitor the concentration of each analyte in the reaction in real-time and nondestructively. • The method has the second-order advantage. • A

  1. Kinetic analysis of Yersinia pestis DNA adenine methyltransferase activity using a hemimethylated molecular break light oligonucleotide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Wood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA adenine methylation plays an important role in several critical bacterial processes including mismatch repair, the timing of DNA replication and the transcriptional control of gene expression. The dependence of bacterial virulence on DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam has led to the proposal that selective Dam inhibitors might function as broad spectrum antibiotics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we report the expression and purification of Yersinia pestis Dam and the development of a continuous fluorescence based assay for DNA adenine methyltransferase activity that is suitable for determining the kinetic parameters of the enzyme and for high throughput screening against potential Dam inhibitors. The assay utilised a hemimethylated break light oligonucleotide substrate containing a GATC methylation site. When this substrate was fully methylated by Dam, it became a substrate for the restriction enzyme DpnI, resulting in separation of fluorophore (fluorescein and quencher (dabcyl and therefore an increase in fluorescence. The assays were monitored in real time using a fluorescence microplate reader in 96 well format and were used for the kinetic characterisation of Yersinia pestis Dam, its substrates and the known Dam inhibitor, S-adenosylhomocysteine. The assay has been validated for high throughput screening, giving a Z-factor of 0.71+/-0.07 indicating that it is a sensitive assay for the identification of inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The assay is therefore suitable for high throughput screening for inhibitors of DNA adenine methyltransferases and the kinetic characterisation of the inhibition.

  2. Fabrication of submicron proteinaceous structures by direct laser writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serien, Daniela [Center for International Research on Integrative Biomedical Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, Shoji, E-mail: takeuchi@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center for International Research on Integrative Biomedical Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan); ERATO Takeuchi Biohybrid Innovation Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-06

    In this paper, we provide a characterization of truly free-standing proteinaceous structures with submicron feature sizes depending on the fabrication conditions by model-based analysis. Protein cross-linking of bovine serum albumin is performed by direct laser writing and two-photon excitation of flavin adenine dinucleotide. We analyze the obtainable fabrication resolution and required threshold energy for polymerization. The applied polymerization model allows prediction of fabrication conditions and resulting fabrication size, alleviating the application of proteinaceous structure fabrication.

  3. New function for Escherichia coli xanthosine phophorylase (xapA): genetic and biochemical evidences on its participation in NAD+ salvage from nicotinamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In an effort to reconstitute the NAD+ synthetic pathway in Escherichia coli (E. coli), we produced a set of gene knockout mutants with deficiencies in previously well-defined NAD+de novo and salvage pathways. Unexpectedly, the mutant deficient in NAD+de novo and salvage pathway I could grow in M9/nicotinamide medium, which was contradictory to the proposed classic NAD+ metabolism of E. coli. Such E. coli mutagenesis assay suggested the presence of an undefined machinery to feed nicotinamide into the NAD+ biosynthesis. We wanted to verify whether xanthosine phophorylase (xapA) contributed to a new NAD+ salvage pathway from nicotinamide. Results Additional knockout of xapA further slowed down the bacterial growth in M9/nicotinamide medium, whereas the complementation of xapA restored the growth phenotype. To further validate the new function of xapA, we cloned and expressed E. coli xapA as a recombinant soluble protein. Biochemical assay confirmed that xapA was capable of using nicotinamide as a substrate for nicotinamide riboside formation. Conclusions Both the genetic and biochemical evidences indicated that xapA could convert nicotinamide to nicotinamide riboside in E. coli, albeit with relatively weak activity, indicating that xapA may contribute to a second NAD+ salvage pathway from nicotinamide. We speculate that this xapA-mediated NAD+ salvage pathway might be significant in some bacteria lacking NAD+de novo and NAD+ salvage pathway I or II, to not only use nicotinamide riboside, but also nicotinamide as precursors to synthesize NAD+. However, this speculation needs to be experimentally tested. PMID:24506841

  4. De novo synthesis of adenine nucleotides in different skeletal muscle fiber types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullson, P.C.; John-Alder, H.B.; Hood, D.A.; Terjung, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Management of adenine nucleotide catabolism differs among skeletal muscle fiber types. This study evaluated whether there are corresponding differences in the rates of de novo synthesis of adenine nucleotide among fiber type sections of skeletal muscle using an isolated perfused rat hindquarter preparation. Label incorporation into adenine nucleotides from the [1-14C]glycine precursor was determined and used to calculate synthesis rates based on the intracellular glycine specific radioactivity. Results show that intracellular glycine is closely related to the direct precursor pool. Rates of de novo synthesis were highest in fast-twitch red muscle (57.0 +/- 4.0, 58.2 +/- 4.4 nmol.h-1.g-1; deep red gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis), relatively high in slow-twitch red muscle (47.0 +/- 3.1; soleus), and low in fast-twitch white muscle (26.1 +/- 2.0 and 21.6 +/- 2.3; superficial white gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis). Rates for four mixed muscles were intermediate, ranging between 32.3 and 37.3. Specific de novo synthesis rates exhibited a strong correlation (r = 0.986) with muscle section citrate synthase activity. Turnover rates (de novo synthesis rate/adenine nucleotide pool size) were highest in high oxidative muscle (0.82-1.06%/h), lowest in low oxidative muscle (0.30-0.35%/h), and intermediate in mixed muscle (0.44-0.55%/h). Our results demonstrate that differences in adenine nucleotide management among fiber types extends to the process of de novo adenine nucleotide synthesis

  5. Radiosensitization effects of nicotinamide on malignant and normal mouse tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, G.G.; Kjellen, E.; Pero, R.W.; Cameron, R.

    1985-01-01

    Inhibitors of the chromatin-associated enzyme adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase have been found to inhibit DNA strand rejoining and to potentiate lethality of DNA-damaging agents both in vivo and in vitro. The authors have in this work examined the radiosensitizing potential of one such inhibitor, nicotinamide, on tumor tissue by using transplanted C3H mouse mammary adenocarcinomas and on normal tissue in a tail-stunting experiment using BALB/cA mice. The data indicate a radiosensitizing effect of nicotinamide on tumor cells as well as on normal tissue. The data indicate a possible role of adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase inhibitors as a sensitizing agent in the radiotherapy of malignant tumors

  6. Effect of aqueous extract and anthocyanins of calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) in rats with adenine-induced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Badreldin H; Cahliková, Lucie; Opletal, Lubomir; Karaca, Turan; Manoj, Priyadarsini; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Al Suleimani, Yousuf M; Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Chocholousova-Havlikova, Lucie; Locarek, Miroslav; Siatka, Tomas; Blunden, Gerald

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the possible beneficial effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces and anthocyanins isolated therefrom in an adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) model. Rats were orally given, for 28 consecutive days, either adenine alone or together with either aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa calyces (5 and 10%) or anthocyanins (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of anthocyanin concentrate). For comparative purposes, two groups of rats were given lisinopril (10 mg/kg). When either H. sabdariffa aqueous extract or the anthocyanins isolated from it was administered along with adenine, the adverse effects of adenine-induced CKD were significantly lessened, mostly in a dose-dependent manner. The positive effects were similar to those obtained by administration of lisinopril. The results obtained show that both H. sabdariffa and its anthocyanins could be considered as possible promising safe dietary agents that could be used to attenuate the progression of human CKD. This could have added significance as H. sabdariffa tea is widely consumed in many parts of Africa and Asia and is thus readily available. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. A novel approach to adenine-induced chronic kidney disease associated anemia in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadur Rahman

    Full Text Available To date, good experimental animal models of renal anemia are not available. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish a novel approach to induce chronic kidney disease (CKD with severe anemia by oral administration of adenine in rodents. Adenine was administered to 6-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Serum creatinine and BUN as well as hematocrit, hemoglobin (Hb and plasma erythropoietin (EPO levels were monitored to assess renal function and anemia, respectively. Adenine at 25 mg/kg for 28 days slightly increased plasma creatinine levels, but did not induce anemia. In contrast, 50 mg/kg of adenine daily for 28 days showed severe renal dysfunction (plasma creatinine 1.9 ± 0.10 mg/dL and anemia (hematocrit 36.5 ± 1.0% and EPO 28 ± 2.4 pg/mL as compared with vehicle-treated mice (0.4 ± 0.02 mg/dL, 49.6 ± 1.6% and 61 ± 4.0 pg/mL, respectively. At the end of experiment, level of Hb also significantly reduced in 50 mg/kg adenine administration group. Remarkable histological changes of kidney tissues characterized by interstitial fibrosis and cystic appearance in tubules were observed in 50 mg/kg of adenine treatment group. These results have demonstrated that oral dosing with adenine at 50 mg/kg for 28 days is suitable to induce a stable anemia associated with CKD in mice.

  8. Simvastatin-nicotinamide co-crystal: design, preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To improve the solubility of simvastatin (SV) by co-crystallization using nicotinamide (Nic) as co-crystal agent (co-former). Methods: In silico molecular modeling of Nic counter to SV were investigated using Auto Dock 4.2. Cocrystal of Nic-SV was obtained by solvent evaporation (SE) using an equimolar ratio of Nic ...

  9. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 172.315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex...

  10. Lung Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, Apoptosis, and Fibrosis in Adenine-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that there is a crosstalk between the lung and the kidney, and several studies have reported association between chronic kidney disease (CKD and pulmonary pathophysiological changes. Experimentally, CKD can be caused in mice by dietary intake of adenine. Nevertheless, the consequence of such intervention on the lung received only scant attention. Here, we assessed the pulmonary effects of adenine (0.2% w/w in feed for 4 weeks-induced CKD in mice by assessing various physiological histological and biochemical endpoints. Adenine treatment induced a significant increase in urine output, urea and creatinine concentrations, and it decreased the body weight and creatinine clearance. It also increased proteinuria and the urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Compared with control group, the histopathological evaluation of lungs from adenine-treated mice showed polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration in alveolar and bronchial walls, injury, and fibrosis. Moreover, adenine caused a significant increase in lung lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species and decreased the antioxidant catalase. Adenine also induced DNA damage assessed by COMET assay. Similarly, adenine caused apoptosis in the lung characterized by a significant increase of cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, adenine induced a significant increase in the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2 in the lung. We conclude that administration of adenine in mice induced CKD is accompanied by lung oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, and Nrf2 expression and fibrosis.

  11. 1H NMR analysis of complexation of hydrotropic agents nicotinamide and caffeine with aromatic biologically active molecules in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantushenko, Anastasia O.; Mukhina, Yulia V.; Veselkov, Kyrill A.; Davies, David B.; Veselkov, Alexei N.

