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Sample records for nickel workers experience

  1. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  2. Nickel exposure and plasma levels of biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress in nickel electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Gu, Po-Wen; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of nickel-induced pathogenesis remains elusive. To examine effects of nickel exposure on plasma oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers. Biomarker data were collected from 154 workers with various levels of nickel exposure and from 73 controls. Correlations between nickel exposure and oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers were determined using linear regression models. Workers with a exposure to high nickel levels had significantly lower levels of anti-oxidants (glutathione and catalase) than those with a lower exposure to nickel; however, only glutathione showed an independent association after multivariable adjustment. Exposure to high levels of nickel may reduce serum anti-oxidative capacity.

  3. Relationship between nickel and cobalt sensitization in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rystedt, I; Fischer, T

    1983-05-01

    Eight hundred fifty-three hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with 20 substances from their environment, including nickel and cobalt. Nickel sensitivity was found in 2 men and 38 women. 88% of the nickel-sensitive individuals had developed a jewelry dermatitis prior to employment in the hard metal industry or before the appearance of hand eczema. 29% of the hard metal workers gave a history of slight irritant dermatitis. In the nickel sensitized group, 40% had had severe hand eczema which generally appeared 6-12 months after starting employment. In 25% of the cases, nickel sensitive individuals developed cobalt allergy, compared with 5% in the total population investigated. Most facts indicate that nickel sensitivity and irritant hand eczema precede cobalt sensitization. Hard metal workers with simultaneous nickel and cobalt sensitivity had a more severe hand eczema than those with isolated cobalt or nickel sensitivity or only irritant dermatitis. 64% of the female population had pierced ear lobes. Among the nickel allergic women, 95% had pierced ear lobes. The use of earrings containing nickel after piercing is strongly suspected of being the major cause of nickel sensitivity. Piercing at an early age seems to increase the risk of incurring nickel sensitivity.

  4. Fluctuations of nickel concentrations in urine of electroplating workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernacki, E.J.; Zygowicz, E.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel analyses were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry upon urine specimens obtained from electroplating workers at the beginning, middle and end of the work-shift. The means (+- S.D.) for nickel concentrations in urine specimens from seven electroplating workers on three regular workdays were: 34 +- 32 μg/L (pre-shift); 64 +- μg/L (mid-shift) and 46 +- μg/L (end-shift), compared to 2.7 +- 1.6 μg/L (pre-shift) in 19 controls (hospital workers). Nickel concentrations in urine specimens from six electroplating workers on the first workday after a two-week vacation averaged: 5 +- 3 μg/L (pre-shift); 9 +- 6 μg/L (mid-shift), and 12 +- 6 μg/L (end-shift). Nickel concentrations in personal air samples (seven hours) collected from the breathing zones of five electroplating workers on three regular workdays averaged 9.3 +- 4.4 μg/m 3 . Nickel concentrations in the air samples were correlated with nickel concentrations in end-shift urine specimens (corr. coef. = 0.70; P < 0.05), but were not correlated with nickel concentrations in pre-shift or mid-shift urine specimens. In view of the fluctuations of urine nickel concentrations that occur during the work-shift, the authors recommend that nickel analyses of eight hour urine specimens be used routinely to monitor occupational exposures to nickel. In situations where timed urine collections are impractical, analyses of end-shift urine specimens are the best alternative

  5. Mortality of workers at a nickel carbonyl refinery, 1958–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Sorahan, T; Williams, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Excess risks of respiratory cancer have been shown in some groups of nickel exposed workers. It is clear, however, that not all forms of nickel exposure are implicated in these excess risks.

  6. Genotoxic Effects Due to Exposure to Chromium and Nickel Among Electroplating Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Safty, Amal Mohamed Kamal; Samir, Aisha Mohamed; Mekkawy, Mona Kamal; Fouad, Marwa Mohamed

    Using chromium and nickel for electroplating is important in many industries. This process induces variable adverse health effects among exposed workers. The aim of this study is to detect the genotoxic effects of combined exposure to chromium and nickel among electroplating workers. This study was conducted on 41 male workers occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel in the electroplating section of a factory compared to 41 male nonexposed individuals, where full history and clinical examination were performed. Laboratory investigations included measurement of serum chromium, nickel, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and micronuclei were measured in buccal cells. In exposed workers, serum chromium ranged from 0.09 to 7.20 µg/L, serum nickel ranged from 1.20 to 28.00 µg/L, serum 8-OHdG ranged from 1.09 to12.60 ng/mL, and these results were statistically significantly increased compared to nonexposed group ( P electroplating industry are at risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

  7. Cancer incidence among copper smelting and nickel refining workers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Markku; Uitti, Jukka; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-01-01

    Among workers employed at a nickel refinery in Harjavalta, Finland an increased risk of lung and sinus cancer has been demonstrated in two previous studies. The current study adds 16 more years of follow-up to these studies. A total of 1,115 persons exposed to nickel and 194 non-exposed workers in the Harjavalta nickel smelter and refinery were followed up for cancer from 1967 to 2011 through the Finnish Cancer Registry. The total number of cancer cases in men was 251 (Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.05) and in women 12 (SIR 1.22). In the most nickel-exposed work site (refinery), there were 14 lung cancers (SIR 2.01) and 3 sinonasal cancers (SIR 26.7, 95%). It is likely that exposure to nickel compounds is the main reason for elevated nasal cancer risk among the nickel refinery employees and may also contribute to the excess risk of lung cancer. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:87-95, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Long-term mortality study of workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbold, J.H. Jr.; Tompkins, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether mortality from respiratory cancer among workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) differed from that of workers at the same plant with no record of occupational exposure to metallic nickel or any nickel compound. A cohort of 814 nickel-exposed workers and one of 1600' controls were identified. The members of both cohorts had a minimum follow-up period of 19 years. Mortality from respiratory cancer and from other causes was examined in both groups. The data showed no evidence of an increased risk of mortality due to respiratory cancer among the nickel-exposed workers. The exposed cohort experienced lower mortality than the controls, both in deaths due to respiratory cancer and in deaths due to all causes, although neither of these differences was statistically significant

  9. [Bronchopulmonary diseases in workers engaged in deep-mined extraction of copper-nickel ore].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siurin, S A; Derevoedov, A A; Nikanov, A N

    2008-01-01

    Examinations were made in 220 male workers exposed to dust-gas (low-silicon dioxide, nitric oxides, and carbon oxide) mixture, physical exercises, and cooling microclimate on deep-mined output of copper-nickel ore. Twenty-eight per cent of the workers were found to have evolving chronic bronchitis that did not substantially affect the patients' working capacity; 3.2% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 1.4% had asthma that had developed before the onset of professional activity. 32.3% of the examinees were ascertained to have individual clinicofunctional disorders that permit their identification as a bronchopulmonary disease risk group to carry out early preventive and rehabilitative measures.

  10. Assessment of dermal exposure and skin condition of workers exposed to nickel at a South African base metal refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Johannes L; Eloff, Frederik C; Badenhorst, Casper J; Olivier, Johretha; Laubscher, Petrus J; Van Aarde, Michiel N; Franken, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess dermal exposure of cell workers to nickel at a South African base metal refinery and to characterize their skin condition by measuring the skin hydration and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) indices. The skin hydration index of the index finger, palm, neck, and forehead was measured before, during and at the end of the shift. The TEWL index was measured before and at the end of the shift. Dermal exposure samples were collected with Ghostwipes from the index finger and palm of the dominant hand, before, during, and at the end of the shift. Neck and forehead samples were collected before and at the end of the shift. Wipe samples of various surfaces in the workplace were also collected. Wipes were analyzed for nickel according to NIOSH method 9102, using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Hydration indices measured on the hands decreased significantly during the shift, but recovered to normal levels by the end of the shift. TEWL indices for the index finger and palm of the hands are indicative of a low barrier function even before commencement of the shift, which further deteriorated significantly during the shift. During the shift, substantial nickel skin loading occurred on the index finger and palm of the hand. Levels on the neck and forehead were much lower. Various workplace surfaces, which workers come into contact with, were also contaminated with nickel. The skin condition and high levels of nickel on the skin were most probably caused by inadequate chemical protection provided by protective gloves. Although, the permeability of nickel through intact skin is considered to be low, a decreased barrier function of dehydrated or slightly damaged skin will increase its permeability for nickel. The ethnicity of these exposed workers may contribute significantly toward the low incidence of allergic contact dermatitis observed. Several measures to lower dermal exposure to nickel are also recommended.

  11. Urinary nickel as bioindicator of workers' Ni exposure in a galvanizing plant in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J P; de Siqueira, M E; da Silva, C S

    2000-01-01

    We measured urinary nickel (U-Ni) in ten workers (97 samples) from a galvanizing plant that uses nickel sulfate, and in ten control subjects (55 samples) to examine the association between occupational exposure to airborne Ni and Ni absorption. Samples from the exposed group were taken before and after the work shift on 5 successive workdays. At the same time airborne Ni (A-Ni) was measured using personal samplers. Ni levels in biological material and in the airborne were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry validated method. In the control group the urine samples were collected twice a day, in the before and after the work shift, on 3 successive days. Ni exposure low to moderate was detected in all the examined places in the plant, the airborne levels varying between 2.8 and 116.7 micrograms/m3 and the urine levels, from samples taken postshift, between 4.5 and 43.2 micrograms/g creatinine (mean 14.7 micrograms/g creatinine). Significant differences in U-Ni creatinine were seen between the exposed and control groups (Student's t test, P galvanizing plants regardless of the day of the workweek on which the samples are collected.

  12. Dynamic variation of histone H3 trimethyl Lys4 (H3K4me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) with employment length in nickel smelting workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhong; Cheng, Ning; Dai, Min; Pu, Hongquan; Zheng, Tongzhang; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie; Bai, Yana

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the dynamic variation in H3K4me3 and HP1 with employment length in nickel smelting workers. Blood samples were collected from 140 nickel smelting workers and 140 age-matched office workers to test for H3K4me3, and HP1 levels. H3K4me3 was statistically significantly different (p exposure to nickel can induce oxidative damage, and increase H3K4me3 expression and inhibit HP1 expression.

  13. Women's Experience in the Workers' Compensation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robert; Jansz, Janis

    2006-09-01

    Gender differences is a question of major importance within workers' compensation given the increased role of women in the workforce over the past several decades. This article reviews literature relating to women's experiences following work injury. An Australian study is used as background to exploring the broad issue of the question of gender equity in workers' compensation. In doing so it takes account of historical, legal and medical issues. Women's experience in the workers' compensation system is different to that of men due to a range of factors. It is heavily influenced by the industrial environment in which they work. Women are paid less than men in many instances and work in gender-segregated circumstances, which often reduces their industrial bargaining power. Women also suffer different forms of injury and disease to men because of the different nature of their work. The Australian experience suggests that as a consequence of the combination of lesser industrial bargaining power, lower wages and differing forms of injury and disease women often receive less than men in compensation payments, struggle to obtain equity in the dispute resolution process and experience greater difficulties in returning to work following injury or disease.

  14. Experiences of ultra-low-crud high-nickel control in Onagawa nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Goto, Y.; Shinomiya, T.; Sato, M.; Yamazaki, K.; Hirasawa, H.; Yotsuyanagi, T.

    2002-01-01

    We have adopted various countermeasures for worker dose reduction to plants in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station. ''Ni/Fe ratio control'' has been adopted to Unit 1, and ''ultra-low-crud high-nickel control'' has been adopted to Unit 2 and 3, along with other countermeasures like wide utilization of low Co materials, for the purpose of dose rate reduction of primary recirculation piping which is thought to be one of the main exposure sources. In this paper, we describe, first, the reason and background that ultra-low-crud high-nickel control has been adopted to Unit 2, and, second, water chemistry of Unit 2 up to the 5. cycle under ultra-low-crud high-nickel control compared to that of Unit 1 under Ni/Fe ratio control. Following those, we show brief analysis of the fuel crud of Unit 2 and water chemistry of Unit 3 only at the startup stage. (authors)

  15. Health Care Workers' Experiences of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katelyn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; Shum, David

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence of patient aggression against health care workers, the consequences and coping mechanisms. Retrospective cross-sectional design. 50 participants comprised 37 nurses, 1 ward staff, 12 allied health staff employed in two brain injury wards with experience ranging from 3months to 34years. Neurosciences and Brain Injury Rehabilitation wards of a metropolitan tertiary hospital in Brisbane. Researcher designed self-report questionnaire. 98% of respondents had experienced aggression during their health care careers with an average of 143.93 events. Physical injuries had been sustained by 40% of staff, psychological injury by 82%, but only 12% sought treatment. Verbal aggression related to receiving a psychological injury (r=0.305, paggression made it more likely the person would also experience the other types of aggression. Verbal aggression was correlated with physical aggression (r=0.429, paggression (r=0.286, paggression was correlated with non-verbal aggression (r=0.333, paggression is prevalent and of serious concern for staff working in hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  17. Thick film nickel plating - the alternative. Long-term experiences; Dickschichtvernickelung - die Alternative. Langzeiterfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senff-Wollenberg, Ralf [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany). Technik; Ansey, Johann-Wilhelm [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung; Reinmoeller, Frank [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The ecologic and energetic demands on modern plants fort he thermal utilization of waste materials increase continuously. Beside low costs of investment, enhanced efficiencies, an enhanced availability, long journey times as well as low costs of operation and maintenance are important factors for the investment decision. The primary and secondary measures for the shrinkage of corrosion are decisive for achieving the factors for the decision of investment and maintenance. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on long-term experiences on the thick film nickel plating. Especially, the process of galvanic nickel plating, the fields of application as well as the operational experiences are described.

  18. [CHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION OF THE OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AS A FACTOR FOR PROFESSIONAL RISK FOR WORKERS OF MAIN OCCUPATIONS IN THE COPPER AND NICKEL METALLURGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, G Ia; Adrianovskiĭ, V I; Gogoleva, O I

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the results of hygienic researches of the harmful substances content in the air of the working area ofthe copper and nickel metallurgy. Sulfur-containing gases (primarily sulfur dioxide), to the effects of which there are exposed workers of drying, smelting, converter conversion, are shown to play a leading role among professional factors.

  19. Education, training and work experience among nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.M.; Doggette, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper uses a unique data set to examine the prior work experience, training, and education of skilled and technical workers in United States nuclear power plants. The data were collected in the latter half of 1977 by the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) in a survey of union locals in nuclear power plants. The survey results provided substantial evidence that workers in United States nuclear power plants have a relatively high level of education, training, and skill development. Analysis of average education by age did not reveal any significant differences in years of schooling between younger and older workers. Very high rates of participation in formal training programmes were reported by all types of workers. The most common type of training programme was held on-site at the power plant and was provided by utility personnel. The majority of workers reported previous work experience related to nuclear power plant activities. Almost one-third of the workers had been directly involved in nuclear energy in a previous job, the majority of these through the United States Navy nuclear programme. However, the newer plants are hiring relatively fewer persons with previous nuclear experience. (author)

  20. Experiences in Automated Calibration of a Nickel Equation of State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, John H.

    2017-06-01

    Wide availability of large computers has led to increasing incorporation of computational data, such as from density functional theory molecular dynamics, in the development of equation of state (EOS) models. Once a grid of computational data is available, it is usually left to an expert modeler to model the EOS using traditional techniques. One can envision the possibility of using the increasing computing resources to perform black-box calibration of EOS models, with the goal of reducing the workload on the modeler or enabling non-experts to generate good EOSs with such a tool. Progress towards building such a black-box calibration tool will be explored in the context of developing a new, wide-range EOS for nickel. While some details of the model and data will be shared, the focus will be on what was learned by automatically calibrating the model in a black-box method. Model choices and ensuring physicality will also be discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Health and safety concerns os migrant workers: the experience of tunisian workers in modena, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faïçal Daly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relatively under-researched field of healthand safety of migrant workers, with special reference to Tunisian construction workers in the city of Modena in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna. The empirical material comes from questionnaires and interviews with Tunisian migrants, plus smaller numbers of interviews with employers and trade union representatives in Modena. The paper starts by critically reviewing the scattered literature onthe health and safety of minority workers, most of which refers to the United States and the United Kingdom. The discussion then moves to a consideration of migrant health and safety questions in the contexts of racism, discrimination, social class, working conditions, labour market segmentation and (non- regulation. Specialattention is given to the failed role of trade unions in defending the rights of minority workers, in advanced countries generally and in Italy in particular. A case study is then made of the construction sector in Italy, enriched by personal accounts of the experiences of Tunisian migrant workers in Modena. Employer and tradeunion interviews reveal a lack of concern and ability to tackle the relevant issues. Barriers to health and safety awareness training are outlined. In the conclusion, recommendations are made for policy initiatives in this area.

  2. Adolescent Workers' Experiences of and Training for Workplace Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn R; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent workers may not be aware that violence is a safety concern in the workplace. As part of a larger mixed-methods pilot study, investigators used a self-administered survey and individual interviews with 30 adolescent workers from a chain of food service stores in a Midwestern metropolitan area to explore experiences of workplace violence (WPV) and ways of learning WPV-specific information. Participants reported experiencing verbal and sexual harassment and robberies. Most participants reported awareness of WPV-specific policies and procedures at their workplace; the ways participants reported learning WPV-specific information varied. Findings support the need for occupational safety training to assist adolescent workers prevent and mitigate potential WPV. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Experience with a routine fecal sampling program for plutonium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Sula, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A quarterly fecal sampling program was conducted at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site for congruent to 100 workers at risk for an intake of plutonium oxide and other forms of plutonium. To our surprise, we discovered that essentially all of the workers were excreting detectable activities of plutonium. Further investigation showed that the source was frequent, intermittent intakes at levels below detectability by normal workplace monitoring, indicating the extraordinary sensitivity of fecal sampling. However, the experience of this study also indicated that the increased sensitivity of routine fecal sampling relative to more common bioassay methods is offset by many problems. These include poor worker cooperation; difficulty in distinguishing low-level chronic intakes from a more significant, acute intake; difficulty in eliminating interference from ingested plutonium; and difficulty in interpreting what a single void means in terms of 24-h excretion. Recommendations for a routine fecal program include providing good communication to workers and management about reasons and logistics of fecal sampling prior to starting, using annual (instead of quarterly) fecal sampling for class Y plutonium, collecting samples after workers have been away from plutonium exposure for a least 3 d, and giving serious consideration to improving urinalysis sensitivity rather than going to routine fecal sampling

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    OpenAIRE

    Vladmila Bojanic; Vladimir Ilic; Biljana Jovic

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to signif...

  5. The TEXTOR helium self-pumping experiment: Design, plans, and supporting ion-beam data on helium retention in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Krauss, A.; Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Nygren, R.E.; Doyle, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Walsh, D.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate helium self-pumping in a tokamak is being undertaken in TEXTOR. The experiment will use a helium self-pumping module installed in a modified ALT-I limiter head. The module consists of two, ∼25 x 25 cm 2 heated nickel alloy trapping plates, a nickel deposition filament array, and associated diagnostics. Between plasma shots a coating of ∼50 angstrom nickel will be deposited on the two trapping plates. During a shot helium and hydrogen ions will impinge on the plates through a ∼3 cm wide entrance slot. The helium removal capability, due to trapping in the nickel, will be assessed for a variety of plasma conditions. In support of the tokamak experiment, the trapping of helium over a range of ion fluences and surface temperatures, and detrapping during subsequent exposure to hydrogen, were measured in ion beam experiments using evaporated nickel surfaces similar to that expected in TEXTOR. Also, the retention of H and He after exposure of a nickel surface to mixed He/H plasmas has bee measured. The results appear favorable, showing high helium trapping (∼10--50% He/Ni) and little or no detrapping by hydrogen. The TEXTOR experiment is planned to begin in 1991. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. The TEXTOR helium self-pumping experiment: Design, plans, and supporting ion-beam data on helium retention in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Krauss, A.; Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Nygren, R.E.; Doyle, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Walsh, D.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate helium self-pumping in a tokamak is being undertaken in TEXTOR. The experiment will use a helium self-pumping module installed in a modified ALT-I limiter head. The module consists of two, ≅ 25x25 cm 2 heated nickel alloy trapping plates, a nickel deposition filament array, and associated diagnostics. Between plasma shots a coating of ≅ 50A nickel will be deposited on the two trapping plates. During a shot helium and hydrogen ions will impinge on the plates through a ≅ 3 cm wide entrance slot. The helium removal capability, due to trapping in the nickel, will be assessed for a variety of plasma conditions. In support of the tokamak experiment, the trapping of helium over a range of ion fluences and surface temperatures, and detrapping during subsequent exposure to hydrogen, were measured in ion beam experiments using evaporated nickel surfaces similar to that expected in TEXTOR. Also, the retention of H and He after exposure of a nickel surface to mixed He/H plasmas has been measured. The results appear favorable, showing high helium trapping (≅ 10-50% He/Ni) and little or no detrapping by hydrogen. The TEXTOR experiment is planned to begin in 1991. (orig.)

  7. Biomonitoring for iron, manganese, chromium, aluminum, nickel and cadmium in workers exposed to welding fume: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of exposure to welding fumes is increasing importance in promoting a healthy, safe and productive work environment. This study is a case-control design, random study was conducted among welder (56 subjects and non welder (39 subjects with more than 1 years experience in the same job task in an automotive parts manufactory within the industrial area at Cikarang in 2013. All subjects were completed physical examination, informed consent and questionnaire. Blood heavy metals were determined by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Whole blood iron, manganese, chromium and lead in welder were higher than non-welder, but not different for aluminum, nickel and cadmium. In welder, chromium and manganese correlated with smoking status, cadmium correlated with age and smoking status. In multivariate analysis, wholeblood cadmium correlates with age and smoking status.

  8. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  9. Heavy reflector experiments composed of carbon steel and nickel in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Silva, Graciete Simoes de Andrade e; Mura, Luis Felipe; Jerez, Rogerio; Mendonca, Arlindo Gilson; Fuga, Rinaldo

    2013-01-01

    The heavy reflector experiments performed in the IPEN/Mb-01 research reactor facility comprise a set of critical configurations employing the standard 28x26-fuel-rod configuration. The heavy reflector either, carbon steel or nickel plates was placed at one of the faces of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. Criticality is achieved by inserting the control banks BC1 and BC2 to the critical position. 32 plates around 0.3 mm thick were used in all the experiment. The chosen distance between last fuel rod row and the first laminate for all types of laminates was 5.5 mm. Considering initially the carbon steel case, the experimental data reveal that the reactivity decreases up to the fifth plate and after that it increases, becomes nearly zero (which was equivalent to initial zero excess reactivity with zero plates) for the 28 plates case and reaches a value of 42.73 pcm when the whole set of 32 plates are inserted in the reflector. This is a very striking result because it demonstrates that when all 32 plates are inserted in the reflector there is a net gain of reactivity. The reactivity behavior demonstrates all the physics events already mentioned in this work. When the number of plates are small (around 5), the neutron absorption in the plates is more important than the neutron reflection and the reactivity decreases. This condition holds up to a point where the neutron reflection becomes more important than the neutron absorption in the plates and the reactivity increases. The experimental data for the nickel case shows the main features of the carbon steel case, but for the carbon steel case the reactivity gain is small, thus demonstrating that carbon steel or essentially iron has not the reflector capability as the nickel laminates do. The measured data of nickel plates show a higher reactivity gain, thus demonstrating that nickel is a better reflector than iron. The theoretical analysis employing MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 show that the calculated results have good results up to

  10. Environmental and human toxicology of nickel - a review; Umwelt- und Humantoxikologie von Nickel - eine aktuelle Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyersmann, D. [Fachbereich Biologie und Chemie, Univ. Bremen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Nickel is a relatively rare element, and its concentrations in ambient air, soils and waters are very low. Higher burdens of nickel are found in nickel industries and their proximity. The human uptake of nickel from the ambient air is neglectably low, except in industrial exposures. The main fraction of human nickel uptake is from food, nearly 50% stems from vegetables. Only about 2% of the oral uptake of nickel are resorbed and distributed over all organs investigated. The uptake of nickel compounds through the skin generally is very low. However, chronic skin contact with nickel and nickel compounds causes a specific contact allergy. This disease was observed after occupational exposure but also frequently in the general population. The number of new cases has dropped considerably due to reinforced prevention. Epidemiological studies with workers of nickel smelting and refining plants have demonstrated increased risks of nose and lung cancer. Human data are supported by results from animal experiments which have shown that inhalation of various nickel compounds caused lung cancer. Furthermore, animal experiments have yielded evidence that oral and inhalative exposure to nickel compounds impair reproduction. National and international agencies have classified various nickel compounds as carcinogenic to humans. The unit cancer risk attributed to life-long inhalation of 1 {mu}g Ni/m{sup 3} air is estimated to be between 2 x 10{sup -4} and 7 x 10{sup -4}. Occupational exposure limits in Germany have been the Technical Guidance Values of 0.5 mg/m{sup 3} for nickel and weakly soluble nickel compounds and of 0.05 mg/m{sup 3} for inhalable droplets of soluble nickel salts. The German limit value for ambient immission is 0.015 mg Ni/m{sup 2}. d, and for emission 0,5 mg Ni/m{sup 3}. Limit values for nickel in air are to be taken not as safe thresholds but as guidance values for the delimitation of the cancer risk. (orig.)

