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Sample records for nickel-titanium-based orthodontic wires

  1. Surface characterization of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires

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    Krishnan, Manu; Seema, Saraswathy; Tiwari, Brijesh; Sharma, Himanshu S.; Londhe, Sanjay; Arora, Vimal

    2015-01-01

    Background Surface roughness of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires poses several clinical challenges. Surface modification with aesthetic/metallic/non metallic materials is therefore a recent innovation, with clinical efficacy yet to be comprehensively evaluated. Methods One conventional and five types of surface modified nickel titanium arch wires were surface characterized with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, Raman spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy and 3D profilometry. Root mean square roughness values were analyzed by one way analysis of variance and post hoc Duncan's multiple range tests. Results Study groups demonstrated considerable reduction in roughness values from conventional in a material specific pattern: Group I; conventional (578.56 nm) > Group V; Teflon (365.33 nm) > Group III; nitride (301.51 nm) > Group VI (i); rhodium (290.64 nm) > Group VI (ii); silver (252.22 nm) > Group IV; titanium (229.51 nm) > Group II; resin (158.60 nm). It also showed the defects with aesthetic (resin/Teflon) and nitride surfaces and smooth topography achieved with metals; titanium/silver/rhodium. Conclusions Resin, Teflon, titanium, silver, rhodium and nitrides were effective in decreasing surface roughness of nickel titanium arch wires albeit; certain flaws. Findings have clinical implications, considering their potential in lessening biofilm adhesion, reducing friction, improving corrosion resistance and preventing nickel leach and allergic reactions. PMID:26843749

  2. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

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    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  3. Influence of stress and phase on corrosion of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire.

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    Segal, Nadav; Hell, Jess; Berzins, David W

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of stress and phase transformation on the corrosion properties of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire. The phase transformation profiles of superelastic nickel-titanium (Sentalloy, GAC International, Bohemia, NY) and beta-titanium (TMA, Ormco, Orange, Calif) archwires were analyzed by using differential scanning calorimetry. The force/deflection behavior of the wires at 37 degrees C was measured in a 3-point bending test per modified American Dental Association specification no. 32. Electrochemical testing consisted of monitoring the open circuit potential (OCP) for 2 hours followed by polarization resistance and cyclic polarization tests on archwire segments engaged in a 5-bracket simulation apparatus with bend deflections of 0.75, 1.5, or 3 mm in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. Nondeflected segments were also tested. Sentalloy was additionally examined for bending and corrosion at 5 degrees C, where it exists as martensite and is devoid of stress-induced phase transformation. OCP at 2 hours and corrosion current density (i(corr)) were analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests (alpha = .05) (n = 10 per deflection). Significant differences (P Sentalloy wires at 5 degrees C, but not for Sentalloy at 37 degrees C. Significant differences (P Sentalloy (37 degrees C) peaked at 0.75 mm deflection before the wire's stress-induced phase transformation point and then decreased with further deflection and transformation. The i(corr) values for TMA and Sentalloy at 5 degrees C, both of which do not undergo phase transformation with deformation, continuously increased from 0 to 1.5 mm deflection before decreasing at the 3.0-mm deflection. Stress increased the corrosion rate in nickel-titanium and beta-titanium orthodontic wires. Alterations in stress/strain associated with phase transformation in superelastic nickel-titanium might alter the corrosion rate in ways different from wires not undergoing phase

  4. Orthodontic buccal tooth movement by nickel-free titanium-based shape memory and superelastic alloy wire.

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    Suzuki, Akihiro; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Tomizuka, Ryo; Hosoda, Hideki; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Okuno, Osamu; Igarashi, Kaoru; Mitani, Hideo

    2006-11-01

    To examine the mechanical properties and the usefulness of titanium-niobium-aluminum (Ti-Nb-Al) wire in orthodontic tooth movement as compared with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire. The load deflection of expansion springs was gauged with an original jig. The gradient of the superelastic region was measured during the unloading process. Expansion springs comprising the two types of alloy wires were applied to upper first molars of rats. The distance between the first molars was measured with micrometer calipers. The force magnitude of the Ti-Nb-Al expansion spring was lower than that of the Ni-Ti expansion spring over the entire deflection range. The initial force magnitude and the gradient in the superelastic region of the Ti-Nb-Al expansion springs were half those of the Ni-Ti expansion springs. Thus, Ti-Nb-Al expansion springs generated lighter and more continuous force. Tooth movement in the Ni-Ti group proceeded in a stepwise fashion. On the other hand, tooth movement in the Ti-Nb-Al group showed relatively smooth and continuous progression. At 17 days after insertion of expansion springs, there were no significant differences between the Ti-Nb-Al and Ni-Ti groups in the amount of tooth movement. These results indicate that Ti-Nb-Al wire has excellent mechanical properties for smooth, continuous tooth movement and suggest that Ti-Nb-Al wire may be used as a practical nickel-free shape memory and superelastic alloy wire for orthodontic treatment as a substitute for Ni-Ti wire.

  5. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Aravind

    2013-01-01

    Background: Application of light and continuous forces for optimum physiological response and least damage to the tooth supporting structures should be the primary aim of the orthodontist. Nickel titanium alloys with the properties of excellent spring back, super elasticity and wide range of action is one of the natural choices for the clinicians to achieve this goal. In recent periods, various wire manufacturers have come with a variety of wires exhibiting different properties. It is the duty of the clinician to select appropriate wires during various stages of treatment for excellent results. For achieving this evaluation of the properties of these wires is essential. Materials & Methods: This study is focussed on evaluating the super elastic property of eight groups of austenite active nickel titanium wires. Eight groups of archwires bought from eight different manufacturers were studied. These wires were tested through mechanical tensile testing and electrical resistivity methods. Results: Unloading curves were carefully assessed for superelastic behaviour on deactivation. Rankings of the wires tested were based primarily upon the unloading curve’s slope Conclusion: Ortho organisers wires ranked first and superior, followed by American Orthodontics and Ormco A wires. Morelli and GAClowland NiTi wires were ranked last. It can be concluded that the performance of these wires based on rankings should be further evaluated by clinical studies. How to cite this article: Sivaraj A. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):1-12. PMID:24155596

  6. Right wire in orthodontics: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.

  7. Interlot variations of transition temperature range and force delivery in copper-nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei-Reynolds, Renée C; Kanavakis, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    The manufacturing process for copper-nickel-titanium archwires is technique sensitive. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the interlot consistency of the mechanical properties of copper-nickel-titanium wires from 2 manufacturers. Wires of 2 sizes (0.016 and 0.016 × 0.022 in) and 3 advertised austenite finish temperatures (27°C, 35°C, and 40°C) from 2 manufacturers were tested for transition temperature ranges and force delivery using differential scanning calorimetry and the 3-point bend test, respectively. Variations of these properties were analyzed for statistical significance by calculating the F statistic for equality of variances for transition temperature and force delivery in each group of wires. All statistical analyses were performed at the 0.05 level of significance. Statistically significant interlot variations in austenite finish were found for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.041) and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.048) wire categories, and in austenite start for the 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C wire category (P = 0.01). In addition, significant variations in force delivery were found between the 2 manufacturers for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.002), 0.016 in/35.0°C (P = 0.049), and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.031) wires. Orthodontic wires of the same material, dimension, and manufacturer but from different production lots do not always have similar mechanical properties. Clinicians should be aware that copper-nickel-titanium wires might not always deliver the expected force, even when they come from the same manufacturer, because of interlot variations in the performance of the material. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. X-ray diffraction study of low-temperature phase transformations in nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

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    Iijima, M; Brantley, W A; Guo, W H; Clark, W A T; Yuasa, T; Mizoguchi, I

    2008-11-01

    Employ conventional X-ray diffraction (XRD) to analyze three clinically important nickel-titanium orthodontic wire alloys over a range of temperatures between 25 and -110 degrees C, for comparison with previous results from temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) studies. The archwires selected were 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti (Ormco), Neo Sentalloy (GAC International), and Nitinol SE (3M Unitek). Neo Sentalloy, which exhibits superelastic behavior, is marketed as having shape memory in the oral environment, and Nitinol SE and 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti also exhibit superelastic behavior. All archwires had dimensions of 0.016in.x0.022in. (0.41 mm x 0.56 mm). Straight segments cut with a water-cooled diamond saw were placed side-by-side to yield a 1 cm x 1cm test sample of each wire product for XRD analysis (Rint-Ultima(+), Rigaku) over a 2theta range from 30 degrees to 130 degrees and at successive temperatures of 25, -110, -60, -20, 0 and 25 degrees C. The phases revealed by XRD at the different analysis temperatures were in good agreement with those found in previous TMDSC studies of transformations in these alloys, in particular verifying the presence of R-phase at 25 degrees C. Precise comparisons are not possible because of the approximate nature of the transformation temperatures determined by TMDSC and the preferred crystallographic orientation present in the wires. New XRD peaks appear to result from low-temperature transformation in martensite, which a recent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study has shown to arise from twinning. While XRD is a useful technique to study phases in nickel-titanium orthodontic wires and their transformations as a function of temperature, optimum insight is obtained when XRD analyses are combined with complementary TMDSC and TEM study of the wires.

  9. Phase transformation changes in thermocycled nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

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    Berzins, David W; Roberts, Howard W

    2010-07-01

    In the oral environment, orthodontic wires will be subject to thermal fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thermocycling on nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire phase transformations. Straight segments from single 27 and 35 degrees C copper NiTi (Ormco), Sentalloy (GAC), and Nitinol Heat Activated (3M Unitek) archwires were sectioned into 5mm segments (n=20). A control group consisted of five randomly selected non-thermocycled segments. The remaining segments were thermocycled between 5 and 55 degrees C with five randomly selected segments analyzed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC; -100150 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min) after 1000, 5000, and 10,000 cycles. Thermal peaks were evaluated with results analyzed via ANOVA (alpha=0.05). Nitinol HA and Sentalloy did not demonstrate qualitative or quantitative phase transformation behavior differences. Significant differences were observed in some of the copper NiTi transformation temperatures, as well as the heating enthalpy with the 27 degrees C copper NiTi wires (p<0.05). Qualitatively, with increased thermocycling the extent of R-phase in the heating peaks decreased in the 35 degrees C copper NiTi, and an austenite to martensite peak shoulder developed during cooling in the 27 degrees C copper NiTi. Repeated temperature fluctuations may contribute to qualitative and quantitative phase transformation changes in some NiTi wires. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  10. An evaluation of two types of nickel-titanium wires in terms of micromorphology and nickel ions' release following oral environment exposure.

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    Ghazal, Abdul Razzak A; Hajeer, Mohammad Y; Al-Sabbagh, Rabab; Alghoraibi, Ibrahim; Aldiry, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare superelastic and heat-activated nickel-titanium orthodontic wires' surface morphology and potential release of nickel ions following exposure to oral environment conditions. Twenty-four 20-mm-length distal cuts of superelastic (NiTi Force I®) and 24 20-mm-length distal cuts of heat-activated (Therma-Ti Lite®) nickel-titanium wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA) were divided into two equal groups: 12 wire segments left unused and 12 segments passively exposed to oral environment for 1 month. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze surface morphology of the wires which were then immersed in artificial saliva for 1 month to determine potential nickel ions' release by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heat-activated nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires were rougher than superelastic wires, and both types of wires released almost the same amount of Ni ions. After clinical exposure, more surface roughness was recorded for superelastic NiTi wires and heat-activated NiTi wires. However, retrieved superelastic NiTi wires released less Ni ions in artificial saliva after clinical exposure, and the same result was recorded regarding heat-activated wires. Both types of NiTi wires were obviously affected by oral environment conditions; their surface roughness significantly increased while the amount of the released Ni ions significantly declined.

  11. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

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    Vandana Kararia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1-3 M 0.016" NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016" NiTi, group 3-3 M 0.019" FNx010.025" SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at Χ2000, Χ4000 and Χ6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0. Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics.

  12. Evolution of flexural rigidity according to the cross-sectional dimension of a superelastic nickel titanium orthodontic wire.

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    Garrec, Pascal; Tavernier, Bruno; Jordan, Laurence

    2005-08-01

    The choice of the most suitable orthodontic wire for each stage of treatment requires estimation of the forces generated. In theory, the selection of wire sequences should initially utilize a lower flexural rigidity; thus clinicians use smaller round cross-sectional dimension wires to generate lighter forces during the preliminary alignment stage. This assessment is true for conventional alloys, but not necessarily for superelastic nickel titanium (NiTi). In this case, the flexural rigidity dependence on cross-sectional dimension differs from the linear elasticity prediction because of the martensitic transformation process. It decreases with increasing deflection and this phenomenon is accentuated in the unloading process. This behaviour should lead us to consider differently the biomechanical approach to orthodontic treatment. The present study compared bending in 10 archwires made from NiTi orthodontics alloy of two cross-sectional dimensions. The results were based on microstructural and mechanical investigations. With conventional alloys, the flexural rigidity was constant for each wire and increased largely with the cross-sectional dimension for the same strain. With NiTi alloys, the flexural rigidity is not constant and the influence of size was not as important as it should be. This result can be explained by the non-constant elastic modulus during the martensite transformation process. Thus, in some cases, treatment can begin with full-size (rectangular) wires that nearly fill the bracket slot with a force application deemed to be physiologically desirable for tooth movement and compatible with patient comfort.

  13. Characterization and coating stability evaluation of nickel-titanium orthodontic esthetic wires: an in vivo study.

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    Argalji, Nina; Silva, Eduardo Moreira da; Cury-Saramago, Adriana; Mattos, Claudia Trindade

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this study was to compare coating dimensions and surface characteristics of two different esthetic covered nickel-titanium orthodontic rectangular archwires, as-received from the manufacturer and after oral exposure. The study was designed for comparative purposes. Both archwires, as-received from the manufacturer, were observed using a stereomicroscope to measure coating thickness and inner metallic dimensions. The wires were also exposed to oral environment in 11 orthodontic active patients for 21 days. After removing the samples, stereomicroscopy images were captured, coating loss was measured and its percentage was calculated. Three segments of each wire (one as-received and two after oral exposure) were observed using scanning electron microscopy for a qualitative analysis of the labial surface of the wires. The Lilliefors test and independent t-test were applied to verify normality of data and statistical differences between wires, respectively. The significance level adopted was 0.05. The results showed that the differences between the wires while comparing inner height and thickness were statistically significant (p wire presented a coating thickness twice that of the control wire, which was also a statistically significant difference. The coating loss percentage was also statistically different (p = 0.0346) when the latest launched wire (13.27%) was compared to the control (29.63%). In conclusion, the coating of the most recent wire was thicker and more uniform, whereas the control had a thinner coating on the edges. After oral exposure, both tested wires presented coating loss, but the most recently launched wire exhibited better results.

  14. Fatigue of orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in different fluids under constant mechanical stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant

  15. Fatigue of orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in different fluids under constant mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M

    2003-07-25

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant.

  16. Effect of coating on properties of esthetic orthodontic nickel-titanium wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masahiro; Muguruma, Takeshi; Brantley, William; Choe, Han-Cheol; Nakagaki, Susumu; Alapati, Satish B; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2012-03-01

    To determine the effect of coating on the properties of two esthetic orthodontic nickel-titanium wires. Woowa (polymer coating; Dany Harvest) and BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire (metal coating; Dentsply GAC) with cross-section dimensions of 0.016 × 0.022 inches were selected. Noncoated posterior regions of the anterior-coated Woowa and uncoated Sentalloy were used for comparison. Nominal coating compositions were determined by x-ray fluorescence (JSX-3200, JOEL). Cross-sectioned and external surfaces were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM; SSX-550, Shimadzu) and an atomic force microscope (SPM-9500J2, Shimadzu). A three-point bending test (12-mm span) was carried out using a universal testing machine (EZ Test, Shimadzu). Hardness and elastic modulus of external and cross-sectioned surfaces were obtained by nanoindentation (ENT-1100a, Elionix; n  =  10). Coatings on Woowa and BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire contained 41% silver and 14% gold, respectively. The coating thickness on Woowa was approximately 10 µm, and the coating thickness on BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire was much smaller. The surfaces of both coated wires were rougher than the noncoated wires. Woowa showed a higher mean unloading force than the noncoated Woowa, although BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire showed a lower mean unloading force than Sentalloy. While cross-sectional surfaces of all wires had similar hardness and elastic modulus, values for the external surface of Woowa were smaller than for the other wires. The coating processes for Woowa and BioForce High Aesthetic Archwire influence bending behavior and surface morphology.

  17. Characterization and coating stability evaluation of nickel-titanium orthodontic esthetic wires: an in vivo study

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    Nina ARGALJI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to compare coating dimensions and surface characteristics of two different esthetic covered nickel-titanium orthodontic rectangular archwires, as-received from the manufacturer and after oral exposure. The study was designed for comparative purposes. Both archwires, as-received from the manufacturer, were observed using a stereomicroscope to measure coating thickness and inner metallic dimensions. The wires were also exposed to oral environment in 11 orthodontic active patients for 21 days. After removing the samples, stereomicroscopy images were captured, coating loss was measured and its percentage was calculated. Three segments of each wire (one as-received and two after oral exposure were observed using scanning electron microscopy for a qualitative analysis of the labial surface of the wires. The Lilliefors test and independent t-test were applied to verify normality of data and statistical differences between wires, respectively. The significance level adopted was 0.05. The results showed that the differences between the wires while comparing inner height and thickness were statistically significant (p < 0.0001. In average, the most recently launched wire presented a coating thickness twice that of the control wire, which was also a statistically significant difference. The coating loss percentage was also statistically different (p = 0.0346 when the latest launched wire (13.27% was compared to the control (29.63%. In conclusion, the coating of the most recent wire was thicker and more uniform, whereas the control had a thinner coating on the edges. After oral exposure, both tested wires presented coating loss, but the most recently launched wire exhibited better results.

  18. Temperature-modulated DSC provides new insight about nickel-titanium wire transformations.

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    Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Grentzer, Thomas H

    2003-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a well-known method for investigating phase transformations in nickel-titanium orthodontic wires; the microstructural phases and phase transformations in these wires have central importance for their clinical performance. The purpose of this study was to use the more recently developed technique of temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC) to gain insight into transformations in 3 nickel-titanium orthodontic wires: Neo Sentalloy (GAC International, Islandia, NY), 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) and Nitinol SE (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In the oral environment, the first 2 superelastic wires have shape memory, and the third wire has superelastic behavior but not shape memory. All wires had cross-section dimensions of 0.016 x 0.022 in. Archwires in the as-received condition and after bending 135 degrees were cut into 5 or 6 segments for test specimens. TMDSC analyses (Model 2910 DSC, TA Instruments, Wilmington, Del) were conducted between -125 degrees C and 100 degrees C, using a linear heating and cooling rate of 2 degrees C per min, an oscillation amplitude of 0.318 degrees C with a period of 60 seconds, and helium as the purge gas. For all 3 wire alloys, strong low-temperature martensitic transformations, resolved on the nonreversing heat-flow curves, were not present on the reversing heat-flow curves, and bending appeared to increase the enthalpy change for these peaks in some cases. For Neo Sentalloy, TMDSC showed that transformation between martensitic and austenitic nickel-titanium, suggested as occurring directly in the forward and reverse directions by conventional DSC, was instead a 2-step process involving the R-phase. Two-step transformations in the forward and reverse directions were also found for 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti and Nitinol SE. The TMDSC results show that structural transformations in these wires are complex. Some possible clinical implications of these observations are discussed.

  19. Release of nickel and chromium ions from orthodontic wires following the use of teeth whitening mouthwashes

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    AmirHossein Mirhashemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corrosion resistance is an important requirement for orthodontic appliances. Nickel and chromium may be released from orthodontic wires and can cause allergic reactions and cytotoxicity when patients use various mouthwashes to whiten their teeth. Our study aimed to assess the release of nickel and chromium ions from nickel titanium (NiTi and stainless steel (SS orthodontic wires following the use of four common mouthwashes available on the market. Methods This in vitro, experimental study was conducted on 120 orthodontic appliances for one maxillary quadrant including five brackets, one band and half of the required length of SS, and NiTi wires. The samples were immersed in Oral B, Oral B 3D White Luxe, Listerine, and Listerine Advance White for 1, 6, 24, and 168 h. The samples immersed in distilled water served as the control group. Atomic absorption spectroscopy served to quantify the amount of released ions. Results Nickel ions were released from both wires at all time-points; the highest amount was in Listerine and the lowest in Oral B mouthwashes. The remaining two solutions were in-between this range. The process of release of chromium from the SS wire was the same as that of nickel. However, the release trend in NiTi wires was not uniform. Conclusions Listerine caused the highest release of ions. Listerine Advance White, Oral B 3D White Luxe, and distilled water were the same in terms of ion release. Oral B showed the lowest amount of ion release.

  20. Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes

  1. Finite element modeling of superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naceur, Ines Ben; Charfi, Amin; Bouraoui, Tarak; Elleuch, Khaled

    2014-11-28

    Thanks to its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, superelastic Ni–Ti wire alloys have been successfully used in orthodontic treatment. Therefore, it is important to quantify and evaluate the level of orthodontic force applied to the bracket and teeth in order to achieve tooth movement. In this study, three dimensional finite element models with a Gibbs-potential-based-formulation and thermodynamic principles were used. The aim was to evaluate the influence of possible intraoral temperature differences on the forces exerted by NiTi orthodontic arch wires with different cross sectional shapes and sizes. The prediction made by this phenomenological model, for superelastic tensile and bending tests, shows good agreement with the experimental data. A bending test is simulated to study the force variation of an orthodontic NiTi arch wire when it loaded up to the deflection of 3 mm, for this task one half of the arch wire and the 3 adjacent brackets were modeled. The results showed that the stress required for the martensite transformation increases with the increase of cross-sectional dimensions and temperature. Associated with this increase in stress, the plateau of this transformation becomes steeper. In addition, the area of the mechanical hysteresis, measured as the difference between the forces of the upper and lower plateau, increases.

  2. The release of nickel from orthodontic NiTi wires is increased by dynamic mechanical loading but not constrained by surface nitridation.

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    Peitsch, T; Klocke, A; Kahl-Nieke, B; Prymak, O; Epple, M

    2007-09-01

    The influence of dynamic mechanical loading and of surface nitridation on the nickel release from superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires was investigated under ultrapure conditions. Commercially available superelastic NiTi arch wires (size 0.018 x 0.025'') without surface modification (Neo Sentalloy) and with nitrogen ion implantation surface treatment (Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) were analyzed. Mechanical loading of wire segments with a force similar to the physiological situation was performed with a frequency of 5 Hz in ultrapure water and saline solution, respectively. The release of nickel was monitored by atomic absorption spectroscopy for up to 36 days. The mechanically loaded wires released significantly more nickel ( approximately 45 ng cm(-2) d(-1)) than did nonloaded wires (<1 ng cm(-2) d(-1)). There was no statistically significant effect of the testing solution (water or NaCl) or of the surface nitridation. The total amount of released nickel was small in all cases, but may nevertheless account for the occasional clinical observations of adverse reactions during application of NiTi-based orthodontic appliances. The surface nitridation did not constrain the release of nickel from NiTi under continuous mechanical stress.

  3. Bacterial colonization on coated and uncoated orthodontic wires: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Seyed Hamid; Shojaei, Hasan; Ghorani, Parinaz Saeidi; Rafiei, Elahe

    2014-11-01

    The advantages of coated orthodontic wires such as esthetic and their effects on reduced friction, corrosion and allergic reaction and the significant consequences of plaque accumulation on oral health encouraged us to assess bacterial colonization on these wires. A total of 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) epoxy resin coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Spectra, GAC, USA) and 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) non-coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC, USA) with isolated packages were selected and sterilized before application. The samples were divided randomly between upper and lower arches in 18 patients and hence that every patient received one coated and one uncoated wire at the same time. Samples were removed and cut in equal lengths after 3 weeks and placed in phosphate buffered saline buffer. After separation of bacteria in trypsin and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, the diluted solution was cultured in blood agar and bacterial colony forming units were counted. Finally, the data was analyzed using the paired t-test and the significance was set at 0.05. Mean of bacterial colonization on uncoated wires was more than that of coated wires (P < 0.001). Bacterial plaque accumulation on epoxy resin coated nickel-titanium orthodontic wires is significantly lower than uncoated nickel-titanium wires.

  4. The effect of ligation on the load deflection characteristics of nickel titanium orthodontic wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Shugo; Nagasaka, Satoshi; Hanyuda, Ai; Ishimura, Sadao; Hirashita, Ayao

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effect of ligation on the load-deflection characteristics of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wire. A modified three-point bending system was used for bending the NiTi round wire, which was inserted and ligated in the slots of three brackets, one of which was bonded to each of the three bender rods. Three different ligation methods, stainless steel ligature (SSL), slot lid (SL), and elastomeric ligature (EL), were employed, as well as a control with neither bracket nor ligation (NBL). The tests were repeated five times under each condition. Comparisons were made of load-deflection curve, load at maximum deflection of 2,000 microm, and load at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's test were conducted to determine method difference (alpha = 0.05). The interaction between deflection and ligation was tested, using repeated-measures ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). The load values of the ligation groups were two to three times greater than the NBL group at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading: 4.37 N for EL, 3.90 N for SSL, 3.02 N for SL, and 1.49 N for NBL (P wire may make NiTi wire exhibit a significantly heavier load than that traditionally expected. NiTi wire exhibited the majority of its true superelasticity with SL, whereas EL may act as a restraint on its superelasticity.

  5. Corrosion behavior of ion implanted nickel-titanium orthodontic wire in fluoride mouth rinse solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masahiro; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Endo, Kazuhiko; Muguruma, Takeshi; Ohno, Hiroki; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the corrosion properties of ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) in artificial saliva and fluoride mouth rinse solutions (Butler F Mouthrinse, Ora-Bliss). Non ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy) was used as control. The anodic corrosion behavior was examined by potentiodynamic polarization measurement. The surfaces of the specimens were examined with SEM. The elemental depth profiles were characterized by XPS. Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in artificial saliva and Butler F Mouthrinse (500 ppm) had a lower current density than Neo Sentalloy. In addition, breakdown potential of Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in Ora-Bliss (900 ppm) was much higher than that of Neo Sentalloy although both wires had similar corrosion potential in Ora-Bliss (450 and 900 ppm). The XPS results for Neo Sentalloy Ionguard suggested that the layers consisted of TiO(2) and TiN were present on the surface and the layers may improve the corrosion properties.

  6. A comparison of torque expression between stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy, and copper nickel titanium wires in metallic self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Amy; Major, Thomas W; Carey, Jason P; Heo, Giseon; Badawi, Hisham; Major, Paul W

    2010-09-01

    The force moment providing rotation of the tooth around the x-axis (buccal-lingual) is referred to as torque expression in orthodontic literature. Many factors affect torque expression, including the wire material characteristics. This investigation aims to provide an experimental study into and comparison of the torque expression between wire types. With a worm-gear-driven torquing apparatus, wire was torqued while a bracket mounted on a six-axis load cell was engaged. Three 0.019 x 0.0195 inch wire (stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy [TMA], copper nickel titanium [CuNiTi]), and three 0.022 inch slot bracket combinations (Damon 3MX, In-Ovation-R, SPEED) were compared. At low twist angles (wires were not statistically significant. At twist angles over 24 degrees, stainless steel wire yielded 1.5 to 2 times the torque expression of TMA and 2.5 to 3 times that of nickel titanium (NiTi). At high angles of torsion (over 40 degrees) with a stiff wire material, loss of linear torque expression sometimes occurred. Stainless steel has the largest torque expression, followed by TMA and then NiTi.

  7. Copper, Aluminum and Nickel: A New Monocrystalline Orthodontic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Mark

    Introduction: This study was designed to evaluate, via tensile and bend testing, the mechanical properties of a newly-developed monocrystalline orthodontic archwire comprised of a blend of copper, aluminum, and nickel (CuAlNi). Methods: The sample was comprised of three shape memory alloys; CuAlNi, copper nickel titanium (CuNiTi), and nickel titanium (NiTi); from various orthodontic manufacturers in both 0.018" round and 0.019" x 0.025" rectangular dimensions. Additional data was gathered for similarly sized stainless steel and beta-titanium archwires as a point of reference for drawing conclusions about the relative properties of the archwires. Measurements of loading and unloading forces were recorded in both tension and deflection testing. Repeated-measure ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare loading and unloading forces across wires and one-way ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare elastic moduli and hysteresis. To identify significant differences, Tukey post-hoc comparisons were performed. Results: The modulus of elasticity, deflection forces, and hysteresis profiles of CuAlNi were significantly different than the other superelastic wires tested. In all tests, CuAlNi had a statistically significant lower modulus of elasticity compared to the CuNiTi and NiTi wires (P orthodontic metallurgy.

  8. In vitro biocompatibility of nickel-titanium esthetic orthodontic archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Roberto; Valletta, Rosa; Bucci, Rosaria; Rivieccio, Virginia; Galeotti, Angela; Michelotti, Ambrosina; D'Antò, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) esthetic orthodontic archwires with different surface coatings. Three fully coated, tooth-colored NiTi wires (BioCosmetic, Titanol Cosmetic, EverWhite), two ion-implanted wires (TMA Purple, Sentalloy High Aesthetic), five uncoated NiTi wires (BioStarter, BioTorque, Titanol Superelastic, Memory Wire Superelastic, and Sentalloy), one β-titanium wire (TMA), and one stainless steel wire (Stainless Steel) were considered for this study. The wire samples were placed at 37°C in airtight test tubes containing Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (0.1 mg/mL) for 1, 7, 14, and 30 days. The cell viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured with this medium was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (α  =  .05). The highest cytotoxic effect was reached on day 30 for all samples. The archwires exhibited a cytotoxicity on HGFs ranging from "none" to "slight," with the exception of the BioTorque, which resulted in moderate cytotoxicity on day 30. Significant differences were found between esthetic archwires and their uncoated pairs only for BioCosmetic (P  =  .001) and EverWhite (P < .001). Under the experimental conditions, all of the NiTi esthetic archwires resulted in slight cytotoxicity, as did the respective uncoated wires. For this reason their clinical use may be considered to have similar risks to the uncoated archwires.

  9. Bacterial colonization on coated and uncoated orthodontic wires: A prospective clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hamid Raji; Hasan Shojaei; Parinaz Saeidi Ghorani; Elahe Rafiei

    2014-01-01

    Background: The advantages of coated orthodontic wires such as esthetic and their effects on reduced friction, corrosion and allergic reaction and the significant consequences of plaque accumulation on oral health encouraged us to assess bacterial colonization on these wires. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) epoxy resin coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Spectra, GAC, USA) and 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) non-coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC, U...

  10. Nickel-titanium alloys: stress-related temperature transitional range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Beshers, D N

    2000-12-01

    The inducement of mechanical stress within nickel-titanium wires can influence the transitional temperature range of the alloy and therefore the expression of the superelastic properties. An analogous variation of the transitional temperature range may be expected during orthodontic therapy, when the archwires are engaged into the brackets. To investigate this possibility, samples of currently used orthodontic nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC; Copper Ni-Ti superelastic at 27 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, Ormco; Nitinol Heat-Activated, 3M-Unitek) were subjected to temperature cycles ranging between 4 degrees C and 60 degrees C. The wires were mounted in a plexiglass loading device designed to simulate clinical situations of minimum and severe dental crowding. Electrical resistivity was used to monitor the phase transformations. The data were analyzed with paired t tests. The results confirmed the presence of displacements of the transitional temperature ranges toward higher temperatures when stress was induced. Because nickel-titanium wires are most commonly used during the aligning stage in cases of severe dental crowding, particular attention was given to the performance of the orthodontic wires under maximum loading. An alloy with a stress-related transitional temperature range corresponding to the fluctuations of the oral temperature should express superelastic properties more consistently than others. According to our results, Copper Ni-Ti 27 degrees C and Nitinol Heat-Activated wires may be considered suitable alloys for the alignment stage.

  11. Comparison of the superelasticity of different nickel?titanium orthodontic archwires and the loss of their properties by heat treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bellini, Humberto; Moyano, Javier; Gil, Javier; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and compare mechanical properties of eight widely used nickel?titanium orthodontic wires under uniform testing conditions and to determine the influence of the heat treatments on the loss of the superelasticity. Ten archwires from two batches from eight different manufacturers were evaluated. A three-point bending test was performed, in accordance with ISO 15841:2006, on 80 round nickel?titanium archwire segments of 0.016?inch. To obtain a load-deflection c...

  12. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Mouthwash on the Frictional Resistance of Orthodontic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The friction between the brackets and orthodontic wire during sliding mechanics inflicts difficulties such as decreasing the applied force and tooth movement and also the loss of anchorage. Therefore, many studies have focused on the factors that affect the friction. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash on the friction between orthodontic brackets and wire.Materials and Methods: Four types of orthodontic wires including rectangular standard stainless steel (SS, titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA, nickel-titanium (NiTi and copper-nickel-titanium (Cu-NiTi were selected. In each group, half of the samples were immersed in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash and the others were immersed in artificial saliva for 10 hours. An elastomeric ligature was used for ligating the wires to brackets. The frictional test was performed in a universal testing machine at the speed of 10 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the friction rate.Results: The friction rate was significantly higher after immersion in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash in comparison with artificial saliva (P=0.00. Cu-NiTi wire showed the highest friction value followed by TMA, NiTi and SS wires.  Conclusions: According to the results of the current study, 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash increased the frictional characteristics of all the evaluated orthodontic wires.

  13. Nickel titanium T-loop wire dimensions for en masse retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Layene; Ribeiro, Alexandre; Parsekian Martins, Renato; Viecilli, Rodrigo; Parsekian Martins, Lídia

    2016-09-01

    To compare the force system produced by nickel-titanium T-loop springs made with wires of different dimensions. Thirty compound T-loop springs were divided into three groups according to the dimensions of the nickel-titanium wire used for its design: 0.016" × 0.022", 0.017" × 0.025", and 0.018" × 0.025". The loops were tested on the Orthodontic Force Tester machine at an interbracket distance of 23 mm and activated 9 mm. The force in the y-axis and the moment in the x-axis were registered while the calculated moment to force ratio was recorded at each .5 mm of deactivation. The data were analyzed by three analyses of variance of repeated measures to detect differences and interactions between deactivation and wire size on force, moment, and moment-force ratios (M/F). All groups had significantly different forces (P wire produced 1.78N of force while the 0.017" × 0.025" and the 0.018" × 0.025" produced 2.81 N and 3.25 N, respectively. The 0.016" × 0.022" wire produced lower moments (11.6 Nmm) than the 0.017" × 0.025" and 0.018" × 0.025" wires, which produced similar moments (13.9 Nmm and 14.4Nmm, respectively). The M/F produced was different for all groups; 0.016" × 0.022" T-loops produced 6.7 mm while the 0.017" × 0.025" and 0.018" × 0.025" T-loops produced 5.0 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. An interaction was detected for all variables between deactivation and groups. The larger wires tested produced higher forces with slight increase on the moments, but the M/F produced by the 0.016" × 0.022" wire was the highest found.

  14. Characterization of closed nickel-titanium orthodontic coil springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeron, T. [Rene Descartes Univ., Paris V, Pontoise (France). Faculte de Chirurgie Dentaire; Filleul, M.P. [Rene Descartes Univ., Paris V, Pontoise (France). Faculte de Chirurgie Dentaire; ENSCP, Paris (France). Lab. de Metallurgie Structurale; Humbeeck, J. van [Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Faculteit Toegepaste Wetenschappen, Metaalkunde en Toegepaste Materialkund

    2001-11-01

    Nickel-titanium orthodontic coil springs are used to move teeth with low forces and slow deactivation. The present paper provides data on transformation temperatures and on load-deflection rate at buccal temperature of closed Nickel-Titanium coil springs available on the market from ORMCO {sup trademark} and GAC {sup trademark}. All the springs exhibited superelasticity but their properties were not stable in the range of buccal temperatures and varied not only from one manufacturer to the other but they also varied from one batch to the other of each supplier. The need for more stability is stressed. (orig.)

  15. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria Jr, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Ni...

  16. Nickel-Titanium Wire as Suture Material: A New Technique for the Fixation of Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haidong; Song, Tao

    2018-01-29

    To introduce nickel-titanium wire as suture material for closure of incisions in cleft lip procedures. Closure of skin incisions using nickel-titanium wire as suture material, with postoperative follow-up wound evaluation. There was excellent patient satisfaction and good cosmetic outcome. Nickel-titanium wire is an excellent alternative for suture closure of cleft lip surgical incisions.

  17. Fluoride influences nickel-titanium orthodontic wires′ surface texture and friction resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Aly Abbassy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the acidulated fluoride gel on stainless steel and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: Sixty stainless steel and Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires were distributed into forty archwires used for in vitro study and twenty for in situ study. Fluoride was applied for 1 h in the in vitro experiment while it was applied for 5 min in the in situ experiment. The friction resistance of all wires with ceramic brackets before/after topical fluoride application was measured using a universal testing machine at 1 min intervals of moving wire. Moreover, surface properties of the tested wires before/after fluoride application and before/after friction test were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Dunnett′s t-test was used to compare frictional resistance of as-received stainless steel wires and Ni-Ti wires to the wires treated by fluoride in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effect of fluoride application and type of wire on friction resistance in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05. Results: Ni-Ti wires recorded significantly high friction resistance after fluoride application when compared to stainless steel wires in vitro, P < 0.05. Fluoride application did not significantly affect the friction resistance of the tested wires in situ, P < 0.05. SEM observation revealed deterioration of the surface texture of the Ni-Ti wires after fluoride application in vitro and in situ. Conclusions: The in vitro fluoride application caused an increase in friction resistance of Ni-Ti wires when compared to stainless steel wires. In vitro and in situ fluoride application caused deterioration in surface properties of Ni-Ti wires.

  18. Phase transitions in coated nickel titanium arch wires: A differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Division of Orthodontics, Indian Army, 10 Corps Dental Unit, C/O 56 APO, ... Shape memory and super-elastic properties of orthodontic nickel titanium ... test did not show any significant difference in mean values of transition ... Low enthalpy values (0·92–3·59 j/g) compared to conventional ones, implied complete phase.

  19. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires on ceramic brackets associated with low friction ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando KOIKE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few studies investigated the mechanical properties of orthodontic wires on ceramic brackets associated the ligatures. Objective This study aimed to compare the load-deflection of orthodontic wires with round section of 0.016” made of stainless steel (SS, nickel-titanium (NiTi and glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite (GFRPC. Material and method Sixty specimens obtained from 10 sectioned pre-contoured arches (TP Orthodontics, were divided into 3 groups of 20 according to each type of material (1 esthetic-type wire and 2 not esthetic and length of 50 mm. The methodology consisted of a 3-point bending test using esthetic ceramic brackets (INVU, TP Orthodontics, Edgewise, 0.022”x 0.025” as points of support. The tensile tests were performed on a mechanical test machine, at a speed of 10 mm/min, deflection of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm. Friedman’s Non Parametric Multiple comparisons test was used (P<0.05. Result The nickel-titanium wire presented smaller load/ deflection compared with stainless steel. GFRPC wires had lower strength values among all groups evaluated (P<.05. The steel wire showed permanent deformation after 3 mm deflection, NiTi wire demonstrated memory effect and the esthetic type had fractures with loss of strength. Conclusion It can be concluded that steel wires have high strength values, requiring the incorporation of loops and folds to reduce the load / deflection. NiTi and GFRPC wires produced low levels of force, however the esthetic wire was shown to fracture and break.

  20. A patient with mandibular deviation and 3 mandibular incisors treated with asymmetrically bent improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuhei; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal and dental discrepancies cause asymmetric malocclusions in orthodontic patients. It is difficult to achieve adequate functional occlusion and guidance in patients with congenital absence of a mandibular incisor due to the tooth-size discrepancy. Here, we describe the orthodontic treatment of a 22-year-old woman with an asymmetric Angle Class II malocclusion, mandibular deviation to the left, and 3 mandibular incisors. The anterior teeth and maxillary canines were crowded. We used an improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wire (Tomy International, Tokyo, Japan) to compensate for the asymmetric mandibular arch and an asymmetrically bent archwire to move the maxillary molars distally. A skeletal anchorage system provided traction for intermaxillary elastics, and extractions were not needed. We alleviated the crowding and created an ideal occlusion with proper overjet, overbite, and anterior guidance with Class I canine and molar relationships. This method of treatment with an asymmetrically bent nickel-titanium alloy wire provided proper Class I occlusion and anterior guidance despite the mandibular deviation to the left and 3 mandibular incisors, without the need for extractions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of cyclic flexural fatigue of M-wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadlaq, Solaiman M S; Aljarbou, Fahad A; AlThumairy, Riyadh I

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate cyclic flexural fatigue resistance of GT series X rotary files made from the newly developed M-wire nickel-titanium alloy compared with GT and Profile nickel-titanium files made from a conventional nickel-titanium alloy. Fifteen files, size 30/0.04, of each type were used to evaluate the cyclic flexural fatigue resistance. A simple device was specifically constructed to measure the time each file type required to fail under cyclic flexural fatigue testing. The results of this experiment indicated that the GT series X files had superior cyclic flexural fatigue resistance than the other 2 file types made from a conventional nickel-titanium alloy (P = .004). On the other hand, the difference between the Profile and the GT files was not statistically significant. The findings of this study suggest that size 30/0.04 nickel-titanium rotary files made from the newly developed M-wire alloy have better cyclic flexural fatigue resistance than files of similar design and size made from the conventional nickel-titanium alloy. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of thermocycling on nickel release from orthodontic arch wires: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibaninia, Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    The amount of daily intake of metals from orthodontic appliances over time is a matter of great concern. Nickel results in one of the most common metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis in humans; it produces more allergic reactions than all the other metals combined together. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thermocycling on the nickel release from orthodontic arch wires stored in artificial saliva with different pH values. Forty new wire pieces were selected. Each wire piece was placed in a special capillary Pyrex tube filled with artificial saliva, which was sealed and immersed in deionized water at 37 °C. The samples were divided into four groups of ten. Group I received no treatment; group II was subjected to thermocycling. The pH of storage in groups III and IV was reduced to 4.5, and group IV was subjected to thermocycling. Thermocycling was carried out between 5 and 55 °C for 500 cycles. The release of nickel ions was statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA for the effects of two variables: pH and thermocycling. The interaction between pH and thermocycling was found to be statistically significant (F = 12.127, P = 0.001). Two-way ANOVA showed that different storage media or pH and thermocycling had a significant effect on the nickel release (F = 52.812, P nickel from orthodontic wires, while thermocycling is clearly the dominant factor.

  3. Evaluation of deflection forces of orthodontic wires with different ligation types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Castanha HENRIQUES

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate deflection forces of orthodontic wires of different alloys engaged into conventional brackets using several ligation types. Stainless steel, conventional superelastic nickel-titanium and thermally activated nickel-titanium archwires tied into conventional brackets by a ring-shaped elastomeric ligature (RSEL, a 8-shaped elastomeric ligature (8SEL and a metal ligature (ML were tested. A clinical simulation device was created especially for this study and forces were measured with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. For the testing procedure, the block representing the maxillary right central incisor was moved 0.5 and 1 mm bucco-lingually at a constant speed of 2 mm/min, and the forces released by the wires were recorded, in accordance with the ISO 15841 guidelines. In general, the RSEL showed lighter forces, while 8SEL and ML showed higher values. At the 0.5 mm deflection, the 8SEL presented the greatest force, but at the 1.0 mm deflection the ML had a statistically similar force. Based on our evaluations, to obtain lighter forces, the thermally activated nickel-titanium wire with the RSEL are recommended, while the steel wire with the 8SEL or the ML are recommended when larger forces are desired. The ML exhibited the highest force increase with increased deflections, compared with the elastomeric ligatures.

  4. Deflection test evaluation of different lots of the same nickel-titanium wire commercial brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Gaby Neves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the elastic properties of the load-deflection ratio of orthodontic wires of different lot numbers and the same commercial brand. Methods: A total of 40 nickel-titanium (NiTi wire segments (Morelli OrtodontiaTM - Sorocaba, SP, Brazil, 0.016-in in diameter were used. Groups were sorted according to lot numbers (lots 1, 2, 3 and 4. 28-mm length segments from the straight portion (ends of archwires were used. Deflection tests were performed in an EMIC universal testing machine with 5-N load cell at 1 mm/minute speed. Force at deactivation was recorded at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm deflection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare differences between group means. Results: When comparing the force of groups at the same deflection (3, 2 and 1 mm, during deactivation, no statistical differences were found. Conclusion: There are no changes in the elastic properties of different lots of the same commercial brand; thus, the use of different lots of the orthodontic wires used in this research does not compromise the final outcomes of the load-deflection ratio.

  5. Deflection test evaluation of different lots of the same nickel-titanium wire commercial brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Murilo Gaby; Lima, Fabrício Viana Pereira; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Rezende, Fernanda Soares; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the elastic properties of the load-deflection ratio of orthodontic wires of different lot numbers and the same commercial brand. A total of 40 nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire segments (Morelli Ortodontia™--Sorocaba, SP, Brazil), 0.016-in in diameter were used. Groups were sorted according to lot numbers (lots 1, 2, 3 and 4). 28-mm length segments from the straight portion (ends) of archwires were used. Deflection tests were performed in an EMIC universal testing machine with 5-N load cell at 1 mm/minute speed. Force at deactivation was recorded at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm deflection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare differences between group means. When comparing the force of groups at the same deflection (3, 2 and 1 mm), during deactivation, no statistical differences were found. There are no changes in the elastic properties of different lots of the same commercial brand; thus, the use of different lots of the orthodontic wires used in this research does not compromise the final outcomes of the load-deflection ratio.

  6. Assessment of the hardness of different orthodontic wires and brackets produced by metal injection molding and conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Kachuie, Marzie

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the hardness of orthodontic brackets produced by metal injection molding (MIM) and conventional methods and different orthodontic wires (stainless steel, nickel-titanium [Ni-Ti], and beta-titanium alloys) for better clinical results. A total of 15 specimens from each brand of orthodontic brackets and wires were examined. The brackets (Elite Opti-Mim which is produced by MIM process and Ultratrimm which is produced by conventional brazing method) and the wires (stainless steel, Ni-Ti, and beta-titanium) were embedded in epoxy resin, followed by grinding, polishing, and coating. Then, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis was applied to assess their elemental composition. The same specimen surfaces were repolished and used for Vickers microhardness assessment. Hardness was statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney test at the 0.05 level of significance. The X-ray EDS analysis revealed different ferrous or co-based alloys in each bracket. The maximum mean hardness values of the wires were achieved for stainless steel (SS) (529.85 Vickers hardness [VHN]) versus the minimum values for beta-titanium (334.65 VHN). Among the brackets, Elite Opti-Mim exhibited significantly higher VHN values (262.66 VHN) compared to Ultratrimm (206.59 VHN). VHN values of wire alloys were significantly higher than those of the brackets. MIM orthodontic brackets exhibited hardness values much lower than those of SS orthodontic archwires and were more compatible with NiTi and beta-titanium archwires. A wide range of microhardness values has been reported for conventional orthodontic brackets and it should be considered that the manufacturing method might be only one of the factors affecting the mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets including hardness.

  7. Cytotoxic, allergic and genotoxic activity of a nickel-titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, AG; Sanders, MM; Schakenraad, JM; vanHorn, [No Value

    The nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is known for its shape memory properties. These properties can be put to excellent use in various biomedical applications, such as wires for orthodontic tooth alignment and osteosynthesis staples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term

  8. The Effect of Annealing on the Elastic Modulus of Orthodontic Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Kyle

    Introduction: Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires are currently used in orthodontic treatment due to their heat activated properties and their delivery of constant force. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of annealing on the elastic modulus of Nickel Titanium, Stainless Steel and Beta-titanium (TMA) wires. Different points along the wire were tested in order to determine how far from the annealed ends the elastic modulus of the wires was affected. Methods: Eighty (80) orthodontic wires consisting of 4 equal groups (SS/TMA/Classic NitinolRTM/Super Elastic NitinolRTM) were used as the specimens for this study. All wires were measured and marked at 5mm measurements, and cut into 33.00mm sections. The wires were heated with a butane torch until the first 13.00mm of the wires were red hot. Load deflection tests using an InstronRTM universal testing machine were run at 5mm distances from the end of the wire that had been annealed. The change in elastic modulus was then determined. Results: There was a significant difference (F = 533.001, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four distances. There was also a significant difference (F = 57.571, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four wire types. There was a significant interaction (F = 19.601, p = 0.005) between wire type and distance, however this interaction negated the differences between the wires. Conclusion: 1) There are significant differences in the changes in elastic modulus between the areas of the wires within the annealed section and those areas 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section. The change in elastic modulus within the annealed section was significantly greater at 8 mm than it was at 13mm, and this was significantly greater than 18mm and 23mm (5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed section). However, there was no statistical difference in the change in elastic modulus between 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section (18mm and 23mm respectively). 2

  9. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Niti (Nitinol-NS). The initial roughness was evaluated with a rugosimeter. After that, the wires were submitted to flexural test in an universal testing machine. Each wire was deflected up to 2 mm at a speed of 1 mm/min. After flexural test, the roughness of the wires was evaluted on the same surface as that used for the initial evaluation. The data of roughness and flexural strength were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). Student t-test compared roughness before and after deflection (a =0.05). The roughness of S and ANT (epoxy resin and PTFE-coated wires, respectively), before and after deflection, was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05). Wire deflection significantly increased the roughness of the wires S and STC (p<0.05). The flexural strength of groups FSE and NS (PTFE and uncoated) was higher compared with that of the other groups (p<0.05). We concluded that the roughness and flexural strength of the orthodontic wires does not depend on the type of the esthetic coating, but it is influenced by the method of application of this coating. The deflection can increase the roughness of the esthetic orthodontic wires.

  10. Stiffness and frictional resistance of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire with low-stress hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Yu-Cheng; Su, Yu-Yu M; Lai, Yu-Lin; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2007-05-01

    Stress-induced martensite formation with stress hysteresis that changes the elasticity and stiffness of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire influences the sliding mechanics of archwire-guided tooth movement. This in-vitro study investigated the frictional behavior of an improved superelastic Ni-Ti wire with low-stress hysteresis. Improved superelastic Ni-Ti alloy wires (L & H Titan, Tomy International, Tokyo, Japan) with low-stress hysteresis were examined by using 3-point bending and frictional resistance tests with a universal test machine at a constant temperature of 35 degrees C, and compared with the former conventional austenitic-active superelastic Ni-Ti wires (Sentalloy, Tomy International). Wire stiffness levels were derived from differentiation of the polynomial regression of the unloading curves, and values for kinetic friction were measured at constant bending deflection distances of 0, 2, 3, and 4 mm, respectively. Compared with conventional Sentalloy wires, the L & H Titan wire had a narrower stress hysteresis including a lower loading plateau and a higher unloading plateau. In addition, L & H Titan wires were less stiff than the Sentalloy wires during most unloading stages. Values of friction measured at deflections of 0, 2, and 3 mm were significantly (P Sentalloy wires at all bending deflections (P <.05). Stress-induced martensite formation significantly reduced the stiffness and thus could be beneficial to decrease the binding friction of superelastic Ni-Ti wires during sliding with large bending deflections. Austenitic-active alloy wires with low-stress hysteresis and lower stiffness and friction offer significant potential for further investigation.

  11. The Mechanical Behavior Variation of Nickel - Titanium Orthodontic Wires in Different Fluoride Mouthwash

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    Ilnaz haj Hemati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an orthodontic arch wire of Ni-Ti alloy made by Germany in four different mouthwashes contain fluoride was investigated in mechanical behavior. This research focused on the mechanical behavior changes in different mouthwashes. The Mouthwashes were chosen from most popular one in Iran including Oral-B, Gum, and Behsa Mouthwash. The wires after 3 month in touch with mouthwashes were studied and the result was presented. The result show that the lowest power to reshape the wire, is for the wire in Crest case (3. The maximum power assigns to wire in Behsa case (1. Also, the shortest treatment period is for wire in Behsa mouthwash case (1 with 0.087 Nm strain energy and the maximum duration of therapy is related to case (3 Crest mouthwash with 0.039 Nm. Moreover, the wires in Oral-b (0.095 Nm has the lowest and Gum mouthwash (0.140 Nm has the highest energy intake. The energy absorbed by the wires in Behsa and Crest is in the middle. Finally, it is proposed that patient could used all mouthwash but based on their condition, one product will be useful.

  12. Comparative short-term in vitro analysis of mutans streptococci adhesion on esthetic, nickel-titanium, and stainless-steel arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hye; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Young Kyung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2014-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in mutans streptococci (MS) adhesion between esthetic and metallic orthodontic arch wires based on their surface characteristics. Surface roughness (Ra) and apparent surface free energy (SFE) were measured for six wires-four esthetic, one nickel-titanium (NiTi), and one stainless-steel (SS)-using profilometry and dynamic contact angle analysis, respectively. The amount of MS (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) adhering to the wires was quantified using the colony-counting method. The surfaces, coating layers, and MS adhesion were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical significance was set at P wires were significantly different from one another depending on the coating method (P wire showed the highest SFE, followed by the SS wire and then the four esthetic wires. The NiTi wires produced a significantly higher MS adhesion than did the SS wires (P wires showed significantly lower MS adhesions than did the NiTi wire (P < .05). Pearson correlation analyses found moderate significant positive correlations between the SFE and the S mutans and S sobrinus adhesions (r  =  .636/.427, P < .001/P  =  .001, respectively). The hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that some esthetic coatings on NiTi alloy might reduce MS adhesion in vitro in the short term.

  13. Galvanic coupling of steel and gold alloy lingual brackets with orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronis, Georgios; Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Eliades, Theodore; Zinelis, Spiros

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this research was to assess galvanic behavior of lingual orthodontic brackets coupled with representative types of orthodontic wires. Three types of lingual brackets: Incognito (INC), In-Ovation L (IOV), and STb (STB) were combined with a stainless steel (SS) and a nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwire. All materials were initially investigated by scanning electron microscopy / x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) while wires were also tested by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). All bracket-wire combinations were immersed in acidic 0.1M NaCl 0.1M lactic acid and neutral NaF 0.3% (wt) electrolyte, and the potential differences were continuously recorded for 48 hours. The SEM/EDX analysis revealed that INC is a single-unit bracket made of a high gold (Au) alloy while IOV and STB are two-piece appliances in which the base and wing are made of SS alloys. The SS wire demonstrated austenite and martensite iron phase, while NiTi wire illustrated an intense austenite crystallographic structure with limited martensite. All bracket wire combinations showed potential differences below the threshold of galvanic corrosion (200 mV) except for INC and STB coupled with NiTi wire in NaF media. The electrochemical results indicate that all brackets tested demonstrated galvanic compatibility with SS wire, but fluoride treatment should be used cautiously with NiTi wires coupled with Au and SS brackets.

  14. Evaluation of surface roughness of orthodontic wires by means of atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antò, Vincenzo; Rongo, Roberto; Ametrano, Gianluca; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Manzo, Paolo; Martina, Roberto; Paduano, Sergio; Valletta, Rosa

    2012-09-01

    To compare the surface roughness of different orthodontic archwires. Four nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy(®), Sentalloy(®) High Aesthetic, Titanium Memory ThermaTi Lite(®), and Titanium Memory Esthetic(®)), three β-titanium wires (TMA(®), Colored TMA(®), and Beta Titanium(®)), and one stainless-steel wire (Stainless Steel(®)) were considered for this study. Three samples for each wire were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three-dimensional images were processed using Gwiddion software, and the roughness average (Ra), the root mean square (Rms), and the maximum height (Mh) values of the scanned surface profile were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test (P Sentalloy High Aesthetic was the roughest (Ra  =  133.5 ± 10.8; Rms  =  165.8 ± 9.8; Mh  =  949.6 ± 192.1) of the archwires. The surface quality of the wires investigated differed significantly. Ion implantation effectively reduced the roughness of TMA. Moreover, Teflon(®)-coated Titanium Memory Esthetic was less rough than was ion-implanted Sentalloy High Aesthetic.

  15. Comparison of galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molded brackets to that of conventional metal brackets with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwire combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, D Praveen Kumar; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, K Baburam; Vijay, M; Ravindranath, D; Prasad, M Rajendra

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molding (MIM) brackets to that of conventional brackets under similar in vitro conditions with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwires. Twenty-five maxillary premolar MIM stainless steel brackets and 25 conventional stainless steel brackets and archwires, 0.16 inch, each 10 mm length, 25 nickeltitanium wires, 25 copper nickel-titanium wires were used. They were divided into four groups which had five samples each. Combination of MIM bracket with copper nickel-titanium wire, MIM bracket with nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with copper nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with nickel-titanium wires which later were suspended in 350 ml of 1 M lactic acid solution media. Galvanic corrosion potential of four groups were analyzed under similar in vitro conditions. Precorrosion and postcorrosion elemental composition of MIM and conventional stainless steel bracket by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) was done. MIM bracket showed decreased corrosion susceptibility than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wire. Both MIM and conventional bracket showed similar corrosion resistance potential in association with nickel-titanium archwires. It seems that both brackets are more compatible with copper nickel-titanium archwires regarding the decrease in the consequences of galvanic reaction. The EDS analysis showed that the MIM brackets with copper nickel-titanium wires released less metal ions than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wires. MIM brackets showed decreased corrosion susceptibility, copper nickel-titanium archwires are compatible with both the brackets than nickel-titanium archwires. Clinically MIM and conventional brackets behaved more or less similarly in terms of corrosion resistance. In order to decrease the corrosion potential of MIM

  16. Comparison of changes in irregularity and transverse width with nickel-titanium and niobium-titanium-tantalum-zirconium archwires during initial orthodontic alignment in adolescents: A double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Barrett; Shoji, Toshihiro; Anderson, W Cameron; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Deguchi, Toru

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was to compare the clinical efficiency of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and niobium-titanium-tantalum-zirconium (TiNbTaZr) archwires during initial orthodontic alignment. All subjects (ages between 12 and 20 years) underwent nonextraction treatment using 0.022-inch brackets. All patients were randomized into two groups for initial alignment with 0.016-inch NiTi archwires (n = 14), or with 0.016-inch TiNbTaZr archwires (n = 14). Digital scans were taken during the course of treatment and were used to compare the improvement in Little's Irregularity Index and the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths. There was approximately a 27% reduction in crowding during the first month with the use of 0.016-inch TiNbTaZr (Gummetal) wire, and an additional 25% decrease in crowding was observed during the next month. There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups in the decrease in irregularity over time ( P = .29). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the changes in intercanine and intermolar width ( P = .80). It can be concluded that Gummetal wires and conventional NiTi wires possess a similar ability to align teeth, and Gummetal wires have additional advantages over conventional NiTi, such as formability and use in patients with nickel allergy.