    2004-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the molecular mechanism of solubilization action of hydrotropic agents nicotinamide (NA) and caffeine (CAF). Hetero-association of NA with riboflavine-mononucleotide (FMN) and CAF with low soluble in aqueous solution synthetic analogue of antibiotic actinomycin D, actinocyl-bis-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) amine (Actill), has been investigated by 500 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy. Concentration and temperature dependences of proton chemical shifts have been analysed in terms of a statistical-thermodynamic model of indefinite self- and heteroassociation of aromatic molecules. The obtained results enable to conclude that NA-FMN and CAF-Actill intermolecular complexes are mainly stabilized by the stacking interactions of the aromatic chromophores. Hetero-association of the investigated molecules plays an important role in solubilization of aromatic drugs by hydrotropic agents nicotinamide and caffeine.

  12. Electron transfer driven decomposition of adenine and selected analogs as probed by experimental and theoretical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, T.; Mendes, M.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Eden, S.; García, G.; Bacchus-Montabonel, M.-C.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2018-04-01

    We report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of electron-transfer-induced decomposition of adenine (Ad) and a selection of analog molecules in collisions with potassium (K) atoms. Time-of-flight negative ion mass spectra have been obtained in a wide collision energy range (6-68 eV in the centre-of-mass frame), providing a comprehensive investigation of the fragmentation patterns of purine (Pu), adenine (Ad), 9-methyl adenine (9-mAd), 6-dimethyl adenine (6-dimAd), and 2-D adenine (2-DAd). Following our recent communication about selective hydrogen loss from the transient negative ions (TNIs) produced in these collisions [T. Cunha et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 021101 (2018)], this work focuses on the production of smaller fragment anions. In the low-energy part of the present range, several dissociation channels that are accessible in free electron attachment experiments are absent from the present mass spectra, notably NH2 loss from adenine and 9-methyl adenine. This can be understood in terms of a relatively long transit time of the K+ cation in the vicinity of the TNI tending to enhance the likelihood of intramolecular electron transfer. In this case, the excess energy can be redistributed through the available degrees of freedom inhibiting fragmentation pathways. Ab initio theoretical calculations were performed for 9-methyl adenine (9-mAd) and adenine (Ad) in the presence of a potassium atom and provided a strong basis for the assignment of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals accessed in the collision process.

  13. Development and evaluation of an in vivo assay in Caenorhabditis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu urs

    1. Introduction. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are nicotinamide adenine .... guinea pig and rat are not amenable for high-throughput screening. Therefore, there ... model that is inexpensive and suitable for high-throughput drug screening.

  14. Muscle type-specific responses to NAD+ salvage biosynthesis promote muscle function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrablik, Tracy L; Wang, Wenqing; Upadhyay, Awani; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2011-01-15

    Salvage biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) from nicotinamide (NAM) lowers NAM levels and replenishes the critical molecule NAD(+) after it is hydrolyzed. This pathway is emerging as a regulator of multiple biological processes. Here we probe the contribution of the NAM-NAD(+) salvage pathway to muscle development and function using Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans males with mutations in the nicotinamidase pnc-1, which catalyzes the first step of this NAD(+) salvage pathway, cannot mate due to a spicule muscle defect. Multiple muscle types are impaired in the hermaphrodites, including body wall muscles, pharyngeal muscles and vulval muscles. An active NAD(+) salvage pathway is required for optimal function of each muscle cell type. However, we found surprising muscle-cell-type specificity in terms of both the timing and relative sensitivity to perturbation of NAD(+) production or NAM levels. Active NAD(+) biosynthesis during development is critical for function of the male spicule protractor muscles during adulthood, but these muscles can surprisingly do without salvage biosynthesis in adulthood under the conditions examined. The body wall muscles require ongoing NAD(+) salvage biosynthesis both during development and adulthood for maximum function. The vulval muscles do not function in the presence of elevated NAM concentrations, but NAM supplementation is only slightly deleterious to body wall muscles during development or upon acute application in adults. Thus, the pathway plays distinct roles in different tissues. As NAM-NAD(+) biosynthesis also impacts muscle differentiation in vertebrates, we propose that similar complexities may be found among vertebrate muscle cell types. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of glutaredoxin enzyme activity and protein S-glutathionylation using fluorescent eosin-glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Lucia; Montano, Sergio J; Padilla, Alicia C; Holmgren, Arne

    2016-04-15

    Glutaredoxins catalyze glutathione-dependent disulfide oxidoreductions, particularly reduction of glutathione (GSH)-protein mixed disulfides. Mammalian glutaredoxins are present in the cytosol/nucleus as Grx1 or in mitochondria as Grx2a. Here we describe di-eosin-glutathione disulfide (Di-E-GSSG) as a new tool to study glutaredoxin (Grx) activity. Di-E-GSSG has almost no fluorescence in its disulfide form due to self-quenching, whereas the reduced form (E-GSH) has a large fluorescence emission at 545 nm after excitation at 520 nm. Di-E-GSSG was a very poor substrate for glutathione reductase, but we discovered that the molecule was an excellent substrate for glutaredoxin in a coupled assay system with GSH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and glutathione reductase or with lipoamide, NADH, and lipoamide dehydrogenase. In addition, Di-E-GSSG was used to glutathionylate the free SH group of bovine serum albumin (BSA), yielding eosin-glutathionylated BSA (E-GS-BSA) readily observed in ultraviolet (UV) light. E-GS-BSA also displayed a quenched fluorescence, and its Grx-catalyzed reduction could be followed by the formation of E-GSH by fluorescence emission using microtiter plates. This way of measuring Grx activity provided an ultrasensitive method that detected Grx1 and Grx2 at picomolar levels. Human Grx1 was readily quantified in 40 μl of plasma and determined to be 680 ± 208 pM in healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nox-2-mediated phenotype loss of hippocampal parvalbumin interneurons might contribute to postoperative cognitive decline in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lili qiu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive decline (POCD is a common complication following anesthesia and surgery, especially in elderly patients; however, the precise mechanisms of POCD remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase mediated-abnormalities in parvalbumin (PV interneurons play an important role in the pathophysiology of POCD. The animal model was established using isoflurane anesthesia and exploratory laparotomy in sixteen-month-old male C57BL/6 mice. For interventional experiments, mice were chronically treated with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (APO. Open field and fear conditioning behavioral tests were performed on day 6 and 7 post-surgery, respectively. In a separate experiment, brain tissue was harvested and subjected to biochemical analysis. Primary hippocampal neurons challenged with lipopolysaccharide in vitro were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the oxidative stress-induced abnormalities in PV interneurons. Our results showed that anesthesia and surgery induced significant hippocampus-dependent memory impairment, which was accompanied by PV interneuron phenotype loss and increased expression of interleukin-1β, markers of oxidative stress, and NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2 in the hippocampus. In addition, lipopolysaccharide exposure increased Nox2 level and decreased the expression of PV and the number of excitatory synapses onto PV interneurons in the primary hippocampal neurons. Notably, treatment with APO reversed these abnormalities. Our study suggests that Nox2-derived ROS production triggers, at least in part, anesthesia- and surgery-induced hippocampal PV interneuron phenotype loss and consequent cognitive impairment in aging mice.

  17. Buprofezin Is Metabolized by CYP353D1v2, a Cytochrome P450 Associated with Imidacloprid Resistance in Laodelphax striatellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzaki, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla; Miah, Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Han, Zhaojun

    2017-11-29

    CYP353D1v2 is a cytochrome P450 related to imidacloprid resistance in Laodelphax striatellus . This work was conducted to examine the ability of CYP353D1v2 to metabolize other insecticides. Carbon monoxide difference spectra analysis indicates that CYP353D1v2 was successfully expressed in insect cell Sf9. The catalytic activity of CYP353D1v2 relating to degrading buprofezin, chlorpyrifos, and deltamethrin was tested by measuring substrate depletion and analyzing the formation of metabolites. The results showed the nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent depletion of buprofezin (eluting at 8.7 min) and parallel formation of an unknown metabolite (eluting 9.5 min). However, CYP353D1v2 is unable to metabolize deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos. The recombinant CYP353D1v2 protein efficiently catalyzed the model substrate p -nitroanisole with a maximum velocity of 9.24 nmol/min/mg of protein and a Michaelis constant of Km = 6.21 µM. In addition, imidacloprid was metabolized in vitro by the recombinant CYP353D1v2 microsomes (catalytic constant Kcat) 0.064 pmol/min/pmol P450, Km = 6.41 µM. The mass spectrum of UPLC-MS analysis shows that the metabolite was a product of buprofezin, which was buprofezin sulfone. This result provided direct evidence that L. striatellus cytochrome P450 CYP353D1v2 is capable of metabolizing imidacloprid and buprofezin.

  18. Sildenafil Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pelvic Ganglia Neurons after Bilateral Cavernosal Nerve Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah A. Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is a common complication for patients undergoing surgeries for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers, due to damage of the nerves associated with the major pelvic ganglia (MPG. Functional re-innervation of target organs depends on the capacity of the neurons to survive and switch towards a regenerative phenotype. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i have been successfully used in promoting the recovery of erectile function after cavernosal nerve damage (BCNR by up-regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors in MPG. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5i on markers of neuronal damage and oxidative stress after BCNR. This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene and protein expression profiles of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress related-pathways in MPG neurons after BCNR and subsequent treatment with sildenafil. Our results showed that BCNR in Fisher-344 rats promoted up-regulation of cytokines (interleukin- 1 (IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1, and oxidative stress factors (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase, Myeloperoxidase (MPO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (CD40 that were normalized by sildenafil treatment given in the drinking water. In summary, PDE5i can attenuate the production of damaging factors and can up-regulate the expression of beneficial factors in the MPG that may ameliorate neuropathic pain, promote neuroprotection, and favor nerve regeneration.

  19. Electron-transfer mediator for a NAD-glucose dehydrogenase-based glucose sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Min-yeong; Reddy, Sanapalli S; Cho, Jaegeol; Cho, Chul-ho; Jung, Suntae; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2013-12-03

    A new electron-transfer mediator, 5-[2,5-di (thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-1,10-phenanthroline iron(III) chloride (FePhenTPy) oriented to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent-glucose dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) system was synthesized through a Paal-Knorr condensation reaction. The structure of the mediator was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, proton and carbon nucler magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy, and its electron-transfer characteristic for a glucose sensor was investigated using voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. A disposable amperometric glucose sensor with NAD-GDH was constructed with FePhenTPy as an electron-transfer mediator on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and its performance was evaluated, where the addition of reduces graphene oxide (RGO) to the mediator showed the enhanced sensor performance. The experimental parameters to affect the analytical performance and the stability of the proposed glucose sensor were optimized, and the sensor exhibited a dynamic range between 30 mg/dL and 600 mg/dL with the detection limit of 12.02 ± 0.6 mg/dL. In the real sample experiments, the interference effects by acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, caffeine, and other monosaccharides (fructose, lactose, mannose, and xylose) were completely avoided through coating the sensor surface with the Nafion film containing lead(IV) acetate. The reliability of proposed glucose sensor was evaluated by the determination of glucose in artificial blood and human whole blood samples.