  11. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, T N; Labriola, M; Nohr, E A; Andersen, J H

    2015-06-01

    Investigating whether certain individual or background characteristics are associated with an increased risk of experiencing an excessively demanding work environment in younger workers may help to reduce future inequality in health and maximize their labour market participation. To describe the work environment of Danish 20- to 21-year olds and to investigate the influence of family socioeconomic background and individual characteristics at age 14-15 on later experience of physical and psychosocial work environments. We obtained information on subjects' school performance, vulnerability, health and parental socioeconomic status from registers and a questionnaire completed in 2004. A questionnaire concerning eight measures of subjects' psychosocial and physical work environment in 2010 was used to determine the outcomes of interest. The study population consisted of 679 younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem at age 14-15 was associated with experiencing high demands and lack of trust and fairness at work, whereas low parental socioeconomic status was associated with a demanding physical work environment. This study showed a social gradient in experiencing a demanding physical work environment at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Mortality experience among Minnesota taconite mining industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth M; Alexander, Bruce H; MacLehose, Richard F; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the mortality experience of Minnesota taconite mining industry workers. Mortality was evaluated between 1960 and 2010 in a cohort of Minnesota taconite mining workers employed by any of the seven companies in operation in 1983. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were estimated by comparing observed deaths in the cohort with expected frequencies in the Minnesota population. Standardised rate ratios (SRR) were estimated using an internal analysis to compare mortality by employment duration. The cohort included 31,067 workers with at least 1 year of documented employment. Among those, there were 9094 deaths, of which 949 were from lung cancer, and 30 from mesothelioma. Mortality from all causes was greater than expected in the Minnesota population (SMR=1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.04). Mortality from lung cancer and mesothelioma was higher than expected with SMRs of 1.16 for lung cancer (95% CI 1.09 to 1.23) and 2.77 for mesothelioma (95% CI 1.87 to 3.96). Other elevated SMRs included those for cardiovascular disease (SMR=1.10, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.14), specifically for hypertensive heart disease (SMR=1.81, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.33) and ischemic heart disease (SMR=1.11, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.16). Results of the SRR analysis did not show variation in risk by duration of employment. This study provides evidence that taconite workers may be at increased risk for mortality from lung cancer, mesothelioma, and some cardiovascular disease. Occupational exposures during taconite mining operations may be associated with these increased risks, but non-occupational exposures may also be important contributors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. 75 FR 24748 - Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...., Automotive Experience Division, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account, under the name Hoover Universal. Accordingly, the Department is... Division, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are paid through Hoover Universal...

  14. Retention of Nickel in Soils: Sorption-Desorption and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsorption and desorption of heavy metals in soils are primary factors that influence their bioavailability and mobility in the soil profile. To examine the characteristics of nickel (Ni) adsorption-desorption in soils, kinetic batch experiments were carried out followed by Ni re...

  15. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  16. Charge retention test experiences on Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Dave E.; Driscoll, J. R.; Armantrout, J. D.; Baker, R. C.; Wajsgras, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen battery module was designed by Lockheed Missile & Space Co (LMSC) and manufactured by Eagle-Picher Ind. (EPI) for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) for the nickel-cadmium batteries originally selected for this low earth orbit mission. The design features of the HST nickel hydrogen battery are described and the results of an extended charge retention test are summarized.

  17. Surface complexation modelling: Experiments on the sorption of nickel on quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puukko, E.; Hakanen, M.

    1995-10-01

    Assessing the safety of a final repository for nuclear wastes requires knowledge concerning the way in which the radionuclides released are retarded in the geosphere. The aim of the work is to aquire knowledge of empirical methods repeating the experiments on the sorption of nickel on quartz described in the reports published by the British Geological Survey (BGS). The experimental results were modelled with computer models at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT Chemical Technology). The results showed that the experimental knowledge of the sorption of Ni on quartz have been acheved by repeating the experiments of BGS. Experiments made with the two quartz types, Min-U-Sil 5 (MUS) and Nilsiae, showed the difference in sorption of Ni in the low ionic strength solution (0.001 M NaNO 3 ). The sorption of Ni on MUS was higher than predicted by the Surface Complexation Model (SCM). The phenomenon was also observed by the BGS, and may be due to the different amounts of inpurities in the MUS and in the NLS. In other respects, the results of the sorption experiments fitted quite well with those predicted by the SCM model. (8 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.)

  18. Bearing the brunt: co-workers' experiences of work reintegration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Debra A; MacEachen, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Work disability research has found co-worker support to be a significant but under-recognised aspect of work reintegration (WR) processes. Although co-workers work alongside returning workers, their practical contribution to WR success or failure is often invisible to others. This study aimed to gain further insight into the role and contribution of co-workers in WR interventions. An exploratory qualitative pilot study was conducted in Toronto, Canada in 2011. Three focus groups were conducted with 13 co-workers, recruited for their direct experience of 'working alongside' a returning worker. An iterative data gathering and analysis process occurred. Themes were generated from categories in open-ended interview questions and new issues arising from the data. The findings detail co-workers' practical experiences of WR processes and their reflections on social and work conditions that impacted their participation. Co-workers' capacity to support returning workers was related to the quality of the WR arrangements, the relationship with the returning worker, work culture, and the duration of the required support. Workplace privacy and confidentiality requirements were identified as a key challenge for co-worker participation. The effects on co-workers of WR processes ranged from the opportunity to learn new skills to disillusionment and withdrawal from the workplace. In worst case scenarios, 'ripple effects' including emotional distress, physical injury and termination of co-workers' employment had occurred. Co-workers are not a neutral party in WR procedures. Formalizing the co-worker role to include communication, consideration and recognition might improve co-workers' WR experiences.

  19. Innovative Approach to the Organization of Future Social Workers' Practical Training: Foreign Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Vira; Slozanska, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Innovative approaches to practical training of future social workers in higher educational establishments have been defined. Peculiarities of foreign experience of social workers' practical training in higher educational establishments have been analyzed. Experience of organizing practice for bachelor students studying at "Social Work"…

  20. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Labriola, Merete; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem...... at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life....

  1. NICKEL – ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is ubiquitus in our biosphere because of its emission from natural and anthropogenic sources. Its toxic and carcinogenic properties are well recognised only in workers exposed to high Ni concentrations. Nickel allergy is the most common form of cutaneus hypersensitivity in general population and also in occupationally exposed groups. As sensitizing agent Ni has a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. The most important known risk factor associated with nickel allergy is ear piercing and use of other jewelry in females. In general population 17 % adults and 8 % children have Ni allergy symptoms. Permanently growing Ni allergy is regarded as serious risk for public health.

  2. Experience with qualification examinations of workers handling ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokanova, K.

    1976-01-01

    The organization is described of examinations which have to be passed by supervising staff and workers using radioactive ionizing radiation sources. The requirements are listed of the examination in which these workers have to prove their professional knowledge and skills. The said examinations significantly contribute to the establishment of a system of safeguards at workplaces using ionizing radiation sources and may help economize operations at these workplaces

  3. Community health workers in Lesotho: Experiences of health promotion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seutloali, Thato; Napoles, Lizeka; Bam, Nomonde

    2018-02-27

    Lesotho adopted primary health care in 1979, and community health workers (CHWs) were included in the programme to focus on health promotion, particularly to reach people in underserved rural areas. Although the CHW programme has been successful, the heavy burden of disease because of HIV and/or AIDS and tuberculosis shifted resources from health promotion to home-based care. The study explored the lived experience of CHWs in conducting health promotion activities in Lesotho. The study was conducted in four health centres in Berea district, Lesotho. A qualitative study was conducted using an interviewer guide translated from English into Sesotho for four CHW focus group discussions, four individual interviews of key informants and four semi-structured interviews with the health centre nurses. The roles of CHWs in health promotion ranged from offering basic first aid and home-based care to increasing access to health care services by taking patients to the facilities and promoting behaviour change through health education. Their perceived successes included increased access to health care services and reduced mortality rates. CHW challenges involved their demotivation to carry out their work because of lack of or inconsistent financial incentives and supplies, work overload which compromises quality of their work and limited community involvement. This study concludes that CHWs are beneficial to health promotion and its various activities. They had a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, although they did not fully comprehend that what they were describing was, in fact, health promotion. When it came to advocacy, CHWs did not fully understand it, nor did they consider it as part of their roles, although they acknowledged its importance. Their role of increasing access to health care services by accompanying patients to the facilities has increased considerably because of changes in disease burden. This is affecting their ability to practise other

  4. Training for my Life: Lived Experiences of Dislocated Workers in an Advanced Manufacturing Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Marquita R. Walker

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative paper explores the lived experiences of one group of workers dislocated because of globalized trade policies who completed a hybrid Advanced Manufacturing Training Program (AMTP) by taking advantage of Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA), a federally-funded program for retraining workers dislocated because of trade policies. The research questions focus on how satisfied these workers are with the services and programs provided by TAA. Focus groups and survey instrument results ...

  5. Minimum Wages and Workers' "Motivation": An approach using an economic experiment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORI Tomoharu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of minimum wages on workers' effort levels (motivation) using an economic experiment conducted in a laboratory. Under the gift-exchange theory, if firms pay higher wages, workers exert more effort. Vice versa, if firms pay lower wages, workers exert less effort. Minimum wages affect the judgment as to whether the wages being paid are high or low. In general, wages near the minimum appear unattractive. However, it is possible that the same level of wage will ...

  6. Nickel extraction from nickel matte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagja, R.

    2018-01-01

    In present work, the results of research activities to make nickel metal from nickel matte are presented. The research activities were covering a) nickel matte characterization using Inductively Couple plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), b) nickel matte dissolution process to dissolve nickel from nickel matte into the spent electrolyte solutions that contains hydrochloric acid, c) purification of nickel chloride leach solution by copper cementation process to remove copper using nickel matte, selective precipitation process to remove iron, solvent extraction using Tri normal octyl amine to separate cobalt from nickel chloride solutions and d) Nickel electro winning process to precipitate nickel into the cathode surface from purified nickel chloride solution by using direct current. The research activities created 99, 72 % pure nickel metal as the final product of the process.

  7. The French regulatory experience and views on nickel-base alloy PWSCC prevention and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turluer, G.; Cattiaux, G.; Monnot, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Emond, D.; Reuchet, J.; Chartier, Ph. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents the experience feedback and views of the French Regulatory Authority (ASN) and of the technical support institute (IRSN) on PWSCC prevention since the initiation in 1989 of the 'Inconel Zones Review' requested by ASN to Electricite de France (EDF), the national operator of a fleet of 58 PWRs. This proactive requirement, launched before the discovery, in September 1991, of the only CRDM nozzle leak in France, on Bugey unit 3, was then triggered by the recurrence of many alloy 600 rapid degradations and leaks, world wide, and also in France in the late 1980's, particularly on steam generator tubes and on some pressurizer penetrations. Thus, the ASN requested that EDF, perform a comprehensive (generic) proactive assessment on all the nickel-base alloy components and parts of the main primary circuits, which of course included vessel head penetrations and bottom vessel head penetrations, and some other zones as a first priority. This proactive 'review' did, a minima, include the following tasks and actions: - Update and complete, by an extensive R and D program, the understanding and characterization of the Ni base alloys prone to PWSCC, - Analyze the various materials, metallurgical features, mechanical stresses, and physicochemical conditions of the parts exposed to primary water, in order to predict the occurrence of PWSCC initiation and propagation, - Provide a prioritization of the zones to be inspected, - Implement by improved NDE techniques a practical inspection program on the 58 PWRs, - Prepare and implement any needed mitigation actions as a result of the components conditions assessment. The present paper relates the main features of the French regulatory experience over more than 13 years and recalls the main principles of the assessment, which were applied by ASN. These principles, which are formalized in the current regulation rules revised in 1999, are briefly listed hereunder: - It is based on avoiding and

  8. The French regulatory experience and views on nickel-base alloy PWSCC prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turluer, G.; Cattiaux, G.; Monnot, B.; Emond, D.; Reuchet, J.; Chartier, Ph.

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents the experience feedback and views of the French Regulatory Authority (ASN) and of the technical support institute (IRSN) on PWSCC prevention since the initiation in 1989 of the 'Inconel Zones Review' requested by ASN to Electricite de France (EDF), the national operator of a fleet of 58 PWRs. This proactive requirement, launched before the discovery, in September 1991, of the only CRDM nozzle leak in France, on Bugey unit 3, was then triggered by the recurrence of many alloy 600 rapid degradations and leaks, world wide, and also in France in the late 1980's, particularly on steam generator tubes and on some pressurizer penetrations. Thus, the ASN requested that EDF, perform a comprehensive (generic) proactive assessment on all the nickel-base alloy components and parts of the main primary circuits, which of course included vessel head penetrations and bottom vessel head penetrations, and some other zones as a first priority. This proactive 'review' did, a minima, include the following tasks and actions: - Update and complete, by an extensive R and D program, the understanding and characterization of the Ni base alloys prone to PWSCC, - Analyze the various materials, metallurgical features, mechanical stresses, and physicochemical conditions of the parts exposed to primary water, in order to predict the occurrence of PWSCC initiation and propagation, - Provide a prioritization of the zones to be inspected, - Implement by improved NDE techniques a practical inspection program on the 58 PWRs, - Prepare and implement any needed mitigation actions as a result of the components conditions assessment. The present paper relates the main features of the French regulatory experience over more than 13 years and recalls the main principles of the assessment, which were applied by ASN. These principles, which are formalized in the current regulation rules revised in 1999, are briefly listed hereunder: - It is based on avoiding and preventing any leaking on

  9. Design of a single variable helium effects experiment for irradiation in FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] using alloys enriched in nickel 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Brager, H.R.; Matsumoto, W.Y.

    1986-03-01

    Nickel enriched in nickel 59 was extracted from the fragments of a fracture toughness specimen of Inconel 600 irradiated in the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The nickel contained 2.0% nickel 59. Three heats of austenitic steel doped with nickel-59 were prepared and inserted in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The experiment was single variable in helium effects because chemically identical alloys without nickel-59 were being irradiated side by side with the doped material. The alloys doped with nickel 59 produced 10 to 100 times more helium than the control alloys. The materials included ternary and quaternary alloys in the form of transmission electron microscope (TEM) discs and miniature tensile specimens. The helium to dpa ratio was in the range 5 to 35 and was nearly constant throughout the irradiation. The exposures ranged from 0.25 to 50 displacements per atom (dpa) over the duration of the experiment. The irradiation temperatures covered the range of 360 to 600 0 C

  10. Experiences of work ability in young workers: an exploratory interview study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boström, Maria; Holmgren, Kristina; Sluiter, Judith K.; Hagberg, Mats; Grimby-Ekman, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of and influences on work ability in young workers related to their work and life situation. In a qualitative study of a strategic sample of 12 young female and 12 young male workers, aged 25-30 years, in work or recently left work, recruited from

  11. School Social Workers' Experiences with Youth Suicidal Behavior: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jonathan B.; Slovak, Karen

    2011-01-01

    No published studies have explored school social workers (SSWs) experiences with, or beliefs and attitudes about, working with suicidal youths at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. The authors surveyed SSWs (N = 399) who were members of the 11-state Midwest Council on School Social Workers. Results indicated significant SSW…

  12. Learning to Facilitate Advance Care Planning: The Novice Social Worker's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla; Bowland, Sharon; Mueggenburg, Kay; Pederson, Margaret; Otten, Sheila; Renn, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Professional leaders have identified clear roles for social workers involved in advance care planning (ACP), a facilitated process whereby individuals identify their preferences for future medical care; yet information about effective teaching practices in this area is scant. This study reports on the experiences of 14 social workers who…

  13. The Early Professional Experience of a New Social Worker in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qiuling; Chapman, Mimi V.

    2014-01-01

    Social work is emerging as a rapidly developing profession in mainland China, a unique context that affects how these new social workers view themselves, their professional identity, and their work. Few studies explore the lived experiences of these new social workers as they enter agencies and begin working with clients while interacting with…

  14. Developing a registry of workers involved in nanotechnology: BASF experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Raymond M; Nasterlack, Michael; Engel, Stefan; Conner, Patrick R

    2011-06-01

    To assist BASF in the establishment of a registry of workers involved in nanotechnology. The initial step was a complete inventory of nanomaterials and sites of use. Guidance was developed to clarify which particulate nanomaterials were to be included in the survey. Site management was then contacted by the medical department to obtain a list of workers. The time line for collecting data ranged from several months to a year, depending on the information needed, and presented challenges based on the lack of global definition and labeling of nanomaterials. Less than 50 nanomaterials are used as raw materials in less than 10% of the sites globally. In North America, less than 5% of sites and 5% workers use nanomaterials. Further work is required to integrate the inventory, registry, and exposure assessments.

  15. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  16. Theromdynamics of carbon in nickel-based multicomponent solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1978-04-01

    The activity coefficient of carbon in nickel, nickel-titanium, nickel-titanium-chromium, nickel-titanium-molybdenum and nickel-titanium-molybdenum-chromium alloys has been measured at 900, 1100 and 1215 0 C. The results indicate that carbon obeys Henry's Law over the range studied (0 to 2 at. percent). The literature for the nickel-carbon and iron-carbon systems are reviewed and corrected. For the activity of carbon in iron as a function of composition, a new relationship based on re-evaluation of the thermodynamics of the CO/CO 2 equilibrium is proposed. Calculations using this relationship reproduce the data to within 2.5 percent, but the accuracy of the calibrating standards used by many investigators to analyze for carbon is at best 5 percent. This explains the lack of agreement between the many precise sets of data. The values of the activity coefficient of carbon in the various solid solutions are used to calculate a set of parameters for the Kohler-Kaufman equation. The calculations indicate that binary interaction energies are not sufficient to describe the thermodynamics of carbon in some of the nickel-based solid solutions. The results of previous workers for carbon in nickel-iron alloys are completely described by inclusion of ternary terms in the Kohler-Kaufman equation. Most of the carbon solid solution at high temperatures in nickel and nickel-titantium alloys precipitates from solution on quenching in water. The precipitate is composed of very small particles (greater than 2.5 nm) of elemental carbon. The results of some preliminary thermomigration experiments are discussed and recommendations for further work are presented

  17. Reabsorption of returning workers from the Gulf: the Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, S

    1994-01-01

    This study examines trends in return labor migration from the Middle East to South Asia and Southeast Asia. Survey data were used to describe trends in outmigration and socioeconomic characteristics of return migrants and to examine the extent to which return migration is associated with skill level and use of savings and remittances on their return. General trends indicate a decline in outmigration during the late 1980s and early 1990s, after oil prices dropped in 1986. Migrants from Pakistan and Korea declined by half during 1981-85 and by 40% among Indian migrants. The demand for service workers and migrants willing to accept cuts in wages was unaffected. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries grew in the recent past. These increases were due to the replacement of workers from Jordan and Yemen who were expelled from Saudi Arabia after the Gulf crisis. The shift in occupational demand to service and higher level workers is expected to weaken migration from Pakistan and Bangladesh and to strengthen migration from Sri Lanka and other Southeast Asian countries with a skilled migrant labor force. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries increased to high-growth destination countries such as Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore. Socioeconomic characteristics of migrants varied by country of origin. For instance, Philippine migrants were better educated. Migrants from Thailand, Bangladesh, and Pakistan were from rural and impoverished areas. Sri Lanka and the Philippines had many women migrants. Return migrants encountered high unemployment. Return migrants to Korea had fewer reemployment problems. Reemployment was associated with local country conditions. Unskilled workers had the highest rates of unemployment. Savings tended to be invested in real estate and housing. Savings and investment from remittance income was high in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Thailand.

  18. Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis: a 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbel, Sharon F; French, Audrey L; Bush, Patricia; DeGuzman, Delia; Weinstein, Robert A

    2009-10-01

    Cook County Hospital (CCH) is an inner-city, large public hospital. Twenty-five percent of Chicago's tuberculosis (TB) cases are diagnosed at CCH. We wanted to review and analyze interventions implemented over a 10-year period at CCH to prevent TB infection in health care workers. We performed a retrospective review of interventions to prevent health care-associated tuberculosis. We collated and analyzed tuberculin skin test conversions in our employees for the same time period. From 1990 to 2002, we cared for over 1800 in-patients with tuberculosis. During 1992-1997, multiple interventions to eliminate health care-associated spread of tuberculosis were implemented. Tuberculin skin test conversions in our employees decreased markedly from January 1994 through December 2002. Two drops in tuberculin skin test conversion rates occurred: one after introduction of basic administrative and engineering controls and a second after we experienced a decrease in missed TB cases and the introduction of N-95 personal respirators with 1-time qualitative fit testing. Our annual health care worker skin test conversion rate fell significantly when our primary interventions were relatively simple administrative and engineering controls. Educating health care workers to promptly recognize patients with TB and placing exhaust fans to create negative-pressure respiratory isolation rooms were probably our 2 most potent infection control measures.

  19. Lived experiences of HIV community workers participating in a community empowerment programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Horn

    2014-08-01

    Objectives: The researcher explored the lived experiences of HIV community workers participating in two CEPs in Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal in order to develop recommendations for CEPs. Method: Data were explored using a qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Ten participants who had been involved in HIV CEPs for more than six months were identified and individual interviews were held. Results: Three themes emerged, namely, giving of yourself, maintaining sustainability and assisting the CEPs and community workers. Each of these themes also contained a number of subthemes. Exploring the lived experience of the community workers revealed that there are a number of ways in which to promote the sustainability of CEPs. Conclusion: The community should be involved in all aspects of the CEP and community workers must respect the community and their knowledge, experience and value systems.

  20. Workers' compensation experience of North Carolina residential construction workers, 1986-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, J M; Lipscomb, H

    1999-02-01

    A total of 31,113 workers' compensation claims among 7,400 North Carolina Homebuilders Association (NCHA) members and their subcontractors for the period 1986-1994 were analyzed to calculate workers' compensation claim incidence density rates. For the 7 years studied, the average rate (cases/200,000 work hours) for all claims was 16.40 and the rate for medical or lost time cases was 10.78. Highest rates for cases involving medical costs or paid lost time by mechanism of injury were observed for being struck by an object (3.1), lifting/movement (1.97), falls from a different level (1.13), striking against an object (0.87), and falls on the same level (0.46). Rates by mechanism of injury were highest for muscle strains (2.34), wounds/punctures (2.33), bruises/contusions (1.24), fractures/dislocations (0.98), and injuries to the eyes (0.81). Among medical cost or lost work time cases, body parts with highest injury rates were back/shoulders (1.99), fingers (1.31), leg/knee (1.00), hand/wrist (1.00), foot/ankle (0.86), and eyes (0.82). Injury rates were found to vary substantially among the residential construction trades. For more serious injuries involving medical costs greater than $2,000 or any lost work time, rates were highest for welders and cutters (28.1), insulators (24.3), roofers (19.4), and carpenters (15.3). The same general trends by trade were observed for cases involving paid lost time except that roofers were highest, with a rate of 9.1, followed by insulators (8.5), welders and cutters (5.8), and carpenters (5.8). Rates of falls from a different level resulting in medical costs or lost work time were highest for roofers (5.54), insulators (3.53), carpenters (2.05), and drywall installers (1.99). Descriptive information for falls from a different level resulting in paid lost time during 1993-1994 (n = 219) were reviewed to better determine the causes and circumstances of injuries. Falls from a roof accounted for 25.4 percent of the cases followed by

  1. Experiences of work ability in young workers: an exploratory interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Maria; Holmgren, Kristina; Sluiter, Judith K; Hagberg, Mats; Grimby-Ekman, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of and influences on work ability in young workers related to their work and life situation. In a qualitative study of a strategic sample of 12 young female and 12 young male workers, aged 25-30 years, in work or recently left work, recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a Swedish cohort, semi-structured interviews were performed to explore the experiences of work ability in these young workers. Systematic text condensation inspired by phenomenology was used in the analysis. Work ability was experienced as complex, consisting of four themes, each with three subthemes. To be alert and have energy, to possess sufficient education, skills and working life experience and experience meaningfulness and engagement in work, were perceived to be fundamental for work ability and were seen as the worker's own responsibility. Moreover, work ability can be improved or reduced by the psychosocial work climate, the work organization and the private life. Optimal work ability was experienced when all themes integrated in a positive way. Work ability was experienced as the worker's own responsibility that could be influenced by work circumstances and private life. To promote good work ability among young workers, work ability has to be understood in its specific context. Whether the understanding of work ability found in this study is explicit for the group of young adults needs to be explored in a more general population in further research.

  2. Training for my Life: Lived Experiences of Dislocated Workers in an Advanced Manufacturing Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquita R. Walker

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative paper explores the lived experiences of one group of workers dislocated because of globalized trade policies who completed a hybrid Advanced Manufacturing Training Program (AMTP by taking advantage of Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA, a federally-funded program for retraining workers dislocated because of trade policies. The research questions focus on how satisfied these workers are with the services and programs provided by TAA. Focus groups and survey instrument results indicate these workers found TAA services and processes cumbersome and time- consuming and actually had the effect of discouraging their education, training, and self- employment. The consequences of their dislocation as it relates to TAA experiences are increased frustration and dissatisfaction with the TAA program. Serious consideration for TAA policy changes should be deemed of utmost importance.

  3. THE EXPERIENCES OF SOCIAL WORKERS IN THE PROVISION OF FAMILY PRESERVATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhedzi, Felistas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experiences of twelve social workers as providers of family preservation services. The sample was selected through purposive and snowball sampling. Data were collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews, which yielded rich information on a host of challenges experienced by social workers. Some of the challenges entail the parents’ reluctance to participate in family preservation services, their unwillingness to care for their children, non-adherence to intervention plans, protection of perpetrators of child abuse by family members, traditional practices, lack of resources and low salaries. These challenges have an adverse effect on the morale and wellbeing of social workers

  4. The experiences of pediatric social workers providing end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskat, Barbara; Brownstone, David; Greenblatt, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Pediatric social workers working in acute care hospital settings may care for children and their families in end-of-life circumstances. This qualitative study is part of a larger study focusing on the experiences of health care providers working with dying children. This study consisted of 9 semi-structured interviews of acute care pediatric social workers who work with dying children and their families. Themes included the role of social work with dying children, the impact of their work and coping strategies. Authors suggest a hospital-worker partnership in supporting staff and promotion of supportive resources.