  17. Nickel release from orthodontic retention wires: the action of mechanical loading and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milheiro, A.; Kleverlaan, C.; Muris, J.; Feilzer, A.; Pallav, P.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a potent sensitizer and may induce innate and adaptive immune responses. Ni is an important component of orthodontic appliances (8-50 wt%). Due to chemical and mechanical factors in the oral environment, Ni is released from these appliances. Retention wires are in situ for a long

  18. Clinicians' Choices in Selecting Orthodontic Archwires

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    Silvia-Izabella Pop

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the choices made by clinicians in selecting archwires during the initial, intermediate and final stages of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Methods: We carried out a questionnaire-based study at the Orthodontics and Pedodontics Clinic Târgu Mureș, between March 2012 and September 2012. The questionnaires consisted of two parts: the first included questions related to the dimension, alloy used in fabrication, section (round or rectangular and manufacturer of the archwires used by the orthodontists in their orthodontic practice, the second part was concerned with their personal opinion about the physical properties and disadvantages of the archwires. Results: From a total number of 90 distributed questionnaires, 62 were returned. The majority of clinicians are using stainless steel (SS and nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi wires in their fixed orthodontic treatments, very few are using beta-titanium (Beta Ti, copper nickel-titanium (Co- NiTi and esthetic archwires. The preferred dimension seem to be 0.022 inches in the appliance system. Regarding the wire dimensions, 0.014, 0.016 inch wires are mostly used from the round section group and 0.016 × 0.022 inch, 0.017 × 0.025 inch from the rectangular ones. Conclusions: There is a general lack of agreement between the clinicians surveyed regarding the properties of an ideal archwire and the disadvantages of the used wires. The most frequently used alloys seemed to be the SS and NiTi

  19. Metallurgical characterization of a new nickel-titanium wire for rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Satish B; Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Clark, William A T; Kovarik, Libor; Buie, Caesar; Liu, Jie; Ben Johnson, William

    2009-11-01

    A novel thermomechanical processing procedure has been developed that yields a superelastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire (M-Wire) that laboratory testing shows has improved mechanical properties compared with conventional SE austenitic NiTi wires used for manufacture of rotary instruments. The objective of this study was to determine the origin of the improved mechanical properties. Specimens from 2 batches of M-Wire prepared under different processing conditions and from 1 batch of standard-processed SE wire for rotary instruments were examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy, temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry, micro-x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometric analyses. The processing for M-Wire yields a microstructure containing martensite, that the proportions of NiTi phases depend on processing conditions, and that the microstructure exhibits pronounced evidence of alloy strengthening. The presence of Ti(2)Ni precipitates in both microstructures indicates that M-Wire and the conventional SE wire for rotary instruments are titanium-rich.

  20. Dynamic mechanical properties of straight titanium alloy arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusy, R P; Wilson, T W

    1990-10-01

    Eight straight-wire materials were studied: an orthodontic titanium-molybdenum (Ti-Mo) product, TMA; three orthodontic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) products, Nitinol, Titanal, and Orthonol; three prototype alloys, a martensitic, an austenitic, and a biphasic alloy; and a hybrid shape-memory-effect product, Biometal. Each wire was prepared with a length-to-cross-sectional area of at least 3600 cm-1. With an Autovibron Model DDV-II-C used in the tensile mode, each sample was scanned from -120 to +200 degrees C at 2 degrees C/min. From the data base, plots of the log storage modulus, log tan delta, and percent change in length vs. temperature were generated. Results showed that the dynamic mechanical properties of the alloys within this TI system are quite different. The Ti-Mo alloy, TMA, was invariant with temperature, having a modulus of 7.30 x 10(11) dyne/cm2 (10.6 x 10(6) psi). The three cold-worked alloys--Nitinol, Titanal, and Orthonol--appeared to be similar, having a modulus of 5.74 x 10(11) dyne/cm2 (8.32 x 10(6) psi). The biphasic shape-memory alloy displayed a phase transformation near ambient temperature; whereas the hybrid shape-memory product, Biometal, underwent a 3-5% change in length during its transformation between 95 and 125 degrees C. Among the Ni-Ti wires tested, several different types of alloys were represented by this intermetallic material.

  1. Force level of small diameter nickel-titanium orthodontic wires ligated with different methods

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    Rodrigo Hitoshi Higa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the deflection force in conventional and thermally activated nickel-titanium (NiTi wires in passive (Damon Q and active (Bioquick self-ligating brackets (SLB and in conventional brackets (CB tied by two different methods: elastomeric ligature (EL and metal ligature (ML. Methods Two wire diameters (0.014 and 0.016 in. and 10 specimens per group were used. The specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device and tested in an Instron Universal Testing Machine, with a load cell of 10 N. For the testing procedures, the acrylic block representative of the right maxillary central incisor was palatally moved, with readings of the force at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm, at a constant speed of 2 mm/min and temperature of 36.5 °C. Results The conventional NiTi released higher forces than the thermally activated NiTi archwires in large deflections. In general, the SLB showed lower forces, while the ML had higher forces, with both showing a similar force release behavior, constantly decreasing as the deflection decreased. The EL showed an irregular behavior. The active SLB showed smaller forces than passive, in large deflections. Conclusions The SLB and the ML exhibit standard force patterns during unloading, while the elastomeric ligatures exhibit a randomly distributed force release behavior.

  2. Three-dimensional quantification of pretorqued nickel-titanium wires in edgewise and prescription brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Nitika; Xia, Zeyang; Chen, Jie; Stewart, Kelton T; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao

    2013-05-01

    To quantify the three-dimensional moments and forces produced by pretorqued nickel-titanium (NiTi) rectangular archwires fully engaged in 0.018- and 0.022-inch slots of central incisor and molar edgewise and prescription brackets. Ten identical acrylic dental models with retroclined maxillary incisors were fabricated for bonding with various bracket-wire combinations. Edgewise, Roth, and MBT brackets with 0.018- and 0.022-inch slots were bonded in a simulated 2 × 4 clinical scenario. The left central incisor and molar were sectioned and attached to load cells. Correspondingly sized straight and pretorqued NiTi archwires were ligated to the brackets using 0.010-inch ligatures. Each load cell simultaneously measured three force (Fx, Fy, Fz) and three moment (Mx, My, Mz) components. The faciolingual, mesiodistal, and inciso-occluso/apical axes of the teeth corresponded to the x, y, and z axes of the load cells, respectively. Each wire was removed and retested seven times. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined the effects of wire type, wire size, and bracket type on the measured orthodontic load systems. Interactions among the three effects were examined and pair-wise comparisons between significant combinations were performed. The force and moment components on each tooth were quantified according to their local coordinate axes. The three-way ANOVA interaction terms were significant for all force and moment measurements (P .05). The pretorqued wire generates a significantly larger incisor facial crown torquing moment in the MBT prescription compared to Roth, edgewise, and the straight NiTi wire.

  3. Alleviation of mandibular anterior crowding with copper-nickel-titanium vs nickel-titanium wires: a double-blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) vs nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires in resolving crowding of the anterior mandibular dentition. Sixty patients were included in this single-center, single-operator, double-blind randomized trial. All patients were bonded with the In Ovation-R self-ligating bracket (GAC, Central Islip, NY) with a 0.022-in slot, and the amount of crowding of the mandibular anterior dentition was assessed by using the irregularity index. The patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 30 patients, each receiving a 0.016-in CuNiTi 35 degrees C (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) or a 0.016-in NiTi (ModernArch, Wyomissing, Pa) wire. The type of wire selected for each patient was not disclosed to the provider or the patient. The date that each patient received a wire was recorded, and all patients were followed monthly for a maximum of 6 months. Demographic and clinical characteristics between the 2 wire groups were compared with the t test or the chi-square test and the Fisher exact test. Time to resolve crowding was explored with statistical methods for survival analysis, and alignment rate ratios for wire type and crowding level were calculated with Cox proportional hazards multivariate modeling. The type of wire (CuNiTi vs NiTi) had no significant effect on crowding alleviation (129.4 vs 121.4 days; hazard ratio, 1.3; P >0.05). Severe crowding (>5 on the irregularity index) showed a significantly higher probability of crowding alleviation duration relative to dental arches with a score of wires in laboratory and clinical conditions might effectively eliminate the laboratory-derived advantage of CuNiTi wires.

  4. Ion Release and Galvanic Corrosion of Different Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in Artificial Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Sheikh, Tahereh; Hemmati, Yasamin B

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the galvanic corrosion of brackets manufactured by four different companies coupled with stainless steel (SS) or nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in an artificial saliva solution. A total of 24 mandibular central incisor Roth brackets of four different manufacturers (American Orthodontics, Dentaurum, Shinye, ORJ) were used in this experimental study. These brackets were immersed in artificial saliva along with SS or NiTi orthodontic wires (0.016'', round) for 28 days. The electric potential difference of each bracket/ wire coupled with a saturated calomel reference electrode was measured via a voltmeter and recorded constantly. Corrosion rate (CR) was calculated, and release of ions was measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Stereomicroscope was used to evaluate all samples. Then, samples with corrosion were further assessed by scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Among ions evaluated, release of nickel ions from Shinye brackets was significantly higher than that of other brackets. The mean potential difference was significantly lower in specimens containing a couple of Shinye brackets and SS wire compared with other specimens. No significant difference was observed in the mean CR of various groups (p > 0.05). Microscopic evaluation showed corrosion in two samples only: Shinye bracket coupled with SS wire and American Orthodontics bracket coupled with NiTi wire. Shinye brackets coupled with SS wire showed more susceptibility to galvanic corrosion. There were no significant differences among specimens in terms of the CR or released ions except the release of Ni ions, which was higher in Shinye brackets.

  5. Corrosion of Nickel-Titanium Orthodontic Archwires in Saliva and Oral Probiotic Supplements

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    Gianluca Turco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine how probiotic supplements affect the corrosion stability of orthodontic archwires made of nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi. Materials and Methods: Ni-Ti archwires (0.508x0.508 and having the length of 2.5 cm were tested. The archwires (composition Ni=50.4%, Ti=49.6% were uncoated, nitrified and rhodium coated. Surface microgeometry was observed by using scanning electron microscope and surface roughness was measured by profilometer through these variables: roughness average, maximum height and maximum roughness depth. Corrosion was examined by electrochemical method of cyclic polarisation. Results: Rhodium coated alloy in saliva has significantly higher general corrosion in saliva than nitrified alloy and uncoated alloy, with large effect size (p=0.027; η2=0.700. In the presence of probiotics, the result was even more pronounced (p<0.001; η2=0.936. Probiotic supplement increases general and localised corrosion of rhodium coated archwire and slightly decreases general corrosion and increases localised corrosion in uncoated archwire , while in the case of nitrified archwire the probability of corrosion is very low. The differences in surface roughness between NiTi wires before corrosion are not significant. Exposure to saliva decreases roughness average in rhodium coated wire (p=0.015; η2=0.501. Media do not significantly influence surface microgeometry in nitrified and uncoated wires. Conclusion: Probiotic supplement affects corrosion depending on the type of coating of the NiTi archwire. It increases general corrosion of rhodium coated wire and causes localised corrosion of uncoated and rhodium coated archwire. Probiotic supplement does not have greater influence on surface roughness compared to that of saliva.

  6. Effects of a diamond-like carbon coating on the frictional properties of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a diamond-like carbon coating does not affect the frictional properties of orthodontic wires. Two types of wires (nickel-titanium and stainless steel) were used, and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on the wires. Three types of brackets, a conventional stainless steel bracket and two self-ligating brackets, were used for measuring static friction. DLC layers were observed by three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM), and the surface roughness was measured. Hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing. Frictional forces and surface roughness were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The hardness and elastic modulus of the wires were compared using Student's t-test. When angulation was increased, the DLC-coated wires showed significantly less frictional force than the as-received wires, except for some wire/bracket combinations. Thin DLC layers were observed on the wire surfaces by SEM. As-received and DLC-coated wires had similar surface morphologies, and the DLC-coating process did not affect the surface roughness. The hardness of the surface layer of the DLC-coated wires was much higher than for the as-received wires. The elastic modulus of the surface layer of the DLC-coated stainless steel wire was less than that of the as-received stainless steel wire, whereas similar values were found for the nickel-titanium wires. The hypothesis is rejected. A DLC-coating process does reduce the frictional force.

  7. Grain-resolved analysis of localized deformation in nickel-titanium wire under tensile load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmák, P; Pilch, J; Heller, L; Kopeček, J; Wright, J; Sedlák, P; Frost, M; Šittner, P

    2016-08-05

    The stress-induced martensitic transformation in tensioned nickel-titanium shape-memory alloys proceeds by propagation of macroscopic fronts of localized deformation. We used three-dimensional synchrotron x-ray diffraction to image at micrometer-scale resolution the grain-resolved elastic strains and stresses in austenite around one such front in a prestrained nickel-titanium wire. We found that the local stresses in austenite grains are modified ahead of the nose cone-shaped buried interface where the martensitic transformation begins. Elevated shear stresses at the cone interface explain why the martensitic transformation proceeds in a localized manner. We established the crossover from stresses in individual grains to a continuum macroscopic internal stress field in the wire and rationalized the experimentally observed internal stress field and the topology of the macroscopic front by means of finite element simulations of the localized deformation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Repercussion of noni mouthwash on surface characterization of Nickel-Titanium archwire

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    Dhivya Dilipkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maintaining oral hygiene is very important during orthodontic therapy mouthwashes are prescribed as an adjunct to improve patient's oral hygiene. Commercially available mouthwashes e.g. Chlorhexidine, Listerine, fluoride containing mouthwashes have shown to alter the surface characteristics of orthodontic wires. Hence the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Noni mouthwash on surface quality and compositional changes of Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study pre-formed 0.014 inch NiTi arch wire was used. The study comprised of two samples, one control and one test sample which were 25mm in length. Control sample was stored at room temperature without any manipulation while test sample was immersed in Noni mouthwash solution for 1.5 hours, after which the test specimen was removed from the mouthwash solution and rinsed with distilled water. Both control and test samples were sent for scanning electron microscopy analysis, to qualitatively characterize the topography of the wire surface. Electron dispersion spectrum analysis was done to evaluate the various components of both the wires. Results: No significant difference in the average surface roughness for both wire samples was observed. There was no significant difference seen in the composition of wire after immersion in Noni mouthwash. Conclusion: Noni mouthwash did not have significant influence on the surface roughness or altered the composition of the Ni-Ti wire. Hence Noni mouthwash may be prescribed as a natural, non-destructive prophylactic agent for orthodontic patients.

  9. Mechanodynamical analysis of nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, Carlos do Canto

    2002-01-01

    Nickel-titanium alloys may coexist in more than one crystalline structure. There is a high temperature phase, austenite, and a low temperature phase, martensite. The metallurgical basis for the superelasticity and the shape memory effect relies in the ability of these alloys to transform easily from one phase to another. There are three essential factors for the orthodontist to understand nickel-titanium alloys behaviour: stress; deflection; and temperature. These three factors are related to each other by the stress-deflection, stress-temperature and deflection-temperature diagrams. This work was undertaken with the objective to analyse commercial nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application, using the dynamical mechanical analyser - DMA. Four NiTi 0,017 X 0,025'' archwires were studied. The archwires were Copper NiTi 35 deg C (Ormco), Neo Sentalloy F200 (GAC), Nitinol Superelastic (Unitek) and NiTi (GAC). The different mechanodynamical properties such as elasticity and damping moduli were evaluated. Each commercial material was evaluated with and without a 1 N static force, aiming to evaluate phase transition temperature variation with stress. The austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, for the experiments without static force, was in the range of 1.59 to 1.85. For the 1 N static force tests the austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, ranged from 1.28 to 1.57 due to the higher martensite elasticity modulus. With elastic modulus variation with temperature behaviour, the orthodontist has the knowledge of the force variation applied in the tooth in relation to the oral cavity temperature change, for nickel-titanium alloys that undergo phase transformation. The damping capacity of the studied alloys depends on the materials state: martensitic phase; austenitic phase or during phase transformation. The martensitic phase shows higher dumping capacity. During phase transformation, an internal friction peak may be observed for the CuNiTi 35 deg C and Neo Sentalloy F

  10. Adverse reactions to orthodontic appliances in nickel-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Kristen K; Inda, Michael J; Reichl, Peter G; Zacharisen, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Nickel allergy (NA) is common and causes more cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) than all other metals combined. Many orthodontic appliances (ODAs) contain nickel but their clinical relevance in nickel-allergic patients is unclear. We aimed to characterize the relationship between NA and ODAs because the medical literature investigating this is controversial. A survey concerning adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA was distributed to members of the Wisconsin Society of Orthodontics. Forty-three surveys were analyzed. The surveyed group was experienced, representing a mean of 21.2 years in practice and averaging 242 appliances placed per year per orthodontist. Most new patients with orthodontia were 10-18 years old. Most wires used were nickel-titanium alloy. Although 76% of orthodontists inquired about NA at initial evaluation, 37% still placed nickel-containing ODAs in known nickel-allergic patients. Fifty percent placed a single intraoral appliance, observing for reactions. Three orthodontists applied ODAs to the skin similar to patch testing. Only 8 patients with reactions to ODAs were described in detail, 6 were female patients and 6 were aged 13-14 years. Intraoral and extraoral reactions were mild; diffuse urticaria was reported in one patient. Treatment included removing the appliances or changing to nonnickel alternatives with favorable outcomes. These cases, which included >33,000 patients, suggest a prevalence of 0.03%. Adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA have been observed but are uncommon. Using suitable alternatives, patients usually can be accommodated.

  11. Evaluation of force released by deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Rodrigo Hitoshi; Semenara, Nayara Thiago; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Sathler, Renata; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate deflection forces of rectangular orthodontic wires in conventional (MorelliTM), active (In-Ovation RTM) and passive (Damon 3MXTM) self-ligating brackets. Two brands of stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires (MorelliTM and GACTM), in addition to OrmcoTM copper-nickel-titanium wires were used. Specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device especially designed for this study and tested in an Instron universal testing machine. For the testing procedures, an acrylic structure representative of the maxillary right central incisor was lingually moved in activations of 0 to 1 mm, with readings of the force released by deflection in unloading of 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mm at a constant speed of 2 mm/min. Inter-bracket forces with stainless steel, NiTi and CuNiTi were individually compared by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's tests. Results showed that there were lower forces in conventional brackets, followed by active and passive self-ligating brackets. Within the brands, only for NiTi wires, the MorelliTM brand presented higher forces than GACTM wires. Bracket systems provide different degrees of deflection force, with self-ligating brackets showing the highest forces.

  12. Radius scaling of titanium wire arrays on the Z accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdale, C.A.; Denney, C.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The 20 MA Z accelerator has made possible the generation of substantial radiation (> 100 kJ) at higher photon energies (4.8 keV) through the use of titanium wire arrays. In this paper, the results of experiments designed to study the effects of initial load radius variations of nickel-clad titanium wire arrays will be presented. The load radius was varied from 17.5 mm to 25 mm and titanium K-shell (4.8 keV) yields of greater than 100 kJ were measured. The inclusion of the nickel cladding on the titanium wires allows for higher wire number loads and increases the spectral broadness of the source; kilovolt emissions (nickel plus titanium L-shell) of 400 kJ were measured in these experiments. Comparisons of the data to calculations will be made to estimate pinched plasma parameters such as temperature and participating mass fraction. These results will also be compared with previous pure titanium wire array results

  13. Effects of intraoral aging on surface properties of coated nickel-titanium archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Roberto; Ametrano, Gianluca; Gloria, Antonio; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Galeotti, Angela; Paduano, Sergio; Valletta, Rosa; D'Antò, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of intraoral aging on surface properties of esthetic and conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires. Five NiTi wires were considered for this study (Sentalloy, Sentalloy High Aesthetic, Superelastic Titanium Memory Wire, Esthetic Superelastic Titanium Memory Wire, and EverWhite). For each type of wire, four samples were analyzed as received and after 1 month of clinical use by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). To evaluate sliding resistance, two stainless steel plates with three metallic or three monocrystalline brackets, bonded in passive configuration, were manufactured; four as-received and retrieved samples for every wire were pulled five times at 5 mm/min for 1 minute by means of an Instron 5566, recording the greatest friction value (N). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and by Student's t-test. After clinical use, surface roughness increased considerably. The SEM images showed homogeneity for the as-received control wires; however, after clinical use esthetic wires exhibited a heterogeneous surface with craters and bumps. The lowest levels of friction were observed with the as-received Superelastic Titanium Memory Wire on metallic brackets. When tested on ceramic brackets, all the wires exhibited an increase in friction (t-test; P Sentalloy, showed a statistically significant increase in friction between the as-received and retrieved groups (t-test; P < .05). Clinical use of the orthodontic wires increases their surface roughness and the level of friction.

  14. Evaluation of Effects of Sterilization on Mechanical Properties of Orthodontic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Results: Dry heat sterilization, autoclave, 2% glutaraldehyde solution had no effect on ultimate tensile strength, 0.1% yield strength, modulus of elasticity and percentage elongation of stainless steel and elgiloy wires. Tensile strength and yield strength of Nitinol and b-titanium wires together with percentage elongation of b-titanium wires significantly increased following dry heat sterilization and autoclave. No detrimental effects on properties of wires were observed. These sterilization procedures could be safely recommended for sterilization of orthodontic wires.

  15. Nickel-titanium wire in circumferential suture of a flexor tendon repair: a comparison to polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, T; He, M; Chong, A K S; Lim, A Y T; Ryhanen, J

    2010-07-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) has been proposed as an alternative material for flexor tendon core suture. To our knowledge, its suitability as a circumferential suture of flexor tendon repair has not been investigated before. The purpose of this ex vivo study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of NiTi circumferential repairs and to compare them with commonly used polypropylene. Forty porcine flexor tendons were cut and repaired by simple running or interlocking mattress technique using 100 microm NiTi wire or 6-0 polypropylene. The NiTi circumferential repairs showed superior stiffness, gap resistance, and load to failure when compared to polypropylene repairs with both techniques. Nickel-titanium wire seems to be a potential material for circumferential repair of flexor tendons. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of autoclave sterilization on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernier, C; Grosgogeat, B; Ponsonnet, L; Benay, G; Lissac, M

    2005-02-01

    Orthodontic wires are frequently packaged in individual sealed bags in order to avoid cross-contamination. The instructions on the wrapper generally advise autoclave sterilization of the package and its contents if additional protection is desired. However, sterilization can modify the surface parameters and the mechanical properties of many types of material. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of one of the most widely used sterilization processes, autoclaving (18 minutes at 134 degrees C, as recommended by the French Ministry of Health), on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six wires currently used in orthodontics (one stainless steel alloy: Tru-Chrome RMO; two nickel-titanium shape memory alloys: Neo Sentalloy and Neo Sentalloy with Ionguard GAC; and three titanium-molybdenum alloys: TMA(R) and Low Friction TMA Ormco and Resolve GAC). The alloys were analysed on receipt and after sterilization, using surface structure observation techniques, including optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy and profilometry. The mechanical properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. The results showed that autoclave sterilization had no adverse effects on the surface parameters or on the selected mechanical properties. This supports the possibility for practitioners to systematically sterilize wires before placing them in the oral environment.

  17. Comparison of the superelasticity of different nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires and the loss of their properties by heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Humberto; Moyano, Javier; Gil, Javier; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and compare mechanical properties of eight widely used nickel-titanium orthodontic wires under uniform testing conditions and to determine the influence of the heat treatments on the loss of the superelasticity. Ten archwires from two batches from eight different manufacturers were evaluated. A three-point bending test was performed, in accordance with ISO 15841:2006, on 80 round nickel-titanium archwire segments of 0.016 inch. To obtain a load-deflection curve, the centre of each segment was deflected to 3.1 mm and then unloaded until force became zero. On the unloading curve, deflection at the end of the plateau and forces delivered at that point, and at 3, 2, 1 and 0.5 mm of deflection, were recorded. Plateau slopes were calculated from 3 and from 2 mm of deflection. Data obtained were statistically analysed to determine inter-brand, intra-brand and inter-batch differences (P Sentalloy M (1.001 N)] was 0.998 N (102 gf). The Nitinol SuperElastic plateau slope (0.353 N/mm) was the only one that was statistically different from 2 mm of deflection, as compared with the other brand values (0.129-0.155 N/mm). Damon Optimal Force described the gentlest slope from 3 mm of deflection (0.230 N/mm) and one of the longest plateaus. Titanol and Orthonol showed the most notable intra-brand differences, whereas inter-batch variability was significant for Nitinol (Henry Schein), Euro Ni-Ti and Orthonol. Superelasticity degree and exerted forces differed significantly among brands. Superelasticity of Nitinol SuperElastic was not observed, while Damon Optimal Force and Proclinic Ni-Ti Superelástico (G&H) showed the most superelastic curves. Intra-brand and inter-batch differences were observed in some brands. In all cases, the heat treatment at 600 °C produces precipitation in the matrix. The precipitates are rich in titanium and this fact produce changes in the chemical composition of the matrix and the loss of

  18. Galvanic Corrosion of and Ion Release from Various Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in a Fluoride-containing Mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Masudrad, Mahdis

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. This study compared the galvanic corrosion of orthodontic wires and brackets from various manufacturers following exposure to a fluoride mouthwash. Materials and methods. This study was conducted on 24 lower central incisor 0.022" Roth brackets of four different commercially available brands (Dentaurum, American Orthodontics, ORJ, Shinye). These brackets along with stainless steel (SS) or nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires (0.016", round) were immersed in Oral-B mouthwash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride for 28 days. The electric potential (EP) difference of each bracket-wire couple was measured with a Saturated Calomel Reference Electrode (Ag/AgCl saturated with KCl) via a voltmeter. The ions released in the electrolyte weremeasured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. All the specimens were assessed under a stereomicroscope and specimens with corrosion were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results. The copper ions released from specimens with NiTi wire were greater than those of samples containing SS wire. ORJ brackets released more Cu ions than other samples. The Ni ions released from Shinye brackets were significantly more than those of other specimens (P brackets coupled with NiTi wires was higher than that of brackets coupled with SS wires. Light and electron microscopic observations showed greater corrosion of ORJ brackets. Conclusion. In fluoride mouthwash, Shinye and ORJ brackets exhibited greater corrosion than Dentaurum and American Orthodontics brackets. Stainless steel brackets used with NiTi wires showed greater corrosion and thus caution is recommended when using them.

  19. Susceptibility to corrosion and in vitro biocompatibility of a laser-welded composite orthodontic arch wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Zhao, Shuang; Yu, Wenwen; Sun, Daqian

    2014-01-01

    Composite arch-wire (CoAW) is an arch wire formed by solder connection of nickel titanium shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biocompatibility of CoAW as an important foundation for its clinical application. The electrochemical corrosion and ion release behavior of CoAW upon immersion in solutions simulating oral cavity conditions were measured to evaluate the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Murine L-929 cells were co-cultured with CoAW extract to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the corrosion products in vitro. Polarization tests indicated that CoAW is resistant to corrosion in the tested artificial saliva (AS)-based solutions (chloric solution, simple AS, fluorinated AS, and protein-containing AS), and the amount of toxic copper ions released after immersion was lower than average daily dietary intake levels. The cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated the in vitro biocompatibility of CoAW. Based on the combined advantages of its base materials CoAW, with its resistance to biocorrosion and in vitro cytocompatibility, is a promising alternative material for use in orthodontic fixation applications.

  20. Mechanical properties of a new thermoplastic polymer orthodontic archwire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, Juan Carlos; Velo, Marcos [Grupo de investigación en Ortodoncia, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Espinar, Eduardo; Llamas, Jose Maria [Grupo de investigación en Ortodoncia, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Rúperez, Elisa; Manero, Jose Maria [Dept. C. Materiales e Ing. Metalúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Centre de Recerca Nanoenginyeria, Member of Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, CIBER-BBN (Spain); Javier Gil, F., E-mail: francesc.xavier.gil@upc.edu [Dept. C. Materiales e Ing. Metalúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Centre de Recerca Nanoenginyeria, Member of Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, CIBER-BBN (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    A new thermoplastic polymer for orthodontic applications was obtained and extruded into wires with round and rectangular cross sections. We evaluated the potential of new aesthetic archwire: tensile, three point bending, friction and stress relaxation behaviour, and formability characteristics were assessed. Stresses delivered were generally slightly lower than typical beta-titanium and nickel-titanium archwires. The polymer wire has good instantaneous mechanical properties; tensile stress decayed about 2% over 2 h depending on the initial stress relaxation for up to 120 h. High formability allowed shape bending similar to that associated with stainless steel wires. The friction coefficients were lower than the metallic conventional archwires improving the slipping with the brackets. This new polymer could be a good candidate for aesthetic orthodontic archwires. - Highlights: • A new thermoplastic polymer for orthodontic applications was obtained. • This polymer could be a good candidate for aesthetic orthodontic archwires. • The polymer has good mechanical properties as orthodontic wire coating. • The friction coefficients were lower than the metallic archwires improving the slipping with the brackets. • High formability allowed shape bending similar to that associated with stainless steel wires.

  1. Mechanical properties of a new thermoplastic polymer orthodontic archwire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, Juan Carlos; Velo, Marcos; Espinar, Eduardo; Llamas, Jose Maria; Rúperez, Elisa; Manero, Jose Maria; Javier Gil, F.

    2014-01-01

    A new thermoplastic polymer for orthodontic applications was obtained and extruded into wires with round and rectangular cross sections. We evaluated the potential of new aesthetic archwire: tensile, three point bending, friction and stress relaxation behaviour, and formability characteristics were assessed. Stresses delivered were generally slightly lower than typical beta-titanium and nickel-titanium archwires. The polymer wire has good instantaneous mechanical properties; tensile stress decayed about 2% over 2 h depending on the initial stress relaxation for up to 120 h. High formability allowed shape bending similar to that associated with stainless steel wires. The friction coefficients were lower than the metallic conventional archwires improving the slipping with the brackets. This new polymer could be a good candidate for aesthetic orthodontic archwires. - Highlights: • A new thermoplastic polymer for orthodontic applications was obtained. • This polymer could be a good candidate for aesthetic orthodontic archwires. • The polymer has good mechanical properties as orthodontic wire coating. • The friction coefficients were lower than the metallic archwires improving the slipping with the brackets. • High formability allowed shape bending similar to that associated with stainless steel wires

  2. Nickel-titanium wire as a flexor tendon suture material: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, T; Göransson, H; Viinikainen, A; Jämsä, T; Ryhänen, J

    2010-07-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi) is a new suture material that is easy to handle, is strong, and biocompatible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the material properties and biomechanical behaviour of 150 microm and 200 microm NiTi wires in flexor tendon repair. Braided polyester (4-0 Ethibond) was used as control. Fifty fresh-frozen porcine flexor tendons were repaired using the Pennington modification of the Kessler repair or a double Kessler technique. NiTi wires were stiffer and reached higher tensile strength compared to braided polyester suture. Repairs with 200 microm NiTi wire had a higher yield force, ultimate force and better resistance to gapping than 4-0 braided polyester repairs. Repairs made with 200 microm NiTi wire achieved higher stiffness and ultimate force than repairs made with 150 microm NiTi wire.

  3. Galvanic Corrosion of and Ion Release from Various Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in a Fluoride-containing Mouthwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodeh Tahmasbi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. This study compared the galvanic corrosion of orthodontic wires and brackets from various man-ufacturers following exposure to a fluoride mouthwash. Materials and methods. This study was conducted on 24 lower central incisor 0.022” Roth brackets of four different commercially available brands (Dentaurum, American Orthodontics, ORJ, Shinye. These brackets along with stainless steel (SS or nickel-titanium (NiTi orthodontic wires (0.016", round were immersed in Oral-B mouthwash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride for 28 days. The electric potential (EP difference of each bracket-wire couple was measured with a Satu-rated Calomel Reference Electrode (Ag/AgCl saturated with KCl via a voltmeter. The ions released in the electrolyte weremeasured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. All the specimens were assessed under a stereomicroscope and speci-mens with corrosion were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results. The copper ions released from specimens with NiTi wire were greater than those of samples containing SS wire. ORJ brackets released more Cu ions than other samples. The Ni ions released from Shinye brackets were significantly more than those of other specimens (P < 0.05. Corrosion rate of brackets coupled with NiTi wires was higher than that of brack-ets coupled with SS wires. Light and electron microscopic observations showed greater corrosion of ORJ brackets. Conclusion. In fluoride mouthwash, Shinye and ORJ brackets exhibited greater corrosion than Dentaurum and American Orthodontics brackets. Stainless steel brackets used with NiTi wires showed greater corrosion and thus caution is recom-mended when using them.

  4. A Novel Method of Coating Orthodontic Archwires with Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shibli S; Kulkarni, Dinraj; Todkar, Rohit; Bagul, Ravikiran S; Parekh, Kreena; Bhujbal, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Background: The major hazard to the orthodontic tooth movement is the friction developing at the bracket wire interface. In the past, there have been various attempts to reduce this friction. We believe that coating the commercially available orthodontic wires with nanoparticles can result in a successful reduction of this friction. The objective of this study is to develop a novel method of coating orthodontic archwires with nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: Stainless steel (Ormco, CA, USA), titanium molybdenum alloy (Ormco, CA, USA) and nickel-titanium (G and H Wire Company, USA) orthodontic wires with a rectangular cross-section dimension of 0.019”× 0.025”, were selected. The wires were later coated with a uniform and smooth nanoparticle film using 100 ml nanocremics. The coating procedure described in this article is a sol-gel thin film dip coating method. Results: The coating procedure was verified by comparing the surface topography of nanocoated archwires with the commercially available archwires in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The ESEM images prove that the surface topography of the coated wires was found to be smoother with less surface deteriorations as compared to the commercially available wires. Conclusion: Commercially available orthodontic wires can be successfully coated using a novel method of sol-gel thin film dip coating method. PMID:26028899

  5. Mechanical properties of nickel-titanium archwire used in the final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao; Sun, Xin-hua; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Chun-bo; Yan, Kuo; Guo, Yong-liang

    2013-01-01

    As the only active component in final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique, the activation of nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires is one of the factors that affect the torque expression. It is necessary to evaluate the mechanical properties of the nickel-titanium wire used in the final treatment phase in simulated oral environments to forecast the treatment outcomes. The mechanical properties of 171 thermal nickel-titanium wires of 0.35 mm (0.014-in) in diameters with different deflection of 40 mm in length were investigated with three-point bending test. The samples were divided into 2 groups: as-received and bended groups. In the bended group, samples were divided into 7 subgroups according to the amounts of deflection and named by the canine angulations (-25°, -19°, -13°, -7°, -1°, +5°, +11°). The deflection of wires was made by inserting the wires into the deep tunnel of Tip-Edge Plus brackets positioned in plaster casts with different canine angulations to mimic the use of nickel-titanium wires in the final treatment phase. Immersed the bended group in artificial saliva (pH 6.8) and preserved at 37.0°C. Eight durations of incubation were tested: 1 to 8 weeks. Three analogous samples of each group and subgroups were tested per week. Stiffness (YS:E) and the load-deflection characteristics of unloading plateau section were obtained. Significant changes in specific mechanical properties were observed in long-term immersed and large deflected wires compared with as-received groups. Both immersion time and deflection affected the mechanical properties of wires in the simulated oral environment, and the two factors had synergistic effect. In groups -25°, -19° and -13°, stiffness (YS:E) increased then decreased and average plateau force and ratio of variance decreased then increased correspondingly at specific time. In the final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique, the mechanical properties of nickel-titanium wire are associated with the

  6. Microstructural studies of 35 degrees C copper Ni-Ti orthodontic wire and TEM confirmation of low-temperature martensite transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, William A; Guo, Wenhua; Clark, William A T; Iijima, Masahiro

    2008-02-01

    Previous temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) study of nickel-titanium orthodontic wires revealed a large exothermic low-temperature peak that was attributed to transformation within martensitic NiTi. The purpose of this study was to use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to verify this phase transformation in a clinically popular nickel-titanium wire, identify its mechanism and confirm other phase transformations found by TMDSC, and to provide detailed information about the microstructure of this wire. The 35 degrees C Copper nickel-titanium wire (Ormco) with cross-section dimensions of 0.016 in. x 0.022 in. used in the earlier TMDSC investigation was selected. Foils were prepared for TEM analyses by mechanical grinding, polishing, dimpling, ion milling and plasma cleaning. Standard bright-field and dark-field TEM images were obtained, along with convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns. A cryo-stage with the electron microscope (Phillips CM 200) permitted the specimen to be observed at -187, -45, and 50 degrees C, as well as at room temperature. Microstructures were also observed with an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Room temperature microstructures had randomly oriented, elongated grains that were twinned. Electron diffraction patterns confirmed that phase transformations took place over temperature ranges previously found by TMDSC. TEM observations revealed a high dislocation density and fine-scale oxide particles, and that twinning is the mechanism for the low-temperature transformation in martensitic NiTi. TEM confirmed the low-temperature peak and other phase transformations observed by TMDSC, and revealed that twinning in martensite is the mechanism for the low-temperature peak. The high dislocation density and fine-scale oxide particles in the microstructure are the result of the wire manufacturing process.

  7. Force systems in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment -- a comparison of different leveling arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuck, Lars-Michael; Drescher, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The determination of orthodontically-effective forces and moments places great demands on the technical equipment. Many patients report severe pain after fixed appliance insertion. Since it is assumed that pain from orthodontic appliances is associated with the force and moment levels applied to the teeth and since the occurrence of root resorption is a common therapeutic side effect, it would seem important to know the actual magnitudes of the components of the active orthodontic force systems. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure initial force systems produced by different leveling arch-wires in a complete multi-bracket appliance and to assess whether force and moment levels can be regarded as biologically acceptable or not. The actual bracket position in 42 patients was transferred onto a measurement model. Forces and moments produced by a super-elastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire, a 6-strand stainless steel archwire, and a 7-strand super-elastic NiTi archwire were determined experimentally on different teeth. Average forces and moments produced by the super-elastic NiTi arch wires were found to be the highest. In spite if their larger diameter, the stranded arch wires' average force and moment levels were lower, especially that of the stranded super-elastic archwire. Nevertheless, maximum force levels sometimes exceeded recommended values in the literature and must be considered as too high. The measured arch wires' initial force systems differed significantly depending on the type of archwire and its material structure. Stranded arch wires produced lower force and moment levels, and we recommend their use in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment.

  8. Nickel-titanium alloys: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on nickel-titanium wires was performed. The strategy was focused on Entrez-PubMed-OLDMEDLINE, Scopus and BioMed Central from 1963 to 2008. METHODS: Papers in English and French describing the behavior of these wires and laboratorial methods to identify crystalline transformation were considered. A total of 29 papers were selected. RESULTS: Nickel-titanium wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties in order to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. Many alloys called "superelastic" do not present this effect; they just behave as less stiff alloys, with a larger springback if compared to the stainless steel wires. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials, including temperature transition range (TTR and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.

  9. Fatigue testing of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Qian, Wei; Abtin, Houman; Gao, Yuan; Haapasalo, Markus

    2011-07-01

    To improve the fracture resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files, manufacturers have introduced new alloys to manufacture NiTi files and developed new manufacturing processes. This study was aimed to examine the fatigue behavior of NiTi instruments from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM Wire). Instruments of ProFile, Typhoon (TYP), Typhoon CM (TYP CM), DS-SS0250425NEYY (NEYY), and DS-SS0250425NEYY CM (NEYY CM) (DS Dental, Johnson City, TN) all size 25/.04 were subjected to rotational bending at the curvature of 35° and 45° in air at the temperature of 23° ± 2°C, and the number of revolutions to fracture (N(f)) was recorded. The fracture surface of all fragments was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The crack-initiation sites, the percentage of dimple area to the whole fracture cross-section, and the surface strain amplitude (ε(a)) were noted. The new alloy yielded an improvement of over three to eight times in N(f) of CM files than that of conventional NiTi files (P wire (58%-100%) had one crack origin. The values of the fraction area occupied by the dimple region were significantly smaller on CM NiTi instruments compared with conventional NiTi instruments (P wire at both curvatures (P Wire had a significantly higher N(f) and lower surface strain amplitude than the conventional NiTi wire files with identical design. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcelo Faria da; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maia; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in) and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in) from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40), while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40). Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p wire. Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions.

  11. Metallurgical characterization of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Zhou, Hui-Min; Zheng, Yu-Feng; Campbell, Les; Peng, Bin; Haapasalo, Markus

    2011-11-01

    To improve the fracture resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files, manufacturers have introduced new alloys and developed new manufacturing processes for the fabrication of NiTi files. This study aimed to examine the phase transformation behavior and microstructure of NiTi instruments from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM wire). Instruments of EndoSequence (ES), ProFile (PF), ProFile Vortex (Vortex), Twisted Files (TF), Typhoon (TYP), and Typhoon™ CM (TYP CM), all size 25/.04, were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructures of etched instruments were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDS) analyses. The DSC analyses showed that each segment of the TYP CM and Vortex instruments had an austenite transformation completion or austenite-finish (A(f)) temperature exceeding 37°C, whereas the NiTi instruments made from conventional superelastic NiTi wire (ES, PF, and TYP) and TF had A(f) temperatures substantially below mouth temperature. The higher A(f) temperature of TYP CM instruments was consistent with a mixture of austenite and martensite structure, which was observed at room temperature with XRD. All NiTi instruments had room temperature martensite microstructures consisting of colonies of lenticular features with substantial twinning. EDS analysis indicated that the precipitates in all NiTi instruments were titanium-rich, with an approximate composition of Ti(2)Ni. The TYP CM and Vortex instruments with heat treatment contribute to increase austenite transformation temperature. The CM instrument has significant changes in the phase transformation behavior, compared with conventional superelastic NiTi instruments. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical and microstructural integrity of nickel-titanium and stainless steel laser joined wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannod, J.; Bornert, M.; Bidaux, J.-E.; Bataillard, L.; Karimi, A.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.; Hessler-Wyser, A.

    2011-01-01

    The biomedical industry shows increasing interest in the joining of dissimilar metals, especially with the aim of developing devices that combine different mechanical and corrosive properties. As an example, nickel-titanium shape memory alloys joined to stainless steel are very promising for new invasive surgery devices, such as guidewires. A fracture mechanics study of such joined wires was carried out using in situ tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy imaging combined with chemical analysis, and revealed an unusual fracture behaviour at superelastic stress. Nanoindentation was performed to determine the mechanical properties of the welded area, which were used as an input for mechanical computation in order to understand this unexpected behaviour. Automated image correlation allowed verification of the mechanical modelling and a reduced stress-strain model is proposed to explain the special fracture mechanism. This study reveals the fact that tremendous property changes at the interface between the NiTi base wire and the weld area have more impact on the ultimate tensile strength than the chemical composition variation across the welded area.

  13. Friction behavior and other material properties of nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum archwires following electrochemical surface refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Miriam Julia; Bourauel, Christoph; Roehlike, Jan; Reimann, Susanne; Keilig, Ludger; Braumann, Bert

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether electrochemical surface treatment of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and titanium-molybdenum (TiMo) archwires (OptoTherm and BetaTitan; Ortho-Dent Specials, Kisdorf, Germany) reduces friction inside the bracket-archwire complex. We also evaluated further material properties and compared these to untreated wires. The material properties of the surface-treated wires (Optotherm/LoFrix and BetaTitan/LoFrix) were compared to untreated wires made by the same manufacturer (see above) and by another manufacturer (Neo Sentalloy; GAC, Bohemia, NY, USA). We carried out a three-point bending test, leveling test, and friction test using an orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS). In addition, a pure bending test was conducted at a special test station, and scanning electron micrographs were obtained to analyze the various wire types for surface characteristics. Finally, edge beveling and cross-sectional dimensions were assessed. Force losses due to friction were reduced by 10 percentage points (from 36 to 26%) in the NiTi and by 12 percentage points (from 59 to 47%) in the TiMo wire specimens. Most of the other material properties exhibited no significant changes after surface treatment. While the three-point bending tests revealed mildly reduced force levels in the TiMo specimens due to diameter losses of roughly 2%, these force levels remained almost unchanged in the NiTi specimens. Compared to untreated NiTi and TiMo archwire specimens, the surface-treated specimens demonstrated reductions in friction loss by 10 and 12 percentage points, respectively.

  14. Corrosion resistance of titanium-containing dental orthodontic wires in fluoride-containing artificial saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.-H.; Wang, C.-C.; Huang, T.-K.; Chen, L.-K.; Chou, M.-Y.; Huang, H.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of different Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires (including Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-Cu, Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn, and Ti-Nb alloys) in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements. Different NaF concentrations (0%, 0.2%, and 0.5%), simulating the fluoride contents in commercial toothpastes, were added to the artificial saliva. Surface characterization was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the presence of fluoride ions, especially 0.5% NaF, was detrimental to the protective ability of the TiO 2 -based film on the Ti-containing wires. This might lead to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of the tested alloys, i.e. an increase in the corrosion rate and anodic current density and a decrease in the passive film breakdown potential. Among the tested Ti-containing wires, the Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Cu wires containing mainly TiO 2 on surface film were more susceptible to fluoride-enhanced corrosion, while the Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn and Ti-Nb wires containing MoO 3 /ZrO 2 /SnO and Nb 2 O 5 , respectively, along with TiO 2 on surface film were pitting corrosion resistant and showed a lower susceptibility to fluoride-enhanced corrosion. The difference in corrosion resistance of the tested commercial Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires was significantly dependent on the passive film characteristics on wires' surface.

  15. Relationship between friction force and orthodontic force at the leveling stage using a coated wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Masaki; Namura, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Takahiko; Iwai, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between orthodontic force and friction produced from an archwire and brackets affects the sliding of the wire in the leveling stage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between force and friction in a small esthetic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire. Five esthetic wires (three coated and two plated) and two small, plain Ni-Ti wires (0.012 and 0.014 inches) were used. We performed a three-point bending test according to ISO 15841 and the drawing test with a dental arch model designed with upper linguoversion of the lateral incisor in the arch (displacements of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm), and evaluated the relationship between them. Unloading bending forces of all wires at displacements of less than 1.0 mm were larger than friction forces, but all friction forces at displacements exceeding 2.0 mm were larger than unloading bending forces. The arch likely expands when displacement from the proximal brackets exceeds 1.0 mm. The friction force of a martensite 0.014-inch Ni-Ti wire was significantly greater than those of the other esthetic and austenitic wires. A wire with the smallest possible friction force should be used in cases with more than 1.0 mm displacement.

  16. Preparation, mechanical, and in vitro properties of glass fiber-reinforced polycarbonate composites for orthodontic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Inami, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Nishiyama, Norihiro; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2015-05-01

    Generally, orthodontic treatment uses metallic wires made from stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-nickel alloy, β-titanium alloy, and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) alloy. However, these wires are not esthetically pleasing and may induce allergic or toxic reactions. To correct these issues, in the present study we developed glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) orthodontic wires made from polycarbonate and E-glass fiber by using pultrusion. After fabricating these GFRP round wires with a diameter of 0.45 mm (0.018 inch), we examined their mechanical and in vitro properties. To investigate how the glass-fiber diameter affected their physical properties, we prepared GFRP wires of varying diameters (7 and 13 µm). Both the GFRP with 13-µm fibers (GFRP-13) and GFRP with 7 µm fibers (GFRP-7) were more transparent than the metallic orthodontic wires. Flexural strengths of GFRP-13 and GFRP-7 were 690.3 ± 99.2 and 938.1 ± 95.0 MPa, respectively; flexural moduli of GFRP-13 and GFRP-7 were 25.4 ± 4.9 and 34.7 ± 7.7 GPa, respectively. These flexural properties of the GFRP wires were nearly equivalent to those of available Ni-Ti wires. GFRP-7 had better flexural properties than GFRP-13, indicating that the flexural properties of GFRP increase with decreasing fiber diameter. Using thermocycling, we found no significant change in the flexural properties of the GFRPs after 600 or 1,200 cycles. Using a cytotoxicity detection kit, we found that the glass fiber and polycarbonate components comprising the GFRP were not cytotoxic within the limitations of this study. We expect this metal-free GFRP wire composed of polycarbonate and glass fiber to be useful as an esthetically pleasing alternative to current metallic orthodontic wire. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Mechanics analysis of fracture of orthodontic wires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeping; Sun, Xiaoye; Zhang, Longqi

    2003-03-01

    Fracture problem of orthodontic wires was discussed in this paper. The calculation formulae of bending stress and tensile stress were obtained. All main factors that affect bending stress and tensile stress of orthodontic wires were analyzed and discussed. It was concluded that the main causes of fracture of orthodontic wires were fatigue and static disruption. Some improving proposals for preventing fracture of orthodontic wires were put forward.

  18. Initial arch wires for tooth alignment during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fan; Lai, Wenli; Furness, Susan; McIntyre, Grant T; Millett, Declan T; Hickman, Joy; Wang, Yan

    2013-04-30

    potentially confounding factor (such as bracket type, slot size, ligation method, extraction of teeth) which is likely to have influenced the outcome and was not controlled in the trial. None of the trials reported the important adverse outcome of root resorption.Three groups of comparisons were made.(1) Multistrand stainless steel initial arch wires compared to superelastic nickel titanium (NiTi) initial arch wires. There were four trials in this group, with different comparisons and outcomes reported at different times. No meta-analysis was possible. There is insufficient evidence from these trials to determine whether or not there is a difference in either rate of alignment or pain between stainless steel and NiTi initial arch wires.(2) Conventional (stabilised) NiTi initial arch wires compared to superelastic NiTi initial arch wires. There were two trials in this group, one reporting the outcome of alignment over 6 months and the other reporting pain over 1 week. There is insufficient evidence from these trials to determine whether or not there is any difference between conventional (stabilised) and superelastic NiTi initial arch wires with regard to either alignment or pain.(3) Single-strand superelastic NiTi initial arch wires compared to other NiTi (coaxial, copper NiTi (CuNiTi) or thermoelastic) initial arch wires. The three trials in this comparison each compared a different product against single-strand superelastic NiTi. There is very weak unreliable evidence, based on one very small study (n = 24) at high risk of bias, that coaxial superelastic NiTi may produce greater tooth movement over 12 weeks, but no information on associated pain or root resorption. This result should be interpreted with caution until further research evidence is available. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether or not there is a difference between either thermoelastic or CuNiTi and superelastic NiTi initial arch wires. There is no reliable evidence from the trials included in

  19. Understanding the shape-memory alloys used in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Daniel J; Peres, Rafael V; Mendes, Alvaro M; Elias, Carlos N

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape-memory alloys (SMAs) have been used in the manufacture of orthodontic wires due to their shape memory properties, super-elasticity, high ductility, and resistance to corrosion. SMAs have greater strength and lower modulus of elasticity when compared with stainless steel alloys. The pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi wires means that on unloading they return to their original shape by delivering light continuous forces over a wider range of deformation which is claimed to allow dental displacements. The aim of this paper is to discuss the physical, metallurgical, and mechanical properties of NiTi used in Orthodontics in order to analyze the shape memory properties, super-elasticity, and thermomechanical characteristics of SMA.

  20. Corrosion resistance of titanium-containing dental orthodontic wires in fluoride-containing artificial saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.-H. [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-C. [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Min-Hwei College of Health Care Management, Tainan County 736, Taiwan (China); Huang, T.-K. [College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-K. [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chou, M.-Y. [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-H., E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.t [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-20

    This study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of different Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires (including Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-Cu, Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn, and Ti-Nb alloys) in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements. Different NaF concentrations (0%, 0.2%, and 0.5%), simulating the fluoride contents in commercial toothpastes, were added to the artificial saliva. Surface characterization was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the presence of fluoride ions, especially 0.5% NaF, was detrimental to the protective ability of the TiO{sub 2}-based film on the Ti-containing wires. This might lead to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of the tested alloys, i.e. an increase in the corrosion rate and anodic current density and a decrease in the passive film breakdown potential. Among the tested Ti-containing wires, the Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Cu wires containing mainly TiO{sub 2} on surface film were more susceptible to fluoride-enhanced corrosion, while the Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn and Ti-Nb wires containing MoO{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, respectively, along with TiO{sub 2} on surface film were pitting corrosion resistant and showed a lower susceptibility to fluoride-enhanced corrosion. The difference in corrosion resistance of the tested commercial Ti-containing dental orthodontic wires was significantly dependent on the passive film characteristics on wires' surface.

  1. Relationship between friction force and orthodontic force at the leveling stage using a coated wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki MURAYAMA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between orthodontic force and friction produced from an archwire and brackets affects the sliding of the wire in the leveling stage. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between force and friction in a small esthetic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti wire. Material and Methods: Five esthetic wires (three coated and two plated and two small, plain Ni-Ti wires (0.012 and 0.014 inches were used. We performed a three-point bending test according to ISO 15841 and the drawing test with a dental arch model designed with upper linguoversion of the lateral incisor in the arch (displacements of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm, and evaluated the relationship between them. Results: Unloading bending forces of all wires at displacements of less than 1.0 mm were larger than friction forces, but all friction forces at displacements exceeding 2.0 mm were larger than unloading bending forces. The arch likely expands when displacement from the proximal brackets exceeds 1.0 mm. The friction force of a martensite 0.014-inch Ni-Ti wire was significantly greater than those of the other esthetic and austenitic wires. Conclusions: A wire with the smallest possible friction force should be used in cases with more than 1.0 mm displacement.

  2. Effect of Saliva on Load-Deflection Characteristics of Superelastic Nickel-Titanium Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, T.; Ghadirian, H.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili; Shahhoseini, T.; Haj-Fathalian, M.

    2012-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Most published results about the features of NiTi wires are based on the mechanical laboratory tests in a dry environment.Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of saliva on load-deflection characteristics of superelastic NiTi wires.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 15 wires of three kinds of NiTi wires (Sentalloy, Force I and Truflex) were prepared; five of them were tested in their as-received condition to provide bas...

  3. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of new nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium wires during thermomechanical treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillem-Martí, J. [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Río Ebro, Edificio I+D Bloque 5, 1a planta, C/ Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) – UPC, C/Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Herranz-Díez, C. [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Río Ebro, Edificio I+D Bloque 5, 1a planta, C/ Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Shaffer, J.E. [Fort Wayne Metals Research Products Corporation, 9609 Ardmore Avenue, 46809 Fort Wayne (United States); Gil, F.J. [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Río Ebro, Edificio I+D Bloque 5, 1a planta, C/ Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) – UPC, C/Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2015-06-11

    NiTi alloy is the only practical shape memory alloy (SMA) in biomedical use because of its excellent mechanical stability and functionality. However, it is estimated that between 4.5% and 28.5% of the population are hypersensitive to nickel metal, with a higher prevalence in females. Therefore, developing nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium alloys showing shape memory or super elastic behavior would have a great interest in the biomaterials field. Homogeneous 127 μm diameter Ti25Hf21Nb wires were produced and compared to straight annealed Ti–50.8 at% Ni (Nitinol) and 90% cold-drawn 316L wires. Microstructural changes taking place during the heat treatment of cold-worked Ti25Hf21Nb wires were investigated. Large plastic deformation during wire drawing and subsequent annealing led to nano-crystallization and amorphization which may contribute to the observed superelasticity. Mechanical properties were characterized using cyclic uniaxial tension and rotary beam fatigue test modes. A modulus of elasticity of less than 60 GPa and axial recoverable strain of greater than 3% were observed with stress hysteresis resembling a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation at higher temperatures. The new Ti25Hf21Nb alloy is an important candidate for developing Ni-free SMAs in the future.

  4. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of new nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium wires during thermomechanical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillem-Martí, J.; Herranz-Díez, C.; Shaffer, J.E.; Gil, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    NiTi alloy is the only practical shape memory alloy (SMA) in biomedical use because of its excellent mechanical stability and functionality. However, it is estimated that between 4.5% and 28.5% of the population are hypersensitive to nickel metal, with a higher prevalence in females. Therefore, developing nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium alloys showing shape memory or super elastic behavior would have a great interest in the biomaterials field. Homogeneous 127 μm diameter Ti25Hf21Nb wires were produced and compared to straight annealed Ti–50.8 at% Ni (Nitinol) and 90% cold-drawn 316L wires. Microstructural changes taking place during the heat treatment of cold-worked Ti25Hf21Nb wires were investigated. Large plastic deformation during wire drawing and subsequent annealing led to nano-crystallization and amorphization which may contribute to the observed superelasticity. Mechanical properties were characterized using cyclic uniaxial tension and rotary beam fatigue test modes. A modulus of elasticity of less than 60 GPa and axial recoverable strain of greater than 3% were observed with stress hysteresis resembling a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation at higher temperatures. The new Ti25Hf21Nb alloy is an important candidate for developing Ni-free SMAs in the future

  5. Do Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Orthodontic NiTi Wires Remain Stable In Vivo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sarul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Exceptional properties of the NiTi archwires may be jeopardized by the oral cavity; thus its long-term effect on the mechanical and physiochemical properties of NiTi archwires was the aim of work. Material and Methods. Study group comprised sixty 0.016 × 0.022 NiTi archwires from the same manufacturer evaluated (group A after the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. 30 mm long pieces cut off from each wire prior to insertion formed the control group B. Obeying the strict rules of randomization, all samples were subjected to microscopic evaluation and nanoindentation test. Results. Both groups displayed substantial presence of nonmetallic inclusions. Heterogeneity of the structure and its alteration after usage were found in groups B and A, respectively. Conclusions. Long-term, reliable prediction of biomechanics of NiTi wires in vivo is impossible, especially new archwires from the same vendor display different physiochemical properties. Moreover, manufacturers have to decrease contamination in the production process in order to minimize risk of mutual negative influence of nickel-titanium archwires and oral environment.

