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Sample records for nickel-titanium niti rotary

  1. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Various Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Kyu-Sang; Oh, Soram; Kum, KeeYeon; Kim, Yu-Chan; Jee, Kwang-Koo; Chang, Seok Woo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermomechanical treatment on mechanical and metallurgical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. Eight kinds of NiTi rotary instruments with sizes of ISO #25 were selected: ProFile, K3, and One Shape for the conventional alloy; ProTaper NEXT, Reciproc, and WaveOne for the M-wire alloy; HyFlex CM for the controlled memory- (CM-) wire; and TF for the R-phase alloy. Torsional fracture and cyclic fatigue fracture tests were...

  2. Metallurgical characterization of a new nickel-titanium wire for rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Satish B; Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Clark, William A T; Kovarik, Libor; Buie, Caesar; Liu, Jie; Ben Johnson, William

    2009-11-01

    A novel thermomechanical processing procedure has been developed that yields a superelastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire (M-Wire) that laboratory testing shows has improved mechanical properties compared with conventional SE austenitic NiTi wires used for manufacture of rotary instruments. The objective of this study was to determine the origin of the improved mechanical properties. Specimens from 2 batches of M-Wire prepared under different processing conditions and from 1 batch of standard-processed SE wire for rotary instruments were examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy, temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry, micro-x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometric analyses. The processing for M-Wire yields a microstructure containing martensite, that the proportions of NiTi phases depend on processing conditions, and that the microstructure exhibits pronounced evidence of alloy strengthening. The presence of Ti(2)Ni precipitates in both microstructures indicates that M-Wire and the conventional SE wire for rotary instruments are titanium-rich.

  3. Deformation and fracture of Mtwo rotary nickel-titanium instruments after clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Ugur; Gonulol, Nihan

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, a number of rotary nickel titanium (NiTi) systems have been developed to provide better, faster, and easier cleaning and shaping of the root canal system. Although the NiTi instruments are more flexible than the stainless steel files, the main problem with the rotary NiTi instruments is the failure of the instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the deformation and fracture rate of Mtwo rotary nickel-titanium instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany) discarded after routine clinical use. A total of 593 Mtwo rotary NiTi instruments were collected after clinical use from the clinic of endodontics over 12 months. The length of the files was measured using a digital caliper to determine any fracture, and then all the files were evaluated under a stereomicroscope for defects such as unwinding, curving, or bending and fracture. The fracture faces of separated files were also evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed using a chi-square and z test. A percentage of all files (25.80%) showed defects, and the major defect was fracture (16.02%). The most frequently fractured file was #10.04 (30.39%). Deformations without fracture were mostly observed on #15.05 files (25.47%). A higher rate of deformation was observed for #10.04 and #15.05 files. Therefore, these files should be considered as single-use instruments. Because cyclic fatigue was the cause of 71.58% of the instrument fractures, it is also important not to exceed the maximum number of usage recommended by the manufacturer and discard the instruments on a regular basis.

  4. Fatigue resistance of engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium instruments produced by new manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola Maria; Plotino, Gianluca; Somma, Francesco; Garala, Manish; De Luca, Massimo; Testarelli, Luca

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel-titanium instruments manufactured by using new processes. This was evaluated by comparing instruments produced by using the twisted method (TF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and those using the M-wire alloy (GTX; Dentsply Tulsa-Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) with instruments produced by a traditional NiTi grinding process (K3, SybronEndo). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments inside curved artificial canals. Results indicated that size 06-25 TF instruments showed a significant increase (p 0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 06-20 GT series X instruments. The new manufacturing process produced nickel-titanium rotary files (TF) significantly more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process. Instruments produced with M-wire (GTX) were not found to be more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process.

  5. A Survey on Nickel Titanium Rotary Instruments and their Usage Techniques by Endodontists in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Thimmanagowda N; Saraf, Prahlad A; Penukonda, Raghavendra; Vanaki, Sneha S; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2017-05-01

    The preference and usage of nickel titanium rotary instruments varies from individual to individual based on their technique, experience with the rotary systems and the clinical situation. Very limited information is available to explain the adoption of changing concepts with respect to nickel titanium rotary instruments pertaining to the endodontists in India. The aim of this study was to conduct a questionnaire survey to acquire the knowledge concerning different NiTi rotary instruments and their usage techniques by endodontists in India. A Survey questionnaire was designed which consisted of 32 questions regarding designation, demographics, experience with rotary instruments, usage of different file systems, usage techniques, frequency of reuse, occurrence of file fracture, reasons and their management was distributed by hand in the national postgraduate convention and also disseminated via electronic medium to 400 and 600 endodontists respectively. Information was collected from each individual to gain insight into the experiences and beliefs of endodontists concerning the new endodontic technology of rotary NiTi instrumentation based on their clinical experience with the rotary systems. The questions were designed to ascertain the problems, patterns of use and to identify areas of perceived or potential concern regarding the rotary instruments and the data acquired was statistically evaluated using Fisher's-exact test and the Chi-Square test. Overall 63.8% (638) endodontists responded. ProTaper was one of the most commonly used file system followed by M two and ProTaper Next. There was a significant co relation between the years of experience and the file re use frequency, preparation technique, file separation, management of file separation. A large number of Endodontists prefer to reuse the rotary NiTi instruments. As there was an increase in the experience, the incidence of file separation reduced with increasing number of re use frequency and with

  6. Do NiTi instruments show defects before separation? Defects caused by torsional fatigue in hand and rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments which lead to failure during clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakka, N V Murali Krishna; Ratnakar, P; Das, Sanjib; Bagchi, Anandamy; Sudhir, Sudhir; Anumula, Lavanya

    2012-11-01

    Visual and microscopic evaluation of defects caused by torsional fatigue in hand and rotary nickel titanium (NiTi) instruments. Ninety-six NiTi greater taper instruments which were routinely used for root canal treatment only in anterior teeth were selected for the study. The files taken include ProTaper for hand use, ProTaper Rotary files and Endowave rotary files. After every use, the files were observed visually and microscopically (Stereomicroscope at 10×) to evaluate the defects caused by torsional fatigue. Scoring was given according to a new classification formulated which gives an indication of the severity of the defect or damage. Data was statistically analyzed using KruskallWallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Number of files showing defects were more under stereomicroscope than visual examination. But, the difference in the evaluation methods was not statistically significant. The different types of defects observed were bent instrument, straightening/stretching of twist contour and partial reverse twisting. Endowave files showed maximum number of defects followed by ProTaper for hand use and least in ProTaper Rotary. Visible defects due to torsional fatigue do occur in NiTi instruments after clinical use. Both visual and microscopic examinations were efficient in detecting defects caused due to torsional fatigue. This study emphasizes that all files should be observed for any visible defects before and after every instrumentation cycle to minimize the risk of instrument separation and failure of endodontic therapy.

  7. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Various Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sang Shim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermomechanical treatment on mechanical and metallurgical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary instruments. Eight kinds of NiTi rotary instruments with sizes of ISO #25 were selected: ProFile, K3, and One Shape for the conventional alloy; ProTaper NEXT, Reciproc, and WaveOne for the M-wire alloy; HyFlex CM for the controlled memory- (CM- wire; and TF for the R-phase alloy. Torsional fracture and cyclic fatigue fracture tests were performed. Products underwent a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis. The CM-wire and R-phase groups had the lowest elastic modulus, followed by the M-wire group. The maximum torque of the M-wire instrument was comparable to that of a conventional instrument, while those of the CM-wire and R-phase instruments were lower. The angular displacement at failure (ADF for the CM-wire and R-phase instruments was higher than that of conventional instruments, and ADF of the M-wire instruments was lower. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the thermomechanically treated NiTi instruments was higher. DSC plots revealed that NiTi instruments made with the conventional alloy were primarily composed of austenite at room temperature; stable martensite and R-phase were found in thermomechanically treated instruments.

  8. Effect of autoclaving on the surfaces of TiN -coated and conventional nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, G; Ametrano, G; D'Antò, V; Rengo, C; Simeone, M; Riccitiello, F; Amato, M

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of repeated autoclave sterilization cycles on surface topography of conventional nickel-titanium ( NiTi ) and titanium nitride ( TiN )-coated rotary instruments. A total of 60 NiTi rotary instruments, 30 ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer) and 30 TiN -coated AlphaKite (Komet/Gebr. Brasseler), were analysed. Instruments were evaluated in the as-received condition and after 1, 5 and 10 sterilization cycles. After sterilization, the samples were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and surface chemical analysis was performed on each instrument with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, the samples were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and roughness average (Ra) and the root mean square value (RMS) of the scanned surface profiles were recorded. Data were analysed by means of anova followed by Tukey's test. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the presence of pitting and deep milling marks in all instruments. EDS analysis confirmed that both types of instruments were composed mainly of nickel and titanium, whilst AlphaKite had additional nitride. After multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, SEM examinations revealed an increase in surface alterations, and EDS values indicated changes in chemical surface composition in all instruments. Ra and RMS values of ProTaper significantly increased after 5 (P = 0.006) and 10 cycles (P = 0.002) with respect to the as-received instruments, whilst AlphaKite showed significant differences compared with the controls after 10 cycles (P = 0.03). Multiple autoclave sterilization cycles modified the surface topography and chemical composition of conventional and TiN -coated NiTi rotary instruments. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  9. Reduction in bacterial counts in infected root canals after rotary or hand nickel-titanium instrumentation--a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, I N; Lima, K C; Siqueira, J F

    2013-07-01

    To compare the antibacterial efficacy of two instrumentation techniques, one using hand nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments and the other using rotary NiTi instruments, in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis. Root canals from single-rooted teeth were instrumented using either hand NiTi instruments in the alternated rotation motion technique or rotary BioRaCe instruments. The irrigant used in both groups was 2.5% NaOCl. DNA extracts from samples taken before and after instrumentation were subjected to quantitative analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Qualitative analysis was also performed using presence/absence data from culture and qPCR assays. Bacteria were detected in all S1 samples by both methods. In culture analysis, 45% and 35% of the canals were still positive for bacterial presence after hand and rotary NiTi instrumentation, respectively (P > 0.05). Rotary NiTi instrumentation resulted in significantly fewer qPCR-positive cases (60%) than hand NiTi instrumentation (95%) (P = 0.01). Intergroup comparison of quantitative data showed no significant difference between the two techniques. There was no significant difference in bacterial reduction in infected canals after instrumentation using hand or rotary NiTi instruments. In terms of incidence of positive results for bacteria, culture also showed no significant differences between the groups, but the rotary NiTi instrumentation resulted in more negative results in the more sensitive qPCR analysis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of three different rotary nickel-titanium instruments designed for retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Ugur; Aydin, Cumhur

    2012-01-01

    A number of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems have been developed to provide better, faster, and easier cleaning and shaping of the root canal system, and recently, rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment have been introduced. Because the main problem with the rotary NiTi files is fracture, the aim of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment. Total of 60 instruments of 3 different rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment were used in this study. Twenty R-Endo R3, 20 ProTaper D3, and 20 Mtwo R (Retreatment) 25.05 instruments were tested. Cyclic fatigue testing of instruments was performed by using a device that allowed the instruments to rotate freely inside an artificial canal. Each instrument was rotated until fracture occurred, and the number of cycles to fracture for each instrument was calculated. Representative samples were also evaluated under a scanning electron microscope to confirm the fracture was flexural. Data were analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance test. R-Endo R3 instruments showed better cyclic fatigue resistance than ProTaper D3 and Mtwo R 25.05 instruments, and the difference was statistically significant (P instruments were more resistant to fatigue failure than ProTaper D3 and Mtwo R 25.05. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Glide path preparation in S-shaped canals with rotary pathfinding nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuz, Natasha C C; Armada, Luciana; Gonçalves, Lucio S; Debelian, Gilberto; Siqueira, José F

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the incidence of deviation along S-shaped (double-curved) canals after glide path preparation with 2 nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary pathfinding instruments and hand K-files. S-shaped canals from 60 training blocks were filled with ink, and preinstrumentation images were obtained by using a stereomicroscope. Glide path preparation was performed by an endodontist who used hand stainless steel K-files (up to size 20), rotary NiTi PathFile instruments (up to size 19), or rotary NiTi Scout RaCe instruments (up to size 20). Postinstrumentation images were taken by using exactly the same conditions as for the preinstrumentation images, and both pictures were superimposed. Differences along the S-shaped canal for the mesial and distal aspects were measured to evaluate the occurrence of deviation. Intragroup analysis showed that all instruments promoted some deviation in virtually all levels. Overall, regardless of the group, deviations were observed in the mesial wall at the canal terminus and at levels 4, 5, 6 and 7 mm and in the distal wall at levels 1, 2, and 3 mm. These levels corresponded to the inner walls of each curvature. Both rotary NiTi instruments performed significantly better than hand K-files at all levels (P instruments showed significantly better results than PathFiles at levels 0, 2, 3, 5, and 6 mm (P rotary NiTi instruments are suitable for adequate glide path preparation because they promoted less deviation from the original canal anatomy when compared with hand-operated instruments. Of the 2 rotary pathfinding instruments, Scout RaCe showed an overall significantly better performance. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative study of six rotary nickel-titanium systems and hand instrumentation for root canal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelzow, A; Stamm, O; Martus, P; Kielbassa, A M

    2005-10-01

    To compare ex vivo various parameters of root canal preparation using a manual technique and six different rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments (FlexMaster, System GT, HERO 642, K3, ProTaper, and RaCe). A total of 147 extracted mandibular molars were divided into seven groups (n = 21) with equal mean mesio-buccal root canal curvatures (up to 70 degrees), and embedded in a muffle system. All root canals were prepared to size 30 using a crown-down preparation technique for the rotary nickel-titanium instruments and a standardized preparation (using reamers and Hedströem files) for the manual technique. Length modifications and straightening were determined by standardized radiography and a computer-aided difference measurement for every instrument system. Post-operative cross-sections were evaluated by light-microscopic investigation and photographic documentation. Procedural errors, working time and time for instrumentation were recorded. The data were analysed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. No significant differences were detected between the rotary Ni-Ti instruments for alteration of working length. All Ni-Ti systems maintained the original curvature well, with minor mean degrees of straightening ranging from 0.45 degrees (System GT) to 1.17 degrees (ProTaper). ProTaper had the lowest numbers of irregular post-operative root canal diameters; the results were comparable between the other systems. Instrument fractures occurred with ProTaper in three root canals, whilst preparation with System GT, HERO 642, K3 and the manual technique resulted in one fracture each. Ni-Ti instruments prepared canals more rapidly than the manual technique. The shortest time for instrumentation was achieved with System GT (11.7 s). Under the conditions of this ex vivo study all Ni-Ti systems maintained the canal curvature, were associated with few instrument fractures and were more rapid than a standardized manual technique. Pro

  13. Shaping abilities of two different engine-driven rotary nickel titanium systems or stainless steel balanced-force technique in mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matwychuk, Michael J; Bowles, Walter R; McClanahan, Scott B; Hodges, Jim S; Pesun, Igor J

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare apical transportation, working-length changes, and instrumentation time by using nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary file systems (crown-down method) or stainless steel hand files (balanced-force technique) in mesiobuccal canals of extracted mandibular molars. The curvature of each canal was determined and teeth placed into three equivalent groups. Group 1 was instrumented with Sequence (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA) rotary files, group 2 with Liberator (Miltex Inc, York, PA) rotary files, and group 3 with Flex-R (Union Broach, New York, NY) files. Pre- and postoperative radiographs were superimposed to measure loss of working length and apical transportation as shown by changes in radius of curvature and the long-axis canal angle. Sequence rotary files, Liberator rotary files, and Flex-R hand files had similar effects on apical canal transportation and changes in working length, with no significant differences detected among the 3 groups. Hand instrumentation times were longer than with either Ni-Ti rotary group, whereas the rotary NiTi groups had a higher incidence of fracture.

  14. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Novel Rotary Files Manufactured from Different Thermal Treated Nickel-Titanium Wires in Artificial Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataşlıoglu, E; Aydın, U; Yıldırım, C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the static cyclic fatigue resistance of thermal treated rotary files with a conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file. Four groups of 60 rotary files with similar file dimensions, geometries, and motion were selected. Groups were set as HyFlex Group [controlled memory wire (CM-Wire)], ProfileVortex Group (M-Wire), Twisted File Group (R-Phase Wire), and OneShape Group (conventional NiTi wire)] and tested using a custom-made static cyclic fatigue testing apparatus. The fracture time and fragment length of the each file was also recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test at the 95% confidence level (P = 0.05). The HyFlex group had a significantly higher mean cyclic fatigue resistance than the other three groups (P Wire alloy represented the best performance in cyclic fatigue resistance, and NiTi alloy in R-Phase had the second highest fatigue resistance. CM and R-Phase manufacturing technology processed to the conventional NiTi alloy enhance the cyclic fatigue resistance of files that have similar design and size. M-wire alloy did not show any superiority in cyclic fatigue resistance when compared with conventional NiTi wire.

  15. A comparison of nickel-titanium rotary instruments manufactured using different methods and cross-sectional areas: ability to resist cyclic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, So-Ram; Chang, Seok-Woo; Lee, Yoon; Gu, Yu; Son, Won-Jun; Lee, Woocheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Shik; Choi, Gi-Woon; Lim, Sang-Min; Kum, Kee-Yeon

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the effect of the manufacturing methods (ground, electropolished, and twisted) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments on their cyclic fatigue resistance. A total of 80 NiTi rotary instruments (ISO 25/.06 taper) from 4 brands (K3, ProFile, RaCe, and TF) were rotated in a simulated root canal with pecking motion until fracture. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated. The CSA at 3 mm from the tip of new instruments of each brand was calculated. The correlation between the CSA and NCF was evaluated. All fractured surfaces were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope to determine the fracture mode. The TF instruments were the most resistant to fatigue failure. The resistance to cyclic failure increased with decreasing CSA. All fractured surfaces showed the coexistence of ductile and brittle properties. The CSA had a significant effect on the fatigue resistance of NiTi rotary instruments. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stereomicroscopic evaluation of defects caused by torsional fatigue in used hand and rotary nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Geeta; Kapadwala, Marsrat I; Parmar, Girish J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate defects caused by torsional fatigue in used hand and rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments by stereomicroscopic examination. One hundred five greater taper Ni-Ti instruments were used including Protaper universal hand (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Protaper universal rotary (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and Revo-S rotary (MicroMega, Besançon, France) files. Files were used on lower anterior teeth. After every use, the files were observed with both naked eyes and stereomicroscope at 20× magnification (Olympus, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan) to evaluate defects caused by torsional fatigue. Scoring was assigned to each file according to the degree of damage. The results were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. A greater number of defects were seen under the stereomicroscope than on examining with naked eyes. However, the difference in methods of evaluation was not statistically significant. Revo-S files showed minimum defects, while Protaper universal hand showed maximum defects. The intergroup comparison of defects showed that the bend in Protaper universal hand instruments was statistically significant. Visible defects in Ni-Ti files due to torsional fatigue were seen by naked eyes as well as by stereomicroscope. This study emphasizes that all the files should be observed before and after every instrument cycle to minimize the risk of separation.

  17. Evaluation of surface characteristics of rotary nickel-titanium instruments produced by different manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U; Gurel, M

    2017-02-01

    Instrument fracture is a serious concern in endodontic practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface quality of new and used rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments manufactured by the traditional grinding process and twisting methods. Total 16 instruments of two rotary NiTi systems were used in this study. Eight Twisted Files (TF) (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and 8 Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) instruments were evaluated. New and used of 4 experimental groups were evaluated using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). New and used instruments were analyzed on 3 points along a 3 mm. section at the tip of the instrument. Quantitative measurements according to the topographical deviations were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed with paired samples t-test and independent samples t-test. Mean root mean square (RMS) values for new and used TF 25.06 files were 10.70 ± 2.80 nm and 21.58 ± 6.42 nm, respectively, and the difference between them was statistically significant (P instruments produced by twisting method (TF 25.06) had better surface quality than the instruments produced by traditional grinding process (Mtwo 25.06 files).

  18. Evaluation of cyclic flexural fatigue of M-wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadlaq, Solaiman M S; Aljarbou, Fahad A; AlThumairy, Riyadh I

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate cyclic flexural fatigue resistance of GT series X rotary files made from the newly developed M-wire nickel-titanium alloy compared with GT and Profile nickel-titanium files made from a conventional nickel-titanium alloy. Fifteen files, size 30/0.04, of each type were used to evaluate the cyclic flexural fatigue resistance. A simple device was specifically constructed to measure the time each file type required to fail under cyclic flexural fatigue testing. The results of this experiment indicated that the GT series X files had superior cyclic flexural fatigue resistance than the other 2 file types made from a conventional nickel-titanium alloy (P = .004). On the other hand, the difference between the Profile and the GT files was not statistically significant. The findings of this study suggest that size 30/0.04 nickel-titanium rotary files made from the newly developed M-wire alloy have better cyclic flexural fatigue resistance than files of similar design and size made from the conventional nickel-titanium alloy. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Torsion and bending properties of shape memory and superelastic nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninan, Elizabeth; Berzins, David W

    2013-01-01

    Recently introduced into the market are shape memory nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files. The objective of this study was to investigate the torsion and bending properties of shape memory files (CM Wire, HyFlex CM, and Phoenix Flex) and compare them with conventional (ProFile ISO and K3) and M-Wire (GT Series X and ProFile Vortex) NiTi files. Sizes 20, 30, and 40 (n = 12/size/taper) of 0.02 taper CM Wire, Phoenix Flex, K3, and ProFile ISO and 0.04 taper HyFlex CM, ProFile ISO, GT Series X, and Vortex were tested in torsion and bending per ISO 3630-1 guidelines by using a torsiometer. All data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer test (P = .05) to determine any significant differences between the files. Significant interactions were present among factors of size and file. Variability in maximum torque values was noted among the shape memory files brands, sometimes exhibiting the greatest or least torque depending on brand, size, and taper. In general, the shape memory files showed a high angle of rotation before fracture but were not statistically different from some of the other files. However, the shape memory files were more flexible, as evidenced by significantly lower bending moments (P < .008). Shape memory files show greater flexibility compared with several other NiTi rotary file brands. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diffusion of titanium and nickel in B2 NiTi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Divinski, S.V.; Stloukal, Ivo; Král, Lubomír; Herzig, Ch.

    289-292, - (2009), s. 377-382 ISSN 1012-0386. [DIMAT 2008, International Conference on Diffusion in Materials /7./. Lanzarote, Canary Islands , 28.10.2008-31.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : intermetallic compound NiTi * nickel nad titanium diffusion * diffusion mechanism Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics http://www.scientific.net/DDF.289-292.377/

  1. Fatigue behavior of lubricated Ni-Ti endodontic rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brotzu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of Ni-Ti alloys in the practice of endodontic comes from their important properties such as shape memory and superelasticity phenomena, good corrosion resistance and high compatibility with biological tissues. In the last twenty years a great variety of nickel-titanium rotary instruments, with various sections and taper, have been developed and marketed. Although they have many advantages and despite their increasing popularity, a major concern with the use of Ni-Ti rotary instruments is the possibility of unexpected failure in use due to several reasons: novice operator handling, presence manufacturing defects, fatigue etc. Recently, the use of an aqueous gel during experimental tests showed a longer duration of the instruments. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the study of the fracture behavior of these endodontic rotary instruments particularly assessing whether the use of the aqueous lubricant gel can extend their operative life stating its reasons. A finite element model (FEM has been developed to support the experimental results. The results were rather contradictory, also because the Perspex (Poly-methyl methacrylate, PMMA cannot simulate completely the dentin mechanical behavior; however the results highlight some interesting points which are discussed in the paper.

  2. Cyclic Fatigue of Different Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Testarelli, L.; Grande, N.M; Plotino, G; Lendini, M; Pongione, G; Paolis, G. De; Rizzo, F; Milana, V; Gambarini, G

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of nickel-titanium alloy to endodontics, there have been many changes in instrument design, but no significant improvements in the raw material properties, or enhancements in the manufacturing process. Recently, a new method to produce nickel-titanium rotary (NTR) instruments has been developed, in an attempt to obtain instruments that are more flexible and resistant to fatigue. NTR instruments produced using the process of twisting (TF, SybronEndo, Orange, CA) were com...

  3. Effectiveness of supplementary irrigant agitation with the Finisher GF Brush on the debridement of oval root canals instrumented with the Gentlefile or nickel titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, P; Khan, K; Li, K Y; Shetty, H; Xi, W

    2018-07-01

    To examine the efficacy of a novel supplementary irrigant agitating brush (Finisher GF Brush, MedicNRG, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) on the debridement of root canals prepared with a novel stainless steel rotary instrumentation system (Gentlefile; MedicNRG), or nickel titanium rotary instruments in oval root canals. Mandibular premolars (n = 72) were selected and divided randomly into three experimental groups (n = 24) after microCT scanning: group 1, canal preparation to rotary NiTi size 20, .04 taper (R20); group 2, rotary NiTi to size 25, .04 taper (R25) and group 3, Gentlefile size 23, .04 taper (GF). Specimens were subdivided into two subgroups: subgroup A, syringe-and-needle irrigation (SNI); subgroup B, Finisher GF Brush (GB). Ten untreated canals served as controls. Specimens were processed for histological evaluation, and the remaining pulp tissue (RPT) was measured. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests (P = 0.05). All experimental groups had significantly less RPT than the control (P  0.05). When instrumented with R20, there was no significant difference between SNI and GF (P rotary NiTi. Root canal debridement did not significantly differ between the instruments when syringe irrigation was used. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of novel nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capar, Ismail Davut; Ertas, Huseyin; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-04-01

    New files (ProTaper Next/HyFlex/OneShape) are made from novel nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys/treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of these new instruments with that of Revo-S instruments. Four groups of 20 NiTi endodontic instruments were tested in steel canals with a 3 mm radius and a 60° angle of curvature. The cyclic fatigue of the following NiTi instruments with a tip size 25 and 0.06 taper that were manufactured with different alloys was tested: ProTaper Next X2 (M-Wire), OneShape (conventional NiTi), Revo-S Shaping Universal (conventional NiTi) and HyFlex 25/0.6 (controlled memory NiTi wire). A one-way anova and post-hoc Tukey's test (α = 0.05) revealed that the HyFlex files had the highest fatigue resistance and the Revo-S had the least fatigue resistance among the groups (P < 0.001). © 2014 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  5. Metallurgical characterization of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Zhou, Hui-Min; Zheng, Yu-Feng; Campbell, Les; Peng, Bin; Haapasalo, Markus

    2011-11-01

    To improve the fracture resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files, manufacturers have introduced new alloys and developed new manufacturing processes for the fabrication of NiTi files. This study aimed to examine the phase transformation behavior and microstructure of NiTi instruments from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM wire). Instruments of EndoSequence (ES), ProFile (PF), ProFile Vortex (Vortex), Twisted Files (TF), Typhoon (TYP), and Typhoon™ CM (TYP CM), all size 25/.04, were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructures of etched instruments were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDS) analyses. The DSC analyses showed that each segment of the TYP CM and Vortex instruments had an austenite transformation completion or austenite-finish (A(f)) temperature exceeding 37°C, whereas the NiTi instruments made from conventional superelastic NiTi wire (ES, PF, and TYP) and TF had A(f) temperatures substantially below mouth temperature. The higher A(f) temperature of TYP CM instruments was consistent with a mixture of austenite and martensite structure, which was observed at room temperature with XRD. All NiTi instruments had room temperature martensite microstructures consisting of colonies of lenticular features with substantial twinning. EDS analysis indicated that the precipitates in all NiTi instruments were titanium-rich, with an approximate composition of Ti(2)Ni. The TYP CM and Vortex instruments with heat treatment contribute to increase austenite transformation temperature. The CM instrument has significant changes in the phase transformation behavior, compared with conventional superelastic NiTi instruments. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of rotational speed on the cyclic fatigue of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Ferreira, Alessandra A P; Elias, Carlos N; Moreira, Edson J L; de Oliveira, Júlio C Machado; Siqueira, José F

    2009-07-01

    During the preparation of curved canals, rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments are subjected to cyclic fatigue, which can lead to instrument fracture. Although several factors may influence the cyclic fatigue resistance of instruments, the role of the rotational speed remains uncertain. This study was intended to evaluate the effects of rotational speed on the number of cycles to fracture of rotary NiTi instruments. ProTaper Universal instruments F3 and F4 (Maillefer SA, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were used in an artificial curved canal under rotational speeds of 300 rpm or 600 rpm. The artificial canal was made of stainless steel, with an inner diameter of 1.5 mm, total length of 20 mm, and arc at the end with a curvature radius of 6 mm. The arc length was 9.4 mm and 10.6 mm on the straight part. The number of cycles required to fracture was recorded. Fractured surfaces and the helical shafts of the fractured instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed approximately a 30% reduction in the observed number of cycles to fracture as rotational speed was increased from 300 to 600 RPM (p ductile type, and no plastic deformation was observed on the helical shaft of fractured instruments. The present findings for both F3 and F4 ProTaper instruments revealed that the increase in rotational speed significantly reduced the number of cycles to fracture.

  7. Fracture resistance of dental nickel-titanium rotary instruments with novel surface treatment: Thin film metallic glass coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chih-Wen; Deng, Yu-Lun; Lee, Jyh-Wei; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2017-05-01

    Dental nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments are widely used in endodontic therapy because they are efficient with a higher success rate. However, an unpredictable fracture of instruments may happen due to the surface characteristics of imperfection (or irregularity). This study assessed whether a novel surface treatment could increase fatigue fracture resistance of dental NiTi rotary instruments. A 200- or 500-nm thick Ti-zirconium-boron (Ti-Zr-B) thin film metallic glass was deposited on ProTaper Universal F2 files using a physical vapor deposition process. The characteristics of coating were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. In cyclic fatigue tests, the files were performed in a simulated root canal (radius=5 mm, angulation=60°) under a rotating speed of 300rpm. The fatigue fractured cross sections of the files were analyzed with their fractographic performances through scanning electron microscopy images. The amorphous structure of the Ti-Zr-B coating was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The surface of treated files presented smooth morphologies without grinding irregularity. For the 200- and 500-nm surface treatment groups, the coated files exhibited higher resistance of cyclic fatigue than untreated files. In fractographic analysis, treated files showed significantly larger crack-initiation zone; however, no significant differences in the areas of fatigue propagation and catastrophic fracture were found compared to untreated files. The novel surface treatment of Ti-Zr-B thin film metallic glass on dental NiTi rotary files can effectively improve the fatigue fracture resistance by offering a smooth coated surface with amorphous microstructure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Impact of heat treatments on the fatigue resistance of different rotary nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Lígia Carolina Moreira; Faria Silva, Ana Cristina; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes; de Azevedo Bahia, Maria Guiomar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of M-Wire (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) and controlled memory technologies on the fatigue resistance of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) files by comparing files made using these 2 technologies with conventional NiTi files. Files with a similar cross-sectional design and diameter were chosen for the study: new 30/.06 files of the EndoWave (EW; J. Morita Corp, Osaka, Japan), HyFlex (HF; Coltene/Whaledent, Inc, Cuyahoga Falls, OH), ProFile Vortex (PV; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), and Typhoon (TYP; Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT) systems together with ProTaper Universal F2 instruments (PTU F2; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The compositions and transformation temperatures of the instruments were analyzed using x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, whereas the mean file diameter values at 3 mm from the tip (D3) were measured using image analysis software. The average number of cycles to failure was determined using a fatigue test device. X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that, on average, all the instruments exhibited the same chemical composition, namely, 51% Ni-49% Ti. The PV, TYP, and HF files exhibited increased transformation temperatures. The PTU F2, PV, and TYP files had similar D3 values, which were less than those of the EW and HF files. The average number of cycles to failure values were 150% higher for the TYP files compared with the PV files and 390% higher for the HF files compared with the EW files. M-Wire and controlled memory technologies increase the fatigue resistance of rotary NiTi files. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative study of 6 rotary nickel-titanium systems and hand instrumentation for root canal preparation in severely curved root canals of extracted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Davut; Taşdemir, Tamer; Er, Kürşat

    2013-02-01

    Some improvements have been developed with new generations of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments that led to their successful and extensive application in clinical practice. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the root canal preparations performed by using GT Series X and Twisted File systems produced by innovative manufacturing process with Revo-S, RaCe, Mtwo, and ProTaper Universal systems manufactured directly from conventional nitinol and with stainless steel K-Flexofile instruments. The mesiobuccal root canals of 140 maxillary first permanent molars that had between 30°-40° curvature angle and 4- to 9-mm curvature radius of the root canal were used. After root canal preparations made by using GT Series X, Twisted File, Revo-S, RaCe, Mtwo, and ProTaper Universal NiTi rotary systems and stainless steel K-Flexofile instruments, transportation occurred in the root canal, and alteration of working length (WL) was assessed by using a modified double-digital radiographic technique. The data were compared by the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference test. NiTi rotary systems caused less canal transportation and alteration of WL than K-Flexofile instruments (P .05) except 2.5 mm from the WL. At this level ProTaper Universal system caused significant canal transportation (P ProTaper Universal rotary systems manufactured by traditional methods. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic and cyclic fatigue of engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haïkel, Y; Serfaty, R; Bateman, G; Senger, B; Allemann, C

    1999-06-01

    The absence of adequate testing standards for engine-driven nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments necessitates further study of these instruments in all areas. This study examined three groups of engine-driven rotary NiTi endodontic instruments (Profile, Hero, and Quantec) and assessed the times for dynamic fracture in relation to the radius of curvature to which the instruments were subjected during preparation, with the instrument diameter determined by size and taper and the mode by which the fracture occurred. Ten instruments were randomly selected representing each size and taper for each group and for each radius of curvature: 600 in total. The instruments were rotated at 350 rpm and introduced into a tempered steel curve that simulated a canal. Two radii of curvature of canals were used: 5 and 10 mm. Time at fracture was noted for all files, and the fracture faces of each file were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Radius of curvature was found to be the most significant factor in determining the fatigue resistance of the files. As radius of curvature decreased, fracture time decreased. Taper of files was found to be significant in determining fracture time. As diameter increased, fracture time decreased. In all cases, fracture was found to be of a ductile nature, thus implicating cyclic fatigue as a major cause of failure and necessitating further analyses and setting of standards in this area.

  11. Comparison of working length control consistency between hand K-files and Mtwo NiTi rotary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczár, Károly; Varga, Enikő; Marada, Gyula; Jeges, Sára; Tóth, Vilmos

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the consistency of working length control between hand instrumentation in comparison to engine driven Mtwo nickel-titanium rotary files. Forty extracted maxillary molars were selected and divided onto two parallel groups. The working lengths of the mesiobuccal root canals were estimated. The teeth were fixed in a phantom head. The root canal preparation was carried out group 1 (n=20) with hand K-files, (VDW, Munich, Germany) and group 2 (n=20) with Mtwo instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany). Vestibulo-oral and mesio-distal directional x-ray images were taken before the preparation with #10 K-file, inserted into the mesiobuccal root canal to the working length, and after preparation with #25, #30 and #40 files. Working lenght changes were detected with measurements between the radiological apex and the instrument tips. In the Mtwo group a difference in the working competency (protary files. Mtwo NiTi rotary file did therefore proved to be more accurate in comparison to the conventional hand instrumentation. Working length, Mtwo, nickel-titanium, hand preparation, engine driven preparation.

  12. Experimental evaluation on the influence of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue of new nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Costanzo, Alberto; Grande, Nicola M; Petrovic, Renata; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of autoclave sterilization on cyclic fatigue resistance of rotary endodontic instruments made of traditional and new nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys. Four NiTi rotary endodontic instruments of the same size (tip diameter 0.40 mm and constant .04 taper) were selected: K3, Mtwo, Vortex, and K3 XF prototypes. Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups, unsterilized instruments and sterilized instruments. The sterilized instruments were subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization. Twelve files from each different subgroup were tested for cyclic fatigue resistance. Means and standard deviations of number of cycles to failure (NCF) and fragment length of the fractured tip were calculated for each group, and data were statistically analyzed (P instruments for each type of file, differences were statistically significant (P instruments did not show significant differences (P > .05) in the mean NCF as a result of sterilization cycles (K3, 424 versus 439 NCF; Mtwo, 409 versus 419 NCF; Vortex, 454 versus 480 NCF). Comparing the results among the different groups, K3 XF (either sterilized or not) showed a mean NCF significantly higher than all other files (P endodontic instruments except for the K3 XF prototypes of rotary instruments that demonstrated a significant increase of cyclic fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Smear layer and debris removal using manual Ni-Ti files compared with rotary Protaper Ni- Ti files - An In-Vitro SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J M V Raghavendra; Latha, Prasanna; Gowda, Basavana; Manvikar, Varadendra; Vijayalaxmi, D Benal; Ponangi, Kalyana Chakravarthi

    2014-02-01

    Predictable successful endodontic therapy depends on correct diagnosis, effective cleaning, shaping and disinfection of the root canals and adequate obturation. Irrigation serves as a flush to remove debris, tissue solvent and lubricant from the canal irregularities; however these irregularities can restrict the complete debridement of root canal by mechanical instrumentation.Various types of hand and rotary instruments are used for the preparation of the root canal system to obtain debris free canals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of smear layer and debris removal on canal walls following the using of manual Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) files compared with rotary ProTaperNiTi files using a Scanning Electron Microscope in two individual groups. A comparative study consisting of 50 subjects randomized into two groups - 25 subjects in Group A (manual) and 25 subjects in Group B (rotary) was undertaken to investigate and compare the effects of smear layer and debris between manual and rotary NiTi instruments. Chi square test was used to find the significance of smear layer and debris removal in the coronal, middle and apical between Group A and Group B. Both systems of Rotary ProTaperNiTi and manual NiTi files used in the present study, did not create completely clean root canals. Manual NiTi files produced significantly less smear layer and debris compared to Rotary ProTaperNiTi instruments. Rotary instruments were less time consuming when compared to manual instruments. Instrument separation was not found to be significant with both the groups. Both systems of Rotary ProTaperNiTi and manual NiTi files used did not produce completely clean root canals. Manual NiTi files produced significantly less smear layer and debris compared to Rotary protaper instruments. How to cite the article: Reddy JM, Latha P, Gowda B, Manvikar V, Vijayalaxmi DB, Ponangi KC. Smear layer and debris removal using manual Ni-Ti files compared with rotary Protaper Ni-Ti files

  14. Metallurgical characterization of M-Wire nickel-titanium shape memory alloy used for endodontic rotary instruments during low-cycle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jia; Gao, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Rotary instruments made of a new nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy (M-Wire) have shown improved cyclic fatigue resistance and mechanical properties compared with those made of conventional superelastic NiTi wires. The objective of this study was to characterize microstructural changes of M-Wire throughout the cyclic fatigue process under controlled strain amplitude. The average fatigue life was calculated from 30 M-Wire samples that were subjected to a strain-controlled (≈ 4%) rotating bend fatigue test at room temperature and rotational speed of 300 rpm. Microstructural evolution of M-Wire has been investigated by different metallurgical characterization techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry, Vickers microhardness, and transmission electron microscopy at 4 different stages (as-received state, 30%, 60%, and 90% of average fatigue life). During rotating bend fatigue test, no statistically significant difference (P > .05) was found on austenite finish temperatures between as-received M-Wire and fatigued samples. However, significant differences (P Wire are expected to have higher strength and wear resistance than similar instruments made of conventional superelastic NiTi wires because of its unique nano-crystalline martensitic microstructure. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [The influence of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 nickel-titanium rotary instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-fen; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Li; Su, Qin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments (K3, Mtwo, ProTaper). Three brands of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments of the same size (tip diameter 0.25 mm and constant 0.06 taper) were selected: K3, Mtwo and Protaper (F2). 24 instruments for each brand were used to evaluate the effects of autoclave sterilization on inner character in the as-received condition and after subjection to 0, 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles (6 for each group). Time to fracture (TtF) from the start of the test to the moment of file breakage and the length of the fractured fragment were recorded. Means and standard deviations of TtF and fragment length were calculated. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Another 12 NiTi rotary instruments for each brand were used, 6 subjected to 10 autoclave sterilization cycles and the other as control. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the changes in surface topography and inner character. For cyclic fatigue resistance, when sterilization was not performed, K3 showed the highest value of TtF means and ProTaper the lowest. The differences between each brand were statistically significant (Pinstruments were intensified greatly after 10 cycles of sterilization. Cycle fatigue resistance is different among instruments of different brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase fatigue resistance of the 3 brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase the surface roughness and inner defects in cross section.

  16. Fatigue testing of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Qian, Wei; Abtin, Houman; Gao, Yuan; Haapasalo, Markus

    2011-07-01

    To improve the fracture resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files, manufacturers have introduced new alloys to manufacture NiTi files and developed new manufacturing processes. This study was aimed to examine the fatigue behavior of NiTi instruments from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM Wire). Instruments of ProFile, Typhoon (TYP), Typhoon CM (TYP CM), DS-SS0250425NEYY (NEYY), and DS-SS0250425NEYY CM (NEYY CM) (DS Dental, Johnson City, TN) all size 25/.04 were subjected to rotational bending at the curvature of 35° and 45° in air at the temperature of 23° ± 2°C, and the number of revolutions to fracture (N(f)) was recorded. The fracture surface of all fragments was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The crack-initiation sites, the percentage of dimple area to the whole fracture cross-section, and the surface strain amplitude (ε(a)) were noted. The new alloy yielded an improvement of over three to eight times in N(f) of CM files than that of conventional NiTi files (P wire (58%-100%) had one crack origin. The values of the fraction area occupied by the dimple region were significantly smaller on CM NiTi instruments compared with conventional NiTi instruments (P wire at both curvatures (P Wire had a significantly higher N(f) and lower surface strain amplitude than the conventional NiTi wire files with identical design. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative in vitro biocompatibility of nickel-titanium, pure nickel, pure titanium, and stainless steel: genotoxicity and atomic absorption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, M; Lemieux, N; Rivard, C H; Yahia, L H

    1999-01-01

    The genotoxicity level of nickel-titanium (NiTi) was compared to that of its pure constituents, pure nickel (Ni) and pure titanium (Ti) powders, and also to 316L stainless steel (316L SS) as clinical reference material. In order to do so, a dynamic in vitro semiphysiological extraction was performed with all metals using agitation and ISO requirements. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were then cultured in the presence of all material extracts, and their comparative genotoxicity levels were assessed using electron microscopy-in situ end-labeling (EM-ISEL) coupled to immunogold staining. Cellular chromatin exposition to pure Ni and 316L SS demonstrated a significantly stronger gold binding than exposition to NiTi, pure Ti, or the untreated control. In parallel, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was also performed on all extraction media. The release of Ni atoms took the following decreasing distribution for the different resulting semiphysiological solutions: pure Ni, 316L SS, NiTi, Ti, and controls. Ti elements were detected after elution of pure titanium only. Both pure titanium and nickel-titanium specimens obtained a relative in vitro biocompatibility. Therefore, this quantitative in vitro study provides optimistic results for the eventual use of nickel-titanium alloys as surgical implant materials.

  18. [Torque resistance of three different types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Hou, Ben-xiang

    2010-10-01

    To compare torsional fracture of three different types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments ProTaper, Hero642 and Mtwo by making a stimulate models in vitro. Through the establishment of model in vitro, compared the different time with 3 kinds of nickel titanium file in cutting-edge bound occurs, and to observe the section of fractured instruments by scanning electron microscope. The resistence to torque was different from three types of nickel titanium instruments. The time to fracture of Mtwo was significantly longer than ProTaper's and Hero642's, but ProTaper's and Hero642's had no significant difference. Three kinds cross-sectional design were different, a lot of toughness nests were seen in broken surface. Most of them were ductile fracture. Time to fracture was influenced by the quality disfigurement. The resistance to torque of Mtwo was better than ProTaper and Hero642. The lifespan was influenced by the design of cross-section. The quality disfigurement of the files reduced the resistance to flexual fatigue.

  19. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S; Issac, Jyoti S; John, Sheen A; Harris, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the "gold-standard" over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel-titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed.

  20. Evolution of Nickel-titanium Alloys in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounsi, Hani F; Nassif, Wadih; Grandini, Simone; Salameh, Ziad; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Anil, Sukumaran

    2017-11-01

    To improve clinical use of nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic rotary instruments by better understanding the alloys that compose them. A large number of engine-driven NiTi shaping instruments already exists on the market and newer generations are being introduced regularly. While emphasis is being put on design and technique, manufacturers are more discreet about alloy characteristics that dictate instrument behavior. Along with design and technique, alloy characteristics of endodontic instruments is one of the main variables affecting clinical performance. Modification in NiTi alloys is numerous and may yield improvements, but also drawbacks. Martensitic instruments seem to display better cyclic fatigue properties at the expense of surface hardness, prompting the need for surface treatments. On the contrary, such surface treatments may improve cutting efficiency but are detrimental to the gain in cyclic fatigue resistance. Although the design of the instrument is vital, it should in no way cloud the importance of the properties of the alloy and how they influence the clinical behavior of NiTi instruments. Dentists are mostly clinicians rather than engineers. With the advances in instrumentation design and alloys, they have an obligation to deal more intimately with engineering consideration to not only take advantage of their possibilities but also acknowledge their limitations.

  1. An in vitro assessment of the physical properties of novel Hyflex nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, O A; Gluskin, A K; Weiss, R A; Han, J T

    2012-11-01

    To determine several properties including torsional and fatigue limits, as well as torque during canal preparation, of Hyflex, a rotary instrument manufactured from so-called controlled memory nickel-titanium alloy. The instruments were tested in vitro using a special torque bench that permits both stationary torque tests according to ISO3630-1 and fatigue limit determination, as well as measurement of torque (in Ncm) and apical force (in N) during canal preparation. Fatigue limit (in numbers of cycles to failure) was determined in a 90°, 5 mm radius block-and-rod assembly. Simulated canals in plastic blocks were prepared using both a manufacturer-recommended single-length technique as well as a generic crown-down approach. anova with Bonferroni post hoc procedures was used for statistical analysis. Torque at failure ranged from 0.47 to 1.38 Ncm, with significant differences between instrument sizes (P instruments size 20, .04 taper and size 25, .08 taper, respectively. Torque during canal preparation was significantly higher for small instruments used in the single-length technique but lower for the size 40, .04 taper, compared to a crown-down approach. No instrument fractured; 82% of the instruments used were plastically deformed; however, only 37% of these remained deformed after a sterilization cycle. Hyflex rotary instruments are bendable and flexible and have similar torsional resistance compared to instruments made of conventional NiTi. Fatigue resistance is much higher, and torque during preparation is less, compared to other rotary instruments tested previously under similar conditions. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  2. The ability of different nickel-titanium rotary instruments to induce dentinal damage during canal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, C.A.S.; Shemesh, H.; Tanomaru-Filho, M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal defects (fractures and craze lines) after canal preparation with different nickel-titanium rotary files. Two hundred sixty mandibular premolars were selected. Forty teeth were left unprepared (n = 40). The other teeth were prepared

  3. Root Canal Transportation and Centering Ability of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments in Mandibular Premolars Assessed Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamede-Neto, Iussif; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; de Oliveira, Durvalino; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), transportation and centralization of different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. One hundred and twenty eight mandibular premolars were selected and instrumented using the following brands of NiTi files: WaveOne, WaveOne Gold, Reciproc, ProTaper Next, ProTaper Gold, Mtwo, BioRaCe and RaCe. CBCT imaging was performed before and after root canal preparation to obtain measurements of mesial and distal dentin walls and calculations of root canal transportation and centralization. A normal distribution of data was confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene tests, and results were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was set at 5%. ProTaper Gold produced the lowest canal transportation values, and RaCe, the highest. ProTaper Gold files also showed the highest values for centering ability, whereas BioRaCe showed the lowest. No significant differences were found across the different instruments in terms of canal transportation and centering ability (P > 0.05). Based on the methodology employed, all instruments used for root canal preparation of mandibular premolars performed similarly with regard to canal transportation and centering ability.

  4. Angular deflection of rotary nickel titanium files: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gambarini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new manufacturing method of twisting nickel titanium wire to produce rotary nickel titanium (RNT files has recently been developed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the new manufacturing process increased the angular deflection of RNT files, by comparing instruments produced using the new manufacturing method (Twisted Files versus instruments produced with the traditional grinding process. Testing was performed on a total of 40 instruments of the following commercially available RNT files: Twisted Files (TF, Profile, K3 and M2 (NRT. All instruments tested had the same dimensions (taper 0.06 and tip size 25. Test procedures strictly followed ISO 3630-1. Data were collected and statistically analyzed by means ANOVA test. The results showed that TF demonstrated significantly higher average angular deflection levels (P<0.05, than RNT manufactured by a grinding process. Since angular deflection represent the amount of rotation (and consequently deformation that a RNT file can withstand before torsional failure, such a significant improvement is a favorable property for the clinical use of the tested RNT files.

  5. Movement kinematics and cyclic fatigue of NiTi rotary instruments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F; Adeodato, C; Barbosa, I; Aboud, L; Scelza, P; Zaccaro Scelza, M

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a detailed analysis of the literature concerning the correlation between different movement kinematics and the cyclic fatigue resistance of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments. From June 2014 to August 2015, four independent reviewers comprehensively and systematically searched the Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar databases for works published since January 2005, using the following search terms: endodontics; nickel-titanium rotary files; continuous rotation; reciprocating motion; cyclic fatigue. In addition to the electronic searches, manual searches were performed to include articles listed in the reference sections of high-impact published articles that were not indexed in the databases. Laboratory studies in English language were considered for this review. The electronic and manual searches resulted in identification of 75 articles. Based on the inclusion criteria, 32 articles were selected for analysis of full-text copies. Specific analysis was then made of 20 articles that described the effects of reciprocating and continuous movements on cyclic fatigue of the instruments. A wide range of testing conditions and methodologies have been used to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of rotary endodontic instruments. Most studies report that reciprocating motion improves the fatigue resistance of endodontic instruments, compared to continuous rotation, independent of other variables such as the speed of rotation, the angle or radius of curvature of simulated canals, geometry and taper, or the surface characteristics of the NiTi instruments. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cyclic fatigue resistance of newly manufactured rotary nickel titanium instruments used in different rotational directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianlucca; Gergi, Richard; Grande, Nicola Maria; Osta, Nada; Plotino, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel titanium instruments manufactured with improved heating processes in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. The instruments compared were produced either using the R-phase heat treatment (K3XF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) or the M-wire alloy (ProFile Vortex; DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments in curved artificial canals. Results indicated no significant difference in resistance to cyclic fatigue when rotary nickel titanium instruments are used in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. In both directions of rotation, size 04-25 K3XF showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 04-25 ProFile Vortex. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2012 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  7. A novel approach to determine the effect of irrigation on temperature and failure of Ni-Ti endodontic rotary files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sayed Ali; Kargar-Dehnavi, Vida; Mousavi, Sayed Amir

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary instrument files are important devices in Endodontics in root canal preparation. Ni-Ti file breakage is a critical and problematic issue and irrigation techniques were applied to decrease risk of file failure root. The aim of the present study was to compare the temperature gradient change of different irrigation solutions with Ni-Ti rotary instrument system during root canal preparation and also to define their effects on the file failure. Materials and Methods: A novel computerized instrumentation was utilized and thirty standard (ProFile #25/.04) files were divided into three groups and subjected to a filing in the root canal test. Changes in temperature on teeth under constant instrumental conditions with custom-designed computerized experimental apparatus were measured by using a temperature sensor bonded to the apical hole. A rotary instrument for canal preparation in three series of solution was used and the changes in temperature after each solution were compared. Finally, the file failure results were mentored according to each step of test. Comparisons were performed between group status clinically by using ANOVA (t) test, once the sample showed up normal and differences of Pinstruments, which were immersed in 5% NaOCl, when compared with the water group (Pinstruments immersed in water, when compared with the no solution group (Pinstruments. Conclusion: By immersing the file in 5% NaOCl, the temperature gradient decreased and instrument failure was reduced. PMID:23087732

  8. Influence of axial movement on fatigue of PROFILE* NI-TI rotary instruments: an in vitro evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoaka, Marie-Chantal; Haïkel, Youssef

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the axial movement and the angle of curve (in degrees) on fatigue of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) ProFile’ rotary endodontic instruments. Ni-Ti ProFile’ rotary instruments (Maillefer SA, Ballaigues, Switzerland), 25 mm long in the range of ISO size 15 to 40 with two tapers (0.4 and 0.6) were evaluated. They are divided in two groups: the instruments with axial movement and those without axial movement. The system used to test the fatigue is maintained in mechanical conditions as close as possible to the clinical situation. The axial movement is in the order of 2mm in corono-apical direction with a frequency of 1Hz. The concave radii incorporating a notched V-form for guiding the instruments were: 5; 7,5 and 10 mm. The rotary system is mounted on an electric handpiece and rotated at 350 rpm speed as recommended by the manufacturers. The instruments are rotated until their separation, and the time, in seconds, is recorded. Statístícal evaluation is undertaken using a two-way t-test to identify significant differences between variables in the study (p engine drive ProFile’ instruments incorporating an axial movement and the instruments without axial movement with the same radius of curvature, size and taper. The incorporation of the axial movement increases significantly the life-span of the ProFile’ rotary instruments. This should reduce the risk of the instrument separation during the endodontic treatment. PMID:20507289

  9. Fatigue of orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in different fluids under constant mechanical stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant

  10. Fatigue of orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in different fluids under constant mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M

    2003-07-25

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant.

  11. Ex vivo study on root canal instrumentation of two rotary nickel-titanium systems in comparison to stainless steel hand instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudt, J; Bitter, K; Neumann, K; Kielbassa, A M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate instrumentation time, working safety and the shaping ability of two rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems (Alpha System and ProTaper Universal) in comparison to stainless steel hand instruments. A total of 45 mesial root canals of extracted human mandibular molars were selected. On the basis of the degree of curvature the matched teeth were allocated randomly into three groups of 15 teeth each. In group 1 root canals were prepared to size 30 using a standardized manual preparation technique; in group 2 and 3 rotary NiTi instruments were used following the manufacturers' instructions. Instrumentation time and procedural errors were recorded. With the aid of pre- and postoperative radiographs, apical straightening of the canal curvature was determined. Photographs of the coronal, middle and apical cross-sections of the pre- and postoperative canals were taken, and superimposed using a standard software. Based on these composite images the portion of uninstrumented canal walls was evaluated. Active instrumentation time of the Alpha System was significantly reduced compared with ProTaper Universal and hand instrumentation (P < 0.05; anova). No instrument fractures occurred in any of the groups. The Alpha System revealed significantly less apical straightening compared with the other instruments (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U test). In the apical cross-sections Alpha System resulted in significantly less uninstrumented canal walls compared with stainless steel files (P < 0.05; chi-squared test). Despite the demonstrated differences between the systems, an apical straightening effect could not be prevented; areas of uninstrumented root canal wall were left in all regions using the various systems.

  12. An evaluation of two types of nickel-titanium wires in terms of micromorphology and nickel ions' release following oral environment exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Abdul Razzak A; Hajeer, Mohammad Y; Al-Sabbagh, Rabab; Alghoraibi, Ibrahim; Aldiry, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare superelastic and heat-activated nickel-titanium orthodontic wires' surface morphology and potential release of nickel ions following exposure to oral environment conditions. Twenty-four 20-mm-length distal cuts of superelastic (NiTi Force I®) and 24 20-mm-length distal cuts of heat-activated (Therma-Ti Lite®) nickel-titanium wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA) were divided into two equal groups: 12 wire segments left unused and 12 segments passively exposed to oral environment for 1 month. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze surface morphology of the wires which were then immersed in artificial saliva for 1 month to determine potential nickel ions' release by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heat-activated nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires were rougher than superelastic wires, and both types of wires released almost the same amount of Ni ions. After clinical exposure, more surface roughness was recorded for superelastic NiTi wires and heat-activated NiTi wires. However, retrieved superelastic NiTi wires released less Ni ions in artificial saliva after clinical exposure, and the same result was recorded regarding heat-activated wires. Both types of NiTi wires were obviously affected by oral environment conditions; their surface roughness significantly increased while the amount of the released Ni ions significantly declined.

  13. Hand and nickel-titanium root canal instrumentation performed by dental students: a micro-computed tomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peru, M; Peru, C; Mannocci, F; Sherriff, M; Buchanan, L S; Pitt Ford, T R

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate root canals instrumented by dental students using the modified double-flared technique, nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary System GT files and NiTi rotary ProTaper files by micro-computed tomography (MCT). A total of 36 root canals from 18 mesial roots of mandibular molar teeth were prepared; 12 canals were prepared with the modified double-flared technique, using K-flexofiles and Gates-Glidden burs; 12 canals were prepared using System GT and 12 using ProTaper rotary files. Each root was scanned using MCT preoperatively and postoperatively. At the coronal and mid-root sections, System GT and ProTaper files produced significantly less enlarged canal cross-sectional area, volume and perimeter than the modified double-flared technique (P ProTaper (P ProTaper and System GT were able to prepare root canals with little or no procedural error compared with the modified double-flared technique. Under the conditions of this study, inexperienced dental students were able to prepare curved root canals with rotary files with greater preservation of tooth structure, low risk of procedural errors and much quicker than with hand instruments.

  14. Influence of axial movement on fatigue of ProFile Ni-Ti rotary instruments: an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoaka, Marie-Chantal; Haïkel, Youssef

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the axial movement and the angle of curve (in degrees) on fatigue of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) ProFile rotary endodontic instruments. Ni-Ti ProFile rotary instruments (Maillefer SA, Ballaigues, Switzerland), 25 mm long in the range of ISO size 15 to 40 with two tapers (0.4 and 0.6) were evaluated. They are divided in two groups: the instruments with axial movement and those without axial movement. The system used to test the fatigue is maintained in mechanical conditions as close as possible to the clinical situation. The axial movement is in the order of 2 mm in corono-apical direction with a frequency of 1 Hz. The concave radii incorporating a notched V-form for guiding the instruments were: 5; 7,5 and 10 mm. The rotary system is mounted on an electric handpiece and rotated at 350 rpm speed as recommended by the manufacturers. The instruments are rotated until their separation, and the time, in seconds, is recorded. Statistical evaluation is undertaken using a two-way t-test to identify significant differences between variables in the study (p engine drive ProFile instruments incorporating an axial movement and the instruments without axial movement with the same radius of curvature, size and taper.The incorporation of the axial movement increases significantly the life-span of the ProFile rotary instruments. This should reduce the risk of the instrument separation during the endodontic treatment.

  15. Shaping ability of two M-wire and two traditional nickel-titanium instrumentation systems in S-shaped resin canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhanli, K T; Kamaci, A; Taner, M; Erdilek, N; Celik, D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shaping effects of two M-wire and two traditional nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems in simulated S-shaped resin canals. Forty simulated S-shaped canals in resin blocks were instrumented with two traditional (ProTaper, Sendoline S5) and two M-wire (WaveOne, GT series X) NiTi systems according to the manufacturers' instructions. Ten resin blocks were used for each system. Pre- and post-instrumentation images were captured using a stereomicroscope and superimposed with an image program. Canal transportation, material removal, and aberrations were evaluated and recorded as numeric parameters. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests with a 95% confidence interval. There were significant differences between systems in terms of transportation and material removal (Pwire or traditional NiTi) and kinematics (rotary or reciprocating motion) did not affect the shaping abilities of the systems. The extended file designs of highly tapered NiTi systems (ProTaper, WaveOne) resulted in greater deviations from the original root canal trace and more material removal when compared to less tapered systems (Sendoline S5, GT series X).

  16. Preference of undergraduate students after first experience on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Kwak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to compare two nickel-titanium systems (rotary vs. reciprocating for their acceptance by undergraduate students who experienced nickel-titanium (NiTi instruments for the first time. Materials and Methods Eighty-one sophomore dental students were first taught on manual root canal preparation with stainless-steel files. After that, they were instructed on the use of ProTaper Universal system (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer, then the WaveOne (WO, Dentsply Maillefer. They practiced with each system on 2 extracted molars, before using those files to shape the buccal or mesial canals of additional first molars. A questionnaire was completed after using each file system, seeking students' perception about 'Ease of use', 'Flexibility', 'Cutting-efficiency', 'Screwing-effect', 'Feeling-safety', and 'Instrumentation-time' of the NiTi files, relative to stainless-steel instrumentation, on a 5-point Likert-type scale. They were also requested to indicate their preference between the two systems. Data was compared between groups using t-test, and with Chi-square test for correlation of each perception value with the preferred choice (p = 0.05. Results Among the 81 students, 55 indicated their preferred file system as WO and 22 as PTU. All scores were greater than 4 (better for both systems, compared with stainless-steel files, except for 'Screwing-effect' for PTU. The scores for WO in the categories of 'Flexibility', 'Screwing-effect', and 'Feeling-safety' were significantly higher scores than those of PTU. A significant association between the 'Screwing-effect' and students' preference for WO was observed. Conclusions Novice operators preferred nickel-titanium instruments to stainless-steel, and majority of them opted for reciprocating file instead of continuous rotating system.