  20. In vivo study of the human skin by the method of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2000-01-01

    The goals of this study are to perform a preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic potential of noninvasive laser-induced auto-fluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) for human skin and optimize of detection and diagnosis of hollow organs and skin. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of laser-induced fluorescence to discriminate disease from normal surrounding tissue. The most fluorescence studies have used exogenous fluorophores of this discrimination. The laser-induced auto-fluorescence which is used for diagnosis of tissues in the human body avoids administration of any drugs. In this study a technique for optical biopsy of in vivo human skin is presented. The auto-fluorescence characterization of tissue relies on different spectral properties of tissues. It was demonstrated a differentiation between normal skin and skin with vitiligo. Two main endogenous fluorophores in the human skin account for most of the cellular auto-fluorescence for excitation wavelength 337 nm reduced from of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and collagen. The auto-fluorescence spectrum of human skin depend on main internal absorbers which are blood and melanin. In this study was described the effect caused by blood and melanin content on the shape of the auto-fluorescence spectrum of human skin. Human skin fluorescence spectrum might provide dermatologists with important information and such investigations are successfully used now in skin disease diagnostics, in investigation of the environmental factor impact or for evaluation of treatment efficiency. (authors)

  1. Infection Reveals a Modification of SIRT2 Critical for Chromatin Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Pereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Sirtuin 2 is a nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase that regulates cell processes such as carcinogenesis, cell cycle, DNA damage, and infection. Subcellular localization of SIRT2 is crucial for its function but is poorly understood. Infection with the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, which relocalizes SIRT2 from the cytoplasm to the chromatin, provides an ideal stimulus for the molecular study of this process. In this report, we provide a map of SIRT2 post-translational modification sites and focus on serine 25 phosphorylation. We show that infection specifically induces dephosphorylation of S25, an event essential for SIRT2 chromatin association. Furthermore, we identify a nuclear complex formed by the phosphatases PPM1A and PPM1B, with SIRT2 essential for controlling H3K18 deacetylation and SIRT2-mediated gene repression during infection and necessary for a productive Listeria infection. This study reveals a molecular mechanism regulating SIRT2 function and localization, paving the way for understanding other SIRT2-regulated cellular processes. : Sirtuins are enzymes critical for various processes, including genomic stability, metabolism, and aging. Through study of Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterial pathogen that exploits SIRT2 for productive infection, Pereira et al. uncover a SIRT2 modification necessary for chromatin association and function. Keywords: chromatin, sirtuin, Listeria monocytogenes, phosphorylation, PPM1, histone acetylation, H3K18, infection, subcellular localization

  2. Chemopreventive Effect of Tadalafil in Cisplatin-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    mgkg-1 and 5 mgkg-1 of Tadalafil in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats. In this study, twenty-five male ... mitochondria, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucletide .... Laboratory Centrifuge (Model SM 112, Surgifriend. Medicals, England) at ...

  3. A Rapid and Efficient Assay for the Characterization of Substrates and Inhibitors of Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, Matthijs J; Sastre Torano, Javier; Sartini, Davide; Emanuelli, Monica; Parsons, Richard B; Martin, Nathaniel I

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is one of the most abundant small molecule methyltransferases in the human body and is primarily responsible for the N-methylation of the nicotinamide (vitamin B3). Employing the cofactor S-adenosyl-l-methionine, NNMT transfers a methyl group to the pyridine

  4. Suppression of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in vivo by 9-(2-phosphonomethoxyethyl)adenine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Egberink, H.F.; Borst, M.; Niphuis, H.; Balzarini, J.; Neu, H.; Schellekens, H.; Clercq, H. de; Koolen, M.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The acyclic purine nucleoside analogue 9-(2-phosphonomethoxyethyl)adenine [PMEA; formerly referred to as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine] is a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and of Moloney murine sarcoma virus-induced tumor formation in mice.

  5. Ultrafast deactivation processes in the 2-aminopyridine dimer and the adenine-thymine base pair: Similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Yuejie; Zhang Feng; Cui Ganglong; Fang Weihai; Luo Yi

    2010-01-01

    2-aminopyridine dimer has frequently been used as a model system for studying photochemistry of DNA base pairs. We examine here the relevance of 2-aminopyridine dimer for a Watson-Crick adenine-thymine base pair by studying UV-light induced photodynamics along two main hydrogen bridges after the excitation to the localized 1 ππ* excited-state. The respective two-dimensional potential-energy surfaces have been determined by time-dependent density functional theory with Coulomb-attenuated hybrid exchange-correlation functional (CAM-B3LYP). Different mechanistic aspects of the deactivation pathway have been analyzed and compared in detail for both systems, while the related reaction rates have also be obtained from Monte Carlo kinetic simulations. The limitations of the 2-aminopyridine dimer as a model system for the adenine-thymine base pair are discussed.

  6. Rapid screening for nuclear genes mutations in isolated respiratory chain complex I defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagniez-Mammeri, Hélène; Lombes, Anne; Brivet, Michèle; Ogier-de Baulny, Hélène; Landrieu, Pierre; Legrand, Alain; Slama, Abdelhamid

    2009-04-01

    Complex I or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH): ubiquinone oxydoreductase deficiency is the most common cause of respiratory chain defects. Molecular bases of complex I deficiencies are rarely identified because of the dual genetic origin of this multi-enzymatic complex (nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA) and the lack of phenotype-genotype correlation. We used a rapid method to screen patients with isolated complex I deficiencies for nuclear genes mutations by Surveyor nuclease digestion of cDNAs. Eight complex I nuclear genes, among the most frequently mutated (NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1 and NDUFV2), were studied in 22 cDNA fragments spanning their coding sequences in 8 patients with a biochemically proved complex I deficiency. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and missense mutations were detected in 18.7% of the cDNA fragments by Surveyor nuclease treatment. Molecular defects were detected in 3 patients. Surveyor nuclease screening is a reliable method for genotyping nuclear complex I deficiencies, easy to interpret, and limits the number of sequence reactions. Its use will enhance the possibility of prenatal diagnosis and help us for a better understanding of complex I molecular defects.

  7. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH distinguishes alterations in cerebral metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Sutin, Jason; Wu, Weicheng; Fu, Buyin; Uhlirova, Hana; Devor, Anna; Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava

    2017-05-01

    Evaluating cerebral energy metabolism at microscopic resolution is important for comprehensively understanding healthy brain function and its pathological alterations. Here, we resolve specific alterations in cerebral metabolism in vivo in Sprague Dawley rats utilizing minimally-invasive 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2P-FLIM) measurements of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence. Time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements enable distinction of different components contributing to NADH autofluorescence. Ostensibly, these components indicate different enzyme-bound formulations of NADH. We observed distinct variations in the relative proportions of these components before and after pharmacological-induced impairments to several reactions involved in glycolytic and oxidative metabolism. Classification models were developed with the experimental data and used to predict the metabolic impairments induced during separate experiments involving bicuculline-induced seizures. The models consistently predicted that prolonged focal seizure activity results in impaired activity in the electron transport chain, likely the consequence of inadequate oxygen supply. 2P-FLIM observations of cerebral NADH will help advance our understanding of cerebral energetics at a microscopic scale. Such knowledge will aid in our evaluation of healthy and diseased cerebral physiology and guide diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that target cerebral energetics.

  8. IDH Mutation Analysis in Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Na

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield α-ketoglutarate (α-KG with production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. Dysfunctional IDH leads to reduced production of α-KG and NADH and increased production of 2-hydroxyglutarate, an oncometabolite. This results in increased oxidative damage and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α, causing cells to be prone to tumorigenesis. Methods: This study investigated IDH mutations in 61 Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs, using a pentose nucleic acid clamping method and direct sequencing. Results: We identified four cases of ESFTs harboring IDH mutations. The number of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations was equal and the subtype of IDH mutations was variable. Clinicopathologic analysis according to IDH mutation status did not reveal significant results. Conclusions: This study is the first to report IDH mutations in ESFTs. The results indicate that ESFTs can harbor IDH mutations in previously known hot-spot regions, although their incidence is rare. Further validation with a larger case-based study would establish more reliable and significant data on prevalence rate and the biological significance of IDH mutations in ESFTs.

  9. Methods for transfer a saliva based alcohol content test to a dermal patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, III, Louis A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Detection and quantitation of ethanol which is highly sensitive, specific, and efficient has been a commercial target for sometime. Clearly analytical methods are useful such as gas and liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. However, those methods are best used in the laboratory and a less useful for detection and quantitation of ethanol in the field. Enzymes have been employed for the detection and quantitation of EtOH. Enzymes are proteins that perform a particular task in a bio-catalytic way. Most of the chemistry that these enzymes do are frequently exquisitely specific in that only one alcohol reacts and only one product is produced. One enzyme molecule can catalyze the reaction of numerous substrate molecules which in itself is an amplification of the recognition signal. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol oxidase (AO) are two possible enzymatic targets for EtOH sensor development.1 The ADH oxidizes the alcohol using a co-factor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. This co-factor needs to be within close proximity of the ADH. AO also oxidizes the ethanol using molecular oxygen giving rise to the production of the aldehyde and hydrogen peroxide.

  10. Poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate) ribose polymerase activation as a cause of metabolic dysfunction in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaudet, Lucas

    2002-03-01

    Poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate) ribose polymerase is a nuclear enzyme activated in response to genotoxic stress induced by a variety of DNA damaging agents. Several oxygen and nitrogen-centered free radicals, notably peroxynitrite, are strong inducers of DNA damage and poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate) ribose polymerase activation in vitro and in vivo. Activation of this nuclear enzyme depletes the intracellular stores of its substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, slowing the rate of glycolysis, mitochondrial electron transport and adenosine triphosphate formation. This process triggers a severe energetic crisis within the cell, leading to acute cell dysfunction and cell necrosis. Poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate) ribose polymerase also plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory cascades, through a functional association with various transcription factors and transcription co-activators. Recent works identified this enzyme as a critical mediator of cellular metabolic dysfunction, inflammatory injury, and organ damage in conditions associated with overwhelming oxidative stress, including systemic inflammation, circulatory shock, and ischemia-reperfusion. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibitors of poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate) ribose polymerase protect against cell death and tissue injury in such conditions, and may therefore represent novel therapeutic tools to limit multiple organ damage and dysfunction in critically ill patients.