  6. Comparison of the mechanical properties of rotary instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium wire, M-wire, or nickel-titanium alloy in R-phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Gambarra-Soares, Thaiane; Elias, Carlos N; Siqueira, José F; Inojosa, Inês F J; Lopes, Weber S P; Vieira, Victor T L

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the mechanical properties of endodontic instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire (K(3) and Revo-S SU), M-Wire (ProFile Vortex), or NiTi alloy in R-phase (K(3)XF). The test instruments were subjected to mechanical tests to evaluate resistance to bending (flexibility), cyclic fatigue, and torsional load in clockwise rotation. Data were statistically evaluated by the analysis of variance test and the Student-Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons. In the bending resistance test, flexibility decreased in the following order: K(3)XF > Revo-S SU > ProFile Vortex > K(3). The ranking in the fatigue resistance test was the following: K(3)XF > K(3) > ProFile Vortex > Revo-S SU. In the torsional assay, the angular deflection at failure decreased in the following order: K(3)XF > Revo-S SU > K(3) > ProFile Vortex. For the maximum torque values, the ranking was K(3) > K(3)XF > ProFile Vortex > Revo-S SU. The results showed that the K(3)XF instrument, which is made of NiTi alloy in R-phase, had the overall best performance in terms of flexibility, angular deflection at failure, and cyclic fatigue resistance. In addition to the alloy from which the instrument is manufactured, the design and dimensions are important determinants of the mechanical performance of endodontic instruments. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of ion-implantation on surface characteristics of nickel titanium and titanium molybdenum alloy arch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the changes in surface roughness and frictional features of ′ion-implanted nickel titanium (NiTi and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA arch wires′ from its conventional types in an in-vitro laboratory set up. Materials and Methods: ′Ion-implanted NiTi and low friction TMA arch wires′ were assessed for surface roughness with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and 3 dimensional (3D optical profilometry. Frictional forces were studied in a universal testing machine. Surface roughness of arch wires were determined as Root Mean Square (RMS values in nanometers and Frictional Forces (FF in grams. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values of RMS and FF were compared by Student′s ′t′ test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: SEM images showed a smooth topography for ion-implanted versions. 3D optical profilometry demonstrated reduction of RMS values by 58.43% for ion-implanted NiTi (795.95 to 330.87 nm and 48.90% for TMA groups (463.28 to 236.35 nm from controls. Nonetheless, the corresponding decrease in FF was only 29.18% for NiTi and 22.04% for TMA, suggesting partial correction of surface roughness and disproportionate reduction in frictional forces with ion-implantation. Though the reductions were highly significant at P < 0.001, relations between surface roughness and frictional forces remained non conclusive even after ion-implantation. Conclusion: The study proved that ion-implantation can significantly reduce the surface roughness of NiTi and TMA wires but could not make a similar reduction in frictional forces. This can be attributed to the inherent differences in stiffness and surface reactivity of NiTi and TMA wires when used in combination with stainless steel brackets, which needs further investigations.

  8. Stress distribution in delayed replanted teeth splinted with different orthodontic wires: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernando Isquierdo; Poi, Wilson Roberto; da Silva, Vanessa Ferreira; Martini, Ana Paula; Melo, Regis Alexandre da Cunha; Panzarini, Sonia Regina; Rocha, Eduardo Passos

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of the supporting bony structures of replanted teeth and the periodontal ligament (PDL) of adjacent teeth when orthodontic wires with different mechanical properties are applied, with three-dimensional finite element analysis. Based on tomographic and microtomographic data, a three-dimensional model of the anterior maxilla with the corresponding teeth (tooth 13-tooth 23) was generated to simulate avulsion and replantation of the tooth 21. The teeth were splinted with orthodontic wire (Ø 0.8 mm) and composite resin. The elastic modulus of the three orthodontic wires used, that is, steel wire (FA), titanium-molybdenum wire (FTM), and nitinol wire (FN) were 200 GPa, 84 GPa, and 52 GPa, respectively. An oblique load (100 N) was applied at an angle of 45° on the incisal edge of the replanted tooth and was analyzed using Ansys Workbench software. The maximum (σmax) and minimum (σmin) principal stresses generated in the PDL, cortical and alveolar bones, and the modified von Mises (σvM) values for the orthodontic wires were obtained. With regard to the cortical bone and PDL, the highest σmin and σmax values for FTM, FN, and FA were checked. With regard to the alveolar bone, σmax and σmin values were highest for FA, followed by FTM and FN. The σvM values of the orthodontic wires followed the order of rigidity of the alloys, that is, FA > FTM > FN. The biomechanical behavior of the analyzed structures with regard to all the three patterns of flexibility was similar. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pelepasan ion nikel dan kromium kawat Australia dan stainless steel dalam saliva buatan (The release of nickel and chromium ions from Australian wire and stainless steel in artificial saliva)

    OpenAIRE

    Nolista Indah Rasyid; Pinandi Sri Pudyani; JCP Heryumani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment needs several types of wire to produce biomechanical force to move teeth. The use orthodontic wire within the mouth interacts with saliva, causing the release of nickel and chromium ions. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the effect of immersion time in artificial saliva between special type of Australian wire and stainless steel on the release of nickel and chromium ions. Methods: Thirty special type Australian wires and 30 stainless steel wires ...

  10. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Faria da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40, while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40. Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the tested groups with the same size and brand of wire. Conclusions: Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions.

  11. A comparative study of metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Hemmaty, Yasmin Babael; Roushan, Zahra Atrkar; Khademi, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging. A dry mandible with 12 intact premolars was prepared, and was scanned ten times with various types of brackets: American, 3M, Dentaurum, and Masel orthodontic brackets were used, together with either stainless steel (SS) or nickel titanium (NiTi) wires. Subsequently, three different sequences of coronal and axial images were obtained: spin-echo T1-weighted images, fast spin-echo T2-weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. In each sequence, the two sequential axial and coronal images with the largest signal-void area were selected. The largest diameters of the signal voids in the direction of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes were then measured twice. Finally, the mean linear values associated with different orthodontic brackets were analyzed using one-way analysis of variation, and the results were compared using the independent t-test to assess whether the use of SS or NiTi wires had a significant effect on the images. Statistically significant differences were only observed along the Z-axis among the four different brands of orthodontic brackets with SS wires. A statistically significant difference was observed along all axes among the brackets with NiTi wires. A statistically significant difference was found only along the Z-axis between nickel-free and nickel-containing brackets. With respect to all axes, the 3M bracket was associated with smaller signal-void areas. Overall, the 3M and Dentaurum brackets with NiTi wires induced smaller artifacts along all axes than those with SS wires

  12. A comparative study of metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Hemmaty, Yasmin Babael; Roushan, Zahra Atrkar; Khademi, Jalil [Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This study was performed to compare the metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging. A dry mandible with 12 intact premolars was prepared, and was scanned ten times with various types of brackets: American, 3M, Dentaurum, and Masel orthodontic brackets were used, together with either stainless steel (SS) or nickel titanium (NiTi) wires. Subsequently, three different sequences of coronal and axial images were obtained: spin-echo T1-weighted images, fast spin-echo T2-weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. In each sequence, the two sequential axial and coronal images with the largest signal-void area were selected. The largest diameters of the signal voids in the direction of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes were then measured twice. Finally, the mean linear values associated with different orthodontic brackets were analyzed using one-way analysis of variation, and the results were compared using the independent t-test to assess whether the use of SS or NiTi wires had a significant effect on the images. Statistically significant differences were only observed along the Z-axis among the four different brands of orthodontic brackets with SS wires. A statistically significant difference was observed along all axes among the brackets with NiTi wires. A statistically significant difference was found only along the Z-axis between nickel-free and nickel-containing brackets. With respect to all axes, the 3M bracket was associated with smaller signal-void areas. Overall, the 3M and Dentaurum brackets with NiTi wires induced smaller artifacts along all axes than those with SS wires.

  13. A comparative study of metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalili Kajan, Zahra; Khademi, Jalil; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Babaei Hemmaty, Yasamin; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to compare the metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging. A dry mandible with 12 intact premolars was prepared, and was scanned ten times with various types of brackets: American, 3M, Dentaurum, and Masel orthodontic brackets were used, together with either stainless steel (SS) or nickel titanium (NiTi) wires. Subsequently, three different sequences of coronal and axial images were obtained: spin-echo T1 -weighted images, fast spin-echo T2 -weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. In each sequence, the two sequential axial and coronal images with the largest signal-void area were selected. The largest diameters of the signal voids in the direction of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes were then measured twice. Finally, the mean linear values associated with different orthodontic brackets were analyzed using one-way analysis of variation, and the results were compared using the independent t-test to assess whether the use of SS or NiTi wires had a significant effect on the images. Statistically significant differences were only observed along the Z-axis among the four different brands of orthodontic brackets with SS wires. A statistically significant difference was observed along all axes among the brackets with NiTi wires. A statistically significant difference was found only along the Z-axis between nickel-free and nickel-containing brackets. With respect to all axes, the 3M bracket was associated with smaller signal-void areas. Overall, the 3M and Dentaurum brackets with NiTi wires induced smaller artifacts along all axes than those with SS wires.

  14. Corrosion resistance of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, titanium molybdenum alloy, and ion-implanted titanium molybdenum alloy archwires in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venith Jojee Pulikkottil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (1 To evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different orthodontic archwires and to determine the effect of 0.5% NaF (simulating high fluoride-containing toothpaste of about 2250 ppm on corrosion resistance of these archwires. (2 To assess whether surface roughness (Ra is the primary factor influencing the corrosion resistance of these archwires. Materials and Methods: Four different archwires (stainless steel [SS], nickel-titanium [NiTi], titanium molybdenum alloy [TMA], and ion-implanted TMA were considered for this study. Surface characteristics were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Linear polarization test, a fast electrochemical technique, was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance, in terms of polarization resistance of four different archwires in artificial saliva with NaF concentrations of 0% and 0.5%. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance. Results: The potentiostatic study reveals that the corrosion resistance of low-friction TMA (L-TMA > TMA > NiTi > SS. AFM analysis showed the surface Ra of TMA > NiTi > L-TMA > SS. This indicates that the chemical composition of the wire is the primary influential factor to have high corrosion resistance and surface Ra is only secondary. The corrosion resistance of all wires had reduced significantly in 0.5% acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva due to formation of fluoride complex compound. Conclusion: The presence of 0.5% NaF in artificial saliva was detrimental to the corrosion resistance of the orthodontic archwires. Therefore, complete removal of residual high-fluorinated toothpastes from the crevice between archwire and bracket during tooth brushing is mandatory.

  15. Effect of saliva on load-deflection characteristics of superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, T; Ghadirian, H; Ahmadabadi, M Nili; Shahhoseini, T; Haj-Fathalian, M

    2012-01-01

    Most published results about the characteristics of NiTi wires are based on the mechanical laboratory tests on the as-received wires.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of saliva on load-deflection characteristics of superelastic NiTi wires. In this experimental study, 15 wires of three kinds of superelastic NiTi wires (Sentalloy, Force I and Truflex) were prepared. Five specimens of each wire were tested in the as-received condition (T0) to provide baseline information and the remaining wires were divided into two groups of five. Half of them were kept inside artificial saliva for one month (T1), while the others were kept in air (T2). After 30 days, three-point bending test was done in a dental arch model and data from selected points on the unloading phase of the generated graphs were used for statistical analysis. Force I and Truflex showed significantly greater force than Sentalloy. The load values of Truflex and Force I after one month exposed to artificial saliva (T1) decreased significantly, but Sentalloy was not affected significantly. The plateau gap values were not considerably different among T0, T1 and T2. Saliva decreased the load of Force I and Truflex significantly, but it did not have a statistically significant effect on Sentalloy.

  16. [Evaluation of orthodontic friction using a tribometer with alternating movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernier, C M; Jablonska-Mazanek, E D; Ponsonnet, L; Grosgogeat, B

    2005-12-01

    It is essential for orthodontists to control the complex phenomenon of friction. The in vitro techniques, usually dynamometers or tensile testing machines, used to measure the frictional resistance between arch wires and brackets are linear and unidirectional and can be criticised because tooth movements, such as tipping and uprighting, as well everyday oral activities, primarily chewing, are not uni-dimensional but more closely resemble the small amplitude oscillatory phenomena known as fretting. We therefore decided to develop a fretting machine not with linear but with alternating movements better suited to evaluate the frictional behaviour of orthodontic bracket-wire combinations. Once we had completed construction of this device, we proceeded to measure the frictional resistance between one stainless steel bracket (MicroArch GAC) and five wires currently used in orthodontics (Two nickel-titanium shape memory alloys: Neo Sentalloy and Neo Sentalloy with Ionguard GAC--Three titanium-molybdenum alloys: TMA and Low Friction TMA Ormco and Resolve GAC). We were able to set up a classification of the wires according to their coefficient of friction, demonstrating the inefficacy of ion implantation and quantifying the increase in the coefficient of friction which occurs when Resolve wires are placed in the oral environment for approximately one year.

  17. Maxillary molar derotation and distalization by using a nickel-titanium wire fabricated on a setup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Moon; Wi, Young Joo; Koo, Hyun Mo; Kim, Min Ji; Chun, Youn Sic

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a simple appliance that uses a setup model and a nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire for correcting the mesial rotation and drift of the permanent maxillary first molar. The technique involves bonding a Ni-Ti wire to the proper position of the target tooth on a setup model, followed by the fabrication of the transfer cap for indirect bonding and its transfer to the patient's teeth. This appliance causes less discomfort and provides better oral hygiene for the patients than do conventional appliances such as the bracket, pendulum, and distal jet. The treatment time is also shorter with the new appliance than with full-fixed appliances. Moreover, the applicability of the new appliance can be expanded to many cases by using screws or splinting with adjacent teeth to improve anchorage.

  18. Comparison of nickel and chromium ions released from stainless steel and NiTi wires after immersion in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Moghaddas, Omid; Toopchi, Shabnam; Perillo, Letizia

    2014-07-01

    Oral environment of the mouth is a suitable place for biodegradation of alloys used in orthodontic wires. The toxicity of these alloys namely nickel and chromium has concerned the researchers about the release of these ions from orthodontic wires and brackets. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel and chromium ions released from 0.018" stainless steel (SS) and NiTi wires after immersion in three solutions. One hundred and forty-four round NiTi and 144 round SS archwires with the diameters of 0.018" were immersed in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva. The amounts of nickel and chromium ions released were measured after 1, 6, 24 hours and 7 days. Two way repeated ANOVA showed that the amount of chromium and nickel significantly increased in all solutions during all time intervals (p nickel ions were released more in NiTi wire in all solutions compared with SS wire. The lowest increase rate was also seen in artificial saliva. There is general consensus in literature that even very little amounts of nickel and chromium are dangerous for human body specially when absorbed orally; therefore, knowing the precise amount of these ions released from different wires when immersed in different mouthwashes is of high priority.

  19. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-08-09

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 × 0.022 in² and 0.019 × 0.025 in² (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bending properties were evaluated in a modified three-point bending system for orthodontics. The static friction between the orthodontic wire and the bracket was also measured. The load-deflection curves were similar among Ni-Ti and PEEK wires, except for 16PEEK with slot-lid ligation. The bending force of 19-25PEEK wire was comparable with that of Ni-Ti wire. 19-25PEEK showed the highest load at the deflection of 1500 μm ( p 0.05). No significant difference was seen in static friction between all three PEEK wires and Ni-Ti wire ( p > 0.05). It is suggested that 19-25PEEK will be applicable for orthodontic treatment with the use of slot-lid ligation.

  20. Removable orthodontic appliance with nickel-titanium spring to reposition the upper incisors in an autistic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kan; Jang, Insan; Kubota, Kazumi; Hoshino, Tomonori; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Fujiwara, Taku

    2013-01-01

    A newly designed removable appliance with a shape-memory wire was used for the orthodontic treatment of the anterior teeth in an 11-year-old child who had autism and intellectual disability. The device was designed to reduce the lateral incisor crossbite and the central incisors' labial rotation. The child was treated for 1 year with this removable appliance. Tooth movement was analyzed using cephalograms and surface data were derived from study models. This device proved to be very durable. The lateral incisor crossbite was corrected, and the inclination of the upper central incisors and the interincisal angle were improved. This appliance exerts light and continuous orthodontic force, without requiring any adjustments of the spring wire. The appliance also facilitated orthodontic treatment in a child with intellectual disability in whom treatment with a standard orthodontic device would be unsuitable. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparison of Galvanic Currents Generated Between Different Combinations of Orthodontic Brackets and Archwires Using Potentiostat: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Rabindra S; Shafiuddin, Bareera; Pasha, Azam; Vinay, K; Narayan, Anjali; Shetty, Smitha V

    2015-07-01

    Technological advances in wire selection and bracket design have led to improved treatment efficiency and allowed longer time intervals between appliance adjustments. The wires remain in the mouth for a longer duration and are subjected to electrochemical reactions, mechanical forces of mastication and generalized wear. These cause different types of corrosion. This study was done to compare the galvanic currents generated between different combinations of brackets and archwires commonly used in orthodontic practices. The materials used for the study included different commercially available orthodontic archwires and brackets. The galvanic current generated by individual materials and different combinations of these materials was tested and compared. The orthodontic archwires used were 0.019″ × 0.025″ heat-activated nickel-titanium (3M Unitek), 0.019″ × 0.025″ beta-titanium (3M Unitek) and 0.019″ × 0.025″ stainless steel (3M Unitek). The orthodontic brackets used were 0.022″ MBT laser-cut (Victory Series, 3M Unitek) and metal-injection molded (Leone Company) maxillary central incisor brackets respectively. The ligature wire used for ligation was 0.009″ stainless steel ligature (HP Company). The galvanic current for individual archwires, brackets, and the different bracket-archwire-ligature combinations was measured by using a Potentiostat machine. The data were generated using the Linear Sweep Voltammetry and OriginPro 8.5 Graphing and Data Analysis Softwares. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I comprised of five groups for open circuit potential (OCP) and galvanic current (I), whereas Phase II comprised of six groups for galvanic current alone. Mean, standard deviation and range were computed for the OCP and galvanic current (I) values obtained. Results were subjected to statistical analysis through ANOVA. In Phase I, higher mean OCP was recorded in stainless steel archwire, followed by beta-titanium archwire, heat-activated nickel

  2. Metallurgical characterization of M-Wire nickel-titanium shape memory alloy used for endodontic rotary instruments during low-cycle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jia; Gao, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Rotary instruments made of a new nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy (M-Wire) have shown improved cyclic fatigue resistance and mechanical properties compared with those made of conventional superelastic NiTi wires. The objective of this study was to characterize microstructural changes of M-Wire throughout the cyclic fatigue process under controlled strain amplitude. The average fatigue life was calculated from 30 M-Wire samples that were subjected to a strain-controlled (≈ 4%) rotating bend fatigue test at room temperature and rotational speed of 300 rpm. Microstructural evolution of M-Wire has been investigated by different metallurgical characterization techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry, Vickers microhardness, and transmission electron microscopy at 4 different stages (as-received state, 30%, 60%, and 90% of average fatigue life). During rotating bend fatigue test, no statistically significant difference (P > .05) was found on austenite finish temperatures between as-received M-Wire and fatigued samples. However, significant differences (P Wire are expected to have higher strength and wear resistance than similar instruments made of conventional superelastic NiTi wires because of its unique nano-crystalline martensitic microstructure. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Novel Rotary Files Manufactured from Different Thermal Treated Nickel-Titanium Wires in Artificial Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataşlıoglu, E; Aydın, U; Yıldırım, C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the static cyclic fatigue resistance of thermal treated rotary files with a conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file. Four groups of 60 rotary files with similar file dimensions, geometries, and motion were selected. Groups were set as HyFlex Group [controlled memory wire (CM-Wire)], ProfileVortex Group (M-Wire), Twisted File Group (R-Phase Wire), and OneShape Group (conventional NiTi wire)] and tested using a custom-made static cyclic fatigue testing apparatus. The fracture time and fragment length of the each file was also recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test at the 95% confidence level (P = 0.05). The HyFlex group had a significantly higher mean cyclic fatigue resistance than the other three groups (P Wire alloy represented the best performance in cyclic fatigue resistance, and NiTi alloy in R-Phase had the second highest fatigue resistance. CM and R-Phase manufacturing technology processed to the conventional NiTi alloy enhance the cyclic fatigue resistance of files that have similar design and size. M-wire alloy did not show any superiority in cyclic fatigue resistance when compared with conventional NiTi wire.

  4. Mechanodynamical analysis of nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application; Analise mecanodinamica de ligas de niquel-titanio para aplicacao ortodontica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Carlos do Canto

    2002-07-01

    Nickel-titanium alloys may coexist in more than one crystalline structure. There is a high temperature phase, austenite, and a low temperature phase, martensite. The metallurgical basis for the superelasticity and the shape memory effect relies in the ability of these alloys to transform easily from one phase to another. There are three essential factors for the orthodontist to understand nickel-titanium alloys behaviour: stress; deflection; and temperature. These three factors are related to each other by the stress-deflection, stress-temperature and deflection-temperature diagrams. This work was undertaken with the objective to analyse commercial nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application, using the dynamical mechanical analyser - DMA. Four NiTi 0,017 X 0,025'' archwires were studied. The archwires were Copper NiTi 35 deg C (Ormco), Neo Sentalloy F200 (GAC), Nitinol Superelastic (Unitek) and NiTi (GAC). The different mechanodynamical properties such as elasticity and damping moduli were evaluated. Each commercial material was evaluated with and without a 1 N static force, aiming to evaluate phase transition temperature variation with stress. The austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, for the experiments without static force, was in the range of 1.59 to 1.85. For the 1 N static force tests the austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, ranged from 1.28 to 1.57 due to the higher martensite elasticity modulus. With elastic modulus variation with temperature behaviour, the orthodontist has the knowledge of the force variation applied in the tooth in relation to the oral cavity temperature change, for nickel-titanium alloys that undergo phase transformation. The damping capacity of the studied alloys depends on the materials state: martensitic phase; austenitic phase or during phase transformation. The martensitic phase shows higher dumping capacity. During phase transformation, an internal friction peak may be observed for the CuNiTi 35 deg C and Neo

  5. Mechanodynamical analysis of nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application; Analise mecanodinamica de ligas de niquel-titanio para aplicacao ortodontica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Carlos do Canto

    2002-07-01

    Nickel-titanium alloys may coexist in more than one crystalline structure. There is a high temperature phase, austenite, and a low temperature phase, martensite. The metallurgical basis for the superelasticity and the shape memory effect relies in the ability of these alloys to transform easily from one phase to another. There are three essential factors for the orthodontist to understand nickel-titanium alloys behaviour: stress; deflection; and temperature. These three factors are related to each other by the stress-deflection, stress-temperature and deflection-temperature diagrams. This work was undertaken with the objective to analyse commercial nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application, using the dynamical mechanical analyser - DMA. Four NiTi 0,017 X 0,025'' archwires were studied. The archwires were Copper NiTi 35 deg C (Ormco), Neo Sentalloy F200 (GAC), Nitinol Superelastic (Unitek) and NiTi (GAC). The different mechanodynamical properties such as elasticity and damping moduli were evaluated. Each commercial material was evaluated with and without a 1 N static force, aiming to evaluate phase transition temperature variation with stress. The austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, for the experiments without static force, was in the range of 1.59 to 1.85. For the 1 N static force tests the austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, ranged from 1.28 to 1.57 due to the higher martensite elasticity modulus. With elastic modulus variation with temperature behaviour, the orthodontist has the knowledge of the force variation applied in the tooth in relation to the oral cavity temperature change, for nickel-titanium alloys that undergo phase transformation. The damping capacity of the studied alloys depends on the materials state: martensitic phase; austenitic phase or during phase transformation. The martensitic phase shows higher dumping capacity. During phase transformation, an internal friction peak may be observed for the CuNiTi 35 deg C and Neo Sentalloy F

  6. Rapid in situ growth of oriented titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes arrays coated on a nitinol wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coupled to HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Wenlan; Wang, Huiju; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2016-10-01

    An oriented titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coating was in situ grown on a nitinol wire by direct electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol with ammonium fluoride and water for the first time. The morphology and composition of the resulting coating showed that the anodized nitinol wire provided a titania-rich coating. The titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coated fiber was used for solid-phase microextraction of different aromatic compounds coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coating exhibited high extraction capability, good selectivity, and rapid mass transfer for weakly polar UV filters. Thereafter the important parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated for solid-phase microextraction of UV filters. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.1-300 μg/L for target UV filters with limits of detection of 0.019-0.082 μg/L. The intraday and interday precision of the proposed method with the single fiber were 5.3-7.2 and 5.9-7.9%, respectively, and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 6.3 to 8.9% for four fibers fabricated in different batches. Finally, its applicability was evaluated by the extraction and determination of target UV filters in environmental water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Load Deflection Characteristics of Nickel Titanium Initial Archwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aghili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the characteristics of commonly used initial archwires by their load deflection graphs.Materials and Methods: This study tested three wire designs namely copper nickel titanium (CNT, nickel titanium (NiTi, and multi-strand NiTi (MSNT archwires engaged in passive self-ligating (PSL brackets, active self-ligating (ASL brackets or conventional brackets. To evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the specimens, a three-point bending test was performed. The testing machine vertically applied force on the midpoint of the wire between the central incisor and canine teeth to obtain 2 and 4mm of deflection. The force level at maximum deflection and characteristics of plateau (the average plateau load and the plateau length were recorded. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used at P <0.05 level of significance.Results: Force level at maximum deflection and plateau length were significantly affected by the amount of deflection. The type of archwires and brackets had significant effects on force level at maximum deflection, and plateau length. However, the bracket type had no significant effect on the average plateau force.Conclusion: With any type of brackets in deflections of 2 and 4mm, MSNT wire exerted the lowest while NiTi wire exerted the highest force level at maximum deflection and plateau phase. The force level at maximum deflection and the plateau length increased with raising the amount of primary deflection; however the average plateau force did not change significantly.

  8. Effect of Fluoride Prophylactic Agents on the Mechanical Properties of Nickel-Titanium Wires: An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Harish Koushik

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : The results suggest that using topical fluoride agents with NiTi wire could decrease the functional unloading mechanical properties of the wire and contribute to prolonged orthodontic treatment.

  9. Effect of environment on fatigue failure of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Qian, Wei; Abtin, Houman; Gao, Yuan; Haapasalo, Markus

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the fatigue behavior of 2 types of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments made from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM wire) under various environment conditions. Three conventional superelastic NiTi instruments of ProFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Typhoon (Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT), and DS-SS0250425NEYY (Clinician's Choice Dental Products) and 2 new CM wire instruments of Typhoon CM and DS-SS0250425NEYY CM were subjected to rotational bending at the curvature of 35° in air, deionized water, 17% EDTA, or deionized water after immersion in 6% sodium hypochlorite for 25 minutes, and the number of revolutions of fracture (N(f)) was recorded. The fracture surface of all fragments was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The crack-initiation sites and the percentage of dimple area to the whole fracture cross-section were noted. Two new CM Wire instruments yielded an improvement of >4 to 9 times in N(f) than conventional NiTi files with the same design under various environments (P Wire instruments was significantly longer in liquid media than in air (P wire had one crack origin. The values of the area fraction occupied by the dimple region were significantly smaller on CM NiTi instruments than in conventional NiTi instruments under various environments (P < .05). Within the limitations of this study, the type of NiTi metal alloy (CM files vs conventional superelastic NiTi files) influences the cyclic fatigue resistance under various environments. The fatigue life of CM instruments is longer in liquid media than in air. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Emprego racional da Biomecânica em Ortodontia: "arcos inteligentes" Biomechanics in Orthodontics: "smart archwires"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rodrigues de Almeida

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A versatilidade biomecânica propiciada pelos "arcos inteligentes" ("smart archwires" permite estratégias para cada tipo de má oclusão, diferenciada por nuances terapêuticas, que por sua vez geram um melhor controle do caso clínico. Os arcos multifuncionais (Arco de intrusão de nitinol CIA® e arco de retração Mushroom Loop® foram idealizados no intuito de simplificar o atendimento clínico do ortodontista que, municiado de recursos diagnósticos apropriados e sólidos, os utiliza como uma ótima alternativa entre as disponíveis para a resolução dos problemas e expectativas dos pacientes. Com o presente artigo procurou-se demonstrar que os arcos de intrusão de nitinol (CIA® e o arco de retração Mushroom Loop® são ferramentas poderosas no tratamento de pacientes com extrações dentárias que requerem um controle de ancoragem mais apropriado, bem como uma retração mais eficaz.The versatility of Biomechanics with the use of "smart wires" allows different strategies in order to achieve a better control in orthodontic cases. Multifunctional orthodontic wires (nickel-titanium intrusion arch-CIA® and M-loop® archwires were developed in order to provide advantages in clinical management for the orthodontists. Since the force system, along with the side effects, of theses wires is well understood it becomes easier to use noncompliance mechanics. The present paper showed the clinical applications of the "smart wires" (nickel-titanium intrusion arch and M-loop archwires capable of simultaneously performing different orthodontic movements in extraction cases which minimize the need for high anchorage control.

  11. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, K A; Galevsky, G V; Rudneva, V V; Kozyrev, N A; Orshanskaya, E G

    2015-01-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density. (paper)

  12. Influence of bracket-slot design on the forces released by superelastic nickel-titanium alignment wires in different deflection configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, Riccardo; Gatto, Elda; Borsellino, Chiara; Aceto, Pasquale; Fabiano, Francesca; Matarese, Giovanni; Perillo, Letizia; Cordasco, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate how different bracket-slot design characteristics affect the forces released by superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alignment wires at different amounts of wire deflection. A three-bracket bending and a classic-three point bending testing apparatus were used to investigate the load-deflection properties of one superelastic 0.014-inch NiTi alignment wire in different experimental conditions. The selected NiTi archwire was tested in association with three bracket systems: (1) conventional twin brackets with a 0.018-inch slot, (2) a self-ligating bracket with a 0.018-inch slot, and (3) a self-ligating bracket with a 0.022-inch slot. Wire specimens were deflected at 2 mm and 4 mm. Use of a 0.018-inch slot bracket system, in comparison with use of a 0.022-inch system, increases the force exerted by the superelastic NiTi wires at a 2-mm deflection. Use of a self-ligating bracket system increases the force released by NiTi wires in comparison with the conventional ligated bracket system. NiTi wires deflected to a different maximum deflection (2 mm and 4 mm) release different forces at the same unloading data point (1.5 mm). Bracket design, type of experimental test, and amount of wire deflection significantly affected the amount of forces released by superelastic NiTi wires (Pwire's load during alignment.

  13. Effect of wire size on maxillary arch force/couple systems for a simulated high canine malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Paul W; Toogood, Roger W; Badawi, Hisham M; Carey, Jason P; Seru, Surbhi

    2014-12-01

    To better understand the effects of copper nickel titanium (CuNiTi) archwire size on bracket-archwire mechanics through the analysis of force/couple distributions along the maxillary arch. The hypothesis is that wire size is linearly related to the forces and moments produced along the arch. An Orthodontic Simulator was utilized to study a simplified high canine malocclusion. Force/couple distributions produced by passive and elastic ligation using two wire sizes (Damon 0.014 and 0.018 inch) measured with a sample size of 144. The distribution and variation in force/couple loading around the arch is a complicated function of wire size. The use of a thicker wire increases the force/couple magnitudes regardless of ligation method. Owing to the non-linear material behaviour of CuNiTi, this increase is less than would occur based on linear theory as would apply for stainless steel wires. The results demonstrate that an increase in wire size does not result in a proportional increase of applied force/moment. This discrepancy is explained in terms of the non-linear properties of CuNiTi wires. This non-proportional force response in relation to increased wire size warrants careful consideration when selecting wires in a clinical setting. © 2014 British Orthodontic Society.

  14. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Various Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Kyu-Sang; Oh, Soram; Kum, KeeYeon; Kim, Yu-Chan; Jee, Kwang-Koo; Chang, Seok Woo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermomechanical treatment on mechanical and metallurgical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. Eight kinds of NiTi rotary instruments with sizes of ISO #25 were selected: ProFile, K3, and One Shape for the conventional alloy; ProTaper NEXT, Reciproc, and WaveOne for the M-wire alloy; HyFlex CM for the controlled memory- (CM-) wire; and TF for the R-phase alloy. Torsional fracture and cyclic fatigue fracture tests were...

  15. The effects of sterilization on the tensile strength of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggers, J A; Margeson, D

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization on the tensile strength of 0.016" beta-titanium, nickel titanium and stainless steel wires. Three common methods of sterilization--autoclaving, dry heat and ethylene oxide--were evaluated in three test trials involving zero, one and five sterilization cycles. For each of the test trials, five pieces each of 0.016" TMA, 0.016" Sentalloy and 0.016" Tru-chrome stainless steel wires were sterilized using a standard autoclave. Five other pieces of each of the same wires were sterilized in a dryclave, while an additional five pieces of each of the three wire types were sterilized using ethylene oxide. The ultimate tensile strengths of the wires were then determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The data were compared for statistical differences using analysis of variance. The results showed that dry heat sterilization significantly increased the tensile strength of TMA wires after one cycle, but not after five cycles. Autoclaving and ethylene oxide sterilization did not significantly alter the tensile strength of TMA wires. Dry heat and autoclave sterilization also significantly increased the tensile strength of Sentalloy wires, but the mean strength after five sterilization cycles was not significantly different than after one cycle. Ethylene oxide sterilization of Sentalloy wires did not significantly alter the tensile strengths of that wire. There were no significant differences in the tensile strengths of the stainless steel wires following zero, one or five cycles for any of the sterilization methods.

  16. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  17. Estimation of Release of Nickel and Chromium by Indian Made Orthodontic Appliance in Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Sandeep; Maurya, Rajkumar; Gupta, Ankur; Hegde, Chatura; Anand, Neelima

    2015-09-01

    With increasing use of Indian made orthodontic materials, need was felt to know nickel and chromium release from these material. This study was conducted on simulated appliances consisting of brackets (022″Roth, Modern orthodontics, Ludhiana, India), from second premolar to central incisor, buccal tube and 0.019×0.025- inch SS arch wires secured with SS ligatures. Immersion was done in artificial saliva. Samples were analysed to using Atomic Absorption Photospectrometer (GVC ScientificEquipment Pvt. Ltd Australia) at AES Laboratories (P) Ltd., Noida India on 1(st), 7(th), 14(th) and 28(th) day. SPSS (ver 17, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used toperform the statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics i.e. median and 25 and75 percentiles were used. Peak nickel release was on 7(th) day and subsequently declined over 14(th) and 28(th) day. The peak level of chromium concentration was on 14(th) day, which declined thereafter. Average daily release of nickel and chromium over a period of one month was 97.368 μg/day and 47.664 μg/day respectively. The estimated release rates were approximately 32% and 16% of the reported average daily dietary.

  18. Microstructure of NiTi orthodontic wires observations using transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ferčec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the microstructure observation of six different types of NiTi orthodontic wires by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. Within these analyses the chemical compositions of each wire were observed in different places by applying the EDS detector. Namely, the chemical composition in the orthodontic wires is very important because it shows the dependence between the phase temperatures and mechanical properties. Microstructure observations showed that orthodontic wires consist of nano-sized grains containing precipitates of Ti2Ni and/or TiC. The first precipitated Ti2Ni are rich in Ti, while the precipitated TiC is rich in C. Further investigation showed that there was a difference in average grain size in the NiTi matrix. The sizes of grains in orthodontic wires are in the range from approximately 50 to 160 nm and the sizes of precipitate are in the range from 0,3 μm to 5 μm.

  19. Ball bearings comprising nickel-titanium and methods of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a friction reducing nickel-titanium composition. The nickel-titanium composition includes a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38. A bearing for reducing friction comprising a nickel-titanium composition comprising a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38; where the bearing is free from voids and pinholes.

  20. Evaluation of tensile strength and surface topography of orthodontic wires after infection control procedures: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, M; Kumaran, N Kurunji; Rajasigamani, K

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate, the influence of four types of sterilization/disinfection procedures (autoclave, hot air oven, glutaraldehyde, and ultraviolet [UV] light) on the tensile strength and surface topography of three orthodontic wires (stainless steel (SS), titanium - molybdenum alloy [TMA], and cobalt chromium (CoCr)). Sample comprised of three types of 8 inches straight length segments of orthodontic wires. They were divided into three groups according to wire composition comprising of 50 samples each. Totally 50 samples of each group were then equally divided into five subgroups according to sterilization method. After sterilization and disinfection of the experimental group, surface topography was examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tensile strength was tested using universal testing machine. The results of this study show that the mean ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of SS wire after four sterilization procedures were similar to the control group (1845.815 ± 142.29 MPa). The mean UTS of TMA wire increases after four sterilization procedures when compared with the control group (874.107 ± 275.939 MPa). The mean UTS of CoCr wire remains same after UV light disinfection, but increases after other three sterilization procedures when compared with the control group (1449.759 ± 156.586 MPa). SEM photographs of the present study shows gross increase in pitting roughness of the surface topography of all the three types of wires after four types of sterilization. Orthodontists who want to offer maximum safety for their patients can sterilize orthodontic wires before placement, as it does not deteriorate the tensile strength and surface roughness of the alloys.

  1. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment.

  2. Microstructure of NiTi orthodontic wires observations using transmission electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ferčec, J.; Jenko, D.; Buchmeister, B.; Rojko, F.; Budič, B.; Kosec, B.; Rudolf, R.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the results of the microstructure observation of six different types of NiTi orthodontic wires by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Within these analyses the chemical compositions of each wire were observed in different places by applying the EDS detector. Namely, the chemical composition in the orthodontic wires is very important because it shows the dependence between the phase temperatures and mechanical properties. Microstructure observations showed that ort...

  3. The influence of artificial salivary pH on nickel ion release and the surface morphology of stainless steel bracket-nickel-titanium archwire combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Narmada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the oral cavity, orthodontic appliances come into contact with saliva which may cause corrosion capable of changing their surface morphology due to the release of metal ions. Surface roughness can influence the effectiveness of tooth movement. One of the ions possibly released when body fluid comes into contact with brackets and archwire is nickel ion (Ni. Ni, one of the most popular components of orthodontic appliances, is, however, a toxic element that could potentially increase the likelihood of health problems such as allergic responses during treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different artificial salivary pH on the ions released and the surface morphology of stainless steel (SS brackets-nickel-titanium (NiTi and archwire combinations. Methods: Brackets and archwires were analyzed by an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Detector System (EDX to determine their composition, while NiTi archwire compound was examined by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD. The immersion test was performed at artificial salivary pH levels of 4.2; 6.5; and 7.6 at 37°C for 28 days. Ni ion release measurement was performed using an Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Surface morphology was analyzed by means of a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Results: The chemical composition of all orthodontic appliances contained Ni element. In addition, XRD was depicted phases not only NiTi but also Ni, Titanium, Silicon and Zinc Oleate. The immersion test showed that the highest release of Ni ions occured at a pH of 4.2, with no significant difference at various levels of pH (p=.092. There were surface morphology changes in the orthodontic appliances. It was revealed that at a pH of 4.2, the surfaces of orthodontic appliances become unhomogenous and rough compared to those at other pH concentrations. Conclusion: The reduction of pH in the artificial saliva increases the amount of released Ni ions, as well as causing changes to

  4. Mechanical properties and aesthetics of FRP orthodontic wire fabricated by hot drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T; Watari, F; Yamagata, S; Kobayashi, M; Nagayama, K; Toyoizumi, Y; Nakamura, S

    1998-12-01

    The FRP wires 0.5 mm in diameter with a multiple fiber structure were fabricated by drawing the fiber polymer complex at 250 degrees C for an esthetic, transparent orthodontic wire. Biocompatible CaO-P2O5-SiO2-Al2O3 (CPSA) glass fibers of 8-20 microm in diameter were oriented unidirectionally in the longitudinal direction in PMMA matrix. The mechanical properties were investigated by 3-point flexural test. The FRP wire showed sufficient strength and a very good elastic recovery after deformation. Young's modulus and the flexural load at deflection 1 mm were nearly independent of the fiber diameter and linearly increased with the fiber fraction. The dependence on fiber fraction obeys well the rule of mixture. This FRP wire could cover the range of strength corresponding to the conventional metal orthodontic wires from Ni-Ti used in the initial stage of orthodontic treatments to Co-Cr used in the final stage by changing the volume ratio of glass fibers with the same external diameter. The estheticity in external appearance was excellent. Thus the new FRP wire can satisfy both mechanical properties necessary for an orthodontic wire and enough estheticity, which was not possible for the conventional metal wire.

  5. Fatigue resistance of engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium instruments produced by new manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola Maria; Plotino, Gianluca; Somma, Francesco; Garala, Manish; De Luca, Massimo; Testarelli, Luca

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel-titanium instruments manufactured by using new processes. This was evaluated by comparing instruments produced by using the twisted method (TF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and those using the M-wire alloy (GTX; Dentsply Tulsa-Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) with instruments produced by a traditional NiTi grinding process (K3, SybronEndo). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments inside curved artificial canals. Results indicated that size 06-25 TF instruments showed a significant increase (p 0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 06-20 GT series X instruments. The new manufacturing process produced nickel-titanium rotary files (TF) significantly more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process. Instruments produced with M-wire (GTX) were not found to be more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process.

  6. Shaping ability of two M-wire and two traditional nickel-titanium instrumentation systems in S-shaped resin canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhanli, K T; Kamaci, A; Taner, M; Erdilek, N; Celik, D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shaping effects of two M-wire and two traditional nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems in simulated S-shaped resin canals. Forty simulated S-shaped canals in resin blocks were instrumented with two traditional (ProTaper, Sendoline S5) and two M-wire (WaveOne, GT series X) NiTi systems according to the manufacturers' instructions. Ten resin blocks were used for each system. Pre- and post-instrumentation images were captured using a stereomicroscope and superimposed with an image program. Canal transportation, material removal, and aberrations were evaluated and recorded as numeric parameters. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests with a 95% confidence interval. There were significant differences between systems in terms of transportation and material removal (Pwire or traditional NiTi) and kinematics (rotary or reciprocating motion) did not affect the shaping abilities of the systems. The extended file designs of highly tapered NiTi systems (ProTaper, WaveOne) resulted in greater deviations from the original root canal trace and more material removal when compared to less tapered systems (Sendoline S5, GT series X).

  7. Use of nickel titanium closed-coil springs to align unerupted teeth: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, R H; Peak, J D

    1998-03-01

    We describe a case in which a patient with a class II division I incisor relationship on a skeletal II base was transferred midway through a treatment that consisted of aligning the upper and lower arches with fixed appliance orthodontics in preparation for a mandibular advancement osteotomy. The lower second molars had previously been extracted; the lower third molars were left unerupted and some distance from the lower first molars. To provide a good occlusion at the end of treatment, it was decided to expose and approximate the lower third molars to the distal aspect of the lower first molars with the use of nickel titanium closed-coil springs; this was to be done before the osteotomy.

  8. Mechanical characterisation of orthodontic superelastic Ni-Ti wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrigoni, M.; Pietrabissa, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy). Lab. of Biological Structure Mechanics; Auricchio, F.; Petrini, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy). Lab. of Biological Structure Mechanics; Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Structural Mechanics; Cacciafesta, V. [Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy). Lab. of Biological Structure Mechanics; Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Orthodontia

    2001-11-01

    Nowadays, the orthodontic treatment is improving thanks to the introduction of Ni-Ti super-elastic alloy wires in the ordinary therapy. Indeed, laboratory tests performed in the last decade have shown that Ni-Ti superelastic wires are able to satisfy the ideal requirements for fixed arch-wire appliance: high flexibility, minimal distortion or plastic deformation, light constant force production over a wide range of displacements. On the other hand, many orthodontic companies produce Ni-Ti arch-wires, without giving detailed specifications on their superelastic characteristics. To improve the knowledge on real properties for these products, an experimental campaign on different commercial arch-wires has been started at the Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics (LABS) at the Politecnico di Milano (Italy). This work presents the first step of the research, concerning the comparison between the behaviour of four types of wires (two produced by ORMCO and two produced by 3M/Unitek) under monotonic and cyclic isothermal tensile tests. The results show significant differences between the products in terms of elastic modulus, stress values of the loading-unloading plateau, hysteresis amplitude, spring-back capacity, shape recovery capability, strain rate effect and fatigue behaviour. (orig.)

  9. Finite-element analysis of NiTi wire deflection during orthodontic levelling treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razali, M F; Mahmud, A S; Abdullah, J; Mokhtar, N

    2016-01-01

    Finite-element analysis is an important product development tool in medical devices industry for design and failure analysis of devices. This tool helps device designers to quickly explore various design options, optimizing specific designs and providing a deeper insight how a device is actually performing. In this study, three-dimensional finite-element models of superelastic nickel-titanium arch wire engaged in a three brackets system were developed. The aim was to measure the effect of binding friction developed on wire-bracket interaction towards the remaining recovery force available for tooth movement. Uniaxial and three brackets bending test were modelled and validated against experimental works. The prediction made by the three brackets bending models shows good agreement with the experimental results. (paper)

  10. Finite-element analysis of NiTi wire deflection during orthodontic levelling treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, M. F.; Mahmud, A. S.; Mokhtar, N.; Abdullah, J.

    2016-02-01

    Finite-element analysis is an important product development tool in medical devices industry for design and failure analysis of devices. This tool helps device designers to quickly explore various design options, optimizing specific designs and providing a deeper insight how a device is actually performing. In this study, three-dimensional finite-element models of superelastic nickel-titanium arch wire engaged in a three brackets system were developed. The aim was to measure the effect of binding friction developed on wire-bracket interaction towards the remaining recovery force available for tooth movement. Uniaxial and three brackets bending test were modelled and validated against experimental works. The prediction made by the three brackets bending models shows good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. DNA damage in oral mucosa cells of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test.The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336.Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells.

  12. Angular deflection of rotary nickel titanium files: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gambarini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new manufacturing method of twisting nickel titanium wire to produce rotary nickel titanium (RNT files has recently been developed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the new manufacturing process increased the angular deflection of RNT files, by comparing instruments produced using the new manufacturing method (Twisted Files versus instruments produced with the traditional grinding process. Testing was performed on a total of 40 instruments of the following commercially available RNT files: Twisted Files (TF, Profile, K3 and M2 (NRT. All instruments tested had the same dimensions (taper 0.06 and tip size 25. Test procedures strictly followed ISO 3630-1. Data were collected and statistically analyzed by means ANOVA test. The results showed that TF demonstrated significantly higher average angular deflection levels (P<0.05, than RNT manufactured by a grinding process. Since angular deflection represent the amount of rotation (and consequently deformation that a RNT file can withstand before torsional failure, such a significant improvement is a favorable property for the clinical use of the tested RNT files.

  13. Release of metal ions from round and rectangular NiTi wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of nickel and titanium ions released from two wires with different shapes and a similar surface area. Methods Forty round nickel-titanium (NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.020 in. and 40 rectangular NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.016 × 0.016 in. were immersed in artificial saliva during a 21-day period. The surface area of both wires was 0.44 in.2. Wires were separately dipped into polypropylene tubes containing 50 ml of buffer solution and were incubated and maintained at 37 °C. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES was used to measure the amount of ions released after exposure lengths of 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 3 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey tests were used to evaluate the data. Results The results indicated that the amount of nickel and titanium concentrations was significantly higher in the rectangular wire group. The most significant release of all metals was measured after the first hour of immersion. In the rectangular wire group, 243 ± 4.2 ng/ml of nickel was released after 1 h, while 221.4 ± 1.7 ng/ml of nickel was released in the round wire group. Similarly, 243.3 ± 2.8 ng/ml of titanium was released in the rectangular wire group and a significantly lower amount of 211.9 ± 2.3 ng/ml of titanium was released in the round wire group. Conclusions Release of metal ions was influenced by the shape of the wire and increase of time.

  14. A novel pre-surgical maxillary orthodontic device using β-titanium wire for wide unilateral cleft lip and palate patients: preliminary study of its efficacy and impact for the maxillary formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Maki; Oyama, Tomoki; Kiya, Koichiro; Sone, Yumiko; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-02-01

    For patients with a wide, complete, unilateral cleft lip and palate, pre-surgical maxillary orthodontic treatments have been used to reduce the alveolar gap before cheiloplasty. However, most of these treatments are complicated and laborious for patients and for medical professionals. Thus, we developed an original pre-surgical orthodontic device made with two separate acrylic resin plates connected with a spring-shaped β-titanium wire (β-TW). When the device was applied on the palate, each segment of the maxilla was automatically aligned for our target formation with the elastic force of β-titanium alloy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the new device and the size of the maxilla in comparison with the conventional Hotz procedures. A total of 47 patients with a wide unilateral cleft lip and palate were retrospectively evaluated; 33 patients were treated with our new device (β-TW plate group) and 14 were treated with a Hotz plate (HP group). We evaluated the alveolar gap reduction and the size of the maxilla between the two groups, obtaining intraoral maxillary impressions at birth, at 3 months and 1 year. The width of the alveolar gap in the β-TW plate group was significantly reduced compared with that in the HP group 1 month after the treatment (p pre-surgical orthodontic treatments. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative in vitro biocompatibility of nickel-titanium, pure nickel, pure titanium, and stainless steel: genotoxicity and atomic absorption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, M; Lemieux, N; Rivard, C H; Yahia, L H

    1999-01-01

    The genotoxicity level of nickel-titanium (NiTi) was compared to that of its pure constituents, pure nickel (Ni) and pure titanium (Ti) powders, and also to 316L stainless steel (316L SS) as clinical reference material. In order to do so, a dynamic in vitro semiphysiological extraction was performed with all metals using agitation and ISO requirements. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were then cultured in the presence of all material extracts, and their comparative genotoxicity levels were assessed using electron microscopy-in situ end-labeling (EM-ISEL) coupled to immunogold staining. Cellular chromatin exposition to pure Ni and 316L SS demonstrated a significantly stronger gold binding than exposition to NiTi, pure Ti, or the untreated control. In parallel, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was also performed on all extraction media. The release of Ni atoms took the following decreasing distribution for the different resulting semiphysiological solutions: pure Ni, 316L SS, NiTi, Ti, and controls. Ti elements were detected after elution of pure titanium only. Both pure titanium and nickel-titanium specimens obtained a relative in vitro biocompatibility. Therefore, this quantitative in vitro study provides optimistic results for the eventual use of nickel-titanium alloys as surgical implant materials.

  16. Copper and nickel alloys and titanium for seawater applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.

    1977-01-01

    Copper and nickel alloys and titanium have been successfully used for heat exchangers on ships, in power plants and for chemical apparatus and piping systems because of their resistance against corrosion in sea water. Aluminium brass and copper nickel alloys, the standard materials for condensers and coolers, however, may be attacked, the corrosion depending on water quality, water velocity, and structural conditions. The mechanisms of corrosion are discussed. Under severe conditions the use of titanium may be indicated. The use of nickel base alloys is advantageous at elevated temperatures, e.g. for chemical reactions and for evaporation processes. Examples are given for application and for prevention of corrosion. (orig.) [de

  17. Orthodontic treatment with preadjusted appliances and low-friction ligatures: experimental evidence and clinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Fortini, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    To describe the features of low-friction ligatures during the leveling and aligning phase of fixed appliance therapy with preadjusted brackets. Experimental in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out to test the performance of the low-friction system with regard to leveling and aligning of the dental arches, as well as to increasing the transverse dimension of the maxillary arch. The outcomes of experimental testing showed that the combination of the low-friction ligatures with the superelastic nickel-titanium wires produced a significantly smaller amount of binding at the bracket/archwire/ligature unit when compared to conventional elastomeric ligatures. The biomechanical consequences of the use of low-friction ligatures were shorter duration of orthodontic treatment during the leveling and aligning phase, concurrent dentoalveolar expansion of the dental arch, and the possibility of using biologically adequate orthodontic forces.

  18. Effectiveness of nickel-titanium springs vs elastomeric chains in orthodontic space closure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, H; Rizk, M Z; Wafaie, K; Almuzian, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of nickel titanium closing springs (NiTi-CS) and elastomeric power chains (EPC) in orthodontic space closure and to assess the adverse periodontal effects, cost efficiency and patient-centred outcomes between both of these methods. An electronic search of online databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, LILACS and Web of Science), reference lists and grey literature as well as hand search were conducted without language restriction up to November/2017. Two authors blindly and in duplicate were involved in study selection, quality assessment and the extraction of data. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. 95% confidence intervals and mean difference for continuous data were calculated. A meta-analysis that generated a random-effect model for the comparable outcomes was conducted, and heterogeneity was measured using I 2 statistic. Of 187 records, 4 RCTs met the criteria and were included in the quantitative synthesis featuring 290 test quadrants. Faster space closure with NiTi-CS was observed with a mean difference of (0.20 mm/month, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.28). Loss of anchorage appears to be similar within both groups when synthesized qualitatively. With exception to anchorage loss, secondary outcomes could not be investigated in the included trials. There is a moderate quality of evidence suggesting a faster orthodontic space closure with the NiTi-CS when compared to EPC. A comparable amount of anchorage loss was observed regardless of the utilized method of space closure. Further high-quality RCTs with parallel-groups, reporting on the adverse effects and patient-centred values, are recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nano wires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logutenko, O.A.; Titkov, A.I.; Vorobyov, A.M.; Yukhin, Y.M.; Lyakhov, N.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nano structures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nano wires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nano crystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nano wires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130 degree are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nano wires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  20. Nasomaxillary hypoplasia with a congenitally missing tooth treated with LeFort II osteotomy, autotransplantation, and nickel-titanium alloy wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayoshi; Ikemoto, Shigehiro; Ono, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    In some skeletal Class III adult patients with nasomaxillary hypoplasia, the LeFort I osteotomy provides insufficient correction. This case report describes a 20-year-old woman with a combination of nasomaxillary hypoplasia and a protrusive mandible with a congenitally missing mandibular second premolar. We performed a LeFort II osteotomy for maxillary advancement. Autotransplantation of a tooth was also performed; the donor tooth was used to replace the missing permanent tooth. To increase the chance of success, we applied light continuous force with an improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wire technique before extraction and after transplantation. The patient's profile and malocclusion were corrected, and the autotransplanted tooth functioned well. The postero-occlusal relationships were improved, and ideal overbite and overjet relationships were achieved. The methods used in this case represent a remarkable treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Two wire samples, both for carrying 13'000Amperes. I sample is copper. The other is the Niobium Titanium wiring used in the LHC magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable ...

  2. Autoclaving and clinical recycling: Effects on mechanical properties of orthodontic wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Oshagh

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Although recycle wires were softer than those of control group, relatively small differences and also various properties of available wires have obscured the clinical predictability of their application. There is seemingly no problem in terms of mechanical properties to recycle orthodontic wires.

  3. Metal release profiles of orthodontic bands, brackets, and wires: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendl, B; Wiltsche, H; Lankmayr, E; Winsauer, H; Walter, A; Muchitsch, A; Jakse, N; Wendl, M; Wendl, T

    2017-11-01

    The present study evaluated the temporal release of Co Cr, Mn, and Ni from the components of a typical orthodontic appliance during simulated orthodontic treatment. Several commercially available types of bands, brackets, and wires were exposed to an artificial saliva solution for at least 44 days and the metals released were quantified in regular intervals using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Elan DRC+, Perkin Elmer, USA). Corrosion products encountered on some products were investigated by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDX). Bands released the largest quantities of Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni, followed by brackets and wires. Three different temporal metal release profiles were observed: (1) constant, though not necessarily linear release, (2) saturation (metal release stopped after a certain time), and (3) an intermediate release profile that showed signs of saturation without reaching saturation. These temporal metal liberation profiles were found to be strongly dependent on the individual test pieces. The corrosion products which developed on some of the bands after a 6-month immersion in artificial saliva and the different metal release profiles of the investigated bands were traced back to different attachments welded onto the bands. The use of constant release rates will clearly underestimate metal intake by the patient during the first couple of days and overestimate exposure during the remainder of the treatment which is usually several months long. While our data are consistent with heavy metal release by orthodontic materials at levels well below typical dietary intake, we nevertheless recommend the use of titanium brackets and replacement of the band with a tube in cases of severe Ni or Cr allergy.

  4. Sleeve Push Technique: A Novel Method of Space Gaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev; Bhupali, Nameksh Raj; Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Sombir; Singh, Satinder Pal

    2018-01-01

    Space gaining is frequently required in orthodontics. Multiple loops were initially used for space gaining and alignment. The most common used mechanics for space gaining is the use of nickel-titanium open coil springs. The disadvantage of nickel-titanium coil spring is that they cannot be used until the arches are well aligned to receive the stiffer stainless steel wires. Therefore, a new method of gaining space during initial alignment and leveling has been developed and named as sleeve push technique (SPT). The nickel-titanium wires, i.e. 0.012 inches and 0.014 inches along with archwire sleeve (protective tubing) can be used in a modified way to gain space along with alignment. This method helps in gaining space right from day 1 of treatment. The archwire sleeve and nickel-titanium wire in this new SPT act as a mutually synergistic combination and provide the orthodontist with a completely new technique for space opening.