  17. Influence of Axial Movement on Fatigue of Profile® Ni-Ti Rotary Instruments: an in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Chantal Avoaka

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the axial movement and the angle of curve (in degrees on fatigue of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti ProFile’ rotary endodontic instruments.Ni-Ti ProFile’ rotary instruments (Maillefer SA, Ballaigues, Switzerland, 25 mm long in the range of ISO size 15 to 40 with two tapers (0.4 and 0.6 were evaluated. They are divided in two groups: the instruments with axial movement and those without axial movement. The system used to test the fatigue is maintained in mechanical conditions as close as possible to the clinical situation. The axial movement is in the order of 2mm in corono-apical direction with a frequency of 1Hz. The concave radii incorporating a notched V-form for guiding the instruments were: 5; 7,5 and 10 mm. The rotary system is mounted on an electric handpiece and rotated at 350 rpm speed as recommended by the manufacturers. The instruments are rotated until their separation, and the time, in seconds, is recorded. Statístícal evaluation is undertaken using a two-way t-test to identify significant differences between variables in the study (p <0,05.We found significant statistical difference (p<0,05 between Ni-Ti engine drive ProFile’ instruments incorporating an axial movement and the instruments without axial movement with the same radius of curvature, size and taper.The incorporation of the axial movement increases significantly the life-span of the ProFile’ rotary instruments. This should reduce the risk of the instrument separation during the endodontic treatment

  18. Effect of environment on fatigue failure of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Qian, Wei; Abtin, Houman; Gao, Yuan; Haapasalo, Markus

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the fatigue behavior of 2 types of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments made from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM wire) under various environment conditions. Three conventional superelastic NiTi instruments of ProFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Typhoon (Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT), and DS-SS0250425NEYY (Clinician's Choice Dental Products) and 2 new CM wire instruments of Typhoon CM and DS-SS0250425NEYY CM were subjected to rotational bending at the curvature of 35° in air, deionized water, 17% EDTA, or deionized water after immersion in 6% sodium hypochlorite for 25 minutes, and the number of revolutions of fracture (N(f)) was recorded. The fracture surface of all fragments was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The crack-initiation sites and the percentage of dimple area to the whole fracture cross-section were noted. Two new CM Wire instruments yielded an improvement of >4 to 9 times in N(f) than conventional NiTi files with the same design under various environments (P Wire instruments was significantly longer in liquid media than in air (P wire had one crack origin. The values of the area fraction occupied by the dimple region were significantly smaller on CM NiTi instruments than in conventional NiTi instruments under various environments (P < .05). Within the limitations of this study, the type of NiTi metal alloy (CM files vs conventional superelastic NiTi files) influences the cyclic fatigue resistance under various environments. The fatigue life of CM instruments is longer in liquid media than in air. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of two techniques for assessing the shaping efficacy of repeatedly used nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounsi, Hani F; Franciosi, Giovanni; Paragliola, Raffaele; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Salameh, Ziad; Tay, Franklin R; Ferrari, Marco; Grandini, Simone

    2011-06-01

    The shaping capacity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments is often assessed by photographic or micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) measurements, and these instruments are often used more than once clinically. This study was conducted to compare photographic and micro-CT measurements and to assess if the repeated use of NiTi instruments affected the shape of canal preparation. Ten new sets of ProTaper Universal instruments (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were used in 60 resin blocks simulating curved root canals. Groups 1 to 6 (n=10) represented the first to sixth use of the instrument, respectively. Digitized images of the prepared blocks were taken in both mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) directions and area measurements (mm(2)) were calculated using AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, CA). The volumes of the same prepared canals were measured using micro-CT (mm(3)). Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences between photographic and volumetric measurements and differences between uses. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant differences between groups (P < .001). Regarding measurement type, there were no significant differences between BL and MD measurements, but there were significant differences between micro-CT and BL measurements (P < .001) and micro-CT and MD measurements (P=.001). Significant differences were also noted between uses. Within the limitations of the present study, micro-CT scanning is more discriminative of the changes in canal space associated with repeated instrument use than photographic measurements. Canal preparations are significantly smaller after the third use of the same instrument. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Geometric analysis of root canals prepared by four rotary NiTi shaping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Ahmed Abdel Rahman; Ghoneim, Angie Galal; Lutfy, Reem Ahmed; Foda, Manar Yehia; Omar, Gihan Abdel Fatah

    2012-07-01

    A great number of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems with noncutting tips, different cross-sections, superior resistance to torsional fracture, varying tapers, and manufacturing method have been introduced to the market. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of 4 rotary NiTi preparation systems, Revo-S (RS; Micro-Mega, Besancon Cedex, France), Twisted file (TF; SybronEndo, Amersfoort, The Netherlands), ProFile GT Series X (GTX; Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), and ProTaper (PT; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), on volumetric changes and transportation of curved root canals. Forty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars with an angle of curvature ranging from 25° to 40° were divided according to the instrument used in canal preparation into 4 groups of 10 samples each: group RS, group TF, group GTX, and group PT. Canals were scanned using an i-CAT CBCT scanner (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA) before and after preparation to evaluate the volumetric changes. Root canal transportation and centering ratio were evaluated at 1.3, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8 mm from the apex. The significance level was set at P ≤ .05. The PT system removed a significantly higher amount of dentin than the other systems (P = .025). At the 1.3-mm level, there was no significant difference in canal transportation and centering ratio among the groups. However, at the other levels, TF maintained the original canal curvature recording significantly the least degree of canal transportation as well as the highest mean centering ratio. The TF system showed superior shaping ability in curved canals. Revo-S and GTX were better than ProTaper regarding both canal transportation and centering ability. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of simulated clinical use on the flexibility of rotary ProTaper Universal, K3 and EndoSequence nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, A C D; Pereira, E S J; Bahia, M G A; Buono, V T L

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the influence of cyclic flexural and torsional loading on the flexibility of ProTaper Universal, K3 and EndoSequence nickel-titanium instruments, in view of the hypothesis that these types of loading would decrease the flexibility of the selected NiTi rotary files. The instruments evaluated were S2 and F1 ProTaper Universal, sizes 20 and 25, .06 taper K3, and sizes 20 and 25, .06 taper EndoSequence. Flexibility was determined by 45° bending tests according to ISO 3630-1 specification. Values of the bending moment (MB ) obtained with new instruments were considered as the control group (CG). Bending tests were then conducted in instruments previously fatigued to one-fourth and three-fourths of their average fatigue life (fatigue groups, FG¼ and FG¾), as well as after cyclic torsional loading (torsional group, TG). Fatigue tests were carried out in a bench device that allowed the files to rotate freely inside an artificial canal with an angle of curvature of 45° and a radius of 5 mm. Cyclic torsional loading tests were performed that entailed rotating the instrument from zero angular deflection to 180° and then returning to zero applied torque in 20 cycles. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance at a significance level of 5%. Simulated clinical use by means of flexural fatigue tests did not affect the flexibility of the instruments, except for a significant increase in flexibility observed in a few instruments (P instruments and after cyclic torsional loading showed no significant differences between them (P > 0.05). The flexibility of rotary ProTaper Universal, K3 and EndoSequence NiTi instruments, measured in bending tests, was not adversely affected by simulated clinical use in curved root canals. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Nickel-titanium wire in circumferential suture of a flexor tendon repair: a comparison to polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, T; He, M; Chong, A K S; Lim, A Y T; Ryhanen, J

    2010-07-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) has been proposed as an alternative material for flexor tendon core suture. To our knowledge, its suitability as a circumferential suture of flexor tendon repair has not been investigated before. The purpose of this ex vivo study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of NiTi circumferential repairs and to compare them with commonly used polypropylene. Forty porcine flexor tendons were cut and repaired by simple running or interlocking mattress technique using 100 microm NiTi wire or 6-0 polypropylene. The NiTi circumferential repairs showed superior stiffness, gap resistance, and load to failure when compared to polypropylene repairs with both techniques. Nickel-titanium wire seems to be a potential material for circumferential repair of flexor tendons. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyclic fatigue of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in a double (S-shaped) simulated curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sudani, Dina; Grande, Nicola M; Plotino, Gianluca; Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2012-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to test the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium rotary files in a double curvature (S-shaped) artificial root canal and to compare those results with single curvature artificial root canals. Two nickel-titanium endodontic instruments consisting of identical instrument sizes (constant .06 taper and 0.25 tip diameter) were tested, ProFile instruments and Vortex instruments. Both instruments were tested for fatigue inside an artificial canal with a double curvature and inside a curved artificial canal with a single curvature. Ten instruments for each group were tested to fracture in continuous rotary motion at 300 rpm. Number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated to the nearest whole number, and the length of the fractured fragment was measured in millimeters. Data were statistically analyzed with a level of significance set at 95% confidence level. The NCF value was always statistically lower in the double curved artificial canal when compared with the single curve (P instruments of the same size of different brand only in the single curve; ProFile registered a mean of 633.5 ± 75.1 NCF, whereas Vortex registered a mean of 548 ± 48.9 NCF. Regardless of the differences between the instruments used in the present study, the results suggest that the more complex is the root canal, the more adverse are the effects on the cyclic fatigue resistance of the instruments. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the mechanical properties of rotary instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium wire, M-wire, or nickel-titanium alloy in R-phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Gambarra-Soares, Thaiane; Elias, Carlos N; Siqueira, José F; Inojosa, Inês F J; Lopes, Weber S P; Vieira, Victor T L

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the mechanical properties of endodontic instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire (K(3) and Revo-S SU), M-Wire (ProFile Vortex), or NiTi alloy in R-phase (K(3)XF). The test instruments were subjected to mechanical tests to evaluate resistance to bending (flexibility), cyclic fatigue, and torsional load in clockwise rotation. Data were statistically evaluated by the analysis of variance test and the Student-Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons. In the bending resistance test, flexibility decreased in the following order: K(3)XF > Revo-S SU > ProFile Vortex > K(3). The ranking in the fatigue resistance test was the following: K(3)XF > K(3) > ProFile Vortex > Revo-S SU. In the torsional assay, the angular deflection at failure decreased in the following order: K(3)XF > Revo-S SU > K(3) > ProFile Vortex. For the maximum torque values, the ranking was K(3) > K(3)XF > ProFile Vortex > Revo-S SU. The results showed that the K(3)XF instrument, which is made of NiTi alloy in R-phase, had the overall best performance in terms of flexibility, angular deflection at failure, and cyclic fatigue resistance. In addition to the alloy from which the instrument is manufactured, the design and dimensions are important determinants of the mechanical performance of endodontic instruments. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Innovations: laser-cutting nickel-titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, T.R.; Moore, B.; Toyama, N. [LPL Systems, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Laser-cutting is well established as the preferred method for manufacturing many endovascular medical devices. Sometimes laser processing has been poorly understood by nickel-titanium (NiTi) material suppliers, medical device manufacturers, and device designers, but the field has made important strides in the past several years. A variety of sample, nonspecific applications are presented for cutting tubing and sheet stock. Limiting constraints, key considerations, and areas for future development are identified. (orig.)

  6. Electrochemical and surface characterization of a nickel-titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Dirk; Veldhuizen, AG; de Vries, J; Busscher, HJ; Uges, DRA; van Horn, James

    1998-01-01

    For clinical implantation purposes of shape memory metals the nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is generally used. In this study, the corrosion properties and surface characteristics of this alloy were investigated and compared with two reference controls, AISI 316 LVM stainless steel

  7. Evaluation of debris extruded apically during the removal of root canal filling material using ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo rotary nickel-titanium retreatment instruments and hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Aktı, Ahmet; Tuncay, Öznur; Dinçer, Asiye Nur; Düzgün, Salih; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of debris extruded apically during the removal of root canal filling material using ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), D-RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), and R-Endo (Micro-Mega, Besançon, France) nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary retreatment instruments and hand files. Sixty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were prepared with K-files and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). The teeth were then randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 15 for each group) for retreatment. The removal of canal filling material was performed as follows: hand files, ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo retreatment instruments. Debris extruded apically during the removal of canal filling material was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preretreatment and postretreatment weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data obtained were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. All retreatment techniques caused the apical extrusion of debris. Hand files produced significantly more debris when compared with ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo rotary systems (P ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo retreatment systems (P > .05). The findings showed that during the removal of root canal filling material, rotary NiTi retreatment instruments used in this study caused less apical extrusion of debris compared with hand files. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S A; Dummer, P M

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this laboratory-based study was to determine the shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim nickel-titanium rotary instruments in simulated root canals. A total of 40 canals with four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curve were prepared with NT Engine and McXim instruments, using the technique recommended by the manufacturer. Part 2 of this report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of prevalence of canal aberrations, the amount and direction of canal transportation and overall postoperative shape. Pre- and postoperative images of the canals were taken using a video camera attached to a computer with image analysis software. The pre- and postoperative views were superimposed to highlight the amount and position of material removed during preparation. No zips, elbows, perforations or danger zones were created during preparation. Forty-two per cent of canals had ledges on the outer aspect of the curve, the majority of which (16 out of 17) occurred in canals with short acute curves. There were significant differences (P Engine and McXim rotary nickel-titanium instruments created no aberrations other than ledges and produced only minimal transportation. The overall shape of canals was good.

  9. Micro-XRD and temperature-modulated DSC investigation of nickel-titanium rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Satish B; Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Schricker, Scott R; Nusstein, John M; Li, Uei-Ming; Svec, Timothy A

    2009-10-01

    Employ Micro-X-ray diffraction and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry to investigate microstructural phases, phase transformations, and effects of heat treatment for rotary nickel-titanium instruments. Representative as-received and clinically used ProFile GT and ProTaper instruments were principally studied. Micro-XRD analyses (Cu Kalpha X-rays) were performed at 25 degrees C on areas of approximately 50 microm diameter near the tip and up to 9 mm from the tip. TMDSC analyses were performed from -80 to 100 degrees C and back to -80 degrees C on segments cut from instruments, using a linear heating and cooling rate of 2 degrees C/min, sinusoidal oscillation of 0.318 degrees C, and period of 60s. Instruments were also heat treated 15 min in a nitrogen atmosphere at 400, 500, 600 and 850 degrees C, and analyzed. At all Micro-XRD analysis regions the strongest peak occurred near 42 degrees , indicating that instruments were mostly austenite, with perhaps some R-phase and martensite. Tip and adjacent regions had smallest peak intensities, indicative of greater work hardening, and the intensity at other sites depended on the instrument. TMDSC heating and cooling curves had single peaks for transformations between martensite and austenite. Austenite-finish (A(f)) temperatures and enthalpy changes were similar for as-received and used instruments. Heat treatments at 400, 500 and 600 degrees C raised the A(f) temperature to 45-50 degrees C, and heat treatment at 850 degrees C caused drastic changes in transformation behavior. Micro-XRD provides novel information about NiTi phases at different positions on instruments. TMDSC indicates that heat treatment might yield instruments with substantial martensite and improved clinical performance.

  10. Nickel-titanium alloys: stress-related temperature transitional range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Beshers, D N

    2000-12-01

    The inducement of mechanical stress within nickel-titanium wires can influence the transitional temperature range of the alloy and therefore the expression of the superelastic properties. An analogous variation of the transitional temperature range may be expected during orthodontic therapy, when the archwires are engaged into the brackets. To investigate this possibility, samples of currently used orthodontic nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC; Copper Ni-Ti superelastic at 27 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, Ormco; Nitinol Heat-Activated, 3M-Unitek) were subjected to temperature cycles ranging between 4 degrees C and 60 degrees C. The wires were mounted in a plexiglass loading device designed to simulate clinical situations of minimum and severe dental crowding. Electrical resistivity was used to monitor the phase transformations. The data were analyzed with paired t tests. The results confirmed the presence of displacements of the transitional temperature ranges toward higher temperatures when stress was induced. Because nickel-titanium wires are most commonly used during the aligning stage in cases of severe dental crowding, particular attention was given to the performance of the orthodontic wires under maximum loading. An alloy with a stress-related transitional temperature range corresponding to the fluctuations of the oral temperature should express superelastic properties more consistently than others. According to our results, Copper Ni-Ti 27 degrees C and Nitinol Heat-Activated wires may be considered suitable alloys for the alignment stage.

  11. Cytotoxic, allergic and genotoxic activity of a nickel-titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, AG; Sanders, MM; Schakenraad, JM; vanHorn, [No Value

    The nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is known for its shape memory properties. These properties can be put to excellent use in various biomedical applications, such as wires for orthodontic tooth alignment and osteosynthesis staples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term

  12. Physical and mechanical properties of a thermomechanically treated NiTi wire used in the manufacture of rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E S J; Peixoto, I F C; Viana, A C D; Oliveira, I I; Gonzalez, B M; Buono, V T L; Bahia, M G A

    2012-05-01

    To compare physical and mechanical properties of one conventional and one thermomechanically treated nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire used to manufacture rotary endodontic instruments. Two NiTi wires 1.0 mm in diameter were characterized; one of them, C-wire (CW), was processed in the conventional manner, and the other, termed M-Wire (MW), received an additional heat treatment according to the manufacturer. Chemical composition was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, phase constitution by XRD and the transformation temperatures by DSC. Tensile loading/unloading tests and Vickers microhardness measurements were performed to assess the mechanical behaviour. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (α = 0.05). The two wires showed approximately the same chemical composition, close to the 1 : 1 atomic ratio, and the β-phase was the predominant phase present. B19' martensite and the R-phase were found in MW, in agreement with the higher transformation temperatures found in this wire compared with CW, whose transformation temperatures were below room temperature. Average Vickers microhardness values were similar for MW and CW (P = 0.91). The stress at the transformation plateau in the tensile load-unload curves was lower and more uniform in the M-Wire, which also showed the smallest stress hysteresis and apparent elastic modulus. The M-Wire had physical and mechanical properties that can render endodontic instruments more flexible and fatigue resistant than those made with conventionally processed NiTi wires. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  13. In Vivo and In Vitro Effectiveness of Rotary Nickel-Titanium vs Manual Stainless Steel Instruments for Root Canal Therapy: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Massimo; Afrashtehfar, Kelvin Ian; Corbella, Stefano; El-Kabbaney, Ahmed; Perondi, Isabella; Taschieri, Silvio

    2018-03-01

    This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files compared to stainless-steel (SST) hand files. An electronic search was performed on Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Scopus databases up to February 2016. An additional hand searching was performed in 13 journals. The studies were classified according to study type and the outcome variables. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, extracted data, and three reviewers independently assessed the quality of the evidence of each included study according to The Cochrane Collaboration's procedures. A meta-analysis was performed whenever it was possible. The electronic and hand search strategies yielded 1155 references of studies after removal of duplicates. Four clinical studies (two prospective and two retrospective studies) and 18 in vitro studies (on extracted teeth) were included for the qualitative synthesis after full-text evaluation of the eligible studies. The overall level of methodological quality of the studies included can be considered inadequate. Only one clinical study was judged at low risk of bias, whereas most non-clinical studies had a low risk of bias. Three meta-analyses, based on a very limited number of studies, could be performed. Each meta-analysis contained two studies. Of these, one meta-analysis was based on clinical studies. The results of this systematic review suggested that NiTi rotary instruments were associated with lower canal transportation and apical extrusion when compared to SST hand files, whereas both groups had similar outcomes in terms of success of therapy, amount of residual bacteria, and cleansing ability after treatment. However, due to the limited evidence available, these results should be interpreted with caution. Consequently, more randomized control trials using standardized protocols are needed in order to provide more solid recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of dentinal damage induced by different nickel-titanium rotary instruments during canal preparation: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shiwani; Mahajan, Pardeep; Thaman, Deepa; Monga, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    To compare dentinal damage caused by hand and rotary nickel-titanium instruments using ProTaper, K3 Endo, and Easy RaCe systems after root canal preparation. One hundred and fifty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were randomly divided into five experimental groups of 30 teeth each and biomechanical preparation was done: Group 1 with unprepared teeth; Group 2 were prepared with hand files; Group 3 with ProTaper rotary instruments; Group 4 with K3 rotary; Group 5 with Easy RaCe rotary instruments. Then, roots were cut horizontally at 3, 6, and 9 mm from apex and were viewed under stereomicroscope. The presence of dentinal defects was noted. Groups were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Significant difference was seen between groups. No defects were found in unprepared roots and those prepared with hand files. ProTaper, K3 rotary, and Easy RaCe preparations resulted in dentinal defects in 23.3%, 10%, and 16.7% of teeth, respectively. More defects were shown in coronal and middle sections, and no defect was seen in apical third. The present study revealed that use of rotary instruments could result in an increased chance for dentinal defects as compared to hand instrumentation.

  15. Mechanical response of nickel-titanium instruments with different cross-sectional designs during shaping of simulated curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H C; Kim, H J; Lee, C J; Kim, B M; Park, J K; Versluis, A

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate how different cross-sectional designs affect stress distribution in nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments during bending, torsion and simulated shaping of a curved canal. Four NiTi rotary instruments with different cross-sectional geometries were selected: ProFile and HeroShaper systems with a common triangle-based cross section, Mtwo with an S-shaped rectangle-based design and NRT with a modified rectangle-based design. The geometries of the selected files were scanned in a micro-CT and three-dimensional finite-element models were created for each system. Stiffness characteristics for each file system were determined in a series of bending and torsional conditions. Canal shaping was simulated by inserting models of the rotating file into a 45 degrees curved canal model. Stress distribution in the instruments was recorded during simulated shaping. After the instruments were retracted from the canal, residual stresses and permanent bending of their tips due to plastic deformation were determined. The greatest bending and torsional stiffness occurred in the NRT file. During simulated shaping, the instruments with triangle-based cross-sectional geometry had more even stress distributions along their length and had lower stress concentrations than the instruments with rectangle-based cross sections. Higher residual stresses and plastic deformations were found in the Mtwo and NRT with rectangle-based cross-sectional geometries. Nickel-titanium instruments with rectangle-based cross-sectional designs created higher stress differentials during simulated canal shaping and may encounter higher residual stress and plastic deformation than instruments with triangle-based cross sections.

  16. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  17. The Effect of Autoclaving on Torsional Moment of Two Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    titanium endodontic files 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) J. B. King, H. W. Roberts, B. E... Endodontic Journal, doi:10.1111/j.1365- 2591.2011.01958.x 45, 156–161, 2012 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2591.2011.01958.x Wiley Blackwell Publishing, 111 River...autoclaving on torsional strength of two nickel–titanium (NiTi) rotary endodontic files: Twisted Files (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and GT Series X

  18. Mechanodynamical analysis of nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, Carlos do Canto

    2002-01-01

    Nickel-titanium alloys may coexist in more than one crystalline structure. There is a high temperature phase, austenite, and a low temperature phase, martensite. The metallurgical basis for the superelasticity and the shape memory effect relies in the ability of these alloys to transform easily from one phase to another. There are three essential factors for the orthodontist to understand nickel-titanium alloys behaviour: stress; deflection; and temperature. These three factors are related to each other by the stress-deflection, stress-temperature and deflection-temperature diagrams. This work was undertaken with the objective to analyse commercial nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application, using the dynamical mechanical analyser - DMA. Four NiTi 0,017 X 0,025'' archwires were studied. The archwires were Copper NiTi 35 deg C (Ormco), Neo Sentalloy F200 (GAC), Nitinol Superelastic (Unitek) and NiTi (GAC). The different mechanodynamical properties such as elasticity and damping moduli were evaluated. Each commercial material was evaluated with and without a 1 N static force, aiming to evaluate phase transition temperature variation with stress. The austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, for the experiments without static force, was in the range of 1.59 to 1.85. For the 1 N static force tests the austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, ranged from 1.28 to 1.57 due to the higher martensite elasticity modulus. With elastic modulus variation with temperature behaviour, the orthodontist has the knowledge of the force variation applied in the tooth in relation to the oral cavity temperature change, for nickel-titanium alloys that undergo phase transformation. The damping capacity of the studied alloys depends on the materials state: martensitic phase; austenitic phase or during phase transformation. The martensitic phase shows higher dumping capacity. During phase transformation, an internal friction peak may be observed for the CuNiTi 35 deg C and Neo Sentalloy F

  19. Nickel-Titanium Single-file System in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagna, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    This work describes clinical cases treated with a innovative single-use and single-file nickel-titanium (NiTi) system used in continuous rotation. Nickel-titanium files are commonly used for root canal treatment but they tend to break because of bending stresses and torsional stresses. Today new instruments used only for one treatment have been introduced. They help the clinician to make the root canal shaping easier and safer because they do not require sterilization and after use have to be discarded. A new sterile instrument is used for each treatment in order to reduce the possibility of fracture inside the canal. The new One Shape NiTi single-file instrument belongs to this group. One Shape is used for complete shaping of root canal after an adequate preflaring. Its protocol is simple and some clinical cases are presented. It is helpful for easy cases and reliable for difficult canals. After 2 years of clinical practice, One Shape seems to be helpful for the treatment of most of the root canals, with low risk of separation. After each treatment, the instrument is discarded and not sterilized in autoclave or re-used. This single-use file simplifies the endodontic therapy, because only one instrument is required for canal shaping of many cases. The respect of clinical protocol guarantees predictable good results.

  20. Influence of cyclic torsional preloading on cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel - titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullà, E; Lo Savio, F; Boninelli, S; Plotino, G; Grande, N M; Rapisarda, E; La Rosa, G

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of different torsional preloads on cyclic fatigue resistance of endodontic rotary instruments constructed from conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi), M-Wire or CM-Wire. Eighty new size 25, 0.06 taper Mtwo instruments (Sweden & Martina), size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM (Coltene/Whaledent, Inc) and X2 ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. The Torque and distortion angles at failure of new instruments (n = 10) were measured, and 0% (n = 10), 25%, 50% and 75% (n = 20) of the mean ultimate torsional strength as preloading condition were applied according to ISO 3630-1 for each brand. The twenty files tested for every extent of preload were subjected to 20 or 40 torsional cycles (n = 10). After torsional preloading, the number of cycles to failure was evaluated in a simulated canal with 60° angle of curvature and 5 mm of radius of curvature. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance. The fracture surface of each fragment was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analysed by two-way analyses of variance. Preload repetitions did not influence the cyclic fatigue of the three brands; however, the 25%, 50% and 75% torsional preloading significantly reduced the fatigue resistance of all instruments tested (P 0.05). Torsional preloads reduced the cyclic fatigue resistance of conventional and treated (M-wire and CM-wire) NiTi rotary instruments except for size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM instruments with a 25% of torsional preloading. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A survey of experience-based preference of Nickel-Titanium rotary files and incidence of fracture among general dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WooCheol Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose was to investigate the preference and usage technique of NiTi rotary instruments and to retrieve data on the frequency of re-use and the estimated incidence of file separation in the clinical practice among general dentists. Materials and Methods A survey was disseminated via e-mail and on-site to 673 general dentists. The correlation between the operator's experience or preferred technique and frequency of re-use or incidence of file fracture was assessed. Results A total of 348 dentists (51.7% responded. The most frequently used NiTi instruments was ProFile (39.8% followed by ProTaper. The most preferred preparation technique was crown-down (44.6%. 54.3% of the respondents re-used NiTi files more than 10 times. There was a significant correlation between experience with NiTi files and the number of reuses (p = 0.0025. 54.6% of the respondents estimated experiencing file separation less than 5 times per year. The frequency of separation was significantly correlated with the instrumentation technique (p = 0.0003. Conclusions A large number of general dentists in Korea prefer to re-use NiTi rotary files. As their experience with NiTi files increased, the number of re-uses increased, while the frequency of breakage decreased. Operators who adopt the hybrid technique showed less tendency of separation even with the increased number of re-use.

  2. Load Deflection Characteristics of Nickel Titanium Initial Archwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aghili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the characteristics of commonly used initial archwires by their load deflection graphs.Materials and Methods: This study tested three wire designs namely copper nickel titanium (CNT, nickel titanium (NiTi, and multi-strand NiTi (MSNT archwires engaged in passive self-ligating (PSL brackets, active self-ligating (ASL brackets or conventional brackets. To evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the specimens, a three-point bending test was performed. The testing machine vertically applied force on the midpoint of the wire between the central incisor and canine teeth to obtain 2 and 4mm of deflection. The force level at maximum deflection and characteristics of plateau (the average plateau load and the plateau length were recorded. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used at P <0.05 level of significance.Results: Force level at maximum deflection and plateau length were significantly affected by the amount of deflection. The type of archwires and brackets had significant effects on force level at maximum deflection, and plateau length. However, the bracket type had no significant effect on the average plateau force.Conclusion: With any type of brackets in deflections of 2 and 4mm, MSNT wire exerted the lowest while NiTi wire exerted the highest force level at maximum deflection and plateau phase. The force level at maximum deflection and the plateau length increased with raising the amount of primary deflection; however the average plateau force did not change significantly.

  3. Endodontic shaping performance using nickel-titanium hand and motor ProTaper systems by novice dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ming-Gene; Chen, San-Yue; Huang, Heng-Li; Tsai, Chi-Cheng

    2008-05-01

    Preparing a continuous tapering conical shape and maintaining the original shape of a canal are obligatory in root canal preparation. The purpose of this study was to compare the shaping performance in simulated curved canal resin blocks of the same novice dental students using hand-prepared and engine-driven nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary ProTaper instruments in an endodontic laboratory class. Twenty-three fourth-year dental students attending China Medical University Dental School prepared 46 simulated curved canals in resin blocks with two types of NiTi rotary systems: hand and motor ProTaper files. Composite images were prepared for estimation. Material removed, canal width and canal deviation were measured at five levels in the apical 4 mm of the simulated curved canals using AutoCAD 2004 software. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. The hand ProTaper group cut significantly wider than the motor rotary ProTaper group in the outer wall, except for the apical 0 mm point. The total canal width was cut significantly larger in the hand group than in the motor group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in centering canal shape, except at the 3 mm level. These findings show that the novice students prepared the simulated curved canal that deviated more outwardly from apical 1 mm to 4 mm using the hand ProTaper. The ability to maintain the original curvature was better in the motor rotary ProTaper group than in the hand ProTaper group. Undergraduate students, if following the preparation sequence carefully, could successfully perform canal shaping by motor ProTaper files and achieve better root canal geometry than by using hand ProTaper files within the same teaching and practicing sessions.

  4. Influence of nickel-titanium rotary systems with varying tapers on the biomechanical behaviour of maxillary first premolars under occlusal forces: a finite element analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askerbeyli Örs, S; Serper, A

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of three nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary systems with varying tapers on stress distribution and to analyse potential fracture patterns as well as the volume of fracture-susceptible regions in two-rooted maxillary premolars. The root canals of three single-rooted premolars were prepared with either HeroShaper (Micro-Mega, Besançon, France) to (size 30, .04 taper), Revo-S (Micro-Mega) to AS30 (size 30, .06 taper) or ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) to F3 (size 30, .09 taper) Ni-Ti files. The three root canals were scanned using micro-computed tomography (μCT) (Skyscan 1174, Skyscan, Kontich, Belgium) and modelled according to the μCT data. An intact tooth model with a root length of 16 mm was also constructed based on μCT images of an extracted maxillary premolar with two roots. New models were constructed by replacing both of the original canals of the intact two-rooted premolar model with the modelled canals prepared with the HeroShaper, Revo-S or ProTaper Universal system. Occlusal forces of 200 N were applied in oblique and vertical directions. Finite element analysis was performed using Abaqus FEA software (Abaqus 6.14, ABAQUS Inc., Providence, RI, USA). Upon the application of oblique occlusal forces, the palatal external cervical root surface and the bifurcation (palatal side of the buccal root) in tooth models experienced the highest maximum principal (Pmax) stresses. The application of vertical forces resulted in minor Pmax stress values. Models prepared using the ProTaper system exhibited the highest Pmax stress values. The intact models exhibited the lowest Pmax stress values followed by the models prepared with the HeroShaper system. The differences in Pmax stress values amongst the different groups of models were mathematically minimal under normal occlusal forces. Rotary systems with varying tapers might predispose the root fracture on the palatal side of the buccal root and cervical palatal

  5. Nickel-titanium wire as a flexor tendon suture material: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, T; Göransson, H; Viinikainen, A; Jämsä, T; Ryhänen, J

    2010-07-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi) is a new suture material that is easy to handle, is strong, and biocompatible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the material properties and biomechanical behaviour of 150 microm and 200 microm NiTi wires in flexor tendon repair. Braided polyester (4-0 Ethibond) was used as control. Fifty fresh-frozen porcine flexor tendons were repaired using the Pennington modification of the Kessler repair or a double Kessler technique. NiTi wires were stiffer and reached higher tensile strength compared to braided polyester suture. Repairs with 200 microm NiTi wire had a higher yield force, ultimate force and better resistance to gapping than 4-0 braided polyester repairs. Repairs made with 200 microm NiTi wire achieved higher stiffness and ultimate force than repairs made with 150 microm NiTi wire.

  6. Nickel-Titanium Alloys: Corrosion "Proof" Alloys for Space Bearing, Components and Mechanism Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, 60NiTi (60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti), is shown to be a promising candidate tribological material for space mechanisms. 60NiTi offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. 60NiTi is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, and is non-magnetic. Despite its high Ti content, 60NiTi is non-galling even under dry sliding. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic, encompasses all of these attributes. Since 60NiTi contains such a high proportion of Ti and possesses many metallic properties, it was expected to exhibit poor tribological performance typical of Ti alloys, namely galling type behavior and rapid lubricant degradation. In this poster-paper, the oil-lubricated behavior of 60NiTi is presented.

  7. Alleviation of mandibular anterior crowding with copper-nickel-titanium vs nickel-titanium wires: a double-blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) vs nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires in resolving crowding of the anterior mandibular dentition. Sixty patients were included in this single-center, single-operator, double-blind randomized trial. All patients were bonded with the In Ovation-R self-ligating bracket (GAC, Central Islip, NY) with a 0.022-in slot, and the amount of crowding of the mandibular anterior dentition was assessed by using the irregularity index. The patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 30 patients, each receiving a 0.016-in CuNiTi 35 degrees C (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) or a 0.016-in NiTi (ModernArch, Wyomissing, Pa) wire. The type of wire selected for each patient was not disclosed to the provider or the patient. The date that each patient received a wire was recorded, and all patients were followed monthly for a maximum of 6 months. Demographic and clinical characteristics between the 2 wire groups were compared with the t test or the chi-square test and the Fisher exact test. Time to resolve crowding was explored with statistical methods for survival analysis, and alignment rate ratios for wire type and crowding level were calculated with Cox proportional hazards multivariate modeling. The type of wire (CuNiTi vs NiTi) had no significant effect on crowding alleviation (129.4 vs 121.4 days; hazard ratio, 1.3; P >0.05). Severe crowding (>5 on the irregularity index) showed a significantly higher probability of crowding alleviation duration relative to dental arches with a score of wires in laboratory and clinical conditions might effectively eliminate the laboratory-derived advantage of CuNiTi wires.

  8. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of diffusion-bonded titanium-stainless steel joints using a nickel interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, S.; Chatterjee, S.

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion bonding was carried out between commercially pure titanium and 304 stainless steel using nickel interlayer in the temperature range of 800-950 deg. C for 3.6 ks under 3 MPa load in vacuum. The transition joints thus formed were characterized in optical and scanning electron microscopes. TiNi 3 , TiNi and Ti 2 Ni are formed at the nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) interface; whereas, stainless steel-nickel (SS-Ni) interface is free from intermetallic compounds up to 900 deg. C processing temperatures. At 950 deg. C, Ni-Ti interface exhibits the presence of β-Ti discrete islands in the matrix of Ti 2 Ni and the phase mixture of λ + χ + α-Fe, λ + α-Fe, λ + FeTi + β-Ti and FeTi + β-Ti occurs at the stainless steel-nickel interface. Nickel is able to inhibit the diffusion of Ti to stainless steel side up to 900 deg. C temperature; however, becomes unable to restrict the migration of Ti to stainless steel at 950 deg. C. Bond strength was also evaluated and maximum tensile strength of ∼302 MPa and shear strength of ∼219 MPa were obtained for the diffusion couple processed at 900 deg. C temperature due to better contact of the mating surfaces and failure takes place at the Ni-Ti interface. At higher joining temperature, the formation of Fe-Ti bases intermetallics reduces the bond strength and failure occurs at the SS-Ni interface

  9. [Shaping ability of two nickel-titanium rotary systems in simulated S-shaped canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-xia; Huang, Ding-ming; Zhang, Fu-hua; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the shaping ability of two nickel-titanium rotary systems (ProTaper and Hero642) in simulated S-shaped canals. Thirty simulated S-shaped canals were randomly divided into three groups and prepared by ProTaper, Hero642, ProTaper combined with Hero642 respectively. All the canals were scanned before and after instrumentation, and the amount of material removed in the inner and outer wall and the canal width after instrumentation were measured with a computer image analysis program. There was significant difference in the amount of material removed at the inner side of apical curvature and outer side of apex between ProTaper combined with Hero642 and ProTaper files (P Hero642, and the taper of canals were better than those prepared by Hero642. ProTaper combined with Hero 642 had better shaping ability to maintain the original shape and could create good taper canals in the simulated S-shaped canal model.

  10. Comparison between rotary and manual instrumentation in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, S; Cortes, O; Garcia, C; Perez, L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency in both, preparation time and root canal shape, when using the Nickel Titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary and K-Files hand instrumentation on root canal preparation of single rooted primary teeth. Sixty single rooted primary teeth were selected and divided into two equal groups: Group (I) 30 teeth instrumented with manual K-files and group (II) 30 teeth instrumented with Ni-Ti rotary files (ProFile 0.04). Instrumentation times were calculated and root canal impressions were taken with light bodied silicone in order to evaluate the shape. The data was analyzed with SPSS program using the t-test and the Chi-square test to compare their means. The preparation time with group (I) K-files was significantly higher than in group (II) rotary files (ProFile 0.04), with a p= .005. The ProFile system showed a significantly more favorable canal taper when compared to the K-files system (P= .002). The use of rotary files in primary teeth has several advantages when compared with manual K files: the efficiency in both, preparation time and root canal shape. 1. A decreased working time, that helps maintain patient cooperation by diminishing the potential for tiredness. 2. The shape of the root canal is more conical, favoring a higher quality of the root canal filling, and increasing clinical success.

  11. A comparison of torque expression between stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy, and copper nickel titanium wires in metallic self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Amy; Major, Thomas W; Carey, Jason P; Heo, Giseon; Badawi, Hisham; Major, Paul W

    2010-09-01

    The force moment providing rotation of the tooth around the x-axis (buccal-lingual) is referred to as torque expression in orthodontic literature. Many factors affect torque expression, including the wire material characteristics. This investigation aims to provide an experimental study into and comparison of the torque expression between wire types. With a worm-gear-driven torquing apparatus, wire was torqued while a bracket mounted on a six-axis load cell was engaged. Three 0.019 x 0.0195 inch wire (stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy [TMA], copper nickel titanium [CuNiTi]), and three 0.022 inch slot bracket combinations (Damon 3MX, In-Ovation-R, SPEED) were compared. At low twist angles (wires were not statistically significant. At twist angles over 24 degrees, stainless steel wire yielded 1.5 to 2 times the torque expression of TMA and 2.5 to 3 times that of nickel titanium (NiTi). At high angles of torsion (over 40 degrees) with a stiff wire material, loss of linear torque expression sometimes occurred. Stainless steel has the largest torque expression, followed by TMA and then NiTi.

  12. Orthodontic buccal tooth movement by nickel-free titanium-based shape memory and superelastic alloy wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Tomizuka, Ryo; Hosoda, Hideki; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Okuno, Osamu; Igarashi, Kaoru; Mitani, Hideo

    2006-11-01

    To examine the mechanical properties and the usefulness of titanium-niobium-aluminum (Ti-Nb-Al) wire in orthodontic tooth movement as compared with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire. The load deflection of expansion springs was gauged with an original jig. The gradient of the superelastic region was measured during the unloading process. Expansion springs comprising the two types of alloy wires were applied to upper first molars of rats. The distance between the first molars was measured with micrometer calipers. The force magnitude of the Ti-Nb-Al expansion spring was lower than that of the Ni-Ti expansion spring over the entire deflection range. The initial force magnitude and the gradient in the superelastic region of the Ti-Nb-Al expansion springs were half those of the Ni-Ti expansion springs. Thus, Ti-Nb-Al expansion springs generated lighter and more continuous force. Tooth movement in the Ni-Ti group proceeded in a stepwise fashion. On the other hand, tooth movement in the Ti-Nb-Al group showed relatively smooth and continuous progression. At 17 days after insertion of expansion springs, there were no significant differences between the Ti-Nb-Al and Ni-Ti groups in the amount of tooth movement. These results indicate that Ti-Nb-Al wire has excellent mechanical properties for smooth, continuous tooth movement and suggest that Ti-Nb-Al wire may be used as a practical nickel-free shape memory and superelastic alloy wire for orthodontic treatment as a substitute for Ni-Ti wire.

  13. Surface and corrosion characteristics of carbon plasma implanted and deposited nickel-titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, R.W.Y.; Liu, X.Y.; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, P.K.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Lu, W.W.; Cheung, K.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) are potentially useful in orthopedic implants on account of their super-elastic and shape memory properties. However, the materials are prone to surface corrosion and the most common problem is out-diffusion of harmful Ni ions from the substrate into body tissues and fluids. In order to improve the corrosion resistance and related surface properties, we used the technique of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition to deposit an amorphous hydrogenated carbon coating onto NiTi and implant carbon into NiTi. Both the deposited amorphous carbon film and carbon plasma implanted samples exhibit much improved corrosion resistances and surface mechanical properties and possible mechanisms are suggested

  14. Application of non-destructive impedance-based monitoring technique for cyclic fatigue evaluation of endodontic nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Liu, Mou-Chuan; Pai, Che-An; Lin, Chun-Li; Yen, Kuang-I

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the application of non-destructive testing based on the impedance theory in the cyclic fatigue evaluation of endodontic Ni-Ti rotary instruments. Fifty Ni-Ti ProTaper instruments were divided into five groups (n=10 in Groups A to E). Groups A to D were subjected to cyclic fatigue within an artificial canal (Group E was the control group). The mean value of the total life limit (TLL), defined as the instrument being rotated until fracture occurred was found to be 104 s in Group A. Each rotary instrument in Groups B, C and D were rotated until the tested instruments reached 80% (84 s), 60% (62 s) and 40% (42 s) of the TLL. After fatigue testing, each rotary instrument was mounted onto a custom-developed non-destructive testing device to give the tip of the instrument a progressive sideways bend in four mutually perpendicular directions to measure the corresponding impedance value (including the resistance and the reactance). The results indicated that the impedance value showed the same trend as the resistance, implying that the impedance was primarily affected by the resistance. The impedance value for the instruments in the 80% and 60% TLL groups increased by about 6 mΩ (about 7.5%) more than that of the instruments in the intact and 40% TLL groups. The SEM analysis result showed that crack striations were only found at the tip of the thread on the cracked surface of the instrument, consistent with the impedance measurements that found the impedance value of the cracked surface to be significantly different from those in other surfaces. These findings indicate that the impedance value may represent an effective parameter for evaluating the micro-structural status of Ni-Ti rotary instruments subjected to fatigue loading. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of the geometry of curved artificial canals on the fracture of rotary nickel-titanium instruments subjected to cyclic fatigue tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Vieira, Márcia V B; Elias, Carlos N; Gonçalves, Lucio S; Siqueira, José F; Moreira, Edson J L; Vieira, Victor T L; Souza, Letícia C

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different features of canal curvature geometry on the number of cycles to fracture of a rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instrument subjected to a cyclic fatigue test. BioRaCe BR4C instruments (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de Fonds, Switzerland) were tested in 4 grooves simulating curved metallic artificial canals, each one measuring 1.5 mm in width, 20 mm in total length, and 3.5 mm in depth with a U-shaped bottom. The parameters of curvature including the radius and arc lengths and the position of the arc differed in the 4 canal designs. Fractured surfaces and helical shafts of the separated instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The Student's t test showed that a significantly lower number of cycles to fracture values were observed for instruments tested in canals with the smallest radius, the longest arc, and the arc located in the middle portion of the canal. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed morphologic characteristics of ductile fracture. Plastic deformation was not observed in the helical shaft of the fractured instruments. Curvature geometry including the radius and arc lengths and the position of the arc along the root canal influence the number of cycles to fracture of rotary nickel-titanium instruments subjected to flexural load. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro biocompatibility of nickel-titanium esthetic orthodontic archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Roberto; Valletta, Rosa; Bucci, Rosaria; Rivieccio, Virginia; Galeotti, Angela; Michelotti, Ambrosina; D'Antò, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) esthetic orthodontic archwires with different surface coatings. Three fully coated, tooth-colored NiTi wires (BioCosmetic, Titanol Cosmetic, EverWhite), two ion-implanted wires (TMA Purple, Sentalloy High Aesthetic), five uncoated NiTi wires (BioStarter, BioTorque, Titanol Superelastic, Memory Wire Superelastic, and Sentalloy), one β-titanium wire (TMA), and one stainless steel wire (Stainless Steel) were considered for this study. The wire samples were placed at 37°C in airtight test tubes containing Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (0.1 mg/mL) for 1, 7, 14, and 30 days. The cell viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured with this medium was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (α  =  .05). The highest cytotoxic effect was reached on day 30 for all samples. The archwires exhibited a cytotoxicity on HGFs ranging from "none" to "slight," with the exception of the BioTorque, which resulted in moderate cytotoxicity on day 30. Significant differences were found between esthetic archwires and their uncoated pairs only for BioCosmetic (P  =  .001) and EverWhite (P < .001). Under the experimental conditions, all of the NiTi esthetic archwires resulted in slight cytotoxicity, as did the respective uncoated wires. For this reason their clinical use may be considered to have similar risks to the uncoated archwires.

  17. Volumetric analysis of hand, reciprocating and rotary instrumentation techniques in primary molars using spiral computed tomography: An in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandan, Ganesh; Thomas, Eapen

    2018-01-01

    This present study was conducted to analyze the volumetric change in the root canal space and instrumentation time between hand files, hand files in reciprocating motion, and three rotary files in primary molars. One hundred primary mandibular molars were randomly allotted to one of the five groups. Instrumentation was done using Group I; nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) hand file, Group II; Ni-Ti hand files in reciprocating motion, Group III; Race rotary files, Group IV; prodesign pediatric rotary files, and Group V; ProTaper rotary files. The mean volumetric changes were assessed using pre- and post-operative spiral computed tomography scans. Instrumentation time was recorded. Statistical analysis to access intergroup comparison for mean canal volume and instrumentation time was done using Bonferroni-adjusted Mann-Whitney test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Intergroup comparison of mean canal volume showed statistically significant difference between Groups II versus IV, Groups III versus V, and Groups IV versus V. Intergroup comparison of mean instrumentation time showed statistically significant difference among all the groups except Groups IV versus V. Among the various instrumentation techniques available, rotary instrumentation is the considered to be the better instrumentation technique for canal preparation in primary teeth.

  18. Comparison of the mechanical properties between tantalum and nickel-titanium foams implant materials for bone ingrowth applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, P.; Aparicio, C.; Planell, J.A.; Gil, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Metallic porous materials are designed to allow the ingrowth of living tissue inside the pores and to improve the mechanical anchorage of the implant. In the present work, tantalum and nickel-titanium porous materials have been characterized. The tantalum foams were produced by vapour chemical deposition (CVD/CVI) and the NiTi foams by self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS). The former exhibited an open porosity ranging between 65 and 73% and for the latter it ranged between 63 and 68%. The pore sizes were between 370 and 440 μm for tantalum and between 350 and 370 μm for nickel-titanium. The Young's modulus in compression of the foams studied, especially for tantalum, were very similar to those of cancellous bone. This similitude may be relevant in order to minimize the stress shielding effect in the load transfer from the implant to bone. The strength values for NiTi foam are higher than for tantalum, especially of the strain to fracture which is about 23% for NiTi and only 8% for tantalum. The fatigue endurance limit set at 10 8 cycles is about 7.5 MPa for NiTi and 13.2 MPa for tantalum. The failure mechanisms have been studied by scanning electron microscopy

  19. A comparative study of the cytotoxicity and corrosion resistance of nickel-titanium and titanium-niobium shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Rebecca E; Ma, Ji; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Munoz-Pinto, Dany; Karaman, Ibrahim; Rubitschek, Felix; Maier, Hans J; Hahn, Mariah S

    2012-07-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys (SMAs) are commonly used in a range of biomedical applications. However, concerns exist regarding their use in certain biomedical scenarios due to the known toxicity of Ni and conflicting reports of NiTi corrosion resistance, particularly under dynamic loading. Titanium-niobium (TiNb) SMAs have recently been proposed as an alternative to NiTi SMAs due to the biocompatibility of both constituents, the ability of both Ti and Nb to form protective surface oxides, and their superior workability. However, several properties critical to the use of TiNb SMAs in biomedical applications have not been systematically explored in comparison with NiTi SMAs. These properties include cytocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and alterations in alloy surface composition in response to prolonged exposure to physiological solutions. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to comparatively investigate these aspects of NiTi (49.2 at.% Ti) and TiNb (26 at.% Nb) SMAs. The results from the current studies indicate that TiNb SMAs are less cytotoxic than NiTi SMAs, at least under static culture conditions. This increased TiNb cytocompatibility was correlated with reduced ion release as well as with increased corrosion resistance according to potentio-dynamic tests. Measurements of the surface composition of samples exposed to cell culture medium further supported the reduced ion release observed from TiNb relative to NiTi SMAs. Alloy composition depth profiles also suggested the formation of calcium phosphate deposits within the surface oxide layers of medium-exposed NiTi but not of TiNb. Collectively, the present results indicate that TiNb SMAs may be promising alternatives to NiTi for certain biomedical applications. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Apical Extrusion of Debris during Endodontic Retreatment with 3 Rotary Nickel-Titanium Retreatment Systems and Hand Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkampesi S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the amount of debris extruded apically as well as the time needed for removal of root canal filling material using ProTaper, MTwo, REndo NiTi rotary retreatment systems and hand files.

  1. Mechanical and geometric features of endodontic instruments and its clinical effect

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeon-Cheol Kim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this paper is to discuss the mechanical and geometric features of Nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files and its clinical effects. NiTi rotary files have been introduced to the markets with their own geometries and claims that they have better ability for the root canal shaping than their competitors. The contents of this paper include the (possible) interrelationship between the geometries of NiTi file (eg. tip, taper, helical angle, etc) and clinical performance ...

  2. Phase transformation changes in thermocycled nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, David W; Roberts, Howard W

    2010-07-01

    In the oral environment, orthodontic wires will be subject to thermal fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thermocycling on nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire phase transformations. Straight segments from single 27 and 35 degrees C copper NiTi (Ormco), Sentalloy (GAC), and Nitinol Heat Activated (3M Unitek) archwires were sectioned into 5mm segments (n=20). A control group consisted of five randomly selected non-thermocycled segments. The remaining segments were thermocycled between 5 and 55 degrees C with five randomly selected segments analyzed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC; -100150 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min) after 1000, 5000, and 10,000 cycles. Thermal peaks were evaluated with results analyzed via ANOVA (alpha=0.05). Nitinol HA and Sentalloy did not demonstrate qualitative or quantitative phase transformation behavior differences. Significant differences were observed in some of the copper NiTi transformation temperatures, as well as the heating enthalpy with the 27 degrees C copper NiTi wires (p<0.05). Qualitatively, with increased thermocycling the extent of R-phase in the heating peaks decreased in the 35 degrees C copper NiTi, and an austenite to martensite peak shoulder developed during cooling in the 27 degrees C copper NiTi. Repeated temperature fluctuations may contribute to qualitative and quantitative phase transformation changes in some NiTi wires. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  3. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic studies in the titanium-nickel and titanium-nickel-oxygen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, G.; Kleykamp, H.; Laumer, W.

    1983-01-01

    The isothermal section of the Ti-Ni-O system was examined at 1200 K in the regions between the Ni(Ti) solid solution and the binary oxides of titanium. The relative partial Gibbs energies of oxygen over the Ti 2 O 3 -Ti 3 O 5 region and of titanium in the Ni(Ti) solid solution as well as the Gibbs energies of formation of NiTiO 3 , Ti 3 O 5 and TiNi 3 were determined between 1100 and 1300 K by use of solid electrolyte galvanic cells. (orig.) [de

  4. [In vitro comparison of root canal preparation with step-back technique and GT rotary file--a nickel-titanium engine driven rotary instrument system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczár, Károly; Tóth, Vilmos; Nyárády, Zoltán; Szabó, Gyula

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the authors' study was to compare the remaining root canal wall thickness and the preparation time of root canals, prepared either with step-back technique, or with GT Rotary File, an engine driven nickel-titanium rotary instrument system. Twenty extracted molars were decoronated. Teeth were divided in two groups. In Group 1 root canals were prepared with step-back technique. In Group 2 GT Rotary File System was utilized. Preoperative vestibulo-oral X-ray pictures were taken from all teeth with radiovisiograph (RVG). The final preparations at the mesiobuccal canals (MB) were performed with size #30 and palatinal/distal canals with size #40 instruments. Postoperative RVG pictures were taken ensuring the preoperative positioning. The working time was measured in seconds during each preparation. The authors also assessed the remaining root canal wall thickness at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the radiological apex, comparing the width of the canal walls of the vestibulo-oral projections on pre- and postoperative RVG pictures both mesially and buccally. The ratios of the residual and preoperative root canal wall thickness were calculated and compared. The largest difference was found at the MB canals of the coronal and middle third level of the root, measured on the distal canal wall. The ratio of the remaining dentin wall thickness at the coronal and the middle level in the case of step-back preparation was 0.605 and 0.754, and 0.824 and 0.895 in the cases of GT files respectively. The preparation time needed for GT Rotary File System was altogether 68.7% (MB) and 52.5% (D/P canals) of corresponding step-back preparation times. The use of GT Rotary File with comparison of standard step-back method resulted in a shortened preparation time and excessive damage of the coronal part of the root canal could be avoided.

  5. Effect of ion-implantation on surface characteristics of nickel titanium and titanium molybdenum alloy arch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the changes in surface roughness and frictional features of ′ion-implanted nickel titanium (NiTi and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA arch wires′ from its conventional types in an in-vitro laboratory set up. Materials and Methods: ′Ion-implanted NiTi and low friction TMA arch wires′ were assessed for surface roughness with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and 3 dimensional (3D optical profilometry. Frictional forces were studied in a universal testing machine. Surface roughness of arch wires were determined as Root Mean Square (RMS values in nanometers and Frictional Forces (FF in grams. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values of RMS and FF were compared by Student′s ′t′ test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: SEM images showed a smooth topography for ion-implanted versions. 3D optical profilometry demonstrated reduction of RMS values by 58.43% for ion-implanted NiTi (795.95 to 330.87 nm and 48.90% for TMA groups (463.28 to 236.35 nm from controls. Nonetheless, the corresponding decrease in FF was only 29.18% for NiTi and 22.04% for TMA, suggesting partial correction of surface roughness and disproportionate reduction in frictional forces with ion-implantation. Though the reductions were highly significant at P < 0.001, relations between surface roughness and frictional forces remained non conclusive even after ion-implantation. Conclusion: The study proved that ion-implantation can significantly reduce the surface roughness of NiTi and TMA wires but could not make a similar reduction in frictional forces. This can be attributed to the inherent differences in stiffness and surface reactivity of NiTi and TMA wires when used in combination with stainless steel brackets, which needs further investigations.

  6. The efficacy of two rotary NiTi instruments and H-files to remove gutta-percha from root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpınar, Kerem E.; Altunbaş, Demet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of R-Endo® and K3® rotary nickel-titanium instruments compared with manual instrumentation with H-files, with use of a solvent, for removal of gutta-percha during retreatment. Study design: Forty five freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth, each with one root canal, were instrumented with K-files and filled using cold lateral compaction of gutta-percha and AH 26® sealer. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 15 specimens each. Removal of gutta-percha was performed with the following devices and techniques: Group 1 (H-files), Group 2 (R-Endo®), and Group 3 (K3®). The specimens were rendered transparent for the evaluation of the area of remaining gutta-percha/sealer in buccolingual and mesiodistal directions. Statistical analysis as performed by using one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p=0.05). Results: All retreatment techniques used in this study left some filling material inside the root canal. Images in buccolingual and mesiodistal directions showed no significant differences between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Under the experimental conditions, the remaining filling material after retreatment was similar for each group. Key words:Gutta-percha removal, K3®, NiTi, R-Endo®. PMID:22143729

  7. The effect of brushing motion on the cyclic fatigue of rotary nickel titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gambarini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to evaluate if the use of rotary nickel-titanium (RNT instruments, as Hedstroem files, is safe. Twelve twisted files (TF RNT instruments size 06-25 were selected and randomly divided in 2 groups of 6 instruments each. Group A (new instruments were used as control. Group B (test instruments were clinically used only as Hedstroem files in a canal that had been previously instrumented to the working length with other 06-25 RNT instruments. Group B instruments were used only in the straight portion of the canal (1 minute at 1000 rpm. A cyclic fatigue test was performed for each instrument of groups. Data were statistically analyzed (Student's t-test. Results showed no significant difference (P > 0.05 between groups A and B. Data confirmed that the use of TF instruments as Hedstroem files is a safe procedure. Cross section images and volumes of the same instrument, before and after cyclic fatigue testing, have been obtained by means of microtomographic analysis to evaluate possible microstructure alterations.

  8. Influence of different manufacturing methods on the cyclic fatigue of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Renata C V; Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Amaral, Georgiana; Vieira, Victor T L; De Martin, Alexandre S

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by static and dynamic cyclic fatigue tests, the number of cycles to fracture (NCF) 2 types of rotary NiTi instruments: Twisted File (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), which is manufactured by a proprietary twisting process, and RaCe files (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), which are manufactured by grinding. Twenty Twisted Files (TFs) and 20 RaCe files #25/.006 taper instruments were allowed to rotate freely in an artificial curved canal at 310 rpm in a static or a dynamic model until fracture occurred. Measurements of the fractured fragments showed that fracture occurred at the point of maximum flexure in the midpoint of the curved segment. The NCF was significantly lower for RaCe instruments compared with TFs. The NCF was also lower for instruments subjected to the static test compared with the dynamic model in both groups. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed ductile morphologic characteristics on the fractured surfaces of all instruments and no plastic deformation in their helical shafts. Rotary NiTi endodontic instruments manufactured by twisting present greater resistance to cyclic fatigue compared with instruments manufactured by grinding. The fracture mode observed in all instruments was of the ductile type. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The release of nickel from orthodontic NiTi wires is increased by dynamic mechanical loading but not constrained by surface nitridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitsch, T; Klocke, A; Kahl-Nieke, B; Prymak, O; Epple, M

    2007-09-01

    The influence of dynamic mechanical loading and of surface nitridation on the nickel release from superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires was investigated under ultrapure conditions. Commercially available superelastic NiTi arch wires (size 0.018 x 0.025'') without surface modification (Neo Sentalloy) and with nitrogen ion implantation surface treatment (Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) were analyzed. Mechanical loading of wire segments with a force similar to the physiological situation was performed with a frequency of 5 Hz in ultrapure water and saline solution, respectively. The release of nickel was monitored by atomic absorption spectroscopy for up to 36 days. The mechanically loaded wires released significantly more nickel ( approximately 45 ng cm(-2) d(-1)) than did nonloaded wires (<1 ng cm(-2) d(-1)). There was no statistically significant effect of the testing solution (water or NaCl) or of the surface nitridation. The total amount of released nickel was small in all cases, but may nevertheless account for the occasional clinical observations of adverse reactions during application of NiTi-based orthodontic appliances. The surface nitridation did not constrain the release of nickel from NiTi under continuous mechanical stress.

  10. Comparative study of root-canal shaping with stainless steel and rotary NiTi files performed by preclinical dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrahabi, Mothanna

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the use of NiTi rotary and stainless steel endodontic instruments for canal shaping by undergraduate students. We also assessed the quality of root canal preparation as well as the occurrence of iatrogenic events during instrumentation. In total, 30 third-year dental students attending Taibah University Dental College prepared 180 simulated canals in resin blocks with NiTi rotary instruments and stainless steel hand files. Superimposed images were prepared to measure the removal of material at different levels from apical termination using the GSA image analysis software. Preparation time, procedural accidents, and canal shape after preparation were analyzed using χ 2 and t-tests. The statistical significance level was set at P instruments and stainless steel files; the former was associated with shorter preparation time, less ledge formation (1.1% vs. 14.4%), and greater instrument fracture (5.56% vs. 1.1%). These results indicate that NiTi rotary instruments result in better canal geometry and cause less canal transportation. Manual instrumentation using stainless steel files is safer than rotary instrumentation for inexperienced students. Intensive preclinical training is a prerequisite for using NiTi rotary instruments. These results prompted us to reconsider theoretical and practical coursework when teaching endodontics.

  11. Technical quality of root canal treatment of posterior teeth after rotary or hand preparation by fifth year undergraduate students, The University of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Tahun, Ibrahim; Al-Rabab'ah, Mohammad A; Hammad, Mohammad; Khraisat, Ameen

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the technical quality of root canal treatment provided by the undergraduate students as their first experience in molar endodontics using nickel-titanium (NiTi) files in a crown-down approach compared with stainless steel standard technique. This study was carried out by the fifth year undergraduate students attending peer review sessions as a part of their training programme, using two different questionnaires to assess the overall technical quality and potential problems regarding endodontic complications after root canal preparation with these two techniques. The overall results indicated a statistically significant difference in the performance of the two instrument techniques in difficult cases showing better performance of the NiTi system and mean rotary preparation time (P ProTaper rotary files, were able to prepare root canals faster with more preparation accuracy compared with canals of same teeth prepared with hand instruments. © 2014 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  12. Reactive Ni/Ti nanolaminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D. P.; Bai, M. M.; Rodriguez, M. A.; McDonald, J. P.; Jones, E. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Moore, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Nickel/titanium nanolaminates fabricated by sputter deposition exhibited rapid, high-temperature synthesis. When heated locally, self-sustained reactions were produced in freestanding Ni/Ti multilayer foils characterized by average propagation speeds between ∼0.1 and 1.4 m/s. The speed of a propagating reaction front was affected by total foil thickness and bilayer thickness (layer periodicity). In contrast to previous work with compacted Ni-Ti powders, no preheating of Ni/Ti foils was required to maintain self-propagating reactions. High-temperature synthesis was also stimulated by rapid global heating demonstrating low ignition temperatures (T ig )∼300-400 deg. C for nanolaminates. Ignition temperature was influenced by bilayer thickness with more coarse laminate designs exhibiting increased T ig . Foils reacted in a vacuum apparatus developed either as single-phase B2 cubic NiTi (austenite) or as a mixed-phase structure that was composed of monoclinic B19 ' NiTi (martensite), hexagonal NiTi 2 , and B2 NiTi. Single-phase, cubic B2 NiTi generally formed when the initial bilayer thickness was made small.