  11. Biofuel cell backpacked insect and its application to wireless sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kan; Akiyama, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Masato; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated an enzymatic biofuel cell (BFC) which can be backpacked by cockroaches. The BFC generates electric power from trehalose in insect hemolymph by the trehalase and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) reaction systems which dehydrogenate β-glucose obtained by hydrolyzing trehalose. First, an insect-mountable BFC (imBFC) was designed and fabricated with a 3D printer. The electrochemical reaction of anode-modified poly-L-lysine, vitamin K3, diaphorase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, GDH and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) in the imBFC was evaluated and an oxidation current of 1.18 mAcm(-2) (at +0.6 V vs. Ag|AgCl) was observed. Then, the performance of the imBFC was evaluated and a maximum power output of 333 μW (285 μW cm(-)(2)) (at 0.5 V) was obtained. Furthermore, driving of both an LED device and a wireless temperature and humidity sensor device were powered by the imBFC. These results indicate that the imBFC has sufficient potential as a battery for novel ubiquitous robots such as insect cyborgs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spontaneous adsorption of 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid onto carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, Julieta I.; Strumia, Miriam C. [Departamento de Quimica Organica (IMBIV-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina); Passeggi, Mario C.G. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces (INTEC-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Ferron, Julio [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces (INTEC-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Departamento de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Baruzzi, Ana M. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica (INFIQC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina); Brunetti, Veronica [Departamento de Fisicoquimica (INFIQC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina)], E-mail: brunetti@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Dendritic molecules contain multifunctional groups that can be used to efficiently control the properties of an electrode surface. We are developing strategies to generate a highly functionalized surface using multifunctional and rigid dendrons immobilized onto different substrates. In the present work, we explore the immobilization of a dendritic molecule: 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid (D-NO{sub 2}) onto carbon surfaces showing a simple and rapid way to produce conductive surfaces with electroactive chemical functions. The immobilized D-NO{sub 2} layer has been characterized using atomic force microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. D-NO{sub 2} adsorbs onto carbon surfaces spontaneously by dipping the electrode in dendron solutions. Reduction of this layer generates the hydroxylamine product. The resulting redox-active layer exhibits a well-behaved redox response for the adsorbed nitroso/hydroxylamine couple. The film permeability of the derivatized surface has been analyzed employing the electrochemical response of redox probes: Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+}/Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 2+} and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-}/Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-}. Electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto a modified carbon surface was also observed.

  13. Ablation of clinically relevant kidney tissue volumes by high-intensity focused ultrasound: Preliminary results of standardized ex-vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, Axel; Peters, Kristina; Knoll, Thomas; Marlinghaus, Ernst; Alken, Peter; Jenne, Jürgen W; Michel, Maurice Stephan

    2006-11-01

    To investigate strategies to achieve confluent kidney-tissue ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Our model of the perfused ex-vivo porcine kidney was used. Tissue ablation was performed with an experimental HIFU device (Storz Medical, Kreuzlingen, Switzerland). Lesion-to-lesion interaction was investigated by varying the lesion distance (5 to 2.5 mm), generator power (300, 280, and 260 W), cooling time (10, 20, and 30 seconds), and exposure time (4, 3, and 2 seconds). The lesion rows were analyzed grossly and by histologic examination (hematoxylin-eosin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide staining). It was possible to achieve complete homogeneous ablation of a clinically relevant tissue volume but only by meticulous adjustment of the exposure parameters. Minimal changes in these parameters caused changes in lesion formation with holes within the lesions and lesion-to-lesion interaction. Our preliminary results show that when using this new device, HIFU can ablate a large tissue volume homogeneously in perfused ex-vivo porcine tissue under standardized conditions with meticulous adjustment of exposure parameters. Further investigations in vivo are necessary to test whether large tissue volumes can be ablated completely and reliably despite the influence of physiologic tissue and organ movement.

  14. Nuclear lactate dehydrogenase modulates histone modification in human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, Zachary; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C.; Chahma, M’hamed; Appanna, Vasu D., E-mail: vappanna@laurentian.ca

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Nuclear LDH is up-regulated under oxidative stress. • SIRT1 is co-immunoprecipitated bound to nuclear LDH. • Nuclear LDH is involved in histone deacetylation and epigenetics. - Abstract: It is becoming increasingly apparent that the nucleus harbors metabolic enzymes that affect genetic transforming events. Here, we describe a nuclear isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (nLDH) and its ability to orchestrate histone deacetylation by controlling the availability of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), a key ingredient of the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase system. There was an increase in the expression of nLDH concomitant with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the culture medium. Under oxidative stress, the NAD{sup +} generated by nLDH resulted in the enhanced deacetylation of histones compared to the control hepatocytes despite no discernable change in the levels of SIRT1. There appeared to be an intimate association between nLDH and SIRT1 as these two enzymes co-immunoprecipitated. The ability of nLDH to regulate epigenetic modifications by manipulating NAD{sup +} reveals an intricate link between metabolism and the processing of genetic information.

  15. Dunnione ameliorates cisplatin ototoxicity through modulation of NAD(+) metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Pandit, Arpana; Oh, Gi-Su; Shen, AiHua; Lee, Su-Bin; Khadka, Dipendra; Lee, SeungHoon; Shim, Hyeok; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Cho, Eun-Young; Kwak, Tae Hwan; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil; So, Hong-Seob

    2016-03-01

    Ototoxicity is an important issue in patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. Numerous studies have demonstrated that cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is related to oxidative stress and DNA damage. However, the precise mechanism underlying cisplatin-associated ototoxicity is still unclear. The cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) has emerged as an important regulator of energy metabolism and cellular homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that the levels and activities of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) are suppressed by the reduction of intracellular NAD(+) levels in cisplatin-mediated ototoxicity. We provide evidence that the decreases in SIRT1 activity and expression facilitated by increasing poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation and microRNA-34a levels through cisplatin-mediated p53 activation aggravate the associated ototoxicity. Furthermore, we show that the induction of cellular NAD(+) levels using dunnione, which targets intracellular NQO1, prevents the toxic effects of cisplatin through the regulation of PARP-1 and SIRT1 activity. These results suggest that direct modulation of cellular NAD(+) levels by pharmacological agents could be a promising therapeutic approach for protection from cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Visualization of nitric oxide production in the earthworm ventral nerve cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Y; Naganoma, Y; Horita, H; Tsuji, N; Shimizu, R; Ogawa, H; Oka, K

    2001-06-01

    Distribution of nitric oxide (NO)-producible neurons in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the earthworm was investigated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry. Some neurons (20-30 microm in diameter) were intensely stained and were localized in areas between the 1st and 2nd lateral nerves in the ventral side of VNC. In contrast, no neurons including giant fibers were stained in the dorsal side. Endogenous NO production from VNC was visualized using a fluorescent dye, diaminofluorescein-2 diacethyl (DAF-2 DA). When VNC was incubated in a saline, a relative high level of NO was produced from the ventral side, especially from NADPH-d-positive neurons. Under high-K+ stimulation, NO was also detected in the giant fibers in the dorsal side of VNC. Our results suggest that the earthworm VNC constantly and relative highly produces NO as a neuromodulator, and that NO produced from the ventral side sometimes reaches and affects the giant fibers. In conclusion, we successfully visualized NO in the earthworm VNC by clarifying both the distribution of NO-producible neurons and the endogenous NO production.

  17. Profiling the transcriptome of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta) in response to light deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chai-Ling; Teoh, Seddon; Teo, Swee-Sen; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Phang, Siew-Moi

    2009-01-01

    Light regulates photosynthesis, growth and reproduction, yield and properties of phycocolloids, and starch contents in seaweeds. Despite its importance as an environmental cue that regulates many developmental, physiological, and biochemical processes, the network of genes involved during light deprivation are obscure. In this study, we profiled the transcriptome of Gracilaria changii at two different irradiance levels using a cDNA microarray containing more than 3,000 cDNA probes. Microarray analysis revealed that 93 and 105 genes were up- and down-regulated more than 3-fold under light deprivation, respectively. However, only 50% of the transcripts have significant matches to the nonredundant peptide sequences in the database. The transcripts that accumulated under light deprivation include vanadium chloroperoxidase, thioredoxin, ferredoxin component, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase. Among the genes that were down-regulated under light deprivation were genes encoding light harvesting protein, light harvesting complex I, phycobilisome 7.8 kDa linker polypeptide, low molecular weight early light-inducible protein, and vanadium bromoperoxidase. Our findings also provided important clues to the functions of many unknown sequences that could not be annotated using sequence comparison.

  18. Protection against Ischemia-Induced Oxidative Stress Conferred by Vagal Stimulation in the Rat Heart: Involvement of the AMPK-PKC Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jin Zang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS production is an important mechanism in myocardial ischemia and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase is one of major sources of ROS in the heart. Previous studies showed that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS is beneficial in treating ischemic heart diseases. However, the effect of VNS on ROS production remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of VNS onischemia-induced ROS production. Our results demonstrated that VNS alleviated the myocardial injury, attenuated the cardiac dysfunction, reserved the antioxidant enzyme activity and inhibited the formation of ROS as evidenced by the decreased NADPH oxidase (Nox activity and superoxide fluorescence intensity as well as the expression of p67phox, Rac1 and nitrotyrosine. Furthermore, VNS resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK, which in turn led to an inactivation of Nox by protein kinase C (PKC; however, the phenomena were repressed by the administration of a muscarinic antagonist atropine. Taken together, these data indicate that VNS decreases ROS via AMPK-PKC-Nox pathway; this may have potential importance for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases.

  19. Influence of dietary zinc on convulsive seizures and hippocampal NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in seizure susceptible EL mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, I; Akasaki, Y; Uchida, M; Kuchiiwa, S; Nakagawa, S; Takigawa, M

    1998-04-13

    Adequate, high and deficient dietary levels of zinc (Zn) were compared in seizure-susceptible EL mice with respect to convulsions and to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase-positive hippocampal neurons. Diaphorase positivity is associated with nitric oxide (NO) production. Convulsive seizures in the EL mice given the various diets did not differ over 1-4 weeks, but convulsions in EL mice given the Zn-deficient diet for 4 weeks were more effectively suppressed by injection of zonisamide (ZNS) (75 mg/kg intraperitoneally) than in mice receiving high- or adequate-Zn diet for the same period. Numbers of NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in the CA1/CA2 region of the hippocampal formation were significantly higher in mice given the Zn-deficient diet for 4 weeks than in mice fed adequate Zn. Mice receiving the high-Zn diet for the same period had significantly fewer NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in the subiculum than mice with adequate Zn. These results suggest that Zn deficiency inhibits convulsive seizures of EL mice, and that dietary Zn influences numbers of NO producing neurons in the hippocampal formation. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Genetic Identification of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum from Sheep Isolates in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tabaripour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adult worms of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum live in the portal veins, or intestinal veins of cattle, sheep, goat and many other mammals causing orientobilharziasis. Orientobilharziasis causes significant economic losses to livestock industry of Iran. However, there is limited information about genotypes of O. turkestanicum in Iran.In this study, 30 isolates of O. turkestanicum obtained from sheep were characterized by sequencing mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1 gene. The mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and then sequenced and compared with O. turkestanicum and that of other members of the Schistosomatidae available in Gen-Bank(™.Phylogenetic relationships between them were re-constructed using the maximum parsimony method. Phylogenetic analyses done in present study placed O. turkestanicum within the Schistosoma genus, and indicates that O. turkestanicum was phylogenetically closer to the African schistosome group than to the Asian schistosome group.Comparison of nad1 and cox1 sequences of O. turkestanicum obtained in this study with corresponding sequences available in Genbank(™ revealed some sequence variations and provided evidence for presence of microvarients in Iran.