  5. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Jian, Fan; Lai, Wenli; Zhao, Zhihe; Yang, Zhi; Liao, Zhengyu; Shi, Zongdao; Wu, Taixiang; Millett, Declan T; McIntyre, Grant T; Hickman, Joy

    2010-04-14

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment. To identify and assess the evidence for the effects of initial arch wires for alignment of teeth with fixed orthodontic braces in relation to alignment speed, root resorption and pain intensity. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (30th November 2009), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to 30th November 2009) and EMBASE (1980 to 30th November 2009). Reference lists of articles were also searched. There was no restriction with regard to publication status or language of publication. We contacted all authors of included studies to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of initial arch wires to align crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces were selected. Only studies involving patients with upper and/or lower full arch fixed orthodontic appliances were included. Two review authors were responsible for study selection, validity assessment and data extraction. All disagreements were resolved by discussion amongst the review team. Corresponding authors of included studies were contacted to obtain missing information. Seven RCTs, with 517 participants, provided data for this review. Among them, five trials investigated the speed of initial tooth alignment comparing: 0.016 inch ion-implanted A-NiTi wire versus 0.016 inch A-NiTi versus 0.0175 multistrand stainless steel wire; 0.016x0.022 inch medium force active M-NiTi wire versus 0.016x0.022 inch graded force active M-NiTi wire versus 0.0155 inch multistrand

  6. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Various Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sang Shim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermomechanical treatment on mechanical and metallurgical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary instruments. Eight kinds of NiTi rotary instruments with sizes of ISO #25 were selected: ProFile, K3, and One Shape for the conventional alloy; ProTaper NEXT, Reciproc, and WaveOne for the M-wire alloy; HyFlex CM for the controlled memory- (CM- wire; and TF for the R-phase alloy. Torsional fracture and cyclic fatigue fracture tests were performed. Products underwent a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis. The CM-wire and R-phase groups had the lowest elastic modulus, followed by the M-wire group. The maximum torque of the M-wire instrument was comparable to that of a conventional instrument, while those of the CM-wire and R-phase instruments were lower. The angular displacement at failure (ADF for the CM-wire and R-phase instruments was higher than that of conventional instruments, and ADF of the M-wire instruments was lower. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the thermomechanically treated NiTi instruments was higher. DSC plots revealed that NiTi instruments made with the conventional alloy were primarily composed of austenite at room temperature; stable martensite and R-phase were found in thermomechanically treated instruments.

  7. Martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel orthodontic wires during intraoral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Paula P; de Biasi, Ronaldo S; Elias, Carlos N; Nojima, Lincoln I

    2010-12-01

    Our purpose was to study the mechanical properties and phase transformations of orthodontic wires submitted to in-vivo exposure in the mouth for different periods of time. Stainless steel wires were tied to fixed orthodontic appliances of 30 patients from the orthodontics clinic of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro School of Dentistry in Brazil. According to the duration of the clinical treatment, the patients were divided into 3 groups. After in-vivo exposure, the samples were studied by mechanical testing (torsion) and ferromagnetic resonance. Statistical analyses were carried out to evaluate the correlation between time of exposure, mechanical properties, and austenite-to-martensite transformation among the groups. The results were compared with as-received control samples. The torque values increased as time in the mouth increased. The increase in torque resistance showed high correlations with time of exposure (P = 0.005) and austenite-martensite phase transformation. The resistance of stainless steel orthodontic wires increases as the time in the mouth increases; this effect is attributed to the austenite-to-martensite transformation. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  9. Effect of irrigation on surface roughness and fatigue resistance of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J-J; Tang, X-N; Ge, J-Y

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of irrigation on the surface roughness and fatigue resistance of HyFlex and M3 controlled memory (CM) wire nickel-titanium instruments. Two new files of each brand were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Then, the instruments were dynamically immersed in either 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution for 10 min, followed by AFM analysis. The roughness average (Ra) and root mean square (RMS) values were analysed statistically using an independent sample t-test. Then, 36 files of each brand were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 12). Group 1 (the control group) was composed of new instruments. Groups 2 and 3 were dynamically immersed in 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions for 10 min, respectively. The number of rotations to failure for various groups was analysed using the one-way analysis of variance software. For M3 files, the Ra and RMS values significantly increased (P  0.05) NaOCl. The resistance to cyclic fatigue of both HyFlex and M3 files did not significantly decrease (P > 0.05) by immersing in 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions. Except the HyFlex files immersed in NaOCl, the surface roughness of other files exposed to irrigants increased. However, a change in the surface tomography of CM wire instruments caused by contact with irrigants for 10 min did not trigger a decrease in cyclic fatigue resistance. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Release of nickel and chromium ions in the saliva of patients with fixed orthodontic appliance: An in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Anoop; Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Maurya, Rana Pratap; Verma, Geeta; Murthy, R C

    2015-01-01

    Various components of fixed orthodontic appliances are continuously interacting with saliva and other fluids in the mouth releasing various metal ions including nickel and chromium that can cause damaging effects if their concentration exceeds above the toxic dose. To determine and compare the level of nickel and chromium in the saliva of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment at different time periods. The sample of saliva of 13 patients was taken at different time periods that is: Group 1 (before appliance placement), Group II, III, and IV (after 1-week, 1-month, and 3 months of appliance placement respectively). The fixed appliance comprised of brackets, bands, buccal tubes, lingual sheath, transpalatal arch and wires composed of Ni-Ti and stainless steel. The level of ions was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectro-photometry. The data thus obtained were statistically analyzed using SPSS Statistical Analysis Software (Version 15.0). Level of nickel and chromium in saliva was highest in Group II and lowest in Groups I for both the ions. On comparison among different Groups, it was statistically significant for all the groups (<0.001) except between Group III and Group IV. The release of nickel and chromium was maximum at 1-week and then the level gradually declined. These values were well below the toxic dose of these ions. The results should be viewed with caution in subjects with Ni hypersensitivity.

  11. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONTEIRO, Maria Regina Guerra; da SILVA, Licinio Esmeraldo; ELIAS, Carlos Nelson; VILELLA, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel) and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional) on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek) with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees) slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics) were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M). The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil). The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material. PMID:25025564

  12. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Guerra MONTEIRO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods: Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M. The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil. The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results: Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion: even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material.

  13. Performance test of twised-wired titanium evaporators for in-situ Tic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagawa, Konosuke; Abe, Tetsuya; Hiroki, Seiji; Obara, Kenjiro; Murakami, Yoshio

    1984-06-01

    In order to establish the titanium evaporation source for in-situ TiC deposition, performance test has been made for several types of twisted-wired, ohmic-heating titanium evaporators. The evaporator which exhibited the best performance consists of three tungsten wires twisted as the core of the composite, three titanium wires and a molybdenum wire densely wound around the core, and a thin tungsten wire coarsely wound at the outermost side of the composite. The molybdenum wire around the core plays an important role in wetting the core surface uniformly with the melt of titanium. The tungsten wire at the outermost side prevents the molten titanium from dropping to the inside wall of the vacuum vessel. A typical size of the evaporator is 4 mm in diameter and 140 mm in length. In this case 2--2.5g of titanium, which corresponds to 70 - 80 % of charged amount (3.2g), can be evaporated at a rate of about 0.14 g/min. On the basis of the experimental results, the applicability of the evaporator to JT-60 is discussed. (author)

  14. Cyclic fatigue resistance of newly manufactured rotary nickel titanium instruments used in different rotational directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianlucca; Gergi, Richard; Grande, Nicola Maria; Osta, Nada; Plotino, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel titanium instruments manufactured with improved heating processes in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. The instruments compared were produced either using the R-phase heat treatment (K3XF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) or the M-wire alloy (ProFile Vortex; DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments in curved artificial canals. Results indicated no significant difference in resistance to cyclic fatigue when rotary nickel titanium instruments are used in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. In both directions of rotation, size 04-25 K3XF showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 04-25 ProFile Vortex. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2012 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Friction Resistance of Titanium, Stainless Steel, Ceramic and Ceramic with Metal Insert Brackets with Varying Dimensions of Stainless Steel Wire: An In vitro Multi-center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Sunil; Miryala, Suresh; Kumar, K Kiran; Shameem, K; Regalla, Ravindra Reddy

    2014-09-01

    The orthodontist seeks an archwire-bracket combination that has both good biocompatibility and low friction. Hence, the aim of this multicenter in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance generated between titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SS), ceramic and ceramic with metal insert (CMI) brackets with SS wires of varying dimensions in a specially designed apparatus. The material used in this study were Ti, SS, Ceramic and CMI with 0.018″ slot manufactured with zero degree tip and -7° torque premolar brackets (3M, Unitek) and SS wires of varying dimensions (0.016″ round, 0.016 × 0.016″ square, 0.016 × 0.022″ rectangular and 0.017 × 0.025″ rectangular) used. The frictional resistance was measured using Instron Universal testing machine (Model no. 4301). The specimen population in each center composed each of 160 brackets and wires. Differences among the all bracket/wire combinations were tested using (one-way) ANOVA, followed by the student Newman Keuls multiple comparisons of means ranking (at P bracket in combination with 0.017 × 0.025″ SS rectangular wire produced significant force levels for an optimum orthodontic movement with least frictional resistance. Ti brackets have least resistance and rectangular wires produced significant force. These can be used to avoid hazards of Nickel. SS brackets revealed higher static frictional force values as the wire dimension increased and showed lower static friction than Ti brackets for all wires except the thicker wire. Our study recommends the preclusion of brackets with rough surface texture (Ti brackets) with SS ligature wire for ligating bracket and archwire are better to reduce friction.

  16. Adverse effects of nickel in transosseous wires and surgical implants: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwashindi, A; Dim, E M

    2014-01-01

    Transosseous wires used in the management of fractures are stainless steel alloys which contain nickel 14.5%, chromium 17.6%, iron 62.5% and molybdenum 2.8%. Gradual disintegration of the transosseous wires release nickel into the blood leading to increase nickel concentration in the blood. Nickel has been found to have some adverse systemic effects on the body. The aim of this paper is to discuss the sources of Nickel in the body as well as the systemic adverse effects of Nickel as a degradation product of stainless steel surgical implants. A study of pertinent literature on nickel as a content of stainless steel alloy used in implant surgery was done, taking note also of other sources of nickel in the body, the toxicokinetics of nickel and the related adverse effects of this metal and its compound in humans. As outcome,the sources of human exposure to nickel,distribution and metabolism of nickel in the body, host responseto stainless steel wires and the adverse effects of nickel in the body are presented. It may be necessary to discourage the use of wires or implants containing nickel in the management of fractures.The need for removal of these implants after they have served their purposes is emphasized.

  17. A randomized clinical trial to compare three methods of orthodontic space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, V; Read, M J F; O'Brien, K D; Worthington, H V; Mandall, N A

    2002-03-01

    To compare the rates of orthodontic space closure for: Active ligatures, polyurethane powerchain (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, RMO Europe, Parc d'Innovation, Rue Geiler de Kaysersberg, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, Strasbourg, France) and nickel titanium springs. Patients entering the space closure phase of fixed orthodontic treatment attending six orthodontic providers. Twelve patients received active ligatures (48 quadrants), 10 patients received powerchain (40 quadrants) and 11 patients, nickel-titanium springs (44 quadrants). Patients were randomly allocated for treatment with active ligatures, powerchain or nickel titanium springs. Upper and lower study models were collected at the start of space closure (T(o)) and 4 months later (T(1)). We recorded whether the patient wore Class II or Class III elastics. Space present in all four quadrants was measured, by a calibrated examiner, using Vernier callipers at T(o) and T(1.) The rate of space closure, in millimetres per month (4 weeks) and a 4-monthly rate, was then calculated. Examiner reliability was assessed at least 2 weeks later. Mean rates of space closure were 0.35 mm/month for active ligatures, 0.58 mm/month for powerchain, and 0.81 mm/month for NiTi springs. No statistically significant differences were found between any methods with the exception of NiTi springs showing more rapid space closure than active ligatures (P space closure. NiTi springs gave the most rapid rate of space closure and may be considered the treatment of choice. However, powerchain provides a cheaper treatment option that is as effective. The use of inter-arch elastics does not appear to influence rate of space closure.

  18. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Dario; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Movements of teeth splinted by fixed retention wires after orthodontic treatment have been observed. The aetiological factors for these movements are unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the resistance to torque of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed...... retainers in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain...... or a braided 0.016 × 0.022-inch stainless steel wire. A tooth attached by a retainer wire to only one neighbouring tooth is less resistant to torque than a tooth connected to two neighbouring teeth. Annealing a retainer wire with a flame reduces the stiffness of the wire markedly and can lead to a non...

  19. Precipitation formation in recrystallized nickel-plated non-sag tungsten wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z.H.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that some metals, such as palladium and nickel, can easily penetrate into tungsten by fast diffusion via crystal defects such as grain boundaries and dislocations. As a result of the fast penetration of these so called activators the recrystallization temperature of heavily drawn non-sag tungsten wire can be lower from about 2,000 C to about 1,000 C, thus the application of the tungsten wire, serving as reinforcement material in metal matrix composites used at high temperatures, is limited. An interesting question is in which form these activators exist in the recrystallized tungsten wire. It is generally believed that W-Ni intermediate compounds could form in the recrystallized material, presumably at grain boundaries. The free energy difference between the pure tungsten fibbers and the precipitating W(Ni) solid solution was suggested as the chemical driving force which governed the recrystallization process. The presence of nickel in small particles had also been observed in recrystallized grains of nickel plated tungsten wires using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. These particles were considered to be nickel rich precipitates. However, a detailed investigation of the precipitation process has not been reported. In the present work an investigation of the structure, composition and distribution of nickel rich particles precipitated in recrystallized grains of nickel plated heavily drawn non-sage tungsten wires was carried out using analytical electron microscopy (AEM)

  20. Tungsten wire-nickel base alloy composite development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Moracz, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W-Hf-C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/square meters (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics.

  1. Evaluation of scalp hair nickel and chromium level changes in patients with fixed orthodontic appliance: a one-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Saman; Rahmati Kamel, Manouchehr; Mirzaie, Maysam; Sarrafan, Ahmadreza; Khafri, Soraya; Parsian, Hadi

    2018-01-01

    The release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances is part of the dissolution and biomechanical processes of alloys. Nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) are the elements commonly used in the manufacture of various components of fixed orthodontic appliances, including bands, brackets and wires. This study was aimed to measure the Ni and Cr ions levels in the scalp hair of patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances in comparison of the control group. The patient group consisted of 24 patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances for one year, while the control group included 28 healthy individuals without orthodontic appliances. Analysis of the Cr and Ni was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer by graphite furnace method. The data were analyzed via student and paired samples t-test and ANOVA repeated measurement test. After one year, the levels of Ni and Cr in two groups showed significant differences (0.086 ± 0.007 and 0.258 ± 0.009 µg/g for control group and 0.149 ± 0.010 and 0.339 ± 0.013 µg/g for patient group, respectively for Ni and Cr, p orthodontic appliances and considering the cytotoxic and allergic effects of these ions, changing the ingredients in fixed orthodontic appliances is suggested for the future.

  2. Effect of material variation on the biomechanical behaviour of orthodontic fixed appliances: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Keilig, Ludger; Hasan, Istabrak; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Biomechanical analysis of orthodontic tooth movement is complex, as many different tissues and appliance components are involved. The aim of this finite element study was to assess the relative effect of material alteration of the various components of the orthodontic appliance on the biomechanical behaviour of tooth movement. A three-dimensional finite element solid model was constructed. The model consisted of a canine, a first, and a second premolar, including the surrounding tooth-supporting structures and fixed appliances. The materials of the orthodontic appliances were alternated between: (1) composite resin or resin-modified glass ionomer cement for the adhesive, (2) steel, titanium, ceramic, or plastic for the bracket, and (3) β-titanium or steel for the wire. After vertical activation of the first premolar by 0.5mm in occlusal direction, stress and strain calculations were performed at the periodontal ligament and the orthodontic appliance. The finite element analysis indicated that strains developed at the periodontal ligament were mainly influenced by the orthodontic wire (up to +63 per cent), followed by the bracket (up to +44 per cent) and the adhesive (up to +4 per cent). As far as developed stresses at the orthodontic appliance are concerned, wire material had the greatest influence (up to +155 per cent), followed by bracket material (up to +148 per cent) and adhesive material (up to +8 per cent). The results of this in silico study need to be validated by in vivo studies before they can be extrapolated to clinical practice. According to the results of this finite element study, all components of the orthodontic fixed appliance, including wire, bracket, and adhesive, seem to influence, to some extent, the biomechanics of tooth movement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Asymmetrical distalization of maxillary molars with zygomatic anchorage, improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wires, and open-coil springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayoshi; Yoon, Hyung Sik; Ono, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    In nongrowing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion, premolar extraction or maxillary distalization can be used as camouflage treatment. Zygomatic anchorage enables distalization in uncooperative or noncompliant patients. We describe 1 such procedure in a 24-year-old woman. We used novel improved superelastic nickel-titanium archwires combined with nickel-titanium open-coil springs to provide a constant and continuous low force to the dentition. We were able to successfully eliminate the protrusive profile and correct the Class II molar relationship using this system of zygomatic anchorage. The posterior occlusal relationships were improved to achieve Class I canine and molar relationships on both sides, and ideal overbite and overjet relationships were established. Facial esthetics was improved with decreased protrusion of the upper and lower lips. The method used here is a promising alternative to traditional distalization techniques and might offer an effective and simple means of distalizing maxillary molars in uncooperative patients. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of novel nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capar, Ismail Davut; Ertas, Huseyin; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-04-01

    New files (ProTaper Next/HyFlex/OneShape) are made from novel nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys/treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of these new instruments with that of Revo-S instruments. Four groups of 20 NiTi endodontic instruments were tested in steel canals with a 3 mm radius and a 60° angle of curvature. The cyclic fatigue of the following NiTi instruments with a tip size 25 and 0.06 taper that were manufactured with different alloys was tested: ProTaper Next X2 (M-Wire), OneShape (conventional NiTi), Revo-S Shaping Universal (conventional NiTi) and HyFlex 25/0.6 (controlled memory NiTi wire). A one-way anova and post-hoc Tukey's test (α = 0.05) revealed that the HyFlex files had the highest fatigue resistance and the Revo-S had the least fatigue resistance among the groups (P < 0.001). © 2014 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  5. Tungsten wire and tubing joined by nickel brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Thin tungsten wire and tungsten tubing are brazed together using a contacting coil of nickel wire heated to its melting point in an inert-gas atmosphere. This method is also effective for brazing tungsten to tungsten-rhenium parts.

  6. Plated nickel wire mesh makes superior catalyst bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, M.

    1965-01-01

    Porous nickel mesh screen catalyst bed produces gas evolution in hydrogen peroxide thrust chambers used for attitude control of space vehicles. The nickel wire mesh disks in the catalyst bed are plated in rugose form with a silver-gold coating.

  7. Welding of titanium and nickel alloy by combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyutina, Yu. N., E-mail: iuliiamaliutina@gmail.com; Bataev, A. A., E-mail: bataev@adm.nstu.ru; Shevtsova, L. I., E-mail: edeliya2010@mail.ru [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, 630073 (Russian Federation); Mali, V. I., E-mail: vmali@mail.ru; Anisimov, A. G., E-mail: anis@hydro.nsc.ru [Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    A possibility of titanium and nickel-based alloys composite materials formation using combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies was demonstrated in the current research. An employment of interlayer consisting of copper and tantalum thin plates makes possible to eliminate a contact between metallurgical incompatible titanium and nickel that are susceptible to intermetallic compounds formation during their interaction. By the following spark plasma sintering process the bonding has been received between titanium and titanium alloy VT20 through the thin powder layer of pure titanium that is distinguished by low defectiveness and fine dispersive structure.

  8. Progress on sputter-deposited thermotractive titanium-nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grummon, D.S.; Hou Li; Zhao, Z.; Pence, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    It is now well established that titanium-nickel alloys fabricated as thin films by physical vapor deposition can display the same transformation and shape-memory effects as their ingot-metallurgy counterparts. As such they may find important application to microelectromechanical and biomechanical systems. Furthermore, we show here that titanium-nickel films may be directly processed so as to possess extremely fine austenite grain size and very high strength. These films display classical transformational superelasticity, including high elastic energy storage capacity, the expected dependence of martensite-start temperature on transformation enthalpy, and large, fully recoverable anelastic strains at temperatures above A f . Processing depends on elevated substrate temperatures during deposition, which may be manipulated within a certain range to control both grain size and crystallographic texture. It is also possible to deposit crystalline titanium-nickel films onto polymeric substrates, making them amenable to lithographic patterning into actuator elements that are well-suited to electrical excitation of the martensite reversion transformation. Finally, isothermal annealing of nickel-rich films, under conditions of controlled extrinsic residual stress, leads to topotaxial orientation of Ni 4 Ti 3 -type precipitates, and the associated possibility of two-way memory effects. Much work remains to be done, especially with respect to precise control of composition. (orig.)

  9. Accuracy of four different digital intraoral scanners: effects of the presence of orthodontic brackets and wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoo-Ran; Park, Ji-Man; Chun, Youn-Sic; Lee, Kkot-Nim; Kim, Minji

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of four different digital intraoral scanners and the effects of buccal brackets and orthodontic wire. For this study, three sets of models (Control model, BKT model with buccal bracket, and WBKT model with buccal bracket and orthodontic wire) were scanned using four different types of intraoral scanners: E4D dentist, iTero, Trios, and Zfx IntraScan. The mesiodistal width of the teeth, intercanine width, and intermolar width measured by four scanners were compared. Three-dimensional (3D) images of the brackets were taken using the four scanners. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, independent t test, and post-hoc Tukey test at a significance level of P brackets and orthodontic wire. Comparison of 3D bracket images scanned by the four scanners showed differences in image distortion among the scanners. Bracket characteristics did not affect the 3D bracket images. The four intraoral scanners used in this study differed in accuracy. However, the results acquired by iTero and Trios were more reliable. Effects of buccal brackets and orthodontic wire on the 3D images taken by intraoral scanners were not clinically significant.

  10. Clinical Efficiency of Two Sequences of Orthodontic Wires to Correct Crowding of the Lower Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria de Castro Serafim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared time to correction of mandibular anterior crowding using two arch wire sequences, one with conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi arch wires and the other with conventional and NiTi heat-activated arch wires. Twenty-two boys and girls (mean age: 16.68 ± 2.66 with moderate crowding (3–6 mm were assigned randomly to one of two groups and followed up for five months (six assessments when arch wires were changed. Time to crowding correction was analyzed statistically using the Kaplan-Meier method. Data were collected during the five-month follow-up, and time to correction was compared between groups using the log rank test. At the end of follow-up, mandibular crowding was corrected in 100% of the cases in the group treated with the sequence that included NiTi heat-activated arch wires, whereas about 30% of those treated with NiTi arch wires were not completely corrected. There was a significant difference in time to complete treatment between groups (log rank = 5.996; p<0.05. In the group treated with the sequence that included heat-activated wires, alignment and leveling of mandibular anterior teeth were completed earlier than in the group treated only with conventional NiTi arch wires. Clinical trial registration is found at RBR-7g5zng.

  11. The effect of surface treatment and clinical use on friction in NiTi orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichelhaus, Andrea; Geserick, Marc; Hibst, Raimund; Sander, Franz G

    2005-10-01

    Since the low friction of NiTi wires allows a rapid and efficient orthodontic tooth movement, the aim of this research was to investigate the friction and surface roughness of different commercially available superelastic NiTi wires before and after clinical use. The surface of all of the wires had been pre-treated by the manufacturer. Forty superelastic wires (Titanol Low Force, Titanol Low Force River Finish Gold, Neo Sentalloy, Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) of diameter 0.016 x 0.022 in. were tested. The friction for each type of NiTi archwire ligated into a commercial stainless steel bracket was determined with a universal testing machine. Having ligated the wire into the bracket, it could then be moved forward and backwards along a fixed archwire whilst a torquing moment was applied. The surface roughness was investigated using a profilometric measuring device on defined areas of the wire. Statistical data analysis was conducted by means of the Wilcoxon test. The results showed that initially, the surface treated wires demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) less friction than the non-treated wires. The surface roughness showed no significant difference between the treated and the non-treated surfaces of the wires. All 40 wires however showed a significant increase in friction and surface roughness during clinical use. Whilst the Titanol Low Force River Finish Gold (Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany) wires showed the least friction of all the samples and consequently should be more conservative on anchorage, the increase in friction of all the surface treated wires during orthodontic treatment almost cancels out this initial effect on friction. It is therefore recommended that surface treated NiTi orthodontic archwires should only be used once.

  12. Elongated grains in cube textured nickel substrate tapes and flat wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickemeyer, J; Gueth, A; Holzapfel, B

    2008-01-01

    Cube textured nickel substrate tapes and flat wires with an increased grain aspect ratio were prepared from nickel micro-alloyed with silver plus yttrium and silver, respectively. Whereas the maximum grain aspect ratio for the tapes was about 6, this value reached up to 14 for the flat wires

  13. Allergy and orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632

  14. Development and evaluation of two PVD-coated β-titanium orthodontic archwires for fluoride-induced corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vinod; Krishnan, Anand; Remya, R; Ravikumar, K K; Nair, S Asha; Shibli, S M A; Varma, H K; Sukumaran, K; Kumar, K Jyothindra

    2011-04-01

    The present research was aimed at developing surface coatings on β titanium orthodontic archwires capable of protection against fluoride-induced corrosion. Cathodic arc physical vapor deposition PVD (CA-PVD) and magnetron sputtering were utilized to deposit thin films of titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) and tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) coatings on β titanium orthodontic archwires. Uncoated and coated specimens were immersed in a high fluoride ion concentration mouth rinse, following a specially designed cycle simulating daily use. All specimens thus obtained were subjected to critical evaluation of parameters such as electrochemical corrosion behaviour, surface analysis, mechanical testing, microstructure, element release, and toxicology. The results confirm previous research that β titanium archwires undergo a degradation process when in contact with fluoride mouth rinses. The study confirmed the superior nature of the TiAlN coating, evident as many fewer changes in properties after fluoride treatment when compared with the WC/C coating. Thus, coating with TiAlN is recommended in order to reduce the corrosive effects of fluorides on β titanium orthodontic archwires. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural evolution and drawability in laser dieless drawing of fine nickel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonggang; Quick, Nathaniel R.; Kar, Aravinda

    2003-01-01

    Drawability of Nickel 200 wires in laser dieless drawing was investigated. Influencing factors under consideration include the laser power, the heat-treatment state (as-drawn or annealed), and the initial wire diameter. Microstructural evolutions in laser dieless drawing were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The wires exhibit optimal drawability at an intermediate laser power range corresponding to the wire temperature in the range of 1000-1300 K. The as-drawn precursor wire has better drawability than that of the annealed wire. The drawability decreases as the precursor wire diameter deceases. Microcrystalline structures were found in nickel 200 wires after being laser-drawn from as-drawn precursor wires. These experimental observations are explained using the concepts of dynamic recovery and recrystallization

  16. Development and evaluation of a reinforced polymeric biomaterial for use as an orthodontic wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufall, Scott William

    Composite archwires have the potential to provide esthetic and functional improvements over conventional wires. As part of an ongoing effort to bring these materials into general use, composite wires were fabricated using a photo-pultrusion manufacturing technique, and subsequently coated with a 10 mum layer of poly(chloro-p-xylylene). Coated and uncoated composites were subjected to several different evaluations to assess their ability to perform the functions of an orthodontic archwire. An investigation of the viscoelastic behavior of uncoated composite wires was conducted at a physiological temperature of 37°C using a bend stress relaxation test. Over 90 day testing periods, energy losses increased with decreasing reinforcement levels from to 8% of the initial wire stress. Final viscous losses were 1% for all reinforcement levels. Relaxed elastic moduli for the composite wires were comparable to the reported elastic moduli of conventional orthodontic wires that are typically used for initial and intermediate alignment procedures. Frictional characteristics were evaluated in passive and active configurations for uncoated composite wires against three contemporary orthodontic brackets. Kinetic coefficients of friction were the same for all wire-bracket combinations tested and were slightly lower than the reported coefficients of other initial and intermediate alignment wires. Wear patterns on the wires, which were largely caused by sharp leading edges of the bracket slots, were characteristic of plowing and cutting wear behaviors. This wear caused glass fibers to be released from the surface of the wires, presenting a potential irritant. Coated composite wires were subjected to the same frictional analysis as the uncoated wires. A mathematical model of the archwire-bracket system was derived using engineering mechanics, and used to define a coefficient of binding. The coating increased the frictional coefficients of the wires by 72%, yet the binding coefficient

  17. Efficacy of CM-Wire, M-Wire, and Nickel-Titanium Instruments for Removing Filling Material from Curved Root Canals: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Teles; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de Almeida, Marcela Milanezi; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the removal of filling material after using CM-wire, M-wire, and nickel-titanium instruments in both reciprocating and rotary motions in curved canals. Thirty maxillary lateral incisors were divided into 9 groups according to retreatment procedures: Reciproc R25 followed by Mtwo 40/.04 and ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files; ProDesign R 25/.06 followed by ProDesign Logic 40/.05 and ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files; and Gates-Glidden drills, Hedström files, and K-files up to apical size 30 followed by K-file 40 and K-file 50 up to the working length. Micro-computed tomography scans were performed before and after each reinstrumentation procedure to evaluate root canal filling removal. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests (P < .05). No significant differences in filling material removal were found in the 3 groups of teeth. The use of Mtwo and ProDesign Logic 40/.05 rotary files did not enhance filling material removal after the use of reciprocating files. The use of ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files significantly reduced the amount of filling material at the apical levels compared with the use of reciprocating files. Association of reciprocating and rotary files was capable of removing a large amount of filling material in the retreatment of curved canals, irrespective of the type of alloy of the instruments. The use of a ProDesign Logic 50/.01 file for apical preparation significantly reduced the amount of remnant material in the apical portion when compared with reciprocating instruments. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pelepasan ion nikel dan kromium kawat Australia dan stainless steel dalam saliva buatan (The release of nickel and chromium ions from Australian wire and stainless steel in artificial saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolista Indah Rasyid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment needs several types of wire to produce biomechanical force to move teeth. The use orthodontic wire within the mouth interacts with saliva, causing the release of nickel and chromium ions. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the effect of immersion time in artificial saliva between special type of Australian wire and stainless steel on the release of nickel and chromium ions. Methods: Thirty special type Australian wires and 30 stainless steel wires were used in this study, each of which weighed 0.12 grams. The wires were immersed for 1, 7, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days in artificial saliva with a normal pH. The release of ions in saliva was examined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry. Results: The result indicated that the release of nickel ions on special type of Australian wire was larger than that on stainless steel wire (p<0.005, there were differences in the release of the amount of nickel ions on special type of Australia in different immersion time, and there was a correlation between the types of wire and immersion time. Nickel ions released from the special type of Australian wire detected on the 7th day of immersion and reached its peak on the 35th day, while from stainless steel wire were detected on the 49th day of immersion. The released of chromium ions from the special type of Australian wire and stainless steel wire were not detected until the 49th day of immersion. Conclusion: The release of nickel ions were highest on the 35th day of immersion in special type of Australian wire and they were detected on the 49th day in stainless steel wire. The release of chromium ions were not detected until 49th day of immersion in special type of Australian and stainless steel wire.Latar belakang: Perawatan ortodonti cekat memerlukan beberapa macam kawat untuk menghasilkan kekuatan biomekanika yang sesuai dalam menggerakkan gigi. Pemakaian kawat ortodonti di dalam mulut dapat bereaksi dengan

  19. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires covered with a polyether ether ketone tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Nobukazu; Iwata, Toshio; Miyake, Shinjiro; Otuka, Takero; Koizumi, So; Kawata, Toshitugu

    2018-03-21

    To evaluate the esthetics and frictional force of an orthodontic wire passed through a newly designed tube made of a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) resin. Two types of standard PEEK tubes were prepared at 0.5 × 0.6ф and 0.8 × 0.9ф, and different archwires were passed through the tubes. Color values were determined according to brightness and hues. Friction was assessed with different bracket-wire combinations, and surface roughness was determined by stereomicroscopy before and after the application of friction. The PEEK tube showed a color difference that was almost identical to that of coated wires conventionally used in clinical practice, indicating a sufficient esthetic property. The result of the friction test showed that the frictional force was greatly reduced by passing the archwire through the PEEK tube in almost all of the archwires tested. Use of the new PEEK tube demonstrated a good combination of esthetic and functional properties for use in orthodontic appliances.

  20. Adhesive Properties of Bonded Orthodontic Retainers to Enamel : Stainless Steel Wire vs Fiber-reinforced Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Krebs, Eliza; Sandham, John; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to compare the bond strength of a stainless steel orthodontic wire vs various fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) used as orthodontic retainers on enamel, analyze the failure types after debonding, and investigate the influence of different application

  1. An In-vitro Study of the Load Deflection Characteristics of the Thermal Wires Immersed in Different Fluoride Prophylactic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami K. Al-Joubori

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoridated prophylactic agents have been reported to cause corrosion and discoloration of titanium alloys. Degradation in the mechanical properties lead to a decrease in a suitable orthodontic force, thereby causing delayed leveling of crooked teeth. This study was designed to evaluate the load deflection characteristics of thermal nickel titanium arch wires during unloading phase after ninety minutes immersion in three different fluoride agents. Material and methods: Forty specimens of thermal wires were obtained from Ortho Technology Company, which had 0.019” × 0.025” rectangular in cross section. Ten specimens from the wire size were immersed in one of the tested fluoride prophylactic agents (neutral sodium fluoride gel, stannous fluoride gel or Phos-Flur® mouth rinse or in the controlled medium of normal saline and incubated at 37°C for ninety minutes. A Wp 300 universal material testing machine was modified and used to perform a three-point bending test in a water path at 37 ± 1°C. The statistical difference between the different agents was analyzed using ANOVA and least significant difference tests. Results: The unloading forces at 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm where significantly reduced especially in acidulated phosphate fluoride treated specimens followed by neutral fluoride treated specimens. Conclusion: Based on the results found in this study it can be preferred to use fluoride prophylactic agents with the least acidity and fluoride ions concentration.

  2. Assessment of Changes in Nickel and Chromium Levels in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Vinny; Pustake, Swati J; Joshi, Viprat; Tiwari, Anil; Bhasin, Meenakshi; Punia, Ramandeep S

    2017-08-01

    Various components of appliances used in fixed orthodontic treatment are fabricated from materials that are highly resistant in nature and have high strength and biocompatibility. Corrosion of materials occurs inside the oral cavity due to numerous environmental or oral factors that act on them. These factors include temperature, pH variation, salivary conditions, mechanical loads, microbiological and enzymatic activity, and various food components. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is the material obtained from the gingival sulcus and might act as a potential source for various biomarkers in the orthodontic setup because inflammatory-induced response is directly related to orthodontic forces in GCF. In the light of above-mentioned data, we planned this study to assess and evaluate the changes occurring in nickel and chromium levels in the GCF during fixed orthodontic treatment. This study included assessment of 30 patients who underwent fixed orthodontic treatment. Three samples were taken from the GCF of the patients giving a total of 90 samples. The samples were collected at the following time intervals: At baseline (pretreatment time), 1 month after the start of orthodontic treatment, and at 6 months after the commencement of orthodontic treatment. Cellulose strips were used for isolation of the tooth region. For GCF collection, a standardized cellulose acetate absorbent strip was used. Placement of the strips was done in the sulcus for 60 seconds for the collection of the samples. Refrigeration of the specimen bottles was done for a minimum of 7 days and was then sent to a laboratory where specimens were transferred for atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. At 1 month, the mean value of nickel and chromium in GCF was found to be 4.5 and 4.9 ug/gm of GCF respectively. While comparing the mean nickel levels between 1 and 6 months and between baseline and 6 months, significant

  3. Galvanic Corrosion among Different Combination of Orthodontic Archwires and Stainless Steel Brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the galvanic behavior of different bracket and archwire combinations that are commonly used in orthodontic treatments. Methods: Three types of orthodontic archwires with a diameter of 0.016×0.022 inch and 80 standard edgewise maxillary central incisor brackets were selected. Three groups consisted of different wire-bracket couples and one group was just brackets as a control group. Each group had five samples. Four brackets were then connected to each wire by elastic bands made from electrochemically neutral material. The samples were immersed into capped containers of Fusayama-Meyer artificial saliva. After six weeks, the released nickel ions were quantified via ion absorption technique. The mean and the standard deviation of all four groups were calculated and the data were compared together with Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric statistical test. Results: The highest concentration of released nickel ions was for bracket+ steel archwire and the least for the bracket without archwire. Conclusion: There were not significant differences among experimental groups, so it could be concluded that galvanic corrosion would not be a serious consideration through orthodontic treatment.  

  4. Investigations on laser induced nickel and titanium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.K.U.; Latif, A.; Bhatti, K.A.; Rafique, M.S.; Yousaf, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were performed to find out plasma parameters for Nickel and Titanium metals which were irradiated in air (1 atm) to produce plasma plume using Q switched Nd: YAG pulsed laser of 1.1 MW, 10 m J, 1064 nm and 9-14 ns. Langmuir probe was used as a diagnostic tool. The signals at different probe voltages were recorded on digital storage oscilloscope. The information carried by the signals was utilized to calculate electron density, electron temperature, Debye's length and number of particles in Debye's sphere. The study shows that the calculated values of these parameters for Nickel and Titanium are different except Debye's length. Plasma parameters strongly depend on probe potentials, material used and ambient conditions. (author)

  5. Assessment of the hardness of different orthodontic wires and brackets produced by metal injection molding and conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: MIM orthodontic brackets exhibited hardness values much lower than those of SS orthodontic archwires and were more compatible with NiTi and beta-titanium archwires. A wide range of microhardness values has been reported for conventional orthodontic brackets and it should be considered that the manufacturing method might be only one of the factors affecting the mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets including hardness.

  6. Cyclic Fatigue of Different Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Testarelli, L.; Grande, N.M; Plotino, G; Lendini, M; Pongione, G; Paolis, G. De; Rizzo, F; Milana, V; Gambarini, G

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of nickel-titanium alloy to endodontics, there have been many changes in instrument design, but no significant improvements in the raw material properties, or enhancements in the manufacturing process. Recently, a new method to produce nickel-titanium rotary (NTR) instruments has been developed, in an attempt to obtain instruments that are more flexible and resistant to fatigue. NTR instruments produced using the process of twisting (TF, SybronEndo, Orange, CA) were com...

  7. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  8. NiTi bonded space regainer/maintainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negi K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favorable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. Premature loss of deciduous tooth or teeth can often destroy the integrity of normal occlusion. There are many space regaining and maintaining devices mentioned in literature. In this article, I present a simple space regaining method by a piece of nickel titanium (NiTi wire bonded between the teeth in active loop form, and the unique shape memory property of NiTi wire will upright or move the teeth and the lost space can be regained easily.

  9. Numerical simulation of the force generated by a superelastic NiTi orthodontic archwire during tooth alignment phase: comparison between different constitutive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannoun, M.; Laroussi Hellara, M.; Bouby, C.; Ben Zineb, T.; Bouraoui, T.

    2018-04-01

    Nickel Titanium (NiTi) Superelastic (SE) Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are widely considered for applications that need high reversible strain or high recovery forces. In particular, the SE SMAs present a high interest for biomedical applications such as endodontic and orthodontic apparatus. They are available in a large variety of archwires exerting continuum forces to ensure the dental displacement. The purpose of this study is to report the clinical implications of NiTi SE wires for dental treatment in a given configuration. Three main constitutive models of the literature (Lagoudas and Boyd 1996 Int. J. Plast. 12 805–842, Auricchio and Petrini 2004 Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng. 61 807–836 and Chemisky et al 2011 Mech. Mater. 68 361–376) are considered for the finite element (FE) numerical simulations of the SMA archwires response. Tensile tests had been carried out in order to identify the material parameters of these constitutive models. The FE numerical study allowed to predict the dental displacement and its corresponding orthodontic force level exerted by the wire in similar conditions to those in the oral environment. This work allows to predict the orthodontic generated load by a NiTi SE archwire with a 0.64 × 0.46 mm2 rectangular cross section under prescribed thermomechanical conditions. The effect of the temperature and the alveolar bone stiffness on the orthodontic load level and the tooth displacement degree has been investigated. The performed numerical simulations demonstrate that the orthodontic load is sensitive to the displacement magnitude, to the tooth stiffness and to the temperature variations. The obtained forces applied continuously and at a constant level are within the acceptable orthodontic force level range. Some directives are therefore provided to help orthodontists to select the optimal archwire.

  10. Comparison of the cyclic fatigue resistance of 5 different rotary pathfinding instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium wire, M-wire, and controlled memory wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capar, Ismail Davut; Kaval, Mehmet Emin; Ertas, Hüseyin; Sen, Bilge Hakan

    2015-04-01

    This study compared the cyclic fatigue resistance of current nickel-titanium rotary path-finding instruments. Five types of nickel-titanium rotary pathfinding instruments were used in steel canals with a 90° curvature and a curvature radius of 3 mm (n = 10) and 5 mm (n = 10). The cyclic fatigue of the following instruments was tested at 4 mm from the tip: PathFile (#16 and a .02 taper; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), G-File (#12 and a .03 taper; Micro-Mega, Besançon Cedex, France), Scout Race (#15 and a .02 taper; FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), HyFlex GPF (#15 and a .02 taper; Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland), and ProGlider (#16 with a mean taper of .04125 and a .02 at the first 4 mm from the tip, Dentsply Maillefer). The length of the fractured parts was measured, and the number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α = .05). After Bonferroni correction, the new P value was set as .005. The difference in the cyclic fatigue of all the files at both curvatures was statistically significant (P values from .0035 to less than .0001). The ranking of the instruments from the highest to the lowest NCF was as follows: HyFlex GPF, G files, ProGlider, PathFile, and Scout Race. The length of the fractured part of the instruments was similar in all the groups (P > .05). All the tested instruments had a lower NCF at a curvature radius of 3 mm when compared with a curvature radius of 5 mm (P instrument was the highest, and the curvature radius had a significant effect on the fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of drawing parameters on the mechanical properties of two beta-titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, C V; Goldberg, A J

    1983-10-01

    The total cold reduction and reduction per pass used during the drawing of fine wires affected the mechanical properties of two beta-titanium alloys. Both Ti-11.5Mo-6Zr-4.5Sn and Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al showed increased yield strengths and low moduli of elasticity, which resulted in wires appropriate for orthodontic application.

  12. Theromdynamics of carbon in nickel-based multicomponent solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1978-04-01

    The activity coefficient of carbon in nickel, nickel-titanium, nickel-titanium-chromium, nickel-titanium-molybdenum and nickel-titanium-molybdenum-chromium alloys has been measured at 900, 1100 and 1215 0 C. The results indicate that carbon obeys Henry's Law over the range studied (0 to 2 at. percent). The literature for the nickel-carbon and iron-carbon systems are reviewed and corrected. For the activity of carbon in iron as a function of composition, a new relationship based on re-evaluation of the thermodynamics of the CO/CO 2 equilibrium is proposed. Calculations using this relationship reproduce the data to within 2.5 percent, but the accuracy of the calibrating standards used by many investigators to analyze for carbon is at best 5 percent. This explains the lack of agreement between the many precise sets of data. The values of the activity coefficient of carbon in the various solid solutions are used to calculate a set of parameters for the Kohler-Kaufman equation. The calculations indicate that binary interaction energies are not sufficient to describe the thermodynamics of carbon in some of the nickel-based solid solutions. The results of previous workers for carbon in nickel-iron alloys are completely described by inclusion of ternary terms in the Kohler-Kaufman equation. Most of the carbon solid solution at high temperatures in nickel and nickel-titantium alloys precipitates from solution on quenching in water. The precipitate is composed of very small particles (greater than 2.5 nm) of elemental carbon. The results of some preliminary thermomigration experiments are discussed and recommendations for further work are presented

  13. The effect of ZnO nanoparticle coating on the frictional resistance between orthodontic wires and ceramic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Any decrease in friction between orthodontic wire and bracket can accelerate tooth movement in the sliding technique and result in better control of anchorage. This study was carried out to evaluate frictional forces by coating orthodontic wires and porcelain brackets with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO. Methods. In this in vitro study, we evaluated a combination of 120 samples of 0.019×0.025 stainless steel (SS orthodontic wires and 22 mil system edgewise porcelain brackets with and without spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles. Spherical ZnO nanoparticles were deposited on wires and brackets by immersing them in ethanol solution and SEM (scanning electron microscope evaluation confirmed the presence of the ZnO coating. The frictional forces were calculated between the wires and brackets in four groups: group ZZ (coated wire and bracket, group OO (uncoated wire and bracket, group ZO (coated wire and uncoated bracket and group OZ (uncoated wire and coated bracket. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for data analysis. Results. The frictional force in ZZ (3.07±0.4 N was the highest (P <0.05, and OZ (2.18±0.5 N had the lowest amount of friction (P <0.05 among the groups. There was no significant difference in frictional forces between the ZO and OO groups (2.65±0.2 and 2.70±0.2 N, respectively. Conclusion. Coating of porcelain bracket surfaces with ZnO nanoparticles can decrease friction in the sliding technique, and wire coating combined with bracket coating is not recommended due to its effect on friction.

  14. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Dario T; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-06-01

    Movements of teeth splinted by fixed retention wires after orthodontic treatment have been observed. The aetiological factors for these movements are unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the resistance to torque of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics. Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain, braided, coaxial, or chain) and dimensions were selected for this study. For a torquing angle of 16.2° in the 3-teeth setup torsion moments can vary between 390 cNmm and 3299 cNmm depending on the retainer wire. For the 2-teeth setup the torsion moments are much smaller. Exposure to the flame of a butane-gas torch for 10 seconds to anneal the wire reduces the stiffness of the retainer wire. Clinicians must select wires for fixed retainers very carefully since the difference in resistance to torque is large. A high level of torque control can be achieved with a plain 0.016 × 0.016-inch or a braided 0.016 × 0.022-inch stainless steel wire. A tooth attached by a retainer wire to only one neighbouring tooth is less resistant to torque than a tooth connected to two neighbouring teeth. Annealing a retainer wire with a flame reduces the stiffness of the wire markedly and can lead to a non-uniform and non-reproducible effect.

  15. Innovations: laser-cutting nickel-titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, T.R.; Moore, B.; Toyama, N. [LPL Systems, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Laser-cutting is well established as the preferred method for manufacturing many endovascular medical devices. Sometimes laser processing has been poorly understood by nickel-titanium (NiTi) material suppliers, medical device manufacturers, and device designers, but the field has made important strides in the past several years. A variety of sample, nonspecific applications are presented for cutting tubing and sheet stock. Limiting constraints, key considerations, and areas for future development are identified. (orig.)

  16. Influence of Nitinol wire surface treatment on oxide thickness and composition and its subsequent effect on corrosion resistance and nickel ion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, B; Carroll, W; Rochev, Y; Hynes, M; Bradley, D; Plumley, D

    2006-10-01

    Medical implants and devices are now used successfully in surgical procedures on a daily basis. Alloys of nickel and titanium, and in particular Nitinol are of special interest in the medical device industry, because of their shape memory and superelastic properties. The corrosion behavior of nitinol in the body is also of critical importance because of the known toxicological effects of nickel. The stability of a NiTi alloy in the physiological environment is dependant primarily on the properties of the mostly TiO(2) oxide layer that is present on the surface. For the present study, a range of nitinol wires have been prepared using different drawing processes and a range of surface preparation procedures. It is clear from the results obtained that the wire samples with very thick oxides also contain a high nickel content in the oxide layer. The untreated samples with the thicker oxides show the lowest pitting potential values and greater nickel release in both long and short-term experiments. It was also found that after long-term immersion tests breakdown potentials increased for samples that exhibited lower values initially. From these results it would appear that surface treatment is essential for the optimum bioperformance of nitinol. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  17. On aging of iron-nickel-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vintajkin, E.Z.; Dmitriev, V.B.; Udovenko, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of structural transformations on the initial stages of aging of Fe-(26-29) at. % Ni-(2.5-5.75) at. % Ti alloys was studied by neutron radiography. It was shown that at the earliest aging stages at 550 deg C there appear ordered areas which are FCC nuclei of the Ni 3 Ti phase. The rate of nucleation depends on the content of titanium in the all. In alloys with more than 3% Ti, nuclei appear even at the hardening stage. During the subsequent aging, the nuclei are enriched with nickel and titanium

  18. Nickel titanium springs versus stainless steel springs: A randomized clinical trial of two methods of space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Noraina Hafizan; Worthington, Helen; Chadwick, Stephen Mark

    2016-09-01

    To compare the clinical performance of nickel titanium (NiTi) versus stainless steel (SS) springs during orthodontic space closure. Two-centre parallel group randomized clinical trial. Orthodontic Department University of Manchester Dental Hospital and Orthodontic Department Countess of Chester Hospital, United Kingdom. Forty orthodontic patients requiring fixed appliance treatment were enrolled, each being randomly allocated into either NiTi (n = 19) or SS groups (n = 21). Study models were constructed at the start of the space closure phase (T0) and following the completion of space closure (T1). The rate of space closure achieved for each patient was calculated by taking an average measurement from the tip of the canine to the mesiobuccal groove on the first permanent molar of each quadrant. The study was terminated early due to time constraints. Only 30 patients completed, 15 in each study group. There was no statistically significant difference between the amounts of space closed (mean difference 0.17 mm (95%CI -0.99 to 1.34; P = 0.76)). The mean rate of space closure for NiTi coil springs was 0.58 mm/4 weeks (SD 0.24) and 0.85 mm/4 weeks (SD 0.36) for the stainless steel springs. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.024), in favour of the stainless steel springs, when the mean values per patient were compared. Our study shows that stainless steel springs are clinically effective; these springs produce as much space closure as their more expensive rivals, the NiTi springs.

  19. The placement of Y-shaped titanium-nickel memory alloy stent in the carina: a fundamental study in experimental canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Wei; Shen Che

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pathological changes of local airway tissue after inserting Yshaped titanium-nickel memory alloy stent in carina, and to evaluate CT three-dimensional reconstruction technique in postoperative and follow-up observation. Methods: Twelve healthy adult canines were enrolled in this study. Based on the information of the carina obtained from CT three-dimensional reconstruction images, the preparation of Y-shape netlike stent was made by knitting method with single Ni-Ti memory alloy wire. The stent was then inserted in canine's carina with the help of a releasing system. After the operation fiberbronchoscopy and CT three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. The animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after the procedure and the bronchus of the stenting segment was removed and sent for histopathologic examination. Results: Technical success was achieved in all canines with the stent right in the carina. The airway remained unobstructed 12 weeks after the procedure. Histopathologic examination revealed that the stent became partial epithelialization. Conclusion: The Y-shaped titanium-nickel memory alloy stent has good histocompatibility and physicochemical stability and no re-stenosis of the airway develops in the follow-up period of three months. The stent-releasing technique is easy and simple. As a non-invasive and convenient exam, CT three-dimensional reconstruction technique is of great value in postoperative follow-up observation. (authors)

  20. Synergistic responses of superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium created by wire-type electric discharge machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yu; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Wire-type electric discharge machining has been applied to the manufacture of endosseous titanium implants as this computer associated technique allows extremely accurate complex sample shaping with an optimal micro textured surface during the processing. Since the titanium oxide layer is sensitively altered by each processing, the authors hypothesized that this technique also up-regulates biological responses through the synergistic effects of the superficial chemistry and micro topography. To evaluate the respective in vitro cellular responses on the superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge, we used titanium-coated epoxy resin replica of the surface. An oxide layer on the titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge activated the initial responses of osteoblastic cells through an integrin-mediated mechanism. Since the mRNA expression of ALP on those replicas was up-regulated compared to smooth titanium samples, the micro topography of a titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge promotes the osteogenic potential of cells. The synergistic response of the superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge was demonstrated in this study.

  1. Torque differences due to the material variation of the orthodontic appliance: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Keilig, Ludger; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    Torque of the maxillary incisors is crucial to occlusal relationship and esthetics and can be influenced by many factors. The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of the material of the orthodontic appliance (adhesive, bracket, ligature, and wire) on tooth displacements and developed stresses/strains after torque application. A three-dimensional upper right central incisor with its periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolus was modeled. A 0.018-in. slot discovery® (Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) bracket with a rectangular 0.018 x 0.025-in. wire was generated. The orthodontic appliance varied in the material of its components: adhesive (composite resin or resin-modified glass ionomer cement), bracket (titanium, steel, or ceramic), wire (beta-titanium or steel), and ligature (elastomeric or steel). A total of 24 models were generated, and a palatal root torque of 5° was applied. Afterwards, crown and apex displacement, strains in the PDL, and stresses in the bracket were calculated and analyzed. The labial crown displacement and the palatal root displacement of the tooth were mainly influenced by the material of the wire (up to 150% variation), followed by the material of the bracket (up to 19% variation). The magnitude of strains developed in the PDL was primarily influenced by the material of the wire (up to 127% variation), followed by the material of the bracket (up to 30% variation) and the ligature (up to 13% variation). Finally, stresses developed at the bracket were mainly influenced by the material of the wire (up to 118% variation) and the bracket (up to 59% variation). The material properties of the orthodontic appliance and all its components should be considered during torque application. However, these in silico results need to be validated in vivo before they can be clinically extrapolated.

  2. Submerged-arc wire electrodes with nickel-plated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, H. vom.

    1976-01-01

    The article reports on the development of SANWELD welding rods at GARHYTTAN's which is a wire free of impurities, copper, and hydrogen with a nickel surface. It is producted according to the SANBOND process. The wire has an optimum of mechanical quality grades depending on the powder used for welding, especially an improvement of notch impact strength. The elongation, especially the long-time values, are improved, hydrogen cracks are excluded depending on the correct powder or protective gas, and the low-temparature values are improved. An attendant phenomenon, which is not unimportant, is that the wires are practically corrosion-resistant in the non-welded state. The wire is suitable for submerged-arc welding in steam boilers and pressure vessels. (IHoe) [de

  3. Reduction in static friction by deposition of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Shun; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Daishiro; Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Hiratsuka, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontics, a reduction in static friction between the brackets and wire is important to enable easy tooth movement. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the whole surfaces of slots in stainless steel orthodontic brackets on reducing the static friction between the brackets and the wire. The DLC coating was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurements, and SEM observations. Rectangular stainless steel and titanium-molybdenum alloy wires with two different sizes were employed, and the static friction between the brackets and wire was measured under dry and wet conditions. The DLC coating had a thickness of approximately 1.0 μm and an amorphous structure was identified. The results indicated that the DLC coating always led to a reduction in static friction.

  4. Differences in the Microbial Colonization Among Arch Wire Types, Gauges and Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Rafeeq

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of orthodontic materials in the oral cavity represent a unique surface that can interact with bacteria, leading to pathogenic plaque formation and subsequent enamel demineralization, Streptococcus mutans play an important role in the initiation and progression of dental caries and they are considered the primary cause of bacteriological caries. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multiple factors including the type of arch wire, salivary coating, cross section, and wire thickness on the levels of mutans streptococci adherence. Materials and Methods: Two types of arch wire stainless steel and nickel titanium were selected using the following criteria: round and rectangular with gauges 0.014, 0.018, 0.016 × 0.022 and 0.019 × 0.0 25 inches which were subdivided into eight groups. Bacterial adhesion was quantified by a microbial culture technique and the number of adhesive bacteria were analyzed and counted after growth in culture for each group with and without saliva coating at 15 and 60 minutes. Detection of mutans streptococci by saliva-check Mutans test. Results: There was a significant difference between arch wire types in each time interval and the highest bacterial adhesion on the NiTi arch wires with rectangular cross section in the absence of saliva with extended incubation time. Conclusions: The adherence of mutans streptococci in saliva coated wires seems to be low. At increased incubation time, rectangular cross section arch wire showed an increased number of adhering bacteria with less effect on different gauges of the arch wire.

  5. [Torque resistance of three different types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Hou, Ben-xiang

    2010-10-01

    To compare torsional fracture of three different types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments ProTaper, Hero642 and Mtwo by making a stimulate models in vitro. Through the establishment of model in vitro, compared the different time with 3 kinds of nickel titanium file in cutting-edge bound occurs, and to observe the section of fractured instruments by scanning electron microscope. The resistence to torque was different from three types of nickel titanium instruments. The time to fracture of Mtwo was significantly longer than ProTaper's and Hero642's, but ProTaper's and Hero642's had no significant difference. Three kinds cross-sectional design were different, a lot of toughness nests were seen in broken surface. Most of them were ductile fracture. Time to fracture was influenced by the quality disfigurement. The resistance to torque of Mtwo was better than ProTaper and Hero642. The lifespan was influenced by the design of cross-section. The quality disfigurement of the files reduced the resistance to flexual fatigue.

  6. Magnetic characterization of the nickel layer protecting the copper wires in harsh applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature (HT° motor coils open new perspectives for extending the applications of electrical motors or generators to very harsh environments or for designing very high power density machines working with high internal temperature gradients. Over a temperature of 300°C, the classic enameled wire cannot work permanently, the turn-to-turn insulation must be inorganic and made with high temperature textiles or vitro-ceramic compounds. For both cases, a diffusion barrier must protect the copper wire against oxidation. The usual solution consists of adding a nickel layer that yields an excellent chemical protection. Unfortunately, the nickel has ferromagnetic properties that change a lot the skin effect in the HT wire at high frequencies. For many applications such as aeronautics, electrical machines are always associated with PWM inverters for their control. The windings must resist to high voltage short spikes caused by the fast fronted pulses imposed by the feeding inverter. The nickel protection layer of the HT° inorganic wire has a large influence on the high frequency behavior of coils and, consequently, on the magnitude of the voltage spikes. A good knowledge of the non-linear magnetic characteristics of this nickel layer is helpful for designing reliable HT inorganic coils. The paper presents a method able to characterize non-linear electromagnetic properties of this nickel layer up to 500°C.