  13. An in-vitro comparison of canal debridement efficiency between three systems of Rotary, Reciprocal and Vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheykhrezaee MS.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Total removal of tissues and remnant microorganisms as well as canal shaping are the essential objectives of endodontic therapy. A successful endodontic treatment is obtained through Shilder’s principals, however; complete observation of this technique using stainless steel files manually is problematic and time-consuming. Modern technology, in order to eliminate such problems, has presented new facilities such as Nickel-Titanium (NiTi files and engine driven instruments. Purpose: The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the canal debridement efficiency of three engine driven instruments: Rotary, Reciprocal and Vertical. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 mesial roots of human first and second mandibular molars were divided into three groups randomly. In each sample, one canal was considered as case, the other one as control. Files used in Reciprocal and vertical groups were of handy Ni-Ti type and in rotary group, rotary Ni-Ti files were used. After debridement, the roots were sectioned at 3mm and 5mm from anatomic apex, stained and examined under light microscope. Comparison criteria between case and control groups were based on residual debris and predentin and the level of root canal preparation and shaping after debridement. Data were subjected to kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. Results: There was no significant difference between the efficiency of debridement at 3mm and 5mm sections between all groups. But difference in time consumption was significant ranked from the shortest to the longest as rotary, reciprocal and vertical. Conclusion: The efficiency of debridement between the three automated instruments was approximately equal, however; the instrumentation time was different between three groups. Rotary system was the fastest one, as compared with reciprocal (second and vertical (last. It may be concluded that rotary system has a superiority over the other two groups in conventional

  14. Comparison of changes in irregularity and transverse width with nickel-titanium and niobium-titanium-tantalum-zirconium archwires during initial orthodontic alignment in adolescents: A double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Barrett; Shoji, Toshihiro; Anderson, W Cameron; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Deguchi, Toru

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was to compare the clinical efficiency of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and niobium-titanium-tantalum-zirconium (TiNbTaZr) archwires during initial orthodontic alignment. All subjects (ages between 12 and 20 years) underwent nonextraction treatment using 0.022-inch brackets. All patients were randomized into two groups for initial alignment with 0.016-inch NiTi archwires (n = 14), or with 0.016-inch TiNbTaZr archwires (n = 14). Digital scans were taken during the course of treatment and were used to compare the improvement in Little's Irregularity Index and the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths. There was approximately a 27% reduction in crowding during the first month with the use of 0.016-inch TiNbTaZr (Gummetal) wire, and an additional 25% decrease in crowding was observed during the next month. There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups in the decrease in irregularity over time ( P = .29). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the changes in intercanine and intermolar width ( P = .80). It can be concluded that Gummetal wires and conventional NiTi wires possess a similar ability to align teeth, and Gummetal wires have additional advantages over conventional NiTi, such as formability and use in patients with nickel allergy.

  15. Friction behavior and other material properties of nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum archwires following electrochemical surface refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Miriam Julia; Bourauel, Christoph; Roehlike, Jan; Reimann, Susanne; Keilig, Ludger; Braumann, Bert

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether electrochemical surface treatment of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and titanium-molybdenum (TiMo) archwires (OptoTherm and BetaTitan; Ortho-Dent Specials, Kisdorf, Germany) reduces friction inside the bracket-archwire complex. We also evaluated further material properties and compared these to untreated wires. The material properties of the surface-treated wires (Optotherm/LoFrix and BetaTitan/LoFrix) were compared to untreated wires made by the same manufacturer (see above) and by another manufacturer (Neo Sentalloy; GAC, Bohemia, NY, USA). We carried out a three-point bending test, leveling test, and friction test using an orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS). In addition, a pure bending test was conducted at a special test station, and scanning electron micrographs were obtained to analyze the various wire types for surface characteristics. Finally, edge beveling and cross-sectional dimensions were assessed. Force losses due to friction were reduced by 10 percentage points (from 36 to 26%) in the NiTi and by 12 percentage points (from 59 to 47%) in the TiMo wire specimens. Most of the other material properties exhibited no significant changes after surface treatment. While the three-point bending tests revealed mildly reduced force levels in the TiMo specimens due to diameter losses of roughly 2%, these force levels remained almost unchanged in the NiTi specimens. Compared to untreated NiTi and TiMo archwire specimens, the surface-treated specimens demonstrated reductions in friction loss by 10 and 12 percentage points, respectively.

  16. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of new nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium wires during thermomechanical treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillem-Martí, J. [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Río Ebro, Edificio I+D Bloque 5, 1a planta, C/ Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) – UPC, C/Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Herranz-Díez, C. [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Río Ebro, Edificio I+D Bloque 5, 1a planta, C/ Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Shaffer, J.E. [Fort Wayne Metals Research Products Corporation, 9609 Ardmore Avenue, 46809 Fort Wayne (United States); Gil, F.J. [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Río Ebro, Edificio I+D Bloque 5, 1a planta, C/ Poeta Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) – UPC, C/Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2015-06-11

    NiTi alloy is the only practical shape memory alloy (SMA) in biomedical use because of its excellent mechanical stability and functionality. However, it is estimated that between 4.5% and 28.5% of the population are hypersensitive to nickel metal, with a higher prevalence in females. Therefore, developing nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium alloys showing shape memory or super elastic behavior would have a great interest in the biomaterials field. Homogeneous 127 μm diameter Ti25Hf21Nb wires were produced and compared to straight annealed Ti–50.8 at% Ni (Nitinol) and 90% cold-drawn 316L wires. Microstructural changes taking place during the heat treatment of cold-worked Ti25Hf21Nb wires were investigated. Large plastic deformation during wire drawing and subsequent annealing led to nano-crystallization and amorphization which may contribute to the observed superelasticity. Mechanical properties were characterized using cyclic uniaxial tension and rotary beam fatigue test modes. A modulus of elasticity of less than 60 GPa and axial recoverable strain of greater than 3% were observed with stress hysteresis resembling a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation at higher temperatures. The new Ti25Hf21Nb alloy is an important candidate for developing Ni-free SMAs in the future.

  17. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of new nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium wires during thermomechanical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillem-Martí, J.; Herranz-Díez, C.; Shaffer, J.E.; Gil, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    NiTi alloy is the only practical shape memory alloy (SMA) in biomedical use because of its excellent mechanical stability and functionality. However, it is estimated that between 4.5% and 28.5% of the population are hypersensitive to nickel metal, with a higher prevalence in females. Therefore, developing nickel-free low modulus β-type titanium alloys showing shape memory or super elastic behavior would have a great interest in the biomaterials field. Homogeneous 127 μm diameter Ti25Hf21Nb wires were produced and compared to straight annealed Ti–50.8 at% Ni (Nitinol) and 90% cold-drawn 316L wires. Microstructural changes taking place during the heat treatment of cold-worked Ti25Hf21Nb wires were investigated. Large plastic deformation during wire drawing and subsequent annealing led to nano-crystallization and amorphization which may contribute to the observed superelasticity. Mechanical properties were characterized using cyclic uniaxial tension and rotary beam fatigue test modes. A modulus of elasticity of less than 60 GPa and axial recoverable strain of greater than 3% were observed with stress hysteresis resembling a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation at higher temperatures. The new Ti25Hf21Nb alloy is an important candidate for developing Ni-free SMAs in the future

  18. Cyclic fatigue resistance tests of Nickel-Titanium rotary files using simulated canal and weight loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-In Cho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study compared the cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi files obtained in a conventional test using a simulated canal with a newly developed method that allows the application of constant fatigue load conditions. Materials and Methods ProFile and K3 files of #25/.06, #30/.06, and #40/.04 were selected. Two types of testing devices were built to test their fatigue performance. The first (conventional device prescribed curvature inside a simulated canal (C-test, the second new device exerted a constant load (L-test whilst allowing any resulting curvature. Ten new instruments of each size and brand were tested with each device. The files were rotated until fracture and the number of cycles to failure (NCF was determined. The NCF were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Duncan's post-hoc test for each method. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed to examine any association between methods. Results Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ = -0.905 showed a significant negative correlation between methods. Groups with significant difference after the L-test divided into 4 clusters, whilst the C-test gave just 2 clusters. From the L-test, considering the negative correlation of NCF, K3 gave a significantly lower fatigue resistance than ProFile as in the C-test. K3 #30/.06 showed a lower fatigue resistance than K3 #25/.06, which was not found by the C-test. Variation in fatigue test methodology resulted in different cyclic fatigue resistance rankings for various NiTi files. Conclusions The new methodology standardized the load during fatigue testing, allowing determination fatigue behavior under constant load conditions.

  19. Influence of glide path on the screw-in effect and torque of nickel-titanium rotary files in simulated resin root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hong Ha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the screw-in effect and torque generation depending on the size of glide path during root canal preparation. Materials and Methods Forty Endo-Training Blocks (REF A 0177, Dentsply Maillefer were used. They were divided into 4 groups. For groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, the glide path was established with ISO #13 Path File (Dentsply Maillefer, #15 NiTi K-file NITIFLEX (Dentsply Maillefer, modified #16 Path File (equivalent to #18, and #20 NiTi K-file NITIFLEX, respectively. The screw-in force and resultant torque were measured using a custom-made experimental apparatus while canals were instrumented with ProTaper S1 (Dentsply Maillefer at a constant speed of 300 rpm with an automated pecking motion. A statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the Duncan post hoc comparison test. Results Group 4 showed lowest screw-in effect (2.796 ± 0.134 among the groups (p < 0.05. Torque was inversely proportional to the glide path of each group. In #20 glide path group, the screw-in effect and torque decreased at the last 1 mm from the apical terminus. However, in the other groups, the decrease of the screw-in effect and torque did not occur in the last 1 mm from the apical terminus. Conclusions The establishment of a larger glide path before NiTi rotary instrumentation appears to be appropriate for safely shaping the canal. It is recommended to establish #20 glide path with NiTi file when using ProTaper NiTi rotary instruments system safely.

  20. Effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of dental nickel-titanium files in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.-F. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, M.-C. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, M.-L. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, U.-M. [Dental Department, Cardinal Tien Hospital, Hsintien, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.-P. [Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, W.-F.; Ai, C.-F. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-K. [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-H. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw

    2009-05-05

    This study investigated the effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of commercial dental alloy, in the form of helical nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files, when treated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. The surface of dental helical Ni-Ti files was modified using nitriding treatment at 200 deg. C, 250 deg. C and 300 deg. C in an NH{sub 3}-containing environment. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the Ni-Ti files were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti files when treated with a clinical solution of 5.25% NaOCl was evaluated using the linear polarization method and by potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement. The nitriding treatments at different temperatures created titanium nitride (TiN) on the surface of the helical Ni-Ti files. The Ni-Ti files nitrided at 200 deg. C and 250 deg. C showed higher polarization resistance and higher passive film breakdown potential together with a lower passive current than untreated files. The presence of TiN on dental Ni-Ti files significantly increased the corrosion resistance of the files in the presence of 5.25% NaOCl solution.

  1. Effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of dental nickel-titanium files in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.-F.; Lin, M.-C.; Hsu, M.-L.; Li, U.-M.; Lin, C.-P.; Tsai, W.-F.; Ai, C.-F.; Chen, L.-K.; Huang, H.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of commercial dental alloy, in the form of helical nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files, when treated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. The surface of dental helical Ni-Ti files was modified using nitriding treatment at 200 deg. C, 250 deg. C and 300 deg. C in an NH 3 -containing environment. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the Ni-Ti files were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti files when treated with a clinical solution of 5.25% NaOCl was evaluated using the linear polarization method and by potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement. The nitriding treatments at different temperatures created titanium nitride (TiN) on the surface of the helical Ni-Ti files. The Ni-Ti files nitrided at 200 deg. C and 250 deg. C showed higher polarization resistance and higher passive film breakdown potential together with a lower passive current than untreated files. The presence of TiN on dental Ni-Ti files significantly increased the corrosion resistance of the files in the presence of 5.25% NaOCl solution.

  2. Temperature-modulated DSC provides new insight about nickel-titanium wire transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Grentzer, Thomas H

    2003-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a well-known method for investigating phase transformations in nickel-titanium orthodontic wires; the microstructural phases and phase transformations in these wires have central importance for their clinical performance. The purpose of this study was to use the more recently developed technique of temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC) to gain insight into transformations in 3 nickel-titanium orthodontic wires: Neo Sentalloy (GAC International, Islandia, NY), 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) and Nitinol SE (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In the oral environment, the first 2 superelastic wires have shape memory, and the third wire has superelastic behavior but not shape memory. All wires had cross-section dimensions of 0.016 x 0.022 in. Archwires in the as-received condition and after bending 135 degrees were cut into 5 or 6 segments for test specimens. TMDSC analyses (Model 2910 DSC, TA Instruments, Wilmington, Del) were conducted between -125 degrees C and 100 degrees C, using a linear heating and cooling rate of 2 degrees C per min, an oscillation amplitude of 0.318 degrees C with a period of 60 seconds, and helium as the purge gas. For all 3 wire alloys, strong low-temperature martensitic transformations, resolved on the nonreversing heat-flow curves, were not present on the reversing heat-flow curves, and bending appeared to increase the enthalpy change for these peaks in some cases. For Neo Sentalloy, TMDSC showed that transformation between martensitic and austenitic nickel-titanium, suggested as occurring directly in the forward and reverse directions by conventional DSC, was instead a 2-step process involving the R-phase. Two-step transformations in the forward and reverse directions were also found for 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti and Nitinol SE. The TMDSC results show that structural transformations in these wires are complex. Some possible clinical implications of these observations are discussed.

  3. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  4. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcelo Faria da; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maia; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in) and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in) from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40), while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40). Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p wire. Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions.

  5. A comparison of space closure rates between preactivated nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum alloy T-loops: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Feng-Yi; Quick, Andrew N; Swain, Michael V; Herbison, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the rate of space closure and tooth angulation during maxillary canine retraction using preactivated T-loops made from titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA) and nickel-titanium (NiTi). Twelve patients (six males and six females) aged between 13 and 20 years who had upper premolar extractions were included, and each acted as their own control, with a NiTi T-loop allocated to one quadrant and TMA to the other using a split mouth block randomization design. The loops were activated 3 mm at each visit to deliver a load of approximately 150 g to the upper canine teeth. Maxillary dental casts, taken at the first and each subsequent monthly visit, were used to evaluate changes in extraction space and canine angulation. All used T-loops were compared with unused loops in order to assess distortion. Mixed model statistical analysis was used to adjust for confounding variables. The mean rate of canine retraction using preactivated NiTi and TMA T-loops was 0.91 mm/month (±0.46) and 0.87 mm/month (±0.34), respectively. The canine tipping rates were 0.71 degrees/month (±2.34) for NiTi and 1.15 degrees/month (±2.86) for TMA. Both the rate of space closure and the tipping were not significantly different between the two wire types. The average percentage distortion of the TMA T-loop was 10 times greater than that of the NiTi loops when all other variables were matched. There was no difference in the rate of space closure or tooth angulation between preactivated TMA or NiTi T-loops when used to retract upper canines. The NiTi loops possessed a greater ability to retain and return to their original shapes following cyclical activation.

  6. Sonocatalytic injury of cancer cells attached on the surface of a nickel-titanium dioxide alloy plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Maruyama, Hirotaka; Ogino, Chiaki; Takahashi, Kenji; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates ultrasound-induced cell injury using a nickel-titanium dioxide (Ni-TiO2) alloy plate as a sonocatalyst and a cell culture surface. Ultrasound irradiation of cell-free Ni-TiO2 alloy plates with 1 MHz ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm(2) for 30s led to an increased generation of hydroxyl (OH) radicals compared to nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) control alloy plates with and without ultrasound irradiation. When human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells) cultured on the Ni-TiO2 alloy plates were irradiated with 1 MHz ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm(2) for 30s and then incubated for 48 h, cell density on the alloy plate was reduced to approximately 50% of the controls on the Ni-Ti alloy plates with and without ultrasound irradiation. These results indicate the injury of MCF-7 cells following sonocatalytic OH radical generation by Ni-TiO2. Further experiments demonstrated cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation after ultrasound irradiation of MCF-7 cells attached on the Ni-TiO2 alloy plates, indicating induction of apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of electropolishing surface treatment on the cyclic fatigue resistance of BioRace nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Vieira, Victor T L; Moreira, Edson J L; Marques, Raquel V L; de Oliveira, Julio C Machado; Debelian, Gilberto; Siqueira, José F

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of electropolishing surface treatment on the number of cycles to fracture of BioRace rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. BioRace size BR5C instruments with or without electropolishing surface treatment were used in an artificial curved canal under rotational speed of 300 rpm until fracture. Fractured surfaces and the helical shafts of fractured instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Polished instruments displayed a significantly higher number of cycles to fracture when compared with nonpolished instruments (P ductile morphologic characteristics. Evaluation of the separated fragments after cyclic fatigue testing showed the presence of microcracks near the fracture surface. Polished instruments exhibited fine cracks that assumed an irregular path (zigzag crack pattern), whereas nonpolished instruments showed cracks running along the machining grooves. Electropolishing surface treatment of BioRace endodontic instruments significantly increased the cyclic fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CT evaluation of canal preparation using rotary and hand NI-TI instruments: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Shruthi; Sreenivasa Murthy, B V

    2010-01-01

    Controlled, uniformly tapered radicular preparation is a great challenge in endodontics. Improper preparation can lead to procedural errors like transportation of foramen, uneven dentine thickness, stripping of root canal, formation of ledge, zip, and elbow in curved canals. These procedural errors and their sequel can adversely affect the prognosis of treatment. The present in vitro study aims to evaluate canal preparation based on the following factors: canal transportation, remaining dentine thickness and comparing centering ability between hand Ni-Ti K files and ProTaper rotary Ni-Ti instruments using computed tomography (CT). For evaluation, 30 mesiobuccal roots of maxillary molars were selected. Of these, 15 roots were distributed into two groups where Group 1 included hand instrumentation with Ni-Ti K-files; and Group 2 comprised ProTaper NiTi rotary system. Pre instrumentation and post instrumentation three-dimensional CT images were obtained from root cross-sections that were 1 mm thick from apex to the canal orifice; scanned images were then superimposed and compared. It was observed that the manual technique using hand Ni-Ti K-file produced lesser canal transportation and maintained greater dentine thickness than the rotary ProTaper technique at middle and coronal third and this difference was statistically significant. No significant difference was seen with regard to canal transportation and remaining root dentine at apical levels. With regard to centering ratio, no significant difference was seen between both the groups at all levels. ProTaper should be used judiciously, especially in curved canals, as it causes higher canal transportation and thinning of root dentine at middle and coronal levels. None of the groups showed optimal centering ability.

  9. In vitro resistance to fracture of two nickel-titanium rotary instruments made with different thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Gabriele; Gaimari, Gianfranco; Seracchiani, Marco; Morese, Antonio; Khrenova, Tatyana; Di Nardo, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate effectiveness of different heat treatments in improving Ni-Ti endodontic rotary instruments' resistance to fracture. 24 new NiTi instruments similar in length and shape: 12 M3 instruments, tip size 25 and .06 taper (United Dental, Shanghai, China), and 12 M3 Pro Gold instruments tip size 25 and .06 taper (United Dental, Shanghai, China), were tested in a 60° curved artificial root canal. Each group received a different heat treatment. Cycles to fracture were calculated for each instrument. Differences among groups were evaluated with an analysis of variance test (significance level was set at Pinstruments were significantly more resistant to fatigue (mean values = 1012, SD +/- 77) than M3 instruments (mean values = 748, SD +/- 62). No statistically significant differences were found between fragments' lengths (p>0,05). An increased flexibility and the reduction of internal defects produced by heat treatments during or after manufacturing processes, may be responsible for improving resistance to cyclic fatigue and flexural stresses.

  10. Shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S A; Dummer, P M

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim nickel-titanium rotary instruments in simulated root canals. In all, 40 canals consisting of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by a combination of NT Engine and McXim instruments using the technique recommended by the manufacturer. Part 1 of this two-part report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of preparation time, instrument failure, canal blockages, loss of canal length and three-dimensional canal form. Overall, the mean preparation time for all canals was 6.01 min, with canal shape having a significant effect (P Engine and McXim instruments prepared canals rapidly, with few deformations, no canal blockages and with minimal change in working length. The three-dimensional form of the canals demonstrated good flow and taper characteristics.

  11. Comparative evaluation of surface changes in four Ni-Ti instruments with successive uses - An SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, N; Sikri, Vimal K

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the surface alterations seen in four kinds of Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for five successive uses in preparing root canals of extracted human molars and also to determine whether the design of the instrument influenced the appearance of defects on the instrument surface. Four different types of instruments namely; ProFile, ProTaper Rotary, ProTaper Hand and K3 Endo were used in 300 mesio-buccal canals. The instruments were examined under the SEM, after every use, to assess the progress of changes on their surfaces for a maximum of five uses. Chi-square test. The most prevalent defects observed were pitting, followed by metal strips. Signs of discontinuity, microfractures and disruption of cutting edge were also evident. Number of defects increased with successive uses. ProTaper Hand showed significantly more microfractures and metal strips than other instruments from third use onwards. ProTaper Rotary and K3 Endo also showed significant changes.

  12. Efficacy of NiTi rotary instruments in removing calcium hydroxide dressing residues from root canal walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Carlos Kuga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three rotary instrument systems (K3, ProTaper and Twisted File in removing calcium hydroxide residues from root canal walls. Thirty-four human mandibular incisors were instrumented with the ProTaper System up to the F2 instrument, irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl followed by 17% EDTA, and filled with a calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing. After 7 days, the calcium hydroxide dressing was removed using the following rotary instruments: G1 - NiTi size 25, 0.06 taper, of the K3 System; G2 - NiTi F2, of the ProTaper System; or G3 - NiTi size 25, 0.06 taper, of the Twisted File System. The teeth were longitudinally grooved on the buccal and lingual root surfaces, split along their long axis, and their apical and cervical canal thirds were evaluated by SEM (×1000. The images were scored and the data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskall Wallis test. None of the instruments removed the calcium hydroxide dressing completely, either in the apical or cervical thirds, and no significant differences were observed among the rotary instruments tested (p > 0.05.

  13. Vibration Sensor Monitoring of Nickel-Titanium Alloy Turning for Machinability Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Segreto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti alloys are very difficult-to-machine materials causing notable manufacturing problems due to their unique mechanical properties, including superelasticity, high ductility, and severe strain-hardening. In this framework, the aim of this paper is to assess the machinability of Ni-Ti alloys with reference to turning processes in order to realize a reliable and robust in-process identification of machinability conditions. An on-line sensor monitoring procedure based on the acquisition of vibration signals was implemented during the experimental turning tests. The detected vibration sensorial data were processed through an advanced signal processing method in time-frequency domain based on wavelet packet transform (WPT. The extracted sensorial features were used to construct WPT pattern feature vectors to send as input to suitably configured neural networks (NNs for cognitive pattern recognition in order to evaluate the correlation between input sensorial information and output machinability conditions.

  14. Vibration Sensor Monitoring of Nickel-Titanium Alloy Turning for Machinability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segreto, Tiziana; Caggiano, Alessandra; Karam, Sara; Teti, Roberto

    2017-12-12

    Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys are very difficult-to-machine materials causing notable manufacturing problems due to their unique mechanical properties, including superelasticity, high ductility, and severe strain-hardening. In this framework, the aim of this paper is to assess the machinability of Ni-Ti alloys with reference to turning processes in order to realize a reliable and robust in-process identification of machinability conditions. An on-line sensor monitoring procedure based on the acquisition of vibration signals was implemented during the experimental turning tests. The detected vibration sensorial data were processed through an advanced signal processing method in time-frequency domain based on wavelet packet transform (WPT). The extracted sensorial features were used to construct WPT pattern feature vectors to send as input to suitably configured neural networks (NNs) for cognitive pattern recognition in order to evaluate the correlation between input sensorial information and output machinability conditions.

  15. CT evaluation of canal preparation using rotary and hand NI-TI instruments: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Shruthi; Sreenivasa Murthy, B V

    2010-01-01

    Background: Controlled, uniformly tapered radicular preparation is a great challenge in endodontics. Improper preparation can lead to procedural errors like transportation of foramen, uneven dentine thickness, stripping of root canal, formation of ledge, zip, and elbow in curved canals. These procedural errors and their sequel can adversely affect the prognosis of treatment. Aim/Objectives: The present in vitro study aims to evaluate canal preparation based on the following factors: canal transportation, remaining dentine thickness and comparing centering ability between hand Ni-Ti K files and ProTaper rotary Ni-Ti instruments using computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: For evaluation, 30 mesiobuccal roots of maxillary molars were selected. Of these, 15 roots were distributed into two groups where Group 1 included hand instrumentation with Ni-Ti K-files; and Group 2 comprised ProTaper NiTi rotary system. Pre instrumentation and post instrumentation three-dimensional CT images were obtained from root cross-sections that were 1 mm thick from apex to the canal orifice; scanned images were then superimposed and compared. Result: It was observed that the manual technique using hand Ni-Ti K-file produced lesser canal transportation and maintained greater dentine thickness than the rotary ProTaper technique at middle and coronal third and this difference was statistically significant. No significant difference was seen with regard to canal transportation and remaining root dentine at apical levels. With regard to centering ratio, no significant difference was seen between both the groups at all levels. Conclusion: ProTaper should be used judiciously, especially in curved canals, as it causes higher canal transportation and thinning of root dentine at middle and coronal levels. None of the groups showed optimal centering ability. PMID:20582214

  16. Effects of intraoral aging on surface properties of coated nickel-titanium archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Roberto; Ametrano, Gianluca; Gloria, Antonio; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Galeotti, Angela; Paduano, Sergio; Valletta, Rosa; D'Antò, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of intraoral aging on surface properties of esthetic and conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires. Five NiTi wires were considered for this study (Sentalloy, Sentalloy High Aesthetic, Superelastic Titanium Memory Wire, Esthetic Superelastic Titanium Memory Wire, and EverWhite). For each type of wire, four samples were analyzed as received and after 1 month of clinical use by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). To evaluate sliding resistance, two stainless steel plates with three metallic or three monocrystalline brackets, bonded in passive configuration, were manufactured; four as-received and retrieved samples for every wire were pulled five times at 5 mm/min for 1 minute by means of an Instron 5566, recording the greatest friction value (N). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and by Student's t-test. After clinical use, surface roughness increased considerably. The SEM images showed homogeneity for the as-received control wires; however, after clinical use esthetic wires exhibited a heterogeneous surface with craters and bumps. The lowest levels of friction were observed with the as-received Superelastic Titanium Memory Wire on metallic brackets. When tested on ceramic brackets, all the wires exhibited an increase in friction (t-test; P Sentalloy, showed a statistically significant increase in friction between the as-received and retrieved groups (t-test; P < .05). Clinical use of the orthodontic wires increases their surface roughness and the level of friction.

  17. Mechanical and geometric features of endodontic instruments and its clinical effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Cheol Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this paper is to discuss the mechanical and geometric features of Nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary files and its clinical effects. NiTi rotary files have been introduced to the markets with their own geometries and claims that they have better ability for the root canal shaping than their competitors. The contents of this paper include the (possible interrelationship between the geometries of NiTi file (eg. tip, taper, helical angle, etc and clinical performance of the files as follows; - Fracture modes of NiTi rotary files - Non-cutting guiding tip and glide path - Taper and clinical effects - Cross-sectional area and clinical effects - Heat treatments and surface characteristics - Screw-in effect and preservation of root dentin integrity - Designs for reducing screw-in effect Conclusions Based on the reviewed contents, clinicians may have an advice to use various brands of NiTi rotary instruments regarding their advantages which would fit for clinical situation.

  18. Deposition of Chitosan Layers on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The NiTi shape memory alloys have been known from their application in medicine for implants as well as parts of medical devices. However, nickel belongs to the family of elements, which are toxic. Apart from the fact that nickel ions are bonded with titanium into intermetallic phase, their presence may cause allergy. In order to protect human body against release of nickel ions a surface of NiTi alloy can be modified with use of titanium nitrides, oxides or diamond-like layers. On the one hand the layers can play protective role but on the other hand they may influence shape memory behavior. Too stiff or too brittle layer can lead to limiting or completely blocking of the shape recovery. It was the reason to find more elastic covers for NiTi surface protection. This feature is characteristic for polymers, especially, biocompatible ones, which originate in nature. In the reported paper, the chitosan was applied as a deposited layer on surface of the NiTi shape memory alloy. Due to the fact that nature of shape memory effect is sensitive to thermo and/or mechanical treatments, the chitosan layer was deposited with use of electrophoresis carried out at room temperature. Various deposition parameters were checked and optimized. In result of that thin chitosan layer (0.45µm was received on the NiTi alloy surface. The obtained layers were characterized by means of chemical and phase composition, as well as surface quality. It was found that smooth, elastic surface without cracks and/or inclusions can be produced applying 10V and relatively short deposition time - 30 seconds.

  19. Comparative Study of Three Rotary Instruments for root canal Preparation using Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaning and shaping the root canal is a key to success in root canal treatment. This includes the removal of organic substrate from the root canal system by chemo mechanical methods, and the shaping of the root canal system into a continuously tapered preparation. This should be done while maintaining the original path of the root canal. Although instruments for root canal preparation have been progressively developed and optimized, a complete mechanical debridement of the root canal system is rarely achievable. One of the main reasons is the geometrical dis symmetry between the root canal and preparation instruments. Rotary instruments regardless of their type and form produce a preparation with a round outline if they are used in a simple linear filing motion, which in most of the cases do not coincide with the outline of the root canal. Root canal preparation in narrow, curved canals is a challenge even for experienced endodontists. Shaping of curved canals became more effective after the introduction of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) endodontic instruments. Despite the advantages of Ni-Ti rotary instruments, intra canal fracture is the most common procedural accident that occurs with these instruments during clinical use. It is a common experience between clinicians that Ni-Ti rotary instruments may undergo unexpected fracture without any visible warning, such as any previous permanent defect or deformation. Pro Taper Ni-Ti instruments were introduced with a unique design of variable taper within one instrument and continuously changing helical angles. Pro Taper rotary instruments are claimed to generate lower torque values during their use because of their modified nonradial landed cross-section that increases the cutting efficiency and reduces contact areas. On the other hand, the variable taper within one instrument is believed to reduce the ‘taper lock’ effect (torsional failure) in comparison with similarly tapered instruments. Nevertheless, Pro Taper

  20. Satisfaction of undergraduate students at University of Jordan after root canal treatment of posterior teeth using rotary or hand preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Tahun, Ibrahim; El-Ma'aita, Ahmad; Khraisat, Ameen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to report the satisfaction of fifth year undergraduate students on the clinical use of rotary endodontic preparation compared with stainless steel standard technique and to evaluate the impact of rotary nickel-titanium instruments on undergraduate teaching. This study was carried out by the fifth year undergraduate students attending peer review sessions as a part of their training program using a questionnaire to assess their satisfaction with these two techniques. The overall results indicated a statistically significant satisfaction of the undergraduate students with the use of the nickel-titanium system (P ProTaper rotary files and the need for undergraduate teaching of rotary nickel-titanium systems in Jordan. © 2015 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  1. Comparison of the cyclic fatigue resistance of 5 different rotary pathfinding instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium wire, M-wire, and controlled memory wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capar, Ismail Davut; Kaval, Mehmet Emin; Ertas, Hüseyin; Sen, Bilge Hakan

    2015-04-01

    This study compared the cyclic fatigue resistance of current nickel-titanium rotary path-finding instruments. Five types of nickel-titanium rotary pathfinding instruments were used in steel canals with a 90° curvature and a curvature radius of 3 mm (n = 10) and 5 mm (n = 10). The cyclic fatigue of the following instruments was tested at 4 mm from the tip: PathFile (#16 and a .02 taper; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), G-File (#12 and a .03 taper; Micro-Mega, Besançon Cedex, France), Scout Race (#15 and a .02 taper; FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), HyFlex GPF (#15 and a .02 taper; Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland), and ProGlider (#16 with a mean taper of .04125 and a .02 at the first 4 mm from the tip, Dentsply Maillefer). The length of the fractured parts was measured, and the number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α = .05). After Bonferroni correction, the new P value was set as .005. The difference in the cyclic fatigue of all the files at both curvatures was statistically significant (P values from .0035 to less than .0001). The ranking of the instruments from the highest to the lowest NCF was as follows: HyFlex GPF, G files, ProGlider, PathFile, and Scout Race. The length of the fractured part of the instruments was similar in all the groups (P > .05). All the tested instruments had a lower NCF at a curvature radius of 3 mm when compared with a curvature radius of 5 mm (P instrument was the highest, and the curvature radius had a significant effect on the fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal instrumentation using two Ni-Ti single file rotary systems: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singbal, Kiran; Jain, Disha; Raja, Kranthi; Hoe, Tan Ming

    2017-01-01

    Apical extrusion of debris during instrumentation is detrimental to the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris during root canal instrumentation using two single file rotary Ni-Ti systems. Thirty freshly extracted mandibular premolars with straight roots were sterilized and divided into two groups instrumented using: One Shape rotary Ni-Ti system with Endoflare orifice shaper (Group 1) and Neo-Niti rotary Ni-Ti system with C1 orifice shaper (Group 2). Preweighed Eppendorf tubes fitted for each tooth before instrumentation. During instrumentation, 1 mL of distilled water with a 30-gauge needle was used to irrigate after every instrument. Tips of the tooth were irrigated with 2 ml distilled water after removal from Eppendorf tubes. The total volume of irrigant in each group was the same 8 ml. All tubes were incubated at 68°C for 15 days and subsequently weighed. The difference between pre- and post-debris weights was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using independent t -test and level of significance was set at 0.05. The difference between pre- and post-weights was significantly greater for the One Shape system. The Neolix Niti single file was associated with less extrusion compared to One Shape single file system.

  3. Laboratory comparison of the mechanical properties of TRUShape with several nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, A M; Elsaka, S E

    2017-08-01

    To assess and compare the mechanical properties of TRUShape (TRS) with several nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Cyclic fatigue, torsional resistance, flexibility and surface microhardness of TRS (size 25, 0.06v taper), ProTaper Next X2 (PTN X2, size 25, 0.06 taper), ProTaper Gold (PTG F2; size 25, 0.08 taper) and ProTaper Universal (PTU F2; size 25, 0.08 taper) instruments were evaluated. The topographical structures of the fracture surfaces of instruments were assessed using a scanning electron microscope. The cyclic fatigue resistance, torsional resistance and microhardness data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests. The fragment length and bending resistance data were analysed statistically with the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The statistical significance level was set at P instruments revealed significantly higher resistance to cyclic fatigue than TRS and PTU instruments (P instruments revealed significantly higher torsional resistance compared with the other instruments (P instrument had significantly higher flexibility than the other tested brands (P instruments had lower resistance to cyclic fatigue and lower flexibility compared with PTG and PTN instruments. TRS, PTG and PTU instruments had lower resistance to torsional stress than PTN instruments. TRS and PTG instruments had comparable surface microhardness. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Deformation and fracture of K3 rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments after clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S M; Deng, M; Wang, P P; Chen, X M; Zheng, L W; Li, H L

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the incidence and type of defects that occurred with K3 rotary nickel-titanium instruments during routine clinical use. A total of 2397 K3 (G-PACKS, SybronEndo, West Collins, Orange, CA, USA) instruments were collected from a graduate endodontic clinic over 21 months. All the instruments were limited to a maximum use of 30 canal preparations. The collected instruments were measured by a digital caliper to determine whether any fractures had occurred and then were visually inspected for deformation and fracture under a stereomicroscope. The surfaces of fractured instruments were further evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. Data were analysed using chi-square test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The incidence of instrument defect was 5.63%, consisting of 3.59% fractures and 2.05% deformations. The defect rates of 0.04 and 0.06 files were statistically higher than the other taper groups (P  0.05). For the fractured instruments, 63.95% failed from flexural fatigue, whilst 36.05% failed from torsion. Flexural fracture was the major mode of fracture for instruments with larger taper. A routine check for instrument integrity particularly for 0.04 and 0.06 files at high magnification is recommended after each clinical use. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the influence of manual and mechanical glide path on the surface of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in moderately curved root canals: An in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dishant; Bashetty, Kusum; Srirekha, A.; Archana, S.; Savitha, B.; Vijay, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of manual versus mechanical glide path (GP) on the surface changes of two different nickel-titanium rotary instruments used during root canal therapy in a moderately curved root canal. Materials and Methods: Sixty systemically healthy controls were selected for the study. Controls were divided randomly into four groups: Group 1: Manual GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 2: Manual GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments, Group 3: Mechanical GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 4: Mechanical GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments. After access opening, GP was prepared and rotary instruments were used according to manufacturer's instructions. All instruments were evaluated for defects under standard error mean before their use and after a single use. The scorings for the files were given at apical and middle third. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test was used. Results: The results showed that there is no statistical difference between any of the groups. Irrespective of the GP and rotary files used, more defects were present in the apical third when compared to middle third of the rotary instrument. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that there was no effect of manual or mechanical GP on surface defects of subsequent rotary file system used. PMID:27994317

  6. Fluoride influences nickel-titanium orthodontic wires′ surface texture and friction resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Aly Abbassy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the acidulated fluoride gel on stainless steel and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: Sixty stainless steel and Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires were distributed into forty archwires used for in vitro study and twenty for in situ study. Fluoride was applied for 1 h in the in vitro experiment while it was applied for 5 min in the in situ experiment. The friction resistance of all wires with ceramic brackets before/after topical fluoride application was measured using a universal testing machine at 1 min intervals of moving wire. Moreover, surface properties of the tested wires before/after fluoride application and before/after friction test were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Dunnett′s t-test was used to compare frictional resistance of as-received stainless steel wires and Ni-Ti wires to the wires treated by fluoride in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effect of fluoride application and type of wire on friction resistance in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05. Results: Ni-Ti wires recorded significantly high friction resistance after fluoride application when compared to stainless steel wires in vitro, P < 0.05. Fluoride application did not significantly affect the friction resistance of the tested wires in situ, P < 0.05. SEM observation revealed deterioration of the surface texture of the Ni-Ti wires after fluoride application in vitro and in situ. Conclusions: The in vitro fluoride application caused an increase in friction resistance of Ni-Ti wires when compared to stainless steel wires. In vitro and in situ fluoride application caused deterioration in surface properties of Ni-Ti wires.

  7. Mechanodynamical analysis of nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application; Analise mecanodinamica de ligas de niquel-titanio para aplicacao ortodontica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Carlos do Canto

    2002-07-01

    Nickel-titanium alloys may coexist in more than one crystalline structure. There is a high temperature phase, austenite, and a low temperature phase, martensite. The metallurgical basis for the superelasticity and the shape memory effect relies in the ability of these alloys to transform easily from one phase to another. There are three essential factors for the orthodontist to understand nickel-titanium alloys behaviour: stress; deflection; and temperature. These three factors are related to each other by the stress-deflection, stress-temperature and deflection-temperature diagrams. This work was undertaken with the objective to analyse commercial nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application, using the dynamical mechanical analyser - DMA. Four NiTi 0,017 X 0,025'' archwires were studied. The archwires were Copper NiTi 35 deg C (Ormco), Neo Sentalloy F200 (GAC), Nitinol Superelastic (Unitek) and NiTi (GAC). The different mechanodynamical properties such as elasticity and damping moduli were evaluated. Each commercial material was evaluated with and without a 1 N static force, aiming to evaluate phase transition temperature variation with stress. The austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, for the experiments without static force, was in the range of 1.59 to 1.85. For the 1 N static force tests the austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, ranged from 1.28 to 1.57 due to the higher martensite elasticity modulus. With elastic modulus variation with temperature behaviour, the orthodontist has the knowledge of the force variation applied in the tooth in relation to the oral cavity temperature change, for nickel-titanium alloys that undergo phase transformation. The damping capacity of the studied alloys depends on the materials state: martensitic phase; austenitic phase or during phase transformation. The martensitic phase shows higher dumping capacity. During phase transformation, an internal friction peak may be observed for the CuNiTi 35 deg C and Neo

  8. Mechanodynamical analysis of nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application; Analise mecanodinamica de ligas de niquel-titanio para aplicacao ortodontica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Carlos do Canto

    2002-07-01

    Nickel-titanium alloys may coexist in more than one crystalline structure. There is a high temperature phase, austenite, and a low temperature phase, martensite. The metallurgical basis for the superelasticity and the shape memory effect relies in the ability of these alloys to transform easily from one phase to another. There are three essential factors for the orthodontist to understand nickel-titanium alloys behaviour: stress; deflection; and temperature. These three factors are related to each other by the stress-deflection, stress-temperature and deflection-temperature diagrams. This work was undertaken with the objective to analyse commercial nickel-titanium alloys for orthodontics application, using the dynamical mechanical analyser - DMA. Four NiTi 0,017 X 0,025'' archwires were studied. The archwires were Copper NiTi 35 deg C (Ormco), Neo Sentalloy F200 (GAC), Nitinol Superelastic (Unitek) and NiTi (GAC). The different mechanodynamical properties such as elasticity and damping moduli were evaluated. Each commercial material was evaluated with and without a 1 N static force, aiming to evaluate phase transition temperature variation with stress. The austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, for the experiments without static force, was in the range of 1.59 to 1.85. For the 1 N static force tests the austenitic to martensitic phase ratio, ranged from 1.28 to 1.57 due to the higher martensite elasticity modulus. With elastic modulus variation with temperature behaviour, the orthodontist has the knowledge of the force variation applied in the tooth in relation to the oral cavity temperature change, for nickel-titanium alloys that undergo phase transformation. The damping capacity of the studied alloys depends on the materials state: martensitic phase; austenitic phase or during phase transformation. The martensitic phase shows higher dumping capacity. During phase transformation, an internal friction peak may be observed for the CuNiTi 35 deg C and Neo Sentalloy F

  9. The effect of multiple autoclave cycles on the surface of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic files: An in vitro atomic force microscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ashish Shashikant; Tilakchand, Mahima; Naik, Balaram Damodar

    2015-01-01

    To observe and study the effect of multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, on the surface of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files. The file used for this study was the Mtwo file (VDW) and ProTaper (Dentsply). The apical 5 mm of the files were attached to a silicon wafer and subjected to autoclave cycles under standardized conditions. They were scanned with an AFM after 1, 5, and 10 cycles. The unsterilized files were used as control, before start of the study. Three vertical topographic parameters namely maximum height (MH), root mean square (RMS) of surface roughness, and arithmetic mean roughness (AMR)were measured with the atomic force microscope (AFM). Analysis of variance along with Tukey's test was used to test the differences. The vertical topographic parameters were higher for both the files, right after the first cycle, when compared with the control (P autoclave cycles, a fact that should be kept in mind during their reuse.

  10. In-vitro Assessing the Shaping Ability of Three Nickel-Titanium Rotary Single File Systems by Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imad Al-Asadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the canal transportation and centering ability of three nickel-titanium single file rotary systems by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and methods: Thirty permanent maxillary first molar with a range of mesiobuccal canals curvature from 20-30 degree were selected and assigned into three groups (n=10, according to the biomechanical preparation system used: Hyflex EDM (HF, Reciproc blue (RB and OneShape (OS. The sampled were scanned by CBCT after being mounted on customized acrylic base and then rescanned after the instrumentation. Slices from the axial section were taken from both exposures at 3 mm, 6 mm and 9 mm from the root apex corresponding to the apical, middle, and coronal third respectively. Data were statistically analyzed using Kurskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at the 5% confidence level. Results: The results showed that there were no significant differences at the apical and coronal third and a significant difference at the middle third regarding canal transportation. However, there was a significant difference at the apical third and no significant difference at the middle and coronal third regarding centering ratio. Conclusion: It was concluded that the three single rotary systems reported a degree in canal transportation and centric ratio but the Hyflex EDM reported the least one.

  11. Release of metal ions from round and rectangular NiTi wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of nickel and titanium ions released from two wires with different shapes and a similar surface area. Methods Forty round nickel-titanium (NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.020 in. and 40 rectangular NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.016 × 0.016 in. were immersed in artificial saliva during a 21-day period. The surface area of both wires was 0.44 in.2. Wires were separately dipped into polypropylene tubes containing 50 ml of buffer solution and were incubated and maintained at 37 °C. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES was used to measure the amount of ions released after exposure lengths of 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 3 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey tests were used to evaluate the data. Results The results indicated that the amount of nickel and titanium concentrations was significantly higher in the rectangular wire group. The most significant release of all metals was measured after the first hour of immersion. In the rectangular wire group, 243 ± 4.2 ng/ml of nickel was released after 1 h, while 221.4 ± 1.7 ng/ml of nickel was released in the round wire group. Similarly, 243.3 ± 2.8 ng/ml of titanium was released in the rectangular wire group and a significantly lower amount of 211.9 ± 2.3 ng/ml of titanium was released in the round wire group. Conclusions Release of metal ions was influenced by the shape of the wire and increase of time.

  12. Fatigue Assessment of Nickel-Titanium Peripheral Stents: Comparison of Multi-Axial Fatigue Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, Dario; Berti, Francesca; Migliavacca, Francesco; Pennati, Giancarlo; Petrini, Lorenza

    2018-02-01

    Peripheral Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) stents exploit super-elasticity to treat femoropopliteal artery atherosclerosis. The stent is subject to cyclic loads, which may lead to fatigue fracture and treatment failure. The complexity of the loading conditions and device geometry, coupled with the nonlinear material behavior, may induce multi-axial and non-proportional deformation. Finite element analysis can assess the fatigue risk, by comparing the device state of stress with the material fatigue limit. The most suitable fatigue model is not fully understood for NiTi devices, due to its complex thermo-mechanical behavior. This paper assesses the fatigue behavior of NiTi stents through computational models and experimental validation. Four different strain-based models are considered: the von Mises criterion and three critical plane models (Fatemi-Socie, Brown-Miller, and Smith-Watson-Topper models). Two stents, made of the same material with different cell geometries are manufactured, and their fatigue behavior is experimentally characterized. The comparison between experimental and numerical results highlights an overestimation of the failure risk by the von Mises criterion. On the contrary, the selected critical plane models, even if based on different damage mechanisms, give a better fatigue life estimation. Further investigations on crack propagation mechanisms of NiTi stents are required to properly select the most reliable fatigue model.

  13. The influence of distal-end heat treatment on deflection of nickel-titanium archwire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Faria da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the deflection-force behavior of nickel-titanium (NiTi orthodontic wires adjacent to the portion submitted to heat treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 106 segments of NiTi wires (0.019 x 0.025-in and heat-activated NiTi wires (0.016 x 0.022-in from four commercial brands were tested. The segments were obtained from 80 archwires. For the experimental group, the distal portion of each segmented archwire was subjected to heat treatment (n = 40, while the other distal portion of the same archwire was used as a heating-free control group (n = 40. Deflection tests were performed in a temperature-controlled universal testing machine. Unpaired Student's t-tests were applied to determine if there were differences between the experimental and control groups for each commercial brand and size of wire. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the tested groups with the same size and brand of wire. Conclusions: Heat treatment applied to the distal ends of rectangular NiTi archwires does not permanently change the elastic properties of the adjacent portions.

  14. Fatigue Assessment of Nickel-Titanium Peripheral Stents: Comparison of Multi-Axial Fatigue Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, Dario; Berti, Francesca; Migliavacca, Francesco; Pennati, Giancarlo; Petrini, Lorenza

    2018-03-01

    Peripheral Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) stents exploit super-elasticity to treat femoropopliteal artery atherosclerosis. The stent is subject to cyclic loads, which may lead to fatigue fracture and treatment failure. The complexity of the loading conditions and device geometry, coupled with the nonlinear material behavior, may induce multi-axial and non-proportional deformation. Finite element analysis can assess the fatigue risk, by comparing the device state of stress with the material fatigue limit. The most suitable fatigue model is not fully understood for NiTi devices, due to its complex thermo-mechanical behavior. This paper assesses the fatigue behavior of NiTi stents through computational models and experimental validation. Four different strain-based models are considered: the von Mises criterion and three critical plane models (Fatemi-Socie, Brown-Miller, and Smith-Watson-Topper models). Two stents, made of the same material with different cell geometries are manufactured, and their fatigue behavior is experimentally characterized. The comparison between experimental and numerical results highlights an overestimation of the failure risk by the von Mises criterion. On the contrary, the selected critical plane models, even if based on different damage mechanisms, give a better fatigue life estimation. Further investigations on crack propagation mechanisms of NiTi stents are required to properly select the most reliable fatigue model.

  15. Influence of temperature of the short-period heat treatment on mechanical properties of the NiTi alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Čapek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The equiatomic alloy of nickel and titanium, known as nitinol, possesses unique properties such as superelasticity, pseudoplasticity, shape memory, while maintaining good corrosion resistance and sufficient biocompatibility. Therefore it is used for production of various devices including surgery implants. Heat treatment of nickel-rich NiTi alloys can result in precipitation of nickel-rich phases, which strongly influence tensile and fatigue behaviour of the material.In this work we have studied influence of short-period heat treatment on tensile behaviour and fatigue life of the NiTi (50.9 at. % Ni wire intended for fabrication of surgery stents.

  16. Spiral computed tomography assessment of the efficacy of different rotary versus hand retreatment system

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Mittal; Jyoti Jain

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nickel-titanium rotary retreatment systems versus stainless steel hand retreatment system with or without solvent for gutta-percha removal during retreatment. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human mandibular molar teeth with single canal in a distal root was prepared with ProTaper rotary nickel-titanium files and obturated with gutta-percha and sealer. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups of 10 specimens in ...

  17. Length-dependent corrosion behavior, Ni2+ release, cytocompatibility, and antibacterial ability of Ni-Ti-O nanopores anodically grown on biomedical NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yanlian; Bai, Long; Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Jia, Husheng; Tang, Bin

    2018-08-01

    In the present work, nickel-titanium-oxygen nanopores with different length (0.55-114 μm) were anodically grown on nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy. Length-dependent corrosion behavior, nickel ion (Ni 2+ ) release, cytocompatibility, and antibacterial ability were investigated by electrochemical, analytical chemistry, and biological methods. The results show constructing nanoporous structure on the NiTi alloy improve its corrosion resistance. However, the anodized samples release more Ni 2+ than that of the bare NiTi alloy, suggesting chemical dissolution of the nanopores rather than electrochemical corrosion governs the Ni 2+ release. In addition, the Ni 2+ release amount increases with nanopore length. The anodized samples show good cytocompatibility when the nanopore length is covers the one (1-11 μm) that the nanopores showing favorable antibacterial ability. Consequently, the nanopores with length in the range of 1-11 μm are promising as coatings of biomedical NiTi alloy for anti-infection, drug delivery, and other desirable applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the root canal shaping ability of two rotary nickel-titanium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Manei, K K; Al-Hadlaq, S M S

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the canal shaping abilities of the twisted file (TF) and GT series X file (GTX) systems. Sixty mesial root canals of mandibular molars with curvatures of 15-50° were divided randomly into two groups of 30 canals each. The teeth were sectioned horizontally at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex. Root canals were prepared with TF and GTX files, respectively, and the shaping abilities of the systems were evaluated at three levels (coronal, middle and apical) based on the comparison of pre- and post-instrumentation photographs using AutoCAD software. Preparation time was also assessed. Data from the two groups were compared statistically using the Student's t-test. There was no significant difference between the rotary systems in terms of change in root canal cross-sectional area, root canal transportation, centring ability or minimum dentine thickness. Remaining dentine thickness at the coronal and middle levels was similar in the TF and GTX groups, but GTX instruments left significantly less dentine than TF instruments on the mesial aspects of root canals at the apical level. Root canal preparation with TF instruments required significantly less time than with GTX instruments. The TF and GTX NiTi rotary instruments showed similar shaping abilities, but root canal preparation was more rapid with the TF than with the GTX system. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The impact of a continuing education programme on the adoption of nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation and root-filling quality amongst a group of Swedish general dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, L; Molander, A; Reit, C

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that a further education programme relating to nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (NTRI), with the concurrent activation of social/professional networks amongst all general dental practitioners (GDPs) in a public dental service in Sweden, would increase the adoption rate and improve root-filling quality. To activate the networks, the GDPs at the 25 clinics elected training coaches from amongst themselves. The coaches were educated by a specialist and were then free to organise and conduct the training of the local GDPs. However, collective hands-on training and discussions were mandatory. Lectures were held by an endodontist. The rate of adoption and root-filling quality was evaluated just before and 6 months after the education. Statistical tests were performed with chi-square using a 95% confidence interval. Nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation was adopted by 88%. Excellent root fillings (score 1) increased from 45% to 59% (P = 0.003). The rate of poor-quality root fillings (score 4 and score 5) was not affected. The quality ratio (score 1/score 5) increased from 5.36 (118/22) to 9.5 (133/14). Eleven dentists (17%) at nine different clinics produced 49% of the poor-quality root fillings (score 4 and score 5). Seventy-three per cent of these dentists stated that they had adopted NTRI. The introduction of NTRI will increase the adoption rate and the frequency of good-quality root fillings. However, it will not overcome the problems associated with dentists producing a low-quality level, even if a local professional network is activated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparison of air-driven vs electric torque control motors on canal centering ability by ProTaper NiTi rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mina; Javidi, Maryam; Erfanian, Mahdi; Lomee, Mahdi; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Cleaning and shaping is one of the most important phases in root canal therapy. Various rotary NiTi systems minimize accidents and facilitate the shaping process. Todays NiTi files are used with air-driven and electric handpieces. This study compared the canal centering after instrumentation using the ProTaper system using Endo IT, electric torque-control motor, and NSK air-driven handpiece. This ex vivo randomized controlled trial study involved 26 mesial mandibular root canals with 10 to 35° curvature. The roots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 13 canals each. The roots were mounted in an endodontic cube with acrylic resin, sectioned horizontally at 2, 6 and 10 mm from the apex and then reassembled. The canals were instrumented according to the manufacturer's instructions using ProTaper rotary files and electric torque-control motors (group 1) or air-driven handpieces (group 2). Photographs of the cross-sections included shots before and after instrumentation, and image analysis was performed using Photoshop software. The centering ability and canal transportation was also evaluated. Repeated measurement and independent t-test provided statistical analysis of canal transportation. The comparison of the rate of transportation toward internal or external walls between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.62). Comparison of the rate of transportation of sections within one group was not significant (p = 0.28). Use of rotary NiTi file with either electric torquecontrol motor or air-driven handpiece had no effect on canal centering. NiTi rotary instruments can be used with air-driven motors without any considerable changes in root canal anatomy, however it needs the clinician to be expert.

  1. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  2. Characterization of Sputtered Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    necessary anneal . Following this, a thin film of NiTi was blanket sputtered at 600 °C. This NiTi blanket layer was then wet -etch patterned using a...varying the sputter parameters during NiTi deposition, such as thickness, substrate temperature during deposition and anneal , and argon pressure during...6 Fig. 4 Surface texture comparison between NiTi sputtered at RT, then annealed at 600 °C, and NiTi

  3. Dynamic Torque and Vertical Force Analysis during Nickel-titanium Rotary Root Canal Preparation with Different Modes of Reciprocal Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Daisuke; Ebihara, Arata; Nishijo, Miki; Miyara, Kana; Okiji, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare 2 modes of reciprocal movement (torque-sensitive and time-dependent reciprocal rotation) with continuous rotation in terms of torque and apical force generation during nickel-titanium rotary root canal instrumentation. A custom-made automated root canal instrumentation and torque/force analyzing device was used to prepare simulated canals in resin blocks and monitor the torque and apical force generated in the blocks during preparation. Experimental groups (n = 7, each) consisted of (1) torque-sensitive reciprocal rotation with torque-sensitive vertical movement (group TqR), (2) time-dependent reciprocal rotation with time-dependent vertical movement (group TmR), and (3) continuous rotation with time-dependent vertical movement (group CR). The canals were instrumented with TF Adaptive SM1 and SM2 rotary files (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), and the torque and apical force were measured during instrumentation with SM2. The mean and maximum torque and apical force values were statistically analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). The recordings showed intermittent increases of upward apical force and clockwise torque, indicating the generation and release of screw-in forces. The maximum upward apical force values in group TmR were significantly smaller than those in group CR (P forces when compared with continuous rotation. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental students' perceptions about the endodontic treatments performed using NiTi rotary instruments and hand stainless steel files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Renata Castro; Seijo, Marília Oliveira Saraiva; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the perceptions of Brazilian undergraduate dental students about the endodontic treatments performed using NiTi rotary instruments and hand stainless steel. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontic disciplines. The students were divided into 3 groups: G1, students who had treated straight canals with SS hand instruments; G2, students who had treated curved canals with SS hand instruments; and G3, students who had treated both straight and curved canals with NiTi rotary instruments. The number of endodontic treatments performed, types of treated teeth, students' learning, time spent, encountered difficulties, quality of endodontic treatment and characteristics of the employed technique were analyzed. There was a 91.3% rate of return for the questionnaires. Mandibular molars were the most frequently treated teeth, followed by maxillary incisors. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no differences in learning (p=0.528) or in the characteristics of the technique employed (p=0.560) among the three groups. G3 students performed a greater number of endodontic treatments (pendodontic treatments differed only between G1 and G2 (p=0.045). The use of NiTi rotary instruments should be included in undergraduate dental curriculum, contributing to the increase of patients assisted and consequently to improve the clinical experience of the students.

  5. Ball bearings comprising nickel-titanium and methods of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a friction reducing nickel-titanium composition. The nickel-titanium composition includes a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38. A bearing for reducing friction comprising a nickel-titanium composition comprising a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38; where the bearing is free from voids and pinholes.

  6. NiTi bonded space regainer/maintainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negi K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favorable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. Premature loss of deciduous tooth or teeth can often destroy the integrity of normal occlusion. There are many space regaining and maintaining devices mentioned in literature. In this article, I present a simple space regaining method by a piece of nickel titanium (NiTi wire bonded between the teeth in active loop form, and the unique shape memory property of NiTi wire will upright or move the teeth and the lost space can be regained easily.

  7. A Comparative SEM Investigation of Smear Layer Remaining on Dentinal Walls by Three Rotary NiTi Files with Different Cross Sectional Designs in Moderately Curved Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Pooja; Vats, Asit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the smear layer formed on root canal walls during canal preparation of extracted human teeth by Twisted, Mtwo, and ProTaper rotary nickel titanium instruments. Materials and Methods: Sixty single rooted human premolar teeth with root curvature rotary nickel titanium instruments were used, Twisted (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) according to manufacturer’s instructions to instrument the root canals. Irrigation for all groups was performed after each instrument change with 3ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite followed by Glyde (File Prep, Dentsply, Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) as chelator paste and lubricant. Three different areas (coronal, middle and apical thirds) of the root canal were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The canal wall of each sample was assessed and compared using a predefined scale for the presence or absence of smear layer. Data were analysed statistically using ANOVA and Tukey HSD test Results: All three groups showed statistically significant more smear layer in the apical thirds of the canal as compared to the coronal and middle thirds (protary file system produced significantly less smear layer (protary instruments in the apical portion. Twisted Files resulted in less smear layer formation in the apical thirds of the canal compared to ProTaper rotary instruments but were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Completely clean root canals were not found after instrumentation with any of the three instruments. Under the confines of this study Mtwo instruments produced significantly cleaner dentin wall surfaces throughout the canal length in comparison to Twisted and ProTaper rotary files. Twisted Files proved to be comparable to ProTaper rotary instruments with respect to canal cleanliness in the apical thirds of the root canal. PMID:25954704

  8. Safety Assessment of Two Hybrid Instrumentation Techniques in a Dental Student Endodontic Clinic: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcelo Santos; Card, Steven John; Tawil, Peter Zahi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the safety potential of a hybrid technique combining nickel-titanium (NiTi) reciprocating and rotary instruments by third- and fourth-year dental students in the predoctoral endodontics clinic at one U.S. dental school. For the study, 3,194 root canal treatments performed by 317 dental students from 2012 through 2015 were evaluated for incidence of ledge creation and instrument separation. The hybrid reciprocating and rotary technique (RRT) consisted of a glide path creation with stainless steel hand files up to size 15/02, a crown down preparation with a NiTi reciprocating instrument, and an apical preparation with NiTi rotary instruments. The control was a traditional rotary and hand technique (RHT) that consisted of the same glide path procedure followed by a crown down preparation with NiTi rotary instruments and an apical preparation with NiTi hand instruments. The results showed that the RHT technique presented a rate of ledge creation of 1.4% per root and the RRT technique was 0.5% per root (protary technique for root canal instrumentation by these dental students provided good safety. This hybrid technique offered a low rate of ledge creation along with no NiTi instrument separation.

  9. An overview of NiTi shape memory alloy: Corrosion resistance and antibacterial inhibition for dental application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadlallah, Sahar A., E-mail: sahar.fadlallah@yahoo.com [Materials and Corrosion Lab. (MCL), Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Bagoury, Nader [Materials and Corrosion Lab. (MCL), Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Casting Technology Lab., Manufacturing Technology Dept., CMRDI, P.O. Box 87, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Gad El-Rab, Sanaa M.F. [Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Asuit University, Asuit (Egypt); Ahmed, Rasha A. [Materials and Corrosion Lab. (MCL), Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Forensic Chemistry Laboratories, Medico Legal Department, Ministry of Justice, Cairo (Egypt); El-Ousamii, Ghaida [Materials and Corrosion Lab. (MCL), Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-15

    -ray analysis (EDX). The study confirmed that the distinctive characteristics of the NiTi alloy back to its chemical composition with two phases from nickel and titanium.