  1. Influence of age-related changes in nitric oxide synthase-expressing neurons in the rat supraoptic nucleus on inhibition of salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takehiko; Tamada, Yoshitaka; Suwa, Fumihiko

    2008-02-01

    Age-related inhibition of salivary secretion has been demonstrated in rats, and the nitric oxide (NO) present in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the medial septal area has been reported to play an inhibitory role in the regulation of salivary secretion. In the present study, we investigated the age-related changes occurring in the NO synthase (NOS)-expressing neurons in the SON, which is related to the production of NO, and discussed the interrelation between the age-related changes in the NOS-expressing neurons and the age-related inhibition of salivary secretion. Nissl staining and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry were performed for young adult and aged rats. Quantitative analysis was also performed using the Nissl-stained and NADPH-d-positive neurons. Although the numbers of the Nissl-stained neurons did not change, significant age-related increases were detected in cell number, cell size and reactive density of the NADPH-d-positive neurons. Therefore, the production of NO in the SON neurons increased with age. We concluded that the age-related increase in the NO in the SON might be a factor that contributes to the age-related inhibition of salivary secretion.

  2. Preparation and electrochemical application of rutin biosensor for differential pulse voltammetric determination of NADH in the presence of acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMID R. ZARE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic behavior of reduced nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide (NADH was studied at the surface of a rutin biosensor, using various electrochemical methods. According to the results, the rutin biosensor had a strongly electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of NADH with the overpotential being decreased by about 450 mV as compared to the process at a bare glassy carbon electrode, GCE. This value is significantly greater than the value of 220 mV that was reported for rutin embedded in a lipid-cast film. The kinetic parameters of the electron transfer coefficient, a, and the heterogeneous charge transfer rate constant, kh, for the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH at the rutin biosensor were estimated. Furthermore, the linear dynamic range; sensitivity and limit of detection for NADH were evaluated using the differential pulse voltammetry method. The advantages of this biosensor for the determination of NADH are excellent catalytic activity and reproducibility, good detection limit and high exchange current density. The rutin biosensor could separate the oxidation peak potentials of NADH and acetaminophen present in the same solution while at a bare GCE, the peak potentials were indistinguishable.

  3. Development of quantum dots-based biosensor towards on-farm detection of subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xuan; Chen, Longyan; Neethirajan, Suresh; Duffield, Todd

    2015-10-15

    Early detection of dairy animal health issues allows the producer or veterinarian to intervene before the animals' production levels, or even survival, is threatened. An increased concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate (βHBA) is a key biomarker for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis (SCK), and provides information on the health stress in cows well before any external symptoms are observable. In this study, quantum dots (QDs) modified with cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) were prepared for the sensing event, by which the βHBA concentration in the cow's blood and milk samples was determined via fluorescence analysis of the functionalized QDs. The detection was performed on a custom designed microfluidic platform combining with a low cost and miniaturized optical sensor. The sensing mechanism was first validated by a microplate reader method and then applied to the microfluidic platform. Standard βHBA solution, βHBA in blood and milk samples from cows were successfully measured by this novel technology with a detection limit at a level of 35 µM. Side by side comparison of the developed microfluidic biosensor with a commercial kit presented its good performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical redox imaging indices discriminate human breast cancer from normal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Our long-term goal was to investigate the potential of incorporating redox imaging technique as a breast cancer (BC) diagnosis component to increase the positive predictive value of suspicious imaging finding and to reduce unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis. We previously found that precancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. We also revealed abnormal mitochondrial redox state in cancerous specimens from three BC patients. Here, we extend our study to include biopsies of 16 patients. Tissue aliquots were collected from both apparently normal and cancerous tissues from the affected cancer-bearing breasts shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen and scanned with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the three-dimensional cryogenic NADH/Fp (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized flavoproteins) fluorescence imager. We found both Fp and NADH in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled that in the normal tissues (predox ratio Fp/(NADH + Fp) was ∼27% higher in the cancerous tissues (predox ratio alone could predict cancer with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Our findings suggest that the optical redox imaging technique can provide parameters independent of clinical factors for discriminating cancer from noncancer breast tissues in human patients. PMID:27896360

  5. Size controlled synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles and their activity in the oxidation of NADH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Parvathy R; Sandhyarani, N; Naseer, M; Udupa, N

    2012-01-01

    Size and shape controlled synthesis remains a major bottleneck in the research on nanoparticles even after the development of different methods for their preparation. By tuning the size and shape of a nanoparticle, the intrinsic properties of the nanoparticle can be controlled leading tremendous potential applications in different fields of science and technology. We describe a facile route for the one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water using monosodium glutamate as the reducing and stabilizing agent in the absence of seed particles. The particle diameter can be easily controlled by varying the pH of the reaction medium. Nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and dynamic light scattering. Zeta potential measurements were made to compare the stability of the different nanoparticles. The results suggest that lower pH favours a nucleation rate giving rise to smaller particles and higher pH favours a growth rate leading to the formation of larger particles. The synthesized nanoparticles are found to be stable and biocompatible. The nanoparticles synthesized at high pH exhibited a good electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH).

  6. Expression of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1) in human cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, No Hee; Chang, Ji-Won; Choi, June; Jung, Hak Hyun; Im, Gi Jung

    2013-02-01

    Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1) is a 21-kDa signaling G protein that functions as a pleiotropic regulator of many cellular processes including epithelial differentiation. RAC1 activates the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex which promotes formation of reactive oxygen species and degradation enzymes. RAC1 has been associated with rapid epithelial differentiation and invasive properties in human cholesteatoma. This study aimed to identify the presence of RAC1 in human cholesteatoma and analyze its functional role as a regulator of proteolysis and overgrowth. Tissue samples from human cholesteatoma and normal postaural skin were obtained from patients during otologic surgery for cholesteatoma. The expression of RAC1 mRNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR, and localization of RAC1 expression was confirmed using immunohistochemical staining. Expression of RAC1 mRNA in the epithelium of cholesteatoma was significantly elevated 2.94 fold on average, compared with normal control skin. RAC1 expression in the suprabasal and basal layer of cholesteatoma epithelium was stronger than normal control skin. Our results suggest that RAC1 can be associated with rapid epithelial differentiation and invasive properties of human cholesteatoma.

  7. Two-photon NADH imaging exposes boundaries of oxygen diffusion in cortical vascular supply regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, Karl A; Lambert, Elton M; Panepento, Ben; Sun, Anita; Gelbard, Harris A; Burgess, Robert W; Foster, Thomas H; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen transport imposes a possible constraint on the brain's ability to sustain variable metabolic demands, but oxygen diffusion in the cerebral cortex has not yet been observed directly. We show that concurrent two-photon fluorescence imaging of endogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the cortical microcirculation exposes well-defined boundaries of tissue oxygen diffusion in the mouse cortex. The NADH fluorescence increases rapidly over a narrow, very low pO(2) range with a p(50) of 3.4 ± 0.6 mm Hg, thereby establishing a nearly binary reporter of significant, metabolically limiting hypoxia. The transient cortical tissue boundaries of NADH fluorescence exhibit remarkably delineated geometrical patterns, which define the limits of tissue oxygen diffusion from the cortical microcirculation and bear a striking resemblance to the ideal Krogh tissue cylinder. The visualization of microvessels and their regional contribution to oxygen delivery establishes penetrating arterioles as major oxygen sources in addition to the capillary network and confirms the existence of cortical oxygen fields with steep microregional oxygen gradients. Thus, two-photon NADH imaging can be applied to expose vascular supply regions and to localize functionally relevant microregional cortical hypoxia with micrometer spatial resolution.

  8. Alternate substrates and isotope effects as a probe of the malic enzyme reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavva, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Dissociation constants for alternative dinucleotide substrates and competitive inhibitors suggest that the dinucleotide binding site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme is hydrophobic in the vicinity of the nicotinamide ring. Changes in the divalent metal ion activator from Mg 2+ to Mn 2+ or Cd 2+ results in a decrease in the dinucleotide affinity and an increase in the affinity for malate. Primary deuterium and 13 C isotope effects obtained with the different metal ions suggest either a change in the transition state structure for the hydride transfer or decarboxylation steps or both. Deuterium isotope effects are finite whether reactants are maintained at saturating or limiting concentrations with all the metal ions and dinucleotide substrates used. For the native enzyme, primary deuterium isotope effects increase with a concomitant decrease in the 13 C effects when NAD is replaced by an alternate dinucleotide substrate different in redox potential

  9. Density and viscosity study of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in dilute aqueous solutions at and around the temperature of the maximum density of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondge, Sudhakar S.; Dahasahasra, Prachi N.; Paliwal, Lalitmohan J.; Deshmukh, Dinesh W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Volumetric and transport behaviour of aqueous solutions of important vitamins are reported. • Various interactions of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with water have been reported. • The temperature dependence of interactions between solute and solvent is discussed. • The study indicates that nicotinamide is more hydrated as compared to nicotinic acid. - Abstract: In the present study, we report experimental densities (ρ) and viscosities (η) of aqueous solutions of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide within the concentration range (0 to 0.1) mol · kg −1 at T = (275.15, 277.15 and 279.15) K. These parameters are then used to obtain thermodynamic and transport functions such as apparent molar volume of solute (V ϕ ), limiting apparent molar volume of solute (V ϕ 0 ), limiting apparent molar expansivity of solute (E ϕ 0 ), coefficient of thermal expansion (α ∗ ), Jones–Dole equation viscosity A, B and D coefficients, temperature derivative of B coefficient i.e. (dB/dT) and hydration number (n H ), etc. The activation parameters of viscous flow for the binary mixtures have been determined and discussed in terms of Eyring’s transition state theory. These significant parameters are helpful to study the structure promoting or destroying tendency of solute and various interactions present in (nicotinic acid + water) and (nicotinamide + water) binary mixtures

  10. Chronic granulomatous disease caused by mutations other than the common GT deletion in NCF1, the gene encoding the p47phox component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Dirk; de Boer, Martin; Köker, M. Yavuz; Dekker, Jan; Singh-Gupta, Vinita; Ahlin, Anders; Palmblad, Jan; Sanal, Ozden; Kurenko-Deptuch, Magdalena; Jolles, Stephen; Wolach, Baruch

    2006-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency caused by defects in any of four genes encoding components of the leukocyte nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH) oxidase. One of these is the autosomal neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (NCF1) gene encoding the p47phox

  11. Dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene-adenine conjugate recognizes complementary poly dT among ss-DNA/ss-RNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić Stojković, Marijana; Škugor, Marko; Tomić, Sanja; Grabar, Marina; Smrečki, Vilko; Dudek, Łukasz; Grolik, Jarosław; Eilmes, Julita; Piantanida, Ivo

    2013-06-28

    Among three novel DBTAA derivatives only the DBTAA-propyl-adenine conjugate showed recognition of the consecutive oligo dT sequence by increased affinity and specific induced chirooptical response in comparison to other single stranded RNA and DNA; whereby of particular importance is the up until now unique efficient differentiation between dT and rU. At variance, its close analogue DBTAA-hexyl-adenine did not reveal any selectivity between ss-DNA/RNA pointing out the important role of steric factors (linker length); moreover non-selectivity of the reference compound (, lacking adenine) stressed the importance of adenine interactions in the selectivity.