  7. The effect of nickel electrodeposition on magnetic properties of CoFeSiB amorphous wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    Nickel films were electrodeposited on rapidly quenched amorphous wires from nitrate bath using a constant voltage. It was found that the pH of plating bath had a very strong effect on the formation of nickel films. The magnetic field, H, dependence of the impedance, of nickel plated (Co 0.94 Fe 0.06 ) 72.5 Si 12.5 B 15 wires have been investigated using a Hewlett-Packard 4294A impedance analyser with 42941A impedance probe. The best elecroplating condition and GMI response were obtained for the plated wire at pH 5 for 30 min plating time

  8. Effect of Mobile Phone Usage on Nickel Ions Release and pH of Saliva in Patients Undergoing Fixed Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjannawar, Lalita Girish; Girme, Tejashree Suresh; Agrawal, Jiwanasha Manish; Agrawal, Manish Suresh; Fulari, Sangamesh Gurunath; Shetti, Shraddha Subhash; Kagi, Vishwal Ajith

    2017-09-01

    Hand held mobile phones are presently the most popular means of communication worldwide and have transformed our lives in many aspects. The widespread use of such devices have resulted in growing concerns regarding harmful effects of radiations emitted by them. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of mobile phone usage on nickel ion release as well as pH of saliva in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. To assess the level of nickel ions in saliva and pH of saliva in mobile phone users undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. A total of 42 healthy patients with fixed orthodontic appliance in mouth for a duration of six to nine months were selected for the study. They were divided into experimental group (n=21) consisting of mobile phone users and control group (n=21) of non mobile phone users. Saliva samples were collected from both the groups and nickel ion levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The pH values were also assessed for both groups using pH meter. Unpaired t-test was used for the data analysis. Statistical analysis revealed that though the pH levels were reduced and the nickel ion levels were higher in the experimental group compared to the control group, the results were non significant. Mobile phone usage may affect the pH of saliva and result in increased release of nickel ions in saliva of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances in the oral cavity.

  9. Effects of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption in Ovariectomized Osteoporotic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahhas, Feras Y; El-Bialy, Tarek; Afify, Ahmed R; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIRR) in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. Forty-eight 28-d-old female Wistar rats were divided into ovariectomized and intact groups. In both groups, animals were left untreated; treated with 50 g mesially directed orthodontic force on the maxillary first molars using nickel-titanium closed-coil springs for 28 d; or treated with the same orthodontic protocol along with a 20-min LIPUS application on alternate days for 28 d. Extent of OTM and amount of OIRR of mesial roots were measured on three-dimensionally reconstructed micro-computed tomography images. Ovariectomy increased OIRR (p root volumetric loss regardless of ovariectomy status (p < 0.05); only ovariectomized animals had decreased OTM (p < 0.05). LIPUS normalizes OTM and attenuates OIRR in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. It may therefore be beneficial in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment on nickel and chromium levels in gingival crevicular fluid as a novel systemic biomarker of trace elements: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fariborz; Shariati, Mahsa; Sobouti, Farhad; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2016-05-01

    Nickel and chromium might induce hypersensitivity. Therefore, they are of interest to orthodontists. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is highly relevant to orthodontic treatments and might reflect systemic changes associated with the inflammatory response induced by orthodontic forces. Therefore, it might also be used to show metal ion changes. Nevertheless, baseline metal levels of GCF are unknown, and the effect of orthodontic treatment on GCF metal levels has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of nickel and chromium in GCF. Based on a pilot study, the sample size was predetermined as 24 × 3 measurements to obtain test powers above 90%. Nickel and chromium concentrations were measured before treatment and 1 month and 6 months later in 12 female and 12 male patients who had fixed orthodontic appliances using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The gingival index was also evaluated in each session. The effects of treatment on GCF ions were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and Friedman tests (α = 0.05, β ≤0.01). The gingival index worsened over time (chi-square test, P <0.001). The mean nickel levels were 3.894 ± 1.442, 5.913 ± 2.735, and 19.810 ± 8.452 μg per gram, respectively, at baseline, month 1, and month 6. Chromium concentrations were 1.978 ± 0.721, 4.135 ± 1.591, and 13.760 ± 3.555 μg per gram, respectively. Compared with the baseline, nickel increased by 150% and 510%, respectively, in the first and sixth months (Friedman, P <0.0001), and chromium increased by 200% and 700%, respectively (analysis of variance, P <0.0001). Six months of fixed orthodontic treatment might intensify the levels of nickel and chromium in the GCF as well as gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study On Dispersion Stability Of Nickel Nanoparticles Synthesized By Wire Explosion In Liquid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C.K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nickel nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol using portable pulsed wire evaporation, which is a one-step physical method. From transmission electron microscopy images, it was found that the Ni nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape with an average diameter of 7.3 nm. To prevent aggregation of the nickel nanoparticles, a polymer surfactant was added into the ethanol before the synthesis of nickel nanoparticles, and adsorbed on the freshly synthesized nickel nanoparticles during the wire explosion. The dispersion stability of the prepared nickel nanofluids was investigated by zeta-potential analyzer and Turbiscan optical analyzer. As a result, the optimum concentration of polymer surfactant to be added was suggested for the maximized dispersion stability of the nickel nanofluids.

  12. Effect of nickel plating upon tensile tests of uranium--0.75 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemperly, V.C.

    1975-01-01

    Electrolytic-nickel-plated specimens of uranium-0.75 wt percent titanium alloy were tested in air at 20 and 100 percent relative humidities. Tensile-test ductility values were lowered by a high humidity and also by nickel plating alone. Baking the nickel-plated specimens did not eliminate the ductility degradation. Embrittlement because of nickel plating was also evident in tensile tests at -34 0 C. (U.S.)

  13. Comparison of radiographic density and compaction index of root canal obturation using nickel titanium or stainless-steel spreaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both nickel titanium and stainless-steel spreaders are available. The obvious advantage of nickel titanium spreader over stainless steel spreaders is greater penetration in curved canals. Objective: To compare the radiographic density and compaction index of root canal obturation using nickel-titanium or stainless-steel spreaders in curved canals. Methods: In this experimental study the primary weight of 30 acrylic blocks with 45o degrees of apical curvature were measured by a scale (W1. After canals were prepared by step back master apical up to file #30 all blocks were weighed again (W2 and randomly divided in two groups of 15each. All canals were obturated by Cold lateral compaction technique (with nickel-titanium in one group and stainless-steel finger spreaders in another group. After all blocks were reweighed (W3, compaction index (W3-W2/W1-W2 was calculated. One radiograph was taken for each sample. Apical density of the apical third of each canal was measured by digital transmission densitometer. Data were analyzed statistically using T-test. Findings: Mean compaction index for nickel-titanium group was 7.67±2.38 and for stainless-steel group was 9.14±4.06. There was no significant difference between two groups. Mean radiographic density of obturation was 2.05±0.14 in nickel-titanium group and was 2.07±0.21 in stainless-steel group. There was no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that nickel-titanium spreaders are not superior than stainless-steel spreaders in obturating curved canal.

  14. The influence of adding modified zirconium oxide-titanium dioxide nano-particles on mechanical properties of orthodontic adhesive: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Felemban, Nayef H.; Ebrahim, Mohamed I.

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this in-vitro study was to examine the effect of incorporating different concentrations of Zirconium oxide-Titanium dioxide (ZrO2-TiO2) nanoparticles, which can have antibacterial properties, on the mechanical properties of an orthodontic adhesive. Methods ZrO2-TiO2 (Zirconium oxide, HWNANO, Hongwu International Group Ltd, China) -Titanium dioxide, Nanoshell, USA) nanopowder were incorporated into orthodontic adhesive (Transbond XT, 3?M Unitek, Monrovia, USA) with di...

  15. First steps towards cube textured nickel profile wires for YBCO-coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickemeyer, J.; Gueth, A.; Freudenberger, J.; Holzapfel, B.; Schultz, L.

    2011-01-01

    The cube texture as a typical sheet texture can also be formed by cold drawing and recrystallization in profile wires. Cube textured Ni profile wires containing up to 96.2% cube oriented grains in the central region were obtained. Forthcoming investigations are promising to get a textured substrate wire for YBCO-coated conductors. Cube textured nickel alloy tapes prepared by cold rolling and annealing (RABiTS method) represent a standard metallic substrate for superconductor coatings of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) type. These tapes have a width to thickness ratio of about 30-100. However, a value of close to one is optimal concerning low energetic losses under alternating current applications. First experiments on micro-alloyed nickel prove that the cube texture as a typical sheet texture can also be formed in profile wires with a rectangular cross-section after cold drawing and recrystallization treatment.

  16. Mechanical evaluation of space closure loops in Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Eduardo Uggeri; Maruo, Hiroshi; Guariza Filho, Odilon; Tanaka, Orlando; Camargo, Elisa Souza

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the mechanical performance of teardrop-shaped loops and teardrop-shaped loops with helix used in orthodontic space closure. Sixty retraction loops made with 0.019" x 0.025" stainless steel (SS) and beta-titanium (BT) wires were used. They were attached to a testing machine to measure the magnitudes of the sagittal force and the load-deflection ratio necessary for 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm activation. The results demonstrated that the BT alloy presented significantly smaller mea...

  17. Assessment of antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of orthodontic stainless steel brackets coated with different phases of titanium oxide: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Roshen Daniel; Subramaniam, Siva; Arumugam, Ilakkiya; Padmanabhan, Sridevi

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to assess the antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of orthodontic stainless steel brackets coated with different phases of photocatalytic titanium oxide. From a total sample of 115 brackets, 68 orthodontic stainless steel brackets were coated with titanium oxide using a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering machine. The coated brackets were then converted into 34 each of the anatase and rutile phases of titanium oxide. These brackets were subdivided into 4 groups for antibacterial study and 3 groups for cytotoxicity study. Brackets for the antibacterial study were assessed against the Streptococcus mutans species using microbiologic tests. Three groups for the cytotoxicity study were assessed using the thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The antibacterial study showed that both phases were effective, but the rutile phase of photocatalytic titanium oxide had a greater bactericidal effect than did the anatase phase. The cytotoxicity study showed that the rutile phase had a greater decrease in viability of cells compared with the anatase phase. It is recommended that orthodontic brackets be coated with the anatase phase of titanium oxide since they exhibited a significant antibacterial property and were only slightly cytotoxic. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of cyclic torsional preloading on cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel - titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullà, E; Lo Savio, F; Boninelli, S; Plotino, G; Grande, N M; Rapisarda, E; La Rosa, G

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of different torsional preloads on cyclic fatigue resistance of endodontic rotary instruments constructed from conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi), M-Wire or CM-Wire. Eighty new size 25, 0.06 taper Mtwo instruments (Sweden & Martina), size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM (Coltene/Whaledent, Inc) and X2 ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. The Torque and distortion angles at failure of new instruments (n = 10) were measured, and 0% (n = 10), 25%, 50% and 75% (n = 20) of the mean ultimate torsional strength as preloading condition were applied according to ISO 3630-1 for each brand. The twenty files tested for every extent of preload were subjected to 20 or 40 torsional cycles (n = 10). After torsional preloading, the number of cycles to failure was evaluated in a simulated canal with 60° angle of curvature and 5 mm of radius of curvature. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance. The fracture surface of each fragment was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analysed by two-way analyses of variance. Preload repetitions did not influence the cyclic fatigue of the three brands; however, the 25%, 50% and 75% torsional preloading significantly reduced the fatigue resistance of all instruments tested (P 0.05). Torsional preloads reduced the cyclic fatigue resistance of conventional and treated (M-wire and CM-wire) NiTi rotary instruments except for size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM instruments with a 25% of torsional preloading. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Electrochemical and surface characterization of a nickel-titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Dirk; Veldhuizen, AG; de Vries, J; Busscher, HJ; Uges, DRA; van Horn, James

    1998-01-01

    For clinical implantation purposes of shape memory metals the nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is generally used. In this study, the corrosion properties and surface characteristics of this alloy were investigated and compared with two reference controls, AISI 316 LVM stainless steel

  20. Evaluation and comparison of shear bond strength of porcelain to a beryllium-free alloy of nickel-chromium, nickel and beryllium free alloy of cobalt-chromium, and titanium: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Singh

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: It could be concluded that newer nickel and beryllium free Co-Cr alloys and titanium alloys with improved strength to weight ratio could prove to be good alternatives to the conventional nickel-based alloys when biocompatibility was a concern.

  1. In Vivo Evaluation of Immediately Loaded Stainless Steel and Titanium Orthodontic Screws in a Growing Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Gritsch, Kerstin; Laroche, Norbert; Bonnet, Jeanne-Marie; Exbrayat, Patrick; Morgon, Laurent; Rabilloud, Muriel; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The present work intends to evaluate the use of immediate loaded orthodontic screws in a growing model, and to study the specific bone response. Thirty-two screws (half of stainless steel and half of titanium) were inserted in the alveolar bone of 8 growing pigs. The devices were immediately loaded with a 100 g orthodontic force. Two loading periods were assessed: 4 and 12 weeks. Both systems of screws were clinically assessed. Histological observations and histomorphometric analysis evaluate...

  2. Comparison of mechanical and biological properties of zirconia and titanium alloy orthodontic micro-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hae Won; Park, Young Seok; Chung, Shin Hye; Jung, Min Ho; Moon, Won; Rhee, Sang Hoon

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the initial stability as insertion and removal torque and the clinical applicability of novel orthodontic zirconia micro-implants made using a powder injection molding (PIM) technique with those parameters in conventional titanium micro-implants. Sixty zirconia and 60 titanium micro-implants of similar design (diameter, 1.6 mm; length, 8.0 mm) were inserted perpendicularly in solid polyurethane foam with varying densities of 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf), 30 pcf, and 40 pcf. Primary stability was measured as maximum insertion torque (MIT) and maximum removal torque (MRT). To investigate clinical applicability, compressive and tensile forces were recorded at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 mm displacement of the implants at angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, and 40°. The biocompatibility of zirconia micro-implants was assessed via an experimental animal study. There were no statistically significant differences between zirconia micro-implants and titanium alloy implants with regard to MIT, MRT, or the amount of movement in the angulated lateral displacement test. As angulation increased, the mean compressive and tensile forces required to displace both types of micro-implants increased substantially at all distances. The average bone-to-implant contact ratio of prototype zirconia micro-implants was 56.88 ± 6.72%. Zirconia micro-implants showed initial stability and clinical applicability for diverse orthodontic treatments comparable to that of titanium micro-implants under compressive and tensile forces.

  3. The increased number of osteoblasts and capillaries in orthodontic tooth movement post-administration of Robusta coffee extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herniyati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The application of orthodontic forces subjects blood capillaries to considerable pressure, resulting in hypoxia on the pressure side. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, expressed in osteoblasts represents an important mitogen that induces angiogenesis. Osteoblasts and blood capillaries play an important role in bone formation. Robusta coffee contains chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid both of which produce antioxidant effects capable of reducing oxidative stress in osteoblasts. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of Robusta coffee extract on the number of osteoblasts and blood capillaries in orthodontic tooth movement. Methods: This research constituted a laboratory-based experimental study involving the use of sixteen male rodents divided into two groups, namely; control group (C consisting of eight mice given orthodontic mechanical force (OMF and a treatment group (T containing eight mice administered OMF and dried Robusta coffee extract at a dose of 20mg/ 100 g BW. The OMF was performed by installing a ligature wire on the maxillary right first molar and both maxillary incisors. In the following stage, the maxillary right first molar was moved to the mesial using Tension Gauze with a Nickel Titanium Orthodontic closed coil spring. Observation was subsequently undertaken on the 15th day by extracting the maxillary right first and second molar with their periodontal tissues. Thereafter, histological examination was performed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining technique to measure the number of osteoblasts and blood capillaries on the mesial and distal periodontal ligaments of the maxillary right first molar. Results: The administration of Robusta coffee extract increases the number of blood capillaries and osteoblasts on both the pressure and tension sides were found to be significantly higher in the T group compared to the C group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Robusta coffee extract increase the number of

  4. The preparation of titanium-vanadium carbide/nickel cermets. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precht, W.; Sprissler, B.

    1976-01-01

    Titanium/vanadium alloy carbide rods were prepared by a zone melting procedure. Wetting studies were carried out using sections of the fused rods and candidate matrix material. It was established that nickel exhibits excellent wetting of (Ti, V) C, and accordingly cermet blends were prepared and liquid phase sintered. Processing parameters are discussed as well as their effect on the final microstructure. Alternate methods for cermet preparation are offered which use as received titanium carbide and vanadium carbide powders

  5. Torsion and bending properties of shape memory and superelastic nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninan, Elizabeth; Berzins, David W

    2013-01-01

    Recently introduced into the market are shape memory nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files. The objective of this study was to investigate the torsion and bending properties of shape memory files (CM Wire, HyFlex CM, and Phoenix Flex) and compare them with conventional (ProFile ISO and K3) and M-Wire (GT Series X and ProFile Vortex) NiTi files. Sizes 20, 30, and 40 (n = 12/size/taper) of 0.02 taper CM Wire, Phoenix Flex, K3, and ProFile ISO and 0.04 taper HyFlex CM, ProFile ISO, GT Series X, and Vortex were tested in torsion and bending per ISO 3630-1 guidelines by using a torsiometer. All data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer test (P = .05) to determine any significant differences between the files. Significant interactions were present among factors of size and file. Variability in maximum torque values was noted among the shape memory files brands, sometimes exhibiting the greatest or least torque depending on brand, size, and taper. In general, the shape memory files showed a high angle of rotation before fracture but were not statistically different from some of the other files. However, the shape memory files were more flexible, as evidenced by significantly lower bending moments (P < .008). Shape memory files show greater flexibility compared with several other NiTi rotary file brands. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Single Crystal Wires with High Transformation Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautcoeur, Alain; Fouché, Florian; Sicre, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    CN-250X is a new material with higher performance than Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). For space mechanisms, the main disadvantage of Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy is the limited transformation temperature. The new CN-250X Nimesis alloy is a Cu-Al-Ni single crystal wire available in large quantity because of a new industrial process. The triggering of actuators made with this Cu-Al-Ni single crystal wire can range from ambient temperature to 200 C in cycling and even to 250 C in one-shot mode. Another advantage of CN-250X is a better shape recovery (8 to 10%) than Ni-Ti (6 to 7%). Nimesis is the first company able to produce this type of material with its new special industrial process. A characterization study is presented in this work, including the two main solicitation modes for this material: tensile and torsion. Different tests measure the shape recovery of Cu-Al-Ni single crystals wires during heating from room temperature to a temperature higher than temperature of end of martensitic transformation.

  7. In situ coating nickel organic complexes on free-standing nickel wire films for volumetric-energy-dense supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Min; Xu, Shusheng; Yao, Lu; Zhou, Chao; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Zhihua; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2018-07-06

    A self-free-standing core-sheath structured hybrid membrane electrodes based on nickel and nickel based metal-organic complexes (Ni@Ni-OC) was designed and constructed for high volumetric supercapacitors. The self-standing Ni@Ni-OC film electrode had a high volumetric specific capacity of 1225.5 C cm -3 at 0.3 A cm -3 and an excellent rate capability. Moreover, when countered with graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT) film electrode, the as-assembled Ni@Ni-OC//G-CNT hybrid supercapacitor device delivered an extraordinary volumetric capacitance of 85 F cm -3 at 0.5 A cm -3 and an outstanding energy density of 33.8 at 483 mW cm -3 . Furthermore, the hybrid supercapacitor showed no capacitance loss after 10 000 cycles at 2 A cm -3 , indicating its excellent cycle stability. These fascinating performances can be ascribed to its unique core-sheath structure that high capacity nano-porous nickel based metal-organic complexes (Ni-OC) in situ coated on highly conductive Ni wires. The impressive results presented here may pave the way to construct s self-standing membrane electrode for applications in high volumetric-performance energy storage.

  8. Suitability of Nickel Chromium Wire Cutters as Deployable Release Mechanisms on CubeSats in Low Earth Orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the suitability of a nickel chromium wire cutter (NCWC) for use on the GASPACS (Get Away Special Passive Attitude Control Satellite) Mission. It is intended that when activated the NCWC will cut through a restraining wire and thereby release the stored energy of the deployable AeroBoom. Flight worthiness is based on favorable performance during functional testing to address known issues with the NCWC, such as wire burn through and cutting issues. In-depth testing discu...

  9. Young's modulus of a copper-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductive wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.; Moulder, J.C.; Austin, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    Young's modulus was determined for a 0.6-mm-dia niobium-titanium superconductive wire. Two methods were used: continuous-wave-resonance and laser-pulse-excitation. Young's moduli were also determined for the components - copper and Nb-Ti - in both wire and bulk forms. Some mechanical-deformation effects on Young's modulus were also measured. From the component' elastic moduli, that of the composite was predicted accurately by a simple rule-of-mixtures relationship

  10. Experimental study on titanium wire drawing with ultrasonic vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Shan, Xiaobiao; Guo, Kai; Yang, Yuancai; Xie, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries, however, they are classified as difficult-to-machine materials. In this paper, ultrasonic vibration is imposed on the die to overcome the difficulties during conventional titanium wire drawing processes at the room temperature. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the variation of axial stress within the contacting region and study the change of the drawing stress with several factors in terms of the longitudinal amplitude and frequency of the applied ultrasonic vibration, the diameter reduction ratio, and the drawing force. An experimental testing equipment was established to measure the drawing torque and rotational velocity of the coiler drum during the wire drawing process. The result indicates the drawing force increases with the growth of the drawing velocity and the reduction ratio, whether with or without vibrations. Application of either form of ultrasonic vibrations contributes to the further decrease of the drawing force, especially the longitudinal vibration with larger amplitude. SEM was employed to detect the surface morphology of the processed wires drawn under the three circumstances. The surface quality of the drawn wires with ultrasonic vibrations was apparently improved compared with those using conventional method. In addition, the longitudinal and torsional composite vibration was more effective for surface quality improvement than pure longitudinal vibration, however, at the cost of weakened drawing force reduction effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fricção em braquetes gerada por fios de aço inoxidável, superelásticos com IonGuard e sem IonGuard Friction force on brackets generated by stainless steel wire and superelastic wires with and without IonGuard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Campos Braga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a fricção no braquete (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3,2mm, largura 0,022" x 0,030", Torque -2° e angulação +13°, Morelli®, Brasil, utilizando fios ortodônticos retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" de aço inoxidável (Morelli®, Brasil e de níquel-titânio superelásticos Bioforce com IonGuard e sem IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, EUA. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 24 conjuntos braquetes/segmento de fio, divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o fio. Cada conjunto braquete/segmento de fio foi testado 3 vezes e obtida uma média. Os ensaios foram realizados em máquina universal de ensaios EMIC DL2000®. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância com significância de 95%. RESULTADOS: o fio retangular Bioforce com IonGuard apresentou fricção significativamente menor que o Bioforce sem IonGuard, porém sem diferença do fio de aço inoxidável. Entretanto, o coeficiente de variação dos fios Bioforce com e sem IonGuard foi menor que o do fio de aço inoxidável. CONCLUSÃO: os fios retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" Bioforce com IonGuard apresentam menor fricção que o fio Bioforce sem IonGuard, sem diferença para o fio de aço inoxidável.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the friction forces on brackets (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3.2 mm, width 0.022" x 0.030 ", Torque -2° and angulation +13°, Morelli®, Brazil, with stainless steel orthodontic rectangular wire (Morelli®, Brazil and nickel titanium superelastic Bioforce wires with and without IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, USA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four brackets/wire segment combinations were used, distributed into three groups according to the orthodontic wire. Each bracket/wire segment combination was tested three times. The tests were performed in a universal testing machine Emic DL2000®. The data was submitted to ANOVA one way followed by Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05. RESULTS: The rectangular orthodontic Bioforce wire

  12. A Comparison of pical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed Zahedani, Sm; Oshagh, M; Momeni Danaei, Sh; Roeinpeikar, Smm

    2013-09-01

    One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments. In this study, parallel periapical radiographs of 127 patients imaging a total of 737 individual teeth, were collected. A total of 76 patients were treated by standard edgewise and 51 patients by straight wire method. The periapical radiographs were scanned and then the percentage of root resorption was calculated by Photoshop software. The data were analyzed by Paired-Samples t-test and the Generalized Linear Model adopting the SPSS 15.0. In patients treated with straight wire method (MBT), mean root resorption was 18.26% compared to 14.82% in patients treated with standard edgewise technique (proot resorption,statistically significant (proot resorption in this study. Having more root resorption in the straight wire method and less in the standard edgewise technique can be attributed to more root movement in pre-adjusted MBT technique due to the brackets employed in this method.

  13. Determining cutting efficiency of nickel-titanium coronal flaring instruments used in lateral action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, O A; Morgental, R D; Schulze, K A; Paqué, F; Kopper, P M P; Vier-Pelisser, F V

    2014-06-01

    To develop a method to evaluate the cutting behaviour of nickel-titanium (NiTi) coronal flaring instruments. BioRaCe BR0 (BR), HyFlex CM 1 (HY), ProFile OS No. 2 (PF) and ProTaper Sx (PT) instruments were used in simulated coronal flaring using a lateral action against bovine dentine blocks, at 250 and 500 rpm. Cutting efficiency was assessed by three methods: first, areas of notches produced by instruments were directly measured under a stereomicroscope. Second, dentine specimens were then analysed by surface profilometry to determine the maximum cutting depth and finally by microcomputed tomography to assess the volume of removed dentine. Data were compared using parametric tests with the significance level set at 0.05. For all three methods, HY and PF were the most and the least cutting-efficient instruments, respectively (P wire, was the most efficient instrument, and increased rotational speed was associated with increased cutting efficiency. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mechanical evaluation of quad-helix appliance made of low-nickel stainless steel wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference between stainless steel and low-nickel stainless steel wires as regards mechanical behavior. Force, resilience, and elastic modulus produced by Quad-helix appliances made of 0.032-inch and 0.036-inch wires were evaluated. Sixty Quad-helix appliances were made, thirty for each type of alloy, being fifteen for each wire thickness, 0.032-in and 0.036-in. All the archwires were submitted to mechanical compression test using an EMIC DL-10000 machine simulating activations of 4, 6, 9, and 12 mm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were used (p nickel stainless steel alloy had force, resilience, and elastic modulus similar to those made of stainless steel alloy.

  15. Forces released during alignment with a preadjusted appliances with SPEED supercable wire and different types of elastomeric ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Jatol-Tekade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate a new combination of wire and ligature to reduce friction further by combining slide ligatures and supercable wires. Materials and Methods: The testing model consisted of five stainless steel 0.022 inch preadjusted brackets for second premolar, first premolar, canine, lateral incisor, and central incisor. The canine bracket was welded to a sliding bar that allowed different vertical positions. The forces generated by five sizes of wires superelastic nickel-titanium (SE Ni-Ti (Unitek Nitinol Super-Elastic Archwire of diameter 0.012", 0.014", 0.016", 0.018", and 0.020" inch and three sizes of SPEED supercable wires (0.016", 0.018", and 0.022" inch with the two types of elastomeric ligatures; conventional elastomeric ligatures (CELs (Unitek, silver mini modules, with inside diameter of 1.3 mm and thickness of 0.9 mm and nonconventional elastomeric ligatures (NCELs (Slide, Leone Orthodontic Products, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy at different amounts of upward canine misalignment (CM (1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 mm were recorded. Results and Conclusions: Significant differences between CEL and NCEL were found for all tested variables (P - 0.01 a noticeable amount of force was generated with the NCEL at all four canine positions with all three wire sizes (from about 50 to about 150 g. With 4.5 mm of CM or more, the average amount of released force with the CEL was approximately zero.

  16. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire?bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are c...

  17. Nickel-Titanium Single-file System in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagna, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    This work describes clinical cases treated with a innovative single-use and single-file nickel-titanium (NiTi) system used in continuous rotation. Nickel-titanium files are commonly used for root canal treatment but they tend to break because of bending stresses and torsional stresses. Today new instruments used only for one treatment have been introduced. They help the clinician to make the root canal shaping easier and safer because they do not require sterilization and after use have to be discarded. A new sterile instrument is used for each treatment in order to reduce the possibility of fracture inside the canal. The new One Shape NiTi single-file instrument belongs to this group. One Shape is used for complete shaping of root canal after an adequate preflaring. Its protocol is simple and some clinical cases are presented. It is helpful for easy cases and reliable for difficult canals. After 2 years of clinical practice, One Shape seems to be helpful for the treatment of most of the root canals, with low risk of separation. After each treatment, the instrument is discarded and not sterilized in autoclave or re-used. This single-use file simplifies the endodontic therapy, because only one instrument is required for canal shaping of many cases. The respect of clinical protocol guarantees predictable good results.

  18. Comparison of stainless steel and titanium alloy orthodontic miniscrew implants: a mechanical and histologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan N; Sexton, Brent E; Gabriel Chu, Tien-Min; Katona, Thomas R; Stewart, Kelton T; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao

    2014-04-01

    The detailed mechanical and histologic properties of stainless steel miniscrew implants used for temporary orthodontic anchorage have not been assessed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare them with identically sized titanium alloy miniscrew implants. Forty-eight stainless steel and 48 titanium alloy miniscrew implants were inserted into the tibias of 12 rabbits. Insertion torque and primary stability were recorded. One hundred grams of tensile force was applied between half of the implants in each group, resulting in 4 subgroups of 24 specimens each. Fluorochrome labeling was administered at weeks 4 and 5. When the rabbits were euthanized at 6 weeks, stability and removal torque were measured in half (ie, 12 specimens) of each of the 4 subgroups. Microdamage burden and bone-to-implant contact ratio were quantified in the other 12 specimens in each subgroup. Mixed model analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. All implants were stable at insertion and after 6 weeks. The only significant difference was the higher (9%) insertion torque for stainless steel. No significant differences were found between stainless steel and titanium alloy miniscrew implants in microdamage burden and bone-to-implant contact regardless of loading status. Stainless steel and titanium alloy miniscrew implants provide the same mechanical stability and similar histologic responses, suggesting that both are suitable for immediate orthodontic clinical loads. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trace metal ions release from fixed orthodontic appliances and DNA damage in oral mucosa cells by in vivo studies: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downarowicz, Patrycja; Mikulewicz, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    An overview of professional literature referring to the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances and their influence on oral mucosa in conditions of in vivo are presented, along with a detailed analysis of the exposure of the cells of cheek mucosa epithelium to metal ions. Electronic databases (PubMed, Elsevier, Ebsco) were searched with no language restrictions. The relevant orthodontic journals and reference lists were checked for all eligible studies. A total of 38 scientific articles were retrieved in the initial search. However, only 7 articles met the inclusion criteria. Statistically significant differences in the levels of the amount of nickel ions, cobalt ions and chromium ions were observed in cells of cheek mucosa. The most biocompatible material used in the production of fixed orthodontic appliances is titanium, and the least biocompatible material is steel, which releases the largest amount of nickel and chromium. Metal ions are released from fixed orthodontic appliances only in the first phase of treatment. It is recommended to conduct further, long-term research on a larger number of patients to define the influence of using fixed orthodontic appliances and biological effect they might have on tissues.

  20. A clinical study of space closure with nickel-titanium closed coil springs and an elastic module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, R H; Rudge, S J; Mair, L H

    1998-07-01

    A previous study has shown that a 150-gram nickel-titanium closed coil spring (Sentalloy, GAC International Inc.) closed spaces more quickly and more consistently than an elastic module (Alastik, Unitec/3M). This study used the same friction sensitive sliding mechanics of pitting the six anterior teeth against the second bicuspid and first molars, to examine the rate of space closure of 100-gram and 200-gram nickel-titanium closed coil springs. The results for the three springs and elastic module were compared. The nickel-titanium closed coil springs produced a more consistent space closure than the elastic module. The 150- and 200-gram springs produced a faster rate of space closure than the elastic module or the 100-gram spring. No significant difference was noted between the rates of closure for the 150- and the 200-gram springs.

  1. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    OpenAIRE

    INAGAKI, Takashi; Goudonnet, J.P.; ARAKAWA, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm phonton in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 m was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of phonton incidence . A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-m W He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized phontons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for >35.

  2. The effect of ZnO nanoparticle coating on the frictional resistance between orthodontic wires and ceramic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozian, Ahmad; Kachoei, Mojgan; Khatamian, Masumeh; Divband, Baharak

    2016-01-01

    Background. Any decrease in friction between orthodontic wire and bracket can accelerate tooth movement in the sliding technique and result in better control of anchorage. This study was carried out to evaluate frictional forces by coating orthodontic wires and porcelain brackets with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). Methods. In this in vitro study, we evaluated a combination of 120 samples of 0.019×0.025 stainless steel (SS) orthodonticwires and 22 mil system edgewise porcelain brackets with and without spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles. Spherical ZnOnanoparticles were deposited on wires and brackets by immersing them in ethanol solution and SEM (scanning electronmicroscope) evaluation confirmed the presence of the ZnO coating. The frictional forces were calculated between the wiresand brackets in four groups: group ZZ (coated wire and bracket), group OO (uncoated wire and bracket), group ZO (coatedwire and uncoated bracket) and group OZ (uncoated wire and coated bracket). Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney andKruskal-Wallis tests were used for data analysis. Results. The frictional force in ZZ (3.07±0.4 N) was the highest (P <0.05), and OZ (2.18±0.5 N) had the lowest amount of friction (P <0.05) among the groups. There was no significant difference in frictional forces between the ZO and OO groups (2.65±0.2 and 2.70±0.2 N, respectively). Conclusion. Coating of porcelain bracket surfaces with ZnO nanoparticles can decrease friction in the sliding technique,and wire coating combined with bracket coating is not recommended due to its effect on friction. PMID:27429727

  3. Long-Term Effects of Soldering By-Products on Nickel-Coated Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, T. D.; Hodge, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of thirty-year-old, down graded flight cables was conducted to determine the makeup of a green material on the surface of the shielded wire near soldered areas and to ascertain if the green material had corroded the nickel-coated copper wire. Two likely candidates were possible due to the handling and environments to which these cables were exposed. The flux used to solder the cables is known to contain abietic acid, a carboxylic acid found in many pine rosins used for the soldering process. The resulting material copper abietate is green in color and is formed during the application of heat during soldering operations. Copper (II) chloride, which is also green in color is known to contaminate flight parts and is corrosive. Data is presented that shows the material is copper abietate, not copper (II) chloride, and more importantly that the abietate does not aggressively attack nickel-plated copper wire.

  4. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Abdo Gravina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research aimed at comparing the qualitative chemical compositions and the surface morphology of fracture regions of eight types of Nickel (Ni Titanium (Ti conventional wires, superelastic and heat-activated (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek, to the wires with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC, Ormco after traction test. METHODS: The analyses were performed in a scanning electronic microscope (JEOL, model JSM-5800 LV with EDS system of microanalysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy. RESULTS : The results showed that NiTi wires presented Ni and Ti as the main elements of the alloy with minimum differences in their composition. The CuNiTi wires, however, presented Ni and Ti with a significant percentage of copper (Cu. As for surface morphology, the wires that presented the lowest wire-surface roughness were the superelastic ones by Masel and Morelli, while those that presented the greatest wire-surface roughness were the CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC ones by Ormco, due to presence of microcavity formed as a result of pulling out some particles, possibly of NiTi. 4 The fracture surfaces presented characteristics of ductile fracture, with presence of microcavities. The superelastic wires by GAC and the CuNiTi 27oC and the heat-activated ones by Unitek presented the smallest microcavities and the lowest wire-surface roughness with regard to fracture, while the CuNiTi 35oC wires presented inadequate wire-surface roughness in the fracture region. CONCLUSION: CuNiTi 35oC wires did not present better morphologic characteristics in comparison to the other wires with regard to surfaces and fracture region.

  5. Influence of bending mode on the mechanical properties of nickel-titanium archwires and correlation to differential scanning calorimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchli, Lorenz M; Keller, Heidi; Senn, Christiane; Wichelhaus, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires are used with bonded appliances for initial leveling. However, precise bending of these archwires is difficult and can lead to changes within the crystal structure of the alloy, thus changing the mechanical properties unpredictably. The aim of this study was to evaluate different bending methods in relation to the subsequent mechanical characteristics of the alloy. The mechanical behaviors of 3 archwires (Copper NiTi 35°C [Ormco, Glendora, Calif], Neo Sentalloy F 80 [GAC International, Bohemia, NY], and Titanol Low Force [Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany]) were investigated after heat-treatment in a dental furnace at 550-650°C, treatment with an electrical current (Memory-Maker, Forestadent), and cold forming. In addition, the change in A(f) temperature was registered by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Heat-treatment in the dental furnace as well as with the Memory-Maker led to widely varying force levels for each product. Cold forming resulted in similar or slightly reduced force levels when compared to the original state of the wires. A(f) temperatures were in general inversely proportional to force levels. Archwire shape can be modified by using either chair-side technique (Memory-Maker, cold forming) because the superelastic behavior of the archwires is not strongly affected. However it is important to know the specific changes in force levels induced for each individual archwire with heat-treatment. Cold forming resulted in more predictable forces for all products tested. Therefore, cold forming is recommended as a chair-side technique for the shaping of NiTi archwires. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of silver coating on friction coefficient and shear bond strength of steel orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Valiollah; Anoush, Keivan; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood; Rahmatei, Manuchehr; Tavanafar, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Aims of the present study was to measure frictional resistance between silver coated brackets and different types of arch wires, and shear bond strength of these brackets to the tooth. In an experimental clinical research 28 orthodontic brackets (standard, 22 slots) were coated with silver ions using electroplate method. Six brackets (coated: 3, uncoated: 3) were evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. The amount of friction in 15 coated brackets was measured with three different kinds of arch wires (0.019 × 0.025-in stainless steel [SS], 0.018-in stainless steel [SS], 0.018-in Nickel-Titanium [Ni-Ti]) and compared with 15 uncoated steel brackets. In addition, shear bond strength values were compared between 10 brackets with silver coating and 10 regular brackets. Universal testing machine was used to measure shear bond strength and the amount of friction between the wires and brackets. SPSS 18 was used for data analysis with t-test. SEM and AFM results showed deposition of a uniform layer of silver, measuring 8-10 μm in thickness on bracket surfaces. Silver coating led to higher frictional forces in all the three types of arch wires, which was statistically significant in 0.019 × 0.025-in SS and 0.018-in Ni-Ti, but it did not change the shear bond strength significantly. Silver coating with electroplating method did not affect the bond strength of the bracket to enamel; in addition, it was not an effective method for decreasing friction in sliding mechanics. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. In vitro force delivery of nickel-titanium superelastic archwires in vertical displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha de Souza Gomes Stumpf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the force delivered by different superlastic nickel-titanium wires during vertical displacement, in order to determine whether their stress release meets the criteria for constant and light forces that are usually accredited to these archwires. METHOD: Ten samples of 6 brands of 0.016-in archwires (Ormco, GAC, Morelli, TP, American Orthodontics e Rocky Mountain were tested in a complete metal model using Dynalock brackets (3M Unitek™. In the canine position, there was a sliding bracket connected to a pole. This set was related to a load cell of 0.5 kg attached to a universal testing machine (Autograph AG-199kNG, Shimadzu. The crosshead speed was 0.5 mm/min and the maximum displacement was 1.0 mm. The model was submerged in temperature-controlled water. The results were analyzed by ANOVA (p OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a força liberada por diferentes fios de níquel-titânio (NiTi superelástico em deslocamento vertical, a fim de determinar se a liberação de estresse por esses satisfaz o critério de forças suaves e constantes, geralmente atribuído a tais arcos. MÉTODOS: dez amostras de seis arcos de NiTi superelástico 0,016” de marcas comerciais diferentes (Ormco, GAC, Morelli, TP, American Orthodontics e Rocky Mountain foram testados em um modelo metálico usando braquetes Dynalock (3M Unitek. Na região do canino, havia um braquete móvel conectado a uma haste, a qual estava relacionada com uma célula de carga de 0,5kg de uma máquina universal de ensaios (Autograph AG-199kNG, Shimadzu. O deslocamento do conjunto na região do canino foi realizado a uma velocidade constante de 0,5mm/min e o deslocamento máximo foi de 1,0mm. O conjunto foi submerso em água com temperatura controlada a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram avaliados por ANOVA (p <0,05, usando o software SAS System 8.02, Cry, NC, EUA. O arco da TP apresentou a menor força durante todo o

  8. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, T.; Goudonnet, J.P.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm photon in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 μm was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of photon incidence theta. A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-mW He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized photons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for theta > 35 0

  9. Evaluation of friction in orthodontics using various brackets and archwire combinations-an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujeet; Singh, Shamsher; Hamsa P R, Rani; Ahmed, Sameer; Prasanthma; Bhatnagar, Apoorva; Sidhu, Manreet; Shetty, Pramod

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare frictional resistance which was produced between conventional brackets (0.022 slot Otho-Organiser) and self ligating brackets (active Forestadent and passive Damon III) by using various arch wire combinations (0.016 Niti, 0.018 Niti, 0.017 x 0.025 SS and 0.019 x 0.025 SS). An experimental model which consisted of 5 aligned stainless steel 0.022-in brackets was used to assess frictional forces which were produced by SLBs (self ligating brackets) and CELs (conventional elastomeric ligatures) with use of 0.016 nickel titanium, 0.018 nickel titanium, 0.017 X 0.025"stainless steel and 0.019 X 0.025"stainless steel wires. One way ANOVA test was used to study the effect of the bracket type, wire alloy and section on frictional resistance test . Conventional brackets produced highest levels of friction for all bracket/archwire combinations. Both Damon III and Forestadent brackets were found to produce significantly lower levels of friction when they were compared with elastomerically tied conventional brackets. SLBs are valid alternatives for low friction during sliding mechanics.

  10. A Study On Dispersion Stability Of Nickel Nanoparticles Synthesized By Wire Explosion In Liquid Media

    OpenAIRE

    Kim C.K.; Lee G.-J.; Lee M.K.; Rhee C.K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, nickel nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol using portable pulsed wire evaporation, which is a one-step physical method. From transmission electron microscopy images, it was found that the Ni nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape with an average diameter of 7.3 nm. To prevent aggregation of the nickel nanoparticles, a polymer surfactant was added into the ethanol before the synthesis of nickel nanoparticles, and adsorbed on the freshly synthesized nickel nanoparticles ...

  11. Bioactivity and osteointegration of hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel and titanium wires used for intramedullary osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, Arnold V; Gorbach, Elena N; Kononovich, Natalia A; Popkov, Dmitry A; Tverdokhlebov, Sergey I; Shesterikov, Evgeniy V

    2017-08-01

    A lot of research was conducted on the use of various biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. Our study investigated the effects of nanostructured calcium-phosphate coating on metallic implants introduced into the bone marrow canal. Stainless steel or titanium 2-mm wires (groups 1 and 2, respectively), and hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel or titanium wires of the same diameter (groups 3 and 4, respectively) were introduced into the tibial bone marrow canal of 20 dogs (each group = 5 dogs). Hydroxyapatite coating was deposited on the wires with the method of microarc oxidation. Light microscopy to study histological diaphyseal transverse sections, scanning electron microscopy to study the bone marrow area around the implant and an X-ray electron probe analyzer to study the content of calcium and phosphorus were used to investigate bioactivity and osteointegration after a four weeks period. Osteointegration was also assessed by measuring wires' pull-off strength with a sensor dynamometer. Bone formation was observed round the wires in the bone marrow canal in all the groups. Its intensity depended upon the features of wire surfaces and implant materials. Maximum percentage volume of trabecular bone was present in the bone marrow canals of group 4 dogs that corresponded to a mean of 27.1 ± 0.14%, while it was only 6.7% in group 1. The coating in groups 3 and 4 provided better bioactivity and osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated titanium wires showed the highest degree of bone formation around them and greater pull-off strength. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating of metallic wires induces an expressed bone formation and provides osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated wires could be used along with external fixation for bone repair enhancement in diaphyseal fractures, management of osteogenesis imperfecta and correction of bone deformities in phosphate diabetes.

  12. Fios ortodônticos: conhecer para otimizar a aplicação clínica Orthodontic wires: knowledge to optimize clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Cardoso Abdo Quintão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A grande variedade de fios ortodônticos presente no mercado pode gerar dúvidas quanto à melhor escolha para situações clínicas. Assim, o conhecimento das propriedades mecânicas dos mesmos facilita a escolha para aplicação do movimento ortodôntico na dependência da fase em que o tratamento se encontra. A evolução da tecnologia de manufatura dos fios e a elaboração de novas técnicas ortodônticas geraram a busca por uma melhor qualidade das ligas, a fim de torná-los biologicamente mais efetivos no que diz respeito aos dentes e tecidos de suporte. O presente artigo resume as principais características dos fios utilizados em Ortodontia, em relação ao histórico, propriedades mecânicas e aplicação clínica, de acordo com fases específicas de tratamento.The huge variety of orthodontic wires brands available in market might generate confusion as regard to the best choice for clinical application. Therefore mechanical properties knowledge about wires would help the professional to apply the best orthodontic technique depending on the treatment phase. The wires manufacturing evolution and the new orthodontic techniques proposed guided the market into the search for better quality alloys, in order to make them biologically more effective to teeth and support tissues. This paper aims to summarize some main characteristics of orthodontic wires related to their history, mechanical properties and clinical application as regard to individual phase of treatment.

  13. En-masse retraction with a preformed nickel-titanium and stainless steel archwire assembly and temporary skeletal anchorage devices without posterior bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Jeong-Hyun; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Seo, Kyung-Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of a preformed assembly of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel (SS) archwires (preformed C-wire) combined with temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs) as the sole source of anchorage and to compare these effects with those of a SS version of C-wire (conventional C-wire) for en-masse retraction. Thirty-one adult female patients with skeletal Class I or II dentoalveolar protrusion, mild-to-moderate anterior crowding (3.0-6.0 mm), and stable Class I posterior occlusion were divided into conventional (n = 15) and preformed (n = 16) C-wire groups. All subjects underwent first premolar extractions and en-masse retraction with pre-adjusted edgewise anterior brackets, the assigned C-wire, and maxillary C-tubes or C-implants; bonded mesh-tube appliances were used in the mandibular dentition. Differences in pretreatment and post-retraction measurements of skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue cephalometric variables were statistically analyzed. Both groups showed full retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth by controlled tipping and space closure without altered posterior occlusion. However, the preformed C-wire group had a shorter retraction period (by 3.2 months). Furthermore, the maxillary molars in this group showed no significant mesialization, mesial tipping, or extrusion; some mesialization and mesial tipping occurred in the conventional C-wire group. Preformed C-wires combined with maxillary TSADs enable simultaneous leveling and space closure from the beginning of the treatment without maxillary posterior bonding. This allows for faster treatment of dentoalveolar protrusion without unwanted side effects, when compared with conventional C-wire, evidencing its clinical expediency.

  14. In situ fabrication of nanostructured titania coating on the surface of titanium wire: A new approach for preparation of solid-phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dandan; Lue Jianxia; Liu Jingfu; Jiang Guibin

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured titania-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were fabricated through the in situ oxidation of titanium wires with H 2 O 2 (30%, w/w) at 80 deg. C for 24 h. The obtained SPME fibers possess a ∼1.2 μm thick nanostructured coating consisting of ∼100 nm titania walls and 100-200 nm pores. The use of these fibers for headspace SPME coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) resulted in improved analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products. The presented method to detect DDT and its degradation products has high sensitivity (0.20-0.98 ng L -1 ), high precision (relative standard deviation R.S.D. = 9.4-16%, n = 5), a wide linear range (5-5000 ng L -1 ), and good linearity (coefficient of estimation R 2 = 0.991-0.998). As the nanostructured titania was in situ formed on the surface of a titanium wire, the coating was uniformly and strongly adhered on the titanium wire. Because of the inherent chemical stability of the titania coating and the mechanical durability of the titanium wire substrate, this new SPME fiber exhibited long life span (over 150 times)

  15. PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES AT THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF ROLLED WIRE OF NICKEL

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    There are results of researches of the mechanical properties and structure of the wire rod made of low-carbon nickel molybdenum steel after reduction to toughness thermomechanical treatment in the stream of high-speed wire mill.

  16. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of diffusion-bonded titanium-stainless steel joints using a nickel interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, S.; Chatterjee, S.

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion bonding was carried out between commercially pure titanium and 304 stainless steel using nickel interlayer in the temperature range of 800-950 deg. C for 3.6 ks under 3 MPa load in vacuum. The transition joints thus formed were characterized in optical and scanning electron microscopes. TiNi 3 , TiNi and Ti 2 Ni are formed at the nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) interface; whereas, stainless steel-nickel (SS-Ni) interface is free from intermetallic compounds up to 900 deg. C processing temperatures. At 950 deg. C, Ni-Ti interface exhibits the presence of β-Ti discrete islands in the matrix of Ti 2 Ni and the phase mixture of λ + χ + α-Fe, λ + α-Fe, λ + FeTi + β-Ti and FeTi + β-Ti occurs at the stainless steel-nickel interface. Nickel is able to inhibit the diffusion of Ti to stainless steel side up to 900 deg. C temperature; however, becomes unable to restrict the migration of Ti to stainless steel at 950 deg. C. Bond strength was also evaluated and maximum tensile strength of ∼302 MPa and shear strength of ∼219 MPa were obtained for the diffusion couple processed at 900 deg. C temperature due to better contact of the mating surfaces and failure takes place at the Ni-Ti interface. At higher joining temperature, the formation of Fe-Ti bases intermetallics reduces the bond strength and failure occurs at the SS-Ni interface

  17. Diffusion of titanium and nickel in B2 NiTi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Divinski, S.V.; Stloukal, Ivo; Král, Lubomír; Herzig, Ch.

    289-292, - (2009), s. 377-382 ISSN 1012-0386. [DIMAT 2008, International Conference on Diffusion in Materials /7./. Lanzarote, Canary Islands , 28.10.2008-31.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : intermetallic compound NiTi * nickel nad titanium diffusion * diffusion mechanism Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics http://www.scientific.net/DDF.289-292.377/

  18. A clinical investigation of force delivery systems for orthodontic space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, C; Jones, S P

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the force retention, and rates of space closure achieved by elastomeric chain and nickel titanium coil springs. Randomized clinical trial. Eastman Dental Hospital, London and Queen Mary's University Hospital, Roehampton, 1998-2000. Twenty-two orthodontic patients, wearing the pre-adjusted edgewise appliance undergoing space closure in opposing quadrants, using sliding mechanics on 0.019 x 0.025-inch posted stainless steel archwires. Medium-spaced elastomeric chain [Durachain, OrthoCare (UK) Ltd., Bradford, UK] and 9-mm nickel titanium coil springs [OrthoCare (UK) Ltd.] were placed in opposing quadrants for 15 patients. Elastomeric chain only was used in a further seven patients. The initial forces on placement and residual forces at the subsequent visit were measured with a dial push-pull gauge [Orthocare (UK) Ltd]. Study models of eight patients were taken before and after space closure, from which measurements were made to establish mean space closure. The forces were measured in grammes and space closure in millimetres. Fifty-nine per cent (31/53) of the elastomeric sample maintained at least 50 per cent of the initial force over a time period of 1-15 weeks. No sample lost all its force, and the mean loss was 47 per cent (range: 0-76 per cent). Nickel titanium coil springs lost force rapidly over 6 weeks, following that force levels plateaued. Forty-six per cent (12/26) maintained at least 50 per cent of their initial force over a time period of 1-22 weeks, and mean force loss was 48 per cent (range: 12-68 per cent). The rate of mean weekly space closure for elastomeric chain was 0.21 mm and for nickel titanium coil springs 0.26 mm. There was no relationship between the initial force applied and rate of space closure. None of the sample failed during the study period giving a 100 per cent response rate. In clinical use, the force retention of elastomeric chain was better than previously concluded. High initial forces resulted in high force decay

  19. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of an Orthodontic Composite Containing Titanium-dioxide Nano-particles

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin Heravi; Mohammad Ramezani; Maryam Poosti; Mohsen Hosseini; Arezoo Shajiei; Farzaneh Ahrari

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Incorporation of nano-particles to orthodontic bonding systems has been considered to prevent enamel demineralization around appliances. This study investigated cytotoxicity of Transbond XT adhesive containing 1 wt% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles. Materials and methods. Ten composite disks were prepared from each of the conventional and TiO2-containg composites and aged for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). The extrac...

  20. Pain and discomfort experienced after placement of a conventional or a superelastic NiTi aligning archwire. A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, L M; Ogaard, B; Skoglund, L

    1998-01-01

    Two nickel-titanium arch-wire types commonly used for initial tooth alignment were compared with regard to the pain/discomfort patients experience during the initial phase of tooth movement. The two arch wires used were a superelastic nickel-titanium alloy, 0.014 inch Sentalloy, Light (GAC International Inc. Central Islip, NY, USA) and a 0.014 inch Nitinol (Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA), a conventional nickel-titanium aligning archwire. One hundred and twenty-eight consecutive patients attending an orthodontic university clinic and 2 private practices for routine placement of a fixed appliance were randomly assigned one of these 2 initial arch wires. Assessments of pain/discomfort were made daily by means of a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) over the first 7-day period after bonding. On the first day, recordings were made every hour for the first 11 hours. The results showed that the level of discomfort increased continuously every hour after the insertion of either a Sentalloy or a Nitinol as first arch wires, with a peak in the first night, remaining high on the second day and decreasing thereafter to baseline level after 7 days. During the first 10 hours it was apparent that the pain/discomfort experienced after placement of a Sentalloy was less than that found with the Nitinol archwire, although a significant difference could be found at 4 hours only. No significant gender-specific differences were found in either archwire group. A significant difference between the upper and lower dental arches was observed during the first 11 hours after placement of either a Sentalloy or a Nitinol arch wire, with the lower arch having the higher pain experience.

  1. PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES AT THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF ROLLED WIRE OF NICKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are results of researches of the mechanical properties and structure of the wire rod made of low-carbon nickel molybdenum steel after reduction to toughness thermomechanical treatment in the stream of high-speed wire mill.

  2. En-masse retraction with a preformed nickel-titanium and stainless steel archwire assembly and temporary skeletal anchorage devices without posterior bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Jeong-Hyun; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Seo, Kyung-Won; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects of a preformed assembly of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel (SS) archwires (preformed C-wire) combined with temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs) as the sole source of anchorage and to compare these effects with those of a SS version of C-wire (conventional C-wire) for en-masse retraction. Methods Thirty-one adult female patients with skeletal Class I or II dentoalveolar protrusion, mild-to-moderate anterior crowding (3.0-6.0 mm), and stable Class I posterior occlusion were divided into conventional (n = 15) and preformed (n = 16) C-wire groups. All subjects underwent first premolar extractions and en-masse retraction with pre-adjusted edgewise anterior brackets, the assigned C-wire, and maxillary C-tubes or C-implants; bonded mesh-tube appliances were used in the mandibular dentition. Differences in pretreatment and post-retraction measurements of skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue cephalometric variables were statistically analyzed. Results Both groups showed full retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth by controlled tipping and space closure without altered posterior occlusion. However, the preformed C-wire group had a shorter retraction period (by 3.2 months). Furthermore, the maxillary molars in this group showed no significant mesialization, mesial tipping, or extrusion; some mesialization and mesial tipping occurred in the conventional C-wire group. Conclusions Preformed C-wires combined with maxillary TSADs enable simultaneous leveling and space closure from the beginning of the treatment without maxillary posterior bonding. This allows for faster treatment of dentoalveolar protrusion without unwanted side effects, when compared with conventional C-wire, evidencing its clinical expediency. PMID:25309863

  3. Comparison of the initial orthodontic force systems produced by a new lingual bracket system and a straight-wire appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuck, Lars-Michael; Wiechmann, Dirk; Drescher, Dieter

    2005-09-01

    Over the last few years, lingual appliances have become an established orthodontic treatment technique. Many studies have concentrated on various esthetic aspects, on laboratory and clinical procedures, and on patient comfort and compliance. The orthodontic force systems of these appliances, however, have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was thus to determine the forces and moments produced by a new lingual bracket system during the leveling phase of orthodontic treatment and to compare those with the corresponding force system of a labial straight-wire appliance. The intra-oral situation of ten patients undergoing orthodontic treatment was replicated in measurement casts fitted with lingual and labial brackets. Special care was taken to precisely reproduce each patient's interbracket geometry. We measured each tooth's force systems as generated by a leveling arch inserted into the lingual and labial brackets. The resulting force systems of both appliances were found to be quite similar with regard to the magnitude of most force and moment components. Only the first molars were subjected to considerably greater single forces with the lingual appliance. Tipping moments were found to be significantly smaller with the lingual technique, whereas the rotational moments were significantly smaller with the labial appliance. All in all we noted significant differences between the two techniques only in certain areas which upon closer examination were distributed over only a few tooth types. The initial force systems produced by the new lingual bracket system proved to be comparable with those delivered by a conventional straight-wire appliance. The actual levels of forces and moments, however, were found in certain cases to be too heavy with both techniques. We therefore recommend the development of leveling wires producing considerably lighter forces and moments.

  4. In situ fabrication of nanostructured titania coating on the surface of titanium wire: A new approach for preparation of solid-phase microextraction fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Dandan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Environmental Science Division, School of Earth and Space Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province 230026 (China); Lue Jianxia [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Liu Jingfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: jfliu@rcees.ac.cn; Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2008-03-17

    Nanostructured titania-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were fabricated through the in situ oxidation of titanium wires with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30%, w/w) at 80 deg. C for 24 h. The obtained SPME fibers possess a {approx}1.2 {mu}m thick nanostructured coating consisting of {approx}100 nm titania walls and 100-200 nm pores. The use of these fibers for headspace SPME coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) resulted in improved analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products. The presented method to detect DDT and its degradation products has high sensitivity (0.20-0.98 ng L{sup -1}), high precision (relative standard deviation R.S.D. = 9.4-16%, n = 5), a wide linear range (5-5000 ng L{sup -1}), and good linearity (coefficient of estimation R{sup 2} = 0.991-0.998). As the nanostructured titania was in situ formed on the surface of a titanium wire, the coating was uniformly and strongly adhered on the titanium wire. Because of the inherent chemical stability of the titania coating and the mechanical durability of the titanium wire substrate, this new SPME fiber exhibited long life span (over 150 times)

  5. Effect of time and pH on physical-chemical properties of orthodontic brackets and wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Aretha Aliny Ramos; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Carlo, Fabíola Galbiatti Carvalho; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; de Lima, Bruno Alessandro Silva Guedes; Dos Passos, Tibério Andrade; Lacerda-Santos, Rogério

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that treatment time, debris/biofilm, and oral pH have an influence on the physical-chemical properties of orthodontic brackets and arch wires. One hundred twenty metal brackets were evaluated. They were divided into four groups (n  =  30) according to treatment time: group C (control) and groups T12, T24, and T36 (brackets recovered after 12, 24, and 36 months of treatment, respectively). Rectangular stainless-steel arch wires that remained in the oral cavity for 12 to 24 months were also analyzed. Dimensional stability, surface morphology, composition of brackets, resistance to sliding of the bracket-wire set, surface roughness of wires, and oral pH were analyzed. One-way analysis of variance, followed by a Tukey multiple comparisons test, was used for statistical analysis (P bracket slots were shown to have more influence on the degradation process and frictional force of these devices than did oral pH.