  10. An overview of NiTi shape memory alloy: Corrosion resistance and antibacterial inhibition for dental application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlallah, Sahar A.; El-Bagoury, Nader; Gad El-Rab, Sanaa M.F.; Ahmed, Rasha A.; El-Ousamii, Ghaida

    2014-01-01

    study confirmed that the distinctive characteristics of the NiTi alloy back to its chemical composition with two phases from nickel and titanium

  11. Perawatan Satu\tKunjungan\tpada\tPremolar Pertama Atas Menggunakan Protaper Rotary dan Restorasi Resin Komposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherli Diana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparasi kemomekanik pada saluran akar meliputi instrumentasi mekanis dan irigasi antibakteri yang secara prinsip dapat langsung mengeliminasi mikroorganisme pada sistem saluran akar. sejak diperkenalkan pada tahun 1988, instrumen rotary nikel-titanium (niti telah digunakan secara umum dalam perawatan endodontik karena kemampuannya membentuk saluran akar dengan prosedur komplikasi yang minimal. Tujuan dari laporan kasus ini adalah untuk memaparkan perawatan saluran akar satu kunjungan menggunakan protaper rotary dan restorasi resin komposit gigi premolar. Penderita pria 21 tahun datang ke RSGM Prof. Soedomo UGM Yogyakarta mengeluhkan gigi belakang atas kiri yang berlubang tapi tidak sakit dan pasien ingin  dirawat.Gigi  Premolar satu atas  kiri terdapat kavitas disto oklusal dengan pulpa terbuka. Pemeriksan objektif pada gigi 24 sondasi, perkusi, palpasi, dan tes termal menunjukkan hasil negatif.Pemeriksaan radiografis tidak terdapat lesi, lamina dura tidak terputus dan saluran akar jelas dan lurus. Pada kasus ini dilakukan perawatan saluran akar dengan menggunakan ProTaper rotary ( X-Smart, Dentsply. Pasca perawatan saluran akar, gigi premolar satu atas kiri dilakukan tumpatan resin komposit kelas II.Hasil evaluasi klinik saat kontrol tidak ada keluhan rasa sakit, pemeriksaan objektif juga tidak ada rasa sakit, warna gigi serasi dengan warna gigi tetangga.prognosis pada kasus ini baik dan tidak ada keluhan. Kesimpulan paska perawatan saluran akar satu kunjungan dengan instrumenrotary, tidak terdapat keluhan.Penggunaan Instrumen rotary Nikel-Titanium (NiTi sangat flexible dengan prosedur komplikasi yang minimal, dan hemat waktu. One Visit Treatment of Upper Premolar Tooth Using Rotary Protaper and Composite Resin Restoration. Chemomechanical preparation for root canal including mechanic instrumentation and anti-bacterial irrigation principally could eliminate microorganisms in root canal system. Many instruments and techniques have been

  12. Biocompatibility and Inflammatory Potential of Titanium Alloys Cultivated with Human Osteoblasts, Fibroblasts and Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markhoff, Jana; Krogull, Martin; Schulze, Christian; Rotsch, Christian; Hunger, Sandra; Bader, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The biomaterials used to maintain or replace functions in the human body consist mainly of metals, ceramics or polymers. In orthopedic surgery, metallic materials, especially titanium and its alloys, are the most common, due to their excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Aside from the established Ti6Al4V alloy, shape memory materials such as nickel-titanium (NiTi) have risen in importance, but are also discussed because of the adverse effects of nickel ions. These might be reduced by specific surface modifications. In the present in vitro study, the osteoblastic cell line MG-63 as well as primary human osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and macrophages were cultured on titanium alloys (forged Ti6Al4V, additive manufactured Ti6Al4V, NiTi, and Diamond-Like-Carbon (DLC)-coated NiTi) to verify their specific biocompatibility and inflammatory potential. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V and NiTi revealed the highest levels of metabolic cell activity. DLC-coated NiTi appeared as a suitable surface for cell growth, showing the highest collagen production. None of the implant materials caused a strong inflammatory response. In general, no distinct cell-specific response could be observed for the materials and surface coating used. In summary, all tested titanium alloys seem to be biologically appropriate for application in orthopedic surgery. PMID:28772412

  13. Biocompatibility and Inflammatory Potential of Titanium Alloys Cultivated with Human Osteoblasts, Fibroblasts and Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Markhoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The biomaterials used to maintain or replace functions in the human body consist mainly of metals, ceramics or polymers. In orthopedic surgery, metallic materials, especially titanium and its alloys, are the most common, due to their excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Aside from the established Ti6Al4V alloy, shape memory materials such as nickel-titanium (NiTi have risen in importance, but are also discussed because of the adverse effects of nickel ions. These might be reduced by specific surface modifications. In the present in vitro study, the osteoblastic cell line MG-63 as well as primary human osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and macrophages were cultured on titanium alloys (forged Ti6Al4V, additive manufactured Ti6Al4V, NiTi, and Diamond-Like-Carbon (DLC-coated NiTi to verify their specific biocompatibility and inflammatory potential. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V and NiTi revealed the highest levels of metabolic cell activity. DLC-coated NiTi appeared as a suitable surface for cell growth, showing the highest collagen production. None of the implant materials caused a strong inflammatory response. In general, no distinct cell-specific response could be observed for the materials and surface coating used. In summary, all tested titanium alloys seem to be biologically appropriate for application in orthopedic surgery.

  14. Maxillary molar derotation and distalization by using a nickel-titanium wire fabricated on a setup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Moon; Wi, Young Joo; Koo, Hyun Mo; Kim, Min Ji; Chun, Youn Sic

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a simple appliance that uses a setup model and a nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire for correcting the mesial rotation and drift of the permanent maxillary first molar. The technique involves bonding a Ni-Ti wire to the proper position of the target tooth on a setup model, followed by the fabrication of the transfer cap for indirect bonding and its transfer to the patient's teeth. This appliance causes less discomfort and provides better oral hygiene for the patients than do conventional appliances such as the bracket, pendulum, and distal jet. The treatment time is also shorter with the new appliance than with full-fixed appliances. Moreover, the applicability of the new appliance can be expanded to many cases by using screws or splinting with adjacent teeth to improve anchorage.

  15. Comparison of galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molded brackets to that of conventional metal brackets with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwire combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, D Praveen Kumar; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, K Baburam; Vijay, M; Ravindranath, D; Prasad, M Rajendra

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molding (MIM) brackets to that of conventional brackets under similar in vitro conditions with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwires. Twenty-five maxillary premolar MIM stainless steel brackets and 25 conventional stainless steel brackets and archwires, 0.16 inch, each 10 mm length, 25 nickeltitanium wires, 25 copper nickel-titanium wires were used. They were divided into four groups which had five samples each. Combination of MIM bracket with copper nickel-titanium wire, MIM bracket with nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with copper nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with nickel-titanium wires which later were suspended in 350 ml of 1 M lactic acid solution media. Galvanic corrosion potential of four groups were analyzed under similar in vitro conditions. Precorrosion and postcorrosion elemental composition of MIM and conventional stainless steel bracket by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) was done. MIM bracket showed decreased corrosion susceptibility than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wire. Both MIM and conventional bracket showed similar corrosion resistance potential in association with nickel-titanium archwires. It seems that both brackets are more compatible with copper nickel-titanium archwires regarding the decrease in the consequences of galvanic reaction. The EDS analysis showed that the MIM brackets with copper nickel-titanium wires released less metal ions than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wires. MIM brackets showed decreased corrosion susceptibility, copper nickel-titanium archwires are compatible with both the brackets than nickel-titanium archwires. Clinically MIM and conventional brackets behaved more or less similarly in terms of corrosion resistance. In order to decrease the corrosion potential of MIM

  16. Cleaning capacity promoted by motor-driven or manual instrumentation using ProTaper Universal system: Histological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    da Frota, Matheus Franco; Filho, Idomeo Bonetti; Berbert, F?bio Luiz Camargo Villela; Sponchiado, Emilio Carlos; Marques, Andr? Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cleaning capacity of the Protaper system using motor-driven or manual instrumentation. Materials and Methods: Ten mandibular molars were randomly separated into 2 groups (n = 5) according to the type of instrumentation performed, as follows: Group 1 - instrumentation with rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files using ProTaper Universal System (Dentsply/Maillefer); and, Group 2 - instrumentation with Ni-Ti hand files using ProTaper Universal (Den...

  17. The influence of artificial salivary pH on nickel ion release and the surface morphology of stainless steel bracket-nickel-titanium archwire combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Narmada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the oral cavity, orthodontic appliances come into contact with saliva which may cause corrosion capable of changing their surface morphology due to the release of metal ions. Surface roughness can influence the effectiveness of tooth movement. One of the ions possibly released when body fluid comes into contact with brackets and archwire is nickel ion (Ni. Ni, one of the most popular components of orthodontic appliances, is, however, a toxic element that could potentially increase the likelihood of health problems such as allergic responses during treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different artificial salivary pH on the ions released and the surface morphology of stainless steel (SS brackets-nickel-titanium (NiTi and archwire combinations. Methods: Brackets and archwires were analyzed by an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Detector System (EDX to determine their composition, while NiTi archwire compound was examined by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD. The immersion test was performed at artificial salivary pH levels of 4.2; 6.5; and 7.6 at 37°C for 28 days. Ni ion release measurement was performed using an Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Surface morphology was analyzed by means of a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Results: The chemical composition of all orthodontic appliances contained Ni element. In addition, XRD was depicted phases not only NiTi but also Ni, Titanium, Silicon and Zinc Oleate. The immersion test showed that the highest release of Ni ions occured at a pH of 4.2, with no significant difference at various levels of pH (p=.092. There were surface morphology changes in the orthodontic appliances. It was revealed that at a pH of 4.2, the surfaces of orthodontic appliances become unhomogenous and rough compared to those at other pH concentrations. Conclusion: The reduction of pH in the artificial saliva increases the amount of released Ni ions, as well as causing changes to

  18. Influence of bracket-slot design on the forces released by superelastic nickel-titanium alignment wires in different deflection configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, Riccardo; Gatto, Elda; Borsellino, Chiara; Aceto, Pasquale; Fabiano, Francesca; Matarese, Giovanni; Perillo, Letizia; Cordasco, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate how different bracket-slot design characteristics affect the forces released by superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alignment wires at different amounts of wire deflection. A three-bracket bending and a classic-three point bending testing apparatus were used to investigate the load-deflection properties of one superelastic 0.014-inch NiTi alignment wire in different experimental conditions. The selected NiTi archwire was tested in association with three bracket systems: (1) conventional twin brackets with a 0.018-inch slot, (2) a self-ligating bracket with a 0.018-inch slot, and (3) a self-ligating bracket with a 0.022-inch slot. Wire specimens were deflected at 2 mm and 4 mm. Use of a 0.018-inch slot bracket system, in comparison with use of a 0.022-inch system, increases the force exerted by the superelastic NiTi wires at a 2-mm deflection. Use of a self-ligating bracket system increases the force released by NiTi wires in comparison with the conventional ligated bracket system. NiTi wires deflected to a different maximum deflection (2 mm and 4 mm) release different forces at the same unloading data point (1.5 mm). Bracket design, type of experimental test, and amount of wire deflection significantly affected the amount of forces released by superelastic NiTi wires (Pwire's load during alignment.

  19. Behaviour of human endothelial cells on surface modified NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Stuart D; Grant, David M; Leach, Lopa

    2005-09-01

    Intravascular stents are being designed which utilise the shape memory properties of NiTi alloy. Despite the clinical advantages afforded by these stents their application has been limited by concerns about the large nickel ion content of the alloy. In this study, the surface chemistry of NiTi alloy was modified by mechanical polishing and oxidising heat treatments and subsequently characterised using X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of these surfaces on monolayer formation and barrier integrity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was then assessed by confocal imaging of the adherens junctional molecule VE-cadherin, perijunctional actin and permeability to 42kDa dextrans. Dichlorofluoroscein assays were used to measure oxidative stress in the cells. XPS analysis of NiTi revealed its surface to be dominated by TiO(2). However, where oxidation had occurred after mechanical polishing or post polishing heat treatments at 300 and 400 degrees C in air, a significant amount of metallic nickel or nickel oxide species (10.5 and 18.5 at%) remained on the surface. Exposure of HUVECs to these surfaces resulted in increased oxidative stress within the cells, loss of VE-cadherin and F-actin and significantly increased paracellular permeability. These pathological phenomena were not found in cells grown on NiTi which had undergone heat treatment at 600 degrees C. At this temperature thickening of the TiO(2) layer had occurred due to diffusion of titanium ions from the bulk of the alloy, displacing nickel ions to sub-surface areas. This resulted in a significant reduction in nickel ions detectable on the sample surface (4.8 at%). This study proposes that the integrity of human endothelial monolayers on NiTi is dependent upon the surface chemistry of the alloy and that this can be manipulated, using simple oxidising heat treatments.

  20. The solidification velocity of nickel and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgilbers, Alex Sho

    2002-09-01

    The solidification velocity of several Ni-Ti, Ni-Sn, Ni-Si, Ti-Al and Ti-Ni alloys were measured as a function of undercooling. From these results, a model for alloy solidification was developed that can be used to predict the solidification velocity as a function of undercooling more accurately. During this investigation a phenomenon was observed in the solidification velocity that is a direct result of the addition of the various alloying elements to nickel and titanium. The additions of the alloying elements resulted in an additional solidification velocity plateau at intermediate undercoolings. Past work has shown a solidification velocity plateau at high undercoolings can be attributed to residual oxygen. It is shown that a logistic growth model is a more accurate model for predicting the solidification of alloys. Additionally, a numerical model is developed from simple description of the effect of solute on the solidification velocity, which utilizes a Boltzmann logistic function to predict the plateaus that occur at intermediate undercoolings.

  1. The influence of torque and manual glide path on the defect or separation rate of NiTi rotary instruments in root canal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrabi M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the effecting factors in prognosis of root canal therapy is accidental procedure as broken files that may be unpreventable. Many manufacturers have designed and marketed various electromotors that can control rotational speed and torque. On the other hand, some studies have recommended applying a manual glide path to diminish contact area between the file and canal walls. The purpose of this study was evaluation of the effect of torque and a manual glide path on defects as separation of Nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary files. Materials and Methods: This ex vivo randomized controlled trial study was carried out on 160 canals of human′s matured molars with mild curvature (15-338. After initial preparation of samples and checking for inclusion criteria, in first group, preparation was carried out with air-driven handpiece, and in group two, Endo IT was used as electromotor. In both groups, Mtwo files with simultaneous technique were used for preparation. Then all data were collected and analyzed with Mann Whitny, Mantel Cox, and t-test. Results: No significant differences between two groups (P < 0.05 were observed. Based on survival analysis, safety probability of files after preparation of nine canals is 64% in group one and 69.9% in group two. There was no significant differences between this safety probability in two groups (P = 0.272. Conclusion: Usage of torque control handpiece is not an important factor, comparing instrumentation technique.

  2. Corrosion resistance of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, titanium molybdenum alloy, and ion-implanted titanium molybdenum alloy archwires in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva: An in vitro study

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    Venith Jojee Pulikkottil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (1 To evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different orthodontic archwires and to determine the effect of 0.5% NaF (simulating high fluoride-containing toothpaste of about 2250 ppm on corrosion resistance of these archwires. (2 To assess whether surface roughness (Ra is the primary factor influencing the corrosion resistance of these archwires. Materials and Methods: Four different archwires (stainless steel [SS], nickel-titanium [NiTi], titanium molybdenum alloy [TMA], and ion-implanted TMA were considered for this study. Surface characteristics were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Linear polarization test, a fast electrochemical technique, was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance, in terms of polarization resistance of four different archwires in artificial saliva with NaF concentrations of 0% and 0.5%. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance. Results: The potentiostatic study reveals that the corrosion resistance of low-friction TMA (L-TMA > TMA > NiTi > SS. AFM analysis showed the surface Ra of TMA > NiTi > L-TMA > SS. This indicates that the chemical composition of the wire is the primary influential factor to have high corrosion resistance and surface Ra is only secondary. The corrosion resistance of all wires had reduced significantly in 0.5% acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva due to formation of fluoride complex compound. Conclusion: The presence of 0.5% NaF in artificial saliva was detrimental to the corrosion resistance of the orthodontic archwires. Therefore, complete removal of residual high-fluorinated toothpastes from the crevice between archwire and bracket during tooth brushing is mandatory.

  3. Working length changes in curved canals after coronal flaring by using rotary files and hand file: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Khambete, Neha; Patil, Suvarna; Hoshing, Upendra; Medha, Ashish; Shetty, Roshan

    2013-09-01

    This in vitro investigation examined the effect of early coronal flaring (CF) and late CF on the working length (WL) in curved root canals. The objective of this study was to determine if canal length is altered as a result of CF in curved canals of molar roots. The conditions compared were combinations of (a) stainless steel hand files using Gates Glidden (G. G.) drills (SS) versus nickel-titanium rotary files (Ni-Ti); and (b) early CF (flaring completed before WL determination) versus late CF (flaring completed after WL determination). Selected were 90 canals of extracted maxillary or mandibular first molars (mesial root of mandibular molars and the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary molars) from three groups. CF was accomplished for the SS group using G. G. drills and for the Ni-Ti group using rotary ProTaper and Hero Shaper files. WL was determined by a digital vernier caliper before CF, immediately after CF, and again after canal preparation. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a Tukey's multiple prosthoc test were used for this study. Results indicated that WL decreased for all canals as a result of canal preparation. The mean decrease in WL was significantly greater for the SS group (-0.77 ± 0.42 mm) than for the Ni-Ti groups (-0.33 mm ± 0.44). Less change in WL occurred in all groups when initial WL was determined after CF. WL in curved canals consistently decreases during the course of instrumentation. Clinician should keep this in mind for better treatment outcome.

  4. Fatigue resistance of engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves Craveiro de Melo, Marta; Guiomar de Azevedo Bahia, Maria; Lopes Buono, Vicente Tadeu

    2002-11-01

    A comparative study of the fatigue resistance of engine-driven nickel-titanium endodontic instruments was performed, aiming to access the influence of the cutting flute design and of the size of the files that reach the working length in curved canal shaping. Geometrical conditions similar to those found in practice were used. Series 29 #5 ProFile, together with #6 and #8 Quantec instruments, were tested in artificial canals with a 45-degree angle of curvature and 5-mm radius of curvature. It was observed that the size of the instrument, which determines the maximum strain amplitude during cyclic deformation, is the most important factor controlling fatigue resistance. The effect of heat sterilization on the fatigue resistance of the instruments was also examined. The results obtained indicate that the application of five sterilization procedures in dry heat increases the average number of cycles to failure of unused instruments by approximately 70%.

  5. Debris extrusion by glide-path establishing endodontic instruments with different geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hong Ha

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Creating the glide-path using nickel-titanium rotary files produced lower amounts of debris extrusion than using manual stainless-steel files. The progressive taper design of ProGlider, the center-off cross-section of One G, and the alternative-pitch design of ScoutRace may have increased the efficiencies of debris removal with minimal extrusion during glide-path preparation. Glide-path preparation using NiTi rotary files have better clinical efficiency than the manual stainless-steel file.

  6. [Shaping ability of multi-taper nickel-titanium files in simulated resin curved root canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Xia; Huang, Ding-Ming; Jia, Liu-He; Luo, Shi-Gao; Gao, Xiao-Jie; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2006-08-01

    To compare the shaping ability of ISO standard stainless steel K files and multi-taper ProTaper nickel-titanium files in simulated resin curved root canals. METHODS Thirty simulated resin root canals were randomly divided into three groups and prepared by stainless steel K files, hand ProTaper, rotary ProTaper, respectively. The amount of material removed from inner and outer wall and canal width after canal preparation was measured, while the canal curvature before and after canal preparation and canals aberrations were recorded. The stainless steel K files removed more material than hand ProTaper and rotary ProTaper at the outer side of apex and inner side of curvature (P ProTaper group (P ProTaper had no evident aberration. The shaping ability of ProTaper is better than stainless steel K files.

  7. Microscopic Features of Fractured Fragment of Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Instruments by Two Different Modes of Torsional Loading

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    Ibrahim H. Abu-Tahun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the microscopic features of the fractured endodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary instruments by two different torsional loadings: repetitive torsional loading (RTL and single torsional loading (STL based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO. ProTaper Next, HyFlex EDM, and V-Taper 2 were compared in this study. In the STL method, the torsional load was applied after fixing the 3 mm tip of the file, by continuous clockwise rotation (2 rpm until fracture. In the RTL method, a preset rotational loading (0.5 N·cm was applied and the clockwise loading to the preset torque and counterclockwise unloading to original position were repeated at 50 rpm until the file fractured. Fractured fragments by two methods were compared under a scanning electron microscope (SEM to examine the topographic features of the fractured surfaces and longitudinal aspects. SEM examinations showed significantly different features according to the loading methods. Specimens from the RTL method showed ruptured aspects on cross sections, with multiple areas of initiated cracks while the STL method showed the typical features of torsional failure, such as circular abrasion marks and fatigue dimples. This study suggested a new repetitive torsional loading method which is much more clinically relevant and may result in a different fracture feature from STL method.

  8. The effect of ligation on the load deflection characteristics of nickel titanium orthodontic wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Shugo; Nagasaka, Satoshi; Hanyuda, Ai; Ishimura, Sadao; Hirashita, Ayao

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effect of ligation on the load-deflection characteristics of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wire. A modified three-point bending system was used for bending the NiTi round wire, which was inserted and ligated in the slots of three brackets, one of which was bonded to each of the three bender rods. Three different ligation methods, stainless steel ligature (SSL), slot lid (SL), and elastomeric ligature (EL), were employed, as well as a control with neither bracket nor ligation (NBL). The tests were repeated five times under each condition. Comparisons were made of load-deflection curve, load at maximum deflection of 2,000 microm, and load at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's test were conducted to determine method difference (alpha = 0.05). The interaction between deflection and ligation was tested, using repeated-measures ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). The load values of the ligation groups were two to three times greater than the NBL group at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading: 4.37 N for EL, 3.90 N for SSL, 3.02 N for SL, and 1.49 N for NBL (P wire may make NiTi wire exhibit a significantly heavier load than that traditionally expected. NiTi wire exhibited the majority of its true superelasticity with SL, whereas EL may act as a restraint on its superelasticity.

  9. Canal preparation with nickel-titanium or stainless steel instruments without the risk of instrument fracture: preliminary observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan Yared

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a novel technique that allows a safe and predictable canal negotiation, creation of a glide path and canal preparation with reciprocating nickel-titanium or stainless steel engine-driven instruments in canals where the use of rotary and the newly developed reciprocating instruments is contraindicated. In this novel technique, the instruments are used in reciprocating motion with very small angles. Hand files are not used regardless of the complexity of the canal anatomy...

  10. Torsional resistance of XP-endo Shaper at body temperature compared with several nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, A M; Elsaka, S E

    2018-05-01

    To compare the torsional resistance of XP-endo Shaper (XPS; size 30, .01 taper, FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) instruments at body temperature with TRUShape (TRS; size 30, .06 taper, Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA), ProFile Vortex (PV; size 30, .04 taper, Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties) and FlexMaster (FM; size 30, .04 taper, VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany) nickel-titanium rotary instruments. A metal block with a square-shaped mould (5 mm × 5 mm × 5 mm) was positioned inside a glass container. Five millimetres of the tip of each instrument was held inside the metal block by filling the mould with a resin composite. The instruments were tested for torsional resistance in saline solution at 37 °C. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey post hoc tests. The significance level was set at P instruments tested (P instruments (P = 0.211). The ranking for torsional resistance values was: FM > PV > TRS > XPS. FlexMaster and ProFile Vortex instruments were more resistant to torsional stress compared with TRUShape and XP-endo Shaper instruments. The manufacturing process used to produce XP-endo Shaper instruments did not enhance their resistance to torsional stress as compared with the other instruments. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Utility of nickel-titanium shape memory alloys of vertebral body reduction fixator with assisted distraction bar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Zheng, Yue-huan; Cao, Peng; Chen, Bo; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Chang-hui; Lu, Jiong

    2011-06-07

    To test the nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) shape memory alloys of vertebral body reduction fixator with assisted distraction bar for the treatment of traumatic and osteoporotic vertebral body fracture. A Ni-Ti shape memory alloys of vertebral body reduction fixator with assisted distraction bar was implanted into the compressed fracture specimens through vertebral pedicle with the radiographic monitoring to reduce the collapsed endplate as well as distract the compressed vertebral fracture. Radiographic film and computed tomographic reconstruction technique were employed to evaluate the effects of reduction and distraction. A biomechanic test machine was used to measure the fatigue and the stability of deformation of fixation segments. Relying on the effect of temperature shape memory, such an assembly could basically reduce the collapsed endplate as well as distract the compressed vertebral fracture. And when unsatisfied results of reduction and distraction occurred, its super flexibility could provide additional distraction strength. A Ni-Ti shape memory alloys of vertebral body reduction fixator with assisted distraction bar may provide effective endplate reduction, restore the vertebral height and the immediate biomechanic spinal stability. So the above assembly is indicated for the treatment of traumatic and osteoporotic vertebral body fracture.

  12. X-ray diffraction study of low-temperature phase transformations in nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, M; Brantley, W A; Guo, W H; Clark, W A T; Yuasa, T; Mizoguchi, I

    2008-11-01

    Employ conventional X-ray diffraction (XRD) to analyze three clinically important nickel-titanium orthodontic wire alloys over a range of temperatures between 25 and -110 degrees C, for comparison with previous results from temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) studies. The archwires selected were 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti (Ormco), Neo Sentalloy (GAC International), and Nitinol SE (3M Unitek). Neo Sentalloy, which exhibits superelastic behavior, is marketed as having shape memory in the oral environment, and Nitinol SE and 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti also exhibit superelastic behavior. All archwires had dimensions of 0.016in.x0.022in. (0.41 mm x 0.56 mm). Straight segments cut with a water-cooled diamond saw were placed side-by-side to yield a 1 cm x 1cm test sample of each wire product for XRD analysis (Rint-Ultima(+), Rigaku) over a 2theta range from 30 degrees to 130 degrees and at successive temperatures of 25, -110, -60, -20, 0 and 25 degrees C. The phases revealed by XRD at the different analysis temperatures were in good agreement with those found in previous TMDSC studies of transformations in these alloys, in particular verifying the presence of R-phase at 25 degrees C. Precise comparisons are not possible because of the approximate nature of the transformation temperatures determined by TMDSC and the preferred crystallographic orientation present in the wires. New XRD peaks appear to result from low-temperature transformation in martensite, which a recent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study has shown to arise from twinning. While XRD is a useful technique to study phases in nickel-titanium orthodontic wires and their transformations as a function of temperature, optimum insight is obtained when XRD analyses are combined with complementary TMDSC and TEM study of the wires.

  13. Force level of small diameter nickel-titanium orthodontic wires ligated with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hitoshi Higa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the deflection force in conventional and thermally activated nickel-titanium (NiTi wires in passive (Damon Q and active (Bioquick self-ligating brackets (SLB and in conventional brackets (CB tied by two different methods: elastomeric ligature (EL and metal ligature (ML. Methods Two wire diameters (0.014 and 0.016 in. and 10 specimens per group were used. The specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device and tested in an Instron Universal Testing Machine, with a load cell of 10 N. For the testing procedures, the acrylic block representative of the right maxillary central incisor was palatally moved, with readings of the force at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm, at a constant speed of 2 mm/min and temperature of 36.5 °C. Results The conventional NiTi released higher forces than the thermally activated NiTi archwires in large deflections. In general, the SLB showed lower forces, while the ML had higher forces, with both showing a similar force release behavior, constantly decreasing as the deflection decreased. The EL showed an irregular behavior. The active SLB showed smaller forces than passive, in large deflections. Conclusions The SLB and the ML exhibit standard force patterns during unloading, while the elastomeric ligatures exhibit a randomly distributed force release behavior.

  14. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Kararia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1-3 M 0.016" NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016" NiTi, group 3-3 M 0.019" FNx010.025" SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at Χ2000, Χ4000 and Χ6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0. Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics.

  15. Stiffness and frictional resistance of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire with low-stress hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Yu-Cheng; Su, Yu-Yu M; Lai, Yu-Lin; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2007-05-01

    Stress-induced martensite formation with stress hysteresis that changes the elasticity and stiffness of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire influences the sliding mechanics of archwire-guided tooth movement. This in-vitro study investigated the frictional behavior of an improved superelastic Ni-Ti wire with low-stress hysteresis. Improved superelastic Ni-Ti alloy wires (L & H Titan, Tomy International, Tokyo, Japan) with low-stress hysteresis were examined by using 3-point bending and frictional resistance tests with a universal test machine at a constant temperature of 35 degrees C, and compared with the former conventional austenitic-active superelastic Ni-Ti wires (Sentalloy, Tomy International). Wire stiffness levels were derived from differentiation of the polynomial regression of the unloading curves, and values for kinetic friction were measured at constant bending deflection distances of 0, 2, 3, and 4 mm, respectively. Compared with conventional Sentalloy wires, the L & H Titan wire had a narrower stress hysteresis including a lower loading plateau and a higher unloading plateau. In addition, L & H Titan wires were less stiff than the Sentalloy wires during most unloading stages. Values of friction measured at deflections of 0, 2, and 3 mm were significantly (P Sentalloy wires at all bending deflections (P <.05). Stress-induced martensite formation significantly reduced the stiffness and thus could be beneficial to decrease the binding friction of superelastic Ni-Ti wires during sliding with large bending deflections. Austenitic-active alloy wires with low-stress hysteresis and lower stiffness and friction offer significant potential for further investigation.

  16. Corrosion of Nickel-Titanium Orthodontic Archwires in Saliva and Oral Probiotic Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Turco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine how probiotic supplements affect the corrosion stability of orthodontic archwires made of nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi. Materials and Methods: Ni-Ti archwires (0.508x0.508 and having the length of 2.5 cm were tested. The archwires (composition Ni=50.4%, Ti=49.6% were uncoated, nitrified and rhodium coated. Surface microgeometry was observed by using scanning electron microscope and surface roughness was measured by profilometer through these variables: roughness average, maximum height and maximum roughness depth. Corrosion was examined by electrochemical method of cyclic polarisation. Results: Rhodium coated alloy in saliva has significantly higher general corrosion in saliva than nitrified alloy and uncoated alloy, with large effect size (p=0.027; η2=0.700. In the presence of probiotics, the result was even more pronounced (p<0.001; η2=0.936. Probiotic supplement increases general and localised corrosion of rhodium coated archwire and slightly decreases general corrosion and increases localised corrosion in uncoated archwire , while in the case of nitrified archwire the probability of corrosion is very low. The differences in surface roughness between NiTi wires before corrosion are not significant. Exposure to saliva decreases roughness average in rhodium coated wire (p=0.015; η2=0.501. Media do not significantly influence surface microgeometry in nitrified and uncoated wires. Conclusion: Probiotic supplement affects corrosion depending on the type of coating of the NiTi archwire. It increases general corrosion of rhodium coated wire and causes localised corrosion of uncoated and rhodium coated archwire. Probiotic supplement does not have greater influence on surface roughness compared to that of saliva.

  17. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, K A; Galevsky, G V; Rudneva, V V; Kozyrev, N A; Orshanskaya, E G

    2015-01-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density. (paper)

  18. Effect of surface oxidation on thermomechanical behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ching Wei; Mahmud, Abdus Samad

    2017-12-01

    Nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy is a unique alloy that exhibits special behavior that recovers fully its shape after being deformed to beyond elastic region. However, this alloy is sensitive to any changes of its composition and introduction of inclusion in its matrix. Heat treatment of NiTi shape memory alloy to above 600 °C leads to the formation of the titanium oxide (TiO2) layer. Titanium oxide is a ceramic material that does not exhibit shape memory behaviors and possess different mechanical properties than that of NiTi alloy, thus disturbs the shape memory behavior of the alloy. In this work, the effect of formation of TiO2 surface oxide layer towards the thermal phase transformation and stress-induced deformation behaviors of the NiTi alloy were studied. The NiTi wire with composition of Ti-50.6 at% Ni was subjected to thermal oxidation at 600 °C to 900 °C for 30 and 60 minutes. The formation of the surface oxide layers was characterized by using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The effect of surface oxide layers with different thickness towards the thermal phase transformation behavior was studied by using the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The effect of surface oxidation towards the stress-induced deformation behavior was studied through the tensile deformation test. The stress-induced deformation behavior and the shape memory recovery of the NiTi wire under tensile deformation were found to be affected marginally by the formation of thick TiO2 layer.

  19. Copper, Aluminum and Nickel: A New Monocrystalline Orthodontic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Mark

    Introduction: This study was designed to evaluate, via tensile and bend testing, the mechanical properties of a newly-developed monocrystalline orthodontic archwire comprised of a blend of copper, aluminum, and nickel (CuAlNi). Methods: The sample was comprised of three shape memory alloys; CuAlNi, copper nickel titanium (CuNiTi), and nickel titanium (NiTi); from various orthodontic manufacturers in both 0.018" round and 0.019" x 0.025" rectangular dimensions. Additional data was gathered for similarly sized stainless steel and beta-titanium archwires as a point of reference for drawing conclusions about the relative properties of the archwires. Measurements of loading and unloading forces were recorded in both tension and deflection testing. Repeated-measure ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare loading and unloading forces across wires and one-way ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare elastic moduli and hysteresis. To identify significant differences, Tukey post-hoc comparisons were performed. Results: The modulus of elasticity, deflection forces, and hysteresis profiles of CuAlNi were significantly different than the other superelastic wires tested. In all tests, CuAlNi had a statistically significant lower modulus of elasticity compared to the CuNiTi and NiTi wires (P orthodontic metallurgy.

  20. The biocompatibility of dense and porous Nickel-Titanium produced by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habijan, T., E-mail: Tim.Habijan@rub.de [Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, BG Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University Bochum, Buerkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789 Bochum (Germany); Haberland, C.; Meier, H. [Institute Product and Service Engineering, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Frenzel, J. [Institute for Materials, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Wittsiepe, J. [Department of Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Wuwer, C.; Greulich, C.; Schildhauer, T.A.; Koeller, M. [Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, BG Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University Bochum, Buerkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-Titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi-SMA) are of biomedical interest due to their unusual range of pure elastic deformability and their elastic modulus, which is closer to that of bone than any other metallic or ceramic material. Newly developed porous NiTi, produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM), is currently under investigation as a potential carrier material for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). SLM enables the production of highly complex and tailor-made implants for patients on the basis of CT data. Such implants could be used for the reconstruction of the skull, face, or pelvis. hMSC are a promising cell type for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their ability to support the regeneration of critical size bone defects. Loading porous SLM-NiTi implants with autologous hMSC may enhance bone growth and healing for critical bone defects. The purpose of this study was to assess whether porous SLM-NiTi is a suitable carrier for hMSC. Specimens of varying porosity and surface structure were fabricated via SLM. hMSC were cultured for 8 days on NiTi specimens, and cell viability was analyzed using two-color fluorescence staining. Viable cells were detected on all specimens after 8 days of cell culture. Cell morphology and surface topography were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell morphology and surface topology were dependent on the orientation of the specimens during SLM production. The Nickel ion release can be reduced significantly by aligned laser processing conditions. The presented results clearly attest that both dense SLM-NiTi and porous SLM-NiTi are suitable carriers for hMSC. Nevertheless, before carrying out in vivo studies, some work on optimization of the manufacturing process and post-processing is required. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specimens, varying in porosity and surface structure were produced via SLM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biocompatibility of these specimens was analyzed. Black

  1. Clinical Evaluation of Quality of Obturation and Instrumentation Time using Two Modified Rotary File Systems with Manual Instrumentation in Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Lavanya; Jeevanandan, Ganesh; Subramanian, Emg

    2017-09-01

    Pulp therapy in primary teeth has been performed using various instrumentation techniques. However, the conventional instrumentation technique used for root canal preparation in primary teeth is hand instrumentation. Various Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments are available to perform efficient root canal preparation in primary teeth. These Ni-Ti instruments has been designed to aid in better root canal preparation in permanent teeth but are rarely used in primary teeth. It is necessary to assess the feasibility of using these adult rotary files with a modified sequence in primary teeth. To compare the quality of obturation and instrumentation time during root canal preparation using hand files and modified rotary file systems in primary molars. Forty-five primary mandibular molars were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n=15). Group I was instrumented using k-hand files, Group II with S2 ProTaper universal file and Group III with 0.25 tip 4% taper K3 rotary file. Standardized digital radiographs were taken before and after root canal instrumentation. Root canal preparation time was also recorded. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was done using SPSS Software version 17.0. An intergroup comparison of the instrumentation time and the quality of obturation was done using ANOVA and Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 0.05. No significant differences were noted with regard to the quality of obturation (p=0.791). However, a statistically significant difference was noted in the instrumentation time between the three groups (pProTaper rotary system had significantly lesser instrumentation time when compared to that of K3 rotary system and hand file system. The hand files, S2 ProTaper Universal and K3 0.25 tip 4% taper files systems performed similarly with respect to the quality of obturation. There was a significant difference in instrumentation time with manual instrumentation compared to the modified rotary file systems in primary

  2. Comparative short-term in vitro analysis of mutans streptococci adhesion on esthetic, nickel-titanium, and stainless-steel arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hye; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Young Kyung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2014-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in mutans streptococci (MS) adhesion between esthetic and metallic orthodontic arch wires based on their surface characteristics. Surface roughness (Ra) and apparent surface free energy (SFE) were measured for six wires-four esthetic, one nickel-titanium (NiTi), and one stainless-steel (SS)-using profilometry and dynamic contact angle analysis, respectively. The amount of MS (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) adhering to the wires was quantified using the colony-counting method. The surfaces, coating layers, and MS adhesion were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical significance was set at P wires were significantly different from one another depending on the coating method (P wire showed the highest SFE, followed by the SS wire and then the four esthetic wires. The NiTi wires produced a significantly higher MS adhesion than did the SS wires (P wires showed significantly lower MS adhesions than did the NiTi wire (P < .05). Pearson correlation analyses found moderate significant positive correlations between the SFE and the S mutans and S sobrinus adhesions (r  =  .636/.427, P < .001/P  =  .001, respectively). The hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that some esthetic coatings on NiTi alloy might reduce MS adhesion in vitro in the short term.

  3. Defect propagation in NiTi rotary instruments: a noncontact optical profilometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, I; Ferreira, F; Scelza, P; Neff, J; Russano, D; Montagnana, M; Zaccaro Scelza, M

    2018-04-10

    To evaluate the presence and propagation of defects and their effects on surfaces of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments using noncontact, three-dimensional optical profilometry, and to assess the accuracy of this method of investigation. The flute surface areas of instruments from two commercial instrumentation systems, namely Reciproc R25 (n = 5) and WaveOne Primary (n = 5), were assessed and compared before and after performing two instrumentation cycles in simulated root canals in clear resin blocks. All the analyses were conducted on areas measuring 211 × 211 μm, located 3 mm from the tips of the instruments. A quantitative analysis was conducted before and after the first and second instrumentation cycles, using the Sa (average roughness over the measurement field), Sq (root mean square roughness) and Sz (average height over the measurement field) amplitude parameters. All the data were submitted to statistical analysis at a 5% level of significance. There was a significant increase (P = 0.007) in wear in both groups, especially between baseline and the second instrumentation cycle, with significantly higher wear values being observed on WaveOne instruments (Sz median values = 33.68 and 2.89 μm, respectively, for WO and RP groups). A significant increase in surface roughness (P = 0.016 and P = 0.008, respectively, for Sa and Sq) was observed in both groups from the first to the second instrumentation cycle, mostly in WaveOne specimens. Qualitative analysis revealed a greater number of defects on the flute topography of all the instruments after use. More defects were identified in WaveOne Primary instruments compared to Reciproc R25, irrespective of the evaluation stage. The investigation method provided an accurate, repeatable and reproducible assessment of NiTi instruments at different time-points. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes

  5. Surface characterization of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Manu; Seema, Saraswathy; Tiwari, Brijesh; Sharma, Himanshu S.; Londhe, Sanjay; Arora, Vimal

    2015-01-01

    Background Surface roughness of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires poses several clinical challenges. Surface modification with aesthetic/metallic/non metallic materials is therefore a recent innovation, with clinical efficacy yet to be comprehensively evaluated. Methods One conventional and five types of surface modified nickel titanium arch wires were surface characterized with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, Raman spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy and 3D profilometry. Root mean square roughness values were analyzed by one way analysis of variance and post hoc Duncan's multiple range tests. Results Study groups demonstrated considerable reduction in roughness values from conventional in a material specific pattern: Group I; conventional (578.56 nm) > Group V; Teflon (365.33 nm) > Group III; nitride (301.51 nm) > Group VI (i); rhodium (290.64 nm) > Group VI (ii); silver (252.22 nm) > Group IV; titanium (229.51 nm) > Group II; resin (158.60 nm). It also showed the defects with aesthetic (resin/Teflon) and nitride surfaces and smooth topography achieved with metals; titanium/silver/rhodium. Conclusions Resin, Teflon, titanium, silver, rhodium and nitrides were effective in decreasing surface roughness of nickel titanium arch wires albeit; certain flaws. Findings have clinical implications, considering their potential in lessening biofilm adhesion, reducing friction, improving corrosion resistance and preventing nickel leach and allergic reactions. PMID:26843749

  6. Cyclic Fatigue Testing of Three Different Rotary Nickel Titanium Endodontic Instruments in Simulated Curved Canals - An in Vitro Sem Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy Y., Pallavi; S., Kavita; Subbarao, C.V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Instrument separation is a serious concern in endodontics. Stainless steel instruments usually deform before they separate whereas Nickel Titanium instruments do not show any sign of deformation.

  7. Fracture resistance of dental nickel–titanium rotary instruments with novel surface treatment: Thin film metallic glass coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chi

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The novel surface treatment of Ti-Zr-B thin film metallic glass on dental NiTi rotary files can effectively improve the fatigue fracture resistance by offering a smooth coated surface with amorphous microstructure.

  8. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Aravind

    2013-01-01

    Background: Application of light and continuous forces for optimum physiological response and least damage to the tooth supporting structures should be the primary aim of the orthodontist. Nickel titanium alloys with the properties of excellent spring back, super elasticity and wide range of action is one of the natural choices for the clinicians to achieve this goal. In recent periods, various wire manufacturers have come with a variety of wires exhibiting different properties. It is the duty of the clinician to select appropriate wires during various stages of treatment for excellent results. For achieving this evaluation of the properties of these wires is essential. Materials & Methods: This study is focussed on evaluating the super elastic property of eight groups of austenite active nickel titanium wires. Eight groups of archwires bought from eight different manufacturers were studied. These wires were tested through mechanical tensile testing and electrical resistivity methods. Results: Unloading curves were carefully assessed for superelastic behaviour on deactivation. Rankings of the wires tested were based primarily upon the unloading curve’s slope Conclusion: Ortho organisers wires ranked first and superior, followed by American Orthodontics and Ormco A wires. Morelli and GAClowland NiTi wires were ranked last. It can be concluded that the performance of these wires based on rankings should be further evaluated by clinical studies. How to cite this article: Sivaraj A. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):1-12. PMID:24155596

  9. Three-dimensional quantification of pretorqued nickel-titanium wires in edgewise and prescription brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Nitika; Xia, Zeyang; Chen, Jie; Stewart, Kelton T; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao

    2013-05-01

    To quantify the three-dimensional moments and forces produced by pretorqued nickel-titanium (NiTi) rectangular archwires fully engaged in 0.018- and 0.022-inch slots of central incisor and molar edgewise and prescription brackets. Ten identical acrylic dental models with retroclined maxillary incisors were fabricated for bonding with various bracket-wire combinations. Edgewise, Roth, and MBT brackets with 0.018- and 0.022-inch slots were bonded in a simulated 2 × 4 clinical scenario. The left central incisor and molar were sectioned and attached to load cells. Correspondingly sized straight and pretorqued NiTi archwires were ligated to the brackets using 0.010-inch ligatures. Each load cell simultaneously measured three force (Fx, Fy, Fz) and three moment (Mx, My, Mz) components. The faciolingual, mesiodistal, and inciso-occluso/apical axes of the teeth corresponded to the x, y, and z axes of the load cells, respectively. Each wire was removed and retested seven times. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined the effects of wire type, wire size, and bracket type on the measured orthodontic load systems. Interactions among the three effects were examined and pair-wise comparisons between significant combinations were performed. The force and moment components on each tooth were quantified according to their local coordinate axes. The three-way ANOVA interaction terms were significant for all force and moment measurements (P .05). The pretorqued wire generates a significantly larger incisor facial crown torquing moment in the MBT prescription compared to Roth, edgewise, and the straight NiTi wire.

  10. Electrodeposition of polypyrrole onto NiTi and the corrosion behaviour of the coated alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamini, D.O.; Saidman, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) films were electrodeposited onto nickel--titanium alloy (NiTi) employing sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT or AOT) solutions. Polarizing anodically NiTi samples recovered by PPy in a monomer-free solution increases adhesion of the coating. Electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and element analysis were used in determining the corrosion performance of the coated samples in chloride solution. The polymer improves the corrosion performance at the open circuit potential and at potentials where the bare substrate suffers pitting attack. The improvement in both, adhesion and corrosion performance, is discussed considering substrate/polymer interaction, overoxidation of PPy and the role played by AOT.

  11. An adjustment in NiTi closed coil spring for an extended range of activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravipati, Raghu Ram; Sivakumar, Arunachalam; Sudhakar, P; Padmapriya, C V; Bhaskar, Mummudi; Azharuddin, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The Nickel Titanium (NiTi) closed coil springs serve as an efficient force delivery system in orthodontic space closure mechanics. The closed coil springs with the eyelets come in various lengths to broaden its force characteristics for an expedient space closure. However, at a certain point of time of progressive space closure, the coil spring can be expanded no further for an adequate force delivery. In such situations, the clinician prefers to replace the existing spring with another short length spring. The present article describes a simple conservative technique for progressively re-activating the same NiTi closed coil spring for complete space closure.

  12. Influence of Thin-Film Adhesives in Pullout Tests Between Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Derek J.; Jana, Sadhan; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2018-01-01

    Strips of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA) and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite (PMC) were bonded together using multiple thin film adhesives and their mechanical strengths were evaluated under pullout test configuration. Tensile and lap shear tests were conducted to confirm the deformation of SMAs at room temperature and to evaluate the adhesive strength between the NiTi strips and the PMC. Optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to examine the interfacial bonding after failure. Simple equations on composite tensile elongation were used to fit the experimental data on tensile properties. ABAQUS models were generated to show the effects of enhanced bond strength and the distribution of stress in SMA and PMC. The results revealed that the addition of thin film adhesives increased the average adhesive strength between SMA and PMC while halting the room temperature shape memory effect within the pullout specimen.

  13. Influence of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Moshabab A.; AlShahrani, Ibrahim; Almoammar, Salem; Durgesh, Bangalore H.; Kheraif, Abdulaziz A. Al; Hashem, Mohamed I.

    2018-02-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires Methods. Three different coated (Epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium) and one uncoated Ni-Ti archwires were evaluated in the present study. Surface roughness (Ra) was assessed using a non-contact surface profilometer. The mechanical properties (nano-hardness and elastic modulus) were measured using a nanoindenter. Bacterial adhesion assays were performed using Streptococcus mutans (MS) and streptococcus sobrinus (SS) in an in-vitro set up. The data obtained were analyzed using analyses of variance, Tukey’s post hoc test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Result. The highest Ra values (1.29 ± 0.49) were obtained for epoxy coated wires and lowest Ra values (0.29 ± 0.16) were obtained for the uncoated wires. No significant differences in the Ra values were observed between the rhodium coated and uncoated archwires (P > 0.05). The highest nano-hardness (3.72 ± 0.24) and elastic modulus values (61.15 ± 2.59) were obtained for uncoated archwires and the lowest nano-hardness (0.18 ± 0.10) and elastic modulus values (4.84 ± 0.65) were observed for epoxy coated archwires. No significant differences in nano-hardness and elastic modulus values were observed between the coated archwires (P > 0.05). The adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (MS) to the wires was significantly greater than that of streptococcus sobrinus (SS). The epoxy coated wires demonstrated an increased adhesion of MS and SS and the uncoated wires demonstrated decreased biofilm adhesion. The Spearman correlation test showed that MS and SS adhesion was positively correlated with the surface roughness of the wires. Conclusion. The different surface coatings significantly influence the roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion parameters of the archwires. The

  14. Evaluation of selected mechanical properties of NiTi rotary glide path files manufactured from controlled memory wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Miki; Ebihara, Arata; Tokita, Daisuke; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao; Okiji, Takashi

    2018-03-28

    This study aimed to investigate mechanical properties related to flexibility and fracture resistance of controlled memory wiremanufactured nickel-titanium rotary glide path files [HyFlex EDM Glide Path File (EDM) and HyFlex GPF (GPF)]. Scout RaCe (RaCe) served as control. Bending loads, torsional/cyclic fatigue resistance, and screw-in forces were measured. EDM showed a significantly larger torque at fracture, a longer time to cyclic fracture in reciprocation and a larger screw-in force compared with GPF and RaCe. GPF showed significantly lower bending loads and higher angular deflection values than EDM and RaCe, and a significantly longer time to cyclic fracture than RaCe. The time to cyclic fracture was significantly longer in reciprocation compared with continuous rotation in EDM and GPF. It can be concluded that EDM and/or GPF showed higher flexibility and cyclic/torsional fatigue resistance compared with RaCe; and that reciprocation conferred better cyclic fatigue resistance to EDM and GPF.

  15. The effect of educational intervention on the adoption of nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation in a Public Dental Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reit, C; Bergenholtz, G; Caplan, D; Molander, A

    2007-04-01

    To study the influence of two educational programmes on the adoption of nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (NTRI) amongst general dental practitioners in a short-term as well as a long-term perspective. All dentists employed in the Gothenburg Dental service (n = 148) were enrolled in the study. The clinics in the organization were randomly assigned to one of two educational programmes. In the first programme a 4-h lecture on root canal instrumentation was given. In the second programme the lecture course was supplemented by a 6-h hands-on training session. The short-term effect was measured by a questionnaire distributed 6 months after completed education. The long-term effect was evaluated 4 years later. The overall utilization rate of NTRI increased from 4% to 73%. However, lectures in combination with hands-on training resulted in a better short-term acceptance rate (94%) than if teaching was given only in lecture-format (53%) (P = 0.000). As a consequence, all staff were offered hands-on training. The long-term adoption rate was 88%. Reasons for accepting the new technology usually were found within the 'relative advantage' category. Common reasons for dentists not to adopt NTRI were that they could not get started or that they found no advantage over the old technology. The short-term adoption of a new technology might be influenced by the design of an introductory educational programme. For clinical procedures, such as root canal instrumentation, the inclusion of hands-on training sessions seems to be important to reach a high acceptance rate.

  16. Nickel titanium springs versus stainless steel springs: A randomized clinical trial of two methods of space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Noraina Hafizan; Worthington, Helen; Chadwick, Stephen Mark

    2016-09-01

    To compare the clinical performance of nickel titanium (NiTi) versus stainless steel (SS) springs during orthodontic space closure. Two-centre parallel group randomized clinical trial. Orthodontic Department University of Manchester Dental Hospital and Orthodontic Department Countess of Chester Hospital, United Kingdom. Forty orthodontic patients requiring fixed appliance treatment were enrolled, each being randomly allocated into either NiTi (n = 19) or SS groups (n = 21). Study models were constructed at the start of the space closure phase (T0) and following the completion of space closure (T1). The rate of space closure achieved for each patient was calculated by taking an average measurement from the tip of the canine to the mesiobuccal groove on the first permanent molar of each quadrant. The study was terminated early due to time constraints. Only 30 patients completed, 15 in each study group. There was no statistically significant difference between the amounts of space closed (mean difference 0.17 mm (95%CI -0.99 to 1.34; P = 0.76)). The mean rate of space closure for NiTi coil springs was 0.58 mm/4 weeks (SD 0.24) and 0.85 mm/4 weeks (SD 0.36) for the stainless steel springs. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.024), in favour of the stainless steel springs, when the mean values per patient were compared. Our study shows that stainless steel springs are clinically effective; these springs produce as much space closure as their more expensive rivals, the NiTi springs.

  17. Spiral computed tomography assessment of the efficacy of different rotary versus hand retreatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Neelam; Jain, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nickel-titanium rotary retreatment systems versus stainless steel hand retreatment system with or without solvent for gutta-percha removal during retreatment. Sixty extracted human mandibular molar teeth with single canal in a distal root was prepared with ProTaper rotary nickel-titanium files and obturated with gutta-percha and sealer. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups of 10 specimens in each groups. The volume of filling material before and after retreatment were evaluated in cm(3) using the computed tomography (CT) scanner proprietary software. Maximum amount of filling material removed during retreatment with ProTaper retreatment system with solvent and minimum with hand retreatment system with solvent. None of the technique was 100% effective in removing the filling materials, but the ProTaper retreatment system with solvent was better.

  18. Urethra sparing - potential of combined Nickel-Titanium stent and intensity modulated radiation therapy in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jakob Borup; Arp, Dennis Tideman; Carl, Jesper

    2012-05-01

    To investigate a novel method for sparing urethra in external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer and to evaluate the efficacy of such a treatment in terms of tumour control using a mathematical model. This theoretical study includes 20 patients previously treated for prostate cancer using external beam radiotherapy. All patients had a Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) stent inserted into the prostate part of urethra. The stent has been used during the treatment course as an internal marker for patient positioning prior to treatment. In this study the stent is used for delineating urethra while intensity modulated radiotherapy was used for lowering dose to urethra. Evaluation of the dose plans were performed using a tumour control probability model based on the concept of uniform equivalent dose. The feasibility of the urethra dose reduction method is validated and a reduction of about 17% is shown to be possible. Calculations suggest a nearly preserved tumour control probability. A new concept for urethra dose reduction is presented. The method relies on the use of a Ni-Ti stent as a fiducial marker combined with intensity modulated radiotherapy. Theoretical calculations suggest preserved tumour control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of severely curved simulated root canals using engine-driven rotary and conventional hand instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szep, S; Gerhardt, T; Leitzbach, C; Lüder, W; Heidemann, D

    2001-03-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy and safety of six different nickel-titanium engine-driven instruments used with a torque-controlled engine device and nickel-titanium hand and stainless steel hand instruments in preparation of curved canals. A total of 80 curved (36 degrees) simulated root canals were prepared. Images before and after were superimposed, and instrumentation areas were observed. Time of instrumentation, instrument failure, change in working length and weight loss were also recorded. Results show that stainless steel hand instruments cause significantly less transportation towards the inner wall of the canal than do nickel-titanium hand instruments. No instrument fracture occurred with hand instruments, but 30-60% breakage of instruments was recorded during instrumentation with the engine-driven devices. The working length was maintained by all types of instruments. Newly developed nickel-titanium rotary files were not able to prevent straightening of the severely curved canals when a torque-controlled engine-driven device was used.

  20. An in vitro evaluation of the accuracy of four electronic apex locators using stainless-steel and nickel-titanium hand files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Mull Gehlot

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of working length (WL determination of four electronic apex locators (EALs, namely, Root ZX (RZX, Elements diagnostic unit and apex locator (ELE, SybronEndo Mini Apex locator (MINI and Propex pixi (PIXI using Stainless steel (SS and nickel-titanium (NiTi hand files. The null hypothesis was that there was no difference between canal length determination by SS and NiTi files of 4 EALs. Materials and Methods Sixty extracted, single rooted human teeth were decoronated and the canal orifice flared. The actual length (AL was assessed visually, and the teeth were embedded in an alginate model. The electronic length (EL measurements were recorded with all four EALs using SS and NiTi files at '0.5' reading on display. The differences between the AL and EL were compared. Results The results obtained with each EAL with SS and NiTi files were compared with AL. A paired sample t test showed that there was a statistical significant difference between EAL readings with SS and NiTi files for RZX and MINI (p < 0.05. The accuracy of RZX, ELE, MINI and PIXI within ± 0.5 mm of AL with SS/NiTi files were 93.3%/70%, 90%/91.7%, 95%/68.3%, and 83.3%/83.3%, respectively. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that Root ZX was statistically more accurate with NiTi files compared to SS files, while MINI was statistically more accurate with SS files compared to NiTi files. ELE and PIXI were not affected by the alloy type of the file used to determine WL.

  1. Canal preparation with nickel-titanium or stainless steel instruments without the risk of instrument fracture: preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Yared

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report introduces a novel technique that allows a safe and predictable canal negotiation, creation of a glide path and canal preparation with reciprocating nickel-titanium or stainless steel engine-driven instruments in canals where the use of rotary and the newly developed reciprocating instruments is contraindicated. In this novel technique, the instruments are used in reciprocating motion with very small angles. Hand files are not used regardless of the complexity of the canal anatomy. It also allows achieving predictable results in canal negotiation and glide path creation in challenging canals without the risk of instrument fracture.

  2. Comparison of nickel and chromium ions released from stainless steel and NiTi wires after immersion in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Moghaddas, Omid; Toopchi, Shabnam; Perillo, Letizia

    2014-07-01

    Oral environment of the mouth is a suitable place for biodegradation of alloys used in orthodontic wires. The toxicity of these alloys namely nickel and chromium has concerned the researchers about the release of these ions from orthodontic wires and brackets. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel and chromium ions released from 0.018" stainless steel (SS) and NiTi wires after immersion in three solutions. One hundred and forty-four round NiTi and 144 round SS archwires with the diameters of 0.018" were immersed in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva. The amounts of nickel and chromium ions released were measured after 1, 6, 24 hours and 7 days. Two way repeated ANOVA showed that the amount of chromium and nickel significantly increased in all solutions during all time intervals (p nickel ions were released more in NiTi wire in all solutions compared with SS wire. The lowest increase rate was also seen in artificial saliva. There is general consensus in literature that even very little amounts of nickel and chromium are dangerous for human body specially when absorbed orally; therefore, knowing the precise amount of these ions released from different wires when immersed in different mouthwashes is of high priority.

  3. Ex Vivo Comparison of Mtwo and RaCe Rotary File Systems in Root Canal Deviation: One File Only versus the Conventional Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Razmi, Hasan; Nozari, Solmaz

    2015-07-01

    Cleaning and shaping of the root canal system is an important step in endodontic therapy. New instruments incorporate new preparation techniques that can improve the efficacy of cleaning and shaping. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Mtwo and RaCe rotary file systems in straightening the canal curvature using only one file or the conventional method. Sixty mesial roots of extracted human mandibular molars were prepared by RaCe and Mtwo nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files using the conventional and only one rotary file methods. The working length was 18 mm and the curvatures of the root canals were between 15-45°. By superimposing x-ray images before and after the instrumentation, deviation of the canals was assessed using Adobe Photoshop CS3 software. Preparation time was recorded. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. There were no significant differences between RaCe and Mtwo or between the two root canal preparation methods in root canal deviation in buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs (P>0.05). Changes of root canal curvature in >35° subgroups were significantly more than in other subgroups with smaller canal curvatures. Preparation time was shorter in one file only technique. According to the results, the two rotary systems and the two root canal preparation methods had equal efficacy in straightening the canals; but the preparation time was shorter in one file only group.

  4. Stress induced martensite at the crack tip in NiTi alloys during fatigue loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sgambitterra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack tip stress-induced phase transformation mechanisms in nickel-titanium alloys (NiTi were analyzed by Digital Image Correlation (DIC, under fatigue loads. In particular, Single Edge Crack (SEC specimens, obtained from a commercial pseudoelastic NiTi sheet, and an ad-hoc experimental setup were used, for direct measurements of the near crack tip displacement field by the DIC technique. Furthermore, a fitting procedure was developed to calculate the mode I Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, starting from the measured displacement field. Finally, cyclic tensile tests were performed at different operating temperature, in the range 298-338 K, and the evolution of the SIF was studied, which revealed a marked temperature dependence.

  5. The biocompatibility of dense and porous Nickel-Titanium produced by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habijan, T; Haberland, C; Meier, H; Frenzel, J; Wittsiepe, J; Wuwer, C; Greulich, C; Schildhauer, T A; Köller, M

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-Titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi-SMA) are of biomedical interest due to their unusual range of pure elastic deformability and their elastic modulus, which is closer to that of bone than any other metallic or ceramic material. Newly developed porous NiTi, produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM), is currently under investigation as a potential carrier material for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). SLM enables the production of highly complex and tailor-made implants for patients on the basis of CT data. Such implants could be used for the reconstruction of the skull, face, or pelvis. hMSC are a promising cell type for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their ability to support the regeneration of critical size bone defects. Loading porous SLM-NiTi implants with autologous hMSC may enhance bone growth and healing for critical bone defects. The purpose of this study was to assess whether porous SLM-NiTi is a suitable carrier for hMSC. Specimens of varying porosity and surface structure were fabricated via SLM. hMSC were cultured for 8 days on NiTi specimens, and cell viability was analyzed using two-color fluorescence staining. Viable cells were detected on all specimens after 8 days of cell culture. Cell morphology and surface topography were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell morphology and surface topology were dependent on the orientation of the specimens during SLM production. The Nickel ion release can be reduced significantly by aligned laser processing conditions. The presented results clearly attest that both dense SLM-NiTi and porous SLM-NiTi are suitable carriers for hMSC. Nevertheless, before carrying out in vivo studies, some work on optimization of the manufacturing process and post-processing is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanical behavior and clinical application of nickel-titanium closed-coil springs under different stress levels and mechanical loading cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichelhaus, Andrea; Brauchli, Lorenz; Ball, Judith; Mertmann, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The main advantage of superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) products is their unique characteristic of force plateaus, which allow for clinically precise control of the force. The aims of this study were to define the mechanical characteristics of several currently available closed-coil retraction springs and to compare these products. A universal test frame was used to acquire force-deflection diagrams of 24 NiTi closed-coil springs at body temperature. Data analysis was performed with the superelastic algorithm. Also, the influence of temperature cycles and mechanical microcycles simulating ingestion of different foods and mastication, respectively, were considered. Mechanical testing showed significant differences between the various spring types (ANOVA, mechanical properties of the springs: strong superelasticity without bias stress, weak superelasticity without bias stress, strong superelasticity with bias stress, and weak superelasticity with bias stress. In sliding mechanics, the strongly superelastic closed-coil springs with preactivation are recommended. In addition, we found that the oral environment seems to have only a minor influence on their mechanical properties. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural characterisation and mechanical FE analysis of conventional and M-Wire Ni-Ti alloys used in endodontic rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvão, Diogo; Alçada, Francisca Sena; Braz Fernandes, Francisco Manuel; de Vilaverde-Correia, Sancho

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how the M-Wire alloy conditions the mechanical flexibility of endodontic rotary files at body temperature.Two different rotary instruments, a Profile GT 20/.06 and a Profile GT Series X 20/.06, were selected due to their geometrical similarity and their different constituent alloy. GT series X files are made from M-Wire, a Ni-Ti alloy allegedly having higher flexibility at body temperature. Both files were analysed by X-Ray Diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry to investigate phase transformations and the effects of working temperature on these different alloys. Mechanical behaviour was assessed by means of static bending and torsional Finite Element simulations, taking into account the nonlinear superelastic behaviour of Ni-Ti materials. It was found that GT files present austenitic phase at body temperature, whereas GT series X present R-phase at temperatures under 40 °C with a potential for larger flexibility. For the same load conditions, simulations showed that the slight geometrical differences between the two files do not introduce great disagreement in the instruments' mechanical response. It was confirmed that M-Wire increases the instrument's flexibility, mainly due to the presence of R-phase at body temperature.

  8. Determining cutting efficiency of nickel-titanium coronal flaring instruments used in lateral action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, O A; Morgental, R D; Schulze, K A; Paqué, F; Kopper, P M P; Vier-Pelisser, F V

    2014-06-01

    To develop a method to evaluate the cutting behaviour of nickel-titanium (NiTi) coronal flaring instruments. BioRaCe BR0 (BR), HyFlex CM 1 (HY), ProFile OS No. 2 (PF) and ProTaper Sx (PT) instruments were used in simulated coronal flaring using a lateral action against bovine dentine blocks, at 250 and 500 rpm. Cutting efficiency was assessed by three methods: first, areas of notches produced by instruments were directly measured under a stereomicroscope. Second, dentine specimens were then analysed by surface profilometry to determine the maximum cutting depth and finally by microcomputed tomography to assess the volume of removed dentine. Data were compared using parametric tests with the significance level set at 0.05. For all three methods, HY and PF were the most and the least cutting-efficient instruments, respectively (P wire, was the most efficient instrument, and increased rotational speed was associated with increased cutting efficiency. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Nickel-Titanium Wire as Suture Material: A New Technique for the Fixation of Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haidong; Song, Tao

    2018-01-29

    To introduce nickel-titanium wire as suture material for closure of incisions in cleft lip procedures. Closure of skin incisions using nickel-titanium wire as suture material, with postoperative follow-up wound evaluation. There was excellent patient satisfaction and good cosmetic outcome. Nickel-titanium wire is an excellent alternative for suture closure of cleft lip surgical incisions.