  12. SIRT1 gene is associated with cardiovascular disease in the Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Mohtavinejad

    2015-01-20

    Jan 20, 2015 ... rs3758391 CC genotype in both additive and recessive models. The rs3758391 CC ... of the sirtuin family which belongs to the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine ..... of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Genet Mol Res.

  13. Analysis of dinucleotide signatures in HIV-1 subtype B genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was also shown that the profile generated by taking all dinucleotides together ... Keywords. genome signature; DRAP; HIV-1; chaos game representation. Journal of .... be used to quantify low levels of variation as are observed within species ..... Dayton A.I., Sodroski J.G., Rosen C.A., Goh W.C. and Haseltine. W.A. 1986 ...

  14. Biofabrication of chitosan-silver composite SERS substrates enabling quantification of adenine by a spectroscopic shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X L; Bentley, W E; Buckhout-White, S; Rubloff, G W

    2011-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has grown dramatically as an analytical tool for the sensitive and selective detection of molecules adsorbed on nano-roughened noble metal structures. Quantification with SERS based on signal intensity remains challenging due to the complicated fabrication process to obtain well-dispersed nanoparticles and well-ordered substrates. We report a new biofabrication strategy of SERS substrates that enable quantification through a newly discovered spectroscopic shift resulting from the chitosan-analyte interactions in solution. We demonstrate this phenomenon by the quantification of adenine, which is an essential part of the nucleic acid structure and a key component in pathways which generate signal molecules for bacterial communications. The SERS substrates were fabricated simply by sequential electrodeposition of chitosan on patterned gold electrodes and electroplating of a silver nitrate solution through the chitosan scaffold to form a chitosan-silver nanoparticle composite. Active SERS signals of adenine solutions were obtained in real time from the chitosan-silver composite substrates with a significant concentration-dependent spectroscopic shift. The Lorentzian curve fitting of the dominant peaks suggests the presence of two separate peaks with a concentration-dependent area percentage of the separated peaks. The chitosan-mediated composite SERS substrates can be easily biofabricated on predefined electrodes within microfluidic channels for real-time detection in microsystems.

  15. Engineering Escherichia coli Nicotinic Acid Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase for Fully Active Amidated NAD Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Zhou, Yongjin J; Wang, Lei; Liu, Wujun; Liu, Yuxue; Peng, Chang; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2017-07-01

    NAD and its reduced form NADH function as essential redox cofactors and have major roles in determining cellular metabolic features. NAD can be synthesized through the deamidated and amidated pathways, for which the key reaction involves adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively. In Escherichia coli , NAD de novo biosynthesis depends on the protein NadD-catalyzed adenylylation of NaMN to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD), followed by NAD synthase-catalyzed amidation. In this study, we engineered NadD to favor NMN for improved amidated pathway activity. We designed NadD mutant libraries, screened by a malic enzyme-coupled colorimetric assay, and identified two variants, 11B4 (Y84V/Y118D) and 16D8 (A86W/Y118N), with a high preference for NMN. Whereas in the presence of NMN both variants were capable of enabling the viability of cells of E. coli BW25113-derived NAD-auxotrophic strain YJE003, for which the last step of the deamidated pathway is blocked, the 16D8 expression strain could grow without exogenous NMN and accumulated a higher cellular NAD(H) level than BW25113 in the stationary phase. These mutants established fully active amidated NAD biosynthesis and offered a new opportunity to manipulate NAD metabolism for biocatalysis and metabolic engineering. IMPORTANCE Adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and adenylylation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively, are the key steps in the deamidated and amidated pathways for NAD biosynthesis. In most organisms, canonical NAD biosynthesis follows the deamidated pathway. Here we engineered Escherichia coli NaMN adenylyltransferase to favor NMN and expressed the mutant enzyme in an NAD-auxotrophic E. coli strain that has the last step of the deamidated pathway blocked. The engineered strain survived in M9 medium, which indicated the implementation of a functional amidated pathway for NAD biosynthesis. These results enrich

  16. Protein Engineering for Nicotinamide Coenzyme Specificity in Oxidoreductases: Attempts and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chánique, Andrea M; Parra, Loreto P

    2018-01-01

    Oxidoreductases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze an extensive range of chemical reactions with great specificity, efficiency, and selectivity. Most oxidoreductases are nicotinamide cofactor-dependent enzymes with a strong preference for NADP or NAD. Because these coenzymes differ in stability, bioavailability and costs, the enzyme preference for a specific coenzyme is an important issue for practical applications. Different approaches for the manipulation of coenzyme specificity have been reported, with different degrees of success. Here we present various attempts for the switching of nicotinamide coenzyme preference in oxidoreductases by protein engineering. This review covers 103 enzyme engineering studies from 82 articles and evaluates the accomplishments in terms of coenzyme specificity and catalytic efficiency compared to wild type enzymes of different classes. We analyzed different protein engineering strategies and related them with the degree of success in inverting the cofactor specificity. In general, catalytic activity is compromised when coenzyme specificity is reversed, however when switching from NAD to NADP, better results are obtained. In most of the cases, rational strategies were used, predominantly with loop exchange generating the best results. In general, the tendency of removing acidic residues and incorporating basic residues is the strategy of choice when trying to change specificity from NAD to NADP, and vice versa . Computational strategies and algorithms are also covered as helpful tools to guide protein engineering strategies. This mini review aims to give a general introduction to the topic, giving an overview of tools and information to work in protein engineering for the reversal of coenzyme specificity.

  17. [The influence of fasting, of a hyperprotein diet and of nicotinamide on hepatic L-threonine deaminase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleo, M F; Casella, A; Marinello, E

    1981-09-15

    The induction of L-threonine deaminase, following nicotinamide injection has been studied: the effect of fasting and of hyperproteic diet have been also taken in consideration. Maximal induction is observed after 5 days hyperproteic diet, and is additional only with nicotinamide treatment. Results are interpreted assuming a different hepatic content and behavior of multiple forms of the enzyme.

  18. Polyphenolic constituents and antioxidant/antiradical activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-11-25

    Nov 25, 2015 ... models (Bandawane et al., 2011) and this may be due to its inhibitory activity of .... (Nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen salt) and assayed by the reduction of ..... streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Ind. J. Pharm.

  19. Determination of adenine based on the fluorescence recovery of the L-Tryptophan-Cu(2+) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ruilin; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Li, Yuanfang; Yuan, Yusheng; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-05

    A simple and sensitive method for determination of adenine was developed based on fluorescence quenching and recovery of L-Tryptophan (L-Trp). The fluorescence of L-Trp could efficiently quenched by copper ion compared with other common metal ions. Upon addition of adenine (Ade) in L-Trp-Cu(II) system, the fluorescence was reoccurred. Under the optimum conditions, the recovery fluorescence intensity was linearly correlated with the concentration of adenine in the range from 0.34 to 25.0μmolL(-1), with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9994. The detection limit (3σ/k) was 0.046μmolL(-1), indicating that this method could applied to detect trace adenine. In this study, amino acids including L-Trp, D-Trp, L-Tyr, D-Tyr, L-Phe, D-Phe were investigated and only L-Trp could well chelated copper ion. Additionally, the mechanism of quench and recovery also were discussed and the method was successfully applied to detect the adenine in DNA with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adenine nucleotide depletion from endothelial cells exposed to xanthine oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, T.K.; Raivio, K.O.

    1990-01-01

    Hypoxia causes breakdown of cellular nucleotides, accumulation of hypoxanthine (HX), and conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase (XO). Upon reoxygenation, the HX-XO reaction generates free radicals, one potential mechanism of tissue damage. Because endothelial cells contain XO and are exposed to circulating HX, they are a likely target for damage. We studied the effect of XO and/or HX at physiologically relevant concentrations on nucleotide metabolism of cultured endothelial cells from human umbilical veins. Cells were labeled with [14C]adenine and incubated for up to 6 h with HX, XO, or both, in the absence or presence of serum. Adenine nucleotides from cell extracts and nucleotide breakdown products (HX, xanthine, and urate) from the medium were separated and counted. HX alone had no effect. XO (80 mU/ml) alone caused a 70% (no serum) or 40% (with serum) fall in adenine nucleotides and an equivalent increase of xanthine and urate. The combination of HX and XO caused a 90% (no serum) or 70% (with serum) decrease in nucleotides, decrease in energy charge, and detachment of cells from the culture plate. Nucleotide depletion was not accounted for by proteolytic activity in the XO preparation. Albumin was only half as effective as serum in preventing nucleotide loss. Thus exogenous XO, in the presence of endogenous HX, triggers adenine nucleotide catabolism, but endogenous XO activity is too low to influence nucleotide levels even at high exogenous HX concentrations. Serum limits the catabolic effect of XO and thus protects cells from free radical damage

  1. Depletion of NAD pool contributes to impairment of endothelial progenitor cell mobilization in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Zheng; Song, Jie; Guan, Yun-Feng; Zou, Da-Jin; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2016-06-01

    The impaired mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from bone marrow (BM) critically contributes to the diabetes-associated vascular complications. Here, we investigated the relationship between the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-controlled nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism and the impaired mobilization of BM-derived EPCs in diabetic condition. The NAMPT-NAD pool in BM and BM-derived EPCs in wild-type (WT) and diabetic db/db mice was determined. Nicotinamide, a natural substrate for NAD biosynthesis, was administrated for 2weeks in db/db mice to examine the influence of enhancing NAD pool on BM and blood EPCs number. The modulations of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein in BM were measured using immunoblotting. The EPCs intracellular NAMPT level and NAD concentration, as well as the blood EPCs number, were compared between 9 healthy people and 16 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The T2DM patients were treated with nicotinamide for two weeks and then the blood EPCs number was determined. Moreover, the association between blood EPCs numbers and EPCs intracellular NAD(+)/NAMPT protein levels in 21 healthy individuals was determined. We found that NAD concentration and NAMPT expression in BM and BM-derived EPCs of db/db mice were significantly lower than those in WT mice BM. Enhancing NAD pool not only increased the EPCs intracellular NAD concentration and blood EPCs number, but also improved post-ischemic wound healing and blood reperfusion in db/db mice with hind-limb ischemia model. Enhancing NAD pool rescued the impaired modulations of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein levels in db/db mice BM upon hind-limb ischemia. In addition, enhancing NAD pool significantly inhibited PARP and caspase-3 activates in db/db mice BM. The intracellular NAMPT-NAD pool was positively associated with blood