  5. Anal sexual experience and HIV risk awareness among female sex workers in Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeingia, Yohannes Teka; Olijjira, Lemessa; Dessie, Yadeta

    2017-01-01

    Female sex workers have been disproportionately affected with HIV and anal sexual experience elevate their vulnerability. Anal intercourse has more risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse for receptors that coupled with low condom and proper lubricant use behavior during anal sex. Besides majority of them did not understand HIV transmission risk of anal intercourse. In Ethiopia, studies on anal sexual experience is almost none existent, so the purpose of this study is to explored anal sexual experience and HIV transmission risk awareness among female sex worker in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Qualitative study with thematic analysis approach was conducted among 18 female sex workers and recruitment of study participants performed until saturation of information. The principal investigator conducted in-depth interviews using local language (Amharic) and it was recorded on audio recorder. Tape recorded data was transcribed and translated to English and entered into open code version 3.4 for coding and theme identification. Data collection conducted simultaneously with data analysis. Female sex workers practiced anal sex for different themes like financial influence, coercion, intentionally, peer pressure and as a sign of intimacy and love. Coercion, negative attitudes, poor awareness about HIV transmission risks of anal sex and protection capacity of condom and proper lubricants are the identified themes for not using condom and proper lubricants during anal sex by female sex workers. Inaccessibility and unavailability of health services for issues related to anal sex was the core reason for female sex workers' misperception and risk anal sexual experience. Female sex workers practiced anal sex without risk reduction approaches and they did not understand exacerbated risk of anal sex to HIV transmission. Stakeholders including ministry of health need to incorporate potential awareness raising tasks and programs about risk of anal sex and methods of risk

  6. Worker Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucouliagos, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)

  7. Preference of undergraduate students after first experience on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Kwak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to compare two nickel-titanium systems (rotary vs. reciprocating for their acceptance by undergraduate students who experienced nickel-titanium (NiTi instruments for the first time. Materials and Methods Eighty-one sophomore dental students were first taught on manual root canal preparation with stainless-steel files. After that, they were instructed on the use of ProTaper Universal system (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer, then the WaveOne (WO, Dentsply Maillefer. They practiced with each system on 2 extracted molars, before using those files to shape the buccal or mesial canals of additional first molars. A questionnaire was completed after using each file system, seeking students' perception about 'Ease of use', 'Flexibility', 'Cutting-efficiency', 'Screwing-effect', 'Feeling-safety', and 'Instrumentation-time' of the NiTi files, relative to stainless-steel instrumentation, on a 5-point Likert-type scale. They were also requested to indicate their preference between the two systems. Data was compared between groups using t-test, and with Chi-square test for correlation of each perception value with the preferred choice (p = 0.05. Results Among the 81 students, 55 indicated their preferred file system as WO and 22 as PTU. All scores were greater than 4 (better for both systems, compared with stainless-steel files, except for 'Screwing-effect' for PTU. The scores for WO in the categories of 'Flexibility', 'Screwing-effect', and 'Feeling-safety' were significantly higher scores than those of PTU. A significant association between the 'Screwing-effect' and students' preference for WO was observed. Conclusions Novice operators preferred nickel-titanium instruments to stainless-steel, and majority of them opted for reciprocating file instead of continuous rotating system.

  8. Experience in melting of high-quality chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel in oxygen converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosoi, L F; Yaburov, S I; Shul' kin, M L; Vedernikov, G G; Bragin, E D; Filork' yan, B K

    1978-10-01

    Technology of melting high-quality medium-carbon constructional chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel has been developed and tested in 130-t converters. The technology envisages metal refinement in a casting laddle using synthetic lime-aluminous slag and argon blowing, as well as liquid ferroallys (master alloys) for steel deoxidation and alloying. Due to a smaller content of sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic and sulphide inclusions, and to a smaller grain size (N 11-12), the steel, produced according to this technology possesses higher plastic properties and impact strength than conventional open-hearth furnace metal after heat treatment for the same strength.

  9. The Experience of Unemployment for Fishery Workers in Newfoundland: What Helps and Hinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.; McVicar, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the unemployment experience of people involved in the fishery and living in the outports of Newfoundland and Labrador. Fifty-three critical incident interviews were conducted by community outreach workers. These interviews yielded important information about the factors that facilitated or hindered the unemployment experience. (Contains…

  10. Dental caries experience in high risk soft drinks factory workers of South India: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Acharya, Shashidhar; Vasthare, Ramprasad; Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Gupta, Anjali; Debnath, Nitai

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of soft-drinks has been associated with dental caries development. The aim was to evaluate dental caries experience amongst the workers working in soft-drink industries located in South India and compare it with other factory workers. To evaluate the validity of specific caries index (SCI), which is newer index for caries diagnosis. This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 420 workers (210 in soft-drinks factory and 210 in other factories), in the age group of 20-45 years of Udupi district, Karnataka, India. Index used for clinical examination was decayed, missing, filled surfaces (DMFS) index and SCI. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of decayed surface (5.8 ± 1.8), missing surface (4.3 ± 2) and filled surface (1.94 ± 1.95) and total DMFS score (12.11 ± 3.8) in soft-drinks factory workers were found to be significantly higher than the other factory workers. The total SCI score (mean and SD) was found to be significantly higher in soft-drinks factory workers (5.83 ± 1.80) compared with other factory workers (4.56 ± 1.45). There was a high correlation obtained between SCI score and DMFS score. The regression equation given by DMFS = 1.178 + 1.866 (SCI scores). The caries experience was higher in workers working in soft-drinks factory and this study also showed that specific caries index can be used as a valid index for assessing dental caries experience.

  11. [Practical experiences in legal counseling of foreign workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi-Seger, G

    1992-09-01

    When foreign workers ask for legal advice, very often their questions concern primarily insurance rights for disability. Most uncertainties exist about specific clauses in the legislation on disability insurance and about the measurings of disability. Primarily, discussions arise from controversy about claims made to the state disability insurance. The legislation on disability insurance establishes strict requirements for foreigners asking for insurance rights for disability. However, the Agreement on Social Security signed worldwide by over 20 nations being more tolerant in terms of disability insurance, Swiss legislation can be applied only to a minority of foreigners. That is why the system of legislation has become so complex. There are two major points that are rigidly to be observed: On one hand, the process of reintegration measures can start only if the prescribed minimum duration of contributions is guaranteed. On the other, proceedings for disability pensions can be initiated only after the currently valid waiting period. In both cases, it is considerably important that the patient has a domicile in Switzerland or a valid residence permit. Numerous disagreements can possibly result during the evaluation of the degree of disability, as certain factors-such as language problems, lack of education or the labour market situation-, which are not directly linked to the disability, are not taken into consideration.

  12. Forced Flexibility and Exploitation: Experiences of Migrant Workers in the Cleaning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ollus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has resulted in structural changes in the labor markets over the last decades. These changes have weakened some of the economic and social dimensions of work. At the same time, migration and especially labor migration have increased on the global level. This article looks at the situation of migrant workers in the cleaning industry in Finland. It is based on interviews with migrant workers who have experienced labor exploitation in the cleaning industry, representatives of cleaning industry employers, and representatives of labor unions. The primary aim is to give voice to the migrant workers themselves and to analyze how they experience their work and their position in working life. The findings suggest that there is a risk that migrant workers in the cleaning sector experience various forms of exploitation. This article argues that the demand and need for (employee flexibility may turn into forced flexibility that exploits the powerless and vulnerable migrant workers who have few other options than to agree to work on poor terms. The article suggests that the structural reasons that make the exploitation of migrant labor possible should be identified and addressed in order to prevent misuse of any workers, especially migrants.

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to significant parenteral exposures. Exposure to nickel compounds can produce a variety of adverse effects on human health. Nickel allergy in the form of contact dermatitis is the most common reaction.A frontal headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, and irritability are the most common signs of acute poisoning with nickel compounds. The respiratory tract, kidneys and liver suffer the most significant changes like nickel pneumoconiosis, chronic rhinitis and sinonasal tumors and transitory nephropathy. Although the accumulation of nickel in the body through chronic exposure can lead to lung fibrosis, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, the most serious concerns relate to nickel’s carcinogenic activity. Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and metallic nickel is possibly carcinogenic to humans.

  14. Social workers' experiences as the family support person during cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Janice; DeVries, Keli; Morano, Dawnielle; Spano-English, Toni

    2017-07-01

    During inhospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts, a designated family support person (FSP) may provide guidance and support to family members. Research on nurses and chaplains in this role has been published. Social workers also regularly fulfill this service, however, little is known about how they perceive and enact this role. To explore their experiences, qualitative interviews (n = 10) were conducted with FSP social workers. Critical realist thematic analysis identified five themes: walking in cold, promoting family presence, responding to the whole spectrum of grief, going beyond the family support role, and repercussions of bearing witness. Social workers perform a variety of tasks to promote family presence during resuscitation attempts and provide psychosocial support over the continuum of care. The FSP role impacts social workers emotionally and professionally. Implications for hospital policy, staffing, and clinical practice are discussed.

  15. The Legal System and Alzheimer's Disease: Social Workers and Lawyers' Perceptions and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Perla; Doron, Israel Issi

    2016-01-01

    The expected increase in the number of people living with Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide will be accompanied by an increase in the number of cases involving persons with AD brought up to the courts. This study examined the perceptions and experiences of social workers and lawyers regarding these cases. Three focus groups including social workers and lawyers (n = 26) were conducted. Two main themes were raised by the participants: (a) the role of social workers and lawyers in court cases regarding AD, and (b) the need for improving legal encounters involving persons with AD. Similarities and differences were found in both professionals' interpretations of these shared themes. Results of this study emphasize the need for increasing the knowledge and interprofessional training provided to social workers and lawyers involved in legal cases dealing with issues involving persons with Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Drivers of change: Learning from the lived experiences of nursing home social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Lee, Sharon Narae; Armour, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    In response to the growing attention to integrated health care and the cultural change movement in nursing homes, this study examines the lived experiences of nursing home social workers to better understand their role perceptions, job satisfaction, and relationship with other staff members. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used in order to understand the lived experience of being a nursing home social worker. Ten nursing home social workers were recruited from a southern state and individual interviews were conducted. From the interviews, four themes emerged: challenge, coping, mattering, and rewarding. Guided by identity negotiation theory and social identity theory, these findings are discussed. Also, implications for social work education, nursing home administration, and policy is discussed.

  17. Urban ministry workers' positive experiences of interpersonal and religious support during crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashley; Eriksson, Cynthia; Gottuso, Ann; Fort, Christin

    2017-01-01

    Research on faith-based urban workers is limited despite the chronic and traumatic exposure inherent in their work. This study details the perception of positive interpersonal relationships during a time of trauma or crisis as described in semistructured 2- to 3-hour interviews with 13 faith-based urban workers in Los Angeles, California. Using strategies consistent with Consensual Qualitative Research, categories and subcategories defining positive interpersonal relationships were identified. Resulting categories suggested that there are specific characteristics, products, and types of relationships that urban workers experience as important during the time of trauma or crisis. Positive experiences were often religious in nature and included feeling supported, feeling connected, relationship growth, sharing and listening, authenticity, and feeling as through relationships facilitated personal growth or coping. The findings highlight participants' need for both practical support and relational support which reflects and enhances their spiritual commitment.

  18. Buffers or Boosters? The Role of HRM Practices in Older Workers' Experience of Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo André da Silva; Cabral-Cardoso, Carlos José

    2018-01-02

    Building on the social identity approach and the HRM literature, this two-wave cross-sectional study examined the effects of negative age-based metastereotypes on the age-based stereotype threat experience of older workers and on organizational disidentification. The moderator role of HRM practices in the relationship between negative age-based metastereotypes and age-based stereotype threat was also investigated. Older workers survey results (n = 469) from 14 manufacturing companies indicated that negative age-based metastereotypes correlate positively with stereotype threat. Moderation results showed that age-awareness HRM practices (training for older workers) reinforced age-based stereotype threat, whereas general HRM practices (recognition and respect) impaired it. The article suggests that the combination of age-based metastereotypes with a stereotype threat framework contributes to further understand older workers' beliefs and attitudes. It also indicates that to be effective, HRM practices should emphasize positive social identities older workers share with their colleagues, rather than giving older workers special treatment that may, after all, reinforce stigmatization.

  19. Workers with hand dermatitis and workplace training experiences: A qualitative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Bethany; Arrandale, Victoria H; Holness, Dorothy Linn

    2017-01-01

    Workplace training may help to prevent contact dermatitis, a common work-related disease. Information on the characteristics of existing workplace training programs and worker perceptions of this training is limited. Fourteen workers with suspected occupational contact dermatitis participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to identify interview themes. Workers expressed a desire for hands-on training with content relevant to their job tasks, favored training from supervisors who had practical experience, and were conflicted about employer motivations for providing training. Few workers had received training on skin protection. In many cases, the training workers had received differed greatly from their desired training. Although, workers with contact dermatitis describe having received workplace training, some question its value and effectiveness. This perspective may be attributed not only to the content and methods of training but also the health and safety culture of the workplace. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:69-76, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Decommissioning of a hot cell with high levels of contamination. Experience during the Undressed of Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Sancho, C.

    1998-01-01

    The object of this work is to show the radiological controls in decommissioning of the inner of the Base Cell of the Nuclear Facility of CIEMAT, IN-04 (Metallurgy Hot Cells) and the experience during the undressed of workers in decommissioning of this cell. The workers were equipped with one cotton overalls and one or two paper overalls of one-use. Also, when the radiation levels are high, the workers were equipped with leaded glasses and aprons. The protection equipment for internal contamination were autonomous and semi-autonomous respiratory equipment. Due to a high superficial contamination levels, two areas were established in order to proceed to the undressed of the workers when these concluded their work. The first area was a confined enclosure by joined to the hot cell, where an expert of the Radiation Protection Service (RPS), trained for it, take off the first paper overall and the first pair of gloves to the worker that come out the hot cells. The second area was at the exist of the Load Zone, where another expert of PRS, take off the second paper overall, the second pair of gloves and dislocated the pipe of air of the semi-autonomous respiratory equipment, to the worker that come out this zone. (Author)

  1. Experiences of outreach workers in promoting smoking cessation to Bangladeshi and Pakistani men: longitudinal qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Pelham M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having high smoking rates, there have been few tailored cessation programmes for male Bangladeshi and Pakistani smokers in the UK. We report on a qualitative evaluation of a community-based, outreach worker delivered, intervention that aimed to increase uptake of NHS smoking cessation services and tailor services to meet the needs of Bangladeshi and Pakistani men. Methods This was a longitudinal, qualitative study, nested within a phase II cluster randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention. We explored the perspectives and experiences of five outreach workers, two stop smoking service managers and a specialist stop smoking advisor. Data were collected through focus group discussions, weekly diaries, observations of management meetings, shadowing of outreach workers, and one-to-one interviews with outreach workers and their managers. Analysis was undertaken using a modified Framework approach. Results Outreach workers promoted cessation services by word of mouth on the streets, in health service premises, in local businesses and at a wide range of community events. They emphasised the reasons for cessation, especially health effects, financial implications, and the impact of smoking on the family. Many smokers agreed to be referred to cessation services, but few attended, this in part being explained by concerns about the relative inflexibility of existing service provision. Although outreach workers successfully expanded service reach, they faced the challenges of perceived lack of awareness of the health risks associated with smoking in older smokers and apathy in younger smokers. These were compounded by perceptions of "lip service" being given to their role by community organisations and tensions both amongst the outreach workers and with the wider management team. Conclusions Outreach workers expanded reach of the service through taking it to diverse locations of relevance to Pakistani and Bangladeshi

  2. Deficiencies in education and experience in the management of acute kidney injury among Malawian healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R; Rudd, P; Hemmila, U; Dobbie, H; Dreyer, G

    2015-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common but under-recognised disease process, which carries a high risk of mortality or chronic complications, such as chronic kidney disease and other organ dysfunction. Management of AKI, however, is suboptimal, both in developed settings and in Malawi. This is partly because of deficiencies in AKI education and training. To establish current levels of AKI education in a range of healthcare workers in Malawi. An AKI symposium was held in Blantyre in March 2015. Delegates were asked to complete a survey at the start of the symposium to assess their clinical experience and education in the management of AKI. From 100 delegates, 89 nurses, clinical officers, and physicians, originating from 11 different districts, responded to the survey. Twenty-two percent of healthcare workers (including 28% of district workers of the various cadres and 31% of nurses) had never received teaching on any aspect of renal disease, and 50% (including 63% of district workers and 61% of nurses) had never received teaching specifically on AKI. Forty-four percent did not feel confident managing AKI, and 98% wanted more support managing patients with renal disease. Thirty-four percent (including 55% of district workers) were unaware that haemodialysis was available at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) for the treatment of AKI and 53% (74% of district workers) were unaware that peritoneal dialysis was available for the treatment of AKI in children. Only 33% had ever referred a patient with AKI to QECH. There are deficiencies in education about, and clinical experience in, the management of AKI among Malawian healthcare workers, in addition to limited awareness of the renal service available at QECH. Urgent action is required to address these issues in order to prevent morbidity and mortality from AKI in Malawi.

  3. The Experience of Paid Family-Care Workers of People with Dementia in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmin; De Bellis, Anita Marie; Xiao, Lily Dongxia

    2018-03-01

    The South Korean government introduced the universal long-term care insurance program in 2008 that created a new employment category of "paid family-care worker" to assist the elderly with chronic illnesses including dementia. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of paid family-care workers of people with dementia in South Korea. The study was a qualitative research design underpinned by interpretive description principles involving eight paid family-care workers. The participants were recruited by attaching the advertisement flyer in a notice board of an educational facility for paid family-care workers. Paid family-care workers struggled to manage the behavioral and psychological symptoms of their care recipients. Their workloads created physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. However, the care-giving activities were encouraged through their sense of responsibility, filial piety, and personal religious beliefs. Financial subsidies from the government and help received from others were also identified as encouragements. The education course provided to them assisted them to improve their dementia-care capabilities. Understanding paid family-care workers' lived experience in dementia care in South Korea assists with the identification of their educational needs and level of support they require to improve dementia care in the home care environment. A number of suggestions are made to increase paid family-care workers' knowledge, clinical skills, and job satisfaction to reduce their burdens and work-related incidents, such as challenging behaviors from those being cared for. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A longitudinal study on urinary cadmium and renal tubular protein excretion of nickel-cadmium battery workers after cessation of cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanhua; Zhang, Yanfang; Yi, Juan; Zhou, Jinpeng; Huang, Xianqing; Shi, Xinshan; Xiao, Shunhua; Lin, Dafeng

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to predict the outcome of urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion and renal tubular function by analyzing their evolution through 10 years after Cd exposure ceased. Forty-one female, non-smoking workers were recruited from the year 2004 to 2009 when being removed from a nickel-cadmium battery factory, and they were asked to provide morning urine samples on three consecutive days at enrollment and in every follow-up year until 2014. Urinary Cd and renal tubular function biomarkers including urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-m) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) concentrations were determined with the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. The medians of baseline Cd, β2-m and RBP concentrations at enrollment were 6.19, 105.38 and 71.84 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary β2-m and RBP concentrations were both related to Cd concentrations over the years (β absolute-β2-m = 9.16, P = 0.008 and β absolute-RBP = 6.42, P < 0.001, respectively). Cd, β2-m and RBP concentrations in the follow-up years were all associated with their baseline concentrations (β absolute-Cd = 0.61, P < 0.001; β absolute-β2-m = 0.64, P < 0.001; and β absolute-RBP = 0.60, P < 0.001, respectively), and showed a decreasing tendency with the number of elapsed years relative to their baseline concentrations (β relative-Cd = -0.20, P = 0.010; β relative-β2-m = -17.19, P = 0.002; and β relative-RBP = -10.66, P < 0.001, respectively). Urinary Cd might eventually decrease to the general population level, and Cd-related tubular function would improve under the baseline conditions of this cohort.

  5. Perceptions of Cultural Competence among Urban School Social Workers: Does Experience Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell L.; Baffour, Tiffany D.; Tyson, Edgar H.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the contribution of social work experience and licensure to self-reported levels of cultural competence of social workers in urban public school systems. In addition, it examined the influence of practitioners race or ethnicity on perceived levels of culturally competent practice in urban schools. Using survey…

  6. The experiences of professional hospice workers attending creative arts workshops in Gauteng

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blignaut-van Westrhenen, Nadine; Fritz, E.

    2013-01-01

    Object: This article explores the experiences of professional hospice workers using a creative process for debriefing them in order to facilitate the expression and communication of complex thoughts and feelings. The creative arts workshops were developed with the understanding in mind that caring

  7. Does the Unemployement Benefit Institution Affect the Productivity of Workers? Evidence from a Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, M.; Dalton, P.S.; Vargas, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We investigate whether and how the type of unemployment bene t institution affects productivity. We designed a field experiment to compare workers' productivity under a welfare system, where the unemployed receive an unconditional monetary transfer, with their productivity under a workfare

  8. Stiffness-constant variation in nickel-based alloys: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennion, M.; Hennion, B.

    1979-01-01

    Recent measurements of the spin-wave stiffness constant in several nickel alloys at various concentrations are interpreted within a random-phase approximation, coherent-potential approximation (RPA-CPA) band model which uses the Hartree-Fock approximation to treat the intraatomic correlations. We give a theoretical description of the possible impurity states in the Hartree-Fock approximation. This allows the determination of the Hartree-Fock solutions which can account for the stiffness-constant behavior and the magnetic moment on the impurity for all the investigated alloys. For alloys such as NiCr, NiV, NiMo, and NiRu, the magnetizations of which deviate from the Slater-Pauling curve, our determination does not correspond to previous works and is consequently discussed. The limits of the model appear mainly due to local-environment effects; in the case of NiMn, it is found that a ternary-alloy model with some Mn atoms in the antiferromagnetic state can account for both stiffness-constant and magnetization behaviors

  9. A meta-ethnography of the acculturation and socialization experiences of migrant care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ken H M; Chiang, Vico C L

    2015-02-01

    To report a meta-ethnography of qualitative research studies exploring the acculturation and socialization experiences of migrant care workers. Migrant care workers are increasingly participating in health and social care in developed countries. There is a need to understand this increasingly socioculturally diversified workforce. A comprehensive search through 12 databases and a manual search of journals related to transculture for studies on socialization and acculturation experiences (published 1993-2013) was completed. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed studies on the acculturation or socialization experiences of migrant care workers published in English in any country, using a qualitative or mixed-methods approach. This meta-ethnography employed the seven-phase Noblit and Hare method with reciprocal translation, refutational synthesis and lines-of-argument to synthesize qualitative studies. Three main themes were identified: (a) schema for the migration dream: optimism; (b) the reality of the migration dream: so close, yet so far; and (c) resilience: from chaos to order. A general framework of motivated psychosocial and behavioural adaptation was proposed. This meta-ethnography also revealed the vulnerabilities of migrant nurses in the process of acculturation and socialization. The general framework of behavioural and psychosocial adaptation revealed factors that impede and facilitate behavioural and psychosocial changes. Strategies to enrich external and internal resources should be targeted at encouraging multiculturalism and at improving the psychosocial resources of migrant care workers. It is suggested that research investigating the prominence of nursing vulnerabilities be conducted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  11. Aboriginal health workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2012-05-23

    Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal

  12. How do workers with a notified mental disorder experience the Danish Workers’ Compensation System?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Yun Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing number of employees is notified with a mental disorder in the Danish Workers’ Compensation System (WCS). However, only few are recognized and even less are granted a compensation. Research shows that notification in WCS increases the risk of work disability (WD......), but research exploring workers' experiences of the WCS and what factors can lead to and protect against WD are lacking. This study aims at bridging this gap. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 workers notified with a mental disorder. The interview guide was developed based...... to fill out, and questions addressing the psychosocial work environment were missing. Communication from the Board of industrial Injuries (BOII) was lacking, and procedure and timelines unclear. Workers' goal was not to achieve eeconomical compensation, but that their disorder was recognised as caused...

  13. Stress at work: Differential experiences of high versus low SES workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, Sarah; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2016-05-01

    This paper asks whether workers with higher socioeconomic status (SES) experience different levels of stress at work than workers with lower SES and, if so, what might explain these differences. We collected innovative assessments of immediate objective and subjective measures of stress at multiple time points across consecutive days from 122 employed men and women. We find that in comparison to higher SES individuals, those with lower SES reported greater happiness at work, less self-reported stress, and less perceived stress; cortisol, a biological marker of stress, was unrelated to SES. Worker's momentary perceptions of the workplace were predicted by SES, with higher SES individuals more commonly reporting feeling unable to meet work demands, fewer work resources, and less positive work appraisals. In turn, perceptions of the workplace had a generally consistent and robust effect on positive mood, subjective stress, and cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effective communication approaches in tuberculosis control: Health workers' perceptions and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulchelvan, Sriram; Elangovan, Rengan

    2017-10-01

    Health workers' experiences and understanding of the myths, misconceptions, beliefs about TB, and patients in the community (and effective communication methods) can be useful in designing effective IEC materials and strategies. To study the perceptions and experiences of health workers regarding TB disease, patients, and effective communication strategies in TB control. A survey was conducted among health workers involved in Directly Observed Treatment Short (DOTS) course. Data regarding general health beliefs, prevalent myths and misconceptions about TB in their respective localities, knowledge level among patients, and utilization of various communication strategies were collected. There is a significant increase in knowledge about TB during DOTS among patients, as observed by about half of the health workers. TB patients are aware about how TB spreads to others and their responsibilities. Regular interaction with patients is required for treatment adherence. Two thirds of the health workers believe that media-mix strategy can be very effective in creating awareness among the patients as well as the public. Health workers realized that the video player facility on their mobile phones is useful for showing health-related videos. A combination of mass media and interpersonal communication could be effective for TB control. Face-to-face communication with community members, patient-provider discussions, and information through television could be very effective techniques. Exclusive communication materials should be designed for family members of the patients. Smart phones can be used for effective implementation of TB control programs. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Experience of Paid Family-Care Workers of People with Dementia in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Kim, RN, MN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The South Korean government introduced the universal long-term care insurance program in 2008 that created a new employment category of “paid family-care worker” to assist the elderly with chronic illnesses including dementia. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of paid family-care workers of people with dementia in South Korea. Methods: The study was a qualitative research design underpinned by interpretive description principles involving eight paid family-care workers. The participants were recruited by attaching the advertisement flyer in a notice board of an educational facility for paid family-care workers. Results: Paid family-care workers struggled to manage the behavioral and psychological symptoms of their care recipients. Their workloads created physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. However, the care-giving activities were encouraged through their sense of responsibility, filial piety, and personal religious beliefs. Financial subsidies from the government and help received from others were also identified as encouragements. The education course provided to them assisted them to improve their dementia-care capabilities. Conclusion: Understanding paid family-care workers' lived experience in dementia care in South Korea assists with the identification of their educational needs and level of support they require to improve dementia care in the home care environment. A number of suggestions are made to increase paid family-care workers' knowledge, clinical skills, and job satisfaction to reduce their burdens and work-related incidents, such as challenging behaviors from those being cared for. Keywords: dementia, health personnel, long-term care, Republic of Korea

  16. Experiments, modeling and simulation of the magnetic behavior of inhomogeneously coated nickel/aluminum hybrid foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, A., E-mail: anne.jung@mx.uni-saarland.de [Universität des Saarlandes, Institute of Applied Mechanics, Campus A4 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Klis, D., E-mail: d.klis@lte.uni-saarland.de [Universität des Saarlandes, Laboratory for Electromagnetic Theory, Campus C6 3, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Goldschmidt, F., E-mail: f.goldschmidt@mx.uni-saarland.de [Universität des Saarlandes, Institute of Applied Mechanics, Campus A4 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Open-cell metal foams are used as lightweight construction elements, energy absorbers or as support for catalytic coatings. Coating of open-cell metal foams is not only used for catalytic applications, but it leads also to tremendous increase in stiffness and energy absorption capacity. A non-line of sight coating technique for complex 3D structures is electrodeposition. Unfortunately, due to the 3D porosity and the related problems in mass transport limitation during the deposition, it is not possible to produce homogeneously coated foams. In the present contribution, we present a semi-non-destructive technique applicable to determine the coating thickness distribution of magnetic coatings by measuring the remanent magnetic field of coated foams. In order to have a closer look at the mass transport mechanism, a numerical model was developed to predict the field scans for different coating thickness distributions in the foams. For long deposition times the deposition reaches a steady state whereas a Helmholtz equation is sufficient to predict the coating thickness distribution. The applied current density could be identified as the main influencing parameter. Based on the developed model, it is possible to improve the electrodeposition process and hence the homogeneity in the coating thickness of coated metal foams. This leads to enhanced mechanical properties of the hybrid foams and contributes to better and resource-efficient energy absorbers and lightweight materials. - Highlights: • Production of hybrid foams by electrodeposition of nickel on open-cell metal foams. • Magnetic field scans for visualization of spatial coating thickness distribution. • Modeling of magnetic fields of inhomogeneously coated hybrid foams. • Investigation of mass transport limitation during coating by a Helmholtz equation. • Increasing coating homogeneity by use of low current densities and deposition rates.