  10. Repercussion of noni mouthwash on surface characterization of Nickel-Titanium archwire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivya Dilipkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maintaining oral hygiene is very important during orthodontic therapy mouthwashes are prescribed as an adjunct to improve patient's oral hygiene. Commercially available mouthwashes e.g. Chlorhexidine, Listerine, fluoride containing mouthwashes have shown to alter the surface characteristics of orthodontic wires. Hence the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Noni mouthwash on surface quality and compositional changes of Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study pre-formed 0.014 inch NiTi arch wire was used. The study comprised of two samples, one control and one test sample which were 25mm in length. Control sample was stored at room temperature without any manipulation while test sample was immersed in Noni mouthwash solution for 1.5 hours, after which the test specimen was removed from the mouthwash solution and rinsed with distilled water. Both control and test samples were sent for scanning electron microscopy analysis, to qualitatively characterize the topography of the wire surface. Electron dispersion spectrum analysis was done to evaluate the various components of both the wires. Results: No significant difference in the average surface roughness for both wire samples was observed. There was no significant difference seen in the composition of wire after immersion in Noni mouthwash. Conclusion: Noni mouthwash did not have significant influence on the surface roughness or altered the composition of the Ni-Ti wire. Hence Noni mouthwash may be prescribed as a natural, non-destructive prophylactic agent for orthodontic patients.

  11. Progress on sputter-deposited thermotractive titanium-nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grummon, D.S.; Hou Li; Zhao, Z.; Pence, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    It is now well established that titanium-nickel alloys fabricated as thin films by physical vapor deposition can display the same transformation and shape-memory effects as their ingot-metallurgy counterparts. As such they may find important application to microelectromechanical and biomechanical systems. Furthermore, we show here that titanium-nickel films may be directly processed so as to possess extremely fine austenite grain size and very high strength. These films display classical transformational superelasticity, including high elastic energy storage capacity, the expected dependence of martensite-start temperature on transformation enthalpy, and large, fully recoverable anelastic strains at temperatures above A f . Processing depends on elevated substrate temperatures during deposition, which may be manipulated within a certain range to control both grain size and crystallographic texture. It is also possible to deposit crystalline titanium-nickel films onto polymeric substrates, making them amenable to lithographic patterning into actuator elements that are well-suited to electrical excitation of the martensite reversion transformation. Finally, isothermal annealing of nickel-rich films, under conditions of controlled extrinsic residual stress, leads to topotaxial orientation of Ni 4 Ti 3 -type precipitates, and the associated possibility of two-way memory effects. Much work remains to be done, especially with respect to precise control of composition. (orig.)

  12. Copper and nickel alloys and titanium for seawater applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.

    1977-01-01

    Copper and nickel alloys and titanium have been successfully used for heat exchangers on ships, in power plants and for chemical apparatus and piping systems because of their resistance against corrosion in sea water. Aluminium brass and copper nickel alloys, the standard materials for condensers and coolers, however, may be attacked, the corrosion depending on water quality, water velocity, and structural conditions. The mechanisms of corrosion are discussed. Under severe conditions the use of titanium may be indicated. The use of nickel base alloys is advantageous at elevated temperatures, e.g. for chemical reactions and for evaporation processes. Examples are given for application and for prevention of corrosion. (orig.) [de

  13. Anti-corrosion performance of oxidized and oxygen plasma-implanted NiTi alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, Ray W.Y.; Ho, Joan P.Y.; Liu, Xuanyong; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Lu, William W.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys are useful orthopedic biomaterials on account of its super-elastic and shape memory properties. However, the problem associated with out-diffusion of harmful nickel ions in prolonged use inside the human body raises a critical safety concern. Titanium oxide films are deemed to be chemically inert and biocompatible and hence suitable to be the barrier layers to impede the leaching of Ni from the NiTi substrate to biological tissues and fluids. In the work reported in this paper, we compare the anti-corrosion efficacy of oxide films produced by atmospheric-pressure oxidation and oxygen plasma ion implantation. Our results show that the oxidized samples do not possess improved corrosion resistance and may even fare worse than the untreated samples. On the other hand, the plasma-implanted surfaces exhibit much improved corrosion resistance. Our work also shows that post-implantation annealing can further promote the anti-corrosion capability of the samples

  14. Do Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Orthodontic NiTi Wires Remain Stable In Vivo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sarul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Exceptional properties of the NiTi archwires may be jeopardized by the oral cavity; thus its long-term effect on the mechanical and physiochemical properties of NiTi archwires was the aim of work. Material and Methods. Study group comprised sixty 0.016 × 0.022 NiTi archwires from the same manufacturer evaluated (group A after the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. 30 mm long pieces cut off from each wire prior to insertion formed the control group B. Obeying the strict rules of randomization, all samples were subjected to microscopic evaluation and nanoindentation test. Results. Both groups displayed substantial presence of nonmetallic inclusions. Heterogeneity of the structure and its alteration after usage were found in groups B and A, respectively. Conclusions. Long-term, reliable prediction of biomechanics of NiTi wires in vivo is impossible, especially new archwires from the same vendor display different physiochemical properties. Moreover, manufacturers have to decrease contamination in the production process in order to minimize risk of mutual negative influence of nickel-titanium archwires and oral environment.

  15. Behavior of nickel-titanium instruments manufactured with different thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Érika Sales Joviano; Viana, Ana Cecília Diniz; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes; Peters, Ove A; Bahia, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if nickel-titanium instruments with similar designs manufactured by different thermal treatments would exhibit significantly different in vitro behavior. Thirty-six instruments each of ProTaper Universal (PTU F1; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProFile Vortex (PV; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), Vortex Blue (VB, Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties), and TYPHOON Infinite Flex NiTi (TYP; Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT) (all size 25/.06) were evaluated. Bending resistance, torsion at failure, and dynamic torsional tests were performed with the instruments (n = 12). Analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were applied. Flexibility was significantly higher for TYP compared with the other 3 groups (P .05). The highest mean forces were recorded with PTU (7.02 ± 2.36 N) and the lowest with TYP (1.22 ± 0.40 N). TYP instruments were significantly more flexible than the other instruments tested. The PV group had the highest torsional strength and TYP, despite being the most flexible, showed similar torsional moments to the other instruments, whereas its angular deflection was the highest among the groups. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between diameter and taper of nickel-titanium rotary instruments on the torsional resistance to fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Miranda Souza

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the resistance to fracture of rotary Ni-Ti files of various diameters and tapers after torsional stress simulation. Methods: Profile (Dentsply Maillerfer, Ballaigues, Suíça instruments sizes 15 to 40, taper 0.04 and 0.06 were used. Ten instruments of each size and taper were tested, totaling 120 files. The maximum torque (Tmax until fracture was determined in accordance with the ANSI / ADA Protocol Nº 28 . The maximum force was converted into maximum torque using the formula: Tmax = Loadmax x RadiusResults: The diameter (p<0.001 and taper (p<0.001 influenced the maximum torque to fracture. With the increase in diameter and taperthere was a gradual increase in the maximum torque. Using the multiple regression method an equation relating the maximum torque to the diameter (D and the taper (T was found: Tmax = -1.4 + 0.08D + 10.5T. Conclusion: The increase in diameter and taper promoted an increase in resistance to torsion. The variation of the taper from 0.04 to 0.06 in instruments with the same diameter increased resistance to fracture by torsion by around 25%.

  17. Evolution of flexural rigidity according to the cross-sectional dimension of a superelastic nickel titanium orthodontic wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrec, Pascal; Tavernier, Bruno; Jordan, Laurence

    2005-08-01

    The choice of the most suitable orthodontic wire for each stage of treatment requires estimation of the forces generated. In theory, the selection of wire sequences should initially utilize a lower flexural rigidity; thus clinicians use smaller round cross-sectional dimension wires to generate lighter forces during the preliminary alignment stage. This assessment is true for conventional alloys, but not necessarily for superelastic nickel titanium (NiTi). In this case, the flexural rigidity dependence on cross-sectional dimension differs from the linear elasticity prediction because of the martensitic transformation process. It decreases with increasing deflection and this phenomenon is accentuated in the unloading process. This behaviour should lead us to consider differently the biomechanical approach to orthodontic treatment. The present study compared bending in 10 archwires made from NiTi orthodontics alloy of two cross-sectional dimensions. The results were based on microstructural and mechanical investigations. With conventional alloys, the flexural rigidity was constant for each wire and increased largely with the cross-sectional dimension for the same strain. With NiTi alloys, the flexural rigidity is not constant and the influence of size was not as important as it should be. This result can be explained by the non-constant elastic modulus during the martensite transformation process. Thus, in some cases, treatment can begin with full-size (rectangular) wires that nearly fill the bracket slot with a force application deemed to be physiologically desirable for tooth movement and compatible with patient comfort.

  18. Characterization of closed nickel-titanium orthodontic coil springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeron, T. [Rene Descartes Univ., Paris V, Pontoise (France). Faculte de Chirurgie Dentaire; Filleul, M.P. [Rene Descartes Univ., Paris V, Pontoise (France). Faculte de Chirurgie Dentaire; ENSCP, Paris (France). Lab. de Metallurgie Structurale; Humbeeck, J. van [Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Faculteit Toegepaste Wetenschappen, Metaalkunde en Toegepaste Materialkund

    2001-11-01

    Nickel-titanium orthodontic coil springs are used to move teeth with low forces and slow deactivation. The present paper provides data on transformation temperatures and on load-deflection rate at buccal temperature of closed Nickel-Titanium coil springs available on the market from ORMCO {sup trademark} and GAC {sup trademark}. All the springs exhibited superelasticity but their properties were not stable in the range of buccal temperatures and varied not only from one manufacturer to the other but they also varied from one batch to the other of each supplier. The need for more stability is stressed. (orig.)

  19. Ni-Ti Alloys for Tribological Applications: The Effects of Serendipity on Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Novel superelastic materials based upon Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) alloys are an emerging technology that almost escaped recognition. Though steel is the dominant material of choice for mechanical components (bearings and gears) it has intrinsic limitations related to corrosion and plastic deformation. In 2004, at the request of a small manufacturing firm, Nitinol 60 was assessed as an alternative to bearing steel. Early investigations showed it to be hard and impervious to aqueous corrosion but its tribological properties were not fully explored. Conventional wisdom in the field of tribology suggests that alloys rich in titanium are poor candidate bearing materials but NiTi, an intermetallic, demonstrates that such thinking can be and often is, wrong. Though early stage tests reveal acceptable friction and wear behavior, extensive materials engineering and processing development was essential in producing the precision microstructures needed for long-life bearings and gears. In the course of exploring this new material system other game-changing and unexpected properties, such as superelastic resilience, were observed. Today, the aerospace community is exploiting the unique characteristics of the NiTi alloy materials to solve problems on earth, underwater and in space. A fortunate decision to acknowledge a single industrial request turned out to be the key to an entirely new technology.

  20. A study on FlexMaster : a Ni-Ti rotary engine driven system for root canal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M S; Bashar, A K; Begumr, J A; Kinoshita, J I

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of recently introduced rotary Nickel Titanium FlexMaster engine driven system was evaluated for cleaning and shaping of root canals in extracted human teeth and compared with that done by the Nickel Titanium Flexofile hand instruments. A total of 40 root canals from 36 extracted mandibular and maxillary teeth with curvature ranging between 20 and 30 degree were divided into two groups, consisting 20 canals in each. FlexMaster instrumentation was done in 20 canals, using crown-down technique and manual filing with Flexofile was done in other 20 canals, using conventional and step-back techniques. 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution and 17% ethelene di-amine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) were used alternatively for irrigation after canal preparation by each instrument size. Time needed for canal preparation of individual canal was recorded. A procedural error such as instrument breakage was also noted. After preparation, all the roots were cut longitudinally by using diamond burs in turbine handpiece and examined under scanning electron microscope. Apical region was quantified for debris and smear layer based on a 5-score numerical evaluation scale. The data established for scoring the debris and smear layer and preparation time of individual canal were analyzed statistically using the Mann-Whitney U test. Completely cleaned root canals were not found with any of the two instruments and none of the instruments maintained the original canal uniformity and regular dentine surface. Because significantly less debris was found in the apical region using the manual filing technique (p< 0.05). Thus the flexmaster system was found to produce less cleaner root canal walls than manual technique. Only one FlexMaster finishing file sized 30 was separated in the apical region during preparation of 30 degree curved canal. The time taken by FlexMaster was significantly better (p< 0.01) than that of hand instruments.

  1. Effect of titanium on the creep deformation behaviour of 14Cr-15Ni-Ti stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, S.; Mathew, M. D.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Mannan, S. L.

    2011-02-01

    14Cr-15Ni-Ti modified stainless steel alloyed with additions of phosphorus and silicon is a potential candidate material for the future cores of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. In order to optimise the titanium content in this steel, creep tests have been conducted on the heats with different titanium contents of 0.18, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.36 wt.% at 973 K at various stress levels. The stress exponents indicated that the rate controlling deformation mechanism was dislocation creep. A peak in the variation of rupture life with titanium content was observed around 0.23 wt.% titanium and the peak was more pronounced at lower stresses. The variation in creep strength with titanium content was correlated with transmission electron microscopic investigations. The peak in creep strength exhibited by the material with 0.23 wt.% titanium is attributed to the higher volume fraction of fine secondary titanium carbide (TiC) precipitates.

  2. Effect of titanium on the creep deformation behaviour of 14Cr-15Ni-Ti stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latha, S. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Mathew, M.D., E-mail: mathew@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Mannan, S.L. [National Engineering College, Kovilpatti, Tamil Nadu 628 503 (India)

    2011-02-28

    14Cr-15Ni-Ti modified stainless steel alloyed with additions of phosphorus and silicon is a potential candidate material for the future cores of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. In order to optimise the titanium content in this steel, creep tests have been conducted on the heats with different titanium contents of 0.18, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.36 wt.% at 973 K at various stress levels. The stress exponents indicated that the rate controlling deformation mechanism was dislocation creep. A peak in the variation of rupture life with titanium content was observed around 0.23 wt.% titanium and the peak was more pronounced at lower stresses. The variation in creep strength with titanium content was correlated with transmission electron microscopic investigations. The peak in creep strength exhibited by the material with 0.23 wt.% titanium is attributed to the higher volume fraction of fine secondary titanium carbide (TiC) precipitates.

  3. Effect of titanium on the creep deformation behaviour of 14Cr-15Ni-Ti stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latha, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Mannan, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    14Cr-15Ni-Ti modified stainless steel alloyed with additions of phosphorus and silicon is a potential candidate material for the future cores of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. In order to optimise the titanium content in this steel, creep tests have been conducted on the heats with different titanium contents of 0.18, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.36 wt.% at 973 K at various stress levels. The stress exponents indicated that the rate controlling deformation mechanism was dislocation creep. A peak in the variation of rupture life with titanium content was observed around 0.23 wt.% titanium and the peak was more pronounced at lower stresses. The variation in creep strength with titanium content was correlated with transmission electron microscopic investigations. The peak in creep strength exhibited by the material with 0.23 wt.% titanium is attributed to the higher volume fraction of fine secondary titanium carbide (TiC) precipitates.

  4. Comparison of the superelasticity of different nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires and the loss of their properties by heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Humberto; Moyano, Javier; Gil, Javier; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and compare mechanical properties of eight widely used nickel-titanium orthodontic wires under uniform testing conditions and to determine the influence of the heat treatments on the loss of the superelasticity. Ten archwires from two batches from eight different manufacturers were evaluated. A three-point bending test was performed, in accordance with ISO 15841:2006, on 80 round nickel-titanium archwire segments of 0.016 inch. To obtain a load-deflection curve, the centre of each segment was deflected to 3.1 mm and then unloaded until force became zero. On the unloading curve, deflection at the end of the plateau and forces delivered at that point, and at 3, 2, 1 and 0.5 mm of deflection, were recorded. Plateau slopes were calculated from 3 and from 2 mm of deflection. Data obtained were statistically analysed to determine inter-brand, intra-brand and inter-batch differences (P Sentalloy M (1.001 N)] was 0.998 N (102 gf). The Nitinol SuperElastic plateau slope (0.353 N/mm) was the only one that was statistically different from 2 mm of deflection, as compared with the other brand values (0.129-0.155 N/mm). Damon Optimal Force described the gentlest slope from 3 mm of deflection (0.230 N/mm) and one of the longest plateaus. Titanol and Orthonol showed the most notable intra-brand differences, whereas inter-batch variability was significant for Nitinol (Henry Schein), Euro Ni-Ti and Orthonol. Superelasticity degree and exerted forces differed significantly among brands. Superelasticity of Nitinol SuperElastic was not observed, while Damon Optimal Force and Proclinic Ni-Ti Superelástico (G&H) showed the most superelastic curves. Intra-brand and inter-batch differences were observed in some brands. In all cases, the heat treatment at 600 °C produces precipitation in the matrix. The precipitates are rich in titanium and this fact produce changes in the chemical composition of the matrix and the loss of

  5. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  7. In Vivo Force Decay of Niti Closed Coil Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Crystal; Nguyen, Tung; Koroluk, Lorne; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nickel-titanium (NiTi) closed coil springs are purported to deliver constant forces over extended ranges of activation and working times. In vivo studies supporting this claim are limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate changes in force decay properties of NiTi closed coil springs after clinical use. Methods Pseudoelastic force-deflection curves for 30 NiTi coil springs (used intra-orally) and 15 matched laboratory control springs (simulated intra-oral conditions - artificial saliva, 37°C) were tested pre- and post-retrieval via Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and the Instron machine, respectively, to evaluate amount of force loss and hysteresis change following 4, 8, or 12 weeks of working time (n=10 per group). Effect of the oral environment and clinical use on force properties were evaluated by comparing in vivo and in vitro data. Results The springs studied showed a statistically significant decrease in force (~12%) following 4 weeks of clinical use (pspace closure at an average rate of 0.91mm per month was still observed despite this decrease in force. In vivo and in vitro force loss data were not statistically different. Conclusions NiTi closed coil springs do not deliver constant forces when used intra-orally, but they still allow for space closure rates of ~1mm/month. PMID:24703289

  8. Comparison of cyclic fatigue life of nickel-titanium files: an examination using high-speed camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Özyürek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To determine the actual revolutions per minute (rpm values and compare the cyclic fatigue life of Reciproc (RPC, VDW GmbH, WaveOne (WO, Dentsply Maillefer, and TF Adaptive (TFA, Axis/SybronEndo nickel-titanium (NiTi file systems using high-speed camera. Materials and Methods Twenty RPC R25 (25/0.08, 20 WO Primary (25/0.08, and 20 TFA ML 1 (25/0.08 files were employed in the present study. The cyclic fatigue tests were performed using a dynamic cyclic fatigue testing device, which has an artificial stainless steel canal with a 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. The files were divided into 3 groups (group 1, RPC R25 [RPC]; group 2, WO Primary [WO]; group 3, TF Adaptive ML 1 [TFA]. All the instruments were rotated until fracture during the cyclic fatigue test and slow-motion videos were captured using high-speed camera. The number of cycles to failure (NCF was calculated. The data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, p < 0.05. Results The slow-motion videos were indicated that rpm values of the RPC, WO, and TFA groups were 180, 210, and 425, respectively. RPC (3,464.45 ± 487.58 and WO (3,257.63 ± 556.39 groups had significantly longer cyclic fatigue life compared with TFA (1,634.46 ± 300.03 group (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference in the mean length of the fractured fragments. Conclusions Within the limitation of the present study, RPC and WO NiTi files showed significantly longer cyclic fatigue life than TFA NiTi file.

  9. Surface chemistry and cytotoxicity of reactively sputtered tantalum oxide films on NiTi plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, K. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Department of Physics & Energy, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Kolaj-Robin, O.; Belochapkine, S.; Laffir, F. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Gandhi, A.A. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Department of Physics & Energy, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Tofail, S.A.M., E-mail: tofail.syed@ul.ie [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Department of Physics & Energy, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-08-31

    NiTi, an equiatomic alloy containing nickel and titanium, exhibits unique properties such as shape memory effect and superelasticity. NiTi also forms a spontaneous protective titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) layer that allows its use in biomedical applications. Despite the widely perceived biocompatibility there remain some concerns about the sustainability of the alloy's biocompatibility due to the defects in the TiO{sub 2} protective layer and the presence of high amount of sub-surface Ni, which can give allergic reactions. Many surface treatments have been investigated to try to improve both the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of this layer. For such purposes, we have sputter deposited tantalum (Ta) oxide thin films onto the surface of the NiTi alloy. Despite being one of the promising metals for biomedical applications, Ta, and its various oxides and their interactions with cells have received relatively less attention. The oxidation chemistry, crystal structure, morphology and biocompatibility of these films have been investigated. In general, reactive sputtering especially in the presence of a low oxygen mixture yields a thicker film with better control of the film quality. The sputtering power influenced the surface oxidation states of Ta. Both microscopic and quantitative cytotoxicity measurements show that Ta films on NiTi are biocompatible with little to no variation in cytotoxic response when the surface oxidation state of Ta changes. - Highlights: • Reactive sputtering in low oxygen mixture yields thicker better quality films. • Sputtering power influenced surface oxidation states of Ta. • Cytotoxicity measurements show Ta films on NiTi are biocompatible. • Little to no variation in cytotoxic response when oxidation state changes.

  10. A preliminary study of cladding steel with NiTi by microwave-assisted brazing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.Y.; Cheng, F.T.; Man, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel titanium (NiTi) plate of 1.2 mm thickness was successfully clad on AISI 316L stainless steel substrate by a microwave-assisted brazing process. Brazing was conducted in a multimode microwave oven in air using a copper-based brazing material in tape form. The brazing material was melted in a few minutes by microwave-induced plasma initiated by conducting wires surrounding the brazing assembly. Metallographic study by scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) and compositional analysis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of the brazed joint revealed metallurgical bonding formed via inter-diffusion between the brazing filler and the adjacent materials. A shear bonding strength in the range of 100-150 MPa was recorded in shear tests of the brazed joint. SEM and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis for the surface of as-received NiTi plate and NiTi cladding showed similar microstructure and phase composition. Nanoindentation tests also indicated that the superelastic properties of NiTi were essentially retained. The cavitation erosion resistance of the NiTi cladding was essentially the same as that of as-received NiTi plate, and higher than that obtained in laser or TIG (tungsten-inert gas) surfacing. The high resistance could be attributed to avoidance of dilution and defect formation in the NiTi clad since the cladding did not undergo melting and solidification in the brazing process. Electrochemical tests also recorded similar corrosion resistance in both as-received NiTi and NiTi cladding. Thus, the present study indicates that microwave-assisted brazing is a simple, economical, and feasible process for cladding NiTi on 316L stainless steel for enhancing cavitation erosion resistance

  11. The placement of Y-shaped titanium-nickel memory alloy stent in the carina: a fundamental study in experimental canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Wei; Shen Che

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pathological changes of local airway tissue after inserting Yshaped titanium-nickel memory alloy stent in carina, and to evaluate CT three-dimensional reconstruction technique in postoperative and follow-up observation. Methods: Twelve healthy adult canines were enrolled in this study. Based on the information of the carina obtained from CT three-dimensional reconstruction images, the preparation of Y-shape netlike stent was made by knitting method with single Ni-Ti memory alloy wire. The stent was then inserted in canine's carina with the help of a releasing system. After the operation fiberbronchoscopy and CT three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. The animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after the procedure and the bronchus of the stenting segment was removed and sent for histopathologic examination. Results: Technical success was achieved in all canines with the stent right in the carina. The airway remained unobstructed 12 weeks after the procedure. Histopathologic examination revealed that the stent became partial epithelialization. Conclusion: The Y-shaped titanium-nickel memory alloy stent has good histocompatibility and physicochemical stability and no re-stenosis of the airway develops in the follow-up period of three months. The stent-releasing technique is easy and simple. As a non-invasive and convenient exam, CT three-dimensional reconstruction technique is of great value in postoperative follow-up observation. (authors)

  12. Investigations on laser induced nickel and titanium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.K.U.; Latif, A.; Bhatti, K.A.; Rafique, M.S.; Yousaf, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were performed to find out plasma parameters for Nickel and Titanium metals which were irradiated in air (1 atm) to produce plasma plume using Q switched Nd: YAG pulsed laser of 1.1 MW, 10 m J, 1064 nm and 9-14 ns. Langmuir probe was used as a diagnostic tool. The signals at different probe voltages were recorded on digital storage oscilloscope. The information carried by the signals was utilized to calculate electron density, electron temperature, Debye's length and number of particles in Debye's sphere. The study shows that the calculated values of these parameters for Nickel and Titanium are different except Debye's length. Plasma parameters strongly depend on probe potentials, material used and ambient conditions. (author)

  13. Investigation of the Dissolution-Reformation Cycle of the Passive Oxide Layer on NiTi Orthodontic Archwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, B.; Birer, O.; Canadinc, D.

    2017-09-01

    Dissolution-reformation cycle of the passive oxide layer on the nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwires was investigated, which has recently been recognized as one of the key parameters dictating the biocompatibility of archwires. Specifically, commercially available NiTi orthodontic archwires were immersed in artificial saliva solutions of different pH values (2.3, 3.3, and 4.3) for four different immersion periods: 1, 7, 14, and 30 days. Characterization of the virgin and tested samples revealed that the titanium oxide layer on the NiTi archwire surfaces exhibit a dissolution-reformation cycle within the first 14 days of the immersion period: the largest amount of Ni ion release occurred within the first week of immersion, while it significantly decreased during the reformation period from day 7 to day 14. Furthermore, the oxide layer reformation was catalyzed on the grooves within the peaks and valleys due to relatively larger surface energy of these regions, which eventually decreased the surface roughness significantly within the reformation period. Overall, the current results clearly demonstrate that the analyses of dissolution-reformation cycle of the oxide layer in orthodontic archwires, surface roughness, and ion release behavior constitute utmost importance in order to ensure both the highest degree of biocompatibility and an efficient medical treatment.

  14. Flexibility and torsional behaviour of rotary nickel-titanium PathFile, RaCe ISO 10, Scout RaCe and stainless steel K-File hand instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, R K L; Alves, J L; Buono, V T L; Bahia, M G A

    2014-03-01

    To assess and compare the flexibility and torsional resistance of PathFile, RaCe ISO 10 and Scout RaCe instruments in relation to stainless steel K-File hand instruments. Rotary PathFile (sizes 13, 16 and 19; .02 taper), Race ISO 10 (size 10; 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 tapers), Scout RaCe (sizes 10, 15 and 20; 0.02 taper) and hand K-File (sizes 10, 15 and 20; 0.02 taper) instruments were evaluated. Alloy chemical composition, phases present and transformation temperatures were determined for the NiTi instruments. For all instruments, diameters at each millimetre from the tip as well as cross-sectional areas at 3 mm from the tip were measured based on ANSI/ADA Specification No. 101 using image analysis software. Resistance to bending and torsional resistance were determined according to specification ISO 3630-1. Vickers microhardness measurements were also taken in all instruments to assess their strength. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (α = 0.05). The alloys used in the manufacture of the three types of NiTi instruments had approximately the same chemical composition, but the PathFile instruments had a higher Af transformation temperature and contained a small amount of B19' martensite. All instruments had diameter values within the standard tolerance. The bending and torsional resistance values were significantly increased relative to the instrument diameter and cross-sectional area. PathFile instruments were the most flexible and the least torque resistant, whilst the stainless steel instruments were the least flexible although they were more torque resistant than the NiTi instruments. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mechanical and microstructural integrity of nickel-titanium and stainless steel laser joined wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannod, J.; Bornert, M.; Bidaux, J.-E.; Bataillard, L.; Karimi, A.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.; Hessler-Wyser, A.

    2011-01-01

    The biomedical industry shows increasing interest in the joining of dissimilar metals, especially with the aim of developing devices that combine different mechanical and corrosive properties. As an example, nickel-titanium shape memory alloys joined to stainless steel are very promising for new invasive surgery devices, such as guidewires. A fracture mechanics study of such joined wires was carried out using in situ tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy imaging combined with chemical analysis, and revealed an unusual fracture behaviour at superelastic stress. Nanoindentation was performed to determine the mechanical properties of the welded area, which were used as an input for mechanical computation in order to understand this unexpected behaviour. Automated image correlation allowed verification of the mechanical modelling and a reduced stress-strain model is proposed to explain the special fracture mechanism. This study reveals the fact that tremendous property changes at the interface between the NiTi base wire and the weld area have more impact on the ultimate tensile strength than the chemical composition variation across the welded area.

  16. Effect of educational intervention on adoption of new endodontic technology by general dental practitioners: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M; Eriksson, H G; Axelsson, S; Tegelberg, A

    2009-04-01

    To survey the clinical endodontic protocols of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in public dental clinics and to assess the effect of an educational intervention on the adoption of a nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary system. General dental practitioners in a Swedish Intervention County (IC), underwent an educational programme in endodontics. A follow-up questionnaire was posted to 98 GDPs in the IC and to 97 GDPs in a Control County (CC), where no specific training had been provided. The questionnaire concerned demographics, clinical endodontic protocols and instrumentation techniques. The response rate to the questionnaire was 87%. More than 90% of all GDPs reported they always or generally used rubber dam, determined working length, used the canal irrigant 0.5% buffered NaOCl and calcium hydroxide as an interappointment dressing. Two of three GDPs reported, they generally or always informed the patient of the prognosis. Every second GDP reported routines for postoperative recall and follow-up. The Ni-Ti rotary technique was reported to be completely adopted by 77% of the GDPs in the IC, significantly higher than in the CC (6%), P educational programme in Ni-Ti rotary instrumentation reported they had successfully integrated the technique into daily clinical practice.

  17. [Comparison of effectiveness and safety between Twisted File technique and ProTaper Universal rotary full sequence based on micro-computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-bo; Chen, Chen; Liang, Yu-hong

    2016-02-18

    To evaluate the efficacy and security of two type of rotary nickel titanium system (Twisted File and ProTaper Universal) for root canal preparation based on micro-computed tomography(micro-CT). Twenty extracted molars (including 62 canals) were divided into two experimental groups and were respectively instrumented using Twisted File rotary nickel titanium system (TF) and ProTaper Universal rotary nickel titanium system (PU) to #25/0.08 following recommended protocol. Time for root canal instrumentation (accumulation of time for every single file) was recorded. The 0-3 mm root surface from apex was observed under an optical stereomicroscope at 25 × magnification. The presence of crack line was noted. The root canals were scanned with micro-CT before and after root canal preparation. Three-dimensional shape images of canals were reconstructed, calculated and evaluated. The amount of canal central transportation of the two groups was calculated and compared. The shorter preparation time [(0.53 ± 0.14) min] was observed in TF group, while the preparation time of PU group was (2.06 ± 0.39) min (Pvs. (0.097 ± 0.084) mm, P<0.05]. No instrument separation was observed in both the groups. Cracks were not found in both the groups either based in micro-CT images or observation under an optical stereomicroscope at 25 × magnification. Compared with ProTaper Universal, Twisted File took less time in root canal preparation and exhibited better shaping ability, and less canal transportation.

  18. Polymer Hydrogel/Polybutadiene/Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Hybrid Actuators for the Characterization of NiTi Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jeličić

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues with the use of nickel titanium alloy (NiTi implants in cardiovascular implants (stents is that these devices must be of very high quality in order to avoid subsequent operations due to failing stents. For small stents with diameters below ca. 2 mm, however, stent characterization is not straightforward. One of the main problems is that there are virtually no methods to characterize the interior of the NiTi tubes used for fabrication of these tiny stents. The current paper reports on a robust hybrid actuator for the characterization of NiTi tubes prior to stent fabrication. The method is based on a polymer/hydrogel/magnetic nanoparticle hybrid material and allows for the determination of the inner diameter at virtually all places in the raw NiTi tubes. Knowledge of the inner structure of the raw NiTi tubes is crucial to avoid regions that are not hollow or regions that are likely to fail due to defects inside the raw tube. The actuator enables close contact of a magnetic polymer film with the inner NiTi tube surface. The magnetic signal can be detected from outside and be used for a direct mapping of the tube interior. As a result, it is possible to detect critical regions prior to expensive and slow stent fabrication processes.

  19. Shaping ability of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in curved root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Ali; Moradi, Saeed; Forghani, Maryam; Monajemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Disinfection and subsequent obturation of the root canal space require adequate mechanical enlargement of the canals. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the shaping ability of Mtwo, RaCe and Medin rotary instruments during the preparation of curved root canals. Sixty mesiobuccal root canals of mandibular molars with severe curvatures between 25-35(°) and radius of 4-9 mm were randomly divided into three groups of 20 canals each. Using pre- and post-instrumentation radiographs, straightening of the canal and the apical transportation were determined with AutoCAD software. The data were analyzed using Chi square, analysis of variance, and post-hoc tests and the significance level was set at P0.05). Under the conditions of this in vitro study, Mtwo instruments seemed superior to the two other rotary instruments.

  20. An analytical mechanical model to describe the response of NiTi rotary endodontic files in a curved root canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Agnes Marie Francoise [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Ecole des Ponts Paristech (ENPC), Champs-sur-Marne (France); Bahia, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ehrlacher, Alain [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Ecole des Ponts Paristech (ENPC), Champs-sur-Marne (France); Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes, E-mail: vbuono@demet.ufmg.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-08-01

    Aim: To build a mathematical model describing the mechanical behavior of NiTi rotary files while they are rotating in a root canal. Methodology: The file was seen as a beam undergoing large transformations. The instrument was assumed to be rotating steadily in the root canal, and the geometry of the canal was considered as a known parameter of the problem. The formulae of large transformations mechanics then allowed the calculation of the Green-Lagrange strain field in the file. The non-linear mechanical behavior of NiTi was modeled as a continuous piecewise linear function, assuming that the material did not reach plastic deformation. Criteria locating the changes of behavior of NiTi were established and the tension field in the file, and the external efforts applied on it were calculated. The unknown variable of torsion was deduced from the equilibrium equation system using a Coulomb contact law which solved the problem on a cycle of rotation. Results: In order to verify that the model described well reality, three-point bending experiments were managed on superelastic NiTi wires, whose results were compared to the theoretical ones. It appeared that the model gave a good mentoring of the empirical results in the range of bending angles that interested us. Conclusions: Knowing the geometry of the root canal, one is now able to write the equations of the strain and stress fields in the endodontic instrument, and to quantify the impact of each macroscopic parameter of the problem on its response. This should be useful to predict failure of the files under rotating bending fatigue, and to optimize the geometry of the files. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mechanical model of the behavior of a NiTi endodontic instrument was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model was validated with results of three-point bending tests on NiTi wires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is appropriate for the optimization of instruments' geometry.

  1. An analytical mechanical model to describe the response of NiTi rotary endodontic files in a curved root canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Agnès Marie Françoise; Bahia, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo; Ehrlacher, Alain; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To build a mathematical model describing the mechanical behavior of NiTi rotary files while they are rotating in a root canal. Methodology: The file was seen as a beam undergoing large transformations. The instrument was assumed to be rotating steadily in the root canal, and the geometry of the canal was considered as a known parameter of the problem. The formulae of large transformations mechanics then allowed the calculation of the Green–Lagrange strain field in the file. The non-linear mechanical behavior of NiTi was modeled as a continuous piecewise linear function, assuming that the material did not reach plastic deformation. Criteria locating the changes of behavior of NiTi were established and the tension field in the file, and the external efforts applied on it were calculated. The unknown variable of torsion was deduced from the equilibrium equation system using a Coulomb contact law which solved the problem on a cycle of rotation. Results: In order to verify that the model described well reality, three-point bending experiments were managed on superelastic NiTi wires, whose results were compared to the theoretical ones. It appeared that the model gave a good mentoring of the empirical results in the range of bending angles that interested us. Conclusions: Knowing the geometry of the root canal, one is now able to write the equations of the strain and stress fields in the endodontic instrument, and to quantify the impact of each macroscopic parameter of the problem on its response. This should be useful to predict failure of the files under rotating bending fatigue, and to optimize the geometry of the files. - Highlights: ► A mechanical model of the behavior of a NiTi endodontic instrument was developed. ► The model was validated with results of three-point bending tests on NiTi wires. ► The model is appropriate for the optimization of instruments' geometry.

  2. Endodontic Shaping Performance Using Nickel–Titanium Hand and Motor ProTaper Systems by Novice Dental Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Ming-Gene; Chen, San-Yue; Huang, Heng-Li; Tsai, Chi-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Preparing a continuous tapering conical shape and maintaining the original shape of a canal are obligatory in root canal preparation. The purpose of this study was to compare the shaping performance in simulated curved canal resin blocks of the same novice dental students using hand-prepared and engine-driven nickel–titanium (NiTi) rotary ProTaper instruments in an endodontic laboratory class. Methods: Twenty-three fourth-year dental students attending China Medical University Dental Schoo...

  3. Cyclic fatigue resistances of several nickel-titanium glide path rotary and reciprocating instruments at body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, K; Uslu, G; Gündoğar, M; Özyürek, T; Grande, N M; Plotino, G

    2018-01-31

    To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of the One G, ProGlider, HyFlex EDM and R-Pilot glide path NiTi files at body temperature. Twenty One G (size 14, .03 taper), 20 ProGlider (size 16, .02 taper), 20 HyFlex EDM (size 10, .05 taper) and 20 R-Pilot (size 12.5, .04 taper) instruments were operated in rotation at 300 rpm (One G, ProGlider and HyFlex) or in reciprocation (R-Pilot) at 35 °C in artificial canals that were manufactured by reproducing the size and taper of the instrument until fracture occurred. The time to fracture was recorded in seconds using a digital chronometer, and the length of the fractured fragments was registered. Mean data were analysed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Tukey tests via SPSS 21.0 software. The statistical significance level was set at 5%. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the R-Pilot files was significantly greater than the other instruments, and the One G was significantly lower (P EDM and the ProGlider (P > 0.05). No significant difference (P > 0.05) was evident in the mean length of the fractured fragments of the various instruments. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the R-Pilot reciprocating glide path file was significantly greater than that of the rotary HyFlex EDM, ProGlider and One G glide path files. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cleaning capacity promoted by motor-driven or manual instrumentation using ProTaper Universal system: Histological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Frota, Matheus Franco; Filho, Idomeo Bonetti; Berbert, Fábio Luiz Camargo Villela; Sponchiado, Emilio Carlos; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cleaning capacity of the Protaper system using motor-driven or manual instrumentation. Ten mandibular molars were randomly separated into 2 groups (n = 5) according to the type of instrumentation performed, as follows: Group 1 - instrumentation with rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files using ProTaper Universal System (Dentsply/Maillefer); and, Group 2 - instrumentation with Ni-Ti hand files using ProTaper Universal (Dentsply-Maillefer). Afterwards, the teeth were sectioned transversely and submitted to histotechnical processing to obtain histological sections for microscopic evaluation. The images were analyzed by the Corel Photo-Paint X5 program (Corel Corporation) using an integration grid superimposed on the image. Statistical analysis (U-Mann-Whitney - P < 0.05) demonstrated that G1 presented higher cleaning capacity when compared to G2. The rotary technique presented better cleaning results in the apical third of the root canal system when compared to the manual technique.

  5. Nickel-titanium alloys: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on nickel-titanium wires was performed. The strategy was focused on Entrez-PubMed-OLDMEDLINE, Scopus and BioMed Central from 1963 to 2008. METHODS: Papers in English and French describing the behavior of these wires and laboratorial methods to identify crystalline transformation were considered. A total of 29 papers were selected. RESULTS: Nickel-titanium wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties in order to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. Many alloys called "superelastic" do not present this effect; they just behave as less stiff alloys, with a larger springback if compared to the stainless steel wires. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials, including temperature transition range (TTR and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.

  6. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria Jr, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Ni...

  7. Microstructural studies of 35 degrees C copper Ni-Ti orthodontic wire and TEM confirmation of low-temperature martensite transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, William A; Guo, Wenhua; Clark, William A T; Iijima, Masahiro

    2008-02-01

    Previous temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) study of nickel-titanium orthodontic wires revealed a large exothermic low-temperature peak that was attributed to transformation within martensitic NiTi. The purpose of this study was to use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to verify this phase transformation in a clinically popular nickel-titanium wire, identify its mechanism and confirm other phase transformations found by TMDSC, and to provide detailed information about the microstructure of this wire. The 35 degrees C Copper nickel-titanium wire (Ormco) with cross-section dimensions of 0.016 in. x 0.022 in. used in the earlier TMDSC investigation was selected. Foils were prepared for TEM analyses by mechanical grinding, polishing, dimpling, ion milling and plasma cleaning. Standard bright-field and dark-field TEM images were obtained, along with convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns. A cryo-stage with the electron microscope (Phillips CM 200) permitted the specimen to be observed at -187, -45, and 50 degrees C, as well as at room temperature. Microstructures were also observed with an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Room temperature microstructures had randomly oriented, elongated grains that were twinned. Electron diffraction patterns confirmed that phase transformations took place over temperature ranges previously found by TMDSC. TEM observations revealed a high dislocation density and fine-scale oxide particles, and that twinning is the mechanism for the low-temperature transformation in martensitic NiTi. TEM confirmed the low-temperature peak and other phase transformations observed by TMDSC, and revealed that twinning in martensite is the mechanism for the low-temperature peak. The high dislocation density and fine-scale oxide particles in the microstructure are the result of the wire manufacturing process.

  8. The effects of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and ProTaper Gold nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah

    2017-11-01

    It was aimed to compare the cyclic fatigue resistances of ProTaper Universal (PTU), ProTaper Next (PTN), and ProTaper Gold (PTG) and the effects of sterilization by autoclave on the cyclic fatigue life of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments. Eighty PTU, 80 PTN, and 80 PTG were included to the present study. Files were tested in a simulated canal. Each brand of the NiTi files were divided into 4 subgroups: group 1, as received condition; group 2, pre-sterilized instruments exposed to 10 times sterilization by autoclave; group 3, instruments tested were sterilized after being exposed to 25%, 50%, and 75% of the mean cycles to failure, then cycled fatigue test was performed; group 4, instruments exposed to the same experiment with group 3 without sterilization. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated. The data was statistically analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. PTG showed significantly higher NCF than PTU and PTN in group 1 ( p Autoclaving increased the cyclic fatigue resistances of PTN and PTG.

  9. Computed tomography evaluation of rotary systems on the root canal transportation and centering ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André PAGLIOSA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The endodontic preparation of curved and narrow root canals is challenging, with a tendency for the prepared canal to deviate away from its natural axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by cone-beam computed tomography, the transportation and centering ability of curved mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars after biomechanical preparation with different nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary systems. Forty teeth with angles of curvature ranging from 20° to 40° and radii between 5.0 mm and 10.0 mm were selected and assigned into four groups (n = 10, according to the biomechanical preparative system used: Hero 642 (HR, Liberator (LB, ProTaper (PT, and Twisted File (TF. The specimens were inserted into an acrylic device and scanned with computed tomography prior to, and following, instrumentation at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the root apex. The canal degree of transportation and centering ability were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05. The results demonstrated no significant difference (p > 0.05 in shaping ability among the rotary systems. The mean canal transportation was: -0.049 ± 0.083 mm (HR; -0.004 ± 0.044 mm (LB; -0.003 ± 0.064 mm (PT; -0.021 ± 0.064 mm (TF. The mean canal centering ability was: -0.093 ± 0.147 mm (HR; -0.001 ± 0.100 mm (LB; -0.002 ± 0.134 mm (PT; -0.033 ± 0.133 mm (TF. Also, there was no significant difference among the root segments (p > 0.05. It was concluded that the Hero 642, Liberator, ProTaper, and Twisted File rotary systems could be safely used in curved canal instrumentation, resulting in satisfactory preservation of the original canal shape.

  10. Computed tomography evaluation of rotary systems on the root canal transportation and centering ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliosa, Andre; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Silva-Souza, Yara Teresinha Correa; Alfredo, Edson; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao; Versiani, Marco Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    The endodontic preparation of curved and narrow root canals is challenging, with a tendency for the prepared canal to deviate away from its natural axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by cone-beam computed tomography, the transportation and centering ability of curved mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars after biomechanical preparation with different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems. Forty teeth with angles of curvature ranging from 20° to 40° and radii between 5.0 mm and 10.0 mm were selected and assigned into four groups (n = 10), according to the biomechanical preparative system used: Hero 642 (HR), Liberator (LB), ProTaper (PT), and Twisted File (TF). The specimens were inserted into an acrylic device and scanned with computed tomography prior to, and following, instrumentation at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the root apex. The canal degree of transportation and centering ability were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05). The results demonstrated no significant difference (p > 0.05) in shaping ability among the rotary systems. The mean canal transportation was: -0.049 ± 0.083 mm (HR); -0.004 ± 0.044 mm (LB); -0.003 ± 0.064 mm (PT); -0.021 ± 0.064 mm (TF). The mean canal centering ability was: -0.093 ± 0.147 mm (HR); -0.001 ± 0.100 mm (LB); -0.002 ± 0.134 mm (PT); -0.033 ± 0.133 mm (TF). Also, there was no significant difference among the root segments (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the Hero 642, Liberator, ProTaper, and Twisted File rotary systems could be safely used in curved canal instrumentation, resulting in satisfactory preservation of the original canal shape. (author)

  11. Computed tomography evaluation of rotary systems on the root canal transportation and centering ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliosa, Andre; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Silva-Souza, Yara Teresinha Correa; Alfredo, Edson, E-mail: ysousa@unaerp.br [Universidade de Ribeirao Preto (UNAERP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao; Versiani, Marco Aurelio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odoentologia

    2015-03-01

    The endodontic preparation of curved and narrow root canals is challenging, with a tendency for the prepared canal to deviate away from its natural axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by cone-beam computed tomography, the transportation and centering ability of curved mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars after biomechanical preparation with different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems. Forty teeth with angles of curvature ranging from 20° to 40° and radii between 5.0 mm and 10.0 mm were selected and assigned into four groups (n = 10), according to the biomechanical preparative system used: Hero 642 (HR), Liberator (LB), ProTaper (PT), and Twisted File (TF). The specimens were inserted into an acrylic device and scanned with computed tomography prior to, and following, instrumentation at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the root apex. The canal degree of transportation and centering ability were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05). The results demonstrated no significant difference (p > 0.05) in shaping ability among the rotary systems. The mean canal transportation was: -0.049 ± 0.083 mm (HR); -0.004 ± 0.044 mm (LB); -0.003 ± 0.064 mm (PT); -0.021 ± 0.064 mm (TF). The mean canal centering ability was: -0.093 ± 0.147 mm (HR); -0.001 ± 0.100 mm (LB); -0.002 ± 0.134 mm (PT); -0.033 ± 0.133 mm (TF). Also, there was no significant difference among the root segments (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the Hero 642, Liberator, ProTaper, and Twisted File rotary systems could be safely used in curved canal instrumentation, resulting in satisfactory preservation of the original canal shape. (author)

  12. Lateral and axial cutting efficiency of instruments manufactured with conventional nickel-titanium and novel gold metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R A; Arias, A; Peters, O A

    2018-05-01

    To isolate the effect of metallurgy in lateral and axial cutting efficacy against plastic and bovine dentine substrates by comparing two rotary systems with identical design but manufactured with either conventional nickel-titanium or heat-treated gold alloy. A total of 258 ProTaper Universal (PTU) and ProTaper Gold (PTG) Shaping instruments were used. Bending behaviour was assessed to determine the appropriate displacement associated with a 2 N force in lateral cutting. Ten instruments of each type were used in lateral action for 60 s against bovine dentine or plastic substrates four consecutive times producing four notches in each specimen. Ten further instruments of each type were used in on axial action in four standardized simulated root canals fabricated from 4-mm thick plastic or dentine discs. Both tests were performed at 300 rpm in a computer-controlled testing platform. Notch area and torsional load were compared with Student's t-tests. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare cutting efficiency across the four different time-points. Pearson correlation coefficients between substrates were also determined. For lateral action, all three PTG instruments cut significantly more effectively (P cut significantly more after 120 and 180 s (P cutting at 180 s on plastic and 120 s on bovine dentine (P cutting efficiency when compared to those made from conventional nickel-titanium. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. On aging of iron-nickel-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vintajkin, E.Z.; Dmitriev, V.B.; Udovenko, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of structural transformations on the initial stages of aging of Fe-(26-29) at. % Ni-(2.5-5.75) at. % Ti alloys was studied by neutron radiography. It was shown that at the earliest aging stages at 550 deg C there appear ordered areas which are FCC nuclei of the Ni 3 Ti phase. The rate of nucleation depends on the content of titanium in the all. In alloys with more than 3% Ti, nuclei appear even at the hardening stage. During the subsequent aging, the nuclei are enriched with nickel and titanium

  14. Forming of Hollow Shaft Forging From Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V by Means of Rotary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczak J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents chosen results of theoretical-experimental works concerning forming of hollow shafts forgings from titanium alloys, which are applied in aviation industry. At the first stage of conducted analysis, the forging forming process was modeled by means of finite element method. Calculations were made using software Simufact Forming. On the basis of performed simulations optimal parameters of rotary compression process were determined. Next, experimental tests of forging forming in laboratory conditions were made. For the research needs, a forging aggregate, designed by the Authors, was used. Conducted research works confirmed the possibility of metal forming (by means of rotary compression of hollow shafts from hard workable titanium alloys. Numerous advantages of rotary compression process, make it attractive both for low series production (aircraft industry and for mass production (automotive industry.

  15. Characterization of the laser gas nitrided surface of NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Z.D.; Man, H.C.; Yang, X.J.

    2003-01-01

    Owing to its unique properties such as shape memory effects, superelasticity and radiopacity, NiTi alloy is a valuable biomaterial for fabricating implants. The major concern of this alloy for biological applications is the high atomic percentage of nickel in the alloy and the deleterious effects to the body by the corrosion and/or wears products. In this study, a continuous wave Nd-YAG laser was used to conduct laser gas nitriding on the substrate of NiTi alloy. The results show that a continuous and crack-free thin TiN layer was produced in situ on the NiTi substrate. The characteristics of the nitrided surface layer were investigated using SEM, XRD, XPS and AAS. No nickel signal was detected on the top surface of the laser gas nitrided layer. As compared with the mechanical polished NiTi alloy, the nickel ion release rate out of the nitrided NiTi alloy decreased significantly in Hanks' solution at 37 deg. C, especially the initial release rate

  16. An analytical mechanical model to describe the response of NiTi rotary endodontic files in a curved root canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Agnès Marie Françoise; Bahia, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo; Ehrlacher, Alain; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes

    2012-08-01

    To build a mathematical model describing the mechanical behavior of NiTi rotary files while they are rotating in a root canal. The file was seen as a beam undergoing large transformations. The instrument was assumed to be rotating steadily in the root canal, and the geometry of the canal was considered as a known parameter of the problem. The formulae of large transformations mechanics then allowed the calculation of the Green-Lagrange strain field in the file. The non-linear mechanical behavior of NiTi was modeled as a continuous piecewise linear function, assuming that the material did not reach plastic deformation. Criteria locating the changes of behavior of NiTi were established and the tension field in the file, and the external efforts applied on it were calculated. The unknown variable of torsion was deduced from the equilibrium equation system using a Coulomb contact law which solved the problem on a cycle of rotation. In order to verify that the model described well reality, three-point bending experiments were managed on superelastic NiTi wires, whose results were compared to the theoretical ones. It appeared that the model gave a good mentoring of the empirical results in the range of bending angles that interested us. Knowing the geometry of the root canal, one is now able to write the equations of the strain and stress fields in the endodontic instrument, and to quantify the impact of each macroscopic parameter of the problem on its response. This should be useful to predict failure of the files under rotating bending fatigue, and to optimize the geometry of the files. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the shaping ability of Twisted Files with ProTaper and RevoS nickel-titanium instruments in simulated canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumhur Aydin

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, TFs respected the original canal curvature better than did ProTaper and RevoS rotary NiTi instruments. TF instruments also provided a more-centered apical preparation of the simulated canals at the apical third.

  18. Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Assessment of Canal Centering Ability and Transportation after Preparation with Twisted File and Bio RaCe Instrumentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiamars Honardar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of rotary Nickel-Titanium (NiTi instruments for endodontic preparation has introduced a new era in endodontic practice, but this issue has undergone dramatic modifications in order to achieve improved shaping abilities. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT has made it possible to accurately evaluate geometrical changes following canal preparation. This study was carried out to compare canal centering ability and transportation of Twisted File and BioRaCe rotary systems by means of cone-beam computed tomography.Thirty root canals from freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary teeth were selected. Teeth were mounted and scanned before and after preparation by CBCT at different apical levels. Specimens were divided into 2 groups of 15. In the first group Twisted File and in the second, BioRaCe was used for canal preparation. Canal transportation and centering ability after preparation were assessed by NNT Viewer and Photoshop CS4 software. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test and two-way ANOVA.All samples showed deviations from the original axes of the canals. No significant differences were detected between the two rotary NiTi instruments for canal centering ability in all sections. Regarding canal transportation however, a significant difference was seen in the BioRaCe group at 7.5mm from the apex.Under the conditions of this in vitro study, Twisted File and BioRaCe rotary NiTi files retained original canal geometry.

  19. Modeling, Simulation, Additive Manufacturing, and Experimental Evaluation of Solid and Porous NiTi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri Andani, Mohsen

    In recent years, shape memory alloys (SMAs) have entered a wide range of engineering applications in fields such as aerospace and medical applications. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) is the most commonly used SMAs due to its excellent functional characteristics (shape memory effect and superelasticity behavior). These properties are based on a solid-solid phase transformation between martensite and austenite. Beside these two characteristics, low stiffness, biocompatibility and corrosion properties of NiTi make it an attractive candidate for biomedical applications (e.g., bone plates, bone screws, and vascular stents). It is well know that manufacturing and processing of NiTi is very challenging. The functional properties of NiTi are significantly affected by the impurity level and due to the high titanium content, NiTi are highly reactive. Therefore, high temperature processed parts through methods such as melting and casting which result in increased impurity levels have inadequate structural and functional properties. Furthermore, high ductility and elasticity of NiTi, adhesion, work hardening and spring back effects make machining quite challenging. These unfavorable effects for machining cause significant tool wear along with decreasing the quality of work piece. Recently, additive manufacturing (AM) has gained significant attention for manufacturing NiTi. Since AM can create a part directly from CAD data, it is predicted that AM can overcome most of the manufacturing difficulties. This technique provides the possibility of fabricating highly complex parts, which cannot be processed by any other methods. Curved holes, designed porosity, and lattice like structures are some examples of mentioned complex parts. This work investigates manufacturing superelastic NiTi by selective laser melting (SLM) technique (using PXM by Phenix/3D Systems). An extended experimental study is conducted on the effect of subsequent heat treatments with different aging conditions on phase

  20. Laser cladding of austenitic stainless steel using NiTi strips for resisting cavitation erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.Y.; Cheng, F.T.; Man, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Being part of a larger project on using different forms of nickel titanium (NiTi) in the surface modification of stainless steel for enhancing cavitation erosion resistance, the present study employs NiTi strips as the cladding material. Our previous study shows that laser surfacing using NiTi powder can significantly increase the cavitation erosion resistance of AISI 316 L stainless steel [K.Y. Chiu, F.T. Cheng, H.C. Man, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 392 (2005) 348-358]. However, from an engineering point of view, NiTi strips are more attractive than powder because NiTi powder is very expensive due to high production cost. In the present study, NiTi strips were preplaced on AISI 316 L samples and remelted using a high-power CW Nd:YAG laser to form a clad layer. To lower the dilution due to the substrate material, samples doubly clad with NiTi were prepared. The volume dilution ratio in the singly clad sample was high, being in the range of 13-30% depending on the processing parameters, while that of the doubly clad sample was reduced to below 10%. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) reveals that the clad layer is composed of a NiTi B2 based matrix together with fine precipitates of a tetragonal structure. Vickers indentation shows a tough cladding/substrate interface. The microhardness of the clad layer is increased from 200 HV of the substrate to about 750 HV due to the dissolution of elements like Fe, Cr and N in the matrix. Nanoindentation tests record a recovery ratio near to that of bulk NiTi, a result attributable to a relatively low dilution. The cavitation erosion resistance of the doubly clad samples is higher than that of 316-NiTi-powder (samples laser-surfaced with NiTi powder) and approaches that of NiTi plate. The high erosion resistance is attributed to a high hardness, high indentation recovery ratio and the absence of cracks or pores

  1. Coating NiTi archwires with diamond-like carbon films: reducing fluoride-induced corrosion and improving frictional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S Y; Huang, J J; Kang, T; Diao, D F; Duan, Y Z

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to coat diamond-like carbon (DLC) films onto nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwires. The film protects against fluoride-induced corrosion and will improve orthodontic friction. 'Mirror-confinement-type electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering' was utilized to deposit DLC films onto NiTi archwires. The influence of a fluoride-containing environment on the surface topography and the friction force between the brackets and archwires were investigated. The results confirmed the superior nature of the DLC coating, with less surface roughness variation for DLC-coated archwires after immersion in a high fluoride ion environment. Friction tests also showed that applying a DLC coating significantly decreased the fretting wear and the coefficient of friction, both in ambient air and artificial saliva. Thus, DLC coatings are recommended to reduce fluoride-induced corrosion and improve orthodontic friction.

  2. Influence of Surface Roughness on the Fatigue Life of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Vieira, Márcia V B; Vieira, Victor T L; de Souza, Letícia Chaves; Dos Santos, Alexander Lopes

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of surface grooves (peaks and valleys) resulting from machining during the manufacturing process of polished and unpolished nickel-titanium BR4C endodontic files on the fatigue life of the instruments. Ten electropolished and 10 unpolished endodontic files were provided by the manufacturer. Specimens were from the same batch, but the unpolished instruments were removed from the production line before surface treatment. The instruments were evaluated with a profilometer to quantify the surface roughness on the working part of the instruments. Then the files were subjected to rotating bending fatigue tests. Analysis with the profilometer showed that surface grooves were deeper on the unpolished instruments compared with their electropolished counterparts. In the rotating bending fatigue test, the mean and standard deviation for the number of cycles until fracture (NCF) were greater for instruments with less pronounced grooves. Student t test revealed significant differences in all tests (P instruments tested; the smaller the groove depth, the greater the NCF. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of SLM on compressive response of NiTi scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Saedi, Soheil; Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Jahadakbar, Ahmadreza; Saghaian, Ehsan; Karaca, Haluk; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Porous Nickel-Titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi-SMAs) have attracted much attention in biomedical applications due to their high range of pure elastic deformability (i.e., superelasticity) as well as their bone-level modulus of elasticity (E≈12-20 GPa). In recent years, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) has been used to produce complex NiTi components. The focus of this study is to investigate the superelasticity and compressive properties of SLM NiTi-SMAs. To this aim, several NiTi components with different level of porosities (32- 58%) were fabricated from Ni50.8Ti (at. %) powder via SLM PXM by Phenix/3D Systems, using optimum processing parameter (Laser power-P=250 W, scanning speed-v=1250mm/s, hatch spacing-h=120μm, layer thickness-t=30μm). To tailor the superelasticity behavior at body temperature, the samples were solution annealed and aged for 15 min at 350°C. Then, transformation temperatures (TTs), superelastic response, and cyclic behavior of NiTi samples were studied. As the porosity was increased, the irrecoverable strain was observed to be higher in the samples. At the first superelastic cycle, 3.5%, 3.5%, and 2.7% strain recovery were observed for the porosity levels of 32%, 45%, and 58%, respectively. However, after 10 cycles, the superelastic response of the samples was stabilized and full strain recovery was observed. Finally, the modulus of elasticity of dense SLM NiTi was decreased from 47 GPa to 9 GPa in the first cycle by adding 58% porosity.

  4. Vibrations Generated by Several Nickel-titanium Endodontic File Systems during Canal Shaping in an Ex Vivo Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Min; Kim, Jin-Woo; Park, Se-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Mo; Kwak, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the vibration generated by several nickel-titanium (NiTi) file systems and transmitted to teeth under 2 different motions (continuous rotation motion and reciprocating motion). Sixty J-shaped resin blocks (Endo Training Bloc-J; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were trimmed to a root-shaped form and divided into 2 groups according to the types of electric motors: WaveOne motor (WOM, Dentsply Maillefer) and X-Smart Plus motor (XSM, Dentsply Maillefer). Each group was further subdivided into 3 subgroups (n = 10 each) according to the designated file systems: ProTaper Next (PTN, Dentsply Maillefer), ProTaper Universal (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer), and WaveOne (WOP, Dentsply Maillefer) systems. Vibration was measured during the pecking motion using an accelerometer attached to a predetermined consistent position. The average vibration values were subjected to 2-way analysis of variance as well as the t test and Duncan test for post hoc comparison at the 95% confidence interval. Both motor types and instrument types produced significantly different ranges of average vibrations. Regardless of the instrument types, the WOM group generated greater vibration than the XSM group (P file system may generate greater vibration than the continuous rotation NiTi file systems. The motor type also has a significant effect to amplify the vibrations. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Deflection test evaluation of different lots of the same nickel-titanium wire commercial brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Gaby Neves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the elastic properties of the load-deflection ratio of orthodontic wires of different lot numbers and the same commercial brand. Methods: A total of 40 nickel-titanium (NiTi wire segments (Morelli OrtodontiaTM - Sorocaba, SP, Brazil, 0.016-in in diameter were used. Groups were sorted according to lot numbers (lots 1, 2, 3 and 4. 28-mm length segments from the straight portion (ends of archwires were used. Deflection tests were performed in an EMIC universal testing machine with 5-N load cell at 1 mm/minute speed. Force at deactivation was recorded at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm deflection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare differences between group means. Results: When comparing the force of groups at the same deflection (3, 2 and 1 mm, during deactivation, no statistical differences were found. Conclusion: There are no changes in the elastic properties of different lots of the same commercial brand; thus, the use of different lots of the orthodontic wires used in this research does not compromise the final outcomes of the load-deflection ratio.

  6. Deflection test evaluation of different lots of the same nickel-titanium wire commercial brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Murilo Gaby; Lima, Fabrício Viana Pereira; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Rezende, Fernanda Soares; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the elastic properties of the load-deflection ratio of orthodontic wires of different lot numbers and the same commercial brand. A total of 40 nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire segments (Morelli Ortodontia™--Sorocaba, SP, Brazil), 0.016-in in diameter were used. Groups were sorted according to lot numbers (lots 1, 2, 3 and 4). 28-mm length segments from the straight portion (ends) of archwires were used. Deflection tests were performed in an EMIC universal testing machine with 5-N load cell at 1 mm/minute speed. Force at deactivation was recorded at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm deflection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare differences between group means. When comparing the force of groups at the same deflection (3, 2 and 1 mm), during deactivation, no statistical differences were found. There are no changes in the elastic properties of different lots of the same commercial brand; thus, the use of different lots of the orthodontic wires used in this research does not compromise the final outcomes of the load-deflection ratio.