  2. Vibrio Phage KVP40 Encodes a Functional NAD+ Salvage Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yun; Li, Zhiqun; Miller, Eric S

    2017-05-01

    The genome of T4-type Vibrio bacteriophage KVP40 has five genes predicted to encode proteins of pyridine nucleotide metabolism, of which two, nadV and natV , would suffice for an NAD + salvage pathway. NadV is an apparent nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase), and NatV is an apparent bifunctional nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNATase) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide pyrophosphatase (Nudix hydrolase). Genes encoding the predicted salvage pathway were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli , the proteins were purified, and their enzymatic properties were examined. KVP40 NadV NAmPRTase is active in vitro , and a clone complements a Salmonella mutant defective in both the bacterial de novo and salvage pathways. Similar to other NAmPRTases, the KVP40 enzyme displayed ATPase activity indicative of energy coupling in the reaction mechanism. The NatV NMNATase activity was measured in a coupled reaction system demonstrating NAD + biosynthesis from nicotinamide, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, and ATP. The NatV Nudix hydrolase domain was also shown to be active, with preferred substrates of ADP-ribose, NAD + , and NADH. Expression analysis using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme assays of infected Vibrio parahaemolyticus cells demonstrated nadV and natV transcription during the early and delayed-early periods of infection when other KVP40 genes of nucleotide precursor metabolism are expressed. The distribution and phylogeny of NadV and NatV proteins among several large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) myophages, and also those from some very large siphophages, suggest broad relevance of pyridine nucleotide scavenging in virus-infected cells. NAD + biosynthesis presents another important metabolic resource control point by large, rapidly replicating dsDNA bacteriophages. IMPORTANCE T4-type bacteriophages enhance DNA precursor synthesis through reductive reactions that use NADH/NADPH as the electron donor and NAD

  3. Prolonged Pulmonary Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles Exacerbates Renal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and DNA Damage in Mice with Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Epidemiological evidence indicates that patients with chronic kidney diseases have increased susceptibility to adverse outcomes related to long-term exposure to particulate air pollution. However, mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. Methods: Presently, we assessed the effect of prolonged exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP on chronic renal failure induced by adenine (0.25% w/w in feed for 4 weeks, which is known to involve inflammation and oxidative stress. DEP (0.5m/kg was intratracheally (i.t. instilled every 4th day for 4 weeks (7 i.t. instillation. Four days following the last exposure to either DEP or saline (control, various renal endpoints were measured. Results: While body weight was decreased, kidney weight increased in DEP+adenine versus saline+adenine or DEP. Water intake, urine volume, relative kidney weight were significantly increased in adenine+DEP versus DEP and adenine+saline versus saline. Plasma creatinine and urea increased and creatinine clearance decreased in adenine+DEP versus DEP and adenine+saline versus saline. Tumor necrosis factor α, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species were significantly increased in adenine+DEP compared with either DEP or adenine+saline. The antioxidant calase was significantly decreased in adenine+DEP compared with either adenine+saline or DEP. Notably, renal DNA damage was significantly potentiated in adenine+DEP compared with either adenine+saline or DEP. Similarly, systolic blood pressure was increased in adenine+DEP versus adenine+saline or DEP, and in DEP versus saline. Histological evaluation revealed more collagen deposition, higher number of necrotic cell counts and dilated tubules, cast formation and collapsing glomeruli in adenine+DEP versus adenine+saline or DEP. Conclusion: Prolonged pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles worsen renal oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage in mice with adenine-induced chronic

  4. A two year observational study of nicotinamide and intensive insulin therapy in patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinó, A; Schiaffini, R; Ciampalini, P; Suraci, M C; Manfrini, S; Visalli, N; Matteoli, M C; Patera, P; Buzzetti, R; Guglielmi, C; Spera, S; Costanza, F; Fioriti, E; Pitocco, D; Pozzilli, P

    2005-08-01

    A number of trials have evaluated residual beta-cell function in patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) treated with nicotinamide in addition to intensive insulin therapy (IIT). In most studies, only a slight decline of C-peptide secretion was observed 12 months after diagnosis; however, no data is available on C-peptide secretion and metabolic control in patients continuing nicotinamide and IIT for up to 2 years after diagnosis. We retrospectively analysed data from 25 patients (mean age 14.7 years +/- 5 SD) with DM1 in whom nicotinamide at a dose of 25 mg/kg b. wt. was added from diagnosis (< 4 weeks) to IIT (three injections of regular insulin at meals + one NPH at bed time) and continued for up to 2 years after diagnosis. Data were also analysed from patients (n = 27) in whom IIT was introduced at diagnosis and who were similarly followed for 2 years. Baseline C-peptide as well as insulin dose and HbA1c levels were evaluated at 12 and 24 months after diagnosis. In the course of the follow-up, patients on nicotinamide + IIT or IIT alone did not significantly differ in terms of C-peptide secretion (values at 24 months in the two groups were 0.19 +/- 0.24 nM vs 0.19 +/- 0.13 nM, respectively). Insulin requirement (0.6 +/- 0.3 U/kg/day vs 0.7 +/- 0.2 U/kg/day at 24 months, respectively) did not differ between the two groups. However, HbA1c was significantly lower 2 years after diagnosis in patients treated with nicotinamide + IIT (6.09 +/- 0.9% vs 6.98 +/- 0.9%, respectively, p < 0.01). No adverse effects were observed in patients receiving nicotinamide for 2 years. Implementation of IIT with the addition of nicotinamide at diagnosis continued for 2 years improves metabolic control as assessed by HbA1c. In both nicotinamide and control patients, no decline in C-peptide was detected 2 years after diagnosis, indicating that IIT preserves C-peptide secretion. We conclude that nicotinamide + IIT at diagnosis of DM1 prolonged for up to 2 years can be

  5. Synthesis of adenine mediated superparamagnetic colloidal β-FeOOH nanostructure(s): study of their morphological changes and magnetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Anil; Gupta, Sudhir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of adenine-mediated superparamagnetic β-FeOOH nanostructures in aqueous medium. Capping by adenine provides a synthetic control to manipulate their size, morphology, optical and magnetization properties. β-FeOOH binds to adenine mainly through –NH 2 , N(3); N(9)H and N(7) of the pyridine and imidazole rings, respectively. At low [adenine], it produces nanorods, but at higher [adenine] (>1 × 10 −2 mol dm −3 ), increasing numbers of spherical nanoparticles encapsulating β-FeOOH with an average diameter of 2.5 nm in the core and adenine molecules in the shell are obtained, causing an increase in the specific surface area by about twofold. Dynamic light scattering technique also depicts a regular decrease in their hydrodynamic size with increasing [adenine] and exhibits the highest stability with a zeta potential of ∼67 mV for the sample containing 2 × 10 −2 mol dm −3 adenine (SP5). An increasing [adenine] from 1 × 10 −3 to 2 × 10 −2 mol dm −3 in these samples enhanced the value of saturation magnetization (M S ), due to β-FeOOH, gradually from 2.0 to 6.9 emu g −1 at 300 K, but at S at 300 K having potential for environmental and biological applications.

  6. cDNA structure, genomic organization and expression patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... adenine dinucleotide (NAD) intermediate (Rongvaux et al., 2002). Thereupon ... in house mouse, Norway rat and human. It was not difficult to ... species in freshwater regions, and has been a new model organism in aquatic ...

  7. Clinical, functional, and genetic characterization of chronic granulomatous disease in 89 Turkish patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köker, Mustafa Yavuz; Camcıoğlu, Yıldız; van Leeuwen, Karin; Kılıç, Sara Şebnem; Barlan, Işıl; Yılmaz, Mustafa; Metin, Ayşe; de Boer, Martin; Avcılar, Hüseyin; Patıroğlu, Türkan; Yıldıran, Alişan; Yeğin, Olcay; Tezcan, Ilhan; Sanal, Ozden; Roos, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder of phagocytes resulting in impaired killing of bacteria and fungi. A mutation in one of the 4 genes encoding the components p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), and p40(phox) of the leukocyte nicotinamide dinucleotide

  8. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong, E-mail: haedong@hnu.kr

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  9. Solution structure of the 3'-5' cyclic dinucleotide d. A combined NMR, UV melting, and molecular mechanics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blommers, M.J.J.; Haasnoot, C.A.G.; Walters, J.A.L.I.; van der Marel, G.A.; van Boom, J.H.; Hilbers, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The 3'-5' cyclic dinucleotide d 1 H and 13 C NMR experiments, UV-melting experiments, and molecular mechanics calculations. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra were analyzed by means of 2-dimensional NMR experiments. J-Coupling analysis of the 1D and 2D 1 H and 13 C spectra was used to determine the conformation of the ring systems in the molecule. It appeared that at low temperature (283 K) the deoxyribose sugars adopt a N-type conformation. The geometry is best described by an intermediate between the 3 2 T and 3 E forms. In addition, the authors were able to derive all other torsion angles in the phosphate backbone ring system, i.e., α + , β/sup t/, γ + , δ (=89/degrees/), ε/sup t/ and /zeta/ + . When the molecule is subjected to an energy minimization procedure (using the program AMBER), the sugar ring system retains, practically speaking, the torsion angles found from the NMR experiments, while the torsion angles around the glycosidic bond adopt a value of 175/degrees/ in the minimum energy conformation. UV-melting experiments indicate that two molecules can form a dimer in which the adenine bases are intercalated. The feasibility of this structure is indicated by molecular mechanics calculations. At higher temperatures the dimer is converted into separate monomers. In the monomer form the sugars exhibit S-pucker 20% of the time. Concomitantly with the conversion of the N- to the S-conformation, the torsion angles α and γ change

  10. Heat-processed ginseng saponin ameliorates the adenine-induced renal failure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Jin; Oh, Hyun-A; Choi, Hyuck Jai; Park, Jeong Hill; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Nam Jae

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the saponin of heat-processed ginseng (Sun ginseng, SG), we investigated the protective effect of SG total saponin fraction against adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. SG saponin significantly decreased the levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum, but increased the urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating an improvement of renal function. SG saponin also inhibited adenine-induced kidney hypertrophy and edema. SG saponin red...