  6. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistan...

  7. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resista...

  8. A quantitative AFM analysis of nano-scale surface roughness in various orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Ki-Ho; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2010-10-01

    In orthodontics, the surface roughnesses of orthodontic archwire and brackets affect the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement, corrosion behavior, and the aesthetics of orthodontic components. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements were used to provide quantitative information on the surface roughness of the orthodontic material. In this study, the changes in surface roughness of various orthodontic bracket slots before and after sliding movement of archwire in vitro and in vivo were observed through the utilization of AFM. Firstly, we characterized the surface of four types of brackets slots as follows: conventional stainless steel (Succes), conventional ceramic (Perfect), self-ligating stainless steel (Damon) and self-ligating ceramic (Clippy-C) brackets. Succes) and Damon brackets showed relatively smooth surfaces, while Perfect had the roughest surface among the four types of brackets used. Secondly, after in vitro sliding test with beta titanium wire in two conventional brackets (Succes and Perfect), there were significant increases in only stainless steel bracket, Succes. Thirdly, after clinical orthodontic treatment for a maximum of 2 years, the self-ligating stainless steel bracket, Damon, showed a significant increase in surface roughness. But self-ligating ceramic brackets, Clippy-C, represented less significant changes in roughness parameters than self-ligating stainless steel ones. Based on the results of the AFM measurements, it is suggested that the self-ligating ceramic bracket has great possibility to exhibit less friction and better biocompatibility than the other tested brackets. This implies that these bracket slots will aid in the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement.

  9. Color stability of esthetic coatings applied to nickel-titanium archwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Neiva Nunes do REGO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Color stability is an important feature to be considered when using esthetic coated archwires. Objective To evaluate color changes on the surface of esthetic nickel-titanium archwires coated with Teflon (Ortho Organizers, USA or epoxy resin (Tecnident, Brazil after immersion in staining solution. Material and method Twelve 20-mm-long wire segments were used for each type of coating, which were mounted as two test specimens with a width of 7 mm each. The buccal surface of the archwires was evaluated for fluorescence and color measurements both at baseline and after immersion in a staining solution for 21 days using the VITA Easyshade® Compact spectrophotometer (Model DEASYC220. Differences in total color change according to coating type were compared using an independent samples t-test (p<0.05. The surface characteristics of as-received coated archwires were assessed using scanning electron microscopy. Result Color changes were observed on the esthetic coatings, with a significant difference between the two brands analyzed. Surface analysis revealed flaws such as wear, pitting, elevations, lack of material, granulation, grooves, cracks, and lack of standardization in the coating process in all as-received archwires, but flaws were less evident in epoxy-resin coatings. Conclusion The two esthetic coatings did not show color stability, but Teflon coatings showed a more intense color change than epoxy-resin coatings.

  10. Investigation of the Dissolution-Reformation Cycle of the Passive Oxide Layer on NiTi Orthodontic Archwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, B.; Birer, O.; Canadinc, D.

    2017-09-01

    Dissolution-reformation cycle of the passive oxide layer on the nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwires was investigated, which has recently been recognized as one of the key parameters dictating the biocompatibility of archwires. Specifically, commercially available NiTi orthodontic archwires were immersed in artificial saliva solutions of different pH values (2.3, 3.3, and 4.3) for four different immersion periods: 1, 7, 14, and 30 days. Characterization of the virgin and tested samples revealed that the titanium oxide layer on the NiTi archwire surfaces exhibit a dissolution-reformation cycle within the first 14 days of the immersion period: the largest amount of Ni ion release occurred within the first week of immersion, while it significantly decreased during the reformation period from day 7 to day 14. Furthermore, the oxide layer reformation was catalyzed on the grooves within the peaks and valleys due to relatively larger surface energy of these regions, which eventually decreased the surface roughness significantly within the reformation period. Overall, the current results clearly demonstrate that the analyses of dissolution-reformation cycle of the oxide layer in orthodontic archwires, surface roughness, and ion release behavior constitute utmost importance in order to ensure both the highest degree of biocompatibility and an efficient medical treatment.

  11. Absolute cross section measurement for the ionization of the K-shell of titanium and nickel by electron impact (50 KEV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessenberger, J.

    1974-01-01

    The yield of characteristic X-ray K radiation of titanium during bombardment with electrons in the energy region of 6-50 keV and of nickel at 9-50 keV was measured, and the cross sections for th ionization of the K shell of titanium and nickel were determined from this. The results obtained are compared with several theoretical models. (WL/LN) [de

  12. Wire Roughness Assessment of 0.016'' × 0.022'' the Technique Lingual Orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Fátima Mm; Filho, Mario Vedovello; Vedovello, Silvia As; Cotrim, Flávio A; Cotrim-Ferreira, Andrຟa; Tubel, Carlos Am

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the difference in surface roughness of stainless steel archwires of different commercial brands used in lingual orthodontics. Precontoured arches measuring 0.016'' × 0.022'' were selected of the following brands: Tecnident, Adenta, G&H, Highland Metals Inc., Ormco, Incognito, and Ebraces. Quantitative evaluation of the surface roughness of archwires was performed by means of an atomic force microscope in contact mode. Three surface readouts were taken of each sample, analyzing areas of 20 × 20 μm. Each scan of the samples produced a readout of 512 lines, generating three-dimensional images of the wires. The analysis of variance statistical test was applied to prove significant variables (p > 0.05), with H 0 being rejected and H 1 accepted. The Incognito brand showed the lowest surface roughness. The archwires of brands Adenta, Tecnident, Highland, and Ormco showed similar values among them, and all close to these obtained by the Incognito brand. The archwires of the Ebraces brand showed the highest surface roughness, with values being close to those of the G&H Brand. There was a statistical difference in surface roughness of orthodontic archwires among the brands studied. Companies should pay attention to the quality control of their materials, as these may directly affect the quality of orthodontic treatment.

  13. Interceptive Correction of Anterior Crossbite Using Short-Span Wire-Fixed Orthodontic Appliance: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagarajan M. P. Sockalingam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior crossbite is relatively a common presentation in the mixed dentition stage. If left untreated, it can lead to a host of problems and may complicate future orthodontic treatment. One of the major difficulties in performing anterior crossbite correction in young children is treatment compliance. In most cases, poor compliance is due to the unacceptability of the removable appliance used. This article describes three cases of successful correction of anterior crossbite of patients in mixed dentition using short-span wire-fixed orthodontic appliances. This sectional appliance provides an alternative method of correcting anterior crossbite of dental origin and offers many advantages compared to the use of removable appliances.

  14. Preference of undergraduate students after first experience on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Kwak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to compare two nickel-titanium systems (rotary vs. reciprocating for their acceptance by undergraduate students who experienced nickel-titanium (NiTi instruments for the first time. Materials and Methods Eighty-one sophomore dental students were first taught on manual root canal preparation with stainless-steel files. After that, they were instructed on the use of ProTaper Universal system (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer, then the WaveOne (WO, Dentsply Maillefer. They practiced with each system on 2 extracted molars, before using those files to shape the buccal or mesial canals of additional first molars. A questionnaire was completed after using each file system, seeking students' perception about 'Ease of use', 'Flexibility', 'Cutting-efficiency', 'Screwing-effect', 'Feeling-safety', and 'Instrumentation-time' of the NiTi files, relative to stainless-steel instrumentation, on a 5-point Likert-type scale. They were also requested to indicate their preference between the two systems. Data was compared between groups using t-test, and with Chi-square test for correlation of each perception value with the preferred choice (p = 0.05. Results Among the 81 students, 55 indicated their preferred file system as WO and 22 as PTU. All scores were greater than 4 (better for both systems, compared with stainless-steel files, except for 'Screwing-effect' for PTU. The scores for WO in the categories of 'Flexibility', 'Screwing-effect', and 'Feeling-safety' were significantly higher scores than those of PTU. A significant association between the 'Screwing-effect' and students' preference for WO was observed. Conclusions Novice operators preferred nickel-titanium instruments to stainless-steel, and majority of them opted for reciprocating file instead of continuous rotating system.

  15. Elemental composition and structural characteristics of as-received TriTaniumTM orthodontic archwire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, I.; Petrov, V.; Mihailov, V.; Karatodorov, S.; Andreeva, L.; Zaleski, A.; Mikli, V.; Gueorgieva, M.; Petrova, V.; Stoyanova-Ivanova, A.

    2018-03-01

    Orthodontic archwires are among the most important devices of fixed orthodontic therapy. Many types of archwires are made available on the market by various manufacturers with different elemental composition and structural characteristics. Knowing this information is important when choosing a suitable archwire for a particular stage of orthodontic treatment. The aim of our study is to characterize a new type orthodontic archwires (TriTaniumTM, American Orthodontics) before their placement in the oral cavity. To achieve the aim, we used modern methods for determining their elemental composition and structural characteristics: laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIBS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained from the qualitative elemental analysis by LIBS and the quantitative elemental analysis by EDX showed that Ni and Ti are the main elements in the archwire studied. The room-temperature XRD patterns showed peaks typical for a Ni-Ti alloy with an austenite-type structure. Monitoring the phase transitions by means of DSC measurements in the temperature range from –50 °C to +50 °C, we showed that in TriTaniumTM archwires, besides the austenite to martensite transition, there exists a rhombohedral intermediate phase (R phase). This study will be useful in assisting orthodontists in applying appropriate nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires in the clinical practice.

  16. Metal release from simulated fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, C J; Shin, J S; Cha, J Y

    2001-10-01

    Most orthodontic appliances and archwires are stainless steel or nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys that can release metal ions, with saliva as the medium. To measure metal released from the fixed orthodontic appliances currently in use, we fabricated simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that corresponded to half of the maxillary arch and soaked them in 50 mL of artificial saliva (pH 6.75 +/- 0.15, 37 degrees C) for 3 months. We used brackets, tubes, and bands made by Tomy (Tokyo, Japan). Four groups were established according to the appliance manufacturer and the type of metal in the .016 x .022-in archwires. Groups A and B were stainless steel archwires from Ormco (Glendora, Calif) and Dentaurum (Ispringen, Germany), respectively, and groups C and D were both NiTi archwires with Ormco's copper NiTi and Tomy's Bioforce sentalloy, respectively. Stainless steel archwires were heat treated in an electric furnace at 500 degrees C for 1 minute and quenched in water. We measured the amount of metal released from each group by immersion time. Our conclusions were as follows: (1) there was no increase in the amount of chromium released after 4 weeks in group A, 2 weeks in group B, 3 weeks in group C, and 8 weeks in group D; (2) there was no increase in the amount of nickel released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, 7 days in group C, and 3 weeks in group D; and (3) there was no increase in the amount of iron released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, and 1 day in groups C and D. In our 3-month-long investigation, we saw a decrease in metal released as immersion time increased.

  17. The Effect of Fluoridated and Non Fluoridated Mouth Washes on Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Arch Wires At Different Time Intervals (An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Maky Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The color stability of aesthetic arch wires is an important factor in the success of an aesthetic orthodontic treatment, but the color of these arch wires tends to change with time.This study was performed to assess the effect of two types of mouth washes on the color  stability of different types of aesthetic arch wires at different time intervals. Materials and methods:Four brands of nickel titanium coated aesthetic arch wires were used: epoxy coated (Orthotechnology and G&H and Teflon coated (Dany and Hubit.Thirty six samples were prepared, each sample contains ten halves of the aesthetic arch wires. They were divided into three groups according to the immersion media (distilled water as a control media, Listerine with fluoride and Listerine without fluoride and immersed for 30 seconds twice daily according to manufacturer's instructions to measure color change after 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks by using spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Compact according to Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L*a*b* color space system. Results:It was found that there were highly significant differences in color change values of aesthetic arch wires among all immersion media at different time intervals and color change value increases as the time of immersion increases.Additionally, Listerine with fluoride mouth wash caused higher color change values of aesthetic arch wires than Listerine without fluoride and Hubit aesthetic arch wires were the least color stable while Orthotechnology aesthetic arch wires were the most color stable. Conclusions: We can conclude that the daily use of Listerine mouth washes could affect on the color stability of aesthetic arch wires. Although all tested aesthetic arch wires revealed color changes at variable degrees but some of these changes were not  visible and the others were clinically acceptable while the remaining were clinically unacceptable.

  18. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire-bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design.

  19. The effect of mechanical vibration on orthodontically induced root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sumit; Dobie, Thomas; Assefnia, Amir; Kalajzic, Zana; Nanda, Ravindra

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of low-frequency mechanical vibration (LFMV) on orthodontically induced root resorption. Forty male CD1, 12-week-old mice were used for the study. The mice were randomly divided into five groups: group 1 (baseline)-no spring and no mechanical vibration, group 2-orthodontic spring but no vibration, group 3-orthodontic spring and 5 Hz of vibration applied to the maxillary first molar, group 4-orthodontic spring and 10 Hz of vibration applied to maxillary first molar, and group 5-orthodontic spring and 20 Hz of vibration applied to maxillary first molar. In the different experimental groups, the first molar was moved mesially for 2 weeks using a nickel-titanium coil spring delivering 10 g of force. LFMVs were applied at 5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography imaging was used to analyze root resorption. Additionally, to understand the mechanism, we applied LFMV to MC3T3 cells, and gene expression analyses were done for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Orthodontic tooth movement leads to decreased root volume (increased root resorption craters). Our in vivo experiments showed a trend toward increase in root volume with different frequencies of mechanical vibration. In vitro gene expression analyses showed that with 20 Hz of mechanical vibration, there was a significant decrease in RANKL and a significant increase in OPG expression. There was a trend toward decreased root resorption with different LFMVs (5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz); however, it was not more statistically significant than the orthodontic-spring-only group.

  20. Removing nickel from nickel-coated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, A.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Conductive fibers/yarns are one of the most important materials for smart textiles because of their electrically conductive functionality combined with flexibility and light weight. They can be applied in many fields such as the medical sector, electronics, sensors and even as thermoelectric generators. Temperature sensors, for example, can be made using the thermocouple or thermopile principle which usually uses two different metal wires that can produce a temperature-dependent voltage. However, if metal wires are inserted into a textile structure, they will decrease the flexibility properties of the textile product. Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber (NiCF), a conductive textile yarn, has a potential use as a textile-based thermopile if we can create an alternating region of carbon and nickel along the fiber which in turn it can be used for substituting the metallic thermopile. The idea was to remove nickel from NiCF in order to obtain a yarn that contains alternating zones of carbon and nickel. Due to no literature reporting on how to remove nickel from NiCF, in this paper we investigated some chemicals to remove nickel from NiCF.

  1. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Ghazanfarian, Marzieh; Amdjadi, Parisa; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mahboubi, Arash

    2014-12-01

    Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7-100%, 40.6-99.9%, 85.2-86.5%, 66.4-84.4% and 35.5-56.3% respectively. Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting.

  2. Effect of clinical use of nickel-titanium springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Amanda Fahning; Monini, André da Costa; Capela, Marisa Veiga; Martins, Lídia Parsekian; Martins, Renato Parsekian

    2015-07-01

    Our objectives were to determine whether there are changes on the load deflection rate (L/DP) and the average force (FP) of the superelastic pseudoplateau, and whether permanent deformation is changed in nickel-titanium closed-coil springs (CCSs) after 6 months of clinical use. Twenty-two nickel-titanium CCSs (Sentalloy 100 g; Dentsply GAC, York, Pa) were subjected to tensile mechanical testing at 37°C on activations varying from 3.2 to 16.0 mm before and after 6 months of clinical use. A regression line was fitted over the most horizontal area of the unloading part of the stress-strain graph of every CCS, and its slope was used as L/DP. The FP was determined by the midpoint of the longest segment of the curve that could be fit within the regression line with a R(2) of at least 0.999, and permanent deformation was determined graphically by obtaining the strain value when the measured stress reached zero. The data were analyzed by 3 analyses of variance at 2 levels, with 5% of significance. Time and activation significantly influenced the variables tested (P < 0.001). Time increased the L/DP and permanent deformation but decreased the FP. Activation decreased L/DP, FP, and permanent deformation. Significant interactions between time and activation were detected for FP (P = 0.013) and deformation (P < 0.001). After 6 months of active clinical use, the analyzed springs had a significant but small increase in their L/DP; FP dropped up to 88%, and the CCSs deformed up to 1.26 mm. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tungsten wire--nickel base alloy composite development. Contractor report, 1 Jun 1974--29 Feb 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brentnall, W.D.; Moracz, D.J.

    1976-03-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed, and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W--Hf--C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/m 2 (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics

  4. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment using conventional versus metal-injection molding brackets on salivary nickel and chromium levels: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fariborz; Harandi, Saghar; Mollaei, Mobina; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-10-01

    Despite the importance of nickel and chromium release from orthodontic brackets, there are no in vivo or in vitro studies on this issue in the case of metal-injection molding (MIM) brackets. Saliva samples were collected from 30 orthodontic patients divided randomly into two groups of conventional and MIM brackets, before treatment and 2 months later. Approved attendees with odd and even numbers were, respectively, assigned to the control and treatment groups. For blinding, the patients were not informed of their bracket types, and the saliva samples were coded. Nickel and chromium levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were analysed using repeated-measures two-way analysis of covariance, independent-samples t-test, chi-squared, Spearman and point-biserial correlation coefficients, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Mean nickel level increased from 7.87±8.14 (pre-treatment) to 12.57±9.96 (2nd month) in the control group, and from 8.62±9.85 (pre-treatment) to 8.86±6.42 µg/l in the MIM group. Both of these increases were significant (Wilcoxon P 0.1). The differences between both ions' levels measured in the 60th day in both bracket groups were not significant (Mann-Whitney P > 0.05). The extents of changes over time were not significantly different between the bracket types (Mann-Whitney P > 0.05). The sample size was not predetermined based on power calculations. The spectrophotometer was limited to detecting chromium concentrations above 0.25 µg/l. Ion discharge from brackets might continuously change. The current in vivo methods are unable to take such fluctuations into account. Nickel might increase in patients undergoing treatment with both bracket types, although the rate of increase might be greater in patients under treatment with conventional brackets. Using MIM brackets might reduce salivary chromium for a trivial but generalizable amount. Still, ion levels leached from conventional versus MIM brackets might

  5. The influence of adding modified zirconium oxide-titanium dioxide nano-particles on mechanical properties of orthodontic adhesive: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felemban, Nayef H; Ebrahim, Mohamed I

    2017-01-13

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to examine the effect of incorporating different concentrations of Zirconium oxide-Titanium dioxide (ZrO2-TiO2) nanoparticles, which can have antibacterial properties, on the mechanical properties of an orthodontic adhesive. ZrO2-TiO2 (Zirconium oxide, HWNANO, Hongwu International Group Ltd, China) -Titanium dioxide, Nanoshell, USA) nanopowder were incorporated into orthodontic adhesive (Transbond XT, 3 M Unitek, Monrovia, USA) with different concentrations (0.5% weight nonofiller and 1% weight nanofiller). The size of nanoparticle was 70-80 nm for ZrO2 and less than 50 nm for TiO2. For measuring the shear bond strength of the three groups of orthodontic adhesives [Transbond (control), Transbond mixed with 0.5% weight ZrO2-TiO2, and Transbond mixed with 1% weight ZrO2-TiO2], 30 freshly extracted human first premolars were used and bonded with stainless steel metal brackets (Dentaurum®, Discovery®, Deutschland), using the 3 orthodontic adhesives and 3 M Unitek; Transbond TM Plus Self-Etching Primer (10 samples in each group). The recorded values of compressive strength and tensile strength (measured separately on 10 samples of orthodontic adhesives (add the 3 D size of sample, light cured for 40 s on both sides) of each orthodontic adhesives), as well as the shear bond strength in Mega Pascal unit (MPa) were collected and exposed to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc tests. orthodontic adhesive with 1% weight ZrO2-TiO2 showed the highest mean compressive (73.42 ± 1.55 MPa, p: 0.003, F: 12.74), tensile strength (8.65 ± 0.74 MPa, p: 0.001, F: 68.20), and shear bond strength (20.05 ± 0.2 MPa, p: 0.001, F: 0.17). Adding ZrO2-TiO2 nanoparticle to orthodontic adhesive increased compressive strength, tensile strength, and shear bond strength in vitro, but in vivo studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to validate the present findings.

  6. Orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in ovariectomized rats treated by systemic administration of zoledronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisoontorn, Irin; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Megumi; Gonzales, Carmen; Luppanapornlarp, Suwannee; Darendeliler, M Ali; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2012-05-01

    The effect of zoledronic acid, a potent and novel bisphosphonate, on tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in osteoporotic animals systemically treated with zoledronic acid as similarly used in postmenopausal patients has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study was undertaken. Fifteen 10-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: ovariectomy, ovariectomy + zoledronic acid, and control. Only the ovariectomy and ovariectomy + zoledronic acid groups underwent ovariectomies. Two weeks after the ovariectomy, zoledronic acid was administered only to the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid group. Four weeks after the ovariectomy, 25-g nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were applied to observe tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption. There were significant differences in the amounts of tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption between the ovariectomy and the control groups, and also between the ovariectomy and the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid groups. There was no statistically significant difference in tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption between the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid and the control groups. Zoledronic acid inhibited significantly more tooth movement and significantly reduced the severity of orthodontically induced root resorption in the ovariectomized rats. The ovariectomy + zoledronic acid group showed almost the same results as did the control group in both tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption. Zoledronic acid inhibits excessive orthodontic tooth movement and also reduces the risk of severe orthodontically induced root resorption in ovariectomized rats. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Análise radiográfica computadorizada da reabsorção radicular apical após a utilização de duas mecânicas ortodônticas Computer-assisted radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following orthodontic treatment with two different fixed appliance techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo César Almada Santos

    2007-02-01

    . This study investigated by means of computerized radiographs the amount of root resorption after orthodontic treatment with two different fixed appliance techniques: standard Edgewise technique and Straight-wire system. METHODS: the sample was comprised of 20 patients treated by the same orthodontist at the Orthodontic Clinic of Araçatuba Dental School, University of São Paulo State - UNESP. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (treated with standard Edgewise technique and stainless steel wires and group 2 (treated with Straight-wire system and nickel-titanium alloys. The computerized evaluation was performed by only one examiner using Levander and Malmgren’s score system (1988 in the radiographs obtained at the beginning of the orthodontic treatment, after canine retraction and at the end of treatment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: external apical root resorption in patients treated with Straight-wire system and nickel-titanium alloy was lesser than in patients treated by standard Edgewise technique and stainless steel wires. However, all patients presented moderate external apical root resorption regardless of the fixed appliance technique.

  8. Comparative Study Using Intramedullary K-wire Fixation Over Titanium Elastic Nail in Paediatric Shaft Femur Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Anand, Tushar; Singh, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Fracture shaft femur is common paediatric trauma leading to significant morbidity. Conservative treatments available are associated with prolonged periods of immobilization. Use of flexible intramedullary implant allows early rehabilitation in diaphyseal fractures of femur in children. The aim of the present study is to compare fixation of diaphyseal femur fracture by titanium elastic nail and intramedullary K-wires in children. Prospective randomized study in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty-two children between 6 years and 14 years of age with femoral shaft fracture were assigned either in Group I or Group II based on computer generated random numbers. In Group I closed percutaneous intramedullary K- wire fixation and in Group II closed percutaneous intramedullary titanium elastic nail was used to fix the fractures. Partial weight bearing was allowed after 6 weeks of surgery and full weight bearing at clinico-radiological union. Average time of radiological union was 6 to 10 weeks in both groups. In both the groups two cases had entry site irritation which resolved with early implant removal. One case in both the groups had unacceptable mal-alignment. Both the groups had few cases of limb-length discrepancy, which was in acceptable limit, except two cases of TENS. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of both the groups. But, using K-wires significantly reduced the cost of treatment. Most of such fractures in our society are neglected because of high cost of treatment. Providing a cheaper alternative in form of K-wires may be beneficial for the patients from low socio-economic status.

  9. Orthodontic forces released by low-friction versus conventional systems during alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the forces released by passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and by a non-conventional elastomeric ligature-bracket system on conventional brackets ([slide ligatures on conventional brackets (SLCB)]) when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets (CLCB) during the alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth in the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the three different bracket-ligature systems with 0.012-inch super-elastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in the presence of different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment of the canine (ranging from 1.5 to 6 mm). The forces released by each wire/bracket/ligature combination with the three different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment were tested 20 times. Comparisons between the different types of wire/bracket/ligature systems were carried out by means of analysis of variance on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P < 0.05). No difference in the amount of force released in presence of a misalignment of 1.5 mm was recorded among the three systems. At 3 mm of apical misalignment a significantly greater amount of orthodontic force was released by SLB or SLCB when compared with CLCB, while no significant differences were found among the three systems at 3 mm of buccal canine displacement. When correction of a large amount of misalignment (6 mm) was attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment was still generated by the passive SLB and SLCB systems while no force was released in presence of CLCB.

  10. A "typodont" study of rate of orthodontic space closure: self-ligating systems vs. conventional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, I; Butti, A C; Salvato, A; Biagi, R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of space closure of two bracket systems, self-ligating and conventional ones, considering two systems with the same design and prescription. The experimental model of this study aims to identify in general if one type of system is more suitable for planning the extractive therapy, without considering the clinical aspect necessary for an adequate orthodontic approach. A resin maxilla without the first premolars was used to test the self-ligating and conventional brackets system. Space closure was achieved on 0.016x0.022" in stainless steel wires with nickel-titanium coil springs 150 grams in strength and 10 mm in length. Two experiment settings have been prepared. The first setting was made bonding conventional bracket on the right side and self-ligating on the left; the last one was made bonding self-ligating bracket on the right side and conventional on the left. All measurements (runs) have been repeated seven times for both settings. During the closing phase of extraction spaces both systems are equable since there are no significant statistical differences (P=0.70). Our typodont model showed no significant difference in the efficiency of space closure between the self-ligating bracket and conventional bracket tied with stainless steel ligatures.

  11. Factors influencing efficiency of sliding mechanics to close extraction space: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, M; Kula, K

    2008-05-01

    To review recent literature to determine strength of clinical evidence concerning the influence of various factors on the efficiency (rate of tooth movement) of closing extraction spaces using sliding mechanics. A comprehensive systematic review on prospective clinical trials. An electronic search (1966-2006) of several databases limiting the searches to English and using several keywords was performed. Also a hand search of five key journals specifically searching for prospective clinical trials relevant to orthodontic space closure using sliding mechanics was completed. Outcome Measure - Rate of tooth movement. Ten prospective clinical trials comparing rates of closure under different variables and focusing only on sliding mechanics were selected for review. Of these ten trials on rate of closure, two compared arch wire variables, seven compared material variables used to apply force, and one examined bracket variables. Other articles which were not prospective clinical trials on sliding mechanics, but containing relevant information were examined and included as background information. CONCLUSION - The results of clinical research support laboratory results that nickel-titanium coil springs produce a more consistent force and a faster rate of closure when compared with active ligatures as a method of force delivery to close extraction space along a continuous arch wire; however, elastomeric chain produces similar rates of closure when compared with nickel-titanium springs. Clinical and laboratory research suggest little advantage of 200 g nickel-titanium springs over 150 g springs. More clinical research is needed in this area.

  12. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAHID DASTJERDI, Elahe; ABDOLAZIMI, Zahra; GHAZANFARIAN, Marzieh; AMDJADI, Parisa; KAMALINEJAD, Mohammad; MAHBOUBI, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Methods: Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7–100%, 40.6–99.9%, 85.2–86.5%, 66.4–84.4% and 35.5–56.3% respectively. Conclusion: Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting. PMID:26171362

  13. In vivo evaluation of immediately loaded stainless steel and titanium orthodontic screws in a growing bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Gritsch

    Full Text Available The present work intends to evaluate the use of immediate loaded orthodontic screws in a growing model, and to study the specific bone response. Thirty-two screws (half of stainless steel and half of titanium were inserted in the alveolar bone of 8 growing pigs. The devices were immediately loaded with a 100 g orthodontic force. Two loading periods were assessed: 4 and 12 weeks. Both systems of screws were clinically assessed. Histological observations and histomorphometric analysis evaluated the percent of "bone-to-implant contact" and static and dynamic bone parameters in the vicinity of the devices (test zone and in a bone area located 1.5 cm posterior to the devices (control zone. Both systems exhibit similar responses for the survival rate; 87.5% and 81.3% for stainless steel and titanium respectively (p = 0.64; 4-week period, and 62.5% and 50.0% for stainless steel and titanium respectively (p = 0.09; 12-week period. No significant differences between the devices were found regarding the percent of "bone-to-implant contact" (p = 0.1 or the static and dynamic bone parameters. However, the 5% threshold of "bone-to-implant contact" was obtained after 4 weeks with the stainless steel devices, leading to increased survival rate values. Bone in the vicinity of the miniscrew implants showed evidence of a significant increase in bone trabecular thickness when compared to bone in the control zone (p = 0.05. In our study, it is likely that increased trabecular thickness is a way for low density bone to respond to the stress induced by loading.

  14. In vivo evaluation of immediately loaded stainless steel and titanium orthodontic screws in a growing bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsch, Kerstin; Laroche, Norbert; Bonnet, Jeanne-Marie; Exbrayat, Patrick; Morgon, Laurent; Rabilloud, Muriel; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The present work intends to evaluate the use of immediate loaded orthodontic screws in a growing model, and to study the specific bone response. Thirty-two screws (half of stainless steel and half of titanium) were inserted in the alveolar bone of 8 growing pigs. The devices were immediately loaded with a 100 g orthodontic force. Two loading periods were assessed: 4 and 12 weeks. Both systems of screws were clinically assessed. Histological observations and histomorphometric analysis evaluated the percent of "bone-to-implant contact" and static and dynamic bone parameters in the vicinity of the devices (test zone) and in a bone area located 1.5 cm posterior to the devices (control zone). Both systems exhibit similar responses for the survival rate; 87.5% and 81.3% for stainless steel and titanium respectively (p = 0.64; 4-week period), and 62.5% and 50.0% for stainless steel and titanium respectively (p = 0.09; 12-week period). No significant differences between the devices were found regarding the percent of "bone-to-implant contact" (p = 0.1) or the static and dynamic bone parameters. However, the 5% threshold of "bone-to-implant contact" was obtained after 4 weeks with the stainless steel devices, leading to increased survival rate values. Bone in the vicinity of the miniscrew implants showed evidence of a significant increase in bone trabecular thickness when compared to bone in the control zone (p = 0.05). In our study, it is likely that increased trabecular thickness is a way for low density bone to respond to the stress induced by loading.

  15. Effect of long-term repeated deflections on fatigue of preloaded superelastic nickel-titanium archwires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, C.A.J.M.; Pallav, P.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Kuitert, R.B.; Prahl-Andersen, B.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the changes in force delivery of superelastic nickel-titanium archwires used in combination with a self-ligating bracket system after dynamic fatigue-loading in a 3-bracket model under controlled temperature. Methods: Samples of 2

  16. Frictional resistance of orthodontic wires tied with 3 types of elastomeric ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Carneiro da Cunha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine and compare frictional resistance obtained by low-friction and conventional elastomeric ligatures in the presence of artificial saliva, and observe whether this variable changed after 21 days. Super Slick® low-friction elastomeric ligatures and conventional ligatures of the brands TP conventional® and Unitek® were placed on standard edgewise maxillary central incisor metal brackets, slot .022" × .028" tying rectangular orthodontic wires .018" × .025". Three experimental groups were arranged according to the type of ligature and a control group in which no wires were used. The friction values obtained between the bracket/wire/ligature set were measured using a Universal Test Machine at a speed of 20 mm/minute, at two experimental time intervals: T0 - immediately after specimen fabrication; and T1 - 21 days after fabrication and immersion in artificial saliva at 37 ºC. Conventional Unitek ligatures and the low-friction ligature (Super Slick showed the lowest friction values at T0. After 21 days (T1, however, conventional Unitek ligatures presented the lowest value. All groups assessed from T0 to T1 showed a numerical reduction in friction values, suggesting that time, heat and humidity may cause elastic degradation, however this was not verified statistically (P > 0.05.

  17. Versatile Auxiliary Orthodontic Spring for Orthodontic Correction of Impacted Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion such as impacted tooth is not uncommon. Many approaches with various auxiliary springs have been reported in literature till date for correction of such malocclusions. They had biomechanical, retentive and stability drawbacks inherent in their designs. This article presents the innovative approach for orthodontic correction of impacted tooth, especially with light force appliance, i.e. Begg′s appliance, where round wires in round molar tubes are used throughout treatment. A versatile auxiliary orthodontic spring (VAOS is fabricated in the 0.018 inch Australian stainless steel round wire, which may be anchored on round molar buccal tube, and desirable force vector may be applied in any of the three dimensions. Fabrication and its clinical application are discussed.

  18. An evaluation of the transition temperature range of super-elastic orthodontic NiTi springs using differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwart, O; Rollinger, J M; Burger, A

    1999-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the transition temperature ranges (TTR) of four types of super-elastic orthodontic nickel-titanium coil springs (Sentalloy). A knowledge of the TTR provides information on the temperature at which a NiTi wire or spring can assume superelastic properties and when this quality disappears. The spring types in this study can be distinguished from each other by their characteristic TTR during cooling and heating. For each tested spring type a characteristic TTR during heating (austenite transformation) and cooling (martensite transformation) was evaluated. The hysteresis of the transition temperature, found between cooling and heating, was 3.4-5.2 K. Depending on the spring type the austenite transformation started (As) at 9.7-17.1 degrees C and finished (Af) at 29.2-37 degrees C. The martensite transformation starting temperature (Ms) was evaluated at 32.6-25.4 degrees C, while Mf (martensite transformation finishing temperature) was 12.7-6.5 degrees C. The results show that the springs become super-elastic when the temperature increases and As is reached. They undergo a loss of super-elastic properties and a rapid decrease in force delivery when they are cooled to Mf. For the tested springs, Mf and As were found to be below room temperature. Thus, at room temperature and some degrees lower, all the tested springs exert super-elastic properties. For orthodontic treatment this means the maintenance of super-elastic behaviour, even when mouth temperature decreases to about room temperature as can occur, for example, during meals.

  19. Metal Hypersensitivity in Orthodontic Patients

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    Sandhya Maheshwari Sanjeev K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment of individuals with metal hypersensitivity is a matter of concern for the orthodontist. Orthodontic appliances contain metals like Nickel, Cobalt and Chromium etc. Metals may cause allergic reactions and are known as allergens. Reaction to these metals is due to biodegradation of metals in the oral cavity. This may lead to the formation of corrosion products and their exposure to the patient. Nickel is the most common metal to cause hypersensitivity reaction. Chromium ranks second among the metals, known to trigger allergic reactions. The adverse biological reactions to these metals may include hypersensitivity, dermatitis and asthma. In addition, a significant carcinogenic and mutagenic potential has been demonstrated. The orthodontist must be familiar with the best possible alternative treatment modalities to provide the safest, most effective care possible in these cases. The present article focuses on the issue of metal hypersensitivity and its management in orthodontic

  20. Modifications in straight wire treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.

  1. Evaluation of anomalies during nickel and titanium silicide formation using the effective heat of formation mode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, R

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available , as well as the observed sequence of growth of different silicide phases, are not in agree- ment with thermodynamic considerations [26]. In the case of the nickel silicides Ni,Si is nearly always found to be the first... to determine how the oxygen content in the silicon affects phase formation. We also show how the anomalous behaviour of titanium and nickel silicide formation can be explained thermodynamically by using the ?effective heat...

  2. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment using conventional (two-piece) versus metal injection moulding brackets on hair nickel and chromium levels: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneh Masjedi, Mashallah; Haghighat Jahromi, Nima; Niknam, Ozra; Hormozi, Elham; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2017-02-01

    Although nickel and chromium are known as allergen and cytotoxic orthodontic metals, very few and controversial studies have assessed the effect of orthodontic treatment on their systemic levels especially those reflected by their best biomarker of exposure, hair. Additionally, metal injection moulding (MIM) brackets are not studied, and there is no study on systemic ion changes following their usage. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, scalp hair samples of 24 female and 22 male fixed orthodontic patients [as two groups of conventional (two-piece) versus MIM brackets, n = 23×2] were collected before treatment and 6 months later. Randomization was carried out using a computer-generated random number table. The patients, laboratory expert, and author responsible for analyses were blinded of the bracket allocations. Hair nickel and chromium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effects of treatment, bracket types, gender, and age on hair ions were analysed statistically (α = 0.05, β ≤ 0.02). In both groups combined (n = 46), nickel increased from 0.1600±0.0890 µg/g dry hair mass (pre-treatment) to 0.3199±0.1706 (6th month). Chromium increased from 0.1657±0.0884 to 0.3066±0.1362 µg/g. Both of these increases were significant (paired t-test, P = 0.0000). Bracket types, age, and gender had no significant influence on ion levels (P > 0.05). ANCOVA indicated different patterns of chromium increases in different genders (P = 0.033) and ages (P = 0.056). Sample size determination should have accounted for the grouping as well. Hair nickel and chromium levels might increase about 185-200% after 6 months. They might not be affected by bracket types. Gender and age might not influence the baseline or 6th-month levels of both metals. Gender might however interact with orthodontic treatment, only in the case of chromium. The research is registered offline (thesis) and online (IR.AJUMS.REC.1394.516). The protocol was pre

  3. Effect of Different Types of Toothpaste on the Frictional Resistance Between Orthodontic Stainless Steel Brackets and Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, Tahereh; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Farhadifard, Homa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of toothpaste on the frictional resistance between stainless steel brackets and archwires. Ninety stainless steel orthodontic brackets with stainless steel wires were bonded to bovine teeth and were divided into 6 groups for application of the following toothpastes: Colgate® Total® Advanced Whitening, Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health, Colgate® Anticavity, Ortho.Kin®, and Sunstar GUM® Ortho toothpastes. No toothpaste was applied in the control group. Each group was brushed by a brushing machine with the use of the designated solution for 4.5 minutes. The frictional force was measured in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 10 mm/minute over a 5-mm archwire. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the 0.05 significance level. The frictional resistance values of Ortho.Kin® and GUM® Ortho toothpastes and the control group were not significantly different (P>0.05). However, there were significant differences between the frictional resistance values of Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health and Colgate® Anticavity toothpastes with that of the control group (Porthodontic toothpastes did not increase the frictional resistance between the orthodontic stainless steel brackets and wires.

  4. Effects of diabetes on tooth movement and root resorption after orthodontic force application in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, K; Hotokezaka, H; Hashimoto, M; Nakano-Tajima, T; Kurohama, T; Kondo, T; Darendeliler, M A; Yoshida, N

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of diabetes on orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in rats. Twenty-three 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into control (n = 7), diabetes (n = 9), and diabetes + insulin (n = 7) groups. Diabetes was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats with a blood glucose level exceeding 250 mg/dl were assigned to the diabetes group. Insulin was administered daily to the diabetes + insulin group. A nickel-titanium closed-coil spring of 10 g was applied for 2 weeks to the maxillary left first molar in all rats to induce mesial tooth movement. Tooth movement was measured using microcomputed tomography images. To determine the quantity of root resorption, the mesial surfaces of the mesial and distal roots of the first molar were analyzed using both scanning electron microscopy and scanning laser microscopy. After 2 weeks, the amount of tooth movement in the diabetic rats was lower than that in the control rats. Root resorption was also significantly lower in the diabetic rats. These responses of the rats caused by diabetes were mostly diminished by insulin administration. Diabetes significantly reduced orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in rats. The regulation of blood glucose level through insulin administration largely reduced these abnormal responses to orthodontic force application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Orthodontic Forces Induce the Cytoprotective Enzyme Heme Oxygenase-1 in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttorp, Christiaan M.; Xie, Rui; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Uijttenboogaart, Jasper Tom; Van Rheden, René; Maltha, Jaap C.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic forces disturb the microenvironment of the periodontal ligament (PDL), and induce craniofacial bone remodeling which is necessary for tooth movement. Unfortunately, orthodontic tooth movement is often hampered by ischemic injury and cell death within the PDL (hyalinization) and root resorption. Large inter-individual differences in hyalinization and root resorption have been observed, and may be explained by differential protection against hyalinization. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) forms an important protective mechanism by breaking down heme into the strong anti-oxidants biliverdin/bilirubin and the signaling molecule carbon monoxide. These versatile HO-1 products protect against ischemic and inflammatory injury. We postulate that orthodontic forces induce HO-1 expression in the PDL during experimental tooth movement. Twenty-five 6-week-old male Wistar rats were used in this study. The upper three molars at one side were moved mesially using a Nickel-Titanium coil spring, providing a continuous orthodontic force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as control. After 6, 12, 72, 96, and 120 h groups of rats were killed. On parasagittal sections immunohistochemical staining was performed for analysis of HO-1 expression and quantification of osteoclasts. Orthodontic force induced a significant time-dependent HO-1 expression in mononuclear cells within the PDL at both the apposition- and resorption side. Shortly after placement of the orthodontic appliance HO-1 expression was highly induced in PDL cells but dropped to control levels within 72 h. Some osteoclasts were also HO-1 positive but this induction was shown to be independent of time- and mechanical stress. It is tempting to speculate that differential induction of tissue protecting- and osteoclast activating genes in the PDL determine the level of bone resorption and hyalinization and, subsequently, “fast” and “slow” tooth movers during orthodontic treatment. PMID:27486402

  6. Orthodontic Forces Induce the Cytoprotective Enzyme Heme Oxygenase-1 in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttorp, Christiaan M; Xie, Rui; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Uijttenboogaart, Jasper Tom; Van Rheden, René; Maltha, Jaap C; Wagener, Frank A D T G

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic forces disturb the microenvironment of the periodontal ligament (PDL), and induce craniofacial bone remodeling which is necessary for tooth movement. Unfortunately, orthodontic tooth movement is often hampered by ischemic injury and cell death within the PDL (hyalinization) and root resorption. Large inter-individual differences in hyalinization and root resorption have been observed, and may be explained by differential protection against hyalinization. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) forms an important protective mechanism by breaking down heme into the strong anti-oxidants biliverdin/bilirubin and the signaling molecule carbon monoxide. These versatile HO-1 products protect against ischemic and inflammatory injury. We postulate that orthodontic forces induce HO-1 expression in the PDL during experimental tooth movement. Twenty-five 6-week-old male Wistar rats were used in this study. The upper three molars at one side were moved mesially using a Nickel-Titanium coil spring, providing a continuous orthodontic force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as control. After 6, 12, 72, 96, and 120 h groups of rats were killed. On parasagittal sections immunohistochemical staining was performed for analysis of HO-1 expression and quantification of osteoclasts. Orthodontic force induced a significant time-dependent HO-1 expression in mononuclear cells within the PDL at both the apposition- and resorption side. Shortly after placement of the orthodontic appliance HO-1 expression was highly induced in PDL cells but dropped to control levels within 72 h. Some osteoclasts were also HO-1 positive but this induction was shown to be independent of time- and mechanical stress. It is tempting to speculate that differential induction of tissue protecting- and osteoclast activating genes in the PDL determine the level of bone resorption and hyalinization and, subsequently, "fast" and "slow" tooth movers during orthodontic treatment.

  7. The ability of different nickel-titanium rotary instruments to induce dentinal damage during canal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, C.A.S.; Shemesh, H.; Tanomaru-Filho, M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal defects (fractures and craze lines) after canal preparation with different nickel-titanium rotary files. Two hundred sixty mandibular premolars were selected. Forty teeth were left unprepared (n = 40). The other teeth were prepared

  8. Endodontic complications of root canal therapy performed by dental students with stainless-steel K-files and nickel-titanium hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettiette, M T; Metzger, Z; Phillips, C; Trope, M

    1999-04-01

    Straightening of curved canals is one of the most common procedural errors in endodontic instrumentation. This problem is commonly encountered when dental students perform molar endodontics. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the type of instrument used by these students on the extent of straightening and on the incidence of other endodontic procedural errors. Nickel-titanium 0.02 taper hand files were compared with traditional stainless-steel 0.02 taper K-files. Sixty molar teeth comprised of maxillary and mandibular first and second molars were treated by senior dental students. Instrumentation was with either nickel-titanium hand files or stainless-steel K-files. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs of each tooth were taken using an XCP precision instrument with a customized bite block to ensure accurate reproduction of radiographic angulation. The radiographs were scanned and the images stored as TIFF files. By superimposing tracings from the preoperative over the postoperative radiographs, the degree of deviation of the apical third of the root canal filling from the original canal was measured. The presence of other errors, such as strip perforation and instrument breakage, was established by examining the radiographs. In curved canals instrumented by stainless-steel K-files, the average deviation of the apical third of the canals was 14.44 degrees (+/- 10.33 degrees). The deviation was significantly reduced when nickel-titanium hand files were used to an average of 4.39 degrees (+/- 4.53 degrees). The incidence of other procedural errors was also significantly reduced by the use of nickel-titanium hand files.

  9. PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES AT THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF ROLLED WIRE OF NICKEL-MOLYBDENUM STEEL WITH WELDING FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    There are results of researches of the mechanical properties and structure of the wire rod made of low-carbon nickel molybdenum steel after reduction to toughness thermomechanical treatment in the stream of high-speed wire mill.

  10. Trends in contemporary orthodontic research publications: Evaluation of three major orthodontic journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Kumar Prasanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inclination of orthodontic research published in original articles in three of the most popular and recognized orthodontic journals with high impact factor; American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO, the Angle Orthodontist (AO, and European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO published in a 5-year duration time frame (2010–2014. Materials and Methods: Online search with supplementary hand searching was undertaken for original research articles in these three orthodontic journals from 2010 to 2014. Classification of data was completed autonomously by manual and direct appraisal of the manuscript of each journal. Results and Conclusion: Three thousand one hundred and forty articles published in AJODO, AO, and EJO in the particular time period were selected, out of which 1783 original research study articles (56.78% were appraised for classification in their various respective knowledge domains. AO (82.73% and EJO (76.99% were relatively more committed toward publication of research work in comparison to AJODO (34.55%. Research articles based on perception and questionnaires (12%, temporary anchorage devices (11%, cone-beam computed tomography (8%, invisible orthodontics (lingual orthodontics, clear aligners, esthetic brackets, and wires (5%, and airway examination (5% were the five most recurrently selected subjects of interest (41% in these three journals during the observation period. The total number of research articles published in the three journals reduced statistically significantly in 2014 when compared to 2010.

  11. Mechanical response of nickel-titanium instruments with different cross-sectional designs during shaping of simulated curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H C; Kim, H J; Lee, C J; Kim, B M; Park, J K; Versluis, A

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate how different cross-sectional designs affect stress distribution in nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments during bending, torsion and simulated shaping of a curved canal. Four NiTi rotary instruments with different cross-sectional geometries were selected: ProFile and HeroShaper systems with a common triangle-based cross section, Mtwo with an S-shaped rectangle-based design and NRT with a modified rectangle-based design. The geometries of the selected files were scanned in a micro-CT and three-dimensional finite-element models were created for each system. Stiffness characteristics for each file system were determined in a series of bending and torsional conditions. Canal shaping was simulated by inserting models of the rotating file into a 45 degrees curved canal model. Stress distribution in the instruments was recorded during simulated shaping. After the instruments were retracted from the canal, residual stresses and permanent bending of their tips due to plastic deformation were determined. The greatest bending and torsional stiffness occurred in the NRT file. During simulated shaping, the instruments with triangle-based cross-sectional geometry had more even stress distributions along their length and had lower stress concentrations than the instruments with rectangle-based cross sections. Higher residual stresses and plastic deformations were found in the Mtwo and NRT with rectangle-based cross-sectional geometries. Nickel-titanium instruments with rectangle-based cross-sectional designs created higher stress differentials during simulated canal shaping and may encounter higher residual stress and plastic deformation than instruments with triangle-based cross sections.

  12. Synthesis of p-type nickel oxide nanosheets on n-type titanium dioxide nanorod arrays for p-n heterojunction-based UV photosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, M. M.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Abdullah, M. A. R.; Ismail, A. S.; Saidi, S. A.; Mohamed, R.; Suriani, A. B.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays (TNAs) were synthesized and deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate using a novel and facile immersion method in a glass container. The synthesis and deposition of p-type nickel oxide (NiO) nanosheets (NS) on the n-type TNAs was investigated in the p-n heterojunction photodiode (PD) for the application of ultraviolet (UV) photosensor. The fabricated TNAs/NiO NS based UV photosensor exhibited a highly increased photocurrent of 4.3 µA under UV radiation (365 nm, 750 µW/cm2) at 1.0 V reverse bias. In this study, the fabricated TNAs/NiO NS p-n heterojunction based photodiode showed potential applications for UV photosensor based on the stable photo-generated current attained under UV radiation.

  13. Vibration Sensor Monitoring of Nickel-Titanium Alloy Turning for Machinability Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Segreto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti alloys are very difficult-to-machine materials causing notable manufacturing problems due to their unique mechanical properties, including superelasticity, high ductility, and severe strain-hardening. In this framework, the aim of this paper is to assess the machinability of Ni-Ti alloys with reference to turning processes in order to realize a reliable and robust in-process identification of machinability conditions. An on-line sensor monitoring procedure based on the acquisition of vibration signals was implemented during the experimental turning tests. The detected vibration sensorial data were processed through an advanced signal processing method in time-frequency domain based on wavelet packet transform (WPT. The extracted sensorial features were used to construct WPT pattern feature vectors to send as input to suitably configured neural networks (NNs for cognitive pattern recognition in order to evaluate the correlation between input sensorial information and output machinability conditions.

  14. Vibration Sensor Monitoring of Nickel-Titanium Alloy Turning for Machinability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segreto, Tiziana; Caggiano, Alessandra; Karam, Sara; Teti, Roberto

    2017-12-12

    Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys are very difficult-to-machine materials causing notable manufacturing problems due to their unique mechanical properties, including superelasticity, high ductility, and severe strain-hardening. In this framework, the aim of this paper is to assess the machinability of Ni-Ti alloys with reference to turning processes in order to realize a reliable and robust in-process identification of machinability conditions. An on-line sensor monitoring procedure based on the acquisition of vibration signals was implemented during the experimental turning tests. The detected vibration sensorial data were processed through an advanced signal processing method in time-frequency domain based on wavelet packet transform (WPT). The extracted sensorial features were used to construct WPT pattern feature vectors to send as input to suitably configured neural networks (NNs) for cognitive pattern recognition in order to evaluate the correlation between input sensorial information and output machinability conditions.

  15. [Evaluation of three dimensional orthodontic force produced by magnet of fix appliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xin; Hou, Zhi-ming; Yao, Ge; Wen, Jing-long

    2008-12-01

    To analyze the feature and magnitude of three dimensional orthodontic force produced by the magnet of fix appliance. Forces detected by universal fatigue test system included the attractive and repulsive,the inclined and rotated orthodontic forces of two magnets in different air gaps, and the integrated inclined and rotated orthodontic forces of two magnets and NiTi wire. The attractive and repulsive forces of two magnets were 4.68 to 0.45 N and 3.00 to 0.40 N respectively in the air gaps of 0 to 5 mm. The inclined orthodontic forces were 1.54 to 1.67 N, 0.63 to 0.69 N, 0.47 to 0.54 N when the magnets were vertically inclined 10 degrees to 40 degrees in the air gaps of 0, 1, 2mm. The rotated orthodontic forces were 0.97 to 1.32 N, 0.53 to 0.59 N, 0.39 to 0.48 N when the magnets were horizontally rotated 10 degrees to 40 degrees in the air gaps of 0, 1, 2mm. The integrated orthodontic force of two magnets and 0.014-inch NiTi wire was 0.32 to 0.5 N when the magnets was vertically inclined 10 degrees to 40 degrees in the air gap of 4 mm. The integrated orthodontic force of two magnets and 0.012-inch NiTi wire was 0.32 to 0.39 N when the magnets were horizontally rotated 10 degrees to 40 degrees in the air gap of 3 mm. Magnets made into orthodontic brackets to some extent could replace the mechanical orthodontic force produced by orthodontic wires and elastics.

  16. A comparison of space closure rates between preactivated nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum alloy T-loops: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Feng-Yi; Quick, Andrew N; Swain, Michael V; Herbison, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the rate of space closure and tooth angulation during maxillary canine retraction using preactivated T-loops made from titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA) and nickel-titanium (NiTi). Twelve patients (six males and six females) aged between 13 and 20 years who had upper premolar extractions were included, and each acted as their own control, with a NiTi T-loop allocated to one quadrant and TMA to the other using a split mouth block randomization design. The loops were activated 3 mm at each visit to deliver a load of approximately 150 g to the upper canine teeth. Maxillary dental casts, taken at the first and each subsequent monthly visit, were used to evaluate changes in extraction space and canine angulation. All used T-loops were compared with unused loops in order to assess distortion. Mixed model statistical analysis was used to adjust for confounding variables. The mean rate of canine retraction using preactivated NiTi and TMA T-loops was 0.91 mm/month (±0.46) and 0.87 mm/month (±0.34), respectively. The canine tipping rates were 0.71 degrees/month (±2.34) for NiTi and 1.15 degrees/month (±2.86) for TMA. Both the rate of space closure and the tipping were not significantly different between the two wire types. The average percentage distortion of the TMA T-loop was 10 times greater than that of the NiTi loops when all other variables were matched. There was no difference in the rate of space closure or tooth angulation between preactivated TMA or NiTi T-loops when used to retract upper canines. The NiTi loops possessed a greater ability to retain and return to their original shapes following cyclical activation.

  17. Inorganic ion exchanger based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with europium to be used in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Kodaira, Claudia A.; Brito, Hermi F.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results of synthesis and characterization of an inorganic ion exchanger based on tin/titanium mixed oxides doped with europium (SnO 2 /TiO 2 :Eu 3+ ) to be used in environmental field. The adsorption study of nickel was realized in this exchanger to recover the nickel metal which is in thorium-nickel alloys used as electrode of discharge lamps. The studied exchanger was synthesized by neutralization of tin chloride (IV) and titanium chloride (III) mixed solution and characterized by thermogravimetric measurement (TG), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The adsorption study showed that these inorganic ion exchangers are good materials to recovery nickel with high weight distribution ratios (Dw Ni 2+ ) and percent adsorption. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the fit of preformed nickel titanium arch wires on normal occlusion dental arches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhn G. Al-Barakati

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using an archwire form with the best fit to the dental arch should produce minimal changes in the dental arch form when NiTi wires are used and require less customization when stainless-steel wires are used.

  19. PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES AT THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF ROLLED WIRE OF NICKEL-MOLYBDENUM STEEL WITH WELDING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are results of researches of the mechanical properties and structure of the wire rod made of low-carbon nickel molybdenum steel after reduction to toughness thermomechanical treatment in the stream of high-speed wire mill.

  20. Radiographic comparison of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment between bidimensional and Roth straight-wire techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H; Malki, Ghadah A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount of root resorption after orthodontic treatment between the bidimensional and the Roth straight-wire techniques. Another objective was to compare the amount of root resorption in the whole sample studied and record the prevalence of root resorption. The sample consisted of 40 patients (age ranged between 11 and 18 years) with Angle Class II division 1 malocclusions, treated nonextraction. Twenty patients were treated with bidimensional technique and 20 with a 0.018-inch Roth straight-wire technique. Root lengths of the maxillary incisors were measured on pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. The results demonstrated that the bidimensional and Roth straight-wire groups showed significant root resorption after treatment, 1.11 (0.17) and 0.86 (0.05), respectively, P root shortening between the bidimensional and Roth straight-wire groups, there was no significant difference between the mean change from pre- to post-treatment between bidimensional group (mean = 1.00 ± 1.34) and Roth straight-wire group (mean = 0.88 ± 0.86), P = 0.63. Considering the whole sample, there was no root resoprtion in 32.5% of the analysed teeth. There was only mild resorption in 56.2%, moderate in 8.8% and severe in only 2.5% of the teeth. Treatment with the bidimensional technique did not produce an increase in the amount of root resorption. The prevalence and amount of root resorption was similar between bidimensional and Roth straight-wire techniques.

  1. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  2. Effects of carbonated soft drink consumption on orthodontic tooth movements in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Agha Aghili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B, the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured.The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink.CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism.

  3. Does systemic administration of casein phosphopeptides affect orthodontic movement and root resorption in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Lachlan; Shen, Gang; Almuzian, Mohammed; Jones, Allan; Walsh, William; Oliver, Rema; Petocz, Peter; Tarraf, Nour E; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2017-10-01

    To assess the potential effects of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) on orthodontically induced iatrogenic root resorption (OIIRR) and orthodontic teeth movement. Forty Wistar rats (aged 11 weeks) were randomly divided into experimental group (EG; n = 20) that received a diet supplemented with CPP and control group (CG; n = 20) devoid of diet supplement. A 150 g force was applied using nickel titanium (NiTi) coil that was bonded on maxillary incisors and extended unilaterally to a maxillary first molar. At Day 28, animals in both groups were euthanized. Volumetric assessment of root resorption craters and linear measurement of maxillary first molars movement were blindly examined using a micro-computed tomography scan. Nine rats were excluded from the experiment due to loss during general anesthesia or appliances' failure. Intra-operator reproducibility was high in both volumetric and linear measurements, 92.8 per cent and 98.5-97.6 per cent, respectively. The results reveal that dietary CPP has statistically insignificant effect on the overall OIIRR and orthodontic movement. CPP seems to have statistically insignificant effect on the volume of OIIRR and orthodontic movement in rats. A long-term study with larger sample size using a different concentration of CPP is required to clarify the dentoalveolar effect of CPP. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Fabrication of tungsten wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Toth, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication methods for tungsten fiber reinforced nickel-base superalloy composites were investigated. Three matrix alloys in pre-alloyed powder or rolled sheet form were evaluated in terms of fabricability into composite monotape and multi-ply forms. The utility of monotapes for fabricating more complex shapes was demonstrated. Preliminary 1093C (2000F) stress rupture tests indicated that efficient utilization of fiber strength was achieved in composites fabricated by diffusion bonding processes. The fabrication of thermal fatigue specimens is also described.