  7. Comparison of titanium cable tension band and nickel-titanium patella concentrator for patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quan-Ming; Gu, Xiao-Feng; Cheng, Li; Feng, De-Hong

    2017-07-01

    Patellar fractures account for approximately 1% of all fractures. Due to the patella's importance as regards the extensor mechanism, effort should be made to preserve the patella. Several operative treatment methods have been introduced for patella fractures. This study aims to compare the clinical effect of a titanium cable tension band and nickeltitanium (NiTi) patella concentrator (NT-PC) in treating patella fractures. Thirty-nine patients with patella fractures were enrolled in this retrospective study. All the patients were treated via the open reduction internal fixation procedure using a titanium cable tension band or NT-PC. All the patients were followed up over an average period of 13 months. The main outcome measures were operation time, time of fracture union, postoperative complications, and Böstman knee scores. Statistical analyses were conducted between the 2 groups. All the patients were operated on successfully. The operation time of the NT-PC treatment group was less than that of the titanium cable tension band treatment group (p cable tension band and NT-PC groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the excellent and good results (p > 0.05). Both titanium cable tension band and NT-PC showed good efficacy for the treatment of patellar fractures. NT-PC fixation, a new option for the treatment of patella fractures, is a simple and effective fixation method.

  8. Welding of titanium and nickel alloy by combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyutina, Yu. N., E-mail: iuliiamaliutina@gmail.com; Bataev, A. A., E-mail: bataev@adm.nstu.ru; Shevtsova, L. I., E-mail: edeliya2010@mail.ru [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, 630073 (Russian Federation); Mali, V. I., E-mail: vmali@mail.ru; Anisimov, A. G., E-mail: anis@hydro.nsc.ru [Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    A possibility of titanium and nickel-based alloys composite materials formation using combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies was demonstrated in the current research. An employment of interlayer consisting of copper and tantalum thin plates makes possible to eliminate a contact between metallurgical incompatible titanium and nickel that are susceptible to intermetallic compounds formation during their interaction. By the following spark plasma sintering process the bonding has been received between titanium and titanium alloy VT20 through the thin powder layer of pure titanium that is distinguished by low defectiveness and fine dispersive structure.

  9. Release of nickel and chromium ions from orthodontic wires following the use of teeth whitening mouthwashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirHossein Mirhashemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corrosion resistance is an important requirement for orthodontic appliances. Nickel and chromium may be released from orthodontic wires and can cause allergic reactions and cytotoxicity when patients use various mouthwashes to whiten their teeth. Our study aimed to assess the release of nickel and chromium ions from nickel titanium (NiTi and stainless steel (SS orthodontic wires following the use of four common mouthwashes available on the market. Methods This in vitro, experimental study was conducted on 120 orthodontic appliances for one maxillary quadrant including five brackets, one band and half of the required length of SS, and NiTi wires. The samples were immersed in Oral B, Oral B 3D White Luxe, Listerine, and Listerine Advance White for 1, 6, 24, and 168 h. The samples immersed in distilled water served as the control group. Atomic absorption spectroscopy served to quantify the amount of released ions. Results Nickel ions were released from both wires at all time-points; the highest amount was in Listerine and the lowest in Oral B mouthwashes. The remaining two solutions were in-between this range. The process of release of chromium from the SS wire was the same as that of nickel. However, the release trend in NiTi wires was not uniform. Conclusions Listerine caused the highest release of ions. Listerine Advance White, Oral B 3D White Luxe, and distilled water were the same in terms of ion release. Oral B showed the lowest amount of ion release.

  10. Effect of the Addition of 3% Co in NiTi Alloy on Loading/Unloading Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukaoluan, A.; Dechkunakorn, S.; Anuwongnukroh, N.; Khantachawana, A.; Kaewtathip, P.; Kajornchaiyakul, J.; Wichai, W.

    2017-11-01

    The study evaluated the loading-unloading force in the load-deflection curve of the fabricated NiTiCo and NiTi wires. Wire alloys with Nickel, Titanium, and Cobalt (purity-99.95%) with atomic weight ratio 47Ni:50Ti:3Co and 50.6Ni:49.4Ti were prepared, sliced, and cold-rolled at 30% reduction, followed by heat treatment in a furnace at 400oC for 1 hour. The specimens of wire size of 0.016 x 0.022 inch2 were cut and subjected to three-point bending test to investigate the load-deflection curve at deflection point 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 mm. Descriptive statistic was used to evaluate each variables and independent t-test was used to compare between the groups. The results presented a load-deflection curve that resembled a typical superelastic wire. However, significant differences were seen in the loading-unloading forces between the two with an average loading force of 412.53g and 304.98g and unloading force of 292.40g and 208.08g for NiTiCo and NiTi wire, respectively. The force at each deflection point of NiTiCo in loading-unloading force was higher than NiTi wire. This study concluded that the addition of 3%Co in NiTi alloy can increase the loading-unloading force of NiTi wire but were within the range for orthodontic tooth movement.

  11. Application of Taguchi method to optimization of surface roughness during precise turning of NiTi shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the research results of surface quality research after the NiTi shape memory alloy (Nitinol) precise turning by the tools with edges made of polycrystalline diamonds (PCD). Nitinol, a nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium shape memory alloy, has wide applications in the arms industry, military, medicine and aerospace industry, and industrial robots. Due to their specific properties NiTi alloys are known to be difficult-to-machine materials particularly by using conventional techniques. The research trials were conducted for three independent parameters (vc, f, ap) affecting the surface roughness were analyzed. The choice of parameter configurations were performed by factorial design methods using orthogonal plan type L9, with three control factors, changing on three levels, developed by G. Taguchi. S/N ratio and ANOVA analyses were performed to identify the best of cutting parameters influencing surface roughness.

  12. Effect of nickel plating upon tensile tests of uranium--0.75 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemperly, V.C.

    1975-01-01

    Electrolytic-nickel-plated specimens of uranium-0.75 wt percent titanium alloy were tested in air at 20 and 100 percent relative humidities. Tensile-test ductility values were lowered by a high humidity and also by nickel plating alone. Baking the nickel-plated specimens did not eliminate the ductility degradation. Embrittlement because of nickel plating was also evident in tensile tests at -34 0 C. (U.S.)

  13. Effect of aging treatment on the in vitro nickel release from porous oxide layers on NiTi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L.E., E-mail: e.l.fratila-apachitei@tudelft.nl; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2013-06-01

    Despite the ability of creating porous oxide layers on nickel–titanium alloy (NiTi) surface for biofunctionalization, the use of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has raised concerns over the possible increased levels of Ni release. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aging in boiling water on Ni release from porous NiTi surfaces that have been formed by the PEO process. Based on different oxidation conditions, e.g. electrolyte composition and electrical parameters, three kinds of oxide layers with various characteristics were prepared on NiTi substrate. The process was followed by aging in boiling water for different durations. The Ni release was assessed by immersion tests in phosphate buffer saline and the Ni concentration was measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that aging in boiling water can significantly reduce the Ni release from oxidized porous samples, given that the duration of the treatment is finely adjusted according to the parameters of the as-formed oxide layer. Surface examination of the samples before and after aging in boiling water suggested that such a treatment is non-destructive while improving the corrosion resistance of oxidized samples, as evidenced by potentiodynamic polarization tests. The results of this study indicate that water boiling may be a suitable post-treatment required to minimize Ni release from porous oxides produced on NiTi by PEO for biomedical applications.

  14. Apical displacement produced by rotary nickel-titanium instruments and stainless steel files Deslocamento apical produzido por instrumentos de níquel-titânio acionados a motor e limas de aço inoxidável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Vanni

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical displacement produced by different rotary nickel-titanium instruments, testing the hypothesis that rotary systems with nickel-titanium instruments produce lower mean values of apical displacement than stainless steel hand instruments. A total of 100 maxillary permanent first molars were selected for the study. The mesiobuccal roots were sectioned at the top cervical third and embedded in blocks of self-curing resin. The specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups and the root canals were prepared using the following nickel-titanium instruments: Group 1 - Quantec system 2000 (Analytic Endodontics, Mexico; Group 2 - Pro-File T.0.04 (Dentsply/Maillefer, Switzerland; Group 3 - Pro-File Series 29 T.0.04 (Dentsply Tulsa, Switzerland; Group 4 - Pow-R T.0.02 (Moyco-Union Broach, USA. Specimens in Group 5 were prepared using stainless steel hand instruments Flexofile (Dentsply/Maillefer, Switzerland. All root canals were previously submitted to cervical preparation using Orifice Shaper instruments #1, 2, 3 and 4 (Dentsply/Maillefer, Switzerland. After odontometry, the remaining root canal was shaped employing increasingly larger instruments, so that the final instrument corresponded to Quantec #9, Pro-File Series 29 #6, and #35 for the other groups. Specimens in Groups 1 to 4 were prepared using an electric handpiece with 16:1 reduction at 350 rpm. The specimens in Group 5 were manually prepared. Apical displacement was measured and recorded by means of radiographic superimposition on a specific desk. Statistical analysis (ANOVA of the results revealed that all groups presented apical displacements. Considering only the nickel-titanium instruments, Group 4 showed the lowest mean value while Groups 2 and 3 produced the highest mean apical displacement values (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o deslocamento apical produzido por diferentes instrumentos de níquel-titânio acionadas a motor testando a

  15. Comparison of radiographic density and compaction index of root canal obturation using nickel titanium or stainless-steel spreaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both nickel titanium and stainless-steel spreaders are available. The obvious advantage of nickel titanium spreader over stainless steel spreaders is greater penetration in curved canals. Objective: To compare the radiographic density and compaction index of root canal obturation using nickel-titanium or stainless-steel spreaders in curved canals. Methods: In this experimental study the primary weight of 30 acrylic blocks with 45o degrees of apical curvature were measured by a scale (W1. After canals were prepared by step back master apical up to file #30 all blocks were weighed again (W2 and randomly divided in two groups of 15each. All canals were obturated by Cold lateral compaction technique (with nickel-titanium in one group and stainless-steel finger spreaders in another group. After all blocks were reweighed (W3, compaction index (W3-W2/W1-W2 was calculated. One radiograph was taken for each sample. Apical density of the apical third of each canal was measured by digital transmission densitometer. Data were analyzed statistically using T-test. Findings: Mean compaction index for nickel-titanium group was 7.67±2.38 and for stainless-steel group was 9.14±4.06. There was no significant difference between two groups. Mean radiographic density of obturation was 2.05±0.14 in nickel-titanium group and was 2.07±0.21 in stainless-steel group. There was no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that nickel-titanium spreaders are not superior than stainless-steel spreaders in obturating curved canal.

  16. Improvement on corrosion resistance of NiTi orthopedic materials by carbon plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, Ray W.Y.; Ho, Joan P.Y.; Luk, Camille M.Y.; Liu Xuanyong; Chung, Jonathan C.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Lu, William W.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) have potential applications as orthopedic implants because of their unique super-elastic properties and shape memory effects. However, the problem of out-diffusion of harmful Ni ions from the alloys during prolonged use inside a human body must be overcome before they can be widely used in orthopedic implants. In this work, we enhance the corrosion resistance of NiTi using carbon plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D). Our corrosion and simulated body fluid tests indicate that either an ion-mixed amorphous carbon coating fabricated by PIII and D or direct carbon PIII can drastically improve the corrosion resistance and block the out-diffusion of Ni from the materials. Results of atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicate that both C 2 H 2 -PIII and D and C 2 H 2 -PIII do not roughen the original flat surface to an extent that can lead to degradation in corrosion resistance

  17. Thermomechanical behavior of Ti-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, A.S.; Mahesh, K.K.; Santos, C.M.L. dos; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Costa Viana, C.S. da

    2008-01-01

    Phase transformations associated with shape memory effect in nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys can be one-stage, B19' (martensite) ↔ B2 (austenite), two-stage including an intermediate R-phase stage, or multiple-stage depending on the thermal and/or mechanical history of the alloy. In the present paper, we highlight the effect of (i) deformation by cold-rolling (from 10% to 40% thickness reduction) and (ii) final annealing on the transformation characteristics of a Ti-rich NiTi shape memory alloy. For this purpose, one set of samples initially heat treated at 773 K followed by cold-rolling (10-40% thickness reduction), has been further heat treated at various temperatures between 673 and 1073 K. Another sample was subjected to heat treatment at 1040 K for 300 s followed by hot rolling (50%) after cooling in air to 773 K and water quenching to room temperature (T room ). Phase transformations were studied using differential scanning calorimetry, electrical resistivity measurements and in situ X-ray diffraction. A specific pattern of transformation sequences is found as a result of combination of the competing effects due to mechanical-working and annealing

  18. NiTi Alloys: New Materials that enable Shockproof, Corrosion Immune Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Though steel is the dominant material of choice for mechanical components (bearings and gears) it has intrinsic limitations related to corrosion and plastic deformation. In contrast, dimensionally stable nickel-rich Ni-Ti alloys, such as Nitinol 60, are intrinsically rustproof and can withstand high contact loads without damage (denting). Over the last decade, focused RD to exploit these alloys for new applications has revealed the science behind NiTi's remarkable properties. In this presentation, the state-of-the-art of nickel-rich NiTi alloys will be introduced along with a discussion of how NASA is adopting this new technology inside the space station water recycling system as a pathfinder for more down-to-earth tribological challenges.

  19. SEM analysis of defects and wear on Ni-Ti rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Werington Borges; da Silva, Celso Monteiro; Lage-Marques, José Luiz; Habitante, Sandramarcia; da Rosa, Luiz Carlos Laureano; de Medeiros, João Marcelo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    SEM analysis of endodontic instruments from a Ni-Ti rotary system was assessed, before and after using them, considering their defects and deformations. Twenty Twisted File®, BioRąCe®, Mtwo®, and EndoWave® instruments were micrographed at 190× magnification. The files were washed and micrographed again to view alterations as to the presence or absence of irregular edges, grooves, microcavities, and scraping. Simulated root canal preparations were performed using these instruments. The instruments were cleaned and received a microscopic analysis after being used five times. After analysis tests were tested using Fisher's exact test and Kappa to evaluate the concordance among examiners. There was a statistically significant difference with respect to deformations between Twisted File® and other instruments (p  0.05). All Twisted File® instruments showed the same defects; however damage were lower than those found in BioRace® and Mtwo®. The Endowave® did not show the same defects. In accordance with the data we conclude that the presence of defects was higher in Twisted File® instruments as the instruments and BioRace® Mtwo® brand, the defect rate was smaller and Endowave® instruments had no defects. Regarding the presence of wear after five uses among the groups all instruments showed changes in their cutting blades. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A cost-minimization analysis of root canal treatment before and after education in nickel-titanium rotary technique in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M; Tegelberg, A; Eckerlund, I; Axelsson, S

    2012-07-01

    To compare root canal treatments performed before and after education in a nickel-titanium rotary technique (NiTiR) with respect to costs for instrumentation and number of instrumentation sessions in a County Public Dental Service in Sweden.   Following education, 77% of the general dental practitioners adopted completely the NiTiR. The randomly selected sample comprised 850 root canal treatments: 425 performed after the education, mainly using the NiTiR-technique (group A) and 425 performed before, using mainly stainless steel hand instrumentation (SSI) (group B). The number of instrumentation sessions in root canal treatments in group A and B was calculated. A CMA was undertaken on the assumption that treatment outcome was identical in group A and B. Direct costs associated with SSI and NiTiR were estimated and compared. Investment costs required for implementation of NiTiR were calculated, but not included in the CMA. Instrumentation sessions were counted in 418 (98%) root canal treatments performed in group A and 419 (99%) in group B. The number of instrumentation sessions in group A was significantly lower; 2.38, compared with 2.82 in group B (P session was saved. Root canal treatments in teeth with one canal, and three or more canals, were completed in significantly fewer instrumentation sessions after the education (P sessions were SEK 2587 (USD 411) for group A and SEK 2851 (USD 453) for group B, for teeth with one canal, and SEK 2946 (USD 468) for group A and SEK 3510 (USD 558) for group B, for teeth with three or more canals (year 2011). Root canal treatments of teeth with two canals showed no significant difference with respect to number of instrumentation sessions and costs. Significantly fewer instrumentation sessions were required in group A, and root canal instrumentation therefore costs less than in group B. On the assumption that treatment outcome is identical in group A and B, root canal instrumentation performed after the education was more

  1. Effect of particle size of titanium and nickel on the synthesis of NiTi by TE-SHS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Veselý, T.; Marek, I.; Dvořák, P.; Vojtěch, V.; Salvetr, P.; Karlík, M.; Haušild, P.; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2016), s. 932-938 ISSN 1073-5615 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03044S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : shape memory alloys * behavior * NiTi Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2016

  2. A Comparison of Apical Bacterial Extrusion in Manual, ProTaper Rotary, and One Shape Rotary Instrumentation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rakesh; Singla, Meenu G; Garg, Ashima; Dhawan, Anu

    2015-12-01

    Apical extrusion of irrigants and debris is an inherent limitation associated with cleaning and shaping of root canals and has been studied extensively because of its clinical relevance as a cause of flare-ups. Many factors affect the amount of extruded intracanal materials. The purpose of this study was to assess the bacterial extrusion by using manual, multiple-file continuous rotary system (ProTaper) and single-file continuous rotary system (One Shape). Forty-two human mandibular premolars were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis by using a bacterial extrusion model. The teeth were divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 12) and 1 control group (n = 6). The root canals of experimental groups were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions by using manual technique, ProTaper rotary system, or One Shape rotary system. Sterilized saline was used as an irrigant, and bacterial extrusion was quantified as colony-forming units/milliliter. The results obtained were statistically analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance for intergroup comparison and post hoc Tukey test for pair-wise comparison. The level for accepting statistical significance was set at P step-back technique exhibiting significantly more bacterial extrusion than the engine-driven systems. Of the 2 engine-driven systems, ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more bacteria than One Shape rotary system (P engine-driven nickel-titanium systems were associated with less apical extrusion. The instrument design may play a role in amount of extrusion. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria by various glide-path establishing systems: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Dagna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study compared the amount of apically extruded bacteria during the glide-path preparation by using multi-file and single-file glide-path establishing nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary systems. Materials and Methods Sixty mandibular first molar teeth were used to prepare the test apparatus. They were decoronated, blocked into glass vials, sterilized in ethylene oxide gas, infected with a pure culture of Enterococcus faecalis, randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups, and then prepared using manual stainless-steel files (group KF and glide-path establishing NiTi rotary files (group PF with PathFiles, group GF with G-Files, group PG with ProGlider, and group OG with One G. At the end of canal preparation, 0.01 mL NaCl solution was taken from the experimental vials. The suspension was plated on brain heart infusion agar and colonies of bacteria were counted, and the results were given as number of colony-forming units (CFU. Results The manual instrumentation technique tested in group KF extruded the highest number of bacteria compared to the other 4 groups (p < 0.05. The 4 groups using rotary glide-path establishing instruments extruded similar amounts of bacteria. Conclusions All glide-path establishment instrument systems tested caused a measurable apical extrusion of bacteria. The manual glide-path preparation showed the highest number of bacteria extruded compared to the other NiTi glide-path establishing instruments.

  4. Meant to make a difference, the clinical experience of minimally invasive endodontics with the self-adjusting file system in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Ajinkya M; Pawar, Mansing G; Kokate, Sharad R

    2014-01-01

    The vital steps in any endodontic treatment are thorough mechanical shaping and chemical cleaning followed by obtaining a fluid tight impervious seal by an inert obturating material. For the past two decades, introduction and use of rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files have changed our concepts of endodontic treatment from conventional to contemporary. They have reported good success rates, but still have many drawbacks. The Self-Adjusting File (SAF) introduces a new era in endodontics by performing the vital steps of shaping and cleaning simultaneously. The SAF is a hollow file in design that adapts itself three-dimensionally to the root canal and is a single file system, made up of Ni-Ti lattice. The case series presented in the paper report the clinical experience, while treating primary endodontic cases with the SAF system in India.

  5. Meant to make a difference, the clinical experience of minimally invasive endodontics with the self-adjusting file system in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajinkya M Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vital steps in any endodontic treatment are thorough mechanical shaping and chemical cleaning followed by obtaining a fluid tight impervious seal by an inert obturating material. For the past two decades, introduction and use of rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti files have changed our concepts of endodontic treatment from conventional to contemporary. They have reported good success rates, but still have many drawbacks. The Self-Adjusting File (SAF introduces a new era in endodontics by performing the vital steps of shaping and cleaning simultaneously. The SAF is a hollow file in design that adapts itself three-dimensionally to the root canal and is a single file system, made up of Ni-Ti lattice. The case series presented in the paper report the clinical experience, while treating primary endodontic cases with the SAF system in India.

  6. The preparation of titanium-vanadium carbide/nickel cermets. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precht, W.; Sprissler, B.

    1976-01-01

    Titanium/vanadium alloy carbide rods were prepared by a zone melting procedure. Wetting studies were carried out using sections of the fused rods and candidate matrix material. It was established that nickel exhibits excellent wetting of (Ti, V) C, and accordingly cermet blends were prepared and liquid phase sintered. Processing parameters are discussed as well as their effect on the final microstructure. Alternate methods for cermet preparation are offered which use as received titanium carbide and vanadium carbide powders

  7. Influence of stress and phase on corrosion of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nadav; Hell, Jess; Berzins, David W

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of stress and phase transformation on the corrosion properties of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire. The phase transformation profiles of superelastic nickel-titanium (Sentalloy, GAC International, Bohemia, NY) and beta-titanium (TMA, Ormco, Orange, Calif) archwires were analyzed by using differential scanning calorimetry. The force/deflection behavior of the wires at 37 degrees C was measured in a 3-point bending test per modified American Dental Association specification no. 32. Electrochemical testing consisted of monitoring the open circuit potential (OCP) for 2 hours followed by polarization resistance and cyclic polarization tests on archwire segments engaged in a 5-bracket simulation apparatus with bend deflections of 0.75, 1.5, or 3 mm in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. Nondeflected segments were also tested. Sentalloy was additionally examined for bending and corrosion at 5 degrees C, where it exists as martensite and is devoid of stress-induced phase transformation. OCP at 2 hours and corrosion current density (i(corr)) were analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests (alpha = .05) (n = 10 per deflection). Significant differences (P Sentalloy wires at 5 degrees C, but not for Sentalloy at 37 degrees C. Significant differences (P Sentalloy (37 degrees C) peaked at 0.75 mm deflection before the wire's stress-induced phase transformation point and then decreased with further deflection and transformation. The i(corr) values for TMA and Sentalloy at 5 degrees C, both of which do not undergo phase transformation with deformation, continuously increased from 0 to 1.5 mm deflection before decreasing at the 3.0-mm deflection. Stress increased the corrosion rate in nickel-titanium and beta-titanium orthodontic wires. Alterations in stress/strain associated with phase transformation in superelastic nickel-titanium might alter the corrosion rate in ways different from wires not undergoing phase

  8. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of curved root canals after mechanical preparation with three nickel-titanium rotary instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherief, Samia M.; Zayet, Mohamed K.; Hamouda, Ibrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography is a 3-dimensional high resolution imaging method. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different NiTi rotary instruments used to prepare curved root canals on the final shape of the curved canals and total amount of root canal transportation by using cone-beam computed tomography. A total of 81 mesial root canals from 42 extracted human mandibular molars, with a curvature ranging from 15 to 45 degrees, were selected. Canals were randomly divided into 3 groups of 27 each. After preparation with Protaper, Revo-S and Hero Shaper, the amount of transportation and centering ability that occurred were assessed by using cone beam computed tomography. Utilizing pre- and post-instrumentation radiographs, straightening of the canal curvatures was determined with a computer image analysis program. Canals were metrically assessed for changes (surface area, changes in curvature and transportation) during canal preparation by using software SimPlant; instrument failures were also recorded. Mean total widths and outer and inner width measurements were determined on each central canal path and differences were statistically analyzed. The results showed that all instruments maintained the original canal curvature well with no significant differences between the different files (P = 0.226). During preparation there was failure of only one file (the protaper group). In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, all instruments maintained the original canal curvature well and were safe to use. Areas of uninstrumented root canal wall were left in all regions using the various systems. PMID:23885273

  9. A comparative evaluation of cleaning efficacy (debris and smear layer removal) of hand and two NiTi rotary instrumentation systems (K3 and ProTaper): a SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Balakoti; Dash, Shreemoy; Kallepalli, Sowmya; Vallikanthan, Sangeetha; Chakrapani, N; Kalepu, Vamsi

    2013-11-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the cleaning efficacy (debris and smear layer removal) of hand and two NiTi rotary instrumentation systems (K3 and ProTaper). Sixty single rooted human maxillary anterior teeth decoronated at the cementoenamel junction were used. All the specimens were divided into four groups of 15 teeth each, group I--ProTaper rotary instrumentation done, group II--K3 rotary instrumentation done, group III--Stainless steel K-file instrumentation done, group IV--root canal irrigation without instrumentation. Root canal preparation was done in a crown down manner and 3% sodium hypochlorite was used as irrigant after each file followed by final rinse with 5 ml of 17% EDTA solution, then specimens were scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey's HSD test. Group I showed highly statistical significant difference compared to other groups. There was no statistically significant difference considering smear layer at any levels among the groups with no smear layer formation in group IV. ProTaper rotary instrumentation showed the maximum cleaning efficacy followed by K3 rotary instrumentation in the coronal, middle and apical thirds of the root canal. ProTaper rotary instruments are more efficient than hand and K3 rotary instruments during root canal treatment.

  10. An in vitro comparison of apically extruded debris using three rotary nickel-titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Tasdemir

    2010-09-01

    Conclusion: According to this study, all instrumentation techniques apically extruded debris through the apical foramen. However, the BioRaCe instruments induced less extruded debris than the ProTaper Universal and Mtwo rotary systems.

  11. A clinical study of space closure with nickel-titanium closed coil springs and an elastic module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, R H; Rudge, S J; Mair, L H

    1998-07-01

    A previous study has shown that a 150-gram nickel-titanium closed coil spring (Sentalloy, GAC International Inc.) closed spaces more quickly and more consistently than an elastic module (Alastik, Unitec/3M). This study used the same friction sensitive sliding mechanics of pitting the six anterior teeth against the second bicuspid and first molars, to examine the rate of space closure of 100-gram and 200-gram nickel-titanium closed coil springs. The results for the three springs and elastic module were compared. The nickel-titanium closed coil springs produced a more consistent space closure than the elastic module. The 150- and 200-gram springs produced a faster rate of space closure than the elastic module or the 100-gram spring. No significant difference was noted between the rates of closure for the 150- and the 200-gram springs.

  12. On the effect of TiC particles on the tensile properties and on the intrinsic two way effect of NiTi shape memory alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, K.; Voggenreiter, H.; Eggeler, G.

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigates the tensile properties of a nickel titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) with and without TiC-particles. It discusses the effect of the addition of particles on the mechanical behavior in tension and studies the intrinsic two way effect (ε 2W ) after thermomechanical training. Special emphasis is placed on the stability of ε 2W after subsequent thermal cycling. The results are discussed on the basis of an analysis of the thermomechanical data and microstructural results. The present study shows that the PM route can produce NiTi SMAs with tensile properties which match those of materials produced by classical ingot metallurgy. Adding TiC particles to NiTi SMAs alters the phase transition temperatures (PTTs) and affects the SMA performance. Adding more than ten volume percent TiC particles results in early and brittle rupture during tensile loading. (orig.)

  13. Shape memory behavior of single and polycrystalline nickel rich nickel titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Irfan

    NiTi is the most commonly used shape memory alloy (SMA) and has been widely used for bio-medical, electrical and mechanical applications. Nickel rich NiTi shape memory alloys are coming into prominence due to their distinct superelasticity and shape memory properties as compared to near equi-atomic NiTi shape memory alloys. Besides, their lower density and higher work output than steels makes these alloys an excellent candidate for aerospace and automotive industry. Shape memory properties and phase transformation behavior of high Ni-rich Ni54Ti46 (at.%) polycrystals and Ni-rich Ni 51Ti49 (at.%) single-crystals are determined. Their properties are sensitive to heat treatments that affect the phase transformation behavior of these alloys. Phase transformation properties and microstructure were investigated in aged Ni54Ti46 alloys with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to reveal the precipitation characteristics and R-phase formation. It was found that Ni54Ti46 has the ability to exhibit perfect superelasticity under high stress levels (~2 GPa) with 4% total strain after 550°C-3h aging. Stress independent R-phase transformation was found to be responsible for the change in shape memory behavior with stress. The shape memory responses of [001], [011] and [111] oriented Ni 51Ti49 single-crystals alloy were reported under compression to reveal the orientation dependence of their shape memory behavior. It has been found that transformation strain, temperatures and hysteresis, Classius-Clapeyron slopes, critical stress for plastic deformation are highly orientation dependent. The effects of precipitation formation and compressive loading at selected temperatures on the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) properties of a [111]- oriented Ni51Ti49 shape memory alloy were revealed. Additionally, aligned Ni4Ti3 precipitates were formed in a single crystal of Ni51Ti49 alloy by aging under applied compression stress along the

  14. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Porous 60NiTi Prepared by Conventional Press-and-sinter Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanlari Khashayar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, 60NiTi, comprised of approximately 60 wt.% Ni and 40 wt.% Ti, contains a broad combination of physical and mechanical properties such as high hardness, low elastic modulus, resistance to aqueous corrosion and good biocompatibility. These unique combinations make this alloy an attractive candidate for medical components such as implants and prosthesis, where biocompatible materials with high hardness and low stiffness are typically used. The conventional press-and-sinter method which represents the least complex, most flexible and economic powder metallurgy method was used to produce porous 60NiTi parts suitable for biomedical applications. The effect of sintering holding time on the microstructure and mechanical properties is investigated. The structure of the as sintered parts is quite porous which is beneficial based on the medical point of view. The ultimate compressive strength of the samples is higher than that of the compact human bone and can, therefore, meet the strength demand of implants for general bone replacement applications.

  15. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 2: Comparison of copper-, nickel-, and iron-based oxygen carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2014-04-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. Part 1 of this series studied the fundamentals of the reactor design and proposed a comprehensive design procedure, enabling a systematic methodology of designing and evaluating the rotary CLC reactor with different OCs and operating conditions. This paper presents the application of the methodology to the designs with three commonly used OCs, i.e., copper, nickel, and iron. The physical properties and the reactivities of the three OCs are compared at operating conditions suitable for the rotary CLC. Nickel has the highest reduction rate, but relatively slow oxidation reactivity while the iron reduction rate is most sensitive to the fuel concentration. The design parameters and the operating conditions for the three OCs are selected, following the strategies proposed in Part 1, and the performances are evaluated using a one-dimensional plug-flow model developed previously. The simulations show that for all OCs, complete fuel conversion and high carbon separation efficiency can be achieved at periodic stationary state with reasonable operational stabilities. The nickel-based design includes the smallest dimensions because of its fast reduction rate. The operation of nickel case is mainly limited to the slow oxidation rate, and hence a relatively large share of air sector is used. The iron-based design has the largest size, due to its slow reduction reactivity near the exit or in the fuel purge sector where the fuel concentration is low. The gas flow temperature increases monotonically for all the cases, and is mainly determined by the solid temperature. In the periodic state, the local temperature variation is within 40 K and the thermal distortion is limited. The design of the rotary CLC is

  16. Comparison among manual instruments and PathFile and Mtwo rotary instruments to create a glide path in the root canal preparation of curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vanessa de Oliveira; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Fontana, Carlos Eduardo; de Martin, Alexandre Sigrist

    2012-01-01

    Nickel-titanium rotary instruments reduce procedural errors and the time required to finish root canal preparation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the occurrences of apical transportation and canal aberrations produced with different instruments used to create a glide path in the preparation of curved root canals, namely manual K-files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and PathFile (Dentsply Maillefer) and Mtwo (Sweden and Martina, Padua, Italy) nickel-titanium rotary files. The mesial canals of 45 mandibular first and second molars (with curvature angles between 25° and 35°) were selected for this study. The specimens were divided randomly into 3 groups with 15 canals each, and canal preparation was performed by an endodontist using #10-15-20 K-type stainless steel manual files (group M), #13-16-19 PathFile rotary instruments (group PF), and #10-15-20 Mtwo rotary instruments (group MT). The double digital radiograph technique was used, pre- and postinstrumentation, to assess whether apical transportation and/or aberration in root canal morphology occurred. The initial and final images of the central axis of the canals were compared by superimposition through computerized analysis and with the aid of magnification. The specimens were analyzed by 3 evaluators, whose calibration was checked using the Kendall agreement test. No apical transportation or aberration in root canal morphology occurred in any of the teeth; therefore, no statistical analysis was conducted. Neither the manual instruments nor the PathFile or Mtwo rotary instruments used to create a glide path had any influence on the occurrence of apical transportation or produced any canal aberration. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigation on the clinical lifetime of ProTaper rotary file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penta, Virgil; Pirvu, Cristian; Demetrescu, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the current paper is to show that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) could be a method for evaluating and predicting of ProTaper rotary file system clinical lifespan. This particular aspect of everyday use of the endodontic files is of great importance in each dental practice and has profound clinical implications. The method used for quantification resides in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy theory and has in its main focus the characteristics of the surface titanium oxide layer. This electrochemical technique has been adapted successfully to identify the quality of the Ni-Ti files oxide layer. The modification of this protective layer induces changes in corrosion behavior of the alloy modifying the impedance value of the file. In order to assess the method, 14 ProTaper sets utilized on different patients in a dental clinic have been submitted for testing using EIS. The information obtained in regard to the surface oxide layer has offered an indication of use and proves that the said layer evolves with each clinical application. The novelty of this research is related to an electrochemical technique successfully adapted for Ni-Ti file investigation and correlation with surface and clinical aspects.

  18. Effectiveness of Rotary Endodontic Instruments on Smear Layer Removal in Root Canals of Primary Teeth: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Girish Babu, K L; Tabrez, T A

    2016-01-01

    The present SEM study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of root canal instrumentation using both manual and rotary files in the root canals of primary anterior teeth. Thirty freshly extracted primary maxillary incisors were divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth each. In Group I, root canals were instrumented with rotary NiTi files; in Group II, the root canals were instrumented using manual NiTi K files and; in Group III, manual instrumentation was done with stainless steel K files. Longitudinal sections were prepared and processed for observation under SEM at the coronal, middle and apical thirds. Scoring of smear layer was done according to Hulsmann and the data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Rotary files cleaned the coronal and middle thirds of root canals more effectively. Statistically there was no significant difference between the groups. Lowest score of 2.6 in the apical third of root canals was seen with hand NiTi files. Rotary instrumentation was as effective as manual instrumentation in removal of smear layer in the root canals of primary anterior teeth.

  19. Phase transitions in coated nickel titanium arch wires: A differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Division of Orthodontics, Indian Army, 10 Corps Dental Unit, C/O 56 APO, ... Shape memory and super-elastic properties of orthodontic nickel titanium ... test did not show any significant difference in mean values of transition ... Low enthalpy values (0·92–3·59 j/g) compared to conventional ones, implied complete phase.

  20. Management of long-term and reversible hysteroscopic sterilization: a novel device with nickel-titanium shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Female sterilization is the second most commonly used method of contraception in the United States. Female sterilization can now be performed through laparoscopic, abdominal, or hysteroscopic approaches. The hysteroscopic sterilization may be a safer option than sterilization through laparoscopy or laparotomy because it avoids invading the abdominal cavity and undergoing general anaesthesia. Hysteroscopic sterilization mainly includes chemical agents and mechanical devices. Common issues related to the toxicity of the chemical agents used have raised concerns regarding this kind of contraception. The difficulty of the transcervical insertion of such mechanical devices into the fallopian tubes has increased the high incidence of device displacement or dislodgment. At present, Essure® is the only commercially available hysteroscopic sterilization device being used clinically. The system is irreversible and is not effective immediately. Presentation of the hypothesis Our new hysteroscopic sterility system consists of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a waterproof membrane. The NiTi alloy is covered with two coatings to avoid toxic Ni release and to prevent stimulation of epithelial tissue growth around the oviducts. Because of the shape memory effect of the NiTi alloy, the device works like an umbrella: it stays collapsed at low temperature before placement and opens by the force of shape memory activated by the body temperature after it is inserted hysteroscopically into the interstitial tubal lumen. The rim of the open device will incise into interstitial myometrium during the process of unfolding. Once the device is fixed, it blocks the tube completely. When the patient no longer wishes for sterilization, the device can be closed by perfusing liquid with low temperature into the uterine cavity, followed by prospective hysteroscopic removal. After the device removal, the fallopian tube will revert to its physiological functions. Testing the

  1. Influence of multiple clinical use on fatigue resistance of ProTaper rotary nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, E P; França, E C; Martins, R C; Buono, V T L; Bahia, M G A

    2008-02-01

    To examine the influence of clinical use on the occurrence of deformation and fracture and on the fatigue resistance of ProTaper rotary instruments. Root canal treatments were performed on patients using the ProTaper rotary system. Ten sets of instruments were used by an experienced endodontist, each set in five molars. Another 10 sets of instruments were used by the same operator, each set in eight molars. In addition, 10 sets of instruments were used, each set in five molars, by undergraduate students with no clinical experience with the system. After clinical use, S1, S2, F1 and F2 instruments were analysed for damage by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The used sets, along with a control group of 12 sets of new instruments, were then tested in a bench device for fatigue resistance. The use of the ProTaper rotary instruments by an experienced endodontist allowed for the cleaning and shaping of the root canal system of up to eight molars without fracture. During the students work, six instruments fractured. Fatigue resistance decreased upon clinical use for all instruments analysed. Fatigue resistance of used instruments was reduced, but no significant change was observed amongst the instruments used for shaping the canals of five and eight molars. Operator experience affected the occurrence of fracture and plastic deformation during shaping.

  2. Relationship between surface properties (roughness, wettability) of titanium and titanium alloys and cell behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsonnet, L.; Reybier, K.; Jaffrezic, N.; Comte, V.; Lagneau, C.; Lissac, M.; Martelet, C.

    2003-01-01

    Cell attachment and spreading to titanium-based alloy surfaces is a major parameter in implant technology. In this paper, substratum surface hydrophobicity, surface free energy, interfacial free energy and surface roughness were investigated to ascertain which of these parameters is predominant in human fibroblast spreading. Two methods for contact angle measurement were compared: the sessile drop method and the captive bubble two-probe method. The relationship between surface roughness and the sessile drop contact angles of various engineered titanium surfaces such as commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti), titanium-aluminium-vanadium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), and titanium-nickel (NiTi), was shown. Surface free energy (SFE) calculations were performed from contact angles obtained on smooth samples based on the same alloys in order to eliminate the roughness effect. SFE of the surfaces have been calculated using the Owens-Wendt (OW) and Van Oss (VO) approaches with the sessile drop method. The OW calculations are used to obtain the dispersive (γ d ) and polar (γ p ) component of SFE, and the VO approach allows to reach the apolar (γ LW ) and the polar acid-base component (γ ab ) of the surface. From captive bubble contact angle experiments (air or octane bubble under water), the interfacial free energy of the different surfaces in water was obtained. A relationship between cell spreading and the polar component of SFE was found. Interfacial free energy values were low for all the investigated surfaces indicating good biocompatibility for such alloys

  3. Efficacy of ProTaper universal retreatment files in removing filling materials during root canal retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Valentina; Cocchetti, Roberto; Pagavino, Gabriella

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the ProTaper Universal System rotary retreatment system and of Profile 0.06 and hand instruments (K-file) in the removal of root filling materials. Forty-two extracted single-rooted anterior teeth were selected. The root canals were enlarged with nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files, filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and randomly divided into 3 experimental groups. The filling materials were removed with solvent in conjunction with one of the following devices and techniques: the ProTaper Universal System for retreatment, ProFile 0.06, and hand instruments (K-file). The roots were longitudinally sectioned, and the image of the root surface was photographed. The images were captured in JPEG format; the areas of the remaining filling materials and the time required for removing the gutta-percha and sealer were calculated by using the nonparametric one-way Kruskal-Wallis test and Tukey-Kramer tests, respectively. The group that showed better results for removing filling materials was the ProTaper Universal System for retreatment files, whereas the group of ProFile rotary instruments yielded better root canal cleanliness than the hand instruments, even though there was no statistically significant difference. The ProTaper Universal System for retreatment and ProFile rotary instruments worked significantly faster than the K-file. The ProTaper Universal System for retreatment files left cleaner root canal walls than the K-file hand instruments and the ProFile Rotary instruments, although none of the devices used guaranteed complete removal of the filling materials. The rotary NiTi system proved to be faster than hand instruments in removing root filling materials.

  4. Efficacy of reciprocating and rotary NiTi instruments for retreatment of curved root canals assessed by micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödig, T; Reicherts, P; Konietschke, F; Dullin, C; Hahn, W; Hülsmann, M

    2014-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of reciprocating and rotary NiTi-instruments in removing filling material from curved root canals using micro-computed tomography. Sixty curved root canals were prepared and filled with gutta-percha and sealer. After determination of root canal curvatures and radii in two directions as well as volumes of filling material, the teeth were assigned to three comparable groups (n = 20). Retreatment was performed using Reciproc, ProTaper Universal Retreatment or Hedström files. Percentages of residual filling material and dentine removal were assessed using micro-CT imaging. Working time and procedural errors were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by variance procedures. No significant differences amongst the three retreatment techniques concerning residual filling material were detected (P > 0.05). Hedström files removed significantly more dentine than ProTaper Universal Retreatment (P  0.05). Reciproc and ProTaper Universal Retreatment were significantly faster than Hedström files (P = 0.0001). No procedural errors such as instrument fracture, blockage, ledging or perforation were detected for Hedström files. Three perforations were recorded for ProTaper Universal Retreatment, and in both NiTi groups, one instrument fracture occured. Remnants of filling material were observed in all samples with no significant differences between the three techniques. Hedström files removed significantly more dentine than ProTaper Universal Retreatment, but no significant differences between both NiTi systems were detected. Procedural errors were observed with ProTaper Universal Retreatment and Reciproc. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Efficacy of protaper next and protaper universal retreatment systems in removing gutta-percha in curved root canals during root canal retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurek, Taha; Ozsezer-Demiryurek, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cleanliness of root canal walls after retreatment using ProTaper Next (PTN), ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR) nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems and Hedström hand files in curved mesial canals of mandibular molar teeth and the time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal. Ninety mandibular molar teeth with curved mesial roots were instrumented up to #35.04 with Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments and obturated using the continuous wave of condensation technique. Removal of gutta-percha and sealer was performed using one of the following: PTN and PTR NiTi systems and Hedström hand files. Samples were placed on the VistaScan phosphor plates in the mesio-distal direction and the radiographs were taken. The digital radiographs were analyzed using AutoCAD software. Also, the total time required for gutta-percha removal was calculated by a chronometer. The total retreatment time was significantly shorter in the PTN and PTR groups compared with the manual group (p<0.05). There was a significant difference between the groups according to the total residual gutta-percha and sealer (p<0.05). The PTN and PTR groups left significantly less gutta-percha and sealer remnant than the manual group (p<0.001). Within the limitations of this study, the PTN and PTR groups showed less residual gutta-percha and sealer than the manual group. The NiTi rotary systems were significantly faster than the manual group in the time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal.

  6. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  7. Comparison of Single Visit Post Endodontic Pain Using Mtwo Rotary and Hand K-File Instruments: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kashefinejad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pain is an unpleasant outcome of endodontic treatment that can be unbearable to patients. Instrumentation techniques may affect the frequency and intensity of post-endodontic pain. This study aimed to compare single visit post endodontic pain using Mtwo (NiTi rotary and hand K-file instruments.Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in 53 patients were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of 30 teeth. In group A, the root canals were prepared with Mtwo (NiTi rotary instruments. In group B, the root canals were prepared with hand K-file instruments. Pain assessment was implemented using visual analog scale (VAS at four, eight, 12 and 24 hours after treatment. The acquired data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and Student’s t-test (P<0.05.Results: Patients treated with rotary instruments experienced significantly less post-endodontic pain than those treated with hand instruments (P<0.001.Conclusion: The use of Mtwo (NiTi rotary instruments in root canal preparation contributed to lower incidence of postoperative pain than hand K-files.

  8. Influence of bending mode on the mechanical properties of nickel-titanium archwires and correlation to differential scanning calorimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchli, Lorenz M; Keller, Heidi; Senn, Christiane; Wichelhaus, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires are used with bonded appliances for initial leveling. However, precise bending of these archwires is difficult and can lead to changes within the crystal structure of the alloy, thus changing the mechanical properties unpredictably. The aim of this study was to evaluate different bending methods in relation to the subsequent mechanical characteristics of the alloy. The mechanical behaviors of 3 archwires (Copper NiTi 35°C [Ormco, Glendora, Calif], Neo Sentalloy F 80 [GAC International, Bohemia, NY], and Titanol Low Force [Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany]) were investigated after heat-treatment in a dental furnace at 550-650°C, treatment with an electrical current (Memory-Maker, Forestadent), and cold forming. In addition, the change in A(f) temperature was registered by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Heat-treatment in the dental furnace as well as with the Memory-Maker led to widely varying force levels for each product. Cold forming resulted in similar or slightly reduced force levels when compared to the original state of the wires. A(f) temperatures were in general inversely proportional to force levels. Archwire shape can be modified by using either chair-side technique (Memory-Maker, cold forming) because the superelastic behavior of the archwires is not strongly affected. However it is important to know the specific changes in force levels induced for each individual archwire with heat-treatment. Cold forming resulted in more predictable forces for all products tested. Therefore, cold forming is recommended as a chair-side technique for the shaping of NiTi archwires. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NiTi Alloys for Tribological Applications: The Role of In-Situ Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2004, NASA initiated the investigation and development of, Nitinol 60, a nickel-rich and dimensionally stable version of shape memory alloy Nitinol 55, as an alternative to bearing steel. Early investigations showed it to be hard and impervious to aqueous corrosion but the fundamental reasons for these properties were unknown. Shape memory alloys made from equiatomic Ni-Ti are widely known for their unique dimensional instability behavior that can be triggered by thermal and mechanical stress. The nickel-rich alloys exhibit no such dimension change property and have high hardness but have largely been overlooked by industry and the engineering community. Though steel is the dominant material of choice for mechanical components (bearings and gears) it has intrinsic limitations related to corrosion and plastic deformation. In contrast, Ni-Ti alloys are intrinsically rustproof and can withstand high contact loads without damage (denting). Over the last decade, focused RD to exploit these alloys for new applications has revealed that in-situ nano-scale phases that form during processing are largely responsible for NiTis remarkable properties. In this presentation, the state-of-art of nickel-rich NiTi alloys will be introduced and the nanotechnology behind their intriguing behavior will be addressed. The presentation will include discussion of how NASA is adopting this new technology inside the space station water recycling system as a pathfinder for more down-to-earth tribological challenges.

  10. Influence of operator's experience on root canal shaping ability with a rotary nickel-titanium single-file reciprocating motion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Estefanía; Forner, Leopoldo; Llena, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the operator's experience on the shaping of double-curvature simulated root canals with a nickel-titanium single-file reciprocating motion system. Sixty double-curvature root canals simulated in methacrylate blocks were prepared by 10 students without any experience in endodontics and by 10 professionals who had studied endodontics at the postgraduate level. The Reciproc-VDW system's R25 file was used in the root canal preparation. The blocks were photographed before and after the instrumentation, and the time of instrumentation was also evaluated. Changes in root canal dimensions were analyzed in 6 positions. Significant differences (P file reciprocating motion system Reciproc is not seen to be influenced by the operator's experience regarding the increase of the canal area. Previous training and the need to acquire experience are important in the use of this system, in spite of its apparent simplicity. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Cooling Rates on the Transformation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of a Ni-Rich NiTi Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Stephen; Shamimi, Ali; Duerig, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Slightly nickel-rich Ni-Ti alloys (typically 50.5-51% atomic percent nickel) are commonly used to produce devices that are superelastic at body temperature. This excess nickel can be tolerated in the NiTi matrix when its temperature is above the solvus of about 600 °C, but will precipitate out during lower temperatures. Recent work has been done on exploring the effect lower temperatures have on the material properties of NiTi. Findings showed that properties begin to change at temperatures as low as 100 °C. It is because of these results that it was deemed important to better understand what may be happening during the quenching process itself. Through running a combination of DSC and tensile tests on samples cooled at varying rates, it was found that the cooling rate has an effect on properties when heat treated above a specific temperature. Understanding how quickly the alloy must be cooled to fully retain the supersaturated NiTi matrix is important to optimizing processes and anticipating material properties after a heat treatment.

  12. On the development of high quality NiTi shape memory and pseudoelastic parts by additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberland, Christoph; Elahinia, Mohammad; Walker, Jason M; Meier, Horst; Frenzel, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing provides an attractive processing method for nickel–titanium (NiTi) shape memory and pseudoelastic parts. In this paper, we show how the additive manufacturing process affects structural and functional properties of additively manufactured NiTi and how the process parameter set-up can be optimized to produce high quality NiTi parts and components. Comparisons of shape recovery due to shape memory and pseudoelasticity in additively manufactured and commercial NiTi exhibit promising potential for this innovative processing method. (paper)

  13. Protaper--hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stephane; Lumley, Philip; Tomson, Phillip; Pertot, Wilhelm-Joseph; Machtou, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    Crown down preparation is the most known and described technique since the introduction of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments in endodontics. This technique gives good results but has limitations, such as not addressing the initial anatomy of oval or dumb-bell shaped canals. The specific design of the Protaper instruments allows use of them with a different technique and, specifically, with a brushing motion in the body of the canal. The recent introduction of hand Protaper files has expanded the range of application of this system, especially in curved canals. The 'hybrid technique', using rotary and hand files, and the advantages of the combination of both instruments, are clearly described in this article. Used with this technique, the Protaper is a very safe system to use, and more controllable, for both inexperienced and experienced practitioners alike, than other systems. To understand the precautions needed with rotary files, and how to use them to preserve the anatomy of the canal and get a tapered shaping, even in severely curved canals.

  14. A micro-computed tomographic evaluation of dentinal microcrack alterations during root canal preparation using single-file Ni-Ti systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Lin; Liao, Wei-Li; Cai, Hua-Xiong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the length of dentinal microcracks observed prior to and following root canal preparation with different single-file nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) systems using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. A total of 80 mesial roots of mandibular first molars presenting with type II Vertucci canal configurations were scanned at an isotropic resolution of 7.4 µm. The samples were randomly assigned into four groups (n=20 per group) according to the system used for root canal preparation, including the WaveOne (WO), OneShape (OS), Reciproc (RE) and control groups. A second micro-CT scan was conducted after the root canals were prepared with size 25 instruments. Pre- and postoperative cross-section images of the roots (n=237,760) were then screened to identify the lengths of the microcracks. The results indicated that the microcrack lengths were notably increased following root canal preparation (Pfiles. Among the single-file Ni-Ti systems, WO and RE were not observed to cause notable microcracks, while the OS system resulted in evident microcracks.

  15. The Effect of Pre-Stressing on the Static Indentation Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III; Clifton, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Superelastic nickel-titanium alloys, such as 60NiTi (60Ni-40Ti by wt.%), are under development for use in mechanical components like rolling element bearings and gears. Compared to traditional bearing steels, these intermetallic alloys, when properly heat-treated, are hard but exhibit much lower elastic modulus (approx.100 GPa) and a much broader elastic deformation range (approx.3 percent or more). These material characteristics lead to high indentation static load capacity, which is important for certain applications especially space mechanisms. To ensure the maximum degree of elastic behavior, superelastic materials must be pre-stressed, a process referred to as "training" in shape memory effect (SME) terminology, at loads and stresses beyond expected use conditions. In this paper, static indentation load capacity tests are employed to assess the effects of pre-stressing on elastic response behavior of 60NiTi. The static load capacity is measured by pressing 12.7 mm diameter ceramic Si3N4 balls into highly polished, hardened 60NiTi flat plates that have previously been exposed to varying levels of pre-stress (up to 2.7 GPa) to determine the load that results in shallow but measurable (0.6 m, 25 in. deep) permanent dents. Hertz stress calculations are used to estimate contact stress. Without exposure to pre-stress, the 60NiTi surface can withstand an approximately 3400 kN load before significant denting (>0.4 m deep) occurs. When pre-stressed to 2.7 GPa, a static load of 4900 kN is required to achieve a comparable dent, a 30 percent increase. These results suggest that stressing contact surfaces prior to use enhances the static indentation load capacity of the superelastic 60NiTi. This approach may be adaptable to the engineering and manufacture of highly resilient mechanical components such as rolling element bearings.

  16. Absolute cross section measurement for the ionization of the K-shell of titanium and nickel by electron impact (50 KEV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessenberger, J.

    1974-01-01

    The yield of characteristic X-ray K radiation of titanium during bombardment with electrons in the energy region of 6-50 keV and of nickel at 9-50 keV was measured, and the cross sections for th ionization of the K shell of titanium and nickel were determined from this. The results obtained are compared with several theoretical models. (WL/LN) [de

  17. Micro-computed tomographic comparison of nickel-titanium rotary versus traditional instruments in C-shaped root canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xingzhe; Cheung, Gary Shun-Pan; Zhang, Chengfei; Masuda, Yoshiko Murakami; Kimura, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Koukichi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of instrumentation of C-shaped canals with ProTaper rotary system and traditional instruments by using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Twenty-four mandibular molars with C-shaped canals were selected in pairs and sorted equally into 2 groups, which were assigned for instrumentation by ProTaper rotary system (ProTaper group) or by K-files and Gates-Glidden burs (Hand Instrument group). Three-dimensional images were constructed by micro-CT. The volume of dentin removed, uninstrumented canal area, time taken for instrumentation, and iatrogenic error of instrumentation were investigated. Hand Instrument group showed greater amount of volumetric dentin removal and left less uninstrumented canal area than ProTaper group (P ProTaper group than for Hand Instrument group (P Hand Instrument group than for ProTaper group. It was concluded that ProTaper rotary system maintained the canal curvature with speediness and few procedural errors, whereas traditional instrumentation can clean more canal surface. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemomechanical preparation by hand instrumentation and by Mtwo engine-driven rotary files, an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczár, Károly; Tigyi, Zoltán; Papp, Viktória; Marada, Gyula; Sára, Jeges; Tóth, Vilmos

    2012-07-01

    To compare the disinfecting efficacy of the sodium hypochlorite irrigation by root canal preparation with stainless steel hand files, taper 0.02 and nickel-titanium Mtwo files with taper 0.04-0.06. 40 extracted human teeth were sterilized, and then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). After 6 day incubation time the root canals were prepared by hand with K-files (n=20) and by engine-driven Mtwo files (VDW, Munich, Germany) (n=20). Irrigation was carried out with 2.5% NaOCl in both cases. Samples were taken and determined in colony forming units (CFU) from the root canals before and after the preparation with instruments #25 and #35. Significant reduction in bacterial count was determined after filing at both groups. The number of bacteria kept on decreasing with the extension of apical preparation diameter. There was no significant difference between the preparation sizes in the bacterial counts after hand or engine-driven instrumentation at the same apical size. Statistical analysis was carried out with Mann-Whitney test, paired t-test and independent sample t-test. Significant reduction in CFU was achieved after the root canal preparation completed with 2.5% NaOCl irrigation, both with stainless steel hand or nickel-titanium rotary files. The root canal remained slightly infected after chemo mechanical preparation in both groups. Key words:Chemomechanical preparation, root canal disinfection, nickel-titanium, conicity, greater taper, apical size.

  19. Apically extruded debris with reciprocating single-file and full-sequence rotary instrumentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürklein, Sebastian; Schäfer, Edgar

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Eighty human mandibular central incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 20 teeth per group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions using the 2 reciprocating single-file systems Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) and WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the 2 full-sequence rotary Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) instruments. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant. The apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials using the Myers and Montgomery method. After drying, the mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The time required to prepare the canals with the different instruments was also recorded. The reciprocating files produced significantly more debris compared with both rotary systems (P rotary instruments (P > .05), the reciprocating single-file system Reciproc produced significantly more debris compared with all other instruments (P Instrumentation was significantly faster using Reciproc than with all other instrument (P rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of diffusion bonded joint between titanium and 304 stainless steel using a Ni interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, S.; Chatterjee, S.

    2008-01-01

    Solid-state diffusion bonded joints were prepared between commercially pure titanium and 304 stainless steel with nickel as an intermediate material in the temperature range of 800-950 deg. C for 10.8 ks under a 3 MPa uniaxial pressure in vacuum. The interface microstructures and reaction products of the transition joints were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Up to 850 deg. C processing temperature, a 300-μm nickel interlayer completely restricts the diffusion of titanium to stainless steel. However, the nickel interlayer cannot block the diffusion of Ti to the stainless side and λ + χ + α-Fe, λ + FeTi and λ + FeTi + β-Ti phase mixtures are formed at the SS-Ni interface, when bonding was processed at 900 deg. C and above. These reaction products were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. A maximum tensile strength of ∼ 270 MPa and shear strength of ∼ 194 MPa, along with 6.2% ductility, were obtained for the diffusion bonded joint processed at 850 deg. C. Fracture surface observation in SEM using EDS demonstrates that failure occurred through the Ni-Ti interface of the joints when processed up to 850 deg. C and through the SS-Ni interface when processed at and above 900 deg. C

  1. Validated finite element analyses of WaveOne Endodontic Instruments: a comparison between M-Wire and NiTi alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonessio, N; Pereira, E S J; Lomiento, G; Arias, A; Bahia, M G A; Buono, V T L; Peters, O A

    2015-05-01

    To validate torsional analysis, based on finite elements, of WaveOne instruments against in vitro tests and to model the effects of different nickel-titanium (NiTi) materials. WaveOne reciprocating instruments (Small, Primary and Large, n = 8 each, M-Wire) were tested under torsion according to standard ISO 3630-1. Torsional profiles including torque and angle at fracture were determined. Test conditions were reproduced through Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations based on micro-CT scans at 10-μm resolution; results were compared to experimental data using analysis of variance and two-sided one sample t-tests. The same simulation was performed on virtual instruments with identical geometry and load condition, based on M-Wire or conventional NiTi alloy. Torsional profiles from FEA simulations were in significant agreement with the in vitro results. Therefore, the models developed in this study were accurate and able to provide reliable simulation of the torsional performance. Stock NiTi files under torsional tests had up to 44.9%, 44.9% and 44.1% less flexibility than virtual M-Wire files at small deflections for Small, Primary and Large instruments, respectively. As deflection levels increased, the differences in flexibility between the two sets of simulated instruments decreased until fracture. Stock NiTi instruments had a torsional fracture resistance up to 10.3%, 8.0% and 7.4% lower than the M-Wire instruments, for the Small, Primary and Large file, respectively. M-Wire instruments benefitted primarily through higher material flexibility while still at low deflection levels, compared with conventional NiTi alloy. At fracture, the instruments did not take complete advantage of the enhanced fractural resistance of the M-Wire material, which determines only limited improvements of the torsional performance. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Grain-resolved analysis of localized deformation in nickel-titanium wire under tensile load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmák, P; Pilch, J; Heller, L; Kopeček, J; Wright, J; Sedlák, P; Frost, M; Šittner, P

    2016-08-05

    The stress-induced martensitic transformation in tensioned nickel-titanium shape-memory alloys proceeds by propagation of macroscopic fronts of localized deformation. We used three-dimensional synchrotron x-ray diffraction to image at micrometer-scale resolution the grain-resolved elastic strains and stresses in austenite around one such front in a prestrained nickel-titanium wire. We found that the local stresses in austenite grains are modified ahead of the nose cone-shaped buried interface where the martensitic transformation begins. Elevated shear stresses at the cone interface explain why the martensitic transformation proceeds in a localized manner. We established the crossover from stresses in individual grains to a continuum macroscopic internal stress field in the wire and rationalized the experimentally observed internal stress field and the topology of the macroscopic front by means of finite element simulations of the localized deformation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. In vitro evaluation of the effectiveness of ProTaper universal rotary retreatment system for gutta-percha removal with or without a solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Cristiane Midori; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; de Martin, Alexandre Sigrist; Fontana, Carlos Eduardo; Silveira, Cláudia Fernandes M; da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo

    2009-11-01

    Effective removal of gutta-percha in endodontic retreatment is a significant factor to ensure a favorable outcome from failed procedures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nickel-titanium rotary instrument system with or without a solvent versus stainless steel hand files for gutta-percha removal. Forty extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared and filled. They were divided into 4 groups: Gates-Glidden and K-files, Gates-Glidden and K-files with chloroform, ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system, and ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system with chloroform. The operating time was recorded. The teeth were longitudinally sectioned and photographed. The images were analyzed and the filling remnants were quantified by using the IMAGE TOOL software. With Kruskall-Wallis test, statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the techniques in regard to the amount of the endodontic filling remnants (P ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system was faster than the hand files (P ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system without chloroform was faster.

  4. Nanoscale compositional analysis of NiTi shape memory alloy films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S. K.; Mohan, S. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Bysakh, S. [Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute, Kolkata-700032 (India); Kumar, A.; Kamat, S. V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad-500058 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The formation of surface oxide layer as well as compositional changes along the thickness for NiTi shape memory alloy thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at substrate temperature of 300 °C in the as-deposited condition as well as in the postannealed (at 600 °C) condition have been thoroughly studied by using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Formation of titanium oxide (predominantly titanium dioxide) layer was observed in both as-deposited and postannealed NiTi films, although the oxide layer was much thinner (8 nm) in as-deposited condition. The depletion of Ti and enrichment of Ni below the oxide layer in postannealed films also resulted in the formation of a graded microstructure consisting of titanium oxide, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and B2 NiTi. A uniform composition of B2 NiTi was obtained in the postannealed film only below a depth of 200–250 nm from the surface. Postannealed film also exhibited formation of a ternary silicide (Ni{sub x}Ti{sub y}Si) at the film–substrate interface, whereas no silicide was seen in the as-deposited film. The formation of silicide also caused a depletion of Ni in the film in a region ∼250–300 nm just above the film substrate interface.