  17. Behavioral interventions to reduce nickel exposure in a nickel processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumchev, Krassi; Brown, Helen; Wheeler, Amanda; Pereira, Gavin; Spickett, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Nickel is a widely-used material in many industries. Although there is enough evidence that occupational exposure to nickel may cause respiratory illnesses, allergies, and even cancer, it is not possible to stop the use of nickel in occupational settings. Nickel exposure, however, can be controlled and reduced significantly in workplaces. The main objective of this study was to assess if educational intervention of hygiene behavior could reduce nickel exposure among Indonesian nickel smelter workers. Participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n = 99). Group one (n = 35) received only an educational booklet about nickel, related potential health effects and preventive measures, group two (n = 35) attended a presentation in addition to the booklet, and group three (n = 29) received personal feedback on their biomarker results in addition to the booklet and presentations. Pre- and post-intervention air sampling was conducted to measure concentrations of dust and nickel in air along with worker's blood and urine nickel concentrations. The study did not measure significant differences in particles and nickel concentrations in the air between pre- and post-interventions. However, we achieved significant reductions in the post intervention urine and blood nickel concentrations which can be attributed to changes in personal hygiene behavior. The median urinary nickel concentration in the pre-intervention period for group one was 52.3 µg/L, for group two 57.4 µg/L, and group three 43.2 µg/L which were significantly higher (pnickel with significantly (p nickel levels of 0.1 µg/L for all groups. The study showed that educational interventions can significantly reduce personal exposure levels to nickel among Indonesian nickel smelter workers.

  18. How sex work becomes an option: Experiences of female sex workers in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Foroozanfar, Zohre; Ahmadi, Azal; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Vogel, Joanna; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Sex work is rarely an occupation of choice for Iranian women and is often described as a last resort. While several factors play a role in creating an environment where individuals become involved in sex work, female sex workers' experiences regarding entry into sex work in Iran are poorly understood. In this qualitative study, a convenience sample of 24 participants was recruited from a drop-in centre for vulnerable women in Kerman, Iran. Through in-depth interviews, participants were asked about their personal lived experiences of initiating sex work. Grounded theory was used to analyse findings from this research. We learned that major factors impacting on women's initiation into sex work circulated around their vulnerability and chronic poverty. Participants continued to sell sex due to their limited opportunities, drug dependence and financial needs. Improving sex workers' economic status could be a vital intervention in providing vulnerable women with options other than sex work. Female sex workers should be provided with government support and educational programmes delivered through special centres. Despite the illegal status of their work, sex workers' needs should be recognised across all aspects of policy and legislation.

  19. Working in dissonance: experiences of work instability in workers with common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Louise; Bertilsson, Monica; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel

    2017-05-18

    Common mental disorders have a negative impact on work functioning, but less is known about the process when the functioning starts to destabilize. This study explores experiences of work instability in workers with common mental disorders. A grounded theory study using a theoretical sampling frame, individual in-depth interviews and a constant comparative analysis conducted by a multidisciplinary research team. The sample involved 27 workers with common mental disorders, currently working full or part time, or being on sick leave not more than 6 months. They were women and men of different ages, representing different occupations and illness severity. A general process of work instability was conceptualized by the core category Working in dissonance: captured in a bubble inside the work stream. The workers described that their ordinary fluency at work was disturbed. They distanced themselves from other people at and outside work, which helped them to regain their flow but simultaneously made them feel isolated. Four categories described sub-processes of the dissonance: Working out of rhythm, Working in discomfort, Working disconnected and Working in a no man's land. The experience of work instability in CMDs was conceptualized as "working in dissonance", suggesting a multifaceted dissonance at work, characterized by a sense of being caught up, as if in a bubble. Focusing on how the worker can re-enter their flow at work when experiencing dissonance is a new approach to explore in occupational and clinical settings.

  20. Material composition and nuclear data libraries' influence on nickel-chromium alloys activation evaluation: a comparison with decay heat experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cepraga, D G

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the activation analyses on Inconel-600 nickel-chromium alloy. Three activation data libraries, namely the EAF-4.1, the EAF-97 and the FENDL/A-2, and the FENDL/D-2 decay data library, have been used to perform the calculation with the European activation code ANITA-4/M. The neutron flux distribution into the material samples was provided by JAERI as results of 3D Monte-Carlo MCNP transport code experiment simulation. A comparison with integral decay heat measurement performed at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS), JAERI, Tokai, Japan, is used to validate the computational approach. The calculation results are given and discussed. The impact of the material composition, including impurities, on the decay heat of samples irradiated in fusion-like neutron spectra is assessed and discussed. The discrepancies calculations-experiments are within the experimental errors, that is between 6% and 10%, except for the short cooling times (less than 40 min after the end of irradiation). To improve calcul...

  1. Lay health worker experiences administering a multi-level combination intervention to improve PMTCT retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Abby; Fayorsey, Ruby; Syengo, Masila; Chege, Duncan; Sirengo, Martin; Reidy, William; Otieno, Juliana; Omoto, Jackton; Hawken, Mark P; Abrams, Elaine J

    2018-01-10

    The recent scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services has rapidly accelerated antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake among pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa. The Mother and Infant Retention for Health (MIR4Health) study evaluates the impact of a combination intervention administered by trained lay health workers to decrease attrition among HIV-positive women initiating PMTCT services and their infants through 6 months postpartum. This was a qualitative study nested within the MIR4Health trial. MIR4Health was conducted at 10 health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya from September 2013 to September 2015. The trial intervention addressed behavioral, social, and structural barriers to PMTCT retention and included: appointment reminders via text and phone calls, follow-up and tracking for missed clinic visits, PMTCT health education at home visits and during clinic visits, and retention and adherence support and counseling. All interventions were administered by lay health workers. We describe results of a nested small qualitative inquiry which conducted two focus groups to assess the experiences and perceptions of lay health workers administering the interventions. Discussions were recorded and simultaneously transcribed and translated into English. Data were analyzed using framework analysis approach. Study findings show lay health workers played a critical role supporting mothers in PMTCT services across a range of behavioral, social, and structural domains, including improved communication and contact, health education, peer support, and patient advocacy and assistance. Findings also identified barriers to the uptake and implementation of the interventions, such as concerns about privacy and stigma, and the limitations of the healthcare system including healthcare worker attitudes. Overall, study findings indicate that lay health workers found the interventions to be feasible, acceptable, and well received by clients. Lay

  2. Gold, nickel and copper mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Pacey, Michael A; Darling, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Ore mining occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. Ores include bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead and zinc. Workers in metal mining and processing are exposed, not only to the metal of interest, but also to various other substances prevalent in the industry, such as diesel emissions, oil mists, blasting agents, silica, radon, and arsenic. This chapter examines cancer risk related to the mining of gold, nickel and copper. The human carcinogenicity of nickel depends upon the species of nickel, its concentration and the route of exposure. Exposure to nickel or nickel compounds via routes other than inhalation has not been shown to increase cancer risk in humans. As such, cancer sites of concern include the lung, and the nasal sinus. Evidence comes from studies of nickel refinery and leaching, calcining, and sintering workers in the early half of the 20th century. There appears to be little or no detectable risk in most sectors of the nickel industry at current exposure levels. The general population risk from the extremely small concentrations detectable in ambient air are negligible. Nevertheless, animal carcinogenesis studies, studies of nickel carcinogenesis mechanisms, and epidemiological studies with quantitative exposure assessment of various nickel species would enhance our understanding of human health risks associated with nickel. Definitive conclusions linking cancer to exposures in gold and copper mining and processing are not possible at this time. The available results appear to demand additional study of a variety of potential occupational and non-occupational risk factors.

  3. Experiences in the monitoring of radiation workers in industry and hospitals in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, A.J.

    1976-08-01

    The task of monitoring of radiation doses among radiation workers employed either in industry and hospitals in the Philippines is presently being undertaken by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. These radiation monitoring devices cover not only radioactive materials or sources but also x-ray machines. The most common dosimetry used is the film badge. This paper presents some of the experiences gained in the use of the film badge and other dosimeters

  4. The Emerging Workforce of International University Student Workers: Injury Experience in an Australian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Thamrin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available International university students are a growing section of the workforce and are thought to be at greater risk of injury. Qualitative studies have highlighted vulnerabilities, but there is a shortage of quantitative research exploring the injury experience and associated risk factors of this emerging issue. In this study, a total of 466 university student workers across a range of study programs in a single Australian university completed an online survey, with questions relating to their background, working experience, training and injury experience. Risk factors for injury were explored in a multivariate statistical model. More than half had not received any safety training before they started work, and 10% reported having had a work injury. About half of these injuries occurred after training. Statistically significant risk factors for injury included working more than 20 h per week (adjusted odds ratio 2.20 (95% CI 1.03–4.71 and lack of confidence in discussing safety issues (AOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.13–4.16. The findings suggest the need for a more engaging and effective approach to safety education and a limit on working hours. This situation is a moral challenge for universities, in that they are effectively sponsoring young workers in the community. It is recommended that longitudinal studies of international student workers be conducted.

  5. Work-related limitations and return-to-work experiences in prolonged fatigue: workers' perspectives before and after vocational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment.

  6. Zinc-induced embrittlement in nickel-base superalloys by simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Richard; Waje, Mahesh; Lindwall, Greta; Jefferson, Tiffany; Lange, Jeremy; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2017-09-01

    The high cost of Re has driven interest in processes for recovering Re from scrap superalloy parts. In this work thermodynamic modelling is used to study Zn-induced embrittlement of a superalloy and to direct experiments. Treating superalloy powder with Zn vapour reduces the average particle size after milling from approximately ?m to 0.5-10 ?m, vs. ?m for untreated powder. Simulations predict the required treatment time to increase with temperature. Agreement between predictions and experiments suggests that an embrittling liquid forms in less than an hour of Zn vapour treatment between 950-1000 ?C and partial pressures of Zn between 14-34 kPa (2-5 psi).

  7. The rite of passage of becoming a humanitarian health worker: experiences of retention in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Sara; Eriksson, Anneli; Alvesson, Helle M

    2018-01-01

    Low retention of humanitarian workers poses constraints on humanitarian organisations' capacity to respond effectively to disasters. Research has focused on reasons for humanitarian workers leaving the sector, but little is known about the factors that can elucidate long-term commitment. To understand what motivates and supports experienced humanitarian health workers to remain in the sector. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 experienced nurses who had been on at least three field missions with Médecins Sans Frontières Sweden. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to go on missions, how nurses were supported and how they looked back on those experiences. Transcripts were analysed through content analysis informed by van Gennep's concept of 'Rite of Passage', combined with elements of the self-determination theory. The findings indicate that their motivations and how nurses thought of themselves, as individuals and professionals, changed over time. For initiation and continued engagement in humanitarian work, participants were motivated by several personal and professional ambitions, as well as altruistic principles of helping others. When starting their first humanitarian missions, nurses felt vulnerable and had low self-esteem. However, through experiencing feelings of autonomy, competence and relatedness during missions, they underwent a process of change and gradually adjusted to new roles as humanitarian health workers. Reintegration in their home community, while maintaining the new roles and skills from the missions, proved very challenging. They individually found their own ways of overcoming the lack of social support they experienced after missions in order to sustain their continuation in the sector. The findings highlight the importance of social environments that facilitate and support the adjustment of individuals during and after field missions. Learning from positive examples, such as nurses with several years of

  8. Removal of cadmium, copper, nickel, cobalt and mercury from water by Apatite IITM: Column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, Josep; De Pablo, Joan; Cortina, Jose-Luis; Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The efficiency of Apatite II TM increases as the acidity decreases, then the application of apatite-based materials for metal removal treatments should be restricted to slightly acid to neutral waters. → Because of the preferred process of using phosphate ions to form metal-phosphate precipitates, the mixture with other sources of alkalinity, such as limestone, is proposed to extend the duration of Apatite II TM . → Compared with other reactive materials such as limestone and caustic magnesia that exhibit a reduction of porosity Apatite II TM showed stable hydraulic performance. → The extrapolation of the column durabilities to a 1-m-thick passive treatment suggests that the Apatite II TM filling can be active between 5 and 10 years for an inflow pH exceeding 5. - Abstract: Apatite II TM , a biogenic hydroxyapatite, was evaluated as a reactive material for heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Hg) removal in passive treatments. Apatite II TM reacts with acid water by releasing phosphates that increase the pH up to 6.5-7.5, complexing and inducing metals to precipitate as metal phosphates. The evolution of the solution concentration of calcium, phosphate and metals together with SEM-EDS and XRD examinations were used to identify the retention mechanisms. SEM observation shows low-crystalline precipitate layers composed of P, O and M. Only in the case of Hg and Co were small amounts of crystalline phases detected. Solubility data values were used to predict the measured column experiment values and to support the removal process based on the dissolution of hydroxyapatite, the formation of metal-phosphate species in solution and the precipitation of metal phosphate. Cd 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH(s), Cu 2 (PO 4 )OH(s), Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s), Co 3 (PO 4 ) 2 8H 2 O(s) and Hg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) are proposed as the possible mineral phases responsible for the removal processes. The results of the column experiments show that Apatite II TM is a suitable filling for permeable

  9. Women's health and HIV: experience from a sex workers' project in Calcutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, M B

    2000-03-01

    This article narrates an inspiring discovery for development professionals who are searching for ways to empower women to protect themselves, their partners and families from HIV infection. This was based on the experience of the author as she came across a movement of sex workers who successfully negotiated safe sex in the heart of Calcutta, India. Employing focus group discussions, informal interviews and home visits during 1999, the author discovered that a Sexually Transmitted Disease/HIV Intervention Project has been set up to promote disease control and condom distribution among these sex workers. Operating on three principles for its work--respect, recognition, and reliance, the program aims to create an impact on the sex workers themselves and their peers. Likewise, the need to build alliances with clients, training the police and forming the Durbar Mahila Samanvaya Committee were deemed as necessary. Several lessons were learned during the course of the research: use of stories and history to rally the community; retaining flexibility, meeting changing needs; using drama to promote communication; and negotiating with men and opposing patriarchy.

  10. ‘Trust and teamwork matter’: Community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arima

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and integrated approach to strengthen primary health care has been the major thrust of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) that was launched in 2005 to revamp India's rural public health system. Though the logic of horizontal and integrated health care to strengthen health systems has long been acknowledged at policy level, empirical evidence on how such integration operates is rare. Based on recent (2011–2012) ethnographic fieldwork in Odisha, India, this article discusses community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery through village-level outreach sessions within the NRHM. It shows that for health workers, the notion of integration goes well beyond a technical lens of mixing different health services. Crucially, they perceive ‘teamwork’ and ‘building trust with the community’ (beyond trust in health services) to be critical components of their practice. However, the comprehensive NRHM primary health care ideology – which the health workers espouse – is in constant tension with the exigencies of narrow indicators of health system performance. Our ethnography shows how monitoring mechanisms, the institutionalised privileging of statistical evidence over field-based knowledge and the highly hierarchical health bureaucratic structure that rests on top-down communications mitigate efforts towards sustainable health system integration. PMID:25025872

  11. 'Trust and teamwork matter': community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arima

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and integrated approach to strengthen primary health care has been the major thrust of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) that was launched in 2005 to revamp India's rural public health system. Though the logic of horizontal and integrated health care to strengthen health systems has long been acknowledged at policy level, empirical evidence on how such integration operates is rare. Based on recent (2011-2012) ethnographic fieldwork in Odisha, India, this article discusses community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery through village-level outreach sessions within the NRHM. It shows that for health workers, the notion of integration goes well beyond a technical lens of mixing different health services. Crucially, they perceive 'teamwork' and 'building trust with the community' (beyond trust in health services) to be critical components of their practice. However, the comprehensive NRHM primary health care ideology - which the health workers espouse - is in constant tension with the exigencies of narrow indicators of health system performance. Our ethnography shows how monitoring mechanisms, the institutionalised privileging of statistical evidence over field-based knowledge and the highly hierarchical health bureaucratic structure that rests on top-down communications mitigate efforts towards sustainable health system integration.

  12. Developing a new mid-level health worker: lessons from South Africa's experience with clinical associates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Fonn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mid-level medical workers play an important role in health systems and hold great potential for addressing the human resource shortage, especially in low- and middle-income countries. South Africa began the production of its first mid-level medical workers – known as clinical associates – in small numbers in 2008. Objective: We describe the way in which scopes of practice and course design were negotiated and assess progress during the early years. We derive lessons for other countries wishing to introduce new types of mid-level worker. Methods: We conducted a rapid assessment in 2010 consisting of a review of 19 documents and 11 semi-structured interviews with a variety of stakeholders. A thematic analysis was performed. Results: Central to the success of the clinical associate training programme was a clear definition and understanding of the interests of various stakeholders. Stakeholder sensitivities were taken into account in the conceptualisation of the role and scope of practice of the clinical associate. This was achieved by dealing with quality of care concerns through service-based training and doctor supervision, and using a national curriculum framework to set uniform standards. Conclusions: This new mid-level medical worker can contribute to the quality of district hospital care and address human resource shortages. However, a number of significant challenges lie ahead. To sustain and expand on early achievements, clinical associates must be produced in greater numbers and the required funding, training capacity, public sector posts, and supervision must be made available. Retaining the new cadre will depend on the public system becoming an employer of choice. Nonetheless, the South African experience yields positive lessons that could be of use to other countries contemplating similar initiatives.

  13. Experiences of sexual harassment of women health workers in four hospitals in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Paramita

    2007-11-01

    In 1997, the Supreme Court of India recognised sexual harassment in the workplace as a violation of human rights. However, little is known about the extent or persistence of sexual harassment. To obtain an understanding of women's experiences of sexual harassment in the health sector, an exploratory study was undertaken in 2005-2006 among 135 women health workers, including doctors, nurses, health care attendants, administrative and other non-medical staff working in two government and two private hospitals in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Four types of experiences were reported by the 77 women who had experienced 128 incidents of sexual harassment: verbal harassment (41), psychological harassment (45), sexual gestures and exposure (15), and unwanted touch (27). None of the women reported rape, attempted rape or forced sex but a number of them knew of other women health workers who had experienced these. The women who had experienced harassment were reluctant to complain, fearing for their jobs or being stigmatised, and most were not aware of formal channels for redress. Experiences of sexual harassment reflected the obstacles posed by power imbalances and gender norms in empowering women to make a formal complaint, on the one hand, and receive redress on the other.

  14. Longitudinal effects of disaster-related experiences on mental health among Fukushima nuclear plant workers: The Fukushima NEWS Project Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, A; Tanigawa, T; Charvat, H; Wada, H; Shigemura, J; Kawachi, I

    2017-08-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Energy Workers' Support (NEWS) Project Study previously showed that experiences related to the Fukushima nuclear disaster on 11 March 2011 had a great impact on psychological states, including post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) and general psychological distress (GPD), among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers. To determine the causal relationship between disaster-related experiences and levels of psychological states, we conducted a 3-year longitudinal study from 2011 to 2014. PTSR and GPD of the nuclear plant workers were assessed by annual questionnaires conducted from 2011 to 2014. The present study included a total of 1417 workers who provided an assessment at baseline (2011). A total of 4160 observations were used in the present analysis. The relationship between disaster-related experiences and psychological states over time was analysed using mixed-effects logistic regression models. A declining influence of disaster-related experiences on PTSR over time was found. However, the impact on PTSR remained significantly elevated even 3 years after the disaster in several categories of exposure including the experience of life-threatening danger, experiences of discrimination, the witnessing of plant explosion, the death of a colleague and home evacuation. The associations between GPD and disaster-related experiences showed similar effects. The effects of disaster-related experiences on psychological states among the nuclear plant workers reduced over time, but remained significantly high even 3 years after the event.

  15. Community health workers for ART in sub-Saharan Africa: learning from experience – capitalizing on new opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouten Erik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low-income countries with high HIV/AIDS burdens in sub-Saharan Africa must deal with severe shortages of qualified human resources for health. This situation has triggered the renewed interest in community health workers, as they may play an important role in scaling-up antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS by taking over a number of tasks from the professional health workers. Currently, a wide variety of community health workers are active in many antiretroviral treatment delivery sites. This article investigates whether present community health worker programmes for antiretroviral treatment are taking into account the lessons learnt from past experiences with community health worker programmes in primary health care and to what extent they are seizing the new antiretroviral treatment-specific opportunities. Based on a desk review of multi-purpose community health worker programmes for primary health care and of recent experiences with antiretroviral treatment-related community health workers, we developed an analytic framework of 10 criteria: eight conditions for successful large-scale antiretroviral treatment-related community health worker programmes and two antiretroviral treatment-specific opportunities. Our appraisal of six community health worker programmes, which we identified during field work in Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda in 2007, shows that while some lessons from the past have been learnt, others are not being sufficiently considered and antiretroviral treatment-specific opportunities are not being sufficiently seized. In particular, all programmes have learnt the lesson that without adequate remuneration, community health workers cannot be retained in the long term. Yet we contend that the apparently insufficient attention to issues such as quality supervision and continuous training will lead to decreasing quality of the programmes over time. The life experience of people living with HIV/AIDS is still a relatively

  16. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  17. Male sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina: sociodemographic characteristics and sex work experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariño Rodrigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the sociodemographic characteristics and work experiences of 31 male sex workers (MSWs in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. METHODS: Information on each of the MSWs was collected using a questionnaire that covered his personal characteristics and his work background, self-assessed general health status, and use of health and social services. Scales were included in order to assess attitudes towards condom use, knowledge about safe sex, perceptions about the risk of getting HIV, individual self-efficacy, and locus of control. The questionnaire also asked each respondent to rank his level of agreement with interactive strategies for gaining client compliance with safe sex practices. RESULTS: In terms of their self-identity, out of the 30 MSWs who answered the question, 10 of them (33.3% self-identified as heterosexual and 9 (30% as bisexual. Alcohol and drug consumption and unsafe sexual practices were relatively low among the MSWs. Of the 31 MSWs responding, 21 of them (67.7% reported that they had been tested for HIV, but only 13 of them (41.9% said they had been vaccinated for either hepatitis A or hepatitis B. A variety of differences were found between the study's 17 street sex workers (sex workers who offer their services in public places such as streets and parks and the 14 independent sex workers (sex workers who are self-employed, advertise and manage their own business, and have an exclusive location for their commercial sex work. The street MSWs were younger and had less formal education. Independent MSWs were economically more settled, had been working longer in the sex industry, and were more comfortable about having sex with men. Independent MSWs were also more likely to report a gay sexual orientation and less likely to report using alcohol, marijuana, or other substances. CONCLUSIONS: The differences between street MSWs and independent MSWs are important since they could influence the negotiating of safer sex

  18. Nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test...... in a patch test and a dilution series of three concentrations in a ROAT, with duration of up to 21 days. Eighteen persons with no nickel allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The predicted dose which will elicit a reaction in 10% of allergic individuals was calculated to be 0......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  19. Experiences of nonrecognition among offshore workers in the Campos basin: an approach based on Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Maria Miglievich Ribeiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Our research focused on a specific group of workers – those employed in the petroleum industry in the Campos Basin (RJ by Petrobrás – and service providers. Their interviews provide empirical material for a possible new approach to the offshore workers’ environment based on some issues raised by Axel Honneth, current Critical Theory’s exponent, such as the experience of disrespect, moral feelings of indignation, and his articulation in search for solutions to configure or not a struggle for recognition. We attest the analytical potential of the Honnethian premises in guiding empirical investigations which may lead to the review of the production relationship as a space to experience the claim for its humanization within advanced capitalism, in which the tendency to individualistic and conformist solutions prevail as they are triggered by the concurrent work precariousness.

  20. Occupational exposure to nickel salts in electrolytic plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilunen, M; Aitio, A; Tossavainen, A

    1997-04-01

    An occupational hygiene survey was made in 38 nickel plating shops in Finland and exposure to nickel was studied by means of biological measurements and, in three shops, by using air measurements. The average after-shift urinary nickel concentration of 163 workers was 0.16 mumol l.-1 (range 0.001-4.99 mumol l.-1). After the 1-5 week vacation the urinary nickel concentration was higher than the upper reference limit of non-exposed Finns indicating that a part of water-soluble nickel salts is accumulated in the body. Urinary nickel concentrations in the shops considered clean in the industrial hygiene walk-through were not different from those observed in the shops considered dirty. The correlation between the concentrations of nickel in the air and in the urine was low, and the amount of nickel excreted in the urine exceeded the calculated inhaled amounts, indicating exposure by other routes such as ingestion.

  1. Lung cancer mortality in nickel/chromium platers, 1946-95

    OpenAIRE

    Sorahan, T.; Burges, D. C.; Hamilton, L.; Harrington, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate mortality from lung cancer in nickel/chromium platers. METHODS: The mortality experience of a cohort of 1762 chrome workers (812 men, 950 women) from a large electroplating and light engineering plant in the Midlands, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1946-95. All subjects were first employed in chrome work at the plant during the period 1946-75, and had at least six months employment in jobs associated with exposure to chromic acid mist (hexaval...