  5. Electron beam additive manufacturing with wire - Analysis of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglowski, Marek St.; Błacha, Sylwester; Pilarczyk, Jan; Dutkiewicz, Jan; Rogal, Łukasz

    2018-05-01

    The electron beam additive manufacturing process with wire is a part of global trend to find fast and efficient methods for producing complex shapes elements from costly metal alloys such as stainless steels, nickel alloys, titanium alloys etc. whose production by other conventional technologies is unprofitable or technically impossible. Demand for additive manufacturing is linked to the development of new technologies in the automotive, aerospace and machinery industries. The aim of the presented work was to carried out research on electron beam additive manufacturing with a wire as a deposited (filler) material. The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selected technological parameters such as: wire feed rate, beam current, travelling speed, acceleration voltage on stability of the deposition process and geometric dimensions of the padding welds. The research revealed that, at low beam currents, the deposition process is unstable. The padding weld reinforcement is non-uniform. Irregularity of the width, height and straightness of the padding welds can be observed. At too high acceleration voltage and beam current, burn-through of plate and excess penetration weld can be revealed. The achieved results and gained knowledge allowed to produce, based on EBAM with wire process, whole structure from stainless steel.

  6. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) rod, bar, and wire

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) rod, bar, and wire

  7. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  8. In vitro assessment of photocatalytic titanium oxide surface modified stainless steel orthodontic brackets for antiadherent and antibacterial properties against Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Alok Girish; Shetty, Pradeep Chandra; Ramachandra, C S; Bhat, N Sham; Laxmikanth, S M

    2011-11-01

    To assess the antiadherent and antibacterial properties of surface modified stainless steel orthodontic brackets with photocatalytic titanium oxide (TiO(2)) against Lactobacillus acidophilus. This study was done on 120 specimens of stainless steel preadjusted edgewise appliance (PEA) orthodontic brackets. The specimens were divided into four test groups. Each group consisted of 30 specimens. Groups containing uncoated brackets acted as a control group for their respective experimental group containing coated brackets. Surface modification of brackets was carried out by the radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method with photocatalytic TiO(2). Brackets then were subjected to microbiological tests for assessment of the antiadherent and antibacterial properties of photocatalytic TiO(2) coating against L acidophilus. Orthodontic brackets coated with photocatalytic TiO(2) showed an antiadherent effect against L acidophilus compared with uncoated brackets. The bacterial mass that was bound to the TiO(2)-coated brackets was less when compared with the uncoated brackets. Furthermore, TiO(2)-coated brackets had a bactericidal effect on L acidophilus, which causes dental caries. Surface modification of orthodontic brackets with photocatalytic TiO(2) can be used to prevent the accumulation of dental plaque and the development of dental caries during orthodontic treatment.

  9. Material and biofilm load of K wires in toe surgery: titanium versus stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Martin; Graf, Susanne; Gersbach, Silke; Hintermann, Beat; Ilchmann, Thomas; Knupp, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Recurrence rates for toe deformity correction are high and primarily are attributable to scar contractures. These contractures may result from subclinical infection. We hypothesized that (1) recurrence of toe deformities and residual pain are related to low-grade infections from biofilm formation on percutaneous K wires, (2) biofilm formation is lower on titanium (Ti) K wires compared with stainless steel (SS) K wires, and (3) clinical outcome is superior with the use of Ti K wires compared with SS K wires. In this prospective nonrandomized, comparative study, we investigated 135 lesser toe deformities (61 patients; 49 women; mean ± SD age, 60 ± 15 years) temporarily fixed with K wires between August 2010 and March 2011 (81 SS, 54 Ti). K wires were removed after 6 weeks. The presence of biofilm-related infections was analyzed by sonication. High bacterial loads (> 500 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were detected on all six toes requiring revision before 6 months. Increased bacterial load was associated with pain and swelling but not recurrence of the deformity. More SS K wires had greater than 100 CFU/mL bacteria than Ti K wires. For K wires with a bacterial count greater than 100 CFU/mL, toes with Ti K wires had a lower recurrence rate, less pain, and less swelling than toes with SS K wires. Ti K wires showed superior clinical outcomes to SS K wires. This appears to be attributable to reduced infection rates. Although additional study is needed, we currently recommend the use of Ti K wires for the transfixation of toe deformities. Level II, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. Effects of Fluoride on NiTi Orthodontic Archwires: An X-ray Diffraction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Results: Unloading force values of NiTi orthodontic wires were significantly decreased after exposure to both fluoride solutions (p < 0.001. Corrosive changes in surface topography were observed for both fluoride solutions. Wires exposed to acidic fluoride appeared as more severely affected. X-ray diffraction analysis showed no change in crystal lattice of NiTi wires in both solutions. Conclusion: The results suggest that using topical fluoride agents with NiTi wire could decrease the functional unloading mechanical properties of the wire and contribute to prolonged orthodontic treatment.

  11. Um novo fio de aço inoxidável para aplicações ortodônticas A new stainless steel wire for orthodontic purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Itman Filho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: desenvolver uma metodologia para fabricação de fios ortodônticos de aço inoxidável austeno-ferrítico SEW 410 Nr. 14517 por meio dos processos convencionais de laminação e trefilação. MÉTODOS: o aço austeno-ferrítico foi elaborado em um forno elétrico de indução. A qualidade dos fios foi avaliada por ensaios de tração e medidas de microdureza. A ductilidade e a manuseabilidade foram analisadas por meio da confecção de componentes ortodônticos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os valores encontrados mostraram que os fios de aço inoxidável austeno-ferrítico atenderam às normas BS 3507:1976 e ISO 5832-1, e apresentaram ótima ductilidade para confecção de componentes ortodônticos com dobras complexas.OBJECTIVE: To develop a method to manufacture austenitic-ferritic stainless steel orthodontic wires (SEW 410 Nr. 14517 using conventional rolling and wiredrawing processes. METHODS: Austenitic-ferritic steel was produced in an induction furnace. Traction trials and microhardness measurements were used to evaluate wire quality. Orthodontic parts were fabricated to assess ductility and malleability. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Austenitic-ferritic stainless steel wires meet the BS 3507:1976 and ISO 5832-1 norms and have excellent ductility for the fabrication of orthodontic parts with complex folds.

  12. Preparation of a nickel nanopowder by wire explosion in liquid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chuhyun; Ha, Yooncheol; Kang, Chungil; Jin, Yunsik; Rim, Geunhie

    2010-01-01

    Nickel wires of 0.8 mm in diameter and 80 mm in length were electrically exploded in liquid media, such as water, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and acetone. The electrical energy discharged through the wire was 10 kJ. The distribution of particle sizes was broad from a few μm to tens of nanometer, regardless of the liquid medium used in this study. The particles could be classified according to their sizes by using a centrifugal separator. The powder prepared in distilled water showed mainly a pure metallic Ni phase although a little oxide phase was observed in the XRD analysis. However, the powders prepared in ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and acetone showed complicated unknown phases, which is attributed to a compound of carbon in the organic liquid. The unknown phase was turned into a pure metallic Ni phase after heat treatment at 400 .deg. C.

  13. Impact of heat treatments on the fatigue resistance of different rotary nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Lígia Carolina Moreira; Faria Silva, Ana Cristina; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes; de Azevedo Bahia, Maria Guiomar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of M-Wire (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) and controlled memory technologies on the fatigue resistance of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) files by comparing files made using these 2 technologies with conventional NiTi files. Files with a similar cross-sectional design and diameter were chosen for the study: new 30/.06 files of the EndoWave (EW; J. Morita Corp, Osaka, Japan), HyFlex (HF; Coltene/Whaledent, Inc, Cuyahoga Falls, OH), ProFile Vortex (PV; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), and Typhoon (TYP; Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT) systems together with ProTaper Universal F2 instruments (PTU F2; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The compositions and transformation temperatures of the instruments were analyzed using x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, whereas the mean file diameter values at 3 mm from the tip (D3) were measured using image analysis software. The average number of cycles to failure was determined using a fatigue test device. X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that, on average, all the instruments exhibited the same chemical composition, namely, 51% Ni-49% Ti. The PV, TYP, and HF files exhibited increased transformation temperatures. The PTU F2, PV, and TYP files had similar D3 values, which were less than those of the EW and HF files. The average number of cycles to failure values were 150% higher for the TYP files compared with the PV files and 390% higher for the HF files compared with the EW files. M-Wire and controlled memory technologies increase the fatigue resistance of rotary NiTi files. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Locally limited inhibition of bone resorption and orthodontic relapse by recombinant osteoprotegerin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D A; Smith, S M; Campbell, C; Hayami, T; Kapila, S; Hatch, N E

    2015-04-01

    To determine minimal dose levels required for local inhibition of orthodontic relapse by recombinant OPG protein (OPG-Fc), while also determining effects of injected OPG-Fc on alveolar bone and long bone. The Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry at the University of Michigan. Eighteen male Sprague Dawley rats. Maxillary molars were moved with nickel-titanium springs and then allowed to relapse in Sprague Dawley rats. Upon appliance removal, animals were injected with a single dose of 1.0 mg/kg OPG-Fc, 0.1 mg/kg OPG-Fc, or phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle) just distal to the molar teeth. Tooth movement measurements were made from stone casts, which were scanned and digitally measured. Alveolar tissues were examined by histology. Micro-computed tomography was used to quantify changes in alveolar and femur bone. Local injection of OPG-Fc inhibited molar but not incisor relapse, when compared to vehicle-injected animals. No significant differences in alveolar or femur bone were seen between the three treatment groups after 24 days of relapse. Our results demonstrate that a single local injection of OPG-Fc effectively inhibits orthodontic relapse, with minimal systemic bone metabolic effects. Our results also show that a single injection of OPG-Fc will influence tooth movement only in teeth close to the injection site. These findings indicate that OPG-Fc has potential as a safe and effective pharmacological means to locally control osteoclasts, for uses such as maintaining anchorage during orthodontic tooth movement and preventing orthodontic relapse in humans. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Involvement of prostaglandins and histamine in nickel wire-induced acute inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Goi, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Rina; Ishihara, Kenji; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2010-06-15

    The irritancy of Nickel (Ni) ions has been well documented clinically. However, the chemical mediators involved in the acute inflammation induced by solid Ni are not fully understood. We used the Ni wire-implantation model in mice and examined roles of prostaglandins and histamine in plasma leakage in the acute phase. The subcutaneous implantation of a Ni wire into the back of mice induced plasma leakage from 8 to 24 h and tissue necrosis around the wire at 3 days, whereas the implantation of an aluminum wire induced no such inflammatory responses. An increase in the mRNA for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and HDC in cells around the Ni wire was detected 4 h after the implantation. The leakage of plasma at 8 h was inhibited by indomethacin in a dose-dependent manner. Dexamethasone and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 also inhibited the exudation of plasma consistent with the inhibition of the expression of COX-2 mRNA. Furthermore, plasma leakage was partially but siginificantly reduced in histamine H1 receptor knockout mice and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) knockout mice but not in H2 receptor knockout mice. These results suggested that the Ni ions released from the wire induced the expression of COX-2 and HDC, resulting in an increase in vascular permeability during the acute phase of inflammation. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires.

  17. Study of alumina-trichite reinforcement of a nickel-based matric by means of powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, A.; Hivert, A.

    1982-01-01

    Research was conducted on reinforcing nickel based matrices with alumina trichites by using powder metallurgy. Alumina trichites previously coated with nickel are magnetically aligned. The felt obtained is then sintered under a light pressure at a temperature just below the melting point of nickel. The halogenated atmosphere technique makes it possible to incorporate a large number of additive elements such as chromium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum, niobium, aluminum, etc. It does not appear that going from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale in production would create any major problems.

  18. Lingual Orthodontics simplified : Incognito -customization perfected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroutioun Dedeyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthetic orthodontics is the need of the hour, fuelled by the increasing number of adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Alternatives to labial appliance include clear aligners and lingual appliance. Conventional lingual treatment is laborious in terms of laboratory setup and manual dexterity of the operator, coupled with less than optimum treatment results. Customization of the appliance to meet varied requirements of each patient due to highly variable lingual morphology within and amongst patients is the key to successful treatment in lingual orthodontics. Efforts at bracket base customization using intra-oral jigs and laboratory setups are fraught with unavoidable errors affecting treatment outcome. With the advent of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology the Eldorado of true customization is now a reality. This paper introduces the Incognito Appliance System based on custom-made brackets and custom-made series of pre-bent wires using state of art CAD/CAM manufacturing procedures.

  19. Photoelastic analysis of stress generated by wires when conventional and self-ligating brackets are used: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Caiado Sobral

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: By means of a photoelastic model, this study analyzed the stress caused on conventional and self-ligating brackets with expanded arch wires. METHOD: Standard brackets were adhered to artificial teeth and a photoelastic model was prepared using the Interlandi 19/12 diagram as base. Successive activations were made with 0.014-in and 0.018-in rounded cross section Nickel-Titanium wires (NiTi and 0.019 x 0.025-in rectangular stainless steel wires all of which made on 22/14 Interlandi diagram. The model was observed on a plane polariscope - in a dark field microscope configuration - and photographed at each exchange of wire. Then, they were replaced by self-ligating brackets and the process was repeated. Analysis was qualitative and observed stress location and pattern on both models analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Results identified greater stress on the region of the apex of premolars in both analyzed models. Upon comparing the stress between models, a greater amount of stress was found in the model with conventional brackets in all of its wires. Therefore, the present pilot study revealed that alignment of wires in self-ligating brackets produced lower stress in periodontal tissues in expansive mechanics.

  20. Effects of nanostructured, diamondlike, carbon coating and nitrocarburizing on the frictional properties and biocompatibility of orthodontic stainless steel wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Guo, Shuyu; Wang, Dongyue; Zhou, Tingting; Wang, Lin; Ma, Junqing

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of nanostructured, diamondlike, carbon (DLC) coating and nitrocarburizing on the frictional properties and biocompatibility of orthodontic stainless steel archwires. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology was applied to coat DLC films onto the surface of austenitic stainless steel wires, and salt-bath nitrocarburizing technology was employed to achieve surface hardening of other wires. Surface and cross-sectional characteristics, microhardness, modulus of elasticity, friction resistance, corrosion resistance, and cell toxicity of the modified and control wires were analyzed. The surfaces of the DLC-coated and nitrocarburized wires were both smooth and even. Compared with the control, the DLC-coated wires were increased in surface hardness 1.46 times, decreased in elastic modulus, reduced in kinetic friction coefficient by 40.71%, and decreased in corrosion current density by two orders of magnitude. The nitrocarburized wire was increased in surface hardness 2.39 times, exhibited an unchanged elastic modulus, demonstrated a decrease in maximum static friction force of 22.2%, and rose in corrosion current density two orders of magnitude. Cytotoxicity tests revealed no significant toxicity associated with the modified wires. DLC coating and nitrocarburizing significantly improved the surface hardness of the wires, reduced friction, and exhibited good biocompatibility. The nanostructured DLC coating provided excellent corrosion resistance and good elasticity, and while the nitrocarburizing technique substantially improved frictional properties, it reduced the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel wires to a lesser extent.

  1. The correlation between pain perception among patients with six different orthodontic archwires and the degree of dental crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Evgenija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Forces generated in orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances create tension and compression zones in the periodontal ligament resulting in a painful experience for patients. In the first phase of orthodontic treatment, when leveling of teeth is needed, nickel-titanium (NiTi archwires can be completely engaged in brackets, even in the cases of extreme crowding, exerting small forces. There is a great individual variation in the pain perception related to the application of orthodontic forces. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the pain perception among patients with dental crowding after insertion of six different NiTi orthodontic archwires as a part of fixed appliances in the first stage of orthodontic treatment. Methods. The study was conducted on a sample of 189 orthodontic patients receiving one of six different either superelastic or heat activated NiTi archwires, in the first phase of orthodontic treatment. Pain perception was evaluated in groups of patients with different degree of crowding. The modified McGill Pain Questionnaire with Visual Analogue Scale was used to evaluate the quality and intensity of pain. Statistical analysis was performed using simple descriptive statistics, and Pearson`s chi-square test with statistical significance of p<0.05. Results. Majority of patients reported pain as discomfort or pressure of moderate intensity caused by chewing or biting, started within 12 hours, carried on for 3-4 days, and decreased over time without self-medication. Conclusion. No correlation was found between pain perception among patients with different types of NiTi archwires and the degree of crowding.

  2. Cyclic Fatigue Testing of Three Different Rotary Nickel Titanium Endodontic Instruments in Simulated Curved Canals - An in Vitro Sem Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy Y., Pallavi; S., Kavita; Subbarao, C.V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Instrument separation is a serious concern in endodontics. Stainless steel instruments usually deform before they separate whereas Nickel Titanium instruments do not show any sign of deformation.

  3. Nickel cobaltite nanograss grown around porous carbon nanotube-wrapped stainless steel wire mesh as a flexible electrode for high-performance supercapacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Zheng, Zhi-Bin; Lai, Yu-Sheng; Jow, Jiin-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nickel cobaltite nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution is grown around the carbon nanotube-wrapped stainless steel wire mesh as a high capacitance and stable electrode for high-performance and flexible supercapacitors. - Highlights: • NiCo 2 O 4 nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution is hydrothermally prepared. • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) wrap around stainless steel (SS) wire mesh as a scaffold. • NiCo 2 O 4 grown on CNT-wrapped SS mesh shows excellent capacitive performance. • Porous CNT layer allows for rapid transport of electron and electrolyte. - Abstract: Nickel cobaltite nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution (small and large mesopores) is grown on various electrode substrates by one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. The small pores (<5 nm) in the nanograss of individual nanorods contribute to large surface area, while the large pore channels (>20 nm) between nanorods offer fast transport paths for electrolyte. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high electrical conductivity wrap around stainless steel (SS) wire mesh by electrophoresis as an electrode scaffold for supporting the nickel cobaltite nanograss. This unique electrode configuration turns out to have great benefits for the development of supercapacitors. The specific capacitance of nickel cobaltite grown around CNT-wrapped SS wire mesh reaches 1223 and 1070 F g −1 at current densities of 1 and 50 A g −1 , respectively. CNT-wrapped SS wire mesh affords porous and conductive networks underneath the nanograss for rapid transport of electron and electrolyte. Flexible CNTs connect the nanorods to mitigate the contact resistance and the volume expansion during cycling test. Thus, this tailored electrode can significantly reduce the ohmic resistance, charge-transfer resistance, and diffusive impedance, leading to high specific capacitance, prominent rate performance, and good cycle-life stability.

  4. Self-organized nickel nanoparticles on nanostructured silicon substrate intermediated by a titanium oxynitride (TiNxOy) interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M.; Droppa, R., Jr.; de Mello, S. R. S.; Figueroa, C. A.; Zanatta, A. R.; Alvarez, F.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report an experimental approach by combining in situ sequential top-down and bottom-up processes to induce the organization of nanosized nickel particles. The top-down process consists in xenon ion bombardment of a crystalline silicon substrate to generate a pattern, followed by depositing a ˜15 nm titanium oxynitride thin film to act as a metallic diffusion barrier. Then, metallic nanoparticles are deposited by argon ion sputtering a pure nickel target, and the sample is annealed to promote the organization of the nickel nanoparticles (a bottom-up process). According to the experimental results, the surface pattern and the substrate biaxial surface strain are the driving forces behind the alignment and organization of the nickel nanoparticles. Moreover, the ratio between the F of metallic atoms arriving at the substrate relative to its surface diffusion mobility determines the nucleation regime of the nickel nanoparticles. These features are presented and discussed considering the existing technical literature on the subject.

  5. A novel biomechanical model assessing continuous orthodontic archwire activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Christopher; Larson, Matthew; Grauer, Dan; Sheats, Rose; Stevens, Clarke; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The biomechanics of a continuous archwire inserted into multiple orthodontic brackets is poorly understood. The purpose of this research was to apply the birth-death technique to simulate insertion of an orthodontic wire and consequent transfer of forces to the dentition in an anatomically accurate model. Methods A digital model containing the maxillary dentition, periodontal ligament (PDL), and surrounding bone was constructed from human computerized tomography data. Virtual brackets were placed on four teeth (central and lateral incisors, canine and first premolar), and a steel archwire (0.019″ × 0.025″) with a 0.5 mm step bend to intrude the lateral incisor was virtually inserted into the bracket slots. Forces applied to the dentition and surrounding structures were simulated utilizing the birth-death technique. Results The goal of simulating a complete bracket-wire system on accurate anatomy including multiple teeth was achieved. Orthodontic force delivered by the wire-bracket interaction was: central incisor 19.1 N, lateral incisor 21.9 N, and canine 19.9 N. Loading the model with equivalent point forces showed a different stress distribution in the PDL. Conclusions The birth-death technique proved to be a useful biomechanical simulation method for placement of a continuous archwire in orthodontic brackets. The ability to view the stress distribution throughout proper anatomy and appliances advances understanding of orthodontic biomechanics. PMID:23374936

  6. Shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S A; Dummer, P M

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this laboratory-based study was to determine the shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim nickel-titanium rotary instruments in simulated root canals. A total of 40 canals with four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curve were prepared with NT Engine and McXim instruments, using the technique recommended by the manufacturer. Part 2 of this report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of prevalence of canal aberrations, the amount and direction of canal transportation and overall postoperative shape. Pre- and postoperative images of the canals were taken using a video camera attached to a computer with image analysis software. The pre- and postoperative views were superimposed to highlight the amount and position of material removed during preparation. No zips, elbows, perforations or danger zones were created during preparation. Forty-two per cent of canals had ledges on the outer aspect of the curve, the majority of which (16 out of 17) occurred in canals with short acute curves. There were significant differences (P Engine and McXim rotary nickel-titanium instruments created no aberrations other than ledges and produced only minimal transportation. The overall shape of canals was good.

  7. Evaluation of the force generated by gradual deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional metallic, esthetic, and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisconi, Manoela Fávaro; Janson, Guilherme; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deflection forces of Nitinol orthodontic wires placed in different types of brackets: metallic, reinforced polycarbonate with metallic slots, sapphire, passive and active self-ligating, by assessing strength values variation according to gradual increase in wire diameter and deflection and comparing different combinations in the different deflections. Specimens were set in a clinical simulation model and evaluated in a Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON 3342), using the ISO 15841 protocol. Data were subjected to One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey tests (pbrackets presented the most similar behavior to each other. For conventional brackets there was no consistent behavior for any of the deflections studied. Self-ligating brackets presented the most consistent and predictable results while conventional brackets, as esthetic brackets, showed very different patterns of forces. Self-ligating brackets showed higher strength in all deflections when compared with the others, in 0.020-inch wires.

  8. Evaluation of the force generated by gradual deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional metallic, esthetic, and self-ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Fávaro Francisconi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deflection forces of Nitinol orthodontic wires placed in different types of brackets: metallic, reinforced polycarbonate with metallic slots, sapphire, passive and active self-ligating, by assessing strength values variation according to gradual increase in wire diameter and deflection and comparing different combinations in the different deflections. Material and Methods: Specimens were set in a clinical simulation model and evaluated in a Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON 3342, using the ISO 15841 protocol. Data were subjected to One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey tests (p<0.05. Results: Self-ligating brackets presented the most similar behavior to each other. For conventional brackets there was no consistent behavior for any of the deflections studied. Conclusions: Self-ligating brackets presented the most consistent and predictable results while conventional brackets, as esthetic brackets, showed very different patterns of forces. Self-ligating brackets showed higher strength in all deflections when compared with the others, in 0.020-inch wires.

  9. Precision multiloop (PM Design) with space closing circles for lingual orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mugdha P Mankar; Achint Chachada; Harish Atram; Avanti Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    The proficiency of ancient orthodontics has been benefitted colossally and is being continually promoted over the present, by use of multiple loop wires designed for correction of dentoalveolar malocclusions. The presented discussion provides an insight into a simple, frictionless biomechanical concept of anterior space closure in lingual orthodontics by means of precision multiloop design with incorporated space closing circles. A multiple loop wire design has been demonstrated where the ent...

  10. Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Surface Treatment on the Strength of a Titanium Carbide - 30 Percent Nickel Base Cermet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Leonard; Grala, Edward M

    1957-01-01

    Specimens of a nickel-bonded titanium carbide cermet were given the following surface treatments: (1) grinding, (2) lapping, (3) blast cleaning, (4) acid roughening, (5) oxidizing, and (6) oxidizing and refinishing. Room-temperature modulus-of-rupture and impact strength varied with the different surface treatments. Considerable strength losses resulted from the following treatments: (1) oxidation at 1600 F for 100 hours, (2) acid roughening, and (3) severe grinding with 60-grit silicon carbide abrasive. The strength loss after oxidation was partially recovered by grit blasting or diamond grinding.

  11. Effects of calcitonin on orthodontic tooth movement and associated root resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Lin, Suai; Yan, Weijun; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    Our main aim was to evaluate the effects of calcitonin (CT) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats in the negative control group were not given any appliances or injections. All the remaining rats were used to establish a model of OTM. The positive control group were then injected with normal saline, while rats in the three experimental groups were injected with 0.2 IU, 1 IU or 5 IU/kg/day CT. Nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were used to deliver an initial 50 g mesial force to the left maxillary first molar for 14 days in rats in the positive control group and the experimental groups. Each group was randomly subdivided into two groups, one for analysis of tooth movement, tissue changes and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells in alveolar bone, the other to examine root resorption by scanning electron microscopy. The OTM distance, the number of force-induced osteoclasts and root resorption areas were significantly decreased in CT-injected rats in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of CT reduces the root resorption area and may therefore be effective as a novel adjunctive orthodontic approach to diminish undesired tooth movement via enhancing anchorage or preventing relapse after OTM.

  12. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  13. A Survey on Nickel Titanium Rotary Instruments and their Usage Techniques by Endodontists in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Thimmanagowda N; Saraf, Prahlad A; Penukonda, Raghavendra; Vanaki, Sneha S; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2017-05-01

    The preference and usage of nickel titanium rotary instruments varies from individual to individual based on their technique, experience with the rotary systems and the clinical situation. Very limited information is available to explain the adoption of changing concepts with respect to nickel titanium rotary instruments pertaining to the endodontists in India. The aim of this study was to conduct a questionnaire survey to acquire the knowledge concerning different NiTi rotary instruments and their usage techniques by endodontists in India. A Survey questionnaire was designed which consisted of 32 questions regarding designation, demographics, experience with rotary instruments, usage of different file systems, usage techniques, frequency of reuse, occurrence of file fracture, reasons and their management was distributed by hand in the national postgraduate convention and also disseminated via electronic medium to 400 and 600 endodontists respectively. Information was collected from each individual to gain insight into the experiences and beliefs of endodontists concerning the new endodontic technology of rotary NiTi instrumentation based on their clinical experience with the rotary systems. The questions were designed to ascertain the problems, patterns of use and to identify areas of perceived or potential concern regarding the rotary instruments and the data acquired was statistically evaluated using Fisher's-exact test and the Chi-Square test. Overall 63.8% (638) endodontists responded. ProTaper was one of the most commonly used file system followed by M two and ProTaper Next. There was a significant co relation between the years of experience and the file re use frequency, preparation technique, file separation, management of file separation. A large number of Endodontists prefer to reuse the rotary NiTi instruments. As there was an increase in the experience, the incidence of file separation reduced with increasing number of re use frequency and with

  14. Microstructural studies and wear assessments of Ti/TiC surface composite coatings on commercial pure Ti produced by titanium cored wires and TIG process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfared, A., E-mail: amirmonfared25@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H.; Asgari, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) process and titanium cored wires filled with micro size TiC particles were employed to produce surface composite coatings on commercial pure Ti substrate for wear resistance improvement. Wire drawing process was utilized to produce several cored wires from titanium strips and titanium carbide powders. Subsequently, these cored wires were melted and coated on commercial pure Ti using TIG process. This procedure was repeated at different current intensities and welding travel speeds. Composite coating tracks were found to be affected by TIG heat input. The microstructural studies using optical and scanning electron microscopy supported by X-ray diffraction showed that the surface composite coatings consisted of {alpha} Prime -Ti, spherical and dendritic TiC particles. Also, greater volume fractions of TiC particles in the coatings were found at lower heat input. A maximum microhardness value of about 1100 HV was measured which is more than 7 times higher than the substrate material. Pin-on-disk wear tests exhibited a better performance of the surface composite coatings than the untreated material which was attributed to the presence of TiC particles in the microstructure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti/TiC composite coatings were produced on the CP-Ti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium cored wire and TIG process were employed for production of the coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing heat input, increased the volume fraction of TiC in the coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum microhardness obtained in the lowest heat input. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wear resistance of the coatings improved due to the formation of TiC particles.

  15. Four Cases of Angular Cheilitis in Orthodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kafaie

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin and mucosa to either external or internal factors. It can be divided to two forms of irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel is one of the most common materials that causes allergic contact dermatitis and is widely used in orthodontic appliances. The inflammatory reaction to this metal in orthodontics is usually stomatitis and angular cheilitis is very rare. We report 4 cases of angular cheilitis in orthodontic patients and discuss about their causes and treatments.

  16. Hypersensitivity to conventional and to nickel-free orthodontic brackets Hipersensibilidade a bráquetes ortodônticos convencionais e a bráquetes "nickel-free"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Cristina Garcia Pantuzo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of orthodontic brackets, comparing the cutaneous sensitivity provoked by metals present in conventional metallic brackets to that provoked by brackets with a low concentration of nickel, known as "nickel-free". A sample was selected from 400 patients undergoing treatment in the orthodontic clinic of the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, in the period from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2003. A cutaneous sensitivity patch test containing 5% nickel sulphate was used in 58 patients (30 males and 28 females, aged between 11 and 30, which were using fixed appliances with Morelli® brackets in both arches. In a second phase, 30 days later, a comparative test of cutaneous sensitivity was applied to the whole sample with two types of test specimens, in the form of a disc. Two alloys were tested: discs composed of the alloy used in the construction of conventional brackets and discs composed of a nickel-free alloy. The internal part of the forearm was chosen for testing, and 20 test specimens of each experiment (corresponding to the twenty brackets of a complete fixed appliance were applied. Of the 58 patients evaluated, 16 patients were sensitive to the patch test with 5% nickel sulphate. Out of these 16 patients, 12 developed an allergic reaction to experiment 1 (test specimen with nickel, while in experiment 2, only 5 patients showed sensitivity to that sample. The McNemar test revealed that the nickel-free test specimens provoked less allergic reaction when compared with the conventional alloy (p = 0.016.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade alergênica provocada pelos bráquetes ortodônticos, comparando a sensibilidade cutânea provocada pelos metais presentes nos bráquetes metálicos convencionais com a provocada por bráquetes com baixa concentração de níquel ("nickel-free". A amostra foi selecionada dos 400 pacientes

  17. Physics-based simulation modeling and optimization of microstructural changes induced by machining and selective laser melting processes in titanium and nickel based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisoy, Yigit Muzaffer

    Manufacturing processes may significantly affect the quality of resultant surfaces and structural integrity of the metal end products. Controlling manufacturing process induced changes to the product's surface integrity may improve the fatigue life and overall reliability of the end product. The goal of this study is to model the phenomena that result in microstructural alterations and improve the surface integrity of the manufactured parts by utilizing physics-based process simulations and other computational methods. Two different (both conventional and advanced) manufacturing processes; i.e. machining of Titanium and Nickel-based alloys and selective laser melting of Nickel-based powder alloys are studied. 3D Finite Element (FE) process simulations are developed and experimental data that validates these process simulation models are generated to compare against predictions. Computational process modeling and optimization have been performed for machining induced microstructure that includes; i) predicting recrystallization and grain size using FE simulations and the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model, ii) predicting microhardness using non-linear regression models and the Random Forests method, and iii) multi-objective machining optimization for minimizing microstructural changes. Experimental analysis and computational process modeling of selective laser melting have been also conducted including; i) microstructural analysis of grain sizes and growth directions using SEM imaging and machine learning algorithms, ii) analysis of thermal imaging for spattering, heating/cooling rates and meltpool size, iii) predicting thermal field, meltpool size, and growth directions via thermal gradients using 3D FE simulations, iv) predicting localized solidification using the Phase Field method. These computational process models and predictive models, once utilized by industry to optimize process parameters, have the ultimate potential to improve performance of

  18. The solidification velocity of nickel and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgilbers, Alex Sho

    2002-09-01

    The solidification velocity of several Ni-Ti, Ni-Sn, Ni-Si, Ti-Al and Ti-Ni alloys were measured as a function of undercooling. From these results, a model for alloy solidification was developed that can be used to predict the solidification velocity as a function of undercooling more accurately. During this investigation a phenomenon was observed in the solidification velocity that is a direct result of the addition of the various alloying elements to nickel and titanium. The additions of the alloying elements resulted in an additional solidification velocity plateau at intermediate undercoolings. Past work has shown a solidification velocity plateau at high undercoolings can be attributed to residual oxygen. It is shown that a logistic growth model is a more accurate model for predicting the solidification of alloys. Additionally, a numerical model is developed from simple description of the effect of solute on the solidification velocity, which utilizes a Boltzmann logistic function to predict the plateaus that occur at intermediate undercoolings.

  19. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  20. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of an Orthodontic Composite Containing Titanium-dioxide Nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Incorporation of nano-particles to orthodontic bonding systems has been considered to prevent enamel demineralization around appliances. This study investigated cytotoxicity of Transbond XT adhesive containing 1 wt% titanium dioxide (TiO2 nano-particles. Materials and methods. Ten composite disks were prepared from each of the conventional and TiO2-containg composites and aged for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM. The extracts were obtained and exposed to culture media of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF and mouse L929 fibroblasts. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results. Both adhesives were moderately toxic for HGF cells on the first day of the experiment, but the TiO2-containing adhesive produced significantly lower toxicity than the pure adhesive (P0.05. There was a significant reduction in cell toxicity with increasing pre-incubation time (P<0.001. L929 cells showed similar toxicity trends, but lower sensitivity to detect cytotoxicity of dental composites. Conclusion. The orthodontic adhesive containing TiO2 nano-particles indicated comparable or even lower toxicity than its nano-particle-free counterpart, indicating that incorporation of 1 wt% TiO2 nano-particles to the composite structure does not result in additional health hazards compared to that occurring with the pure adhesive.

  1. Titanium Nitride and Nitrogen Ion Implanted Coated Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Berzins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials have been investigated since the mid-1980s and considered in various applications in dentistry such as implants, abutments, orthodontic wires, endodontic files, periodontal/oral hygiene instruments, and casting alloys for fixed restorations. Multiple methodologies have been employed to create the coatings, but detailed structural analysis of the coatings is generally lacking in the dental literature. Depending on application, the purpose of the coating is to provide increased surface hardness, abrasion/wear resistance, esthetics, and corrosion resistance, lower friction, as well as greater beneficial interaction with adjacent biological and material substrates. While many studies have reported on the achievement of these properties, a consensus is not always clear. Additionally, few studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of the coatings in a clinical setting. Overall, titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials potentially offer advantages over uncoated counterparts, but more investigation is needed to document the structure of the coatings and their clinical effectiveness.

  2. Miniscrew implant applications in contemporary orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Po Chang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for orthodontic treatment modalities that provide maximal anchorage control but with minimal patient compliance requirements has led to the development of implant-assisted orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Skeletal anchorage with miniscrew implants has no patient compliance requirements and has been widely incorporated in orthodontic practice. Miniscrew implants are now routinely used as anchorage devices in orthodontic treatment. This review summarizes recent data regarding the interpretation of bone data (i.e., bone quantity and quality obtained by preoperative diagnostic computed tomography (CT or by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT prior to miniscrew implant placement. Such data are essential when selecting appropriate sites for miniscrew implant placement. Bone characteristics that are indications and contraindications for treatment with miniscrew implants are discussed. Additionally, bicortical orthodontic skeletal anchorage, risks associated with miniscrew implant failure, and miniscrew implants for nonsurgical correction of occlusal cant or vertical excess are reviewed. Finally, implant stability is compared between titanium alloy and stainless steel miniscrew implants.

  3. Sonocatalytic injury of cancer cells attached on the surface of a nickel-titanium dioxide alloy plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Maruyama, Hirotaka; Ogino, Chiaki; Takahashi, Kenji; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates ultrasound-induced cell injury using a nickel-titanium dioxide (Ni-TiO2) alloy plate as a sonocatalyst and a cell culture surface. Ultrasound irradiation of cell-free Ni-TiO2 alloy plates with 1 MHz ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm(2) for 30s led to an increased generation of hydroxyl (OH) radicals compared to nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) control alloy plates with and without ultrasound irradiation. When human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells) cultured on the Ni-TiO2 alloy plates were irradiated with 1 MHz ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm(2) for 30s and then incubated for 48 h, cell density on the alloy plate was reduced to approximately 50% of the controls on the Ni-Ti alloy plates with and without ultrasound irradiation. These results indicate the injury of MCF-7 cells following sonocatalytic OH radical generation by Ni-TiO2. Further experiments demonstrated cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation after ultrasound irradiation of MCF-7 cells attached on the Ni-TiO2 alloy plates, indicating induction of apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative evaluation of nickel discharge from brackets in artificial saliva at different time intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jithesh, C; Venkataramana, V; Penumatsa, Narendravarma; Reddy, S N; Poornima, K Y; Rajasigamani, K

    2015-08-01

    To determine and compare the potential difference of nickel release from three different orthodontic brackets, in different artificial pH, in different time intervals. Twenty-seven samples of three different orthodontic brackets were selected and grouped as 1, 2, and 3. Each group was divided into three subgroups depending on the type of orthodontic brackets, salivary pH and the time interval. The Nickel release from each subgroup were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer, Optima 2100 DV, USA) model. Quantitative analysis of nickel was performed three times, and the mean value was used as result. ANOVA (F-test) was used to test the significant difference among the groups at 0.05 level of significance (P brackets have the highest at all 4.2 pH except in 120 h. The study result shows that the nickel release from the recycled stainless steel brackets is highest. Metal slot ceramic bracket release significantly less nickel. So, recycled stainless steel brackets should not be used for nickel allergic patients. Metal slot ceramic brackets are advisable.

  5. Influence of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Moshabab A.; AlShahrani, Ibrahim; Almoammar, Salem; Durgesh, Bangalore H.; Kheraif, Abdulaziz A. Al; Hashem, Mohamed I.

    2018-02-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires Methods. Three different coated (Epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium) and one uncoated Ni-Ti archwires were evaluated in the present study. Surface roughness (Ra) was assessed using a non-contact surface profilometer. The mechanical properties (nano-hardness and elastic modulus) were measured using a nanoindenter. Bacterial adhesion assays were performed using Streptococcus mutans (MS) and streptococcus sobrinus (SS) in an in-vitro set up. The data obtained were analyzed using analyses of variance, Tukey’s post hoc test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Result. The highest Ra values (1.29 ± 0.49) were obtained for epoxy coated wires and lowest Ra values (0.29 ± 0.16) were obtained for the uncoated wires. No significant differences in the Ra values were observed between the rhodium coated and uncoated archwires (P > 0.05). The highest nano-hardness (3.72 ± 0.24) and elastic modulus values (61.15 ± 2.59) were obtained for uncoated archwires and the lowest nano-hardness (0.18 ± 0.10) and elastic modulus values (4.84 ± 0.65) were observed for epoxy coated archwires. No significant differences in nano-hardness and elastic modulus values were observed between the coated archwires (P > 0.05). The adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (MS) to the wires was significantly greater than that of streptococcus sobrinus (SS). The epoxy coated wires demonstrated an increased adhesion of MS and SS and the uncoated wires demonstrated decreased biofilm adhesion. The Spearman correlation test showed that MS and SS adhesion was positively correlated with the surface roughness of the wires. Conclusion. The different surface coatings significantly influence the roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion parameters of the archwires. The

  6. Precision multiloop (PM Design with space closing circles for lingual orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugdha P Mankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proficiency of ancient orthodontics has been benefitted colossally and is being continually promoted over the present, by use of multiple loop wires designed for correction of dentoalveolar malocclusions. The presented discussion provides an insight into a simple, frictionless biomechanical concept of anterior space closure in lingual orthodontics by means of precision multiloop design with incorporated space closing circles. A multiple loop wire design has been demonstrated where the entire interbracket distance is used as loop area.

  7. Evaluation of frictional resistance and surface characteristics after immersion of orthodontic brackets and wire in different chemical solutions: A comparative in vitrostudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjundan, Kavitha; Vimala, G

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of static and kinetic frictional forces between the brackets and wires following exposure to a soft drink, acidic food ingredient, and acidulated fluoride prophylactic agents. Two types of Roth prescription mandibular incisor brackets were used: 3M Unitek Victory stainless steel (SS) brackets (n = 40) and Transcend 6000 polycrystalline alumina (PCA) brackets (n = 40) as well as eighty 0.019 × 0.025" dimension ortho technology SS wires of 50 mm length each. Subsequently, brackets tied with SS wires divided into eight subgroups (n = 10) and were immersed in vinegar (pH = 3.5 ± 0.5), Pepsi ® (pH = 2.46), Colgate Phos-Flur mouth rinse (pH = 5.1), and artificial saliva (control group pH = 7) for 24 h. Changes in surface morphology under scanning electron microscope ×1000, surface roughness (Ra) with surface profilometer (single bracket and single wire from each subgroup), and frictional resistance using universal testing machine were evaluated. Highest mean (standard deviation) static frictional force of 2.65 (0.25) N was recorded in Pepsi ® followed by 2.57 (0.25) N, 2.40 (0.22) N, and 2.36 (0.17) N for Vinegar, Colgate Phos-Flur mouth rinse, and artificial saliva groups, respectively. In a similar order, lesser mean kinetic frictional forces obtained. PCA brackets revealed more surface deterioration and higher frictional force values than SS brackets. A significant positive correlation was observed between frictional forces and bracket slot roughness (r = 0.861 and 0.802, respectively, for static and kinetic frictional forces, p < 0.001 for both) and wire roughness (r = 0.243 and 0.242, respectively, for static and kinetic frictional forces, p < 0.05 for both). Findings may have long-term implications when acidic food substances are used during fixed orthodontic treatment. Further, in vivo studies are required to analyze the clinical effect of acidic mediums in the oral environment during orthodontic treatment.

  8. Evaluation of frictional resistance and surface characteristics after immersion of orthodontic brackets and wire in different chemical solutions: A comparative in vitrostudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Nanjundan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the changes of static and kinetic frictional forces between the brackets and wires following exposure to a soft drink, acidic food ingredient, and acidulated fluoride prophylactic agents. Materials and Methods: Two types of Roth prescription mandibular incisor brackets were used: 3M Unitek Victory stainless steel (SS brackets (n = 40 and Transcend 6000 polycrystalline alumina (PCA brackets (n = 40 as well as eighty 0.019 × 0.025" dimension ortho technology SS wires of 50 mm length each. Subsequently, brackets tied with SS wires divided into eight subgroups (n = 10 and were immersed in vinegar (pH = 3.5 ± 0.5, Pepsi ® (pH = 2.46, Colgate Phos-Flur mouth rinse (pH = 5.1, and artificial saliva (control group pH = 7 for 24 h. Changes in surface morphology under scanning electron microscope ×1000, surface roughness (Ra with surface profilometer (single bracket and single wire from each subgroup, and frictional resistance using universal testing machine were evaluated. Results: Highest mean (standard deviation static frictional force of 2.65 (0.25 N was recorded in Pepsi ® followed by 2.57 (0.25 N, 2.40 (0.22 N, and 2.36 (0.17 N for Vinegar, Colgate Phos-Flur mouth rinse, and artificial saliva groups, respectively. In a similar order, lesser mean kinetic frictional forces obtained. PCA brackets revealed more surface deterioration and higher frictional force values than SS brackets. A significant positive correlation was observed between frictional forces and bracket slot roughness (r = 0.861 and 0.802, respectively, for static and kinetic frictional forces, p < 0.001 for both and wire roughness (r = 0.243 and 0.242, respectively, for static and kinetic frictional forces, p < 0.05 for both. Conclusions: Findings may have long-term implications when acidic food substances are used during fixed orthodontic treatment. Further, in vivo studies are required to analyze the clinical effect of acidic mediums in the oral environment during

  9. Assessment of perceived orthodontic appliance attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziuchkovski, James P; Fields, Henry W; Johnston, William M; Lindsey, Delwin T

    2008-04-01

    To date, no studies have been published in the literature evaluating the esthetics of orthodontic appliances. The purpose of this study was to assess appliance variables, including appliance type, brand, wire, and ligature tie, for their relative attractiveness. Demographic factors were also evaluated. Appliances were placed in an adult, and digital images were captured, standardized, and incorporated into a computer-based survey. Subjects (n = 200) rated each image for attractiveness on a visual analog scale. The attractiveness ratings were analyzed by using factorial analysis of variance with repeated measures. Post-hoc testing was done with the Tukey-Kramer test (overall a appliances), ceramic, and all self-ligating/stainless steel appliances. No differences between brands in each appliance type were found. Ratings of some ceramic appliances were significantly affected by archwire and ligature tie, depending on several demographic interactions. Orthodontic appliance attractiveness varies by the following hierarchy of appliance types: alternative > ceramic > all stainless steel/self-ligating. Wire and tie selection can affect the appearance of ceramic appliances but have no impact on stainless steel or self-ligating appliances. Certain demographic factors have variable effects on attractiveness ratings.

  10. Innovative evaluation of local injective gel of curcumin on the orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Seifi, Massoud; Fard, Ghazal Hatami; Lotfi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: Curcumin is the most active compound in turmeric. It can suppress the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway and prevent the osteoclastogenesis procedure. This study aimed to be the first to evaluate the effect of curcumin on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Materials and Methods: Forty rats were used as follows in each group: (1) negative control: Did not receive any appliance or injection; (2) positive control: received 0.03 cc normal saline and appliance; (3) gelatin plus curcumin (G): Received 0.03 cc hydrogel and appliance; and (4) chitosan plus curcumin (Ch): Received 0.03 cc hydrogel and appliance. They were anesthetized and closed nickel-titanium coil springs were installed between the first molars and central incisors unilaterally as the orthodontic appliance. After 21 days, the rats were decapitated, and the distance between the first and second molars was measured by a leaf gauge. Howship's lacunae, blood vessels, osteoclast-like cells, and root resorption lacunae were evaluated in the histological analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, and t-test (P orthodontic forces. Curcumin inhibited root and bone resorption, osteoclastic recruitment, and angiogenesis significantly. Conclusion: Curcumin had no significant inhibitory effect on OTM. While it had a significant role on decreasing bone or root resorption (P > 0.05). PMID:29497446

  11. Deformation and fracture of Mtwo rotary nickel-titanium instruments after clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Ugur; Gonulol, Nihan

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, a number of rotary nickel titanium (NiTi) systems have been developed to provide better, faster, and easier cleaning and shaping of the root canal system. Although the NiTi instruments are more flexible than the stainless steel files, the main problem with the rotary NiTi instruments is the failure of the instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the deformation and fracture rate of Mtwo rotary nickel-titanium instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany) discarded after routine clinical use. A total of 593 Mtwo rotary NiTi instruments were collected after clinical use from the clinic of endodontics over 12 months. The length of the files was measured using a digital caliper to determine any fracture, and then all the files were evaluated under a stereomicroscope for defects such as unwinding, curving, or bending and fracture. The fracture faces of separated files were also evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed using a chi-square and z test. A percentage of all files (25.80%) showed defects, and the major defect was fracture (16.02%). The most frequently fractured file was #10.04 (30.39%). Deformations without fracture were mostly observed on #15.05 files (25.47%). A higher rate of deformation was observed for #10.04 and #15.05 files. Therefore, these files should be considered as single-use instruments. Because cyclic fatigue was the cause of 71.58% of the instrument fractures, it is also important not to exceed the maximum number of usage recommended by the manufacturer and discard the instruments on a regular basis.

  12. A study of a novel aesthetic archwire on its frictional properties and its applications to orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Kiat Chng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare sliding friction of prototype 0.018-inch fiber-reinforced polymer composite (FRPC archwire with 0.018-inch nickel titanium archwire using various bracket-arch wire combinations. Materials and Methods: Two wires were tested against four different brackets (3M Gemini Twin bracket; 3M Clarity metal-reinforced ceramic bracket; Ormco Inspire ICE ceramic bracket; and 3M SmartClip using the Universal testing machine to study and compare frictional characteristics. Results: There was no significant difference noted for the frictional wear generated between the various archwire and bracket groups (P = 0.542. No statistical significance was detected within individual archwire-bracket groups. A multiple comparison of groups showed significant difference in frictional wear. Least significance difference multiple comparison revealed statistical significance (P < 0.05 when comparing Gemini-FRPC with ICE-FRPC group. No other groups showed any significant difference. Conclusion: FRPC and NiTi wire show comparable frictional wear when used with ICE, Gemini, Clarity, and SmartClip brackets.

  13. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiao-Bing; Wang Xin-Xin; Jiang Wei-Hua; Mao Zhi-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF–4 μF typically charged to 8 kV−30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm−80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy W d is often less than sublimation energy W s due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = W d /W s ) increasing. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  14. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Xiao-Bing; Mao Zhi-Guo; Wang Xin-Xin; Jiang Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed.It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF--4 μF typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV,a triggered gas switch,and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas.With the EEW device,nanosize powders of titanium oxides,titanium nitrides,copper oxides,and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized.The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm.The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size.The lower the pressure,the smaller the particle size is.For wire material with relatively high resistivity,such as titanium,whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process,the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k =Wd/Ws) increasing.

  15. Thermogravimetric study of reduction of oxides present in oxidized nickel-base alloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbell, T. P.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon, hydrogen, and hydrogen plus carbon reduction of three oxidized nickel-base alloy powders (a solid solution strengthened alloy both with and without the gamma prime formers aluminum and titanium and the solid solution strengthened alloy NiCrAlY) were evaluated by thermogravimetry. Hydrogen and hydrogen plus carbon were completely effective in reducing an alloy containing chromium, columbium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. However, with aluminum and titanium present the reduction was limited to a weight loss of about 81 percent. Carbon alone was not effective in reducing any of the alloys, and none of the reducing conditions were effective for use with NiCrAlY.

  16. Lithium chloride attenuates root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gao, Shang; Jiang, Huan; Lin, Peng; Bao, Xingfu; Zhang, Zhimin; Hu, Min

    2014-02-01

    Root resorption is a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. In the current study, lithium chloride (LiCl), a Wnt signaling activator, was examined to determine its effect on root resorption. In total, 10 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). Each group consisted of five subjects. By using closed nickel-titanium coil springs, a 50-g force was applied between the upper incisors and the maxillary right first molars in order to mimic orthodontic biomechanics in the EG and CG for 14 days. During the 14 days, the EG rats were gavage-fed 200 mg/kg LiCl every 48 h. Next, digital radiographs were captured using a micro-computational tomography scanner. The movement of the maxillary first molars and the root resorption area ratio were measured electronically on the digital radiographs. The outcomes were analyzed using ANOVA. Following 14 days of experimental force application, all rats had spaces of varying sizes between the first and second right maxillary molars. The average distance measured in the CG was slightly higher than in the EG, however, the difference was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.224). Root resorption craters were observed in the groups following the experiment. Rough cementum areas were observed on the mesial surface of the distobuccal and distopalatal roots. The mean root resorption area ratio of CG was significantly greater than EG (Porthodontically induce root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The effect of LiCl on tooth movement is insignificant.

  17. Adhesive bonding of super-elastic titanium-nickel alloy castings with a phosphate metal conditioner and an acrylic adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, H; Tanoue, N; Yanagida, H; Atsuta, M; Koike, M; Yoneyama, T

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the bonding characteristics of super-elastic titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) alloy castings. Disk specimens were cast from a Ti-Ni alloy (Ti-50.85Ni mol%) using an arc centrifugal casting machine. High-purity titanium and nickel specimens were also prepared as experimental references. The specimens were air-abraded with alumina, and bonded with an adhesive resin (Super-Bond C & B). A metal conditioner containing a phosphate monomer (Cesead II Opaque Primer) was also used for priming the specimens. Post-thermocycling average bond strengths (MPa) of the primed groups were 41.5 for Ti-Ni, 30.4 for Ti and 19.5 for Ni, whereas those of the unprimed groups were 21.6 for Ti, 19.3 for Ti-Ni and 9.3 for Ni. Application of the phosphate conditioner elevated the bond strengths of all alloy/metals (P elastic Ti-Ni alloy castings can be achieved with a combination of a phosphate metal conditioner and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin.

  18. Grain-resolved analysis of localized deformation in nickel-titanium wire under tensile load

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmák, P.; Pilch, Jan; Heller, Luděk; Kopeček, Jaromír; Wright, J.; Sedlák, Petr; Frost, Miroslav; Šittner, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 353, č. 6299 (2016), 559-562 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015088; GA ČR GA14-15264S; GA ČR GAP107/12/0800; GA ČR GPP108/12/P111 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : martensitic transformation * 3D x-ray diffraction * shape memory alloys * internal stress * NiTi wire * localized deformation * tension Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BI - Acoustics (UT-L) Impact factor: 37.205, year: 2016

  19. Innovative evaluation of local injective gel of curcumin on the orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Asefi

    2018-01-01

    Materials and Methods: Forty rats were used as follows in each group: (1 negative control: Did not receive any appliance or injection; (2 positive control: received 0.03 cc normal saline and appliance; (3 gelatin plus curcumin (G: Received 0.03 cc hydrogel and appliance; and (4 chitosan plus curcumin (Ch: Received 0.03 cc hydrogel and appliance. They were anesthetized and closed nickel-titanium coil springs were installed between the first molars and central incisors unilaterally as the orthodontic appliance. After 21 days, the rats were decapitated, and the distance between the first and second molars was measured by a leaf gauge. Howship's lacunae, blood vessels, osteoclast-like cells, and root resorption lacunae were evaluated in the histological analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, and t-test (P 0.05.

  20. Orthodontics at a Pivotal Point of Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The profession of orthodontics is projected to face a multitude of challenges. Do cyclic forces accelerate the rate of tooth movement and hence the speed of orthodontic treatment? Would bioengineered cementum and dentine be a solution to root resorption? What would orthodontics be like when bioengineered periodontal ligament and alveolar bone become clinical practice, or one day, entire teeth are bioengineered? Would it be possible to selectively differentiate stem cells into osteoblasts or osteoclasts by either static or cyclic forces? What is the new demand on orthodontic expertise with increasingly automated appliances? What will be the impact of the next generation of dental implants or rapid prototyped crowns on orthodontics? A century ago, Edward Angle’s practice of fixed appliances, along with other seminal contributions, such as functional appliances, established the profession of orthodontics. Today, the biophysical principles of orthodontics remain largely unchanged from Angle’s era, despite incremental refinements of brackets and wires. The paucity of fundamental innovations in orthodontics for decades presents intrinsic risks for the profession. This review will identify challenges for contemporary orthodontics and delineate strategies for the profession to evolve in an era of unprecedented scientific and technological advances, and serve as a call to action for the orthodontic profession. PMID:25018618

  1. Three-dimensional quantification of orthodontic root resorption with time-lapsed imaging of micro-computed tomography in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongshi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Despite various X-ray approaches have been widely used to monitor root resorption after orthodontic treatment, a non-invasive and accurate method is highly desirable for long-term follow up. The aim of this study was to build a non-invasive method to quantify longitudinal orthodontic root resorption with time-lapsed images of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in a rodent model. Twenty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 180-220 g) were used in this study. A 25 g orthodontic force generated by nickel-titanium coil spring was applied to the right maxillary first molar for each rat, while contralateral first molar was severed as a control. Micro-CT scan was performed at day 0 (before orthodontic load) and days 3, 7, 14, and 28 after orthodontic load. Resorption of mesial root of maxillary first molars at bilateral sides was calculated from micro-CT images with registration algorithm via reconstruction, superimposition and partition operations. Obvious resorption of mesial root of maxillary first molar can be detected at day 14 and day 28 at orthodontic side. Most of the resorption occurred in the apical region at distal side and cervical region at mesiolingual side. Desirable development of molar root of rats was identified from day 0 to day 28 at control side. The development of root concentrated on apical region. This non-invasive 3D quantification method with registration algorithm can be used in longitudinal study of root resorption. Obvious root resorption in rat molar can be observed three-dimensionally at day 14 and day 28 after orthodontic load. This indicates that registration algorithm combined with time-lapsed images provides clinic potential application in detection and quantification of root contour.