  5. Improvements of anti-corrosion and mechanical properties of NiTi orthopedic materials by acetylene, nitrogen and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, Ray W.Y.; Ho, Joan P.Y.; Liu Xuanyong; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Lu, William W.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) are useful materials in orthopedics and orthodontics due to their unique super-elasticity and shape memory effects. However, the problem associated with the release of harmful Ni ions to human tissues and fluids has been raising safety concern. Hence, it is necessary to produce a surface barrier to impede the out-diffusion of Ni ions from the materials. We have conducted acetylene, nitrogen and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into NiTi alloys in an attempt to improve the surface properties. All the implanted and annealed samples surfaces exhibit outstanding corrosion and Ni out-diffusion resistance. Besides, the implanted layers are mechanically stronger than the substrate underneath. XPS analyses disclose that the layer formed by C 2 H 2 PIII is composed of mainly TiC x with increasing Ti to C concentration ratios towards the bulk. The nitrogen PIII layer is observed to be TiN, whereas the oxygen PIII layer is composed of oxides of Ti 4+ , Ti 3+ and Ti 2+

  6. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth – A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S.; Issac, Jyoti S.; John, Sheen A.; Harris, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the “gold-standard” over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel–titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed. PMID:26792964

  7. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sageena George

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the “gold-standard” over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel–titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed.

  8. EFFICACY OF PROTAPER NEXT AND PROTAPER UNIVERSAL RETREATMENT SYSTEMS IN REMOVING GUTTA-PERCHA IN CURVED ROOT CANALS DURING ROOT CANAL RETREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha ÖZYÜREK

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the cleanliness of root canal walls after retreatment using ProTaper Next (PTN, ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR nickel-titanium (NiTi systems and Hedström hand files in curved mesial canals of mandibular molar teeth and the time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal. Materials and Methods: Ninety mandibular molar teeth with curved mesial roots were instrumented up to #35.04 with Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments and obturated using the continuous wave of condensation technique. Removal of gutta-percha and sealer was performed using one of the following: PTN and PTR NiTi systems and Hedström hand files. Samples were placed on the VistaScan phosphor plates in the mesio-distal direction and the radiographs were taken. The digital radiographs were analyzed using AutoCAD software. Also, the total time required for gutta-percha removal was calculated by a chronometer. Results: The total retreatment time was significantly shorter in the PTN and PTR groups compared with the manual group (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the groups according to the total residual gutta-percha and sealer (p<0.05. The PTN and PTR groups left significantly less gutta-percha and sealer remnant than the manual group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the PTN and PTR groups showed less residual gutta-percha and sealer than the manual group. The NiTi rotary systems were significantly faster than the manual group in the time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal.

  9. Comparison of the superelasticity of different nickel?titanium orthodontic archwires and the loss of their properties by heat treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bellini, Humberto; Moyano, Javier; Gil, Javier; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and compare mechanical properties of eight widely used nickel?titanium orthodontic wires under uniform testing conditions and to determine the influence of the heat treatments on the loss of the superelasticity. Ten archwires from two batches from eight different manufacturers were evaluated. A three-point bending test was performed, in accordance with ISO 15841:2006, on 80 round nickel?titanium archwire segments of 0.016?inch. To obtain a load-deflection c...

  10. Dynamic mechanical properties of straight titanium alloy arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusy, R P; Wilson, T W

    1990-10-01

    Eight straight-wire materials were studied: an orthodontic titanium-molybdenum (Ti-Mo) product, TMA; three orthodontic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) products, Nitinol, Titanal, and Orthonol; three prototype alloys, a martensitic, an austenitic, and a biphasic alloy; and a hybrid shape-memory-effect product, Biometal. Each wire was prepared with a length-to-cross-sectional area of at least 3600 cm-1. With an Autovibron Model DDV-II-C used in the tensile mode, each sample was scanned from -120 to +200 degrees C at 2 degrees C/min. From the data base, plots of the log storage modulus, log tan delta, and percent change in length vs. temperature were generated. Results showed that the dynamic mechanical properties of the alloys within this TI system are quite different. The Ti-Mo alloy, TMA, was invariant with temperature, having a modulus of 7.30 x 10(11) dyne/cm2 (10.6 x 10(6) psi). The three cold-worked alloys--Nitinol, Titanal, and Orthonol--appeared to be similar, having a modulus of 5.74 x 10(11) dyne/cm2 (8.32 x 10(6) psi). The biphasic shape-memory alloy displayed a phase transformation near ambient temperature; whereas the hybrid shape-memory product, Biometal, underwent a 3-5% change in length during its transformation between 95 and 125 degrees C. Among the Ni-Ti wires tested, several different types of alloys were represented by this intermetallic material.

  11. Cyclic fatigue resistance of XP-endo Shaper compared with different nickel-titanium alloy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, Amr; Elsaka, Shaymaa

    2018-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess and compare the resistance to cyclic fatigue of XP-endo Shaper (XPS; FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) instruments with TRUShape (TRS; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA), HyFlex CM (HCM; Coltene, Cuyahoga Falls, OH, USA), Vortex Blue (VB; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties), and iRace (iR; FKG Dentaire) nickel-titanium rotary instruments at body temperature. Size 30, 0.01 taper of XPS, size 30, 0.04 taper of HCM, VB, iR, and size 30, 0.06 taper of TRS instruments were immersed in saline at 37 ± 1 °C during cyclic fatigue testing. The instruments were tested with 60° angle of curvature and a 3-mm radius of curvature. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated and the length of the fractured segment was measured. Fractographic examination of the fractured surface was performed using a scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U tests. Statistical significance was set at P ductile fracture of cyclic fatigue failure. XPS instruments exhibited greater cyclic fatigue resistance compared with the other tested instruments. XP-endo Shaper instruments could be used more safely in curved canals due to their higher fatigue resistance.

  12. Effect of Ni +-ION bombardment on nickel and binary nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roarty, K. B.; Sprague, J. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Smidt, F. A.

    1981-03-01

    Pure nickel and four binary nickel alloys have been subjected to high energy Ni ion bombardment at 675, 625 and 525°C. After irradiation, each specimen was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The pure nickel control was found to swell appreciably (1 to 5%) and the Ni-Al and the Ni-Ti samples were found to swell at all temperatures, but to a lesser degree (0.01 to 0.35%). The Ni-Mo contained a significant density of voids only at 525° C, while swelling was suppressed at all temperatures in the Ni-Si alloy. The dislocation structure progressed from loops to tangles as temperature increased in all materials except the Ni-Ti, in which there was an absence of loops at all temperatures. Dislocation densities decreased as temperature increased in all samples. These results do not correlate well with the relative behavior of the same alloys observed after neutron irradiation at 455°C. The differences between these two sets of data appear to be caused by different mechanisms controlling void nucleation in ion and neutron irradiation of these alloys.

  13. Effect of clinical use of nickel-titanium springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Amanda Fahning; Monini, André da Costa; Capela, Marisa Veiga; Martins, Lídia Parsekian; Martins, Renato Parsekian

    2015-07-01

    Our objectives were to determine whether there are changes on the load deflection rate (L/DP) and the average force (FP) of the superelastic pseudoplateau, and whether permanent deformation is changed in nickel-titanium closed-coil springs (CCSs) after 6 months of clinical use. Twenty-two nickel-titanium CCSs (Sentalloy 100 g; Dentsply GAC, York, Pa) were subjected to tensile mechanical testing at 37°C on activations varying from 3.2 to 16.0 mm before and after 6 months of clinical use. A regression line was fitted over the most horizontal area of the unloading part of the stress-strain graph of every CCS, and its slope was used as L/DP. The FP was determined by the midpoint of the longest segment of the curve that could be fit within the regression line with a R(2) of at least 0.999, and permanent deformation was determined graphically by obtaining the strain value when the measured stress reached zero. The data were analyzed by 3 analyses of variance at 2 levels, with 5% of significance. Time and activation significantly influenced the variables tested (P < 0.001). Time increased the L/DP and permanent deformation but decreased the FP. Activation decreased L/DP, FP, and permanent deformation. Significant interactions between time and activation were detected for FP (P = 0.013) and deformation (P < 0.001). After 6 months of active clinical use, the analyzed springs had a significant but small increase in their L/DP; FP dropped up to 88%, and the CCSs deformed up to 1.26 mm. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Computed micro-tomographic evaluation of glide path with nickel-titanium rotary PathFile in maxillary first molars curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Damiano; Bianchi, Caterina Chiara; Paolino, Davide Salvatore; Mancini, Lucia; Cemenasco, Andrea; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Berutti, Elio

    2012-03-01

    X-ray computed micro-tomography scanning allows high-resolution 3-dimensional imaging of small objects. In this study, micro-CT scanning was used to compare the ability of manual and mechanical glide path to maintain the original root canal anatomy. Eight extracted upper first permanent molars were scanned at the TOMOLAB station at ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Trieste, Italy, with a microfocus cone-beam geometry system. A total of 2,400 projections on 360° have been acquired at 100 kV and 80 μA, with a focal spot size of 8 μm. Buccal root canals of each specimen (n = 16) were randomly assigned to PathFile (P) or stainless-steel K-file (K) to perform glide path at the full working length. Specimens were then microscanned at the apical level (A) and at the point of the maximum curvature level (C) for post-treatment analyses. Curvatures of root canals were classified as moderate (≤35°) or severe (≥40°). The ratio of diameter ratios (RDRs) and the ratio of cross-sectional areas (RAs) were assessed. For each level of analysis (A and C), 2 balanced 2-way factorial analyses of variance (P < .05) were performed to evaluate the significance of the instrument factor and of canal curvature factor as well as the interactions of the factors both with RDRs and RAs. Specimens in the K group had a mean curvature of 35.4° ± 11.5°; those in the P group had a curvature of 38° ± 9.9°. The instrument factor (P and K) was extremely significant (P < .001) for both the RDR and RA parameters, regardless of the point of analysis. Micro-CT scanning confirmed that NiTi rotary PathFile instruments preserve the original canal anatomy and cause less canal aberrations. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell Attachment Following Instrumentation with Titanium and Plastic Instruments, Diode Laser, and Titanium Brush on Titanium, Titanium-Zirconium, and Zirconia Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melissa S; Cerutis, D Roselyn; Miyamoto, Takanari; Nunn, Martha E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface characteristics and gingival fibroblast adhesion of disks composed of implant and abutment materials following brief and repeated instrumentation with instruments commonly used in procedures for implant maintenance, stage-two implant surgery, and periimplantitis treatment. One hundred twenty disks (40 titanium, 40 titaniumzirconium, 40 zirconia) were grouped into treatment categories of instrumentation by plastic curette, titanium curette, diode microlaser, rotary titanium brush, and no treatment. Twenty strokes were applied to half of the disks in the plastic and titanium curette treatment categories, while half of the disks received 100 strokes each to simulate implant maintenance occurring on a repetitive basis. Following analysis of the disks by optical laser profilometry, disks were cultured with human gingival fibroblasts. Cell counts were conducted from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Differences in surface roughness across all instruments tested for zirconia disks were negligible, while both titanium disks and titaniumzirconium disks showed large differences in surface roughness across the spectrum of instruments tested. The rotary titanium brush and the titanium curette yielded the greatest overall mean surface roughness, while the plastic curette yielded the lowest mean surface roughness. The greatest mean cell counts for each disk type were as follows: titanium disks with plastic curettes, titanium-zirconium disks with titanium curettes, and zirconia disks with the diode microlaser. Repeated instrumentation did not result in cumulative changes in surface roughness of implant materials made of titanium, titanium-zirconium, or zirconia. Instrumentation with plastic implant curettes on titanium and zirconia surfaces appeared to be more favorable than titanium implant curettes in terms of gingival fibroblast attachment on these surfaces.

  16. Effect of long-term repeated deflections on fatigue of preloaded superelastic nickel-titanium archwires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, C.A.J.M.; Pallav, P.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Kuitert, R.B.; Prahl-Andersen, B.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the changes in force delivery of superelastic nickel-titanium archwires used in combination with a self-ligating bracket system after dynamic fatigue-loading in a 3-bracket model under controlled temperature. Methods: Samples of 2

  17. Evaluation and comparison of shear bond strength of porcelain to a beryllium-free alloy of nickel-chromium, nickel and beryllium free alloy of cobalt-chromium, and titanium: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Singh

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: It could be concluded that newer nickel and beryllium free Co-Cr alloys and titanium alloys with improved strength to weight ratio could prove to be good alternatives to the conventional nickel-based alloys when biocompatibility was a concern.

  18. Cyclic fatigue resistance of RaCe and Mtwo rotary files in continuous rotation and reciprocating motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadhana, Sekar; SaravanaKarthikeyan, Balasubramanian; Nandini, Suresh; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) rotary files in continuous rotation and reciprocating motion. A total of 60 new rotary Mtwo and RaCe files (ISO size = 25, taper = 0.06, length = 25 mm) were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 15 each): Mtc (Mtwo NiTi files in continuous rotation), Rc (RaCe NiTi files in continuous rotation), Mtr (Mtwo NiTi files in reciprocating motion), and Rr (RaCe NiTi files in reciprocating motion). A cyclic fatigue testing device was fabricated with a 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius. All instruments were rotated or reciprocated until fracture occurred. The time taken for each instrument to fracture and the length of the broken fragments were recorded. All the fractured files were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope to detect the mode of fracture. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the normality of samples distribution, and statistical analysis was performed using the independent sample t test. The time taken for the instruments of the Mtr and Rr groups to fail under cyclic loading was significantly longer compared with the Mtc and Rc groups (P ductile mode of fracture. The length of the fractured segments was between 5 and 6 mm, which was not statistically significant among the experimental groups. Mtwo and RaCe rotary instruments showed a significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance in reciprocating motion compared with continuous rotation motion. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Corrosion behavior of ion implanted nickel-titanium orthodontic wire in fluoride mouth rinse solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masahiro; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Endo, Kazuhiko; Muguruma, Takeshi; Ohno, Hiroki; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the corrosion properties of ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) in artificial saliva and fluoride mouth rinse solutions (Butler F Mouthrinse, Ora-Bliss). Non ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy) was used as control. The anodic corrosion behavior was examined by potentiodynamic polarization measurement. The surfaces of the specimens were examined with SEM. The elemental depth profiles were characterized by XPS. Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in artificial saliva and Butler F Mouthrinse (500 ppm) had a lower current density than Neo Sentalloy. In addition, breakdown potential of Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in Ora-Bliss (900 ppm) was much higher than that of Neo Sentalloy although both wires had similar corrosion potential in Ora-Bliss (450 and 900 ppm). The XPS results for Neo Sentalloy Ionguard suggested that the layers consisted of TiO(2) and TiN were present on the surface and the layers may improve the corrosion properties.

  20. Mechanical behavior of M-Wire and conventional NiTi wire used to manufacture rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erika S J; Gomes, Renata O; Leroy, Agnès M F; Singh, Rupinderpal; Peters, Ove A; Bahia, Maria G A; Buono, Vicente T L

    2013-12-01

    Comparison of physical and mechanical properties of one conventional and a new NiTi wire, which had received an additional thermomechanical treatment. Specimens of both conventional (NiTi) and the new type of wire, called M-Wire (MW), were subjected to tensile and three-point bending tests, Vickers microhardness measurements, and to rotating-bending fatigue tests at a strain-controlled level of 6%. Fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the non-deformed microstructures by transmission electron microscopy. The thermomechanical treatment applied to produce the M-Wire apparently increased the tensile strength and Vickers microhardness of the material, but its apparent Young modulus was smaller than that of conventionally treated NiTi. The three-point bending tests showed a higher flexibility for MW which also exhibited a significantly higher number of cycles to failure. M-Wire presented mechanical properties that can render endodontic instruments more flexible and fatigue resistant than those made with conventionally processed NiTi wires. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The finite element method for evaluating files rotary Nickel-Titanium: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela Aldana Ojeda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse through the evaluation of the articles found in this literature review, the usefulness of Finite Element Method in determining fracture mechanisms les Ni–Ti and correlated with experimental results. Materials and methods: A search of the literature aiming experimental and theoretical studies in databases and journals was performed. Results: The comparison of the experimental and theoretical results Mtwo® found that the best system is the cyclical fracture resistance occurs in correlation with low accumulation of Von Mises stress, the ProTaper® system has low tensile strength cyclic correlated with a large accumulation of Von Mises stress in extreme conditions, the QUANTEC® system was more exible but with a large accumulation of Von Mises stress system. Conclusions: We found that the nite element method has agreement with experimental methods; in rotary systems the best for handling curved canals is the Mtwo® system, ProTaper® system is the best torsional resistance presents; concluded that the cross–sectional design of the le is directly related to the mechanical performance of it.

  2. The finite element method for evaluating files rotary Nickel-Titanium: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela Aldana Ojeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse through the evaluation of the articles found in this literature review, the usefulness of Finite Element Method in determining fracture mechanisms les Ni–Ti and correlated with experimental results. Materials and methods: A search of the literature aiming experimental and theoretical studies in databases and journals was performed. Results: The comparison of the experimental and theoretical results Mtwo® found that the best system is the cyclical fracture resistance occurs in correlation with low accumulation of Von Mises stress, the ProTaper® system has low tensile strength cyclic correlated with a large accumulation of Von Mises stress in extreme conditions, the QUANTEC® system was more exible but with a large accumulation of Von Mises stress system. Conclusions: We found that the nite element method has agreement with experimental methods; in rotary systems the best for handling curved canals is the Mtwo® system, ProTaper® system is the best torsional resistance presents; concluded that the cross–sectional design of the le is directly related to the mechanical performance of it.

  3. Evaluation of anomalies during nickel and titanium silicide formation using the effective heat of formation mode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, R

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available , as well as the observed sequence of growth of different silicide phases, are not in agree- ment with thermodynamic considerations [26]. In the case of the nickel silicides Ni,Si is nearly always found to be the first... to determine how the oxygen content in the silicon affects phase formation. We also show how the anomalous behaviour of titanium and nickel silicide formation can be explained thermodynamically by using the ?effective heat...

  4. Dynamic properties of nickel-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackenberg, Robert; Thoma, Dan; Cooley, Jason; Swift, Damian; Paisley, Dennis; Bourne, Neil; Gray, George III; Hauer, Allan

    2004-01-01

    The shock response of near-equiatomic Ni-Ti alloys have been investigated to support studies of shock-induced martensitic transitions. The equation of state (EOS) and elasticity were predicted using ab initio quantum mechanics. Polycrystalline NiTi samples were prepared with a range of compositions, and thickesses between about 100 and 400 μm. Laser-driven flyer impact experiments were used to verify the EOS and to measure the flow stress from the amplitude of the elastic precursor; the spall strength was also obtained from these experiments. The laser flyer EOS data were consistent with Hugoniot points deduced from gas gun experiments. Decaying shocks were induced in samples, by direct laser irradiation with a variety of pressures and durations, to investigate the threshold for martensite formation

  5. Comparative analysis of torsional and bending behavior through finite-element models of 5 Ni-Ti endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab-Chirani, Reza; Chevalier, Valérie; Arbab-Chirani, Shabnam; Calloch, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare numerically the bending and torsional mechanical behavior of 5 endodontic rotary Ni-Ti instruments with equivalent size and various designs for tapers, pitch, and cutting blades.First, the geometries of Hero (20/0.06), HeroShaper (20/0.06), ProFile (20/0.06), Mtwo (20/0.06), and ProTaper F1 were generated by finite element code. Then, the 2 most representative clinical loadings, i.e., bending and torsion, were studied with an ad hoc model for the superelasticity of Ni-Ti. Bending was generated by tip deflection and torsion by a constant twist-angle of the tip. Mechanical behavior of these 5 endodontic rotary Ni-Ti instruments could be evaluated and compared. Protaper F1 presented the greatest level of bending stress and torque. Hero and HeroShaper were more rigid than ProFile and Mtwo. This numerical comparison evaluated the effects of the geometrical parameters on the instrumental mechanical behavior. The 5 endodontic instruments, investigated in the present study, do not have the same bending and torsional mechanical behavior. Each clinician must be aware of these behavior differences so as to use the adequate file according to the clinical situation and to the manufacturer's recommendations. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. On the use of titanium hydride for powder injection moulding of titanium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrenoo-Morelli, E.; Bidaux, J.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Titanium and titanium-based alloys are excellent materials for a number of engineering applications because of their high strength, lightweight, good corrosion resistance, non magnetic characteristic and biocompatibility. The current processing steps are usually costly, and there is a growing demand for net-shape solutions for manufacturing parts of increasing complexity. Powder injection moulding is becoming a competitive alternative, thanks to the advances in production of good quality base-powders, binders and sintering facilities. Titanium hydride powders, have the attractiveness of being less reactive than fine titanium powders, easier to handle, and cheaper. This paper summarizes recent advances on PIM of titanium and titanium alloys from TiH2 powders, including shape-memory NiTi alloys. (author)

  7. Effects of HVEM irradiation on ordered phases in Ni-Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Various ordered phases in the Ni-Ti system were subjected to electron irradiation in the Berkeley HVEM. Austenitic NiTi (B2 structure) disorders and turns amorphous with room-temperature irradiations at accelerating potentials between 1 and 1.5 MeV. Total doses for the onset of amorphiticity range between 0.7 x 10 22 and 3 x 10 22 e.cm -2 (0.4 to 1.0dpa). At 90K the dose requirement decreases to 4 x 10 20 e.cm -2 (approx. 10 -2 dpa). Martensitic NiTi (distorted monoclinic structure) readily detwins and transforms to austenite when irradiated for short times (approx. 10 seconds). Vapor-deposited amorphous films were crystallized to produce NiTi, Phase X (ordered nickel-rich phase with unknown structure) and Ni 3 Ti (DO 24 structure). Upon electron irradiation, NiTi and Phase X disorder and become amorphous, while Ni 3 Ti disorders but does not turn amorphous with doses up to 4 x 10 22 e.cm -2 at 90K. These results are discussed in terms of the requirement of a critical concentration of defects and their relative mobilities. Brimhall's solubility criteria for amorphization of ordered alloys by ion bombardment is apparantly applicable to electron-induced crystalline to amorphous transitions in this alloy

  8. Endodontic complications of root canal therapy performed by dental students with stainless-steel K-files and nickel-titanium hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettiette, M T; Metzger, Z; Phillips, C; Trope, M

    1999-04-01

    Straightening of curved canals is one of the most common procedural errors in endodontic instrumentation. This problem is commonly encountered when dental students perform molar endodontics. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the type of instrument used by these students on the extent of straightening and on the incidence of other endodontic procedural errors. Nickel-titanium 0.02 taper hand files were compared with traditional stainless-steel 0.02 taper K-files. Sixty molar teeth comprised of maxillary and mandibular first and second molars were treated by senior dental students. Instrumentation was with either nickel-titanium hand files or stainless-steel K-files. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs of each tooth were taken using an XCP precision instrument with a customized bite block to ensure accurate reproduction of radiographic angulation. The radiographs were scanned and the images stored as TIFF files. By superimposing tracings from the preoperative over the postoperative radiographs, the degree of deviation of the apical third of the root canal filling from the original canal was measured. The presence of other errors, such as strip perforation and instrument breakage, was established by examining the radiographs. In curved canals instrumented by stainless-steel K-files, the average deviation of the apical third of the canals was 14.44 degrees (+/- 10.33 degrees). The deviation was significantly reduced when nickel-titanium hand files were used to an average of 4.39 degrees (+/- 4.53 degrees). The incidence of other procedural errors was also significantly reduced by the use of nickel-titanium hand files.

  9. Evaluation of the incidence of microcracks caused by Mtwo and ProTaper Next rotary file systems versus the self-adjusting file: A scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suparna Ganguly; Vijaywargiya, Neelam; Saxena, Divya; Saha, Mainak Kanti; Bharadwaj, Anuj; Dubey, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of microcrack formation canal preparation with two rotary nickel-titanium systems Mtwo and ProTaper Next along with the self-adjusting file system. One hundred and twenty mandibular premolar teeth were selected. Standardized access cavities were prepared and the canals were manually prepared up to size 20 after coronal preflaring. The teeth were divided into three experimental groups and one control group ( n = 30). Group 1: The canals were prepared using Mtwo rotary files. Group 2: The canals were prepared with ProTaper Next files. Group 3: The canals were prepared with self-adjusting files. Group 4: The canals were unprepared and used as a control. The roots were sectioned horizontally 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex and examined under a scanning electron microscope to check for the presence of microcracks. The Pearson's Chi-square test was applied. The highest incidence of microcracks were associated with the ProTaper Next group, 80% ( P = 0.00), followed by the Mtwo group, 70% ( P = 0.000), and the least number of microcracks was noted in the self-adjusting file group, 10% ( P = 0.068). No significant difference was found between the ProTaper Next and Mtwo groups ( P = 0.368) while a significant difference was observed between the ProTaper Next and self-adjusting file groups ( P = 0.000) as well as the Mtwo and self-adjusting file groups ( P = 0.000). All nickel-titanium rotary instrument systems were associated with microcracks. However, the self-adjusting file system had significantly fewer microcracks when compared with the Mtwo and ProTaper Next.

  10. Influence of Heat Treatment of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments on Apical Preparation: A Micro-Computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Bernardo Corrêa; Ormiga, Fabíola; de Araújo, Marcos César Pimenta; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lima, Inayá Corrêa Barbosa; dos Santos, Bernardo Camargo; Gusman, Heloisa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to make a 3-dimensional comparison of the canal transportation and changes in apical geometry using micro-computed tomographic imaging after canal preparation with K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and K3XF (SybronEndo) file systems. Twenty-eight mandibular molars were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the rotary system used in instrumentation: K3 or K3XF. The specimens were scanned by micro-computed tomographic imaging before and after instrumentation. Images before and after instrumentation from each group were compared with regard to canal volume, surface area, and structure model index (SMI) (paired t test, P instrumentation, the canals from each group were compared regarding the changes in volume, surface area, SMI, and canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (t test, P Instrumentation with the 2 rotary systems significantly changed the canal volume, surface area, and SMI (P instrument types concerning these parameters (P > .05). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (P > .05). Both rotary systems showed adequate canal preparations with reduced values of canal transportation. Heat treatment did not influence changes in root canal geometry in the apical region. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endodontic management of C-shaped root canal system of mandibular first molar by using a modified technique of self-adjusting file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    C-shaped canal system is a seldom-found root canal anatomy which displays a challenge in all stages of endodontic treatment. According to the literature, this type of canal morphology is not a common finding in the mandibular first molar teeth. This case report presents endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with a C-shaped canal system. Root canal system was cleaned and shaped by nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments combined with self-adjusting file (SAF). Obturation was performed using warm, vertical condensation combined with the injection of warm gutta-percha. Follow-up examination 12 months later showed that the tooth was asymptomatic. The radiological findings presented no signs of periapical pathology. The clinician must be aware of the occurence and complexity of C-shaped canals in mandibular first molar teeth to perform a successful root canal treatment. The supplementary use of SAF after application of rotary instruments in C-shaped root canals might be a promising approach in endodontic treatment of this type of canal morphology.

  12. Comparison of canal transportation and centering ability of twisted files, Pathfile-ProTaper system, and stainless steel hand K-files by using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergi, Richard; Rjeily, Joe Abou; Sader, Joseph; Naaman, Alfred

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare canal transportation and centering ability of 2 rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems (Twisted Files [TF] and Pathfile-ProTaper [PP]) with conventional stainless steel K-files. Ninety root canals with severe curvature and short radius were selected. Canals were divided randomly into 3 groups of 30 each. After preparation with TF, PP, and stainless steel files, the amount of transportation that occurred was assessed by using computed tomography. Three sections from apical, mid-root, and coronal levels of the canal were recorded. Amount of transportation and centering ability were assessed. The 3 groups were statistically compared with analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference test. Less transportation and better centering ability occurred with TF rotary instruments (P < .0001). K-files showed the highest transportation followed by PP system. PP system showed significant transportation when compared with TF (P < .0001). The TF system was found to be the best for all variables measured in this study. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement of Ti-plasma coating on Ni-Ti shape memory alloy applying to implant materials and its evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Masaru; Endo, Jun; Take, Seisho; Itoi, Yasuhiko; Kambe, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Utilizing of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy for implant materials has been world-widely studied. it is, however, known that Ni-Ti alloy is easily attacked by chloride ion contained in body liquid. To prevent Ni dissolution, the authors tried to coat the alloy surface with titanium metal by means of plasma-spray coating method. The plasma coating films resulted in rather accelerating pitting corrosion because of their high porosity. Therefore, sealing of the porous films was required. In order to solve this problem and satisfy prolonged lifetime in the body, the authors tried to use the vacuum evaporation technique of titanium metal. Two types of Ti vacuum evaporation procedures were employed. The one was to cover a thin film on Ni-Ti alloy surface prior to massive Ti plasma spray coating. The other was to first coat plasma spray films on Ni-Ti alloy and then to cover them with vacuum evaporation films of Ti. Protective ability against pitting corrosion was examined by electrochemical polarization measurement in physiological solution and the coating films were characterized by microscopic and SEM observation and EPMA analysis. Vacuum evaporation thin films could not protect Ni-Ti alloy from pitting corrosion. In the case of plasma spray coating over the Ti vacuum evaporation thin film, the substrate Ni-Ti alloy could not be better protected. On the contrary, vacuum evaporation of Ti over the porous plasma spray coating layer remarkably improved corrosion protective performance

  14. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal preparation using ProTaper™, Hyflex™ and Waveone™ rotary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakanti, Jayaprada Reddy; Venkata, Ravi Chandra Polavarapu; Vemisetty, Hari Kumar; Dandolu, Ram Kiran; Jaya, Nagendra Krishna Muppalla; Thota, Shirisha

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Extrusion of any debris during endodontic treatment may potentially cause post-operative complications such as flare-ups. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris during the root canal preparation using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 human mandibular first premolars were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20 teeth/group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers’ instructions using the Reciprocating single-file system WaveOne™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and full-sequence rotary Hyflex CM™ (Coltene Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) instruments. The canals were then irrigated using bidistilled water. The debris that was extruded apically was collected in preweighed eppendorf tubes and assessed with an electronic balance and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: The debris extrusion was compared and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: The WaveOne™ and ProTaper™ rotary instruments produced significantly more debris compared with Hyflex CM™ rotary instruments (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, all systems that were used resulted in extrusion of apical debris. Full-sequence rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems. PMID:24778507

  15. A scanning electron microscopic study of smear layer remaining following use of Greater Taper rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the smear layer in the root canal following the use of Ni-Ti hand ProTaper, HERO shaper and Twisted rotary instruments. Fifteen freshly extracted single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were selected. Crowns of all teeth were cut off at the cemento-enamel junction with a carborundum disc. The roots were then randomly divided into three groups of 5 samples each. The working length of all teeth was established by the insertion of an endodontic instrument into the canal until its tip is visible at the apical foramen and then subtracted by 0.5 mm. A sequential crown down technique was carried out in all the three groups as follows: Group-I- Specimens in this group were instrumented with ProTaper Ni-Ti hand instruments. Group-II- Specimens were instrumented with HERO shapers. Group-III - The specimens in this group were instrumented with Twisted rotary instruments. Irrigation was done with 3% NaOCl and 15% EDTA in all the three groups. Teeth were carefully split with hammer and chisel and stored in small labeled bottles containing normal saline until SEM evaluation. Results showed that when comparing ProTaper files, Twisted rotary instruments and HERO shaper instruments, HERO shaper series of rotary instruments showed maximum amount of smear layer followed by the Twisted rotary instruments. Hand instruments produced least amount of smear layer.

  16. Development of Biomimetic NiTi Alloy: Influence of Thermo-Chemical Treatment on the Physical, Mechanical and Biological Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez, Elisa; Manero, José María; Bravo-González, Luis-Alberto; Espinar, Eduardo; Gil, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    A bioactive layer, free of nickel, has been performed for its greater acceptability and reliability in clinical applications for NiTi shape memory alloys. In the first step, a safe barrier against Ni release has been produced on the surface by means of a thicker rutile/anastase protective layer free of nickel. In the second step, a sodium alkaline titanate hydrogel, which has the ability to induce apatite formation, has been performed from oxidized surface. An improvement of host tissue–implant integration has been achieved in terms of Ni ions release and the bioactivity of the treated NiTi alloys has been corroborated with both in vitro and in vivo studies. The transformation temperatures (As, Af, Ms, and Mf), as well as the critical stresses (σβ⇔M), have been slightly changed due to this surface modification. Consequently, this fact must be taken into account in order to design new surface modification on NiTi implants. PMID:28773526

  17. Development of Biomimetic NiTi Alloy: Influence of Thermo-Chemical Treatment on the Physical, Mechanical and Biological Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Rupérez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A bioactive layer, free of nickel, has been performed for its greater acceptability and reliability in clinical applications for NiTi shape memory alloys. In the first step, a safe barrier against Ni release has been produced on the surface by means of a thicker rutile/anastase protective layer free of nickel. In the second step, a sodium alkaline titanate hydrogel, which has the ability to induce apatite formation, has been performed from oxidized surface. An improvement of host tissue–implant integration has been achieved in terms of Ni ions release and the bioactivity of the treated NiTi alloys has been corroborated with both in vitro and in vivo studies. The transformation temperatures (As, Af, Ms, and Mf, as well as the critical stresses (σβ⇔M, have been slightly changed due to this surface modification. Consequently, this fact must be taken into account in order to design new surface modification on NiTi implants.

  18. Influence of curvature location along an artificial canal on cyclic fatigue of a rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio Pereira; Chiesa, Wanderson Miguel Maia; Correia, Norbi Rodrigues; de Souza Navegante, Núbia Carvalho; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Moreira, Edson Jorge Lima; Chiesa, Bianca Esther Cabral

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of curvature location along an artificial canal on cyclic fatigue (CF) of an Mtwo rotary instrument, verifying the number of cycles to fatigue fracture (NCF) and morphologic characteristics of the fractured instruments. CF testing of instruments was performed in artificial canals with curvature radii of 10 mm and arc lengths of 11 mm. Mtwo rotary instruments size 40, 0.04 taper were used in 2 groups (n = 10): group A, curvature positioned on middle part; group B, apical curvature. All instruments were rotated until fracture. The number of cycles to failure was registered. Data were analyzed by independent sample t test. Fractured surfaces and the helical shafts of the instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. NCF for groups A and B had significant statistic differences (P ductile type. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cutting efficiency of nickel-titanium rotary and reciprocating instruments after prolonged use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Giansiracusa Rubini, Alessio; Sannino, Giampaolo; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Di Giorgio, Fabrizio; Piasecki, Lucila; Al-Sudani, Dina; Plotino, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cutting efficiency of Twisted File instruments used in continuous rotation or TF Adaptive motion and evaluate if prolonged use significantly affected their cutting ability. 20 new NiTi instruments were used in the present study (TF tip size 35, 0.06 taper; Sybron-Endo, Orange, CA, USA), divided into 2 subgroups of 10 instruments each, depending on which movement was selected on the endodontic motor. Group 1: TF instruments were activated using the program TF continuous rotation at 500 rpm and torque set at 2 N; Group 2: TF instruments were activated using the reciprocating TF Adaptive motion. Cutting efficiency was tested in a device developed to test the cutting ability of endodontic instruments. Each instrument cut 10 plastic blocks (10 uses) and the length of the surface cut in a plastic block after 1 min was measured in a computerized program with a precision of 0.1 mm. Maximum penetration depth was calculated after 1 use and after 10 uses, and mean and standard deviation (SD) of each group was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed with a one-way ANOVA test (P cut a mean depth of 10.4 mm (SD = 0.6 mm) after the first use and 10.1 mm (SD 1.1 mm) after 10 uses, while TF instruments used with the Adaptive motion cut a mean depth of 9.9 mm (SD = 0.7 mm) after the first use and 9.6 mm (SD = 0.9 mm) after 10 uses. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups investigated (P > 0.05) nor between instruments after 1 or 10 uses. In conclusion, the TFA motion showed a lateral cutting ability similar to continuous rotation and all tested instruments exhibited the same cutting ability after prolonged use.

  20. Efficacy of CM-Wire, M-Wire, and Nickel-Titanium Instruments for Removing Filling Material from Curved Root Canals: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Teles; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de Almeida, Marcela Milanezi; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the removal of filling material after using CM-wire, M-wire, and nickel-titanium instruments in both reciprocating and rotary motions in curved canals. Thirty maxillary lateral incisors were divided into 9 groups according to retreatment procedures: Reciproc R25 followed by Mtwo 40/.04 and ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files; ProDesign R 25/.06 followed by ProDesign Logic 40/.05 and ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files; and Gates-Glidden drills, Hedström files, and K-files up to apical size 30 followed by K-file 40 and K-file 50 up to the working length. Micro-computed tomography scans were performed before and after each reinstrumentation procedure to evaluate root canal filling removal. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests (P < .05). No significant differences in filling material removal were found in the 3 groups of teeth. The use of Mtwo and ProDesign Logic 40/.05 rotary files did not enhance filling material removal after the use of reciprocating files. The use of ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files significantly reduced the amount of filling material at the apical levels compared with the use of reciprocating files. Association of reciprocating and rotary files was capable of removing a large amount of filling material in the retreatment of curved canals, irrespective of the type of alloy of the instruments. The use of a ProDesign Logic 50/.01 file for apical preparation significantly reduced the amount of remnant material in the apical portion when compared with reciprocating instruments. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro force delivery of nickel-titanium superelastic archwires in vertical displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha de Souza Gomes Stumpf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the force delivered by different superlastic nickel-titanium wires during vertical displacement, in order to determine whether their stress release meets the criteria for constant and light forces that are usually accredited to these archwires. METHOD: Ten samples of 6 brands of 0.016-in archwires (Ormco, GAC, Morelli, TP, American Orthodontics e Rocky Mountain were tested in a complete metal model using Dynalock brackets (3M Unitek™. In the canine position, there was a sliding bracket connected to a pole. This set was related to a load cell of 0.5 kg attached to a universal testing machine (Autograph AG-199kNG, Shimadzu. The crosshead speed was 0.5 mm/min and the maximum displacement was 1.0 mm. The model was submerged in temperature-controlled water. The results were analyzed by ANOVA (p OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a força liberada por diferentes fios de níquel-titânio (NiTi superelástico em deslocamento vertical, a fim de determinar se a liberação de estresse por esses satisfaz o critério de forças suaves e constantes, geralmente atribuído a tais arcos. MÉTODOS: dez amostras de seis arcos de NiTi superelástico 0,016” de marcas comerciais diferentes (Ormco, GAC, Morelli, TP, American Orthodontics e Rocky Mountain foram testados em um modelo metálico usando braquetes Dynalock (3M Unitek. Na região do canino, havia um braquete móvel conectado a uma haste, a qual estava relacionada com uma célula de carga de 0,5kg de uma máquina universal de ensaios (Autograph AG-199kNG, Shimadzu. O deslocamento do conjunto na região do canino foi realizado a uma velocidade constante de 0,5mm/min e o deslocamento máximo foi de 1,0mm. O conjunto foi submerso em água com temperatura controlada a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram avaliados por ANOVA (p <0,05, usando o software SAS System 8.02, Cry, NC, EUA. O arco da TP apresentou a menor força durante todo o

  2. Fracture of nickel-titanium superelastic alloy in sodium hypochlorite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ken'ichi; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Yabuta, Eiji; Asaoka, Kenzo; Sakai, Jun'ichi

    2004-01-01

    Fracture of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy for endodontic instruments such as files was investigated with a sustained tensile-loading test in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution of various concentrations. It was found that the time to fracture was reduced when the applied stress exceeded the critical stress for martensite transformation. When the applied stress was higher than the critical stress, the 0.3 mm diameter wires of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy sometimes fractured within 60 min. From the results of observations of the fracture surface using a scanning electron microscope, it was revealed that the fracture of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy is significantly influenced by corrosion when the applied stress was higher than the critical stress for martensite transformation. The results of the present study suggest that one of the causes of the fracture of Ni-Ti files during clinical use is corrosion under the applied stress above the critical stress for martensite transformation in NaOCl solution

  3. Interlot variations of transition temperature range and force delivery in copper-nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei-Reynolds, Renée C; Kanavakis, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    The manufacturing process for copper-nickel-titanium archwires is technique sensitive. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the interlot consistency of the mechanical properties of copper-nickel-titanium wires from 2 manufacturers. Wires of 2 sizes (0.016 and 0.016 × 0.022 in) and 3 advertised austenite finish temperatures (27°C, 35°C, and 40°C) from 2 manufacturers were tested for transition temperature ranges and force delivery using differential scanning calorimetry and the 3-point bend test, respectively. Variations of these properties were analyzed for statistical significance by calculating the F statistic for equality of variances for transition temperature and force delivery in each group of wires. All statistical analyses were performed at the 0.05 level of significance. Statistically significant interlot variations in austenite finish were found for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.041) and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.048) wire categories, and in austenite start for the 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C wire category (P = 0.01). In addition, significant variations in force delivery were found between the 2 manufacturers for the 0.016 in/27°C (P = 0.002), 0.016 in/35.0°C (P = 0.049), and 0.016 × 0.022 in/35°C (P = 0.031) wires. Orthodontic wires of the same material, dimension, and manufacturer but from different production lots do not always have similar mechanical properties. Clinicians should be aware that copper-nickel-titanium wires might not always deliver the expected force, even when they come from the same manufacturer, because of interlot variations in the performance of the material. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Incidence of apical root cracks and apical dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shemesh, Hagay; Wesselink, Paul R; Hou, Benxiang; Wu, Min-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of apical root cracks and dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths. Two hundred forty mandibular incisors were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed. The root canals were instrumented with rotary and hand files, namely K3, ProTaper, and nickel-titanium Flex K files to the major apical foramen (AF), short AF, or beyond AF. Digital images of the apical surface of every tooth were taken during the apical enlargement at each file change. Development of dentinal defects was determined by comparing these images with the baseline image. Multinomial logistic regression test was performed to identify influencing factors. Apical crack developed in 1 of 80 teeth (1.3%) with hand files and 31 of 160 teeth (19.4%) with rotary files. Apical dentinal detachment developed in 2 of 80 teeth (2.5%) with hand files and 35 of 160 teeth (21.9%) with rotary files. Instrumentation with rotary files terminated 2 mm short of AF and did not cause any cracks. Significantly less cracks and detachments occurred when instrumentation with rotary files was terminated short of AF, as compared with that terminated at or beyond AF (P hand instruments; instrumentation short of AF reduced the risk of dentinal defects. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-organized nickel nanoparticles on nanostructured silicon substrate intermediated by a titanium oxynitride (TiNxOy) interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M.; Droppa, R., Jr.; de Mello, S. R. S.; Figueroa, C. A.; Zanatta, A. R.; Alvarez, F.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report an experimental approach by combining in situ sequential top-down and bottom-up processes to induce the organization of nanosized nickel particles. The top-down process consists in xenon ion bombardment of a crystalline silicon substrate to generate a pattern, followed by depositing a ˜15 nm titanium oxynitride thin film to act as a metallic diffusion barrier. Then, metallic nanoparticles are deposited by argon ion sputtering a pure nickel target, and the sample is annealed to promote the organization of the nickel nanoparticles (a bottom-up process). According to the experimental results, the surface pattern and the substrate biaxial surface strain are the driving forces behind the alignment and organization of the nickel nanoparticles. Moreover, the ratio between the F of metallic atoms arriving at the substrate relative to its surface diffusion mobility determines the nucleation regime of the nickel nanoparticles. These features are presented and discussed considering the existing technical literature on the subject.

  6. Nickel titanium T-loop wire dimensions for en masse retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Layene; Ribeiro, Alexandre; Parsekian Martins, Renato; Viecilli, Rodrigo; Parsekian Martins, Lídia

    2016-09-01

    To compare the force system produced by nickel-titanium T-loop springs made with wires of different dimensions. Thirty compound T-loop springs were divided into three groups according to the dimensions of the nickel-titanium wire used for its design: 0.016" × 0.022", 0.017" × 0.025", and 0.018" × 0.025". The loops were tested on the Orthodontic Force Tester machine at an interbracket distance of 23 mm and activated 9 mm. The force in the y-axis and the moment in the x-axis were registered while the calculated moment to force ratio was recorded at each .5 mm of deactivation. The data were analyzed by three analyses of variance of repeated measures to detect differences and interactions between deactivation and wire size on force, moment, and moment-force ratios (M/F). All groups had significantly different forces (P wire produced 1.78N of force while the 0.017" × 0.025" and the 0.018" × 0.025" produced 2.81 N and 3.25 N, respectively. The 0.016" × 0.022" wire produced lower moments (11.6 Nmm) than the 0.017" × 0.025" and 0.018" × 0.025" wires, which produced similar moments (13.9 Nmm and 14.4Nmm, respectively). The M/F produced was different for all groups; 0.016" × 0.022" T-loops produced 6.7 mm while the 0.017" × 0.025" and 0.018" × 0.025" T-loops produced 5.0 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. An interaction was detected for all variables between deactivation and groups. The larger wires tested produced higher forces with slight increase on the moments, but the M/F produced by the 0.016" × 0.022" wire was the highest found.

  7. Evaluation of the interfacial shear strength between pseudoplastic NiTi shape memory alloy wires and epoxy by the pull-out method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spārniņš, E; Michaud, V; Leterrier, Y; Andersons, J

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between nickel–titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy wires, characterized by a nonlinear stress–strain behavior, and epoxy matrix was determined by pull-out tests. Tests were carried out at several temperatures and levels of pre-strain in the wires, to evaluate the effects of embedded wire length and of crystalline state of the alloy. The IFSS between the twinned NiTi and epoxy was estimated at 24 MPa, and found to increase to 47 MPa for completely detwinned and preloaded martensitic NiTi. This increase in IFSS values was attributed to microcracking of the superficial TiO 2 layer and the resulting roughening of the NiTi wire surface. (paper)

  8. Mechanical properties of nickel-titanium archwire used in the final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao; Sun, Xin-hua; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Chun-bo; Yan, Kuo; Guo, Yong-liang

    2013-01-01

    As the only active component in final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique, the activation of nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires is one of the factors that affect the torque expression. It is necessary to evaluate the mechanical properties of the nickel-titanium wire used in the final treatment phase in simulated oral environments to forecast the treatment outcomes. The mechanical properties of 171 thermal nickel-titanium wires of 0.35 mm (0.014-in) in diameters with different deflection of 40 mm in length were investigated with three-point bending test. The samples were divided into 2 groups: as-received and bended groups. In the bended group, samples were divided into 7 subgroups according to the amounts of deflection and named by the canine angulations (-25°, -19°, -13°, -7°, -1°, +5°, +11°). The deflection of wires was made by inserting the wires into the deep tunnel of Tip-Edge Plus brackets positioned in plaster casts with different canine angulations to mimic the use of nickel-titanium wires in the final treatment phase. Immersed the bended group in artificial saliva (pH 6.8) and preserved at 37.0°C. Eight durations of incubation were tested: 1 to 8 weeks. Three analogous samples of each group and subgroups were tested per week. Stiffness (YS:E) and the load-deflection characteristics of unloading plateau section were obtained. Significant changes in specific mechanical properties were observed in long-term immersed and large deflected wires compared with as-received groups. Both immersion time and deflection affected the mechanical properties of wires in the simulated oral environment, and the two factors had synergistic effect. In groups -25°, -19° and -13°, stiffness (YS:E) increased then decreased and average plateau force and ratio of variance decreased then increased correspondingly at specific time. In the final treatment phase of Tip-Edge Plus technique, the mechanical properties of nickel-titanium wire are associated with the

  9. Efficacy of D-RaCe and ProTaper Universal Retreatment NiTi instruments and hand files in removing gutta-percha from curved root canals - a micro-computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödig, T; Hausdörfer, T; Konietschke, F; Dullin, C; Hahn, W; Hülsmann, M

    2012-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of two rotary NiTi retreatment systems and Hedström files in removing filling material from curved root canals. Curved root canals of 57 extracted teeth were prepared using FlexMaster instruments and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus. After determination of root canal curvatures and radii in two directions, the teeth were assigned to three identical groups (n = 19). The root fillings were removed with D-RaCe instruments, ProTaper Universal Retreatment instruments or Hedström files. Pre- and postoperative micro-CT imaging was used to assess the percentage of residual filling material as well as the amount of dentine removal. Working time and procedural errors were recorded. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance and analysis of variance procedures. D-RaCe instruments were significantly more effective than ProTaper Universal Retreatment instruments and Hedström files (P ProTaper group, four instrument fractures and one lateral perforation were observed. Five instrument fractures were recorded for D-RaCe. D-RaCe instruments were associated with significantly less residual filling material than ProTaper Universal Retreatment instruments and hand files. Hedström files removed significantly less dentine than both rotary NiTi systems. Retreatment with rotary NiTi systems resulted in a high incidence of procedural errors. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  10. A Clinical Evaluation of Three Force Delivery Systems in Stage II of the Begg Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincy Antony Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Materials and methods: The present study was designed to compare the rates of retraction and anchorage loss between elastics, elastomeric chains and nickel-titanium (NiTi closed coil springs, using a continuous archwire system with the Begg light wire differential force technique. Results: The rate of canine retraction was faster by 0.6 mm per month with the NiTi closed coil spring compared to elastics and elastomeric chains. The NiTi closed coil springs produced more rapid rate of canine retraction but they also produced the greatest amount of anchorage loss.

  11. "Dentinal microcracks after root canal preparation" a comparative evaluation with hand, rotary and reciprocating instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, N Tulasi; Chandrasekhar, Veeramachaneni; Anita, S; Tummala, Muralidhar; Raj, T B Phanindhar; Badami, Vijetha; Kumar, Pradeep; Soujanya, E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal micro cracks after instrumentation with various types of NiTi files in rotary and reciprocating motion. One hundred human extracted mandibular central incisors were taken and divided into 10 groups (n=10 teeth per group). Group 1- No preparation, Group 2 - Hand instrumentation, Groups 3,4 - ProTaper files in rotary and reciprocating motion, Groups 5,6 - ProTaper Next files in rotary and reciprocating motion, Groups 7,8 - Oneshape files in rotary and reciprocating motion, Groups 9,10 - Reciproc files in rotary and reciprocating motion. Specimens were sectioned horizontally at 3,6 and 9 mm from the apex and dentinal micro cracks were observed under a stereomicroscope. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (pProtaper Next - Rot, Protaper Next - Rec, Reciproc - Rec); (ProTaper - Rot, ProTaper - Rec, Oneshape - Rot), (Oneshape - Rot, Reciproc - Rot), (One shape Reciproc, Reciproc - Rec); (p >.05). Least cracks were seen in canals instrumented with Pro Taper Next files both in rotary and reciprocating motion. Full sequence rotary systems showed less cracks than single file systems and full sequence rotary systems showed less cracks in reciprocating motion than in rotary motion.

  12. Right wire in orthodontics: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.

  13. Cell adhesion on NiTi thin film sputter-deposited meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loger, K. [Inorganic Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kiel (Germany); Engel, A.; Haupt, J. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Li, Q. [Biocompatible Nanomaterials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kiel (Germany); Lima de Miranda, R. [Inorganic Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kiel (Germany); ACQUANDAS GmbH, Kiel (Germany); Quandt, E. [Inorganic Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kiel (Germany); Lutter, G. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Selhuber-Unkel, C. [Biocompatible Nanomaterials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kiel (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering enable the possibility to fabricate and form biomedical implants in vitro, which fulfill special functionality in vivo. In this study, free-standing Nickel–Titanium (NiTi) thin film meshes were produced by means of magnetron sputter deposition. Meshes contained precisely defined rhombic holes in the size of 440 to 1309 μm{sup 2} and a strut width ranging from 5.3 to 9.2 μm. The effective mechanical properties of the microstructured superelastic NiTi thin film were examined by tensile testing. These results will be adapted for the design of the holes in the film. The influence of hole and strut dimensions on the adhesion of sheep autologous cells (CD133 +) was studied after 24 h and after seven days of incubation. Optical analysis using fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that cell adhesion depends on the structural parameters of the mesh. After 7 days in cell culture a large part of the mesh was covered with aligned fibrous material. Cell adhesion is particularly facilitated on meshes with small rhombic holes of 440 μm{sup 2} and a strut width of 5.3 μm. Our results demonstrate that free-standing NiTi thin film meshes have a promising potential for applications in cardiovascular tissue engineering, particularly for the fabrication of heart valves. - Highlights: • Freestanding NiTi thin film scaffolds were fabricated with magnetron sputtering process. • Effective mechanical properties of NiTi scaffolds can be adapted by the mesh structure parameters. • Cell adhesion on the NiTi thin film scaffold is controlled by the structure parameters of the mesh. • Cells strongly adhere after seven days and form a confluent layer on the mesh.

  14. Cell adhesion on NiTi thin film sputter-deposited meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loger, K.; Engel, A.; Haupt, J.; Li, Q.; Lima de Miranda, R.; Quandt, E.; Lutter, G.; Selhuber-Unkel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering enable the possibility to fabricate and form biomedical implants in vitro, which fulfill special functionality in vivo. In this study, free-standing Nickel–Titanium (NiTi) thin film meshes were produced by means of magnetron sputter deposition. Meshes contained precisely defined rhombic holes in the size of 440 to 1309 μm 2 and a strut width ranging from 5.3 to 9.2 μm. The effective mechanical properties of the microstructured superelastic NiTi thin film were examined by tensile testing. These results will be adapted for the design of the holes in the film. The influence of hole and strut dimensions on the adhesion of sheep autologous cells (CD133 +) was studied after 24 h and after seven days of incubation. Optical analysis using fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that cell adhesion depends on the structural parameters of the mesh. After 7 days in cell culture a large part of the mesh was covered with aligned fibrous material. Cell adhesion is particularly facilitated on meshes with small rhombic holes of 440 μm 2 and a strut width of 5.3 μm. Our results demonstrate that free-standing NiTi thin film meshes have a promising potential for applications in cardiovascular tissue engineering, particularly for the fabrication of heart valves. - Highlights: • Freestanding NiTi thin film scaffolds were fabricated with magnetron sputtering process. • Effective mechanical properties of NiTi scaffolds can be adapted by the mesh structure parameters. • Cell adhesion on the NiTi thin film scaffold is controlled by the structure parameters of the mesh. • Cells strongly adhere after seven days and form a confluent layer on the mesh.

  15. Effect of titanium impurities on helium bubble growth in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarendra, G.; Viswanathan, B.; Rajaraman, R.; Srinivasan, S.; Gopinathan, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements in He-implanted Ni and Ni-Ti alloys containing dilute concentrations of Ti, during isochronal annealing, are reported. In the initial annealing stage of Ni-Ti alloys, only a single lifetime ranging from 160 to 180 ps is observed, in contrast with the two lifetimes seen in pure Ni. This indicates saturation positron trapping at helium-bound Ti-vacancy complexes, formed in high concentrations. Lattice statics calculations of the He binding energy at various defect complexes in Ni-containing Ti give credence to the above interpretation. Above 800K, two lifetimes are resolved in Ni-Ti alloys, where the longer lifetime τ 2 increases with a sharp reduction in its intensity. This is indicative of He bubble growth. The bubble radius r B and bubble concentration C B are obtained from an analysis of positron lifetime parameters. These results indicate that, for a given annealing temperature, r B is smaller by a factor of two and C B higher by nearly an order of magnitude in Ni-Ti than the corresponding values in pure Ni. This is explained as due to significant retardation of bubble growth on the addition of Ti to Ni, where the Ti impurities cause an impediment to bubble migration and coalescence. (author)

  16. Asymmetrical distalization of maxillary molars with zygomatic anchorage, improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wires, and open-coil springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayoshi; Yoon, Hyung Sik; Ono, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    In nongrowing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion, premolar extraction or maxillary distalization can be used as camouflage treatment. Zygomatic anchorage enables distalization in uncooperative or noncompliant patients. We describe 1 such procedure in a 24-year-old woman. We used novel improved superelastic nickel-titanium archwires combined with nickel-titanium open-coil springs to provide a constant and continuous low force to the dentition. We were able to successfully eliminate the protrusive profile and correct the Class II molar relationship using this system of zygomatic anchorage. The posterior occlusal relationships were improved to achieve Class I canine and molar relationships on both sides, and ideal overbite and overjet relationships were established. Facial esthetics was improved with decreased protrusion of the upper and lower lips. The method used here is a promising alternative to traditional distalization techniques and might offer an effective and simple means of distalizing maxillary molars in uncooperative patients. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy and safety of a NiTi CAR 27 compression ring for end-to-end anastomosis compared with conventional staplers: A real-world analysis in Chinese colorectal cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenhai; Peng, Jianhong; Li, Cong; Wang, Fulong; Jiang, Wu; Fan, Wenhua; Lin, Junzhong; Wu, Xiaojun; Wan, Desen; Pan, Zhizhong

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new nickel-titanium shape memory alloy compression anastomosis ring, NiTi CAR 27, in constructing an anastomosis for colorectal cancer resection compared with conventional staples. METHODS: In total, 234 consecutive patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer receiving sigmoidectomy and anterior resection for end-to-end anastomosis from May 2010 to June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The postoperative clinical parameters, postoperative complications and 3-year overall survival in 77 patients using a NiTi CAR 27 compression ring (CAR group) and 157 patients with conventional circular staplers (STA group) were compared. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the patients in the two groups in terms of general demographics and tumor features. A clinically apparent anastomotic leak occurred in 2 patients (2.6%) in the CAR group and in 5 patients (3.2%) in the STA group (p=0.804). These eight patients received a temporary diverting ileostomy. One patient (1.3%) in the CAR group was diagnosed with anastomotic stricture through an electronic colonoscopy after 3 months postoperatively. The incidence of postoperative intestinal obstruction was comparable between the two groups (p=0.192). With a median follow-up duration of 39.6 months, the 3-year overall survival rate was 83.1% in the CAR group and 89.0% in the STA group (p=0.152). CONCLUSIONS: NiTi CAR 27 is safe and effective for colorectal end-to-end anastomosis. Its use is equivalent to that of the conventional circular staplers. This study suggests that NiTi CAR 27 may be a beneficial alternative in colorectal anastomosis in Chinese colorectal cancer patients. PMID:27276395

  18. Comparison of Single Visit Post Endodontic Pain Using Mtwo Rotary and Hand K-File Instruments: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefinejad, Mohamad; Harandi, Azade; Eram, Saeed; Bijani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Pain is an unpleasant outcome of endodontic treatment that can be unbearable to patients. Instrumentation techniques may affect the frequency and intensity of post-endodontic pain. This study aimed to compare single visit post endodontic pain using Mtwo (NiTi) rotary and hand K-file instruments. In this randomized controlled trial, 60 teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in 53 patients were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of 30 teeth. In group A, the root canals were prepared with Mtwo (NiTi) rotary instruments. In group B, the root canals were prepared with hand K-file instruments. Pain assessment was implemented using visual analog scale (VAS) at four, eight, 12 and 24 hours after treatment. The acquired data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and Student's t-test (Protary instruments experienced significantly less post-endodontic pain than those treated with hand instruments (Protary instruments in root canal preparation contributed to lower incidence of postoperative pain than hand K-files.

  19. Effect of cyclic torsional preloading on cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Next and Mtwo nickel–titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Pedullà

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Torsional preloads reduced the cyclic fatigue resistance of M-wire and conventional (as ProTaper Next and Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments except for Mtwo with 25% or 50% of torsional preloading.

  20. Processing precious metals in a top-blown rotary converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whellock, John G.; Matousek, Jan W.

    1990-09-01

    Copper-nickel/platinum-palladium flotation concentrates produced by the Stillwater Mining Company were smelted and refined in an integrated pilot plant consisting of a submerged-arc electric furnace and top-blown rotary converter. The conversion of high-iron electric furnace mattes was achieved with apparent oxygen efficiencies in excess of 100 percent. Platinum and palladium recoveries averaged 99 percent, and copper and nickel recoveries were 94 percent.

  1. Impaired bacterial attachment to light activated Ni-Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Valappil, Sabeel P.; Dunnill, Charles W.; Abou Neel, Ensanya A.; Lee, Kevin; Parkin, Ivan P.; Wilson, Michael; Armitage, David A.; Knowles, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Ni-Ti alloy due to its unique mechanical properties, is used for many types of implants. Failure of these implants can be attributed to many different factors; however infections are a common problem. In this paper, the attachment of the bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, to the Ni-Ti surface modified by a range of processes with and without of light activation (used to elicit antimicrobial properties of materials) was assessed and related to different surface characteristics. Before the light activation the number of bacterial colony forming units was the greatest for the samples thermally oxidised at 600 deg. C. This sample and the spark oxidised samples showed the highest photocatalytic activity but only the thermally oxidised samples at 600 deg. C showed a significant drop of S. aureus attachment. The findings in this study indicate that light activation and treating samples at 600 deg. C is a promising method for Ni-Ti implant applications with inherent antimicrobial properties. Light activation was shown to be an effective way to trigger photocatalytic reactions on samples covered with relatively thick titanium dioxide via accumulation of photons in the surface and a possible increase in defects which may result in free oxygen. Moreover, light activation caused an increase in the total surface energy.

  2. Effect of Saliva on Load-Deflection Characteristics of Superelastic Nickel-Titanium Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, T.; Ghadirian, H.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili; Shahhoseini, T.; Haj-Fathalian, M.

    2012-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Most published results about the features of NiTi wires are based on the mechanical laboratory tests in a dry environment.Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of saliva on load-deflection characteristics of superelastic NiTi wires.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 15 wires of three kinds of NiTi wires (Sentalloy, Force I and Truflex) were prepared; five of them were tested in their as-received condition to provide bas...

  3. Influence of Nitinol wire surface treatment on oxide thickness and composition and its subsequent effect on corrosion resistance and nickel ion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, B; Carroll, W; Rochev, Y; Hynes, M; Bradley, D; Plumley, D

    2006-10-01

    Medical implants and devices are now used successfully in surgical procedures on a daily basis. Alloys of nickel and titanium, and in particular Nitinol are of special interest in the medical device industry, because of their shape memory and superelastic properties. The corrosion behavior of nitinol in the body is also of critical importance because of the known toxicological effects of nickel. The stability of a NiTi alloy in the physiological environment is dependant primarily on the properties of the mostly TiO(2) oxide layer that is present on the surface. For the present study, a range of nitinol wires have been prepared using different drawing processes and a range of surface preparation procedures. It is clear from the results obtained that the wire samples with very thick oxides also contain a high nickel content in the oxide layer. The untreated samples with the thicker oxides show the lowest pitting potential values and greater nickel release in both long and short-term experiments. It was also found that after long-term immersion tests breakdown potentials increased for samples that exhibited lower values initially. From these results it would appear that surface treatment is essential for the optimum bioperformance of nitinol. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel–titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO 2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces. (paper)

  5. Adhesive bonding of super-elastic titanium-nickel alloy castings with a phosphate metal conditioner and an acrylic adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, H; Tanoue, N; Yanagida, H; Atsuta, M; Koike, M; Yoneyama, T

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the bonding characteristics of super-elastic titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) alloy castings. Disk specimens were cast from a Ti-Ni alloy (Ti-50.85Ni mol%) using an arc centrifugal casting machine. High-purity titanium and nickel specimens were also prepared as experimental references. The specimens were air-abraded with alumina, and bonded with an adhesive resin (Super-Bond C & B). A metal conditioner containing a phosphate monomer (Cesead II Opaque Primer) was also used for priming the specimens. Post-thermocycling average bond strengths (MPa) of the primed groups were 41.5 for Ti-Ni, 30.4 for Ti and 19.5 for Ni, whereas those of the unprimed groups were 21.6 for Ti, 19.3 for Ti-Ni and 9.3 for Ni. Application of the phosphate conditioner elevated the bond strengths of all alloy/metals (P elastic Ti-Ni alloy castings can be achieved with a combination of a phosphate metal conditioner and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin.