  2. Impacts of suppression on emotional responses and performance outcomes: an experience-sampling study in younger and older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Fung, Helene H

    2012-11-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that older adults used less emotional suppression to regulate their emotions than did younger adults, but the effectiveness of using this emotion regulatory strategy on psychosocial well-being across age remains largely unexplored. The present study adopted an experience-sampling method to examine whether the impacts of momentary employment of emotional suppression on momentary positive and negative emotions and job performance would be different by age. Eighty-seven Chinese insurance workers, aged between 18 and 61 years, participated in a 5-day sampling study. Their affective responses at work, momentary task performance, and sales productivity were recorded. Results showed that older workers' greater use of suppression at work was associated with lower intensity of negative emotions, whereas such association was not found among younger workers. Moreover, greater use of suppression over the sampling period was significantly predictive of sales productivity of older workers, but such a positive association was not shown in younger workers. These findings reveal that the use of suppression at work may be more effective for older workers than for younger workers.

  3. The Effect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker...... experience among all members of the firm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-offs. The results show that previous co-worker experience has a positive effect on new firm survival. This effect appears to be valid predominantly for ordinary start-ups than...

  4. Does airborne nickel exposure induce nickel sensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Eugen; Ranft, Ulrich; Eberwein, Georg; Gladtke, Dieter; Sugiri, Dorothee; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Schäfer, Torsten; Begerow, Jutta; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Krämer, Ursula; Wilhelm, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Nickel is one of the most prevalent causes of contact allergy in the general population. This study focuses on human exposure to airborne nickel and its potential to induce allergic sensitization. The study group consisted of 309 children at school-starter age living in the West of Germany in the vicinity of two industrial sources and in a rural town without nearby point sources of nickel. An exposure assessment of nickel in ambient air was available for children in the Ruhr district using routinely monitored ambient air quality data and dispersion modelling. Internal nickel exposure was assessed by nickel concentrations in morning urine samples of the children. The observed nickel sensitization prevalence rates varied between 12.6% and 30.7%. Statistically significant associations were showed between exposure to nickel in ambient air and urinary nickel concentration as well as between urinary nickel concentration and nickel sensitization. Furthermore, an elevated prevalence of nickel sensitization was associated with exposure to increased nickel concentrations in ambient air. The observed associations support the assumption that inhaled nickel in ambient air might be a risk factor for nickel sensitization; further studies in larger collectives are necessary.

  5. Workplace stress, burnout and coping: a qualitative study of the experiences of Australian disability support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Megan J; Dorozenko, Kate P; Breen, Lauren J

    2017-05-01

    Disability support workers (DSWs) are the backbone of contemporary disability support services and the interface through which disability philosophies and policies are translated into practical action. DSWs often experience workplace stress and burnout, resulting in a high turnover rate of employees within the non-professional disability service workforce. The full implementation of the National Disability Insurance Scheme in Australia is set to intensify the current challenges of attracting and retaining DSWs, as the role becomes characterised by greater demands, ambiguity and conflict. The aim of this study was to explore DSWs' perceptions of enjoyable and challenging aspects of disability support work, sources of stress and burnout and the strategies they use to cope when these issues arise. Twelve DSWs workers providing support for adults living with intellectual and physical disabilities were interviewed. Thematic analysis revealed a superordinate theme of 'Balance' comprising three sub-themes: 'Balancing Negatives and Positives', 'Periods of Imbalance', and 'Strategies to Reclaim Balance'. Participants spoke of the rewarding and uplifting times in their job such as watching a client learn new skills and being shown appreciation. These moments were contrasted by emotionally and physically draining aspects of their work, including challenging client behaviour, earning a low income, and having limited power to make decisions. Participants described periods of imbalance, wherein the negatives of their job outweighed the positives, resulting in stress and sometimes burnout. Participants often had to actively seek support and tended to rely on their own strategies to manage stress. Findings suggest that organisational support together with workplace interventions that support DSWs to perceive the positive aspects of their work, such as acceptance and mindfulness-based approaches, may help to limit experiences of stress and burnout. The further development and

  6. Pore annihilation in a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy during hot isostatic pressing: Experiment and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epishin, Alexander; Fedelich, Bernard; Link, Thomas; Feldmann, Titus; Svetlov, Igor L.

    2013-01-01

    Pore annihilation during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was investigated in the single-crystal nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4 experimentally by interrupted HIP tests at 1288 °C/103 MPa. The kinetics of pore annihilation was determined by density measurement and quantitative metallography. Transmission electron microscopy of a HIPed specimen showed that the pores shrink via dislocation movement on octahedral glide planes. Theoretically pore closure under HIP condition was modelled by the finite element method using crystal plasticity and large strain theories. The modelling gives a similar kinetics of pore annihilation as observed experimentally, however somewhat higher annihilation rate

  7. Exploring the perceptions and experiences of community health workers using role identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlotshwa, Langelihle; Harris, Bronwyn; Schneider, Helen; Moshabela, Mosa

    2015-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are an integral resource in many health systems, particularly in resource-poor settings. Their identities--'who' they are--play an important role in their hiring, training, and retention. We explore the perceptions, experiences, and identities of CHWs as they adopt a CHW role in rural South Africa, using 'role identity theory'. From April to December 2010, we conducted 18 semi-structured interviews with CHWs volunteering in non-governmental home-based care (HBC) organisations in one rural sub-district in South Africa. The role identity theory framework was used to understand the work of CHWs within their communities, addressing themes, such as entry into, and nature of, caring roles, organisational support, state resourcing, and community acceptability. A thematic content analysis was used to analyse the collected data. The study found that CHWs usually begin their 'caring work' before they formally join HBC organisations, by caring for children, neighbours, mothers, fathers, friends, and the community in some way. CHWs felt that becoming a health worker provided an elevated status within the community, but that it often led community members to believe they were able to control resources. The key role identities assumed by CHWs, as they sought to meet patients' and their own needs, were a complex mix of community 'insider', 'outsider', and 'broker'. Each of these role identities served as a unique way to position, from the CHW's perspective, themselves and the community, given the diversity of needs and expectations. These role identities reveal the tensions CHWs face as 'insider' members of the community and yet at times being treated as 'outsiders', who might be regarded with suspicion, and at the same time, appreciated for the resources that they might possess. Understanding role identities, and how best to support them, may contribute to strategies of retention and sustainability of CHW programmes, as their formalisation in

  8. Health Status and Experience of the Migrant Workers Returned from Spain to Colombia: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Villa, Carolina; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Cardona-Arango, Doris; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2017-12-14

    This study aims to understand the migratory experience and the employment, work and health conditions of the returned migrants from Spain to Colombia. A qualitative study was conducted by means of 23 semi-structured interviews with Colombian returned migrant workers. Qualitative narrative content analysis was performed using Atlas.Ti software. Main findings are represented by nine categories emerged from the participants' discourses: (1) impact of the economic crisis on work and employment conditions in Spain, (2) economic crisis and return, (3) characteristics of returnees, (4) perception of the returnees about Colombia, (5) the role of social support networks, (6) employment and working conditions in Colombia, (7) health and wellbeing, (8) future plans and expectations, (9) the experience of being immigrant. Adjustment difficulties in participants are evidenced by the return migration process and the conditions of the social, political and economic system in Colombia. Return migration represents the reconfiguration of personal and working lives of this population. This situation requires the development of global policies and strategies in public health to facilitate the adaptation of these people.

  9. Experience of migrant care and needs for cultural competence training among public health workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Duckhee; Lee, Jina; Asami, Keiko; Kim, Hyunlye

    2018-05-01

    This study explored the experiences of public health workers (PHWs) providing health care for migrants living in Korea and clarified needs for cultural competence training. Twenty-six PHWs from five public health centers in Gwangju city, South Korea, participated in this exploratory qualitative study. Five semi-structured focus group interviews of PHWs were conducted from September to December 2016. A directed content analysis approach was conducted using four categories: perceived characteristics of migrants, interaction between PHWs and migrants, interaction between PHWs and organizations/systems, and cultural competence training needs. PHWs perceived that migrants lacked autonomy in health decisions and awareness of health behaviors. PHWs experienced difficulties in communicating and in establishing trusting relationships. They found clients hard to reach and easy to miss, a lack of continuity in health care programs, and inadequate human and material resources. They preferred passive teaching methods to activity-based simulation. PHWs believed essential training should be provided through e-learning to all PHWs, including management. PHWs reported experiencing multiple challenges from a lack of preparedness for culturally competent care and their clients' vulnerability. Development of cultural competence training is suggested through e-learning that reflects the PHWs' experiences and provides systematic support. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Do Workers Who Experience Conflict between the Work and Family Domains Hit a "Glass Ceiling?": A Meta-Analytic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoobler, Jenny M.; Hu, Jia; Wilson, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Based in Conservation of Resources (COR; Hobfoll, 1989) and self-verification (Swann, 1987) theories, we argue that when workers experience conflict between the work and family domains, this should have implications for evaluations of their work performance and ultimately affect more "objective" career outcomes such as salary and hierarchical…

  11. Experience of Forming Professional and Communicative Competency of Future Social Workers in Education Systems of Western European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyuk, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the experience of forming professional and communicative competency of future social workers in the education systems of Western European countries, in particular, France, Germany and Switzerland. On the basis of generalization of the studied data it has been found out that each country has its own techniques of forming…

  12. User Experience of Office Chairs and Anthropometrics of Female Chinese and Hong Kong Chinese Office and Factory Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitenbach, E.F.R.; Jochems, A.J.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.; Ball, R.; Eijk, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Hong Kong it was noticed that female office and factory workers use chairs that are oversized and can't support their sitting posture in a comfortable way. In order to set up general recommendations to design a more appropriate office chair, a research of the user experience of office chairs was

  13. Older persons’ and their families’ experience with live-in foreign home care workers. A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Heidi; Naef, Rahel; Rüesch, Peter; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Dreizler, Jutta

    2016-11-01

    Background: Live-in arrangements with migrant care workers have considerably increased over the last years since they allow older frail persons to age-in-place despite functional limitations. However, little is known about the ramifications live-in care arrangements for families. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate families’ experience with live-in migrant care workers and indicators of quality from their perspective. Method: Constructivist grounded theory study with 22 families who were recruited via care agencies in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and participated in 29 individual or dyadic interviews. Results: Live-in care by migrant care workers has potentially positive ramifications for older persons and their families, but only so if families, first, reach a consensus about the need for the employment of migrant care workers; second, experience them as competent; and third, mutually forge relationships and negotiate daily life. A successful care arrangement occurs when there is a relational fit among those involved, which leaves families feeling cared for, safe and relieved. They experience a renewed stability in their family system, enriching relationships, and assuredness about the quality present in the care situation. Conclusions: A successful care arrangement is the result of relationships that have been actively created and a negotiated shared existence in a family-like network. It has a positive effect on the well-being of those receiving care and their family members. The family-like network needs competent support.

  14. Nature of job and psychiatric problems: the experiences of industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perwez, Syed Khalid; Khalique, Abdul; Ramaseshan, H; Swamy, T N V R; Mansoor, Mohammed

    2014-10-09

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of nature of job (High risk/low risk) on psychiatric problems of 200 workers of Tata Motors Ltd. in Jamshedpur. The workers/participants were divided on the basis of the nature of their job (high/low risk) and their salary (high/low paid) resulting in four sub-groups with 50 participants respectively s. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (M.H.Q) constructed by Crown and Crisp (1966) and adapted in Hindi by Srivastava and Bhat in 1974 was administered on the participants. Results clearly indicated that nature of job (high and low risk) played a significant role in creating psychiatric problems in workers. Workers doing high risk jobs showed a greater amount of psychiatric problems compared to workers doing low risk jobs in both high paid and low paid categories. Psychiatric problems included free-floating anxiety, obsessional traits and symptoms, phobic anxiety, somatic concomitants of anxiety, neurotic depression, and hysterical personality traits were seen more in high risk job workers. High risk job workers had significantly higher psychiatric problems compared to low risk job workers.

  15. The experience of using an e-learning tool for radioprotection training for diagnostic radiology and health workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykawka, R.; Goulart, J.M.; Anés, M.; Dias, J.H.; Motta, V.B.; Bacelar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation protection training is a subject issue addressed in Brazilian health care regulation and intends to create safer procedures and facilities. In this paper we report our experience on implementing an e-learning radiation protection course for radiation occupationally workers and a specific course for non-occupationally workers. The attendees were selected respecting their occupancies and the evaluation about radiation exposure risk. We compared attendee ratio for presential and e-learning for both courses. The course 1 has achieve for presential 25,54% and for e-learning 78,82%, and course 2 for presential 4,90% and 80,97% for e-learning. The e-learning platform has become a suitable tool to increase the adherence of radiation exposed and non-exposed occupationally workers. (author)

  16. The experience of using an e-learning tool for radioprotection training for diagnostic radiology and health workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykawka, R.; Goulart, J.M.; Anés, M.; Dias, J.H.; Motta, V.B.; Bacelar, A., E-mail: manes@hcpa.edu.br [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Serviço de Física Médica e Radioproteção

    2017-07-01

    Radiation protection training is a subject issue addressed in Brazilian health care regulation and intends to create safer procedures and facilities. In this paper we report our experience on implementing an e-learning radiation protection course for radiation occupationally workers and a specific course for non-occupationally workers. The attendees were selected respecting their occupancies and the evaluation about radiation exposure risk. We compared attendee ratio for presential and e-learning for both courses. The course 1 has achieve for presential 25,54% and for e-learning 78,82%, and course 2 for presential 4,90% and 80,97% for e-learning. The e-learning platform has become a suitable tool to increase the adherence of radiation exposed and non-exposed occupationally workers. (author)

  17. Outsourcing Elderly Care to Migrant Workers: The Impact of Gender and Class on the Experience of Male Employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Ester; Scrinzi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    This article, based on semi-structured interviews, addresses masculinity in the international division of reproductive labour through an analysis of the impact of gender and class on the outsourcing of elderly care services to migrant care workers. In the Italian context, characterised by a limited provision of long-term care services and by cash-for-care benefits, the strategies of men as employers of migrant care workers are shaped by class and gender. The outsourcing of care to migrant workers reproduces hegemonic masculinity in so far as male employers are able to withdraw from the 'dirty work'. At the same time, men engage with tasks which are, in principle, kept at a distance. The employers' family status, combined with their class background, are crucial factors in shaping the heterogeneity of men's experiences as employers and managers of care labour, and the ways in which they make sense of their masculinity.

  18. Nurses' and community support workers' experience of telehealth: a longitudinal case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Urvashi; Clarke, Malcolm

    2014-04-10

    Introduction of telehealth into the healthcare setting has been recognised as a service that might be experienced as disruptive. This paper explores how this disruption is experienced. In a longitudinal qualitative study, we conducted focus group discussions prior to and semi structured interviews post introduction of a telehealth service in Nottingham, U.K. with the community matrons, congestive heart failure nurses, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease nurses and community support workers that would be involved in order to elicit their preconceptions and reactions to the implementation. Users experienced disruption due to the implementation of telehealth as threatening. Three main factors add to the experience of threat and affect the decision to use the technology: change in clinical routines and increased workload; change in interactions with patients and fundamentals of face-to-face nursing work; and change in skills required with marginalisation of clinical expertise. Since the introduction of telehealth can be experienced as threatening, managers and service providers should aim at minimising the disruption caused by taking the above factors on board. This can be achieved by employing simple yet effective measures such as: providing timely, appropriate and context specific training; provision of adequate technical support; and procedures that allow a balance between the use of telehealth and personal visit by nurses delivering care to their patients.

  19. Mental health and solidarity economy: the experience of users and workers of a Psychosocial Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioneide de Oliveira Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is within the context of discussions on mental health and solidarity economy. It is an account of the experience lived at the Tabatinga II Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS in the Federal District, Brazil, where projects designed to generate employment and income in the mental health area reaffirm their ability, as tools for social inclusion, to incorporate the principles and values of solidarity economy aiming at the empowerment and autonomy of citizens in mental distress. This work intended to support and encourage reflections on the possibilities for social inclusion arising from the generation of jobs and income through collective and cooperative actions developed and elaborated with the participation of users, family members, and workers of this service. Emphasis on participatory methodology guided the development of the experience, and the proposition of triggering actions on mental health and solidarity economy at different times, under the coordination of the performing team, afforded, concurrently, the realization of two actions/interventions: a group activity designed to service users and their relatives who gathered to learn and reflect on collective work and supportive venture; and three monthly training sessions, from August to December 2013, on cooperativism, solidarity economy, and mental health addressed to the professionals of that CAPS. At the end of these interventions, it was possible to observe that the involvement of people under mental distress in these projects contributes to overcome their current state of subordination and weakness. It is worth mentioning that, in general, the development of these actions favored reflections on the world of collective work and aggregated methodological knowledge on solidarity ventures.

  20. Exploring the perceptions and experiences of community health workers using role identity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langelihle Mlotshwa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs are an integral resource in many health systems, particularly in resource-poor settings. Their identities – ‘who’ they are – play an important role in their hiring, training, and retention. We explore the perceptions, experiences, and identities of CHWs as they adopt a CHW role in rural South Africa, using ‘role identity theory’. Design: From April to December 2010, we conducted 18 semi-structured interviews with CHWs volunteering in non-governmental home-based care (HBC organisations in one rural sub-district in South Africa. The role identity theory framework was used to understand the work of CHWs within their communities, addressing themes, such as entry into, and nature of, caring roles, organisational support, state resourcing, and community acceptability. A thematic content analysis was used to analyse the collected data. Results: The study found that CHWs usually begin their ‘caring work’ before they formally join HBC organisations, by caring for children, neighbours, mothers, fathers, friends, and the community in some way. CHWs felt that becoming a health worker provided an elevated status within the community, but that it often led community members to believe they were able to control resources. The key role identities assumed by CHWs, as they sought to meet patients’ and their own needs, were a complex mix of community ‘insider’, ‘outsider’, and ‘broker’. Each of these role identities served as a unique way to position, from the CHW's perspective, themselves and the community, given the diversity of needs and expectations. Conclusions: These role identities reveal the tensions CHWs face as ‘insider’ members of the community and yet at times being treated as ‘outsiders’, who might be regarded with suspicion, and at the same time, appreciated for the resources that they might possess. Understanding role identities, and how best to support them, may

  1. Technology development for producing nickel metallic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    A technology to produce metallic filters by Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-Brazilian CNEN) providing the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-Brazilian CNEN) in obtaining nickel alloy filters used for filtration process of uranium hexafluoride, was developed. The experiences carried out for producing nickel conical trunk filters from powder metallurgy are related. (M.C.K.)

  2. Biological role of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thauer, R K; Diekert, G; Schoenheit, P

    1980-01-01

    Several enzymes and one cofactor have recently been shown to contain nickel. For example, urease of jack beans has been found to be a nickel protein and factor F/sub 430/ from methanogenic bacteria to be a nickel tetrapyrrole. The biological role of nickel in several organisms is discussed.

  3. Sexual harassment in the Chinese workplace. Attitudes toward and experiences of sexual harassment among workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, T Y

    1996-09-01

    This study, with the use of a questionnaire survey method, examined the characteristics of sexual harassment experiences and the dynamics of the attitudes toward sexual harassment among male and female workers in Taipei. An occupationally representative sample of male and female workers was recruited to participate in the survey. The findings showed that 1 in 4 workers in Taipei experienced some sort of sexual harassment in the workplace, 36% (n = 493) of the surveyed women and 13% (n = 415) of the surveyed men reported experiencing workplace sexual harassment. The most frequently reported type of sexual harassment was unwanted sexual jokes/comments, followed by unwanted deliberate body contact, and unwanted requests/pressure for a date. The major source of sexual harassment came from coworkers of the opposite sex. Majority of the alleged victims attributed their sexual harassment incident to insensitivity of the initiator. In being consistent with previous research, the study established three attitudinal models toward sexual harassment among Chinese workers: the victim-blame/trivialization model, the natural/biological explanation, and the power/manipulation model. The study found no consistent relationship between the self-rated attitudes toward sexual harassment and the self-reported sexual harassment experiences.

  4. Transition: the experiences of support workers caring for people with learning disabilities towards the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Gavan; Harding, Richard

    2017-06-01

    This research aims to provide a better understanding of the experience of support workers, as paid carers, caring for adults with learning disabilities (LDs) nearing the end of life in residential settings. In the past 100 years, people with LDs (also referred to as 'learning difficulty', 'mental retardation' and 'intellectual disability' internationally) are living longer with life expectancy approaching the population norm and more likely to die from diseases such as cancer, respiratory and vascular diseases. Community-based supported accommodation has become the foremost provider for people with LDs in their late 30 s or over in the UK. In the midst of the transition from living to dying for people with LDs, and even postdeath, the needs of support workers are often neglected against a background where most are unqualified, often with little experience of death and dying event, and with limited access to clinical supervision and education. 3 focus groups involving 13 support workers were conducted at 3 independent service provider settings for people with LDs in London. In recounting the experiences of these groups of support workers, 6 themes are described: strong emotional bond and identification; collaboration with other services; training issues around the extended role; support within the organisation; relationship with family/other residents; and grieving the 'loss'. Although support workers play a key role in meeting the end-of-life care needs of people with LDs in residential settings, their own needs are often neglected. There are still significant gaps in understanding these needs and practice development in this area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Influence of operator's experience on root canal shaping ability with a rotary nickel-titanium single-file reciprocating motion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Estefanía; Forner, Leopoldo; Llena, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the operator's experience on the shaping of double-curvature simulated root canals with a nickel-titanium single-file reciprocating motion system. Sixty double-curvature root canals simulated in methacrylate blocks were prepared by 10 students without any experience in endodontics and by 10 professionals who had studied endodontics at the postgraduate level. The Reciproc-VDW system's R25 file was used in the root canal preparation. The blocks were photographed before and after the instrumentation, and the time of instrumentation was also evaluated. Changes in root canal dimensions were analyzed in 6 positions. Significant differences (P file reciprocating motion system Reciproc is not seen to be influenced by the operator's experience regarding the increase of the canal area. Previous training and the need to acquire experience are important in the use of this system, in spite of its apparent simplicity. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Work-related limitations and return-to-work experiences in prolonged fatigue: workers' perspectives before and after vocational treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment. Six months after treatment, work-related limitations and employed VR strategies at work before treatment were explored. Next, VR treatment experiences regarding return-to-work (RTW) were explored. Two researchers performed partially independent, qualitative analyses that revealed topics, discussed by the project team, and organised into domains, categories and sub-categories. Work-related limitations were: symptoms of prolonged fatigue, personal limitations (e.g. lack of self-reflection on individual capacity and limitations), interpersonal factors, activities and conditions at work and life/work imbalance. Before the treatment, VR strategies such as work adaptations, well-intentioned advice and support, and/or referral to psychological or physical care were employed. VR treatment experiences on RTW were: personal challenges (e.g. gained awareness and coping skills), improved activities during work, work adaptations and unresolved problems (e.g. remaining fatigue symptoms and sickness absence). New information about work experiences before and after multi-component VR treatments in workers with prolonged fatigue may help employers, occupational physicians and other caregivers to develop VR strategies that better meet individuals' needs.

  7. Experiences and Management of Pregnant Radiation Workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, Mary; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Bryant, Janet L.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are divided into two classes based on whether or not they can encounter radioactive contamination in the normal course of their work. Level I workers primarily handle sealed radioactive materials such as those used to calibrate detectors. Level II workers perform benchtop chemistry. The U.S. Department of Energy has strict guidelines on the management of pregnant radiation workers. Staff members may voluntarily notify their line managers of a pregnancy and be subjected to stringent radiation exposure limits for the developing fetus. The staff member and manager develop a plan to limit and monitor radiation dose for the remainder of the pregnancy. Several examples of dose management plans and case examples of the impact of pregnancy on staff member's technical work and projects will be presented

  8. Properties of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia across Workers with Different Pain Experiences and Cultural Backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M B; Damsgård, E; Holtermann, A

    2015-01-01

    kinesiophobia by TSK (13 statement version) and number of days with pain during the past year (less than 8 days, less than 90 days and greater than 90 days). A Rasch analysis was used to evaluate the measurement properties of the TSK in the workers across pain levels, ages, genders and ethnicities. The TSK did...... not fit the Rasch model, but removing one item solved the poorness of fit. Invariance was found across the pain levels, ages and genders. Thus, with a few modifications, the TSK was shown to capture a unidimensional construct of fear of movement in workers with different pain levels, ages, and genders.......The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether the construct validity of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) is consistent with respect to its scaling properties, unidimensionality and targeting among workers with different levels of pain. The 311 participating Danish workers reported...