  11. TNF-α mediates choroidal neovascularization by upregulating VEGF expression in RPE through ROS-dependent β-catenin activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Han, Xiaokun; Wittchen, Erika S; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis have been proposed to interact in age-related macular degeneration. It has been postulated that external stimuli that cause oxidative stress can increase production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), contributed to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by upregulating VEGF in RPE through intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling and sought to understand the mechanisms involved. In a murine laser-induced CNV model, 7 days after laser treatment and intravitreal neutralizing mouse TNF-α antibody or isotype immunoglobulin G (IgG) control, the following measurements were made: 1) TNF-α protein and VEGF protein in RPE/choroids with western blot, 2) CNV volume in RPE/choroidal flatmounts, and 3) semiquantification of oxidized phospholipids stained with E06 antibody within CNV with immunohistochemistry (IHC). In cultured human RPE cells treated with TNF-α or PBS control, 1) ROS generation was measured using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence assay, and 2) NOX4 protein and VEGF protein or mRNA were measured with western blot or quantitative real-time PCR in cells pretreated with apocynin or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) inhibitor, VAS 2870, or transfected with p22phox siRNA, and each was compared to its appropriate control. Western blots of phosphorylated p65 (p-p65), total p65 and β-actin, and quantitative real-time PCR of VEGF mRNA were measured in human RPE cells treated with TNF-α and pretreatment with the nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, Bay 11-7082 or control. Western blots of β-catenin, VEGF, and p22phox and coimmunoprecipitation of β-catenin and T-cell transcriptional factor were performed in human RPE cells treated with TNF-α following pretreatment with

  12. Prolonged Pulmonary Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles Exacerbates Renal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and DNA Damage in Mice with Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Karaca, Turan; Beegam, Sumaya; Yuvaraju, Priya; Yasin, Javed; Hamadi, Naserddine Kamel; Ali, Badreldin H

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that patients with chronic kidney diseases have increased susceptibility to adverse outcomes related to long-term exposure to particulate air pollution. However, mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. Presently, we assessed the effect of prolonged exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on chronic renal failure induced by adenine (0.25% w/w in feed for 4 weeks), which is known to involve inflammation and oxidative stress. DEP (0.5m/kg) was intratracheally (i.t.) instilled every 4th day for 4 weeks (7 i.t. instillation). Four days following the last exposure to either DEP or saline (control), various renal endpoints were measured. While body weight was decreased, kidney weight increased in DEP+adenine versus saline+adenine or DEP. Water intake, urine volume, relative kidney weight were significantly increased in adenine+DEP versus DEP and adenine+saline versus saline. Plasma creatinine and urea increased and creatinine clearance decreased in adenine+DEP versus DEP and adenine+saline versus saline. Tumor necrosis factor α, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species were significantly increased in adenine+DEP compared with either DEP or adenine+saline. The antioxidant calase was significantly decreased in adenine+DEP compared with either adenine+saline or DEP. Notably, renal DNA damage was significantly potentiated in adenine+DEP compared with either adenine+saline or DEP. Similarly, systolic blood pressure was increased in adenine+DEP versus adenine+saline or DEP, and in DEP versus saline. Histological evaluation revealed more collagen deposition, higher number of necrotic cell counts and dilated tubules, cast formation and collapsing glomeruli in adenine+DEP versus adenine+saline or DEP. Prolonged pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles worsen renal oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage in mice with adenine-induced chronic renal failure. Our data provide biological plausibility that air

  13. Communication: Site-selective bond excision of adenine upon electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, T.; Mendes, M.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Eden, S.; García, G.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2018-01-01

    This work demonstrates that selective excision of hydrogen atoms at a particular site of the DNA base adenine can be achieved in collisions with electronegative atoms by controlling the impact energy. The result is based on analysing the time-of-flight mass spectra yields of potassium collisions with a series of labeled adenine derivatives. The production of dehydrogenated parent anions is consistent with neutral H loss either from selective breaking of C-H or N-H bonds. These unprecedented results open up a new methodology in charge transfer collisions that can initiate selective reactivity as a key process in chemical reactions that are dominant in different areas of science and technology.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose metabolism requires gluconeogenesis and the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway for aerobic xylose assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces strains engineered to ferment xylose using Scheffersomyces stipitis xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes appear to be limited by metabolic imbalances due to differing cofactor specificities of XR and XDH. The S. stipitis XR, which uses nicotinamide adenine dinucl...

  15. Effects of radiosensitising agent nicotinamide on relative tissue perfusion and kidney junction in C3H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honess, D.J.; Bleehen, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    Nicotinamide is an effective radiosensitiser of murine tumours, functioning by improving tumour perfusion by decreasing the proportion of intermittently closed capillaries. The effect of nicotinamide on relative tissue perfusion of RIF-1 tumour and normal skin, muscle, lung, liver, kidney and spleen were investigated using the 86 Rb extraction technique. A dose of 1000 mg/kg was shown to have transient effects on tumour, skin and lung perfusion but to have sustained effects on muscle (a drop to 80% of control), liver, kidney and spleen (with increased ranging from 165% to 280% of control) from 0.5 to 4 h after treatment i.e. during the period of maximum radiosensitisation. These increases were evident at doses as low as 100 mg/kg. The data suggest that the radiosensitisation induced by nicotinamide in the mouse may be associated with these perfusion changes. Nicotinamide was also shown to have a substantial inhibitory effect on renal function, inhibiting 51 CrEDTA clearance by a factor (± 2 SE) of 2.56 ± 0.19 and 125 I-iodohippurate clearance by a factor of 2.07 ± 0.45 at 1000 mg/kg. These effects were shown to be dose-related, and to be evident at doses from 400 mg/kg upwards. This suggests that nicotinamide potentiation of co-administered cytotoxic agents may be mediated by reduced renal clearance of the cytotoxic drug, thus increasing the plasma half-life. (author)

  16. Detection of Cyclic Dinucleotides by STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Xia; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an essential signaling adaptor protein mediating cytosolic DNA-induced innate immunity for both microbial invasion and self-DNA leakage. STING is also a direct receptor for cytosolic cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), including the microbial secondary messengers c-di-GMP (3',3'-cyclic di-GMP), 3',3'cGAMP (3',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP), and mammalian endogenous 2',3'cGAMP (2',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP) synthesized by cGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase). Upon CDN binding, STING undergoes a conformational change to enable signal transduction by phosphorylation and finally to active IRF3 (Interferon regulatory factor 3) for type I interferon production. Here, we describe some experimental procedures such as Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and luciferase reporter assays to study the CDNs binding and activity by STING proteins.

  17. Knockdown of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in reduced resistance to buprofezin in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (fallén).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueliang; Wang, Yaming; Wang, Lihua; Yao, Jing; Guo, Huifang; Fang, Jichao

    2016-02-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) plays an important role in cytochrome P450 function, and CPR knockdown in several insects leads to increased susceptibility to insecticides. However, a putative CPR gene has not yet been fully characterized in the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus, a notorious agricultural pest in rice that causes serious damage by transmitting rice stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf viruses. The objective of this study was to clone the cDNA and to knock down the expression of the gene that encodes L. striatellus CPR (LsCPR) to further determine whether P450s are involved in the resistance of L. striatellus to buprofezin. First, the full-length cDNA of LsCPR was cloned and found to contain an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 679 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass and isoelectric point of 76.92kDa and 5.37, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence shares high identity with the CPRs of other insects (98%, 97%, 75% and 68% for Sogatella furcifera, Nilaparvata lugens, Cimex lectularius and Anopheles gambiae, respectively) and possesses the characteristic features of classical CPRs, such as an N-terminal membrane anchor and conserved domains for flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) binding. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that LsCPR is located in a branch along with the CPRs of other hemipteran insects. LsCPR mRNA was detectable in all examined body parts and developmental stages of L. striatellus, as determined by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and transcripts were most abundant in the adult abdomen and in first-instar nymphs and adults. Ingestion of 200μg/mL of LsCPR double-stranded RNA (dsLsCPR) by the planthopper for 5days significantly reduced the transcription level of LsCPR. Moreover, silencing of LsCPR caused increased susceptibility to buprofezin in a buprofezin-resistant (YN-BPF) strain but not in a

  18. ON THE INTERACTION OF ADENINE WITH IONIZING RADIATION: MECHANISTICAL STUDIES AND ASTROBIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nicholas L.; Ullrich, Susanne; Bennett, Chris J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular inventory available on the prebiotic Earth was likely derived from both terrestrial and extraterrestrial sources. A complete description of which extraterrestrial molecules may have seeded early Earth is therefore necessary to fully understand the prebiotic evolution which led to life. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are expected to cause both the formation and destruction of important biomolecules-including nucleic acid bases such as adenine-in the interstellar medium within the ices condensed on interstellar grains. The interstellar ultraviolet (UV) component is expected to photochemically degrade gas-phase adenine on a short timescale of only several years. However, the destruction rate is expected to be significantly reduced when adenine is shielded in dense molecular clouds or even within the ices of interstellar grains. Here, biomolecule destruction by the energetic charged particle component of the GCR becomes important as it is not fully attenuated. Presented here are results on the destruction rate of the nucleobase adenine in the solid state at 10 K by energetic electrons, as generated in the track of cosmic ray particles as they penetrate ices. When both UV and energetic charged particle destructive processes are taken into account, the half-life of adenine within dense interstellar clouds is found to be ∼6 Myr, which is on the order of a star-forming molecular cloud. We also discuss chemical reaction pathways within the ices to explain the production of observed species, including the formation of nitriles (R-C≡N), epoxides (C-O-C), and carbonyl functions (R-C=O).

  19. Pharmacological Inhibitors of NAD Biosynthesis as Potential An ticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Stephanie; Soave, Claire; Nabil, Ghazal; Ahmed, Zainab Sabry Othman; Chen, Guohua; El-Banna, Hossny Awad; Dou, Q Ping; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Alteration of cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, which underlies exciting opportunities to develop effective, anti-cancer therapeutics through inhibition of cancer metabolism. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential coenzyme of energy metabolism and a signaling molecule linking cellular energy status to a spectrum of molecular regulation, has been shown to be in high demand in a variety of cancer cells. Depletion of NAD+ by inhibition of its key biosynthetic enzymes has become an attractive strategy to target cancer. The main objective of this article is to review the recent patents which develop and implicate the chemical inhibitors of the key NAD+ biosynthetic enzymes for cancer treatment. We first discuss the biological principles of NAD+ metabolism in normal and malignant cells, with a focus on the feasibility of selectively targeting cancer cells by pharmacological inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and indoleamine/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (IDO/TDO), the rate-limiting salvage and de novo NAD+ biosynthetic enzymes, respectively. We then analyze a series of recent patents on development and optimization of chemical scaffolds for inhibiting NAMPT or IDO/TDO enzymes as potential anticancer drugs. Conclusion and Results: We have reviewed 16 relevant patents published since 2015, and summarized the chemical properties, m