  6. Mechanical reduction of the intracanal Enterococcus faecalis population by Hyflex CM, K3XF, ProTaper Next, and two manual instrument systems: an in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rajendra K; Ali, Sajid; Mishra, Surendra K; Kumar, Ashok; Andrabi, Syed Mukhtar-Un-Nisar; Zoya, Asma; Alam, Sharique

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of three rotary and two manual nickel titanium instrument systems on mechanical reduction of the intracanal Enterococcus faecalis population was evaluated. Mandibular premolars with straight roots were selected. Teeth were decoronated and instrumented until 20 K file and irrigated with physiological saline. After sterilization by ethylene oxide gas, root canals were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups for canal instrumentation: Manual Nitiflex and Hero Shaper nickel titanium files, and rotary Hyflex CM, ProTaper Next, and K3XF nickel titanium files. Intracanal bacterial sampling was done before and after instrumentation. After serial dilution, samples were plated onto the Mitis Salivarius agar. The c.f.u. grown were counted, and log10 transformation was calculated. All instrumentation systems significantly reduced the intracanal bacterial population after root canal preparation. ProTaper Next was found to be significantly more effective than Hyflex CM and manual Nitiflex and Hero Shaper. However, ProTaper Next showed no significant difference with K3XF. Canal instrumentation by all the file systems significantly reduced the intracanal Enterococcus faecalis counts. ProTaper Next was found to be most effective in reducing the number of bacteria than other rotary or hand instruments. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. En-masse retraction with a preformed nickel-titanium and stainless steel archwire assembly and temporary skeletal anchorage devices without posterior bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Jeong-Hyun; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Seo, Kyung-Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of a preformed assembly of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel (SS) archwires (preformed C-wire) combined with temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs) as the sole source of anchorage and to compare these effects with those of a SS version of C-wire (conventional C-wire) for en-masse retraction. Thirty-one adult female patients with skeletal Class I or II dentoalveolar protrusion, mild-to-moderate anterior crowding (3.0-6.0 mm), and stable Class I posterior occlusion were divided into conventional (n = 15) and preformed (n = 16) C-wire groups. All subjects underwent first premolar extractions and en-masse retraction with pre-adjusted edgewise anterior brackets, the assigned C-wire, and maxillary C-tubes or C-implants; bonded mesh-tube appliances were used in the mandibular dentition. Differences in pretreatment and post-retraction measurements of skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue cephalometric variables were statistically analyzed. Both groups showed full retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth by controlled tipping and space closure without altered posterior occlusion. However, the preformed C-wire group had a shorter retraction period (by 3.2 months). Furthermore, the maxillary molars in this group showed no significant mesialization, mesial tipping, or extrusion; some mesialization and mesial tipping occurred in the conventional C-wire group. Preformed C-wires combined with maxillary TSADs enable simultaneous leveling and space closure from the beginning of the treatment without maxillary posterior bonding. This allows for faster treatment of dentoalveolar protrusion without unwanted side effects, when compared with conventional C-wire, evidencing its clinical expediency.

  8. Mast cell histamine-mediated transient inflammation following exposure to nickel promotes nickel allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinbara, Masayuki; Bando, Kanan; Shiraishi, Daisuke; Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Nagai, Yasuhiro; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that allergic responses to nickel (Ni) were minimal in mice deficient in the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC-KO), suggesting an involvement of histamine in allergic responses to Ni. However, it remains unclear how histamine is involved in the process of Ni allergy. Here, we examined the role of histamine in Ni allergy using a murine model previously established by us. Mice were sensitized to Ni by intraperitoneal injection of a NiCl2 -lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mixture. Ten days later, allergic inflammation was elicited by challenging ear-pinnas intradermally with NiCl2 . Then, ear-swelling was measured. Pyrilamine (histamine H1-receptor antagonist) or cromoglicate (mast cell stabilizer) was intravenously injected 1 h before the sensitization or the challenge. In cell-transfer experiments, spleen cells from Ni-sensitized donor mice were intravenously transferred into non-sensitized recipient mice. In both sensitized and non-sensitized mice, 1 mm or more NiCl2 (injected into ear-pinnas) induced transient non-allergic inflammation (Ni-TI) with accompanying mast cell degranulation. LPS did not affect the magnitude of this Ni-TI. Pyrilamine and cromoglicate reduced either the Ni-TI or the ensuing allergic inflammation when administered before Ni-TI (at either the sensitization or elicitation step), but not if administered when the Ni-TI had subsided. Experiments on HDC-KO and H1-receptor-KO mice, and also cell-transfer experiments using these mice, demonstrated histamine's involvement in both the sensitization and elicitation steps. These results suggest that mast cell histamine-mediated Ni-TI promotes subsequent allergic inflammatory responses to Ni, raising the possibility that control of Ni-TI by drugs may be effective at preventing or reducing Ni allergy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Numerical simulation of the force generated by a superelastic NiTi orthodontic archwire during tooth alignment phase: comparison between different constitutive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannoun, M.; Laroussi Hellara, M.; Bouby, C.; Ben Zineb, T.; Bouraoui, T.

    2018-04-01

    Nickel Titanium (NiTi) Superelastic (SE) Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are widely considered for applications that need high reversible strain or high recovery forces. In particular, the SE SMAs present a high interest for biomedical applications such as endodontic and orthodontic apparatus. They are available in a large variety of archwires exerting continuum forces to ensure the dental displacement. The purpose of this study is to report the clinical implications of NiTi SE wires for dental treatment in a given configuration. Three main constitutive models of the literature (Lagoudas and Boyd 1996 Int. J. Plast. 12 805–842, Auricchio and Petrini 2004 Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng. 61 807–836 and Chemisky et al 2011 Mech. Mater. 68 361–376) are considered for the finite element (FE) numerical simulations of the SMA archwires response. Tensile tests had been carried out in order to identify the material parameters of these constitutive models. The FE numerical study allowed to predict the dental displacement and its corresponding orthodontic force level exerted by the wire in similar conditions to those in the oral environment. This work allows to predict the orthodontic generated load by a NiTi SE archwire with a 0.64 × 0.46 mm2 rectangular cross section under prescribed thermomechanical conditions. The effect of the temperature and the alveolar bone stiffness on the orthodontic load level and the tooth displacement degree has been investigated. The performed numerical simulations demonstrate that the orthodontic load is sensitive to the displacement magnitude, to the tooth stiffness and to the temperature variations. The obtained forces applied continuously and at a constant level are within the acceptable orthodontic force level range. Some directives are therefore provided to help orthodontists to select the optimal archwire.

  10. The biocompatibility of dense and porous Nickel–Titanium produced by selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habijan, T.; Haberland, C.; Meier, H.; Frenzel, J.; Wittsiepe, J.; Wuwer, C.; Greulich, C.; Schildhauer, T.A.; Köller, M.

    2013-01-01

    Nickel–Titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi-SMA) are of biomedical interest due to their unusual range of pure elastic deformability and their elastic modulus, which is closer to that of bone than any other metallic or ceramic material. Newly developed porous NiTi, produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM), is currently under investigation as a potential carrier material for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). SLM enables the production of highly complex and tailor-made implants for patients on the basis of CT data. Such implants could be used for the reconstruction of the skull, face, or pelvis. hMSC are a promising cell type for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their ability to support the regeneration of critical size bone defects. Loading porous SLM-NiTi implants with autologous hMSC may enhance bone growth and healing for critical bone defects. The purpose of this study was to assess whether porous SLM-NiTi is a suitable carrier for hMSC. Specimens of varying porosity and surface structure were fabricated via SLM. hMSC were cultured for 8 days on NiTi specimens, and cell viability was analyzed using two-color fluorescence staining. Viable cells were detected on all specimens after 8 days of cell culture. Cell morphology and surface topography were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell morphology and surface topology were dependent on the orientation of the specimens during SLM production. The Nickel ion release can be reduced significantly by aligned laser processing conditions. The presented results clearly attest that both dense SLM-NiTi and porous SLM-NiTi are suitable carriers for hMSC. Nevertheless, before carrying out in vivo studies, some work on optimization of the manufacturing process and post-processing is required. - Highlights: ► Specimens, varying in porosity and surface structure were produced via SLM. ► Biocompatibility of these specimens was analyzed. ► All specimens were completely coated with a layer

  11. Oxygen and sodium plasma-implanted nickel-titanium shape memory alloy: A novel method to promote hydroxyapatite formation and suppress nickel leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.L.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Lu, W.W.; Ngan, A.H.W.; Luk, K.D.K.; Chan, D.; Wu, S.L.; Liu, X.M.; Chu, Paul K.; Cheung, K.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims at modifying the surface bioactivity of NiTi by sodium and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). Sodium ions were implanted into oxygen plasma-implanted NiTi and untreated NiTi. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that more sodium was implanted into the oxygen pre-implanted sample in comparison with the untreated surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) detected calcium and phosphorus rich deposits on both samples after immersion in simulated body fluids for 7 and 21 days. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) conducted on the deposits dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid showed more calcium on the oxygen PIII samples. The improved corrosion resistance of the oxygen PIII NiTi was retained after sodium PIII as evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization tests. Better spreading and proliferation of osteoblasts were also observed on the treated samples

  12. A randomized clinical trial to compare three methods of orthodontic space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, V; Read, M J F; O'Brien, K D; Worthington, H V; Mandall, N A

    2002-03-01

    To compare the rates of orthodontic space closure for: Active ligatures, polyurethane powerchain (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, RMO Europe, Parc d'Innovation, Rue Geiler de Kaysersberg, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, Strasbourg, France) and nickel titanium springs. Patients entering the space closure phase of fixed orthodontic treatment attending six orthodontic providers. Twelve patients received active ligatures (48 quadrants), 10 patients received powerchain (40 quadrants) and 11 patients, nickel-titanium springs (44 quadrants). Patients were randomly allocated for treatment with active ligatures, powerchain or nickel titanium springs. Upper and lower study models were collected at the start of space closure (T(o)) and 4 months later (T(1)). We recorded whether the patient wore Class II or Class III elastics. Space present in all four quadrants was measured, by a calibrated examiner, using Vernier callipers at T(o) and T(1.) The rate of space closure, in millimetres per month (4 weeks) and a 4-monthly rate, was then calculated. Examiner reliability was assessed at least 2 weeks later. Mean rates of space closure were 0.35 mm/month for active ligatures, 0.58 mm/month for powerchain, and 0.81 mm/month for NiTi springs. No statistically significant differences were found between any methods with the exception of NiTi springs showing more rapid space closure than active ligatures (P space closure. NiTi springs gave the most rapid rate of space closure and may be considered the treatment of choice. However, powerchain provides a cheaper treatment option that is as effective. The use of inter-arch elastics does not appear to influence rate of space closure.

  13. Effects of multiple root canal usage on the surface topography and fracture of two different Ni-Ti rotary file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottoor, Jojo; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Krithikadatta, Jogikalmat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of multiple root canal usage on the surface topography and fracture of Twisted File (TF) and ProTaper (PT) rotary Ni-Ti file systems, using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ten sets of PT and TF instruments were used to prepare the mesial canals of mandibular first molars. TF 25, 0.06 taper and PT F1 instruments were analyzed by SEM when new and thereafter every three root canal usages. This sequence was repeated for both the TF and PT groups until 12 uses. Two images of the instrument were recorded, one of the instrument tip and the other 5 mm from the tip, both at × 100 magnification. The sequential use was continued till the instrument fractured and the number of root canal usages for the file to fracture was noted. All fracture surfaces were examined under the SEM. Fresh TF instruments showed no surface wear when compared to PT instruments (P 0.05), while at the 9 th usage TF showed a steep increase in the spiral distortion score when compared to PT (P < 0.05). PT instruments fractured at a mean root canal usage of 17.4, while TF instruments showed a mean root canal usage of 11.8. Fractographically, all the TF instruments failed due to torsion, while all the PT instruments failed because of cyclic fatigue. PT instruments showed more resistance to fracture than TF instruments.

  14. Cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different nickel-titanium reciprocating instruments in artificial canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, Oscar; Plotino, Gianluca; Tocci, Luigi; Carrillo, Gabriela; Gambarini, Gianluca; Jaramillo, David E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different nickel-titanium reciprocating instruments. A total of 45 nickel-titanium instruments were tested and divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 15): group 1, WaveOne Primary instruments; group 2, Reciproc R25 instruments; and group 3, Twisted File (TF) Adaptive M-L1 instruments. The instruments were then subjected to cyclic fatigue test on a static model consisting of a metal block with a simulated canal with 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. WaveOne Primary, Reciproc R25, and TF Adaptive instruments were activated by using their proprietary movements, WaveOne ALL, Reciproc ALL, and TF Adaptive, respectively. All instruments were activated until fracture occurred, and the time to fracture was recorded visually for each file with a 1/100-second chronometer. Mean number of cycles to failure and standard deviations were calculated for each group, and data were statistically analyzed (P fatigue resistance of Reciproc R25 and TF Adaptive M-L1 was significantly higher than that of WaveOne Primary (P = .009 and P = .002, respectively). The results showed no statistically significant difference between TF Adaptive M-L1 and Reciproc R25 (P = .686). Analysis of the fractured portion under scanning electron microscopy indicated that all instruments showed morphologic characteristics of ductile fracture that were due to accumulation of metal fatigue. No statistically significant differences were found between the instruments tested except for WaveOne Primary, which showed the lowest resistance to cyclic fatigue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanostructured titanium-based materials for medical implants: Modeling and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny; Valiev, Ruslan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructuring of titanium-based implantable devices can provide them with superior mechanical properties and enhanced biocompatibity. An overview of advanced fabrication technologies of nanostructured, high strength, biocompatible Ti and shape memory Ni-Ti alloy for medical implants is given. C...

  16. Effect of Instrumentation Length and Instrumentation Systems: Hand Versus Rotary Files on Apical Crack Formation - An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devale, Madhuri R; Mahesh, M C; Bhandary, Shreetha

    2017-01-01

    Stresses generated during root canal instrumentation have been reported to cause apical cracks. The smaller, less pronounced defects like cracks can later propagate into vertical root fracture, when the tooth is subjected to repeated stresses from endodontic or restorative procedures. This study evaluated occurrence of apical cracks with stainless steel hand files, rotary NiTi RaCe and K3 files at two different instrumentation lengths. In the present in vitro study, 60 mandibular premolars were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligament. Apical 3 mm of the root surfaces were exposed and stained using India ink. Preoperative images of root apices were obtained at 100x using stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into six groups of 10 each. First two groups were instrumented with stainless steel files, next two groups with rotary NiTi RaCe files and the last two groups with rotary NiTi K3 files. The instrumentation was carried out till the apical foramen (Working Length-WL) and 1 mm short of the apical foramen (WL-1) with each file system. After root canal instrumentation, postoperative images of root apices were obtained. Preoperative and postoperative images were compared and the occurrence of cracks was recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the results. Apical root cracks were seen in 30%, 35% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files, RaCe files and K3 files respectively. There was no statistical significance among three instrumentation systems in the formation of apical cracks (p=0.563). Apical cracks were seen in 40% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files; 60% and 10% of teeth with RaCe files and 40% and 0% of teeth with K3 files at WL and WL-1 respectively. For groups instrumented with hand files there was no statistical significance in number of cracks at WL and WL-1 (p=0.628). But for teeth instrumented with RaCe files and K3 files significantly more number of cracks were seen at WL than

  17. Theromdynamics of carbon in nickel-based multicomponent solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1978-04-01

    The activity coefficient of carbon in nickel, nickel-titanium, nickel-titanium-chromium, nickel-titanium-molybdenum and nickel-titanium-molybdenum-chromium alloys has been measured at 900, 1100 and 1215 0 C. The results indicate that carbon obeys Henry's Law over the range studied (0 to 2 at. percent). The literature for the nickel-carbon and iron-carbon systems are reviewed and corrected. For the activity of carbon in iron as a function of composition, a new relationship based on re-evaluation of the thermodynamics of the CO/CO 2 equilibrium is proposed. Calculations using this relationship reproduce the data to within 2.5 percent, but the accuracy of the calibrating standards used by many investigators to analyze for carbon is at best 5 percent. This explains the lack of agreement between the many precise sets of data. The values of the activity coefficient of carbon in the various solid solutions are used to calculate a set of parameters for the Kohler-Kaufman equation. The calculations indicate that binary interaction energies are not sufficient to describe the thermodynamics of carbon in some of the nickel-based solid solutions. The results of previous workers for carbon in nickel-iron alloys are completely described by inclusion of ternary terms in the Kohler-Kaufman equation. Most of the carbon solid solution at high temperatures in nickel and nickel-titantium alloys precipitates from solution on quenching in water. The precipitate is composed of very small particles (greater than 2.5 nm) of elemental carbon. The results of some preliminary thermomigration experiments are discussed and recommendations for further work are presented

  18. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Che

    Full Text Available We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver. Keywords: Surface second-harmonic generation, Nonlinear optics, Metal thin films

  19. The efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment instrumentation to remove single gutta-percha cones cemented with several endodontic sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersev, H; Yilmaz, B; Dinçol, M E; Dağlaroğlu, R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate residual root filling material following removal of three newly developed root canal sealers used with a matched-taper single-cone root filling technique and to compare the efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment instruments with that of a conventional manual technique. The canals of 120 palatal roots in maxillary molar teeth were instrumented with EndoWave nickel-titanium rotary instruments and filled using Hybrid Root SEAL, EndoSequence BC Sealer, Activ GP system or AH Plus with matched-taper single gutta-percha cones. The root fillings were then removed with ProTaper Universal retreatment rotary instruments or a manual technique. Buccolingual and proximal digital radiographs of the roots were exposed to determine the area of remaining filling material in the coronal, middle and apical thirds. The area percentages of remaining filling material in each third and total canal area were calculated. Data were analysed statistically with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The level of significance was set at PProTaper groups. When using gross radiographic criteria, the Activ GP was more effectively removed from root canals than AH Plus with hand instrumentation. Hybrid Root SEAL, EndoSequence BC Sealer and AH Plus were removed to a similar extent. ProTaper Universal retreatment instruments were as safe and effective as hand instruments in reaching the working length. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  20. Biocompatibility and corrosion behavior of the shape memory NiTi alloy in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Zare, Mehrnoush

    2010-01-01

    Due to unique properties of NiTi shape memory alloys such as high corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, super elasticity and shape memory behavior, NiTi shape memory alloys are suitable materials for medical applications. Although TiO 2 passive layer in these alloys can prevent releasing of nickel to the environment, high nickel content and stability of passive layer in these alloys are very debatable subjects. In this study a NiTi shape memory alloy with nominal composition of 50.7 atom% Ni was investigated by corrosion tests. Electrochemical tests were performed in two physiological environments of Ringer solution and NaCl 0.9% solution. Results indicate that the breakdown potential of the NiTi alloy in NaCl 0.9% solution is higher than that in Ringer solution. The results of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) reveal that low pitting corrosion occurred in Ringer solution compared with NaCl solution at potentiostatic tests. The pH value of the solutions increases after the electrochemical tests. The existence of hydride products in the X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the decrease of the concentration of hydrogen ion in solutions. Topographical evaluations show that corrosion products are nearly same in all samples. The biocompatibility tests were performed by reaction of mouse fibroblast cells (L929). The growth and development of cells for different times were measured by numbering the cells or statistics investigations. The figures of cells for different times showed natural growth of cells. The different of the cell numbers between the test specimen and control specimen was negligible; therefore it may be concluded that the NiTi shape memory alloy is not toxic in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids.

  1. Postoperative pain after manual and mechanical glide path: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Damiano; Mollo, Livio; Scotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Berutti, Elio

    2012-01-01

    This prospective randomized clinical trial evaluated the incidence of postoperative pain after glide path performed with PathFile (PF) (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) versus stainless-steel K-file (KF). In 149 subjects, the mechanical glide path was performed with nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary PF; in 146 subjects, the manual glide path was performed with stainless-steel KFs. Postoperative pain, analgesics consumption, and the number of days to complete pain resolution were evaluated in the following 7 days. An analysis of variance model for repeated measures was used to compare the variation of pain-scale values (P < .05). The Student's t test for continuous variables normally distributed, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test for the nonnormally distributed variables, and the chi-square test for dichotomous variables were used (P < .05). Despite homogeneous baseline conditions at diagnosis, tooth type, pain prevalence, and scores, the postoperative pain prevalence curves in PF group evidenced a more favorable trend in terms of time to pain resolution compared with the KF group (P = .004). The difference was also evident in the model adjusted for analgesics consumption in both groups (P = .012). The mean analgesics intake per subject was significantly higher in the KF group (3.7 ± 2.2) compared with the PF group (2 ± 1.7) (P < .001). Mean pain stop values were also significantly higher in the KF group (2.7) compared with the PF group (1.7) (P = .001). The glide path with NiTi Rotary PF leads to less postoperative pain and faster symptom resolution. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro comparative study of manual and mechanical rotary instrumentation of root canals using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Orlando; de Albuquerque, Diana Santana; Baratto Filho, Flares; Vanni, José Roberto; de Oliveira, Elias P Motcy; Barletta, Fernando Branco

    2007-01-01

    This in vitro study compared, using computed tomography (CT), the amount of dentin removed from root canal walls by manual and mechanical rotary instrumentation techniques. Forty mandibular incisors with dental crown and a single canal were selected. The teeth were randomly assigned to two groups, according to the technique used for root canal preparation: Group I - manual instrumentation with stainless steel files; Group II - mechanical instrumentation with RaCe rotary nickel-titanium instruments. In each tooth, root dentin thickness of the buccal, lingual, mesial and distal surfaces in the apical, middle and cervical thirds of the canal was measured (in mm) using a multislice CT scanner (Siemens Emotion, Duo). Data were stored in the SPSS v. 11.5 and SigmaPlot 2001 v. 7.101 softwares. After crown opening, working length was determined, root canals were instrumented and new CT scans were taken for assessment of root dentin thickness. Pre- and post-instrumentation data were compared and analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test for significant differences (p=0.05). Based on the findings of this study, it may be concluded that regarding dentin removal from root canal walls during instrumentation, neither of the techniques can be considered more effective than the other.

  3. Clinicians' Choices in Selecting Orthodontic Archwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Izabella Pop

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the choices made by clinicians in selecting archwires during the initial, intermediate and final stages of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Methods: We carried out a questionnaire-based study at the Orthodontics and Pedodontics Clinic Târgu Mureș, between March 2012 and September 2012. The questionnaires consisted of two parts: the first included questions related to the dimension, alloy used in fabrication, section (round or rectangular and manufacturer of the archwires used by the orthodontists in their orthodontic practice, the second part was concerned with their personal opinion about the physical properties and disadvantages of the archwires. Results: From a total number of 90 distributed questionnaires, 62 were returned. The majority of clinicians are using stainless steel (SS and nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi wires in their fixed orthodontic treatments, very few are using beta-titanium (Beta Ti, copper nickel-titanium (Co- NiTi and esthetic archwires. The preferred dimension seem to be 0.022 inches in the appliance system. Regarding the wire dimensions, 0.014, 0.016 inch wires are mostly used from the round section group and 0.016 × 0.022 inch, 0.017 × 0.025 inch from the rectangular ones. Conclusions: There is a general lack of agreement between the clinicians surveyed regarding the properties of an ideal archwire and the disadvantages of the used wires. The most frequently used alloys seemed to be the SS and NiTi

  4. Evidence for Reduced Fatigue Resistance of Contemporary Rotary Instruments Exposed to Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Rafaela Andrade; Murphy, Sarah; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Govindjee, Rajiv G; Govindjee, Sanjay; Peters, Ove A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 different temperatures (20°C and 37°C) on the cyclic fatigue life of rotary instruments and correlate the results with martensitic transformation temperatures. Contemporary nickel-titanium rotary instruments (n = 20 each and tip size #25, including Hyflex CM [Coltene, Cuyahoga Falls, OH], TRUShape [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK], Vortex Blue [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties], and ProTaper Universal [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties]) were tested for cyclic fatigue at room temperature (20°C ± 1°C) and at body temperature (37°C ± 1°C). Instruments were rotated until fracture occurred in a simulated canal with an angle curvature of about 60° and a radius curvature of 3 mm; the center of the curvature was 4.5 mm from the instrument tip. The number of cycles to fracture was measured. Phase transformation temperatures for 2 instruments of each brand were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. Data were analyzed using the t test and 1-way analysis of variance with the significance level set at 0.05. For the tested size and at 20°C, Hyflex CM showed the highest resistance to fracture; no significant difference was found between TRUShape and Vortex Blue, whereas ProTaper Universal showed the lowest resistance to fracture. At 37°C, resistance to fatigue fracture was significantly reduced, up to 85%, for the tested instruments (P rotary instruments tested. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radius scaling of titanium wire arrays on the Z accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdale, C.A.; Denney, C.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The 20 MA Z accelerator has made possible the generation of substantial radiation (> 100 kJ) at higher photon energies (4.8 keV) through the use of titanium wire arrays. In this paper, the results of experiments designed to study the effects of initial load radius variations of nickel-clad titanium wire arrays will be presented. The load radius was varied from 17.5 mm to 25 mm and titanium K-shell (4.8 keV) yields of greater than 100 kJ were measured. The inclusion of the nickel cladding on the titanium wires allows for higher wire number loads and increases the spectral broadness of the source; kilovolt emissions (nickel plus titanium L-shell) of 400 kJ were measured in these experiments. Comparisons of the data to calculations will be made to estimate pinched plasma parameters such as temperature and participating mass fraction. These results will also be compared with previous pure titanium wire array results

  6. Evaluation of force released by deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Rodrigo Hitoshi; Semenara, Nayara Thiago; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Sathler, Renata; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate deflection forces of rectangular orthodontic wires in conventional (MorelliTM), active (In-Ovation RTM) and passive (Damon 3MXTM) self-ligating brackets. Two brands of stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires (MorelliTM and GACTM), in addition to OrmcoTM copper-nickel-titanium wires were used. Specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device especially designed for this study and tested in an Instron universal testing machine. For the testing procedures, an acrylic structure representative of the maxillary right central incisor was lingually moved in activations of 0 to 1 mm, with readings of the force released by deflection in unloading of 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mm at a constant speed of 2 mm/min. Inter-bracket forces with stainless steel, NiTi and CuNiTi were individually compared by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's tests. Results showed that there were lower forces in conventional brackets, followed by active and passive self-ligating brackets. Within the brands, only for NiTi wires, the MorelliTM brand presented higher forces than GACTM wires. Bracket systems provide different degrees of deflection force, with self-ligating brackets showing the highest forces.

  7. Effect of Instrumentation Length and Instrumentation Systems: Hand Versus Rotary Files on Apical Crack Formation – An In vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, MC; Bhandary, Shreetha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stresses generated during root canal instrumentation have been reported to cause apical cracks. The smaller, less pronounced defects like cracks can later propagate into vertical root fracture, when the tooth is subjected to repeated stresses from endodontic or restorative procedures. Aim This study evaluated occurrence of apical cracks with stainless steel hand files, rotary NiTi RaCe and K3 files at two different instrumentation lengths. Materials and Methods In the present in vitro study, 60 mandibular premolars were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligament. Apical 3 mm of the root surfaces were exposed and stained using India ink. Preoperative images of root apices were obtained at 100x using stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into six groups of 10 each. First two groups were instrumented with stainless steel files, next two groups with rotary NiTi RaCe files and the last two groups with rotary NiTi K3 files. The instrumentation was carried out till the apical foramen (Working Length-WL) and 1 mm short of the apical foramen (WL-1) with each file system. After root canal instrumentation, postoperative images of root apices were obtained. Preoperative and postoperative images were compared and the occurrence of cracks was recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the results. Results Apical root cracks were seen in 30%, 35% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files, RaCe files and K3 files respectively. There was no statistical significance among three instrumentation systems in the formation of apical cracks (p=0.563). Apical cracks were seen in 40% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files; 60% and 10% of teeth with RaCe files and 40% and 0% of teeth with K3 files at WL and WL-1 respectively. For groups instrumented with hand files there was no statistical significance in number of cracks at WL and WL-1 (p=0.628). But for teeth instrumented with RaCe files and K3 files

  8. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Borowski, Tomasz; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Lelątko, Józef; Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Low temperature plasma nitriding process of NiTi shape memory alloy is presented. • The possibility of treatment details of sophisticated shape. • TiN surface layer has diffusive character. • TiN surface layer increases corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy. • Produced TiN layer modify the biological properties of NiTi alloy. - Abstract: NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications

  9. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Borowski, Tomasz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Sowińska, Agnieszka [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Lelątko, Józef [Silesia University, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Wierzchoń, Tadeusz, E-mail: twierz@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Low temperature plasma nitriding process of NiTi shape memory alloy is presented. • The possibility of treatment details of sophisticated shape. • TiN surface layer has diffusive character. • TiN surface layer increases corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy. • Produced TiN layer modify the biological properties of NiTi alloy. - Abstract: NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications.

  10. En-masse retraction with a preformed nickel-titanium and stainless steel archwire assembly and temporary skeletal anchorage devices without posterior bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Jeong-Hyun; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Seo, Kyung-Won; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects of a preformed assembly of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel (SS) archwires (preformed C-wire) combined with temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs) as the sole source of anchorage and to compare these effects with those of a SS version of C-wire (conventional C-wire) for en-masse retraction. Methods Thirty-one adult female patients with skeletal Class I or II dentoalveolar protrusion, mild-to-moderate anterior crowding (3.0-6.0 mm), and stable Class I posterior occlusion were divided into conventional (n = 15) and preformed (n = 16) C-wire groups. All subjects underwent first premolar extractions and en-masse retraction with pre-adjusted edgewise anterior brackets, the assigned C-wire, and maxillary C-tubes or C-implants; bonded mesh-tube appliances were used in the mandibular dentition. Differences in pretreatment and post-retraction measurements of skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue cephalometric variables were statistically analyzed. Results Both groups showed full retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth by controlled tipping and space closure without altered posterior occlusion. However, the preformed C-wire group had a shorter retraction period (by 3.2 months). Furthermore, the maxillary molars in this group showed no significant mesialization, mesial tipping, or extrusion; some mesialization and mesial tipping occurred in the conventional C-wire group. Conclusions Preformed C-wires combined with maxillary TSADs enable simultaneous leveling and space closure from the beginning of the treatment without maxillary posterior bonding. This allows for faster treatment of dentoalveolar protrusion without unwanted side effects, when compared with conventional C-wire, evidencing its clinical expediency. PMID:25309863

  11. A patient with mandibular deviation and 3 mandibular incisors treated with asymmetrically bent improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuhei; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal and dental discrepancies cause asymmetric malocclusions in orthodontic patients. It is difficult to achieve adequate functional occlusion and guidance in patients with congenital absence of a mandibular incisor due to the tooth-size discrepancy. Here, we describe the orthodontic treatment of a 22-year-old woman with an asymmetric Angle Class II malocclusion, mandibular deviation to the left, and 3 mandibular incisors. The anterior teeth and maxillary canines were crowded. We used an improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wire (Tomy International, Tokyo, Japan) to compensate for the asymmetric mandibular arch and an asymmetrically bent archwire to move the maxillary molars distally. A skeletal anchorage system provided traction for intermaxillary elastics, and extractions were not needed. We alleviated the crowding and created an ideal occlusion with proper overjet, overbite, and anterior guidance with Class I canine and molar relationships. This method of treatment with an asymmetrically bent nickel-titanium alloy wire provided proper Class I occlusion and anterior guidance despite the mandibular deviation to the left and 3 mandibular incisors, without the need for extractions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Corrosion of chromium, nickel, titanium and steels in solutions of sodium and ammonium thiosulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenshchikova, S.V.; Kochergin, V.P.; Doronina, I.V.

    1983-01-01

    Results of gravimetric determinatiion of average rate of chromium, nickel, titatnium and steels 12Kh18N10T and VSt.3 corrosion rate in solutions 50 mass.% (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 in the air and nitrogen atmosphere at 333 K have been generalized. Anodic polarization curves are recorded and stationary potentials of metals and steels under the conditions are measured. It is shown that in (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 solution the rate of metal and steels corrosion is higher than in Na 2 S 2 O 3 solution indepenent of the nature of gaseous medium contacting with solution. In the series Ni → VSt.3 → 12Kh18N10T → VT1 → chromium in (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 solutions at 333 K corrosion resistance increases. Chromium, titanium and chromium-nickel steel 12Kh18N10T possess a high corrosion resistance

  13. Efficacy of Different Nickel-Titanium Instruments in Removing Gutta-percha during Root Canal Retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Demiryürek, Ebru Özsezer

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cleanliness of root canal walls after retreatment using ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Twisted File Adaptive (TFA; Axis/SybronEndo, Orange, CA), Reciproc (PRC; VDW, Munich, Germany), and ProTaper Universal retreatment (PTR, Dentsply Maillefer) nickel-titanium systems and the time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal. Eighty human maxillary central incisors with single and straight root canals were instrumented up to #40.02 with manual K-files (Dentsply Maillefer) and obturated using the continuous wave of condensation technique. Removal of the gutta-percha and sealer was performed using 1 of the following nickel-titanium systems: PTN, TFA, RPC, or PTR. The teeth were sectioned, and digital images were captured. The photographs were analyzed using AutoCAD software (Autodesk, San Rafael, CA). Also, the total time required for gutta-percha removal was calculated by a chronometer. The total retreatment time was significantly shorter in the PTR group compared with the other groups (P < .05). There was a significant difference between the groups according to the total residual gutta-percha and sealer (P < .05). The PTN and PTR groups left significantly less gutta-percha and sealer remnant than the TFA and RPC groups (P < .05). Within the limitations of this study, the PTN and the PTR groups showed less residual gutta-percha and sealer than the TFA and RPC groups. The time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal was similar for all the groups, except for the PTR group. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of multiple root canal usage on the surface topography and fracture of two different Ni-Ti rotary file systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojo Kottoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of multiple root canal usage on the surface topography and fracture of Twisted File (TF and ProTaper (PT rotary Ni-Ti file systems, using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: Ten sets of PT and TF instruments were used to prepare the mesial canals of mandibular first molars. TF 25, 0.06 taper and PT F1 instruments were analyzed by SEM when new and thereafter every three root canal usages. This sequence was repeated for both the TF and PT groups until 12 uses. Two images of the instrument were recorded, one of the instrument tip and the other 5 mm from the tip, both at ×100 magnification. The sequential use was continued till the instrument fractured and the number of root canal usages for the file to fracture was noted. All fracture surfaces were examined under the SEM. Results: Fresh TF instruments showed no surface wear when compared to PT instruments (P 0.05, while at the 9 th usage TF showed a steep increase in the spiral distortion score when compared to PT (P < 0.05. PT instruments fractured at a mean root canal usage of 17.4, while TF instruments showed a mean root canal usage of 11.8. Fractographically, all the TF instruments failed due to torsion, while all the PT instruments failed because of cyclic fatigue. Conclusion: PT instruments showed more resistance to fracture than TF instruments.

  15. Smart materials activation analysis on example of nickel and titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek Bartosz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on research concerning activation time of elements made of Ni-Ti alloy (55/45% vol. The activation time is a period of time required for alloy to reach it’s austenitic transformation (Af temperature. For examined wire it reached values up to 60 °C. Heating of NiTi wire was conducted by retaining heat. In this paper the influence of wire length and electric current power on heating time is presented. This research allows to determine the correlation between the increase of temperature and time. For given electric current values. This data is useful for effective design of SMA actuators‥

  16. Canal shaping with WaveOne Primary reciprocating files and ProTaper system: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berutti, Elio; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Paolino, Davide Salvatore; Scotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Pasqualini, Damiano

    2012-04-01

    This study compared the canal curvature and axis modification after instrumentation with WaveOne Primary reciprocating files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer). Thirty ISO 15, 0.02 taper, Endo Training Blocks (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. In all specimens, the glide path was achieved with PathFile 1, 2, and 3 (Dentsply Maillefer) at the working length (WL). Specimens were then assigned to 1 of 2 groups for shaping: specimens in group 1 were shaped with ProTaper S1-S2-F1-F2 at the WL and specimens in group 2 were shaped with WaveOne Primary reciprocating files at the WL. Pre- and postinstrumentation digital images were superimposed and processed with Matlab r2010b (The MathWorks Inc, Natick, MA) software to analyze the curvature-radius ratio (CRr) and the relative axis error (rAe), representing canal curvature modification. Data were analyzed with one-way balanced analyses of variance at 2 levels (P < .05). The instrument factor was extremely significant for both the CRr parameter (F(1) = 9.59, P = .004) and the rAe parameter (F(1) = 13.55, P = .001). Canal modifications are reduced when the new WaveOne NiTi single-file system is used. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rotary nickel-titanium GT and ProTaper files for root canal shaping by novice operators: a radiographic and micro-computed tomography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, Diana; Ramamurthy, Ramya; Mirfarsi, Sahar; Paqué, Frank; Peters, Ove A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess canal preparation outcomes in vitro by novice clinicians after standardized teaching sessions. All students received a training session. In experiment 1, twenty canals of mandibular molars were prepared with GT and ProTaper rotaries by 10 students. Standardized radiographs were exposed before and after canal preparation, and canal curvature was measured; canals were assessed for patency and preparation time. In experiment 2, mandibular molars (20 canals) were submitted to microcomputed tomography before and after canal preparation with ProTaper and GT rotaries by 2 dental students. Canals were metrically assessed for changes (volume, surface, cross-sectional shape, transportation) during canal preparation by using software. In experiment 1, canal curvature decreased by 7.6 degrees and 7.8 degrees for GT and ProTaper preparations; there were no broken instruments, and 2 canals lost patency. The time for GT preparation was longer than for ProTaper (29.7 +/- 6.8 vs 19.4 +/- 8.1 minutes, P session.

  18. Understanding the shape-memory alloys used in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Daniel J; Peres, Rafael V; Mendes, Alvaro M; Elias, Carlos N

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape-memory alloys (SMAs) have been used in the manufacture of orthodontic wires due to their shape memory properties, super-elasticity, high ductility, and resistance to corrosion. SMAs have greater strength and lower modulus of elasticity when compared with stainless steel alloys. The pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi wires means that on unloading they return to their original shape by delivering light continuous forces over a wider range of deformation which is claimed to allow dental displacements. The aim of this paper is to discuss the physical, metallurgical, and mechanical properties of NiTi used in Orthodontics in order to analyze the shape memory properties, super-elasticity, and thermomechanical characteristics of SMA.

  19. Three-dimensional evaluation of effectiveness of hand and rotary instrumentation for retreatment of canals filled with different materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Mohammad; Qualtrough, Alison; Silikas, Nick

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the remaining filling volume of different obturation materials from root-filled extracted teeth by using 2 removal techniques. Eighty single-rooted teeth were collected and decoronated, and the root canal was prepared by using the ProTaper nickel-titanium rotary files. The teeth were randomly allocated into 4 groups, and each group was obturated by using a different material. Group 1 was filled with gutta-percha and TubliSeal sealer, group 2 was filled with EndoRez points and EndoRez sealer, group 3 was filled with RealSeal points and RealSeal sealer, and Group 4 was filled with a gutta-percha point and GuttaFlow sealer. Teeth were scanned with a micro-computed tomography scan, and then root fillings were removed by using ProTaper retreatment files or hand K-files. Teeth were scanned again, and volume measurements were carried out with micro-computed tomography software. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between the 2 removal techniques for gutta-percha and for both techniques between gutta-percha and the other groups. The present study showed that all tested filling materials were not completely removed during retreatment by using hand or rotary files. Gutta-percha was more efficiently removed by using hand K-files.

  20. Interaction of human endothelial cells and nickel-titanium materials modified with silicon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotkov, Aleksandr I., E-mail: lotkov@ispms.tsc.ru; Kashin, Oleg A., E-mail: okashin@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Kudryavtseva, Yuliya A., E-mail: yulia-k1970@mail.ru; Antonova, Larisa V., E-mail: antonova.la@mail.ru; Matveeva, Vera G., E-mail: matveeva-vg@mail.ru; Sergeeva, Evgeniya A., E-mail: sergeewa.ew@yandex.ru [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo, 650002 (Russian Federation); Kudryashov, Andrey N., E-mail: kudryashov@angioline.ru [Angioline Interventional Device Ltd, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The paper studies the influence of chemical and phase compositions of NiTi surface layers modified with Si ions by plasma immersion implantation on their interaction with endothelial cells. It is shown that certain technological modes of Si ion implantation enhance the adhesion, proliferation, and viability of endothelial cells. It is found that the Si-modified NiTi surface is capable of stimulating the formation of capillary-like structures in the cell culture.

  1. A study of the oxidation of nickel-titanium intermetallics. II. Phase composition of the scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuprina, V G [Institut Problem Materialovedeniia, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR)

    1989-06-01

    The phase composition of the scale formed on NiTi during oxidation in air in the temperature range 600-1000 C was investigated by X-ray diffraction and layer-by-layer metallographic analyses. The scale was found to contain NiO, NiO.TiO2, TiO2, Ti2O3, Ti3O5, Ni, and Ni(Ti) solid solution; an Ni3Ti sublayer was present at the scale-alloy boundary. Oxygen diffusion in the scale toward the sublayer and counterdiffusion of Ni(+2) were found to be the principal processes responsible for NiTi oxidation. 8 refs.

  2. The Characterization of Thin Film Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris Odum, Nicole Latrice

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are able to recover their original shape through the appropriate heat or stress exposure after enduring mechanical deformation at a low temperature. Numerous alloy systems have been discovered which produce this unique feature like TiNb, AgCd, NiAl, NiTi, and CuZnAl. Since their discovery, bulk scale SMAs have undergone extensive material property investigations and are employed in real world applications. However, its thin film counterparts have been modestly investigated and applied. Researchers have introduced numerous theoretical microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices; yet, the research community's overall unfamiliarity with the thin film properties has delayed growth in this area. In addition, it has been difficult to outline efficient thin film processing techniques. In this dissertation, NiTi thin film processing and characterization techniques will be outlined and discussed. NiTi thin films---1 mum thick---were produced using sputter deposition techniques. Substrate bound thin films were deposited to analysis the surface using Scanning Electron Microscopy; the film composition was obtained using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy; the phases were identified using X-ray diffraction; and the transformation temperatures acquired using resistivity testing. Microfabrication processing and sputter deposition were employed to develop tensile membranes for membrane deflection experimentation to gain insight on the mechanical properties of the thin films. The incorporation of these findings will aid in the movement of SMA microactuation devices from theory to fruition and greatly benefit industries such as medicinal and aeronautical.

  3. A new method for the assessment of the surface topography of NiTi rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F; Barbosa, I; Scelza, P; Russano, D; Neff, J; Montagnana, M; Zaccaro Scelza, M

    2017-09-01

    To describe a new method for the assessment of nanoscale alterations in the surface topography of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments using a high-resolution optical method and to verify the accuracy of the technique. Noncontact three-dimensional optical profilometry was used to evaluate defects on a size 25, .08 taper reciprocating instrument (WaveOne ® ), which was subjected to a cyclic fatigue test in a simulated root canal in a clear resin block. For the investigation, an original procedure was established for the analysis of similar areas located 3 mm from the tip of the instrument before and after canal preparation to enable the repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements with precision. All observations and analysis were taken in areas measuring 210 × 210 μm provided by the software of the equipment. The three-dimensional high-resolution image analysis showed clear alterations in the surface topography of the examined cutting blade and flute of the instrument, before and after use, with the presence of surface irregularities such as deformations, debris, grooves, cracks, steps and microcavities. Optical profilometry provided accurate qualitative nanoscale evaluation of similar surfaces before and after the fatigue test. The stability and repeatability of the technique enables a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of wear on the surface of endodontic instruments. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A bridge column with superelastic NiTi SMA and replaceable rubber hinge for earthquake damage mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sebastian; ‘Saiid' Saiidi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a unique concept for resilient bridge columns that can undergo intense earthquake loading and remain functional with minimal damage and residual drift. In this concept, the column is designed so that its components can be easily disassembled and reassembled to facilitate material recycling and component reuse. This is meant to foster sustainability of bridge systems while minimizing monetary losses from earthquakes. Self-centering and energy dissipation in the column were provided by unbonded superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy bars placed inside a plastic hinge element made of rubber. This replaceable plastic hinge was in turn attached to a concrete-filled carbon fiber-reinforced polymer tube and a precast concrete footing that were designed to behave elastically. The proposed concept was evaluated experimentally by testing a ¼-scale column model under simulated near-fault earthquake motions on a shake table. After testing, the model was disassembled, reassembled and tested again. The seismic performance of the reassembled model was found to be comparable to that of the ‘virgin’ model. A relatively simple computational model of the column tested that was developed in OpenSees was able to match some of the key experimental response parameters.

  5. Rapid in situ growth of oriented titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes arrays coated on a nitinol wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coupled to HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Wenlan; Wang, Huiju; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2016-10-01

    An oriented titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coating was in situ grown on a nitinol wire by direct electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol with ammonium fluoride and water for the first time. The morphology and composition of the resulting coating showed that the anodized nitinol wire provided a titania-rich coating. The titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coated fiber was used for solid-phase microextraction of different aromatic compounds coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The titanium-nickel oxide composite nanotubes coating exhibited high extraction capability, good selectivity, and rapid mass transfer for weakly polar UV filters. Thereafter the important parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated for solid-phase microextraction of UV filters. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.1-300 μg/L for target UV filters with limits of detection of 0.019-0.082 μg/L. The intraday and interday precision of the proposed method with the single fiber were 5.3-7.2 and 5.9-7.9%, respectively, and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 6.3 to 8.9% for four fibers fabricated in different batches. Finally, its applicability was evaluated by the extraction and determination of target UV filters in environmental water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Use of nickel titanium closed-coil springs to align unerupted teeth: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, R H; Peak, J D

    1998-03-01

    We describe a case in which a patient with a class II division I incisor relationship on a skeletal II base was transferred midway through a treatment that consisted of aligning the upper and lower arches with fixed appliance orthodontics in preparation for a mandibular advancement osteotomy. The lower second molars had previously been extracted; the lower third molars were left unerupted and some distance from the lower first molars. To provide a good occlusion at the end of treatment, it was decided to expose and approximate the lower third molars to the distal aspect of the lower first molars with the use of nickel titanium closed-coil springs; this was to be done before the osteotomy.

  7. Knowledge regarding technical aspects of non-surgical root canal treatment in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah private dental centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mothanna Alrahabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated knowledge of technical aspects of non-surgical root canal treatment among general dentists in private dental clinics in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was distributed randomly to 70 general dental practitioners who were working in private dental centers. The response rate was 88.6%. Results: The results showed that only 3% of dentists were using rubber dams for isolation during endodontic treatment. The majority (59.7% were using radiographs to determine the length. Also, 37% were using nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary instruments to prepare the root canal. The lateral condensation technique with gutta percha points to fill the root canal was used by most respondents (77.5%. Conclusions: This study provides important data on endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah private dental centers. It shows a general lack of knowledge regarding the importance of using rubber dams as well as the new endodontic materials and methods. Continuing education programs to update their knowledge in the field of endodontics are essential.

  8. Microstructure and high temperature oxidation resistance of Ti-Ni gradient coating on TA2 titanium alloy fabricated by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fencheng; Mao, Yuqing; Lin, Xin; Zhou, Baosheng; Qian, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To improve the high temperature oxidation resistance of TA2 titanium alloy, a gradient Ni-Ti coating was laser cladded on the surface of the TA2 titanium alloy substrate, and the microstructure and oxidation behavior of the laser cladded coating were investigated experimentally. The gradient coating with a thickness of about 420-490 μm contains two different layers, e.g. a bright layer with coarse equiaxed grain and a dark layer with fine and columnar dendrites, and a transition layer with a thickness of about 10 μm exists between the substrate and the cladded coating. NiTi, NiTi2 and Ni3Ti intermetallic compounds are the main constructive phases of the laser cladded coating. The appearance of these phases enhances the microhardness, and the dense structure of the coating improves its oxidation resistance. The solidification procedure of the gradient coating is analyzed and different kinds of solidification processes occur due to the heat dissipation during the laser cladding process.

  9. Incidence of apical crack formation and propagation during removal of root canal filling materials with different engine driven nickel-titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Özyürek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To determine the incidence of crack formation and propagation in apical root dentin after retreatment procedures performed using ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR, Mtwo-R, ProTaper Next (PTN, and Twisted File Adaptive (TFA systems. Materials and Methods The study consisted of 120 extracted mandibular premolars. One millimeter from the apex of each tooth was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, and the apical surface was polished. Twenty teeth served as the negative control group. One hundred teeth were prepared, obturated, and then divided into 5 retreatment groups. The retreatment procedures were performed using the following files: PTR, Mtwo-R, PTN, TFA, and hand files. After filling material removal, apical enlargement was done using apical size 0.50 mm ProTaper Universal (PTU, Mtwo, PTN, TFA, and hand files. Digital images of the apical root surfaces were recorded before preparation, after preparation, after obturation, after filling removal, and after apical enlargement using a stereomicroscope. The images were then inspected for the presence of new apical cracks and crack propagation. Data were analyzed with χ2 tests using SPSS 21.0 software. Results New cracks and crack propagation occurred in all the experimental groups during the retreatment process. Nickel-titanium rotary file systems caused significantly more apical crack formation and propagation than the hand files. The PTU system caused significantly more apical cracks than the other groups after the apical enlargement stage. Conclusions This study showed that retreatment procedures and apical enlargement after the use of retreatment files can cause crack formation and propagation in apical dentin.

  10. Incidence of apical crack formation and propagation during removal of root canal filling materials with different engine driven nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Tek, Vildan; Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah

    2017-11-01

    To determine the incidence of crack formation and propagation in apical root dentin after retreatment procedures performed using ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR), Mtwo-R, ProTaper Next (PTN), and Twisted File Adaptive (TFA) systems. The study consisted of 120 extracted mandibular premolars. One millimeter from the apex of each tooth was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, and the apical surface was polished. Twenty teeth served as the negative control group. One hundred teeth were prepared, obturated, and then divided into 5 retreatment groups. The retreatment procedures were performed using the following files: PTR, Mtwo-R, PTN, TFA, and hand files. After filling material removal, apical enlargement was done using apical size 0.50 mm ProTaper Universal (PTU), Mtwo, PTN, TFA, and hand files. Digital images of the apical root surfaces were recorded before preparation, after preparation, after obturation, after filling removal, and after apical enlargement using a stereomicroscope. The images were then inspected for the presence of new apical cracks and crack propagation. Data were analyzed with χ 2 tests using SPSS 21.0 software. New cracks and crack propagation occurred in all the experimental groups during the retreatment process. Nickel-titanium rotary file systems caused significantly more apical crack formation and propagation than the hand files. The PTU system caused significantly more apical cracks than the other groups after the apical enlargement stage. This study showed that retreatment procedures and apical enlargement after the use of retreatment files can cause crack formation and propagation in apical dentin.

  11. Effect of chemical treatment on surface characteristics of sputter deposited Ti-rich NiTi shape memory alloy thin-films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.K.; Mohan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: FTIR spectra recorded for sputter deposited (a) untreated and (b) chemically treated NiTi SMA thin-films. - Highlights: • The effect of chemical treatment on surface properties of NiTi films demonstrated. • Chemically treated films offer strong ability to form protective TiO 2 layer. • TiO 2 layer formation offer great application prospects in biomedical fields. - Abstract: NiTi thin-films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering from single alloy target (Ni/Ti:45/55 at.%). The rate of deposition and thickness of sputter deposited films were maintained to ∼35 nm min −1 and 4 μm respectively. A set of sputter deposited NiTi films were selected for specific chemical treatment with the solution comprising of de-ionized water, HF and HNO 3 respectively. The influence of chemical treatment on surface characteristics of NiTi films before and after chemical treatment was investigated for their structure, micro-structure and composition using different analytical techniques. Prior to chemical treatment, the composition of NiTi films using energy dispersive X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), were found to be 51.8 atomic percent of Ti and 48.2 atomic percent of Ni. The structure and morphology of these films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD investigations, demonstrated the presence of dominant Austenite (1 1 0) phase along with Martensite phase, for untreated NiTi films whereas some additional diffraction peaks viz. (1 0 0), (1 0 1), and (2 0 0) corresponding to Rutile and Anatase phase of Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) along with parent Austenite (1 1 0) phase were observed for chemically treated NiTi films. FTIR studies, it can be concluded that chemically treated films have higher tendency to form metal oxide/hydroxide than the untreated NiTi films. XPS investigations, demonstrated the presence of Ni-free surface and formation of a protective metal oxide (TiO 2 ) layer on the surface of

  12. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  13. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONTEIRO, Maria Regina Guerra; da SILVA, Licinio Esmeraldo; ELIAS, Carlos Nelson; VILELLA, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel) and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional) on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek) with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees) slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics) were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M). The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil). The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material. PMID:25025564

  14. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Guerra MONTEIRO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods: Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M. The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil. The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results: Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion: even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material.

  15. Evaluation of the lower incisor inclination during alignment and leveling using superelastic NiTi archwires: a laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baratieri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this laboratory study is to evaluate the influence of the shape and the length limitation of superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi archwires on lower incisors inclination during alignment and leveling. METHODS: Metal teeth mounted on a typodont articulator device were used to simulate a malocclusion of the mandibular arch (-3.5 mm model discrepancy. Three different shapes (Standard, Accuform and Ideal of superelastic NiTi archwires (Sentalloy, GAC, USA were tested. Specimens were divided in two groups: Group I, with no limitation of the archwire length; and Group II, with distal limitation. Each group had thirty specimens divided into three subgroups differentiated by the archwire shape. All groups used round wires with diameters of 0.014-in, 0.016-in, 0.018-in and 0.020-in. The recording of all intervals was accomplished using standardized digital photographs with orthogonal norm in relation to median sagittal plane. The buccolingual inclination of the incisor was registered using photographs and software CorelDraw. RESULTS: The results were obtained using ANOVA and Tukey's test at a significant level of 5%. The inclination of the lower incisor increased in both groups and subgroups. The shape of the archwire had statistically significant influence only in Group I - Standard (11.76º, Ideal (5.88º and Accuform (1.93º. Analyzing the influence of the length limitation, despite the mean incisor tipping in Group II (3.91º had been smaller than Group I (6.52º, no statistically significant difference was found, except for Standard, 3.89º with limitation and 11.76º without limitation. The greatest incisor tipping occurred with the 0.014-in archwires.

  16. Finite Element Study on Continuous Rotating versus Reciprocating Nickel-Titanium Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anwar, Mohamed I; Yousief, Salah A; Kataia, Engy M; El-Wahab, Tarek M Abd

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, GTX and ProTaper as continuous rotating endodontic files were numerically compared with WaveOne reciprocating file using finite element analysis, aiming at having a low cost, accurate/trustworthy comparison as well as finding out the effect of instrument design and manufacturing material on its lifespan. Two 3D finite element models were especially prepared for this comparison. Commercial engineering CAD/CAM package was used to model full detailed flute geometries of the instruments. Multi-linear materials were defined in analysis by using real strain-stress data of NiTi and M-Wire. Non-linear static analysis was performed to simulate the instrument inside root canal at a 45° angle in the apical portion and subjected to 0.3 N.cm torsion. The three simulations in this study showed that M-Wire is slightly more resistant to failure than conventional NiTi. On the other hand, both materials are fairly similar in case of severe locking conditions. For the same instrument geometry, M-Wire instruments may have longer lifespan than the conventional NiTi ones. In case of severe locking conditions both materials will fail similarly. Larger cross sectional area (function of instrument taper) resisted better to failure than the smaller ones, while the cross sectional shape and its cutting angles could affect instrument cutting efficiency.

  17. Interaction mechanism in nickel-titanium, nickel-aluminium bedded bimetallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadchenko, S.G.; Bulaev, A.M.; Gal'chenko, Yu.A.; Merzhanov, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The electrothermographic method and local roentgenospectral analysis are used to investigate experimentally the mechanism of intermetallide formation (NiTi, AlNi) during ignition and burning, as well as at initial reaction stages under isothermal conditions. It is shown that solid phase and liquid interactions exist under isothermal conditions. In the first case kinetics of growth of β-solid solution layer can be expressed by a power law σ n =kt. In the second case micropores were formed in a melt layer due to decrease of molar volume of the system during reaction or due to increase in the diameter of a diffusion zone.Under isothermal interaction conditions a different nature of burning wave propagation and different burning regimes connected with them is observed. Composition and structure of reaction products are determined for every regime

  18. Influence of NiTi alloy on the root canal shaping capabilities of the ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold rotary instrument systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussaro Alves DUQUE

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the NiTi wire in Conventional NiTi (ProTaper Universal PTU and Controlled Memory NiTi (ProTaper Gold PTG instrument systems on the quality of root canal preparation. Material and Methods Twelve mandibular molars with separate mesial canals were scanned using a high-definition microcomputed tomography system. The PTU and PTG instruments were used to shape twelve mesial canals each. The canals were scanned after preparation with F2 and F3 instruments of the PTU and PTG systems. The analyzed parameters included the remaining dentin thickness at the apical and cervical levels, root canal volume and untouched canal walls. Data was analyzed for statistical significance by the Friedman and Dunn’s tests. For the comparison of data between groups, the Mann-Whitney test was used. Results In the pre-operative analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the area and volume of root canals (P>.05. There was also no statistically significant difference between the systems with respect to root canal volume after use of the F2 and F3 instruments. There was no statistical difference in the dentin thickness at the first apical level between, before and after instrumentation for both systems. At the 3 cervical levels, the PTG maintained centralization of the preparation on the transition between the F2 and F3 instruments, which did not occur with the PTU. Conclusion The Conventional NiTi (PTU and Controlled Memory NiTi (PTG instruments displayed comparable capabilities for shaping the straight mesial root canals of mandibular molars, although the PTG was better than the PTU at maintaining the centralization of the shape in the cervical portion.

  19. Influence of NiTi alloy on the root canal shaping capabilities of the ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold rotary instrument systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUQUE, Jussaro Alves; VIVAN, Rodrigo Ricci; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; AMOROSO-SILVA, Pablo Andrés; BERNARDES, Ricardo Affonso; de VASCONCELOS, Bruno Carvalho; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the NiTi wire in Conventional NiTi (ProTaper Universal PTU) and Controlled Memory NiTi (ProTaper Gold PTG) instrument systems on the quality of root canal preparation. Material and Methods Twelve mandibular molars with separate mesial canals were scanned using a high-definition microcomputed tomography system. The PTU and PTG instruments were used to shape twelve mesial canals each. The canals were scanned after preparation with F2 and F3 instruments of the PTU and PTG systems. The analyzed parameters included the remaining dentin thickness at the apical and cervical levels, root canal volume and untouched canal walls. Data was analyzed for statistical significance by the Friedman and Dunn’s tests. For the comparison of data between groups, the Mann-Whitney test was used. Results In the pre-operative analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the area and volume of root canals (P>.05). There was also no statistically significant difference between the systems with respect to root canal volume after use of the F2 and F3 instruments. There was no statistical difference in the dentin thickness at the first apical level between, before and after instrumentation for both systems. At the 3 cervical levels, the PTG maintained centralization of the preparation on the transition between the F2 and F3 instruments, which did not occur with the PTU. Conclusion The Conventional NiTi (PTU) and Controlled Memory NiTi (PTG) instruments displayed comparable capabilities for shaping the straight mesial root canals of mandibular molars, although the PTG was better than the PTU at maintaining the centralization of the shape in the cervical portion. PMID:28198973

  20. Cyclic fatigue resistances of Hyflex EDM, WaveOne gold, Reciproc blue and 2shape NiTi rotary files in different artificial canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Gündoğar, Mustafa; Uslu, Gülşah; Yılmaz, Koray; Staffoli, Simone; Nm, Grande; Plotino, Gianluca; Polimeni, Antonella

    2018-01-30

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistances of HyFlex EDM (HEDM), WaveOne Gold (WOG), Reciproc Blue (RB), and 2Shape (TS) NiTi systems having different metallurgic properties. HEDM, WOG, RB, and TS instruments were rotated in artificial canals which were made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 1.5 mm, 45°, and 90° angles of curvatures and a radius of curvature of 5 mm until fracture occurred, and the time to fracture (TTF) was recorded in seconds. Also, number of cycles to fracture was calculated (NCF). Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and t test. The statistical significance level was set at P  0.05). When the NCF values were taken into consideration, HEDM reported a significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than TS in both canal curvatures analyzed (P < 0.05). Within the limitations of the present study, RB NiTi files showed statistically higher cyclic fatigue resistance in artificial canals with 45° and 90° than the other NiTi files tested.

  1. The Effect of Particles Shape and Size on Feedstock Flowibility and Chemical content of As-sintered NiTi Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, R. A. Abdul; Razali, R.; Mohamad Nor, N. H.; Subuki, I.; Ismail, M. H.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two different titanium powders in fabrication of NiTi alloys by metal injection moulding (MIM) route. Two batches of powder mixture consisted of Ni-Ti and Ni-TiH2 with atomic ratio (at%) of 50-50 were prepared. TiH2 powder was used as a substitution for pure Ti powder owing to its relatively cheaper cost and has been claimed favourable in producing less impurity uptake in sintering process. The binder system used for both mixtures comprised of composite binder of palm stearin (PS) and polyethylene (PE) at weigth ratio (wt%) of 60-40. The flow behaviour of the mixtures was analysed using a capillary rheometer at different shear rates and temperatures. The results showed that owing to irregular shape of TiH2 compared to Ti powder, the viscosity of the feedstock was significantly higher, thus required greater temperature in order to improve the mouldability of the feedstock. Nevertheless, both feedstocks exhibited pseudoplastic, a shear thinning behavior with shear rate and temperature, desirable properties for injection moulding process. Samples prepared with Ni-Ti feedstock were sintered in a high vacuum furnace, wh