  9. The Impact of Experience, Exposure and Support on Emergency Worker Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-26

    rescue workers reported that they experienced musculoskeletal, respiratory , gastrointestinal, and neurological problems, although only 1 7% reported... stethoscope were used to measure systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Following each blood pressure reading, heart rate was taken in 15 second...Ingraham, L . H. (1989). The impac t of a milicary air d i saster on che health of assistance workers. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease , 177

  10. Perceptions and experiences of childhood vaccination communication strategies among caregivers and health workers in Nigeria: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Owoaje, Eme; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Effective vaccination communication with parents is critical in efforts to overcome barriers to childhood vaccination, tackle vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccination coverage. Health workers should be able to provide information to parents and other caregivers and support them in reaching decisions about vaccinating their children. Limited information exists regarding the perceptions of caregivers and health workers on the vaccination communication strategies employed in Nigeria. This study, which forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project, aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of caregivers and health workers in Nigeria on vaccination communication strategies implemented in their settings. We conducted the study in two States: Bauchi in Northern Nigeria and Cross River in the south. We carried out observations (n = 40), in-depth interviews (n = 14) and focus group discussions (FGDs) (n = 12) amongst 14 purposively selected health workers, two community leaders and 84 caregivers in the two states. We transcribed data verbatim and analysed the data using a framework analysis approach. Caregivers were informed about vaccination activities through three main sources: health facilities (during health education sessions conducted at antenatal or immunization clinics); media outlets; and announcements (in churches/mosques, communities and markets). Caregivers reported that the information received was very useful. Their preferred sources of information included phone text messages, town announcers, media and church/mosque announcements. Some caregivers perceived the clinic environment, long waiting times and health worker attitudes as barriers to receiving vaccination information.When delivering communication interventions, health workers described issues tied to poor communication skills; poor motivation; and attitudes of community members, including vaccine resistance. Communication about vaccination involves more than the message but is

  11. Perceptions and experiences of childhood vaccination communication strategies among caregivers and health workers in Nigeria: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiong Oku

    Full Text Available Effective vaccination communication with parents is critical in efforts to overcome barriers to childhood vaccination, tackle vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccination coverage. Health workers should be able to provide information to parents and other caregivers and support them in reaching decisions about vaccinating their children. Limited information exists regarding the perceptions of caregivers and health workers on the vaccination communication strategies employed in Nigeria. This study, which forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC project, aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of caregivers and health workers in Nigeria on vaccination communication strategies implemented in their settings.We conducted the study in two States: Bauchi in Northern Nigeria and Cross River in the south. We carried out observations (n = 40, in-depth interviews (n = 14 and focus group discussions (FGDs (n = 12 amongst 14 purposively selected health workers, two community leaders and 84 caregivers in the two states. We transcribed data verbatim and analysed the data using a framework analysis approach.Caregivers were informed about vaccination activities through three main sources: health facilities (during health education sessions conducted at antenatal or immunization clinics; media outlets; and announcements (in churches/mosques, communities and markets. Caregivers reported that the information received was very useful. Their preferred sources of information included phone text messages, town announcers, media and church/mosque announcements. Some caregivers perceived the clinic environment, long waiting times and health worker attitudes as barriers to receiving vaccination information.When delivering communication interventions, health workers described issues tied to poor communication skills; poor motivation; and attitudes of community members, including vaccine resistance.Communication about vaccination involves more than the

  12. The social interaction of return to work explored from co-workers experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjulin, Åsa; MacEachen, Ellen; Stiwne, Elinor Edvardsson; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to explore the role and contribution of co-workers in the return-to-work process. The social interaction of co-workers in the return-to-work process are analysed within the framework of the Swedish national and local employer organisational return-to-work policies. An exploratory qualitative method was used, consisting of open-ended interviews with 33 workplace actors across seven work units. Organisational return-to-work policies were collected from the three public sector employers. The key findings that emerged during analysis showed that some co-workers have a more work-task oriented approach towards the return-to-work process, whilst others had a more social relational approach. In both situations, the social relations worked hand in hand with job tasks (how task were allocated, and how returning workers were supported by others) and could make or break the return-to-work process. A suggestion for improvement of return-to-work models and policies is the need to take into account the social relations amongst workplace actors, especially involving co-workers when planning for return-to-work interventions. Otherwise the proper attention to work arrangements, social communication and the role of co-workers in the return-to-work process might not be seen.

  13. Human exposure to nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P

    1984-01-01

    In order of abundance in the earth's crust, nickel ranks as the 24th element and has been detected in different media in all parts of the biosphere. Thus, humans are constantly exposed to this ubiquitous element, though in variable amounts. Occupational exposures may lead to the retention of 100 micrograms of nickel per day. Environmental nickel levels depend particularly on natural sources, pollution from nickel-manufacturing industries and airborne particles from combustion of fossil fuels. Absorption from atmospheric nickel pollution is of minor concern. Vegetables usually contain more nickel than do other food items. Certain products, such as baking powder and cocoa powder, have been found to contain excessive amounts of nickel, perhaps related to nickel leaching during the manufacturing process. Soft drinking-water and acid beverages may dissolve nickel from pipes and containers. Scattered studies indicate a highly variable dietary intake of nickel, but most averages are about 200-300 micrograms/day. In addition, skin contact to a multitude of metal objects may be of significance to the large number of individuals suffering from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy. Finally, nickel alloys are often used in nails and prostheses for orthopaedic surgery, and various sources may contaminate intravenous fluids. Thus, human nickel exposure originates from a variety of sources and is highly variable. Occupational nickel exposure is of major significance, and leaching of nickel may add to dietary intakes and to cutaneous exposures. 79 references.

  14. [Nickel levels in female dermatological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, U; Twardella, D; Fedorov, M; Darsow, U; Schaller, K-H; Habernegg, R; Behrendt, H; Fromme, H

    2009-07-01

    Nickel levels in urine were determined among 163 female dermatological patients aged 18 to 46 years. Data on life-style factors were collected in parallel via a questionnaire. Urinary nickel excretion was in the normal range of the German female population (0.2-46.1 microg Ni/g creatinine). The 95th percentile (3.9 microg Ni/l urine) exceeded the German reference value (3.0 microg Ni/l urine). In the multivariate regression analyses we found a statistically significant increase of ln-transformed nickel levels with increase in age and in women using dietary supplements. The following variables were not associated with Nickel urine levels: suffering from nickel eczema, smoking, drinking stagnated water, eating foods with high nickel contents and using nickel-containing kitchen utensils as, for example, an electric kettle with an open heater coil. We conclude that personal urinary levels should be assessed with simultaneous consideration of habits and life-style factors. A German national survery would be useful. Those patients who experience the exacerbation of their eczema in cases of oral provocation, for example, by a high nickel diet should be aware of potential sources of nickel, such as supplements.

  15. The experience of community health workers training in Iran: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javanparast Sara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Community Health Workers (CHWs in improving access to basic healthcare services, and mobilising community actions on health is broadly recognised. The Primary Health Care (PHC approach, identified in the Alma Ata conference in 1978, stressed the role of CHWs in addressing community health needs. Training of CHWs is one of the key aspects that generally seeks to develop new knowledge and skills related to specific tasks and to increase CHWs’ capacity to communicate with and serve local people. This study aimed to analyse the CHW training process in Iran and how different components of training have impacted on CHW performance and satisfaction. Methods Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Training policies were reviewed using available policy documents, training materials and other relevant documents at national and provincial levels. Documentary analysis was supplemented by individual interviews with ninety-one Iranian CHWs from 18 provinces representing a broad range of age, work experience and educational levels, both male and female. Results Recognition of the CHW program and their training in the national health planning and financing facilitates the implementation and sustainability of the program. The existence of specialised training centres managed by district health network provides an appropriate training environment that delivers comprehensive training and increases CHWs’ knowledge, skills and motivation to serve local communities. Changes in training content over time reflect an increasing number of programs integrated into PHC, complicating the work expected of CHWs. In-service training courses need to address better local needs. Conclusion Although CHW programs vary by country and context, the CHW training program in Iran offers transferable lessons for countries intending to improve training as one of the key elements in their CHW program.

  16. Workers Experience Guides Karaoke in Updating Status in Facebook as Interpersonal Relations and Personal Communication with Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia Sari, Kiki; Suprihartini, M.Si, Dra. Taufik

    2016-01-01

    The presence of information technology is rapid and practical nature can allow for changes in behavior or lifestyle. One of them is the development of information technology with the birth of social networks, namely Facebook. Karaoke guide also actively uses Facebook to update your status and communicate with customers. By using qualitative methods, this study aims to describe the "Experience of Guides Karaoke Workers when Updating status on Facebook as Interpersonal and Personality Communica...

  17. Experiences of Everyday Occupation among People with Psychiatric Disabilities - Relationships to social interaction, the worker role and day centre attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Argentzell, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The thesis aims to explore subjective experiences of everyday occupation, social interaction and the view of the worker role among people with psychiatric disabilities(PD), while also addressing the importance of day centre attendance. The thesis consists of one qualitative study, exploring which characteristics in everyday occupation provide meaning to people with PD, and three quantitative studies based on questionnaires to both day centre attendees and non-attendees. Study I showed that fe...

  18. 'Female condoms give women greater control': a qualitative assessment of the experiences of commercial sex workers in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenjwa, Thulile; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2012-10-01

    To explore commercial sex workers' experiences with the female condom in Swaziland. This is a qualitative study that draws on two focus group discussions and ten individual in-depth interviews with female commercial sex workers in Lavumisa, Swaziland. The findings suggest that the majority of female sex workers prefer to use the female condom with their clients because it offers them greater control over the sexual encounter. Other factors that facilitate its use include the absence of side effects, the enhancement of sexual pleasure and protection against the risk of STIs (including HIV). In addition, the women reported that the female condom is stronger and more resistant to breakage than the male condom. Moreover, the female condoms can be inserted well in advance of sexual intercourse. Difficulties of insertion, partner objection and limited product availability were some of the barriers to the use of the device. There was also a tendency to reuse the female condoms because of lack of product availability and privacy to insert it. Although female condom use involves negotiation with clients, the fact that it offers sex workers an independent method of protection gives them more power and also, increases their ability to control their sexual and reproductive health.

  19. Workplace building design and office-based workers' activity: a study of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine M; McGann, Sarah; Creagh, Robyn; Blackford, Krysten D; Howat, Peter; Tye, Marian

    2016-02-01

    This opportunistic natural study investigated the effects of relocation of office workers from a 30-year-old building to a new purpose-built building. The new building included an attractive central staircase that was easily accessed and negotiated, as well as breakout spaces and a centralised facilities area. The researchers aimed to determine the impact of the purpose-built office building on the office workers' sedentariness and level of physical activity. In 2013, a natural pre-post study was undertaken with office-based workers in their old conventional 1970s building and on relocating to a new purpose-built 'activity permissive' building. Objective movement data was measured using accelerometers. Anthropometric and demographic data was also collected. Forty-two office-based workers significantly decreased their percentage of daily sitting time (T1 = 84.9% to T2=79.7%; pbuilding. Moderate activity significantly declined (T1=3.9% to 3.2%=T2; p=0.038). There was a significant decrease in mean minutes of sitting time (19.62 minutes; pbuilding can influence activity. This opportunistic study on the impact of workplace relocation on office-based workers' activity showed modest positive outcomes in sitting and standing. Evidence is required to inform building design policy and practice that supports physical activity and reduces levels of sedentariness in the workplace. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Stab; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis can be elicited experimentally in nickel-sensitive individuals by oral nickel exposure. A crucial point interpreting such experiments has been the relevance of nickel exposure from drinking water and diet. The aim of this meta-analysis study on former nickel......-exposure investigations was to provide the best possible estimation of threshold values of nickel doses that may cause systemic contact dermatitis in nickel-sensitive patients. 17 relevant investigations were identified, and statistical analyses were performed in a stepwise procedure. 9 studies were included in the final...... of the doses that, theoretically, would cause systemic contact dermatitis in exposed nickel-sensitive patients. The results from the 2 most sensitive groups show that 1% of these individuals may react with systemic contact dermatitis at normal daily nickel exposure from drinking water and diet, i.e. 0...

  1. Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinho Paulo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management.

  2. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  3. Work Identity and Contradictory Experiences of Welfare Workers in a Life-history Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina

    2012-01-01

    Transformation of the welfare sectors challenge professional identities of care and welfare workers in Scandinavia. At the same time welfare and care workers take part in these changes and are changed in the psycho-social setting of the workplace. This article presents research about care work...... in nursing and involves a young nurse in scenes of the hospital, where gendered life history is re-enacted and present in a gendered work life with fragile possibilities of identification . Social dynamics interact with subjective dynamics in ways that illuminate not only habitual and creative orientations...

  4. [Health workers' experiences in dealing with the neoliberal logic: a study of primary care in Colombia and Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Pinzón, Johanna; Bernardo, Marcia Hespanhol

    2017-09-28

    : The aim of this study was to analyze the experiences of primary healthcare workers in the public health systems in Colombia and Brazil in relation to the neoliberal logic. These two cases are relevant to public health research, as examples of health systems that emerged from opposing guidelines: the Colombian system was created at the government level with a marked private-sector influence, while the Brazilian system was an important conquest by social movements. Based on the Social Psychology of Work, this was a qualitative and empirical study. In-depth reflexive interviews were conducted with two groups of primary healthcare and administrative workers: one in Bucaramanga, Colombia, and the other in Campinas (São Paulo State), Brazil. Content analysis was used in the analytical process. According to the study, in both countries the main experiences of healthcare workers involve the changes in working conditions, relations, and organization. In the Colombian context, we identified the central problems in the transition induced by the reform that established the country's current health system. These problems are expressed in the deterioration of relations with health system users, as well as in the configuration of healthcare teams, marked by conflicting employment arrangements in the healthcare staff. The latter condition also appears in the Brazilian context, as a result of outsourcing, which appears to have become an effective mechanism for undermining the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), facilitating its dismantlement and pointing it in the same direction as the Colombian system.

  5. Staying at work with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain : a qualitative study of workers' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Haitze J.; Brouwer, Sandra; Groothoff, Johan W.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many people with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP) have decreased work ability. The majority, however, stays at work despite their pain. Knowledge about workers who stay at work despite chronic pain is limited, narrowing our views on work participation. The aim of this study

  6. Older Workers in the Hospitality Industry: Valuing Experience and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Roy

    2011-01-01

    The research sets out to identify the learning processes adopted by older workers in the hospitality and visitor attraction industry in Scotland, with a view to determining how employers may better support their education and training within enterprises. The study was undertaken as part of the ESRC project on "Sustaining the employability of…

  7. ACCOUNTING PARADIGM OF LIVED EXPERIENCES IN ACTION RESEARCH: THE CASE OF MALAYSIAN PLANTATION WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Susela DEVI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces action research as a possible new method to reduce the distance between idealism and accounting practice, thus contributing to the accounting literature. The source of this paper is an on-going large research project. The project has three objectives. Firstly, to provide evidence of the utilisation of accounting methods in the Malaya plantation industry from its earliest beginnings through to the introduction of accounting tools such as budgets, leading to the creation of a social and economic underclass in Malaysia. Secondly, to examine the extent to which accounting information provided in the Annual Reports of Malaysian plantation companies is used in determining the wages of plantation workers on the grounds that workers in the plantation industry have been and still are, among the most poorly paid in Malaysia, and perhaps the world. Interestingly, the wages of plantation workers are determined through a negotiation process between the National Union of Plantation Workers and the Malaysian Agricultural Producers Association. This paper draws from this research project and explicates the utilisation of the Action Research methodology in reporting the “lived experiences” of those affected by Management Accounting budgets and demonstrating how the parties to wage negotiation, the employers, union and employees, can better derive value from accounting information provided within the annual reports of Malaysian plantation companies.

  8. Supervisors’ experiences with the return-to-work process of hospital workers absent from work due to a health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan

    context. Aim: In order to gain knowledge about the potential role of supervisors in supporting RTW of a sick listed worker in Denmark, an exploratory qualitative pilot study will be conducted. We seek to open a window of understanding into the experience of managers who have been involved in RTW...... procedures, including the managers’ roles and contributions to the process. Methods: Using purposive sampling, approximately 20 hospital supervisors in charge of conducting sick leave interviews will participate in a face‐to‐face or focus group interviews in order to identify barriers and facilitators...... comparison analysis approach and computer assisted qualitative data analysis. Results: The study is in progress. Results will be available at the time of the conference. Conclusion: We will address questions regarding which factors supervisors feel are important to them in supporting returning workers...

  9. Cultural Psychiatry: A Spotlight on the Experience of Clinical Social Workers' Encounter with Jewish Ultra-Orthodox Mental Health Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Anat; Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2017-07-01

    Community is a complex issue, especially in two particular populations overlap: Haredi society, which embraces cultural codes common to closed communities, and the mental health population characterized by its own unique needs. The present study explores the encounter experience of social workers with the cultural perceptions of mental health clients in the Haredi community in light of Community Cultural Psychiatry. A qualitative-phenomenological approach was adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 social workers, mental health professionals, who are in contact with ultra-Orthodox Jewish clients. Three major themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) Exclusion vs. grace and compassion. (2) Mental health: A professional or cultural arena? (3) Mental health help-seeking changing processes. This study shows that the attitude in the Haredi community toward mental health therapy undergoes a process of change. It is important to strengthen this process, together with preserving existing community informal structures of help.

  10. Legacy, legitimacy, and possibility: an exploration of community health worker experience across the generations in Khayelitsha, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Alison

    2013-06-01

    In South Africa, the response to HIV and TB epidemics is complex, varied, and contextually defined. "Task-shifting" and a movement toward a decentralized model of care have led to an increased reliance on community health workers (CHWs) providing health care services to residents of impoverished, peri-urban areas. Public health policy tends to present CHWs as a homogeneous group, with little attention paid to the nuances of experience, motivation, and understanding, which distinguish these care workers from one another and from other kinds of health workers. An exploration of the layered meanings of providing community health care services under financially, politically, and socially difficult conditions reveals clear distinctions of experience across the generations. Many older CHWs say that ubuntu, a notion of shared African humanity, is being "killed off" by the younger generation, whereas younger CHWs often describe older women as being "jealous" of the opportunities that this younger generation has for education, training, and employment. The structure of the South African health system, past and present responses to disease epidemics, and the legacy of apartheid's structural violence have amplified these generational differences among CHWs. Using ethnographic data collected from approximately 20 CHWS in a peri-urban settlement in Cape Town, South Africa, I explore how CHWs experience and understand legitimacy in the moral economy of care. A call for closer attention to the experiences of CHWs is critical when designing public health policies for the delivery of health care services in impoverished communities in South Africa. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  11. Point defects in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, P.

    1969-01-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I B (31 deg. K), I C (42 deg. K), I D (from to 57 deg. K) and I E (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I B the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I D it is near the direction from the vacancy. In stage I E there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II B (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III A (370 deg. K) and III B (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [fr

  12. Memories from the frontline : One unforgettable experience of a child protection social worker in northern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Manolis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, a critical incident involving an experienced child protection social worker and a First Nation family is deconstructed utilizing Jan Fook’s Critical Reflection Technique (2002. This deconstruction process investigates the issues of professional boundaries, revictimization, vicarious trauma, power and oppression and the ideas surrounding what a “real” and “good” social worker is. Through the reconstruction process, it is discovered that the assumptions underlying these issues are not helpful, and in fact are harmful to both the social worker’s sense of self as well as to social work practice. A discussion on how to avoid succumbing to the assumptions and expectations is then generated as a means to encourage professional practice without fear. Lastly, a strength-based perspective will be utilized to demonstrate how theory was operationalized with this First Nation family.

  13. The Role Of Migrant Workers Remittances In Fostering Economic Growth: The Kosovo Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmije Topxhiu; Florentina Xhelili

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries, in Kosovo as well, remittances of workers from diaspora have become an important source of external financing. In this paper some theoretical and practical aspects of the role of remittances in the development of countries receiving them are treated. An analytical approach is made about the migration trends of Kosovo's population, trends and role of remittances in the economic development of Kosovo through various statistical data published by relevant national ...

  14. The Measurement of Performance skills of Primary Maternal Child Health Workers - An Indian Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty N

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Questions: 1. What are the cognitive and psychomotor levels of Anganwadi Workers (AWW regarding important aspects of maternal and child health? 2. Can these skills be improved by training with a self learning communication module? Objectives: (i Identify and evaluate the level of intellectual and practical skills acquired by the AWWs on some areas of primary. health care like : detection of low birth weight (LBW babies, weight of the baby, measurement of body temperature by thermometer, identification of diarrhoea and preparation of ORS, detection of high risk cases and referral. (ii Develop and test a self learning communication module capable of improving the psychomotor domains involved in provision of care. (iii Measure the improvement in the knowledge and specific skill components of the AWWs with the self learning communication module. Design : Intervention study. Setting : Integrated Child Development Scheme Blocks of Varanasi District. Participants : Anganwadi workers belonging to two ICDS Blocks, one was the intervention group and the control group. Study Variable : Self learning communication module. Outcome Variable : Improvement in the cognitive and psychomotor skills of those workers who were administered the module in comparison with the control group. Statistical Analysis : Students ‘t’ test and paired ‘t’ test. Results: There was a significant improvement (p less than 0.001 in the performance skills between the intervention and the control groups. Conclusion: The training modules was effective in improving the overall performance of the workers. However, repeated inservice training is essential to maintain the levels of improvement.

  15. Supporting workers with mental health problems to retain employment: users' experiences of a UK job retention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Josh; Walker, Carl; Hart, Angie; Sadlo, Gaynor; Haslam, Imogen; Retain Support Group

    2012-01-01

    To understand experiences and perspectives of job retention project users in relation to challenges faced and support received; to develop explanatory insight into effective interventions. 14 employed users of a United Kingdom job retention project, with a range of mental health problems. Semi-structured individual interviews which were collaboratively designed with service users. Data analysis involved deductive & inductive thematic analysis, constant comparative analysis, and service user collaboration. Participants' feelings of guilt and self blame were a major obstacle to job retention. The project helped them address these by supporting a reappraisal of their situation. This assisted identification of job accommodations and adjustments and confidence in self advocacy. Thus an important basis for improved dialogue with their employer was established. A peer support group provided an important adjunct to individual project worker interventions. 10 participants retained employment; three of those who did not were helped to retain work aspirations. The project effectively used a multi-faceted approach involving a person - environment-occupation focus on the worker, their work, and workplace. Such complex interventions may offer more promise than those interventions (such as cognitive behavioural therapy) which have a primary focus on the individual worker.

  16. Impact of caregiver incentives on child health: Evidence from an experiment with Anganwadi workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakarsh; Masters, William A

    2017-09-01

    This paper tests the effectiveness of performance pay and bonuses among government childcare workers in India. In a controlled study of 160 ICDS centers serving over 4000 children, we randomly assign workers to either fixed bonuses or payments based on the nutritional status of children in their care, and also collect data from a control group receiving only standard salaries. In all three study arms mothers receive nutrition information. We find that performance pay reduces underweight prevalence by about 5 percentage points over 3 months, and height improves by about one centimeter. Impacts on weight continue when incentives are renewed and return to parallel trends thereafter. Fixed bonuses are less expensive but lead to smaller and less precisely estimated effects than performance pay, especially for children near malnutrition thresholds. Both treatments improve worker effort and communication with mothers, who in turn feed a more calorific diet to children at home. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hospice and palliative social workers' experiences with clients at risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla T; Albright, David L; Parker Oliver, Debra; Gage, L Ashley; Lewis, Alexandria; Mooney, Megan J

    2016-12-01

    We sought to determine the frequency with which hospice and palliative social workers encounter patients, family caregivers, and other clients at risk of suicide, and to discover the extent to which hospice and palliative social workers feel prepared to address issues related to suicide in their professional practice. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of hospice and palliative social workers, recruiting a convenience sample of volunteer respondents through advertisements at professional conferences and listservs, and via social media accounts associated with national organizations, state hospice and palliative care associations, and individual healthcare professionals. Most respondents reported having worked with patients, family caregivers, or other clients who had exhibited warning signs of suicide during the previous year. Fewer respondents indicated that they had worked with patients and family members who had attempted or died by suicide. While the majority of respondents believed they possessed sufficient knowledge and skills to intervene effectively with individuals at risk of suicide, they indicated that additional education on this topic would be valuable for their professional practice. These study results suggest that suicide-related competencies are important in the practice of hospice and palliative social work. Future education and training efforts should include skill development in addition to knowledge building.

  18. Promoting Safe Work for Young Workers: A Community-Based Approach. A Resource Guide Documenting the Experiences of Three Young Worker Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Diane; Gonzalez-Arroyo, Michele; Stock, Laura; Delp, Linda; Miara, Christine; Dewey, Robin; Sinclair, Raymond C.; Ortega, Maria J.

    This guide presents the lessons learned from three health education projects that focused on young worker issues and were funded by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. In these projects, occupational health educators worked for 3 years, in three different communities, to raise the awareness of young worker issues, including…

  19. Measuring discrimination in South Korea: underestimating the prevalence of discriminatory experiences among female and less educated workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Chung, Yeonseung; Subramanian, S V; Williams, David R

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that Koreans show different patterns in reporting discriminatory experiences based on their gender and education level, we analyzed the participants who answered "Not Applicable" for the questions of discriminatory experiences that they were eligible to answer. Discriminatory experiences in eight social situations were assessed using the 7(th) wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. After restricting the study population to waged workers, a logistic regression model was constructed to predict the probability that an individual has experienced discrimination based on the observed covariates for each of eight situations, using the data of participants who answered either Yes or No. With the model fit, the predicted logit score of discrimination (PLSD) was obtained for participants who answered Not Applicable (NA), as well as for those who answered Yes or No. The mean PLSD of the NA group was compared with those of the Yes group and the No group after stratification by gender and education level using an ANOVA model. On the questions of discrimination in getting hired and receiving income, the PLSD of the NA group was significantly higher than that of the No group and was not different from that of Yes group for female and junior high or less educated workers, suggesting that their NA responses were more likely to mean that they have experienced discrimination. For male and college or more educated workers, the NA group had a PLSD similar to that for the No group and had a significantly higher PLSD than the Yes group, implying that their NA responses would mean they that they have not experienced discrimination. Our findings suggest that the responses of NA on the discrimination questionnaire may need different interpretation based on the respondents' gender and education level in South Korea.

  20. Measuring discrimination in South Korea: underestimating the prevalence of discriminatory experiences among female and less educated workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Sup Kim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possibility that Koreans show different patterns in reporting discriminatory experiences based on their gender and education level, we analyzed the participants who answered "Not Applicable" for the questions of discriminatory experiences that they were eligible to answer. METHODS: Discriminatory experiences in eight social situations were assessed using the 7(th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. After restricting the study population to waged workers, a logistic regression model was constructed to predict the probability that an individual has experienced discrimination based on the observed covariates for each of eight situations, using the data of participants who answered either Yes or No. With the model fit, the predicted logit score of discrimination (PLSD was obtained for participants who answered Not Applicable (NA, as well as for those who answered Yes or No. The mean PLSD of the NA group was compared with those of the Yes group and the No group after stratification by gender and education level using an ANOVA model. RESULTS: On the questions of discrimination in getting hired and receiving income, the PLSD of the NA group was significantly higher than that of the No group and was not different from that of Yes group for female and junior high or less educated workers, suggesting that their NA responses were more likely to mean that they have experienced discrimination. For male and college or more educated workers, the NA group had a PLSD similar to that for the No group and had a significantly higher PLSD than the Yes group, implying that their NA responses would mean they that they have not experienced discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the responses of NA on the discrimination questionnaire may need different interpretation based on the respondents' gender and education level in South Korea.