  2. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Logutenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nanocrystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nanowires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130°C are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nanowires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  3. Avaliação do coeficiente de atrito de braquetes metálicos e estéticos com fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio Evaluation of the friction coefficient of metal and esthetic brackets with stainless steel and beta-titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Pritsch Braga

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um fator importante que define a eficácia dos aparelhos ortodônticos fixos é o atrito existente entre as superfícies de fios e braquetes. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o coeficiente de atrito estático entre fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio (TP Orthodontics e braquetes de aço inoxidável (Dynalock® - Unitek, braquetes estéticos com slot de aço inoxidável (Clarity® - Unitek e estéticos convencionais (Allure® - GAC. Para tanto, construiu-se um equipamento no Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Mecatrônica da PUCRS. Antes de serem iniciados os testes, foi quantificado o erro de método e constatou-se que não houve interferência significante (p>0,05 do fator operador nas medições. Então, pôde-se calcular o valor do coeficiente de atrito, obtido pela divisão da força de atrito pela carga normal. O método estatístico utilizado neste estudo foi Análise de Variância (ANOVA e teste de Comparações Múltiplas (Tukey. Constatou-se que: 1 a combinação com menor coeficiente de atrito foi composta pelo fio de aço inoxidável e braquete Dynalock® e a que apresentou maior coeficiente foi a do braquete Allure® com o fio de beta-titânio; 2 o fio de beta-titânio apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente maior do que o fio de aço inoxidável; 3 o braquete Dynalock® não apresentou diferenças significativas em relação ao coeficiente de atrito do braquete Clarity® quando o fio utilizado foi de beta-titânio. No entanto, quando o fio testado foi de aço inoxidável, apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor. O braquete Clarity® apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor do que o braquete Allure®.An important factor that defines the effectiveness of the appliances is the friction between the surfaces of wires and brackets. Thus, that study was developed in order to investigate the static friction coefficient between stainless steel and beta-titanium wires (TP

  4. The Effect of An Angiogenic Cytokine on Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Lotfi, Ali; Badiee, Mohammad Reza; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Amdjadi, Parisa; Bargrizan, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is an undesirable sequel of tooth movement after sterile necrosis that takes place in periodontal ligament due to blockage of blood vessels following exertion of orthodontic force. This study sought to assess the effect of an angiogenic cytokine on OIIRR in rat model. Materials and Methods In this experimental animal study, 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 each: E10, E100 and E1000 receiving an injection of 10, 100 and 1000 ng of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), respectively, positive control group (CP) receiving an orthodontic appliance and injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the negative control group (CN) receiving only the anesthetic agent. A nickel titanium coil spring was placed between the first molar and the incisor on the right side of maxilla. Twenty-one days later, the rats were sacrificed. Histopathological sections were made to assess the number and area of resorption lacunae, number of blood vessels, osteoclasts and Howship’s lacunae. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD) test. Results Number of resorption lacunae and area of resorption lacunae in E1000 (0.97 ± 0.80 and 1. 27 ± 0.01×10-3, respectively) were significantly lower than in CP (4.17 ± 0.90 and 2.77 ± 0.01×10-3, respectively, P=0.000). Number of blood vessels, osteoclasts and Howship’s lacunae were significantly higher in E1000 compared to CP (Proot resorption by providing more oxygen and angiogenesis. PMID:27551674

  5. Effect of autoclaving on the surfaces of TiN -coated and conventional nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, G; Ametrano, G; D'Antò, V; Rengo, C; Simeone, M; Riccitiello, F; Amato, M

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of repeated autoclave sterilization cycles on surface topography of conventional nickel-titanium ( NiTi ) and titanium nitride ( TiN )-coated rotary instruments. A total of 60 NiTi rotary instruments, 30 ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer) and 30 TiN -coated AlphaKite (Komet/Gebr. Brasseler), were analysed. Instruments were evaluated in the as-received condition and after 1, 5 and 10 sterilization cycles. After sterilization, the samples were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and surface chemical analysis was performed on each instrument with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, the samples were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and roughness average (Ra) and the root mean square value (RMS) of the scanned surface profiles were recorded. Data were analysed by means of anova followed by Tukey's test. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the presence of pitting and deep milling marks in all instruments. EDS analysis confirmed that both types of instruments were composed mainly of nickel and titanium, whilst AlphaKite had additional nitride. After multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, SEM examinations revealed an increase in surface alterations, and EDS values indicated changes in chemical surface composition in all instruments. Ra and RMS values of ProTaper significantly increased after 5 (P = 0.006) and 10 cycles (P = 0.002) with respect to the as-received instruments, whilst AlphaKite showed significant differences compared with the controls after 10 cycles (P = 0.03). Multiple autoclave sterilization cycles modified the surface topography and chemical composition of conventional and TiN -coated NiTi rotary instruments. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  6. Evolution of Nickel-titanium Alloys in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounsi, Hani F; Nassif, Wadih; Grandini, Simone; Salameh, Ziad; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Anil, Sukumaran

    2017-11-01

    To improve clinical use of nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic rotary instruments by better understanding the alloys that compose them. A large number of engine-driven NiTi shaping instruments already exists on the market and newer generations are being introduced regularly. While emphasis is being put on design and technique, manufacturers are more discreet about alloy characteristics that dictate instrument behavior. Along with design and technique, alloy characteristics of endodontic instruments is one of the main variables affecting clinical performance. Modification in NiTi alloys is numerous and may yield improvements, but also drawbacks. Martensitic instruments seem to display better cyclic fatigue properties at the expense of surface hardness, prompting the need for surface treatments. On the contrary, such surface treatments may improve cutting efficiency but are detrimental to the gain in cyclic fatigue resistance. Although the design of the instrument is vital, it should in no way cloud the importance of the properties of the alloy and how they influence the clinical behavior of NiTi instruments. Dentists are mostly clinicians rather than engineers. With the advances in instrumentation design and alloys, they have an obligation to deal more intimately with engineering consideration to not only take advantage of their possibilities but also acknowledge their limitations.

  7. Impaction of Maxillary Central Incisors: Surgical and Orthodontic Treatment--Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, Luegya Amorim Henriques; Shintcovsk, Ricardo Lima; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga; Parsekian, Lidia; Pinto, Ary Santos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report two clinical cases, which was performed with surgical exposure and orthodontic traction of a maxillary central incisors. Light forces were used during the orthodontic treatment applied on rigid wires as anchorage. It was noted that teeth presented adequate clinical crown height and gingival contours.

  8. Fixed orthodontic appliances in the management of severe dental trauma in mixed dentition: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Fouad-Hassan; Kulkarni, Gajanan

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of complex trauma to the early mixed dentition in which tooth avulsion, intrusion, extrusion and lateral luxation were managed effectively using a fixed, non-rigid orthodontic splint after treatment with a traditional wire-composite splint had failed. The use of orthodontic brackets and flexible wires provided several advantages, such as the ability to splint severely malpositioned teeth; easy assessment without removing the splint; slow, gentle repositioning of traumatized teeth; and gradual reestablishment of the arch form allowing for ease of future prosthodontic rehabilitation. Therefore, orthodontic appliances should be considered as a viable option for managing complex dental trauma.

  9. Cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different nickel-titanium reciprocating instruments in artificial canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, Oscar; Plotino, Gianluca; Tocci, Luigi; Carrillo, Gabriela; Gambarini, Gianluca; Jaramillo, David E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different nickel-titanium reciprocating instruments. A total of 45 nickel-titanium instruments were tested and divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 15): group 1, WaveOne Primary instruments; group 2, Reciproc R25 instruments; and group 3, Twisted File (TF) Adaptive M-L1 instruments. The instruments were then subjected to cyclic fatigue test on a static model consisting of a metal block with a simulated canal with 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. WaveOne Primary, Reciproc R25, and TF Adaptive instruments were activated by using their proprietary movements, WaveOne ALL, Reciproc ALL, and TF Adaptive, respectively. All instruments were activated until fracture occurred, and the time to fracture was recorded visually for each file with a 1/100-second chronometer. Mean number of cycles to failure and standard deviations were calculated for each group, and data were statistically analyzed (P fatigue resistance of Reciproc R25 and TF Adaptive M-L1 was significantly higher than that of WaveOne Primary (P = .009 and P = .002, respectively). The results showed no statistically significant difference between TF Adaptive M-L1 and Reciproc R25 (P = .686). Analysis of the fractured portion under scanning electron microscopy indicated that all instruments showed morphologic characteristics of ductile fracture that were due to accumulation of metal fatigue. No statistically significant differences were found between the instruments tested except for WaveOne Primary, which showed the lowest resistance to cyclic fatigue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Che

    Full Text Available We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver. Keywords: Surface second-harmonic generation, Nonlinear optics, Metal thin films

  11. Fatigue resistance of engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves Craveiro de Melo, Marta; Guiomar de Azevedo Bahia, Maria; Lopes Buono, Vicente Tadeu

    2002-11-01

    A comparative study of the fatigue resistance of engine-driven nickel-titanium endodontic instruments was performed, aiming to access the influence of the cutting flute design and of the size of the files that reach the working length in curved canal shaping. Geometrical conditions similar to those found in practice were used. Series 29 #5 ProFile, together with #6 and #8 Quantec instruments, were tested in artificial canals with a 45-degree angle of curvature and 5-mm radius of curvature. It was observed that the size of the instrument, which determines the maximum strain amplitude during cyclic deformation, is the most important factor controlling fatigue resistance. The effect of heat sterilization on the fatigue resistance of the instruments was also examined. The results obtained indicate that the application of five sterilization procedures in dry heat increases the average number of cycles to failure of unused instruments by approximately 70%.

  12. Cyclic fatigue of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in a double (S-shaped) simulated curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sudani, Dina; Grande, Nicola M; Plotino, Gianluca; Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2012-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to test the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium rotary files in a double curvature (S-shaped) artificial root canal and to compare those results with single curvature artificial root canals. Two nickel-titanium endodontic instruments consisting of identical instrument sizes (constant .06 taper and 0.25 tip diameter) were tested, ProFile instruments and Vortex instruments. Both instruments were tested for fatigue inside an artificial canal with a double curvature and inside a curved artificial canal with a single curvature. Ten instruments for each group were tested to fracture in continuous rotary motion at 300 rpm. Number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated to the nearest whole number, and the length of the fractured fragment was measured in millimeters. Data were statistically analyzed with a level of significance set at 95% confidence level. The NCF value was always statistically lower in the double curved artificial canal when compared with the single curve (P instruments of the same size of different brand only in the single curve; ProFile registered a mean of 633.5 ± 75.1 NCF, whereas Vortex registered a mean of 548 ± 48.9 NCF. Regardless of the differences between the instruments used in the present study, the results suggest that the more complex is the root canal, the more adverse are the effects on the cyclic fatigue resistance of the instruments. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic studies in the titanium-nickel and titanium-nickel-oxygen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, G.; Kleykamp, H.; Laumer, W.

    1983-01-01

    The isothermal section of the Ti-Ni-O system was examined at 1200 K in the regions between the Ni(Ti) solid solution and the binary oxides of titanium. The relative partial Gibbs energies of oxygen over the Ti 2 O 3 -Ti 3 O 5 region and of titanium in the Ni(Ti) solid solution as well as the Gibbs energies of formation of NiTiO 3 , Ti 3 O 5 and TiNi 3 were determined between 1100 and 1300 K by use of solid electrolyte galvanic cells. (orig.) [de

  14. Properties of super stainless steels for orthodontic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Kim, Young-Sik; Park, Yong-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2004-05-15

    Orthodontic stainless-steel appliances are considered to be corrosion resistant, but localized corrosion can occur in the oral cavity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the properties of super stainless steels in orthodontic applications. Accordingly, the metallurgical properties, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, amount of the released nickel, cytotoxicity, and characteristics of the passive film were investigated. Corrosion resistances of the specimens were high and in the following order: super austenitic stainless steel (SR-50A) > super ferritic stainless steel (SFSS) = super duplex stainless steel (SR-6DX) > 316L SS > super martensitic stainless steel (SR-3Mo) in artificial saliva, 37 degrees C. At 500 mV (SCE), current densities of SR-50A, SFSS, SR-6DX, 316L SS, and SR-3Mo were 5.96 microA/cm(2), 20.3 microA/cm(2), 31.9 microA/cm(2), 805 microA/cm(2), and 5.36 mA/cm(2), respectively. Open circuit potentials of SR-50A, 316L SS, SR-6DX, SR-3Mo, and SFSS were - 0.2, - 0.22, - 0.24, - 0.43, and - 0.46 V (SCE), respectively. SR-50A, SFSS, and SR-6DX released below 3 ng/ml nickel for 8 weeks, and increased a little with immersion time, and 316L SS released about 3.5 ng/ml nickel, but SR-3Mo released a large amount of nickel, which increased with immersion time. The study demonstrated that SR-50A, SR-6DX, and SFSS have high corrosion resistance and mild or no cytotoxicity, due to the passive film enhanced by synergistic effect of Mo + N or by high addition effect of Cr + W. All super stainless steels showed very low cytotoxicity regardless of their nickel contents, although SR-3Mo was found to be relatively cytotoxic. From these studies, these steels are considered suitable for orthodontic applications. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Northcroft lecture: how has the spectrum of orthodontics changed over the past decades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Birte

    2011-06-01

    Three aspects have had a significant impact on orthodontics during the last few decades: the appliances being used, the anchorage being used and finally the distribution of patients being treated. Firstly, the marketing of appliances is increasingly leading the orthodontist to outsource important aspects of treatment such as wirebending and bracket positioning. Brackets and wires are being presented as the solution to all problems and metaphysical terms such as 'intelligent design,' 'working brackets' and 'intelligent wires' are dominating advertising and reducing the impact of evidence-based treatment approaches. Secondly, the introduction of skeletal anchorage has potentially widened the spectrum of orthodontics, allowing for treatments that could not be done with conventional appliances. Biomechanical knowledge is, however, mandatory if we agree that the system should not be abused. Thirdly, the orthodontic population comprises an increasing number of adult patients, many of whom are characterized by a degenerated dentition. The treatment of these patients requires a thorough knowledge not only of biomechanics but also of the reaction of the periodontal tissues to various types of loading. They can be treated only with custom-made appliances adapting the force systems and magnitude to the patient-specific treatment goal. In summary, the orthodontic world is being split between 'appliance-driven fast-food orthodontics' where the results to a large extent are dependent on both growth and function and 'orthodontist-driven' 'slow-food' treatments attempting to push the limits of the possible in relation to complicated problems and reversal of degeneration in adult patients. The latter treatments are performed with individualized appliances adapting the force system to the patient. This paper will attempt to summarize the bearing of these factors on present orthodontics.

  16. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangam Chinnadurai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip, Pulse on time (Ton, Pulse off time (Toff, Water pressure (Wp, Wire feed rate (Wf, Wire tension (Wt, Servo voltage (Sv and Servo feed setting (Sfs, on the Material Removal Rate (MRR and Surface Roughness (SR for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used.

  17. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  18. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  19. Comparison of the mechanical properties between tantalum and nickel-titanium foams implant materials for bone ingrowth applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, P.; Aparicio, C.; Planell, J.A.; Gil, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Metallic porous materials are designed to allow the ingrowth of living tissue inside the pores and to improve the mechanical anchorage of the implant. In the present work, tantalum and nickel-titanium porous materials have been characterized. The tantalum foams were produced by vapour chemical deposition (CVD/CVI) and the NiTi foams by self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS). The former exhibited an open porosity ranging between 65 and 73% and for the latter it ranged between 63 and 68%. The pore sizes were between 370 and 440 μm for tantalum and between 350 and 370 μm for nickel-titanium. The Young's modulus in compression of the foams studied, especially for tantalum, were very similar to those of cancellous bone. This similitude may be relevant in order to minimize the stress shielding effect in the load transfer from the implant to bone. The strength values for NiTi foam are higher than for tantalum, especially of the strain to fracture which is about 23% for NiTi and only 8% for tantalum. The fatigue endurance limit set at 10 8 cycles is about 7.5 MPa for NiTi and 13.2 MPa for tantalum. The failure mechanisms have been studied by scanning electron microscopy

  20. Involvement of COX-2 in nickel elution from a wire implanted subcutaneously in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taiki; Kishimoto, Yu; Asakawa, Sanki; Mizuno, Natsumi; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2016-07-01

    Many types of medical alloys include nickel (Ni), and the elution of Ni ions from these materials causes toxicities and inflammation. We have previously reported that inflammation enhances Ni elution, although the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In this study, we investigated how inflammatory responses enhanced Ni elution in a wire-implantation mouse model. Subcutaneous implantation of Ni wire induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) mRNA in the surrounding tissues. Immunostaining analysis showed that cells expressing COX-2 were mainly fibroblast-like cells 8h after implantation of a Ni wire, but were mainly infiltrated leukocytes at 24h. NiCl2 induced the expression of COX-2 mRNA in primary fibroblasts, neutrophils, RAW 264 cells, and THP-1 cells, indicating that Ni ions can induce COX-2 expression in various types of cells. The elution of Ni ions from the implanted Ni wire at 8h was reduced by dexamethasone (Dex), indomethacin (Ind), or celecoxib (Cel) treatment. Ni wire implantation induced an increase in mRNA levels for anaerobic glycolytic pathway components glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), hexokinase 2 (HK2), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), and monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4); the expression of these genes was also inhibited by Dex, Ind, and Cel. In primary fibroblasts, the expression of these mRNAs and the production of lactate were induced by NiCl2 and further potentiated by PGE2. Furthermore, Ni wire-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes was significantly reduced by Dex, Ind, or Cel. Depletion of neutrophils with a specific antibody caused reduction of both leukocyte infiltration and Ni elution. These results indicate that Ni ions eluted from wire induced COX-2 expression, which further promoted elution of Ni ions by increasing lactate production and leukocyte infiltration. Since COX inhibitors and Dex reduced the elution of Ni ions, these drugs may be

  1. Canal preparation with nickel-titanium or stainless steel instruments without the risk of instrument fracture: preliminary observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan Yared

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a novel technique that allows a safe and predictable canal negotiation, creation of a glide path and canal preparation with reciprocating nickel-titanium or stainless steel engine-driven instruments in canals where the use of rotary and the newly developed reciprocating instruments is contraindicated. In this novel technique, the instruments are used in reciprocating motion with very small angles. Hand files are not used regardless of the complexity of the canal anatomy...

  2. The influence of different types of fixed orthodontic appliance on the growth and adherence of microorganisms (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloom, Hayder F; Mohammed-Salih, Harraa S; Rasheed, Shaymaa F

    2013-02-01

    Orthodontic appliances serve as different impact zones and modify microbial adherence and colonization, acting as foreign reserves and possible sources of infection. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of fixed orthodontic appliances on the growth and adherence of microorganisms in oral flora which are Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Candida albicans. Sixty-four of four different fixed orthodontic appliance-samples were used, divided into four groups of sixteen. Type I: Sapphire brackets- Coated wires, type II: Sapphire brackets- Stainless steel wires, type III: Stainless steel brackets- Coated wires and type IV: Stainless steel brackets- Stainless steel wires. Oral strains of S. mutans and Candida albicans were studied in the present study using biochemical test then microbial suspensions were prepared to do the tests of each microorganism including the antimicrobial effects of different appliance-samples on the growth of microorganisms and their adhesion tests. The results showed significant differences between the different appliances in terms of inhibition zone formation (PAppliance with high esthetic appearance, sapphire brackets and coated arch wire, showed the least adherence of S. mutans and Candida albicans in comparison to other appliances with less esthetic and more metal components. Key words:Orthodontic appliance, Adherence, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans.

  3. Ion release from orthodontic brackets in 3 mouthwashes: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaei, Shahla Momeni; Safavi, Afsaneh; Roeinpeikar, S M Mehdi; Oshagh, Morteza; Iranpour, Shiva; Omidkhoda, Maryam; Omidekhoda, Maryam

    2011-06-01

    Stainless steel orthodontic brackets can release metal ions into the saliva. Fluoridated mouthwashes are often recommended to orthodontic patients to reduce the risk of white-spot lesions around their brackets. However, little information is available regarding the effect of different mouthwashes in ion release of orthodontic brackets. The purpose of this study was to measure the amount of metal ion release from orthodontic brackets when kept in different mouthwashes. One hundred sixty stainless steel brackets (0.022-in, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups and immersed in Oral B (Procter & Gamble, Weybridge, United Kingdom), chlorhexidine (Shahdaru Labratories, Tehran, Iran), and Persica (Poursina Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Tehran, Iran) mouthwashes and distilled deionized water and incubated at 37°C for 45 days. Nickel, chromium, iron, copper, and manganese released from the orthodontic brackets were measured with an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. For statistical analysis, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Duncan multiple-range tests were used. The results showed that ion release in deionized water was significantly (P 0.05) in nickel, chromium, iron, and copper ion release in the Oral B and Persica mouthwashes. The level of manganese release was significantly different in all 4 groups. If ion release is a concern, Oral B and Persica mouthwashes might be better options than chlorhexidine for orthodontic patients with stainless steel brackets. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improvement of orthodontic friction by coating archwire with carbon nitride film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Songbo; Shao Tianmin; Ding Peng

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce frictional resistance between archwire and bracket during orthodontic tooth movement, carbon nitride (CNx) thin films were deposited on the surface of archwires with ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that the CNx film was successfully deposited on the surface of the orthodontic wires. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggested that the deposited CNx film was sp 2 carbon dominated structures, and diversiform bonds (N-C, N≡C, et al.) coexisted in the film. The friction tests indicated that the CNx film significantly reduced the wire-bracket friction both in ambient air and in artificial saliva. The sp 2 C rich structure of the CNx film as well as its protection function for the archwire was responsible for the low friction of the wire-bracket sliding system.

  5. Improvement of orthodontic friction by coating archwire with carbon nitride film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Songbo [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shao Tianmin, E-mail: shaotm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ding Peng [Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-10-01

    In order to reduce frictional resistance between archwire and bracket during orthodontic tooth movement, carbon nitride (CNx) thin films were deposited on the surface of archwires with ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that the CNx film was successfully deposited on the surface of the orthodontic wires. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggested that the deposited CNx film was sp{sup 2} carbon dominated structures, and diversiform bonds (N-C, N{identical_to}C, et al.) coexisted in the film. The friction tests indicated that the CNx film significantly reduced the wire-bracket friction both in ambient air and in artificial saliva. The sp{sup 2}C rich structure of the CNx film as well as its protection function for the archwire was responsible for the low friction of the wire-bracket sliding system.

  6. Dental extrusion with orthodontic miniscrew anchorage: a case report describing a modified method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Flávio Eduardo Guillin; Abrão, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by means of an orthodontic extrusion with the modified method of Roth and Diedrich.

  7. Surface and corrosion characteristics of carbon plasma implanted and deposited nickel-titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, R.W.Y.; Liu, X.Y.; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, P.K.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Lu, W.W.; Cheung, K.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) are potentially useful in orthopedic implants on account of their super-elastic and shape memory properties. However, the materials are prone to surface corrosion and the most common problem is out-diffusion of harmful Ni ions from the substrate into body tissues and fluids. In order to improve the corrosion resistance and related surface properties, we used the technique of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition to deposit an amorphous hydrogenated carbon coating onto NiTi and implant carbon into NiTi. Both the deposited amorphous carbon film and carbon plasma implanted samples exhibit much improved corrosion resistances and surface mechanical properties and possible mechanisms are suggested

  8. Corrosion of chromium, nickel, titanium and steels in solutions of sodium and ammonium thiosulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenshchikova, S.V.; Kochergin, V.P.; Doronina, I.V.

    1983-01-01

    Results of gravimetric determinatiion of average rate of chromium, nickel, titatnium and steels 12Kh18N10T and VSt.3 corrosion rate in solutions 50 mass.% (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 in the air and nitrogen atmosphere at 333 K have been generalized. Anodic polarization curves are recorded and stationary potentials of metals and steels under the conditions are measured. It is shown that in (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 solution the rate of metal and steels corrosion is higher than in Na 2 S 2 O 3 solution indepenent of the nature of gaseous medium contacting with solution. In the series Ni → VSt.3 → 12Kh18N10T → VT1 → chromium in (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 solutions at 333 K corrosion resistance increases. Chromium, titanium and chromium-nickel steel 12Kh18N10T possess a high corrosion resistance

  9. Material testing of reconditioned orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, S; Rewari, A; Keilig, L; Widu, F; Jäger, A; Bourauel, C

    2012-12-01

    While all manufacturers of orthodontic brackets label these products for single use, there are commercial providers offering bracket reconditioning (or "recycling"). We conducted this study to investigate the effects of different recycling techniques on material-related parameters in orthodontic brackets, aiming to derive indications for clinical use and conclusions about the biocompatibility, longevity, and application of recycled brackets. New metal brackets (equilibrium(®); Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) were compared to brackets recycled by different techniques, including direct flaming with a Bunsen burner, chemical reconditioning in an acid bath, a commercial unit (Big Jane; Esmadent, IL, USA), and outsourcing to a company (Ortho Clean, Dellstedt, Germany). Material-related examinations included the following: (1) corrosion behavior by static immersion testing and use of a mass spectrometer to determine nickel-ion concentrations in the corrosive medium, (2) surface features in scanning electron micrographs before and after corrosion testing, (3) Vickers hardness using a hardness testing machine, (4) shear bond strength as defined in DIN 13990-1, (5) dimensional stability of the bracket slots by light microscopy, and (6) frictional loss as assessed by an orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS). Each examination was performed on ten brackets. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Compared to the new brackets, those recycled in an acid bath or by a commercial provider revealed significant dimensional changes (pbrackets varied according to the recycling techniques employed. The group of brackets recycled by one company revealed hardness values that differed from those of all the other groups. No significant differences were observed in nickel-ion release, frictional loss, and shear bond strength. Recycling was found to significantly reduce the corrosion resistance and dimensional stability of orthodontic brackets. As the savings

  10. Efficacy of Different Nickel-Titanium Instruments in Removing Gutta-percha during Root Canal Retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Demiryürek, Ebru Özsezer

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cleanliness of root canal walls after retreatment using ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Twisted File Adaptive (TFA; Axis/SybronEndo, Orange, CA), Reciproc (PRC; VDW, Munich, Germany), and ProTaper Universal retreatment (PTR, Dentsply Maillefer) nickel-titanium systems and the time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal. Eighty human maxillary central incisors with single and straight root canals were instrumented up to #40.02 with manual K-files (Dentsply Maillefer) and obturated using the continuous wave of condensation technique. Removal of the gutta-percha and sealer was performed using 1 of the following nickel-titanium systems: PTN, TFA, RPC, or PTR. The teeth were sectioned, and digital images were captured. The photographs were analyzed using AutoCAD software (Autodesk, San Rafael, CA). Also, the total time required for gutta-percha removal was calculated by a chronometer. The total retreatment time was significantly shorter in the PTR group compared with the other groups (P < .05). There was a significant difference between the groups according to the total residual gutta-percha and sealer (P < .05). The PTN and PTR groups left significantly less gutta-percha and sealer remnant than the TFA and RPC groups (P < .05). Within the limitations of this study, the PTN and the PTR groups showed less residual gutta-percha and sealer than the TFA and RPC groups. The time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal was similar for all the groups, except for the PTR group. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Induced magnetic moment in stainless steel components of orthodontic appliances in 1.5 T MRI scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Nancy K.; Liang, Hui; Park, Yong Jong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Most orthodontic appliances are made of stainless steel materials and induce severe magnetic susceptibility artifacts in brain MRI. In an effort for correcting these artifacts, it is important to know the value of induced magnetic moments in all parts of orthodontic appliances. In this study, the induced magnetic moment of stainless steel orthodontic brackets, molar bands, and arch-wires from several vendors is measured. Methods: Individual stainless steel brackets, molar bands, and short segments of arch-wire were positioned in the center of spherical flask filled with water through a thin plastic rod. The induced magnetic moment at 1.5 T was determined by fitting the B0 map to the z-component of the magnetic dipole field using a computer routine. Results: The induced magnetic moment at 1.5 T was dominated by the longitudinal component mz, with a small contribution from the transverse components. The mz was insensitive to the orientation of the metal parts. The orthodontic brackets collectively dominated the magnetic dipole moment in orthodontic appliances. In brackets from six vendors, the total induced mz from 20 brackets for nonmolar teeth ranged from 0.108 to 0.158 (median 0.122) A ⋅ m2. The mz in eight molar bands with bracket attachment from two vendors ranged from 0.0004 to 0.0166 (median 0.0035) A ⋅ m2. Several full length arch wires had induced magnetic moment in the range of 0.006–0.025 (median 0.015) A ⋅ m2. Conclusions: Orthodontic brackets collectively contributed most to the total magnetic moment. Different types of brackets, molar bands, and arch wires all exhibit substantial variability in the induced magnetic moment. PMID:26429261

  12. Enhancement of Orthodontic Anchor Screw Stability Under Immediate Loading by Ultraviolet Photofunctionalization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Maiko; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Inaba, Mizuki; Hagiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    Ultraviolet (UV)-mediated photofunctionalization technology is intended to enhance the osseointegration capability of titanium implants. There are concerns about orthodontic anchor screws loosening under immediate loading protocols in adolescent orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this in vivo study was to evaluate the effects of photofunctionalization on the intrabony stability of orthodontic titanium anchor screws and bone-anchor screw contact under immediate loading in growing rats. Custom-made titanium anchor screws (1.4 mm in diameter and 4.0 mm in length) with or without photofunctionalization pretreatment were placed on the proximal epiphysis of the tibial bone in 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and were loaded immediately after placement. After 2 weeks of loading, the stability of the anchor screws was evaluated using a Periotest device, and the bone-anchor screw contact ratio (BSC) was assessed by a histomorphometric analysis using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. In the unloaded group, Periotest values (PTVs) were ~25 for UV-untreated screws and 13 for UVtreated screws (P < .01), while in the immediate-loading group, PTVs were 28 for UV-untreated screws and 16 for UV-treated screws (P < .05). Significantly less screw mobility was observed in both UV-treated groups regardless of the loading protocol. The BSC was increased ~1.8 fold for UV-treated screws, compared with UV-untreated screws, regardless of the loading protocol. Photofunctionalization enhanced the intrabony stability of orthodontic anchor screws under immediate loading in growing rats by increasing bone-anchor screw contact.

  13. Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates for Nano wires Array Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok, K.Y.; Ng, I.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the process developed to fabricate anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) templates suitable for the fabrication of nano wire arrays. Anodization process has been used to fabricate the AAO templates with pore diameters ranging from 15 nm to 30 nm. Electrodeposition of parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were demonstrated using these fabricated AAO templates. The nano wires produced were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the orientations of the electrodeposited nickel nano wires were governed by the deposition current and electrolyte conditions. (author)

  14. Lateral and axial cutting efficiency of instruments manufactured with conventional nickel-titanium and novel gold metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R A; Arias, A; Peters, O A

    2018-05-01

    To isolate the effect of metallurgy in lateral and axial cutting efficacy against plastic and bovine dentine substrates by comparing two rotary systems with identical design but manufactured with either conventional nickel-titanium or heat-treated gold alloy. A total of 258 ProTaper Universal (PTU) and ProTaper Gold (PTG) Shaping instruments were used. Bending behaviour was assessed to determine the appropriate displacement associated with a 2 N force in lateral cutting. Ten instruments of each type were used in lateral action for 60 s against bovine dentine or plastic substrates four consecutive times producing four notches in each specimen. Ten further instruments of each type were used in on axial action in four standardized simulated root canals fabricated from 4-mm thick plastic or dentine discs. Both tests were performed at 300 rpm in a computer-controlled testing platform. Notch area and torsional load were compared with Student's t-tests. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare cutting efficiency across the four different time-points. Pearson correlation coefficients between substrates were also determined. For lateral action, all three PTG instruments cut significantly more effectively (P cut significantly more after 120 and 180 s (P cutting at 180 s on plastic and 120 s on bovine dentine (P cutting efficiency when compared to those made from conventional nickel-titanium. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dental Extrusion with Orthodontic Miniscrew Anchorage: A Case Report Describing a Modified Method

    OpenAIRE

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Fl?vio Eduardo Guillin; Abr?o, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by m...

  16. Equations for nickel-chromium wire heaters of column transfer lines in gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A

    2004-05-30

    Heating of chromatographic columns, transfer lines, and other devices is often required in neuroscience research. For example, volatile compounds passing through a capillary column of a gas chromatograph (GC) can be split, with half exiting the instrument through a heated transfer line to an insect antenna or olfactory sensillum for electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) recordings. The heated transfer line is used to prevent condensation of various chemicals in the capillary that would otherwise occur at room temperature. Construction of such a transfer line heater is described using (80/20%) nickel-chromium heating wire wrapped in a helical coil and powered by a 120/220 V ac rheostat. Algorithms were developed in a computer program to estimate the voltage at which a rheostat should be set to obtain the desired heater temperature for a specific coil. The coil attributes (radius, width, number of loops, or length of each loop) are input by the user, as well as AWG size of heating wire and desired heater temperature. The program calculates total length of wire in the helix, resistance of the wire, amperage used, and the voltage to set the rheostat. A discussion of semiochemical isolation methods using the GC-EAD and bioassays is presented.

  17. Validated finite element analyses of WaveOne Endodontic Instruments: a comparison between M-Wire and NiTi alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonessio, N; Pereira, E S J; Lomiento, G; Arias, A; Bahia, M G A; Buono, V T L; Peters, O A

    2015-05-01

    To validate torsional analysis, based on finite elements, of WaveOne instruments against in vitro tests and to model the effects of different nickel-titanium (NiTi) materials. WaveOne reciprocating instruments (Small, Primary and Large, n = 8 each, M-Wire) were tested under torsion according to standard ISO 3630-1. Torsional profiles including torque and angle at fracture were determined. Test conditions were reproduced through Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations based on micro-CT scans at 10-μm resolution; results were compared to experimental data using analysis of variance and two-sided one sample t-tests. The same simulation was performed on virtual instruments with identical geometry and load condition, based on M-Wire or conventional NiTi alloy. Torsional profiles from FEA simulations were in significant agreement with the in vitro results. Therefore, the models developed in this study were accurate and able to provide reliable simulation of the torsional performance. Stock NiTi files under torsional tests had up to 44.9%, 44.9% and 44.1% less flexibility than virtual M-Wire files at small deflections for Small, Primary and Large instruments, respectively. As deflection levels increased, the differences in flexibility between the two sets of simulated instruments decreased until fracture. Stock NiTi instruments had a torsional fracture resistance up to 10.3%, 8.0% and 7.4% lower than the M-Wire instruments, for the Small, Primary and Large file, respectively. M-Wire instruments benefitted primarily through higher material flexibility while still at low deflection levels, compared with conventional NiTi alloy. At fracture, the instruments did not take complete advantage of the enhanced fractural resistance of the M-Wire material, which determines only limited improvements of the torsional performance. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sliding mechanics of coated composite wires and the development of an engineering model for binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufall, S W; Kusy, R P

    2000-02-01

    A tribological (friction and wear) study, which was designed to simulate clinical sliding mechanics, was conducted as part of an effort to determine the suitability of poly(chloro-p-xylylene) coatings for composite orthodontic archwires. Prototype composite wires, having stiffnesses similar to those of current initial and intermediate alignment wires, were tested against stainless steel and ceramic brackets in the passive and active configurations (with and without angulation). Kinetic coefficient of friction values, which were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of ligation, had a mean that was 72% greater than uncoated wire couples at 0.43. To improve analysis of the active configuration, a mathematical model was developed that related bracket angulation, bracket width, interbracket distance, wire geometry, and wire elastic modulus to sliding resistance. From this model, kinetic coefficients of binding were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of binding. The mean binding coefficient was the same as that of uncoated wire couples at 0.42. Although penetrations through the coating were observed on many specimens, the glass-fiber reinforcement within the composite wires was undamaged for all conditions tested. This finding implies that the risk of glass fiber release during clinical use would be eliminated by the coating. In addition, the frictional and binding coefficients were still within the limits outlined by conventional orthodontic wire-bracket couples. Consequently, the coatings were regarded as an improvement to the clinical acceptability of composite orthodontic archwires.

  19. Effects of different brazing and welding methods on the fracture load of various orthodontic joining configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jens J; Bailly, Jacqueline; Fuhrmann, Robert A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture load of different joints made by conventional brazing, tungston inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. Six standardized joining configurations of spring hard quality orthodontic wire were investigated: end-to-end, round, cross, 3 mm length, 9 mm length and 6.5 mm to orthodontic band. The joints were made by five different methods: brazing with universal silver solder, two TIG and two laser welding devices. The fracture loads were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). Data were analysed with the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The significance level was set at Pwelding (Pwelding (826 N). No differences between the various TIG or laser welding devices were demonstrated, although it was not possible to join an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic band using TIG welding. For orthodontic purposes laser and TIG welding are solder free alternatives. TIG welding and laser welding showed similar results. The laser technique is an expensive, but sophisticated and simple method.

  20. Fibrotic encapsulation of orthodontic appliance in palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Jananni; Muthanandam, Sivaramakrishnan; Umapathy, Gubernath; Kannan, Anitha Logaranjani

    2017-01-01

    Iatrogenic trauma though not serious is very common in dental practice. Orthodontic treatment can inflict such injuries as they are prolonged over a long period of time. Ill-fabricated orthodontic appliances, such as wires and brackets, or the patients' habits such as application of constant pressure over the appliance can traumatize the adjacent oral soft tissues. In rare cases, these appliances can get embedded into the mucosa and gingival tissues. This case report describes one such case of iatrogenic trauma to the palatal mucosa due to entrapment of a tongue spike appliance and its surgical management.

  1. Orthodontic management of impacted central incisor: A clinical challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Khera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple treatment options are available for patients who have impacted incisor. This paper shows a case in which orthodontic as well as surgical considerations in 10-year-old female child were presented in the management of impacted central incisor. The orthodontic treatment plan included three steps – creation of space, exposure of crown, and forced eruption. A unique and innovative technique for orthodontic traction (0.017 × 0.025 TMA wire with palatal extension was employed to move the maxillary incisor into arch, with minimum injury to neighboring soft tissue. After the successful management of impacted teeth, it is very important to periodically review the periodontal condition and stability.

  2. Electropolishing-Orthodontic Office: A Simplified Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Munjal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electropolishing plays an important role in dentistry by providing enhanced mechanical properties, better corrosion protection, physical appearance and ease of cleaning various metallic attachments. To achieve all these objectives, we present here a simple and economical way to fabricate a electropolisher which has wide applications in orthodontic office (recycle brackets, anneal retention wires, etc..

  3. Effect of surface oxidation on thermomechanical behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ching Wei; Mahmud, Abdus Samad

    2017-12-01

    Nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy is a unique alloy that exhibits special behavior that recovers fully its shape after being deformed to beyond elastic region. However, this alloy is sensitive to any changes of its composition and introduction of inclusion in its matrix. Heat treatment of NiTi shape memory alloy to above 600 °C leads to the formation of the titanium oxide (TiO2) layer. Titanium oxide is a ceramic material that does not exhibit shape memory behaviors and possess different mechanical properties than that of NiTi alloy, thus disturbs the shape memory behavior of the alloy. In this work, the effect of formation of TiO2 surface oxide layer towards the thermal phase transformation and stress-induced deformation behaviors of the NiTi alloy were studied. The NiTi wire with composition of Ti-50.6 at% Ni was subjected to thermal oxidation at 600 °C to 900 °C for 30 and 60 minutes. The formation of the surface oxide layers was characterized by using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The effect of surface oxide layers with different thickness towards the thermal phase transformation behavior was studied by using the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The effect of surface oxidation towards the stress-induced deformation behavior was studied through the tensile deformation test. The stress-induced deformation behavior and the shape memory recovery of the NiTi wire under tensile deformation were found to be affected marginally by the formation of thick TiO2 layer.

  4. Titanium K-Shell X-Ray Production from High Velocity Wire Arrays Implosions on the 20-MA Z Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apruzese, J.P.; Beg, F.N.; Clark, R.C.; Coverdale, C.A.; Davis, J.; Deeney, C.; Douglas, M.R.; Nash, T.J.; Ruiz-Comacho, J.; Spielman, R.B.; Struve, K.W.; Thornhill, J.W.; Whitney, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    The advent of the 20-MA Z accelerator [R.B. Spielman, C. Deeney, G.A. Chandler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105, (1997)] has enabled implosions of large diameter, high-wire-number arrays of titanium to begin testing Z-pinch K-shell scaling theories. The 2-cm long titanium arrays, which were mounted on a 40-mm diameter, produced between 75±15 to 125±20 kJ of K-shell x-rays. Mass scans indicate that, as predicted, higher velocity implosions in the series produced higher x-ray yields. Spectroscopic analyses indicate that these high velocity implosions achieved peak electron temperatures from 2.7±0.1 to 3.2±0.2 keV and obtained a K-shell emission mass participation of up to 12%

  5. Does the bracket-ligature combination affect the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Henry; Collins, Jill; Tinsley, David; Sandler, Jonathan; Benson, Philip

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of bracket-ligature combination on the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months. Randomized clinical trial with three parallel groups. A hospital orthodontic department (Chesterfield Royal Hospital, UK). Forty-five patients requiring upper first premolar extractions. Informed consent was obtained and participants were randomly allocated into one of three groups: (1) conventional pre-adjusted edgewise brackets and elastomeric ligatures; (2) conventional pre-adjusted edgewise brackets and Super Slick(®) low friction elastomeric ligatures; (3) Damon 3MX(®) passive self-ligating brackets. Space closure was undertaken on 0·019×0·025-inch stainless steel archwires with nickel-titanium coil springs. Participants were recalled at four weekly intervals. Upper alginate impressions were taken at each visit (maximum three). The primary outcome measure was the mean amount of space closure in a 3-month period. A one-way ANOVA was undertaken [dependent variable: mean space closure (mm); independent variable: group allocation]. The amount of space closure was very similar between the three groups (1 mm per 28 days); however, there was a wide variation in the rate of space closure between individuals. The differences in the amount of space closure over three months between the three groups was very small and non-significant (P = 0·718). The hypothesis that reducing friction by modifying the bracket/ligature interface increases the rate of space closure was not supported. The major determinant of orthodontic tooth movement is probably the individual patient response.

  6. Fatigue Assessment of Nickel-Titanium Peripheral Stents: Comparison of Multi-Axial Fatigue Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, Dario; Berti, Francesca; Migliavacca, Francesco; Pennati, Giancarlo; Petrini, Lorenza

    2018-02-01

    Peripheral Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) stents exploit super-elasticity to treat femoropopliteal artery atherosclerosis. The stent is subject to cyclic loads, which may lead to fatigue fracture and treatment failure. The complexity of the loading conditions and device geometry, coupled with the nonlinear material behavior, may induce multi-axial and non-proportional deformation. Finite element analysis can assess the fatigue risk, by comparing the device state of stress with the material fatigue limit. The most suitable fatigue model is not fully understood for NiTi devices, due to its complex thermo-mechanical behavior. This paper assesses the fatigue behavior of NiTi stents through computational models and experimental validation. Four different strain-based models are considered: the von Mises criterion and three critical plane models (Fatemi-Socie, Brown-Miller, and Smith-Watson-Topper models). Two stents, made of the same material with different cell geometries are manufactured, and their fatigue behavior is experimentally characterized. The comparison between experimental and numerical results highlights an overestimation of the failure risk by the von Mises criterion. On the contrary, the selected critical plane models, even if based on different damage mechanisms, give a better fatigue life estimation. Further investigations on crack propagation mechanisms of NiTi stents are required to properly select the most reliable fatigue model.

  7. Fatigue Assessment of Nickel-Titanium Peripheral Stents: Comparison of Multi-Axial Fatigue Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, Dario; Berti, Francesca; Migliavacca, Francesco; Pennati, Giancarlo; Petrini, Lorenza

    2018-03-01

    Peripheral Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) stents exploit super-elasticity to treat femoropopliteal artery atherosclerosis. The stent is subject to cyclic loads, which may lead to fatigue fracture and treatment failure. The complexity of the loading conditions and device geometry, coupled with the nonlinear material behavior, may induce multi-axial and non-proportional deformation. Finite element analysis can assess the fatigue risk, by comparing the device state of stress with the material fatigue limit. The most suitable fatigue model is not fully understood for NiTi devices, due to its complex thermo-mechanical behavior. This paper assesses the fatigue behavior of NiTi stents through computational models and experimental validation. Four different strain-based models are considered: the von Mises criterion and three critical plane models (Fatemi-Socie, Brown-Miller, and Smith-Watson-Topper models). Two stents, made of the same material with different cell geometries are manufactured, and their fatigue behavior is experimentally characterized. The comparison between experimental and numerical results highlights an overestimation of the failure risk by the von Mises criterion. On the contrary, the selected critical plane models, even if based on different damage mechanisms, give a better fatigue life estimation. Further investigations on crack propagation mechanisms of NiTi stents are required to properly select the most reliable fatigue model.

  8. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  9. A highly efficient microfluidic nano biochip based on nanostructured nickel oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Azahar; Solanki, Pratima R; Patel, Manoj K; Dhayani, Hemant; Agrawal, Ved Varun; John, Renu; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2013-04-07

    We present results of the studies relating to fabrication of a microfluidic biosensor chip based on nickel oxide nanorods (NRs-NiO) that is capable of directly measuring the concentration of total cholesterol in human blood through electrochemical detection. Using this chip we demonstrate, with high reliability and in a time efficient manner, the detection of cholesterol present in buffer solutions at clinically relevant concentrations. The microfluidic channel has been fabricated onto a nickel oxide nanorod-based electrode co-immobilized with cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) that serves as the working electrode. Bare indium tin oxide served as the counter electrode. A Ag/AgCl wire introduced to the outlet of the microchannel acts as a reference electrode. The fabricated NiO nanorod-based electrode has been characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, HR-TEM, FT-IR, UV-visible spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The presented NRs-NiO based microfluidic sensor exhibits linearity in the range of 1.5-10.3 mM, a high sensitivity of 0.12 mA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low value of 0.16 mM of the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km).

  10. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic ion exchangers based on mixed oxide tin-titanium to be used in recovery of cadmium and nickel and photoluminescent studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula Pinheiro

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the synthesis, characterization and adsorption studies of inorganic ion exchangers based on mixed tin-titanium oxide for recovery of cadmium and nickel metals from aqueous effluents, discarded in the environment mainly through Ni-Cd battery. The exchangers were synthesized by sol-gel modified method using a mixture of tin(IV) chloride and titanium(III) chloride and ammonium hydroxide, as precursors reagents. The materials obtained: SnO 2 /TiO 2 and SnO 2 /TiO 2 :Eu 3+ were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scattering electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) (powder method) and electronic spectroscopy (excitation and emission) for the europium doped exchanger. The same materials also were synthesized in polymeric matrix too and can be used in column, because the synthesized materials showed crystals size in nano metric scale. It was determined by the distribution ratios for metals taking as parameters the influence of pH, the concentration of metals (by adsorption isotherms) and the contact time (by adsorption kinetic). The inorganic ion exchanger presented high exchange capacity with adsorption percent above 90 por cent for the studied conditions, quickly kinetic, heterogeneous exchange surfaces, physic adsorption and spontaneous process of exchange. To the doped exchanger spectroscopy properties were studied and also it was calculated the intensity parameters and it was found a satisfactory quantum yield. (author)

  11. Kinetic study on hot-wire-assisted atomic layer deposition of nickel thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Guangjie; Shimizu, Hideharu; Momose, Takeshi; Shimogaki, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    High-purity Ni films were deposited using hot-wire-assisted atomic layer deposition (HW-ALD) at deposition temperatures of 175, 250, and 350 °C. Negligible amount of nitrogen or carbon contamination was detected, even though the authors used NH 2 radical as the reducing agent and nickelocene as the precursor. NH 2 radicals were generated by the thermal decomposition of NH 3 with the assist of HW and used to reduce the adsorbed metal growth precursors. To understand and improve the deposition process, the kinetics of HW-ALD were analyzed using a Langmuir-type model. Unlike remote-plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, HW-ALD does not lead to plasma-induced damage. This is a significant advantage, because the authors can supply sufficient NH 2 radicals to deposit high-purity metallic films by adjusting the distance between the hot wire and the substrate. NH 2 radicals have a short lifetime, and it was important to use a short distance between the radical generation site and substrate. Furthermore, the impurity content of the nickel films was independent of the deposition temperature, which is evidence of the temperature-independent nature of the NH 2 radical flux and the reactivity of the NH 2 radicals

  12. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired) Defense Acquisition Management...Combat Information Transport System program was restructured into two pre-Major Automated Information System (pre-MAIS) components: Information...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel

  13. Nano-powder production by electrical explosion of wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Zhiguo; Zou Xiaobing; Wang Xinxin; Jiang Weihua

    2010-01-01

    A device for nano-powder production by electrical explosion of wires was designed and built. Eight wires housed in the discharge chamber are exploded one by one before opening the chamber for the collection of the produced nano-powder. To increase the rate of energy deposition into a wire, the electrical behavior of the discharge circuit including the exploding wire was simulated. The results showed that both reducing the circuit inductance and reducing the capacitance of the energy-storage capacitor (keeping the storage energy constant) can increase the energy deposition rate. To better understand the physical processes of the nano-powder formation by the wire vapor, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to record the time evolution of the wire vapor as well as the plasma. A thermal expansion lag of the dense vapor core as well as more than one times of the vapor burst was observed for the first time. Finally, nano-powders of titanium nitride, titanium dioxide, copper oxides and zinc oxide were produced by electrical explosion of wires. (authors)

  14. Facile and rapid synthesis of nickel nanowires and their magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shaochun; Zheng Zhou; Vongehr, Sascha; Meng Xiangkang

    2011-01-01

    The present work reports a facile and rapid microwave-assisted route to synthesize nickel nanowires with a necklace-like morphology and lengths up to several hundreds of microns. The wires consist of many crystallites with an average size of 25 ± 2 nm. The synthesis does not use templates or magnetic fields and needs only 6 min, which is more than 480 times faster than that needed for Ni wires prepared at 180 °C using conventional heating. Nickel nanostructures with various morphologies including spheres, chains and irregular particles with porous surfaces can also be obtained by adjusting reaction parameters. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is found to be vital for the formation of the one-dimensional chains and a high concentration of PVP smoothes their surfaces to result in the appearance of wires. This rapid one-pot procedure combines the formation of nanoparticles, their oriented assembly into chains, and the subsequent shaping of wires. The Ni nanostructures show variable magnetic properties. The prepared nickel wires have a high mechanical stability and exhibit much higher coercivity than bulk nickel, Ni nanoparticles and their aggregations, which promise potential applications in micromechanical sensors, memory devices and other fields.

  15. Friction between Archwire of Different Sizes, Cross Section, Alloy and Brackets Ligated with Different Brands of Low Friction Elastic Ligatures- An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhushan; Patil, Neeraj Suresh; Kerudi, Veerendra Virupaxappa; Chitko, Shrikant Shrinivas; Maheshwari, Amit Ratanlal; Patil, Harshal Ashok; Pekhale, Nikhita Popatrao; Tekale, Pawankumar Dnyandeo

    2016-04-01

    Friction in orthodontic treatment does exist and is thought to reduce the efficiency of orthodontic appliances during sliding mechanics. During sliding mechanics, a friction force is produced at the bracket archwire-ligature unit which tends to counteract the applied force and in turn resists the desired movement. The aim of this invitro study was to determine the friction between archwire of different sizes, cross section, alloy and brackets ligated with different brands of low friction elastic ligatures. An 0.022-in slot, 10 stainless steel brackets and various orthodontic archwires which were ligated with low-friction ligatures and subjected to evaluate frictional resistance i.e. static friction and dynamic friction. The archwires of 0.014″ and 0.016″ nickel titanium (NiTi), 0.016 × 0.022″ stainless steel (SS), 0.017 × 0.025″ NiTi, 0.017 × 0.025″ SS, 0.017 × 0.025″ titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), 0.019 × 0.025″ SS were used. Each bracket/archwire combination was evaluated 10 times at room temperature of 27 ± 2°C. The study groups included Group I of conventional round shape module with reduced friction coating i.e. super slick and synergy and Group II contained figure of "8" shape module i.e. Octavia ties and Slide ligature. The mean static friction force and dynamic friction force for all 7 types of wires was lower in Group II (C, D) combined compared to Group I (A, B) and the difference was statistically very highly significant (pfriction mechanics.

  16. ORTHODONTIC DEVICES VS. ALLERGIC REACTIONS IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sodor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scope. The scope of the study was to evaluate the adverse reactions upon the intra- and extraoral tissues, produced by the insertion of orthodontic devices, on a populational group of Romania, for determining the frequencies of the allergic reactions and for comparing them with the sex, age, urban/rural background, malocclusion, orthodontic device, oral hygiene prior to and during the orthodontic treatment. Materials and method. The observation sheets of 621 patients (255 boys and 366 girls with ages between 6 and 29 years, from the Orthodontics Clinics of the Policlinics of the “Sf. Spiridon” Urgency Hospital and from a private orthodontic consulting room of Iaşi, have been statistically evaluated with the SPSS 17.0 for Windows program. Results. Pearson correlation and linear regression evidenced the relations between the adverse reactions produced during the orthodontic treatment, on one side, and the age, dental hygiene and types of orthodontic devices, on the other. The results obtained put into evidence significant relations between the adolescent age and the allergy to nickel manifested in antecedents, between the scarce oral hygiene of the patients prior to the orthodontic treatment and gingival enlargement, between the scarce oral hygiene of the patients during the orthodontic treatment and the localized or generalized gingivitis and the bleedings and gingival overgrowths, between the mobile orthodontic devices and the allergic reactions to acrylic resins (p and t = 0.000. Relevant connections have been also evidenced between the fixed orthodontic devices and the allergic reactions to the polymeric biomaterials from the orthodontic devices (p = 0.005 and t = 0.034. Conclusions. Statistical evaluation of the adverse effects induced by orthodontic devices may be used for stating the development of allergic reactions to the substances entering the composition of orthodontic devices, with reference to the cytotoxicology and

  17. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of an Orthodontic Composite Containing Titanium-dioxide Nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Ramezani, Mohammad; Poosti, Maryam; Hosseini, Mohsen; Shajiei, Arezoo; Ahrari, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Incorporation of nano-particles to orthodontic bonding systems has been considered to prevent enamel demineralization around appliances. This study investigated cytotoxicity of Transbond XT adhesive containing 1 wt% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles. Materials and methods. Ten composite disks were prepared from each of the conventional and TiO2-containg composites and aged for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). The extracts were obtained and exposed to culture media of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mouse L929 fibroblasts. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results. Both adhesives were moderately toxic for HGF cells on the first day of the experiment, but the TiO2-containing adhesive produced significantly lower toxicity than the pure adhesive (P0.05). There was a significant reduction in cell toxicity with increasing pre-incubation time (Porthodontic adhesive containing TiO2 nano-particles indicated comparable or even lower toxicity than its nano-particle-free counterpart, indicating that incorporation of 1 wt% TiO2 nano-particles to the composite structure does not result in additional health hazards compared to that occurring with the pure adhesive.

  18. DT fusion neutron irradiation of BPNL niobium nickel and 316 stainless steel at 1750C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    The DT fusion neutron irradiation at 175 0 C of 17 niobium wires, one niobium foil, 14 316 stainless steel wires, one 316 stainless steel foil, nine nickel wires, and two nickel foils from BPNL is described. The sample position, beam-on time, neutron dose record, and neutron fluence are given

  19. Do Dietary Habits Influence Trace Elements Release from Fixed Orthodontic Appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołowiec, Paulina; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Loster, Bartłomiej W; Mikulewicz, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of dietary habits on the release of Cr and Ni ions from orthodontic appliances by hair mineral analysis. Patients (N = 47) underwent electronic questionnaire survey to investigate the effect of dietary habits on Cr and Ni levels in hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled at the beginning and in the 4th, 8th, and 12th months of the treatment. The content of Cr and Ni in the collected samples was determined by ICP-OES. The study showed that consumption of acidic dietary products may have the effect on increasing the release of Cr and Ni ions from orthodontic appliances. The release of Cr from orthodontic appliances in patients who consumed fruit juice, coffee, yoghurt, and vinegar was higher. The coefficients enabling comparison of metal ions release pattern at a given sampling points were defined. The comparison of the coefficients yielded the information on the possible magnification of metal ions released as the result of the additional factor consumption of acidic food or drink that intensifies metal ions release. The following magnification pattern was found for chromium: coffee (7.57 times) > yoghurt (2.53) > juice (1.86) > vinegar (1.08), and for nickel: vinegar (2.2) > coffee (1.22) > juice (1.05). Yoghurt did not intensify the release of nickel. Concluding, orthodontic patients should avoid drinking/eating coffee, yoghurt, fruit juices, and vinegar.

  20. Physical and mechanical properties of a thermomechanically treated NiTi wire used in the manufacture of rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E S J; Peixoto, I F C; Viana, A C D; Oliveira, I I; Gonzalez, B M; Buono, V T L; Bahia, M G A

    2012-05-01

    To compare physical and mechanical properties of one conventional and one thermomechanically treated nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire used to manufacture rotary endodontic instruments. Two NiTi wires 1.0 mm in diameter were characterized; one of them, C-wire (CW), was processed in the conventional manner, and the other, termed M-Wire (MW), received an additional heat treatment according to the manufacturer. Chemical composition was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, phase constitution by XRD and the transformation temperatures by DSC. Tensile loading/unloading tests and Vickers microhardness measurements were performed to assess the mechanical behaviour. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (α = 0.05). The two wires showed approximately the same chemical composition, close to the 1 : 1 atomic ratio, and the β-phase was the predominant phase present. B19' martensite and the R-phase were found in MW, in agreement with the higher transformation temperatures found in this wire compared with CW, whose transformation temperatures were below room temperature. Average Vickers microhardness values were similar for MW and CW (P = 0.91). The stress at the transformation plateau in the tensile load-unload curves was lower and more uniform in the M-Wire, which also showed the smallest stress hysteresis and apparent elastic modulus. The M-Wire had physical and mechanical properties that can render endodontic instruments more flexible and fatigue resistant than those made with conventionally processed NiTi wires. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of nickel nanowires deposited on metal substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, I.Z.; Razeeb, K.M.; Rahman, M.A.; Kamruzzaman, Md.

    2003-01-01

    The present investigation is a part of ongoing systematic study of production and process development of nanometer scale arrays of magnetic wires on metal substrates. Nickel nanowires are grown in ordered anodic alumina templates using galvanostatic electrodeposition. In this paper we report on the growth of nanowires on the electrochemical cell parameters such as bath temperature, pH and time. Focused ion beam analysis revealed heterogeneous growth of nickel nanowires. X-ray diffraction spectrum showed that FCC nickel changed the preferred orientation from (2 2 0) at lower bath temperatures to (2 0 0) at higher bath temperatures. Magnetic measurement showed that coercive fields were higher for wires with smaller diameters. Magneto-impedance was measured as a function of applied magnetic field and wire diameter

  2. A biomechanical evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging-compatible