  1. Negotiated autonomy in diabetes self-management: the experiences of adults with intellectual disability and their support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, L C; Trip, H T; Hale, L A; Conder, J

    2016-02-02

    The basic human right of autonomy is underpinned by the ability to practice decision-making. The rights of people with disabilities to engage in autonomous decision-making are promoted as best practice and includes decisions around health and self-care. Little is known about autonomy in the field of long-term condition management. This paper explores how people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their support workers experience and practice autonomy in relation to the management of diabetes. Semi-structured interviews were completed in residential and independent living settings with people living with an ID and type 1 (N = 8) or type 2 (N = 6) diabetes and their support workers (N = 17). The participant with ID's support worker was present as requested; however, the interviews were run separately with each participant rather than jointly. Thematic analysis was undertaken, and a constructivist lens informed both data collection and analysis. The analysis revealed a strong process of negotiated autonomy between people with ID and their support workers in relation to the daily management of diabetes. During times of transition, roles in relation to diabetes management were renegotiated, and the promotion of autonomy was prefaced within the context of risk and client safety. Goals to increase independence were drivers for negotiating greater autonomy. The successful negotiation of autonomy in relation to diabetes illustrates the potential for people with ID to play a key role in the management of long-term health conditions. The study highlights the primacy of developing decision-making skills among people with ID. Promoting opportunities for decision-making and an ethos of supported decision-making through person-centred planning are all vital in working towards enhancing autonomy. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Initial experiences and innovations in supervising community health workers for maternal, newborn, and child health in Morogoro region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberton, Timothy; Applegate, Jennifer; Lefevre, Amnesty E; Mosha, Idda; Cooper, Chelsea M; Silverman, Marissa; Feldhaus, Isabelle; Chebet, Joy J; Mpembeni, Rose; Semu, Helen; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter; Baqui, Abdullah H; George, Asha S

    2015-04-09

    Supervision is meant to improve the performance and motivation of community health workers (CHWs). However, most evidence on supervision relates to facility health workers. The Integrated Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH) Program in Morogoro region, Tanzania, implemented a CHW pilot with a cascade supervision model where facility health workers were trained in supportive supervision for volunteer CHWs, supported by regional and district staff, and with village leaders to further support CHWs. We examine the initial experiences of CHWs, their supervisors, and village leaders to understand the strengths and challenges of such a supervision model for CHWs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently from CHWs, supervisors, and village leaders. A survey was administered to 228 (96%) of the CHWs in the Integrated MNCH Program and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 CHWs, 8 supervisors, and 15 village leaders purposefully sampled to represent different actor perspectives from health centre catchment villages in Morogoro region. Descriptive statistics analysed the frequency and content of CHW supervision, while thematic content analysis explored CHW, supervisor, and village leader experiences with CHW supervision. CHWs meet with their facility-based supervisors an average of 1.2 times per month. CHWs value supervision and appreciate the sense of legitimacy that arises when supervisors visit them in their village. Village leaders and district staff are engaged and committed to supporting CHWs. Despite these successes, facility-based supervisors visit CHWs in their village an average of only once every 2.8 months, CHWs and supervisors still see supervision primarily as an opportunity to check reports, and meetings with district staff are infrequent and not well scheduled. Supervision of CHWs could be strengthened by streamlining supervision protocols to focus less on report checking and more on problem solving and skills development

  3. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, P J; Templeton, D M; Rasmussen, S N; Andersen, K E; Grandjean, P

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water. In the second experiment, a stable nickel isotope, 61Ni, was given in drinking water to 20 nickel-sensitized women and 20 age-matched controls, both groups having vesicular hand eczema of the pompholyx type. Nine of 20 nickel allergic eczema patients experienced aggravation of hand eczema after nickel administration, and three also developed a maculopapular exanthema. No exacerbation was seen in the control group. The course of nickel absorption and excretion in the allergic groups did not differ and was similar to the pattern seen in the first study, although the absorption in the women was less. A sex-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions

  4. Respiratory cancer risks associated with low-level nickel exposure: an integrated assessment based on animal, epidemiological, and mechanistic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilkop, Steven K; Oller, Adriana R

    2003-04-01

    Increased lung and nasal cancer risks have been reported in several cohorts of nickel refinery workers, but in more than 90% of the nickel-exposed workers that have been studied there is little, if any evidence of excess risk. This investigation utilizes human exposure measurements, animal data from cancer bioassays of three nickel compounds, and a mechanistic theory of nickel carcinogenesis to reconcile the disparities in lung cancer risk among nickel-exposed workers. Animal data and mechanistic theory suggest that the apparent absence of risk in workers with low nickel exposures is due to threshold-like responses in lung tumor incidence (oxidic nickel), tumor promotion (soluble nickel), and genetic damage (sulfidic nickel). When animal-based lung cancer dose-response functions for these compounds are extrapolated to humans, taking into account interspecies differences in deposition and clearance, differences in particle size distributions, and human work activity patterns, the predicted risks at occupational exposures are remarkably similar to those observed in nickel-exposed workers. This provides support for using the animal-based dose-response functions to estimate occupational exposure limits, which are found to be comparable to those in current use.

  5. Does the Sector Experience Affect the Pay Gap for Temporary Agency Workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Pozzoli, Dario

    estimate the effects of the intensity of agency employment on the temp wage gap and post-temp earnings in Germany. Using a two-stage selection-corrected method in a panel data framework, we show that the wage gap for temps with low treatment intensity is high but decreases with exposure to the sector....... It seems that temps are able to accumulate human capital while being employed in this sector. Temps who move to permanent jobs have to accept a sizeable wage disadvantage at first, indicating that temporary agency employment might stigmatise workers. However, agency employment does not seem to leave a long...

  6. A survey of experience-based preference of Nickel-Titanium rotary files and incidence of fracture among general dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WooCheol Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose was to investigate the preference and usage technique of NiTi rotary instruments and to retrieve data on the frequency of re-use and the estimated incidence of file separation in the clinical practice among general dentists. Materials and Methods A survey was disseminated via e-mail and on-site to 673 general dentists. The correlation between the operator's experience or preferred technique and frequency of re-use or incidence of file fracture was assessed. Results A total of 348 dentists (51.7% responded. The most frequently used NiTi instruments was ProFile (39.8% followed by ProTaper. The most preferred preparation technique was crown-down (44.6%. 54.3% of the respondents re-used NiTi files more than 10 times. There was a significant correlation between experience with NiTi files and the number of reuses (p = 0.0025. 54.6% of the respondents estimated experiencing file separation less than 5 times per year. The frequency of separation was significantly correlated with the instrumentation technique (p = 0.0003. Conclusions A large number of general dentists in Korea prefer to re-use NiTi rotary files. As their experience with NiTi files increased, the number of re-uses increased, while the frequency of breakage decreased. Operators who adopt the hybrid technique showed less tendency of separation even with the increased number of re-use.

  7. Ten years' experience in determining internal contamination among plutonium laboratory workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.; Fieuw, G.

    1976-01-01

    Glove boxes in plutonium laboratories are fitted with ''sniffers'' (air samplers), which evaluate atmospheric contamination. The results of the measurements over a ten-year period of operation are available, and cases of detection in this way of air contamination exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations are exceptional. During contamination aerodynamic particle diameters of 1 - 4 μm were measured. The concentration and characteristics of the aerosol have made it possible to ascertain the inhalable fraction and to estimate the pulmonary and systemic burden in workers. The workers exposed in the laboratories undergo a urine test each month. The results obtained show that there is little risk of internal contamination without the person concerned being aware of an abnormal situation. In the majority of cases it is possible to take proper precautions and to collect the data necessary for evaluating the body burden. Three cases of specific contamination are examined in detail: contamination by plutonium and americium from a non-identified source, detected by routine urine analysis; contamination by inhalation of plutonium; an injury to the left forefinger, accompanied by plutonium contamination. (author)

  8. Nickel accumulation and storage in bradyrhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.J.; Pihl, T.D.; Stults, L.; Sray, W.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenase-depressed (chemolithotrophic growth conditions) and heterotrophically grown cultures of Bradyrhizobium japonicum accumulated nickel about equally over a 3-h period. Both types of cultures accumulated nickel primarily in a form that was not exchangeable with NiCl 2 , and they accumulated much more Ni than would be needed for the Ni-containing hydrogenase. The nickel accumulated by heterotrophically incubated cultures could later be mobilized to allow active hydrogenase synthesis during derepression in the absence of nickel, while cells both grown with Ni and the derepressed without nickel had low hydrogenase activities. The level of activity in cells grown with Ni and then derepressed without nickel was about the same as that in cultures derepressed in the presence of nickel. The Ni accumulated by heterotrophically grown cultures was associated principally with soluble proteins rather than particulate material, and this Ni was not lost upon dialyzing an extract containing the soluble proteins against either Ni-containing or EDTA-containing buffer. However, this Ni was lost upon pronase or low pH treatments. The soluble Ni-binding proteins were partially purified by gel filtration and DEAE chromatography. They were not antigenically related to hydrogenase peptides. Much of the 63 Ni eluted as a single peak of 48 kilodaltons. Experiments involving immunuprecipitation of 63 Ni-containing hydrogenase suggested that the stored source of Ni in heterotrophic cultures that could later be mobilized into hydrogenase resided in the nonexchangeable Ni-containing fraction rather than in loosely bound or ionic forms

  9. The cancer mortality and incidence experience of workers at British Nuclear Fuels plc, 1946–2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, Michael; Haylock, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate cancer mortality and incidence risk associated with external radiation exposure in the BNFL cohort of nuclear workers and to determine if these risks are modified by potential for internal exposure. The cohort comprised 64 956 individuals who were employed at the four study sites between 1946 and 2002, followed up to 2005. External radiation exposures as measured by personal dosimeters (generally ‘film badges’) were available for 42 431 individuals classified as ‘radiation workers’. Poisson regression models were used to investigate cancer mortality and incidence in relation to cumulative external radiation exposure using relative risk models. The cohort showed the expected ‘healthy worker’ effect. This analysis found an increased risk of all cancers associated with external occupational radiation exposure (ERR/Gy = 0.34 90% CI: 0.07; 0.64), with significant excess risks observed for all solid cancers (ERR/Gy = 0.29 90% CI: 0.02; 0.59) and leukaemia excluding CLL (ERR/Gy = 2.60 90% CI: 0.28; 7.01). The overall cancer risk estimates are consistent with values used by national and international bodies in setting radiation protection standards. The slopes of the dose response relationships for all cancer mortality and incidence were found to be significantly less steep for workers exposed to both external radiation and potentially to internal radiation (ERR/Gy = 0.09 90% CI: −0.17; 0.39) when compared to those workers only exposed to external radiation (ERR/Gy = 1.14 90% CI: 0.49; 1.89). Analyses of individual cancer types indicate that this overall result is mainly driven by that for digestive cancers and in particular cancers of the oesophagus. Categorical analyses also revealed that the difference in the dose response relationship between the two groups is only apparent for those exposed to cumulative external doses in excess of 200 mGy. Such differences have also been observed for non-cancer mortality

  10. Field dependent transition to the non-linear regime in magnetic hyperthermia experiments: Comparison between maghemite, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles of similar sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Verde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Further advances in magnetic hyperthermia might be limited by biological constraints, such as using sufficiently low frequencies and low field amplitudes to inhibit harmful eddy currents inside the patient's body. These incite the need to optimize the heating efficiency of the nanoparticles, referred to as the specific absorption rate (SAR. Among the several properties currently under research, one of particular importance is the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime that takes place as the field amplitude is increased, an aspect where the magnetic anisotropy is expected to play a fundamental role. In this paper we investigate the heating properties of cobalt ferrite and maghemite nanoparticles under the influence of a 500 kHz sinusoidal magnetic field with varying amplitude, up to 134 Oe. The particles were characterized by TEM, XRD, FMR and VSM, from which most relevant morphological, structural and magnetic properties were inferred. Both materials have similar size distributions and saturation magnetization, but strikingly different magnetic anisotropies. From magnetic hyperthermia experiments we found that, while at low fields maghemite is the best nanomaterial for hyperthermia applications, above a critical field, close to the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime, cobalt ferrite becomes more efficient. The results were also analyzed with respect to the energy conversion efficiency and compared with dynamic hysteresis simulations. Additional analysis with nickel, zinc and copper-ferrite nanoparticles of similar sizes confirmed the importance of the magnetic anisotropy and the damping factor. Further, the analysis of the characterization parameters suggested core-shell nanostructures, probably due to a surface passivation process during the nanoparticle synthesis. Finally, we discussed the effect of particle-particle interactions and its consequences, in particular regarding discrepancies between estimated

  11. Removal of cadmium, copper, nickel, cobalt and mercury from water by Apatite II{sup TM}: Column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Josep [Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resou-rces, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08242 Manresa, Catalonia (Spain); De Pablo, Joan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Cortina, Jose-Luis, E-mail: jose.luis.cortina@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Water Technology Center, CETaqua, Paseo de los Tilos 3, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The efficiency of Apatite II{sup TM} increases as the acidity decreases, then the application of apatite-based materials for metal removal treatments should be restricted to slightly acid to neutral waters. {yields} Because of the preferred process of using phosphate ions to form metal-phosphate precipitates, the mixture with other sources of alkalinity, such as limestone, is proposed to extend the duration of Apatite II{sup TM}. {yields} Compared with other reactive materials such as limestone and caustic magnesia that exhibit a reduction of porosity Apatite II{sup TM} showed stable hydraulic performance. {yields} The extrapolation of the column durabilities to a 1-m-thick passive treatment suggests that the Apatite II{sup TM} filling can be active between 5 and 10 years for an inflow pH exceeding 5. - Abstract: Apatite II{sup TM}, a biogenic hydroxyapatite, was evaluated as a reactive material for heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Hg) removal in passive treatments. Apatite II{sup TM} reacts with acid water by releasing phosphates that increase the pH up to 6.5-7.5, complexing and inducing metals to precipitate as metal phosphates. The evolution of the solution concentration of calcium, phosphate and metals together with SEM-EDS and XRD examinations were used to identify the retention mechanisms. SEM observation shows low-crystalline precipitate layers composed of P, O and M. Only in the case of Hg and Co were small amounts of crystalline phases detected. Solubility data values were used to predict the measured column experiment values and to support the removal process based on the dissolution of hydroxyapatite, the formation of metal-phosphate species in solution and the precipitation of metal phosphate. Cd{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH(s), Cu{sub 2}(PO{sub 4})OH(s), Ni{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s), Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}8H{sub 2}O(s) and Hg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) are proposed as the possible mineral phases responsible for the removal

  12. Interdependent action of nickel sulphate and X-rays on human lymphoblastoid leukeamic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensimon, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    In a first experiment, cells were cultured in media supplemented by nickel sulphate, irradiated in same media and cultured in same media after irradiation. In a second experiment, cells were cultured during 18hrs. in media supplemented by nickel sulphate, and then cells were washed and cultured in normal media where they were irradiated. The nickel sulphate toxicity appears as a creasing function of the nickel sulphate concentration and the nickel sulphate action endurance. The nickel sulphate toxic effect is amplified by X-rays. This amplification is a time function that depends on the X-ray dose, nickel sulphate concentration and period of time from the outset of culture to the irradiation. The nickel sulphate toxic effect appears faster when nickel works after X-rays [fr

  13. The Role Of Migrant Workers Remittances In Fostering Economic Growth: The Kosovo Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmije Topxhiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, in Kosovo as well, remittances of workers from diaspora have become an important source of external financing. In this paper some theoretical and practical aspects of the role of remittances in the development of countries receiving them are treated. An analytical approach is made about the migration trends of Kosovo's population, trends and role of remittances in the economic development of Kosovo through various statistical data published by relevant national and international institutions and current published material in this regard. Researched material and published data on the role of remittances in Kosovo's economic development lead to the conclusion that migration and remittances will continue to be an important part of the economic, political and social development of Kosovo.

  14. Community Health Warriors: Marshallese Community Health Workers' Perceptions and Experiences with CBPR and Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Rachel S; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Jacob, Christopher J; Lang, Sharlynn; Mamis, Sammie; Ritok, Mandy; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2017-01-01

    Our manuscript highlights the viewpoints and reflections of the native Marshallese community health workers (CHWs) engaged in research with the local Marshallese community in Northwest Arkansas. In particular, this paper documents the vital role Marshallese CHWs play in the success of programs and research efforts. The negative health effects of nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands has been passed down through many generations, along with unfavorable attitudes toward the U.S. government and researchers. However, the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach used by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) has allowed the native Marshallese CHWs to become advocates for the Marshallese community. The use of native CHWs has also leveled the power dynamics that can be a barrier to community-based research, and has strengthened trust with community stakeholders. Our paper shows how using Marshallese CHWs can produce positive health outcomes for the Marshallese community.

  15. The experience of the landless workers movement and the Lula government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Vergara-Camus

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldwork carried out in Southern Brazil, this article analyses the achievements, difficulties and contradictions of the MST’s alternative project. It identifies the organizational structure of the MST as a major factor explaining the success of the movement. It highlights that mobilization and pressure on the state have also been instrumental to land distribution and the development of its settlements. It thus looks at the strategy that the MST had adopted towards participation in institutional politics and its alliance with the Workers Party in Southern Brazil and argues that this strategy and alliance will most likely change because of President Lula’s cabinet composition and policy orientation.

  16. Do occupation and work conditions really matter? A longitudinal analysis of psychological distress experiences among Canadian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Demers, Andrée; Durand, Pierre

    2005-07-01

    This study analyses the relationship between occupation, work conditions and the experience of psychological distress within a model encompassing the stress promoted by constraints-resources embedded in macrosocial structures (occupational structure), structures of daily life (workplace, family, social networks outside the workplace) and agent personality (demography, physical health, psychological traits, life habits, stressful childhood events). Longitudinal data were derived from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey and comprised 6,359 workers nested in 471 occupations, followed four times between 1994-1995 and 2000-2001. Discrete time survival multilevel regressions were conducted on first and repeated episodes of psychological distress. Results showed that 42.9 per cent of workers had reported one episode of psychological distress and 18.7 per cent had done so more than once. Data supported the model and challenged the results of previous studies. The individual's position in the occupational structure plays a limited role when the structures of daily life and agent personality are accounted for. In the workplace, job insecurity and social support are important determinants, but greater decision authority increases the risk of psychological distress. Workplace constraints-resources are not moderated either by the other structures of daily life or by agent personality.

  17. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  18. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  19. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R; Julander, Anneli; Menné, Torkil; Lidén, Carola

    2013-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However, it is well known by dermatologists specialized in occupational skin diseases, and by their nickel-allergic patients, that hand eczema in cashiers and other professionals who handle coins may be caused or aggravated by nickel release from coins. In this review, we present evidence from past studies showing that nickel-containing coins can indeed pose a risk for those who handle them. For protection of the health of consumers, cashiers, and other workers who handle coins, it is suggested that coins without nickel release should be used as a substitute for the high nickel-releasing coins currently in widespread use. The key risk factor in this situation is the ability of metal alloys in coins to release nickel and contaminate the skin after repeated contact from coin handling. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Understanding Health Workers' Job Preferences to Improve Rural Retention in Timor-Leste: Findings from a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitz, Marc-Francois; Witter, Sophie; Lemiere, Christophe; Eozenou, Patrick Hoang-Vu; Lievens, Tomas; Zaman, Rashid U; Engelhardt, Kay; Hou, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Timor-Leste built its health workforce up from extremely low levels after its war of independence, with the assistance of Cuban training, but faces challenges as the first cohorts of doctors will shortly be freed from their contracts with government. Retaining doctors, nurses and midwives in remote areas requires a good understanding of health worker preferences. The article reports on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) carried out amongst 441 health workers, including 173 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives. Qualitative methods were conducted during the design phase. The attributes which emerged were wages, skills upgrading/specialisation, location, working conditions, transportation and housing. One of the main findings of the study is the relative lack of importance of wages for doctors, which could be linked to high intrinsic motivation, perceptions of having an already highly paid job (relative to local conditions), and/or being in a relatively early stage of their career for most respondents. Professional development provides the highest satisfaction with jobs, followed by the working conditions. Doctors with less experience, males and the unmarried are more flexible about location. For nurses and midwives, skill upgrading emerged as the most cost effective method. The study is the first of its kind conducted in Timor-Leste. It provides policy-relevant information to balance financial and non-financial incentives for different cadres and profiles of staff. It also augments a thin literature on the preferences of working doctors (as opposed to medical students) in low and middle income countries and provides insights into the ability to instil motivation to work in rural areas, which may be influenced by rural recruitment and Cuban-style training, with its emphasis on community service.

  1. Staying at work with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain: a qualitative study of workers' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertzen Jan HB

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP have decreased work ability. The majority, however, stays at work despite their pain. Knowledge about workers who stay at work despite chronic pain is limited, narrowing our views on work participation. The aim of this study was to explore why people with CMP stay at work despite pain (motivators and how they manage to maintain working (success factors. Methods A semi-structured interview was conducted among 21 subjects who stay at work despite CMP. Participants were included through purposeful sampling. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and imported into computer software Atlas.ti. Data was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. The interviews consisted of open questions such as: "Why are you working with pain?" or "How do you manage working while having pain?" Results A total of 16 motivators and 52 success factors emerged in the interviews. Motivators were categorized into four themes: work as value, work as therapy, work as income generator, and work as responsibility. Success factors were categorized into five themes: personal characteristics, adjustment latitude, coping with pain, use of healthcare services, and pain beliefs. Conclusions Personal characteristics, well-developed self-management skills, and motivation to work may be considered to be important success factors and prerequisites for staying at work, resulting in behaviors promoting staying at work such as: raising adjustment latitude, changing pain-coping strategies, organizing modifications and conditions at work, finding access to healthcare services, and asking for support. Motivators and success factors for staying at work may be used for interventions in rehabilitation and occupational medicine, to prevent absenteeism, or to promote a sustainable return to work. This qualitative study has evoked new hypotheses about staying at work; quantitative studies on staying at

  2. Examining negative effects of early life experiences on reproductive and sexual health among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Karishma K; Silverman, Jay G; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2015-02-01

    To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences-early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care-were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Free ionic nickel accumulation and localization in the freshwater zooplankter, Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    The processes which lead to the accumulation of free ionic nickel (radioactive) from solution by Daphnia magna were studied and incorporated into a model which describes accummulation at different concentrations. Adsorption proved to be a relatively small component of nickel accummulation. The accummulation rate eventually approached zero, which represented an equilibrium between uptake and loss of nickel. However, elimination experiments did reveal a pool of relatively static nickel. The appearance and distribution of nickel within five body parts (body fluid, carapace, gut, filtering appendages, and eggs) of D. magna supported the accummulation data and added to the understanding of the pathways of nickel through the organism

  4. Are positive learning experiences levers for lifelong learning among low educated workers?van kennistekorten?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.M.A.F.; Damen, M.A.W.; Dam, K. van

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Based on the theory of planned behaviour and social learning theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of training participation and learning experience on the beliefs of low-educated employees about their self-efficacy for learning. Design/methodology/approach

  5. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  6. Occupational exposure to nickel, uranium and thorium in a nickel mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeredo, A.M.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Dias da Cunha, K.; Lourenco, M.C.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Miekeley, N.T.

    2002-01-01

    The workers involved in mining and milling ores are exposed in the workplace to many hazardous agents that can cause a health detriment. In this work, the measurements obtained in a nickel mineral processing facility in the Brazilian Central-West are presented. One of the most important hazardous agents in this facility is the aerosol present in the air that contains nickel, uranium and thorium. The aerosol is inhaled or ingested, metabolised and deposited in the whole body or in specific organs. The surveillance of internal contamination of workers was performed by analysis of urine, fecal and hair samples. The ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) method was used to analytically determine nickel, uranium and thorium in these biological samples. Additional data were obtained by the collection of air samples in the workplace. A cascade impactor with six stages was used to collect mineral dust particles with an aerodynamic diameter in the range of 0.64 to 19.4 μm. The particles impacted in each stage of the cascade impactor were analysed by PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission), which permits the determination of elemental mass air concentration and the MMAD (Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter). The concentrations of nickel, uranium and thorium were determined in the aerosol samples. All the results were analysed using statistical methods and biokinetical modelling was applied to evaluate the internal contamination and to make a risk estimation. (author)

  7. Assessment of the labor market experiences of CETA-trained solar workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.; Mason, B.; Mikasa, G.Y.

    1980-12-01

    This study assessed solar training offered by CETA-funded programs and labor market experiences of program graduates. The initial research was restricted to programs within California, because the state is involved in a variety of solar-related activities, including development of jobs and training programs in solar energy. Interviews were conducted with 12 CETA solar training programs and graduates in 1979, in cooperation with California's SolarCal Office. Information on graduates includes demographics, educational and work experience, satisfaction with solar training, types of jobs found, wage levels, and job tenure. Program information includes length, types of training, and the number and kinds of solar systems installed. Results show that major programs problems were: limited funding; shortages of trained instructors; insufficient staff; need for local employment information; need for better defined role for unions; and pressures for high placement rates. The curricula involved general skills, skills specific to solar technologies, and basic job behavior and skills. The training involved both classroom and hands-on experience and was mainly tailored to participants and the local job market. Successful placement of program participants was relatively high; over half the initial job placements involved solar energy. Solar jobs appeared to pay more than nonsolar jobs. Participants generally felt that their training had prepared them adequately for their current work.

  8. Early occupational hearing loss of workers in a stone crushing industry: our experience in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitcher, Emmanuel D; Ocansey, Grace; Tumpi, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. This paper aims to assess the prevalence of early NIHL and the awareness of the effects of noise on health among stone crushing industry workers. This was a comparative cross-sectional study in Ghana of 140 workers from the stone crushing industry compared with a control group of 150 health workers. The stone workers and controls were evaluated using a structured questionnaire, which assessed symptoms of hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the health hazards associated with work in noisy environment and the use of hearing protective device. Pure tone audiometric assessment was carried out for stone workers and controls. Noise levels at the work stations of the stone workers and of the controls were measured. Statistical Analysis of data was carried out using SPSS package version 16. The mean age of stone workers and controls was 42.58±7.85 and 42.19±12 years, respectively. Subjective hearing loss occurred in 21.5% of the workers and in 2.8% of the controls. Tinnitus occurred in 26.9% of stone workers and 21.5% of controls, while 87.5% stone workers had sound knowledge on the health hazards of a noisy environment. Early NIHL in the left ear occurred in 19.3% of the stone workers compared with 0.7% in controls and in the right ear, it occurred in 14.3% of the stone workers and in 1.3% of the controls; Pstone crushing workers is about 19.3% for the left ear and 14.3% for the right ear.

  9. Early occupational hearing loss of workers in a stone crushing industry: Our experience in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel D Kitcher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. This paper aims to assess the prevalence of early NIHL and the awareness of the effects of noise on health among stone crushing industry workers. This was a comparative cross-sectional study in Ghana of 140 workers from the stone crushing industry compared with a control group of 150 health workers. The stone workers and controls were evaluated using a structured questionnaire, which assessed symptoms of hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the health hazards associated with work in noisy environment and the use of hearing protective device. Pure tone audiometric assessment was carried out for stone workers and controls. Noise levels at the work stations of the stone workers and of the controls were measured. Statistical Analysis of data was carried out using SPSS package version 16. The mean age of stone workers and controls was 42.58±7.85 and 42.19±12 years, respectively. Subjective hearing loss occurred in 21.5% of the workers and in 2.8% of the controls. Tinnitus occurred in 26.9% of stone workers and 21.5% of controls, while 87.5% stone workers had sound knowledge on the health hazards of a noisy environment. Early NIHL in the left ear occurred in 19.3% of the stone workers compared with 0.7% in controls and in the right ear, it occurred in 14.3% of the stone workers and in 1.3% of the controls; P<0.005. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of early NIHL among stone crushing workers is about 19.3% for the left ear and 14.3% for the right ear.

  10. Exploring competing experiences and expectations of the revitalized community health worker programme in Mozambique: an equity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Give, Celso Soares; Sidat, Mohsin; Ormel, Hermen; Ndima, Sozinho; McCollum, Rosalind; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Mozambique launched its revitalized community health programme in 2010 in response to inequitable coverage and quality of health services. The programme is focused on health promotion and disease prevention, with 20 % of community health workers' (known in Mozambique as Agentes Polivalentes Elementares (APEs)) time spent on curative services and 80 % on activities promoting health and preventing illness. We set out to conduct a health system and equity analysis, exploring experiences and expectations of APEs, community members and healthcare workers supervising APEs. This exploratory qualitative study captured the perspectives of a range of participants including women caring for children under 5 years (service clients), community leaders, service providers (APEs) and their supervisors. Participants in the Moamba and Manhiça districts, located in Maputo Province (Mozambique), were selected purposively. In total, 29 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions were conducted in the local language and/or Portuguese. A framework approach was used for analysis, assisted by NVivo10 software. Our analysis revealed that health equity is viewed as linked to the quality and coverage of the APE programme. Demand and supply factors interplay to shape health equity. The availability of responsive and appropriate services led to tensions between community expectations for curative services (and APEs' willingness to perform them) and official policy focusing APE efforts mainly on preventive services and health promotion. The demand for more curative services by community members is a result of having limited access to healthcare services other than those offered by APEs. This study highlights the need to pay attention to the determinants of demand and supply of community interventions in health, to understand the opportunities and challenges of the difficult interface role played by APEs and to create communication among stakeholders in order to build a stronger, more

  11. Not STRAIGHT forward for gays: A look at the lived experiences of gay men, living in Cape Town, with regard to their worker roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeker, Shaheed; Bonn, Gerri-Lee; de Vos, Zahraa; Gobhozi, Thobile; Pape, Candice; Ribaudo, Shelly

    2015-06-05

    The South African constitution protects the rights of gays; however in the workplace gays experience discrimination and marginalization. As a result of marginalization they struggle to reach their potential regarding career development and the fulfilment of their worker role. The study explored the experiences and perceptions of gay males with regard to acquiring and maintaining their worker roles. The study is phenomenological and qualitative in design. Eleven of these men participated in two focus groups. One male participated in two in-depth interviews and one interview was conducted with a key informant. Three themes emerged: 1) Being boxed in, 2) The glass ceiling, 3) This is where I can wear my feather boa. The study findings clearly depicted the many barriers experienced by homosexual men and how this negatively impacts on their worker role. Minimal facilitatory factors exist, to assist gay males %in with regard to their worker role. It was found that homo-prejudice still exists in South Africa and its workplaces and has a negative impact not only on gay men's worker role but also their well-being. This significantly highlights the great need for occupational therapy intervention in the lives of these gay men, and their workplaces.

  12. Community health workers' experiences of mobile device-enabled clinical decision support systems for maternal, newborn and child health in developing countries: a qualitative systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzabeng, Francis; Enuameh, Yeetey; Adjei, George; Manu, Grace; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this review is to synthesize evidence on the experiences of community health workers (CHWs) of mobile device-enabled clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) interventions designed to support maternal newborn and child health (MNCH) in low-and middle-income countries.Specific objectives.

  13. Environmental nickel exposure from oil refinery emissions: a case study in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raúl; Harari, Florencia; Forastiere, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Nickel is a strong skin and respiratory sensitizer and a recognized carcinogen. Oil refineries are important sources of atmospheric emissions of toxic pollutants, including nickel. Populations residing close to oil refineries are at potential risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to nickel in a population living close to the largest oil refinery in Ecuador, located in the city of Esmeraldas. We recruited 47 workers from the oil refinery as well as 195 students from 4 different schools close to the plant and 94 students from another school 25 km far from the industry. Urinary nickel concentrations were used to assess the exposure to nickel. Students from the school next to the oil refinery showed the highest urinary nickel concentrations while workers from the refinery showed the lowest concentrations. Median nickel concentrations were > 2µg/L in all study groups. The populations living close to the oil refineries are potentially exposed to nickel from atmospheric emissions. Further studies investigating nickel-related health effects in the population residing close to the refinery of Esmeralda are needed.

  14. Checklists in the operating room: Help or hurdle? A qualitative study on health workers' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heltne Jon-Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Checklists have been used extensively as a cognitive aid in aviation; now, they are being introduced in many areas of medicine. Although few would dispute the positive effects of checklists, little is known about the process of introducing this tool into the health care environment. In 2008, a pre-induction checklist was implemented in our anaesthetic department; in this study, we explored the nurses' and physicians' acceptance and experiences with this checklist. Method Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of checklist users (nurses and physicians from the Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care in a tertiary teaching hospital. The interviews were analysed qualitatively using systematic text condensation. Results Users reported that checklist use could divert attention away from the patient and that it influenced workflow and doctor-nurse cooperation. They described senior consultants as both sceptical and supportive; a head physician with a positive attitude was considered crucial for successful implementation. The checklist improved confidence in unfamiliar contexts and was used in some situations for which it was not intended. It also revealed insufficient equipment standardisation. Conclusion Our findings suggest several issues and actions that may be important to consider during checklist use and implementation.

  15. [Global management of patients with ebola viral disease, experience of the Healthcare workers Treatment of Conakry, Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, H; Maugey, N; Aletti, M; Facon, A; Koulibaly, F; Cotte, J; Janvier, F; Cordier, P Y; Dampierre, H; Ramade, S; Foissaud, V; Granier, H; Sagui, E; Carmoi, T

    2016-10-01

    The Healthcare Workers Treatment Center of Conakry, Guinea, was inaugurated in january 2015. It is dedicated to the diagnosis and the treatment of healthcare workers with probable or confirmed Ebola viral disease. It is staffed by the french army medical service. The french military team may reconcile their medical practice and the ethno-cultural imperatives to optimise the patient adherence during his hospitalization.

  16. Nickel and ocean warming affect scleractinian coral growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscéré, T; Lorrain, A; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Gilbert, A; Wright, A; Devissi, C; Peignon, C; Farman, R; Duvieilbourg, E; Payri, C; Houlbrèque, F

    2017-07-15

    The sensitivity of corals and their Symbiodinium to warming has been extensively documented; however very few studies considered that anthropogenic inputs such as metal pollution have already an impact on many fringing reefs. Thus, today, nickel releases are common in coastal ecosystems. In this study, two major reef-building species Acropora muricata and Pocillopora damicornis were exposed in situ to ambient and moderate nickel concentrations on a short-term period (1h) using benthic chamber experiments. Simultaneously, we tested in laboratory conditions the combined effects of a chronic exposure (8weeks) to moderate nickel concentrations and ocean warming on A. muricata. The in situ experiment highlighted that nickel enrichment, at ambient temperature, stimulated by 27 to 47% the calcification rates of both species but not their photosynthetic performances. In contrast, an exposure to higher nickel concentration, in combination with elevated temperature simulated in aquaria, severely depressed by 30% the growth of A. muricata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Healthcare Worker Preferences for Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Programs in South Africa: A Best-Worst Scaling Choice Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan N O'Hara

    Full Text Available Healthcare workers (HCWs in South Africa are at a high risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB due to their occupational exposures. This study aimed to systematically quantify and compare the preferred attributes of an active TB case finding program for HCWs in South Africa.A Best-Worst Scaling choice experiment estimated HCW's preferences using a random-effects conditional logit model. Latent class analysis (LCA was used to explore heterogeneity in preferences."No cost", "the assurance of confidentiality", "no wait" and testing at the occupational health unit at one's hospital were the most preferred attributes. LCA identified a four class model with consistent differences in preference strength. Sex, occupation, and the time since a previous TB test were statistically significant predictors of class membership.The findings support the strengthening of occupational health units in South Africa to offer free and confidential active TB case finding programs for HCWs with minimal wait times. There is considerable variation in active TB case finding preferences amongst HCWs of different gender, occupation, and testing history. Attention to heterogeneity in preferences should optimize screening utilization of target HCW populations.

  18. The patient's vulnerability, dependence and exposed situation in the discharge process: experiences of district nurses, geriatric nurses and social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydeman, IngBritt; Törnkvist, Lena

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain a deeper understanding of the experiences of the discharge process among different professionals. An optimal discharge process for hospitalized elderly to other forms of care is of crucial importance, especially since health and medical policies encourages shorter hospital stays and increased healthcare service in outpatient care. Nurses and social workers from inpatient care, outpatient care, municipal care and social services were interviewed. Eight focus-group interviews with a total of 31 persons were conducted. The subsequent analyses followed a phenomenological approach. The findings revealed three themes, Framework, Basic Values and Patient Resources, which influenced the professionals' actions in the discharge process. The overall emerging structure comprised the patient's vulnerability, dependence and exposed situation in the discharge process. In conclusion some factors are of special importance for the co-operation and the actions of professionals involved in the discharge process. Firstly, a distinct and common framework, with conscious and organizationally based values. Secondly the need to take the patient resources into consideration. Together these factors could contribute to secure the patients involvement in the discharge process and to design an optimal, safe and good care. Collaborative approaches among a range of professionals within a variety of organizations are common, especially in the care of the elderly. The role and support of both the organizations and the educational units are decisive factors in this area.

  19. Nickel in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K E; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, M A; Fregert, S; Gruvberge, B

    1983-03-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found. Drinking of only the first portion in the morning might have an influence on nickel hand eczema.

  20. Extending professional education to health workers at grass root level: An experience from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, the opportunities for professional education of the grass root level health workers are grossly inadequate. Capacity building of all categories of health workers is needed for enhancing health outcomes. Objectives: To plan and implement a professional development training program for all categories of allied health workers and to assess its outcomes in terms of knowledge and skills Materials and Method: We planned and organized a ′one week′(15 h training program for 10 categories of allied health workers (1260 working in our hospital. The program included nine generic skills/topics: the prestige of AIIMS, sterilization & infection control, universal precaution, biomedical waste management, public health, life style & healthy nutrition, fire safety, communication skills and office procedure besides subject specific skills. Trainers were drawn from 12 departments. Training methodology included interactive lectures, narratives, demonstrations, videos, PPT slides, and informal discussions with participants. The effectiveness of the program was judged on the basis of participants′ feedback, feedback from the supervisors, and our own observations post training. Results: Feedback from the participants and their supervisors after training was encouraging. The participants described training as a "life time experience". The supervisors reported improvement in confidence, communication skills, and awareness of workers. Conclusion: The success of the program was due to the use of interactive methods, involvement of multidisciplinary team, and commitment from leadership. We recommend that professional education should be linked with career advancement. Academic institutions can play a key role in taking such initiatives.

  1. Monitoring Processes in Visual Search Enhanced by Professional Experience: The Case of Orange Quality-Control Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalli, Antonino; Vallesi, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Visual search tasks have often been used to investigate how cognitive processes change with expertise. Several studies have shown visual experts' advantages in detecting objects related to their expertise. Here, we tried to extend these findings by investigating whether professional search experience could boost top-down monitoring processes involved in visual search, independently of advantages specific to objects of expertise. To this aim, we recruited a group of quality-control workers employed in citrus farms. Given the specific features of this type of job, we expected that the extensive employment of monitoring mechanisms during orange selection could enhance these mechanisms even in search situations in which orange-related expertise is not suitable. To test this hypothesis, we compared performance of our experimental group and of a well-matched control group on a computerized visual search task. In one block the target was an orange (expertise target) while in the other block the target was a Smurfette doll (neutral target). The a priori hypothesis was to find an advantage for quality-controllers in those situations in which monitoring was especially involved, that is, when deciding the presence/absence of the target required a more extensive inspection of the search array. Results were consistent with our hypothesis. Quality-controllers were faster in those conditions that extensively required monitoring processes, specifically, the Smurfette-present and both target-absent conditions. No differences emerged in the orange-present condition, which resulted to mainly rely on bottom-up processes. These results suggest that top-down processes in visual search can be enhanced through immersive real-life experience beyond visual expertise advantages.

  2. Monitoring Processes in Visual Search Enhanced by Professional Experience: The Case of Orange Quality-Control Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Visalli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual search tasks have often been used to investigate how cognitive processes change with expertise. Several studies have shown visual experts' advantages in detecting objects related to their expertise. Here, we tried to extend these findings by investigating whether professional search experience could boost top-down monitoring processes involved in visual search, independently of advantages specific to objects of expertise. To this aim, we recruited a group of quality-control workers employed in citrus farms. Given the specific features of this type of job, we expected that the extensive employment of monitoring mechanisms during orange selection could enhance these mechanisms even in search situations in which orange-related expertise is not suitable. To test this hypothesis, we compared performance of our experimental group and of a well-matched control group on a computerized visual search task. In one block the target was an orange (expertise target while in the other block the target was a Smurfette doll (neutral target. The a priori hypothesis was to find an advantage for quality-controllers in those situations in which monitoring was especially involved, that is, when deciding the presence/absence of the target required a more extensive inspection of the search array. Results were consistent with our hypothesis. Quality-controllers were faster in those conditions that extensively required monitoring processes, specifically, the Smurfette-present and both target-absent conditions. No differences emerged in the orange-present condition, which resulted to mainly rely on bottom-up processes. These results suggest that top-down processes in visual search can be enhanced through immersive real-life experience beyond visual expertise advantages.

  3. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, Adriana R.; Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 μm, GSD = 2.4 μm) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

  4. Mortality study of nickel platers with special reference to cancers of the stomach and lung, 1945-93.

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, D; Burges, D C; Sorahan, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To re-examine mortality patterns in a cohort of nickel platers with no history of chromium plating. METHODS: All 284 men first employed by the company in 1945-75 with a minimum employment of three months in the nickel plating department were identified. Workers who had worked in the chromium plating or nickel/chromium plating departments were excluded. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), P values, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Poisson regression was used to carry...

  5. Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) families dealing with dementia: an examination of the experiences and perceptions of multicultural community link workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughtwood, Desiree; Shanley, Chris; Adams, Jon; Santalucia, Yvonne; Kyriazopoulos, Helena; Pond, Dimity; Rowland, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    Dementia is a chronic illness involving increasing levels of care, often provided by family members, particularly in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. Multicultural community link workers are often the primary service providers assisting families to access health and welfare services and as such have extensive experience of, and possess in-depth knowledge about, CALD family care-giving for dementia. While research has been undertaken on dementia in CALD communities, this research has not focused on the experiences and perceptions of these multicultural workers with regards to CALD family care-giving. In response to this gap in the research, this paper presents the results of an empirical investigation of multicultural workers' perspectives with regard to the cultural traditions informing CALD family care-giving, CALD families' understandings of the term 'carer' and family arrangements regarding care. Due to their close relationship and knowledge of families, multicultural workers can offer an important perspective that is invaluable in informing the provision of carer education and support within CALD communities.

  6. Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belova, Dina Alexandrovna; Lakshtanov, Leonid; Carneiro, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel uptake from solution by two types of chalk and calcite was investigated in batch sorption studies. The goal was to understand the difference in sorption behavior between synthetic and biogenic calcite. Experiments at atmospheric partial pressure of CO2, in solutions equilibrated with calcite...... = - 1.12 on calcite and log KNi = - 0.43 and - 0.50 on the two chalk samples. The study confirms that synthetic calcite and chalk both take up nickel, but Ni binds more strongly on the biogenic calcite than on inorganically precipitated, synthetic powder, because of the presence of trace amounts...... of polysaccharides and clay nanoparticles on the chalk surface....

  7. A qualitative study examining the presence and consequences of moral framings in patients' and mental health workers' experiences of community treatment orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Sharon; Delany, Toni; Pulvirenti, Mariastella; Smith, Ann; McMillan, John

    2015-11-06

    Mental health recovery involves acknowledging the importance of building the person's capacity for agency. This might be particularly important for patients on community treatment orders (CTOs - which involve enforced treatment for their mental illness), given limited international evidence for their effectiveness and underlying concerns about the use of coercion by workers and systems of care towards this population of people with mental illness. This study sought to understand how the meaning of CTOs is constructed and experienced, from the perspective of patients on CTOs and workers directly administering CTOs. Qualitative interviews were conducted with South Australian community mental health patients (n = 8) and mental health workers (n = 10) in 2013-14. During thematic analysis of data, assisted by NVIVO software, the researchers were struck by the language used by both groups of participants and so undertook an examination of the moral framings apparent within the data. Moral framing was apparent in participants' constructions and evaluations of the CTO experience as positive, negative or justifiable. Most patient participants appeared to use moral framing to: try to understand why they were placed on a CTO; make sense of the experience of being on a CTO; and convey the lessons they have learnt. Worker participants appeared to use moral framing to justify the imposition of care. Empathy was part of this, as was patients' positive right to services and treatment, which they believed would only occur for these patients via a CTO. Workers positioned themselves as trying to put themselves in the patients' shoes as a way of acting virtuously towards them, softening the coercive stick approach. Four themes were identified: explicit moral framing; best interests of the patient; lessons learned by the patient; and, empathy. Experiences of CTOs are multi-layered, and depend critically upon empathy and reflection on the relationship between what is done and

  8. Hazardous materials on golf courses: Experience and knowledge of golf course superintendents and grounds maintenance workers from seven states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury-Quandt, Alice E.; Gentry, Amanda L.; Marín, Antonio J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The golf course industry has a growing Latino work force. Little occupational health research has addressed this work force. This paper examines golf course superintendents’ and Latino grounds maintenance workers’ pesticide knowledge, beliefs, and safety training. In particular, it focuses on knowledge of and adherence to OSHA Right-to-Know regulations. Methods In person, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten golf course superintendents in five states and with sixteen Latino grounds maintenance workers in four states. Results Few superintendents were in compliance with Right-to-Know regulations or did pesticide safety training with all of their workers. Few workers had any pesticide safety knowledge. Most safety training on golf courses was rudimentary and focused on machine safety, and was usually conducted in the off-season or on rainy days, not before workers were assigned tasks. Conclusions More Right-to-Know training is necessary for superintendents and grounds maintenance workers. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Spanish language materials need to be developed or made more widely available to train workers. Better enforcement of safety and training regulations is necessary. PMID:21360723

  9. The mortality and cancer morbidity experience of workers at the Springfields uranium production facility, 1946-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGeoghegan, D.; Binks, K.

    2000-01-01

    The results presented here are from the follow-up of the cohort of workers ever employed at the Springfields site of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) between 1946 and 1995. The main activity of the site is uranium fuel fabrication and uranium hexafluoride production. The study cohort consists of 19 454 current and former employees, 13 960 of which were classified as radiation workers, and contains 479 146 person-years of follow-up. The mean follow-up period is 24.6 years. To the end of 1995 there have been 4832 deaths recorded for this cohort, 3476 of which were amongst radiation workers and 1356 were amongst non-radiation workers. The standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all causes were 84 and 98 for radiation workers and non-radiation workers respectively. For all cancers the SMRs were 86 and 96 respectively. For cancer morbidity the standardised registration ratios (SRRs) for all cancers were 81 and 81 respectively. Significant associations were noted for both mortality and morbidity due to Hodgkin's disease and cumulative external dose. A strong association was also noted for morbidity, but not mortality, due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These associations, however, are unlikely to be causal. The excess relative risk estimates for cancer other than leukaemia and for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia are consistent with other occupationally exposed cohorts and estimates from the high-dose studies. (author)

  10. Nickel deposited on the skin-visualization by DMG test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Anneli; Skare, Lizbet; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2011-03-01

    Nickel is the most common cause of contact allergy and an important risk factor for hand eczema. Visualization techniques may be powerful in showing exposures. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test might be used to establish skin exposure to nickel. To develop and evaluate methods for visualization of nickel on the skin by the DMG test and hand imprints. Nickel solutions at different concentrations were applied in duplicate on the hands in healthy subjects (n = 5). The DMG test and acid wipe sampling for quantification were then performed. Hand imprints were taken after manipulation of nickel-releasing tools (n = 1), and in workers performing their normal tasks (n = 7). The imprints were developed by the DMG test. The DMG test on hands gave positive results in all subjects. The lowest concentration giving rise to a colour change was set to 0.13 µg/cm(2) for DMG testing on skin. DMG test-developed imprints worked well except when hands were heavily contaminated by other particles/dust. The DMG test may be used as a simple and powerful tool for visualization of nickel on skin. DMG test-developed hand imprints may, in the future, be used for semi-quantitative or quantitative exposure assessment. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Diffusion of e-health innovations in 'post-conflict' settings: a qualitative study on the personal experiences of health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Aniek; Fyfe, Molly; Handuleh, Jibril; Patel, Preeti; Godman, Brian; Leather, Andrew; Finlayson, Alexander

    2014-04-23

    Technological innovations have the potential to strengthen human resources for health and improve access and quality of care in challenging 'post-conflict' contexts. However, analyses on the adoption of technology for health (that is, 'e-health') and whether and how e-health can strengthen a health workforce in these settings have been limited so far. This study explores the personal experiences of health workers using e-health innovations in selected post-conflict situations. This study had a cross-sectional qualitative design. Telephone interviews were conducted with 12 health workers, from a variety of cadres and stages in their careers, from four post-conflict settings (Liberia, West Bank and Gaza, Sierra Leone and Somaliland) in 2012. Everett Roger's diffusion of innovation-decision model (that is, knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, contemplation) guided the thematic analysis. All health workers interviewed held positive perceptions of e-health, related to their beliefs that e-health can help them to access information and communicate with other health workers. However, understanding of the scope of e-health was generally limited, and often based on innovations that health workers have been introduced through by their international partners. Health workers reported a range of engagement with e-health innovations, mostly for communication (for example, email) and educational purposes (for example, online learning platforms). Poor, unreliable and unaffordable Internet was a commonly mentioned barrier to e-health use. Scaling-up existing e-health partnerships and innovations were suggested starting points to increase e-health innovation dissemination. Results from this study showed ICT based e-health innovations can relieve information and communication needs of health workers in post-conflict settings. However, more efforts and investments, preferably driven by healthcare workers within the post-conflict context, are needed to make e-health more

  12. Health workers' experiences of coping with the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone's health system: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Joanna; Wurie, Haja; Witter, Sophie

    2018-04-05

    The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease epidemic evolved in alarming ways in Sierra Leone spreading to all districts. The country struggled to control it against a backdrop of a health system that was already over-burdened. Health workers play an important role during epidemics but there is limited research on how they cope during health epidemics in fragile states. This paper explores the challenges faced by health workers and their coping strategies during the Ebola outbreak in four districts - Bonthe, Kenema, Koinadugu and Western Area - of Sierra Leone. We used a qualitative study design: key informant interviews (n = 19) with members of the District Health Management Teams and local councils, health facility managers and international partners; and in depth interviews with health workers (n = 25) working in public health facilities and international health workers involved with the treatment of Ebola patients. There were several important coping strategies including those that drew upon existing mechanisms: being sustained by religion, a sense of serving their country and community, and peer and family support. Externally derived strategies included: training which built health worker confidence in providing care; provision of equipment to do their job safely; a social media platform which helped health workers deal with challenges; workshops that provided ways to deal with the stigma associated with being a health worker; and the risk allowance, which motivated staff to work in facilities and provided an additional income source. Supportive supervision, peer support networks and better use of communication technology should be pursued, alongside a programme for rebuilding trusting relations with community structures. The challenge is building these mechanisms into routine systems, pre-empting shocks, rather than waiting to respond belatedly to crises.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kaba Alhassan

    Full Text Available Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps.To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients.The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38 and public (n = 26 primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72% were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation.Intrinsic (non-financial work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while financial incentives were

  14. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F

    2016-01-01

    Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while financial incentives were ranked

  15. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. Purpose To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. Methods The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Results Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while

  16. Determination of nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletiko, C.

    1988-01-01

    The research of activation products in the environment is often centered on cobalt-60 or other gamma emitters, since pure beta emitters require time consuming separations to be counted. However, some beta emitters must be checked because they have a build up in the environment, leading to potential hazards. Among these nuclides, there is nickel-63 which is a pure, soft beta emitter (67 keV) with a long half-life (100 years). A chemical separation, providing good results, was developed. Such a separation is based upon nickel carrier addition in the sample than DMG complex formation and isolation; after elimination of solvent. DMG complex is destroyed. Chemical yield is determined by flame atomic absorption measurement and nickel-63 counted by liquid scintillation. The described procedure allows the determination of low-level activities in different samples (soils, effluents, etc.). Detection limits are close to 0.1 Bq per sample

  17. Zero Health Worker Infection: Experiences From the China Ebola Treatment Unit During the Ebola Epidemic in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Yin, Huahua; Liu, Ding

    2017-04-01

    In November 2014, a total of 164 health care workers were dispatched by the Chinese government as the first medical assistance team to Liberia. The tasks of this team were to establish a China Ebola treatment unit (ETU), to commence the initial admission and treatment of suspected and confirmed Ebola patients, and to provide public health and infection control training for relevant local personnel. Overall, during the 2-month stay of this first medical assistance team in Liberia, 112 Ebola-suspected patients presented to the ETU, 65 patients were admitted, including 5 confirmed cases, and 3 confirmed cases were cured. Furthermore, 1520 local people were trained, including health care workers, military health care workers, staff members employed by the ETU, and community residents. Most importantly, as the first Chinese medical assistance team deployed to Liberia fighting the Ebola virus on the frontline, not a single member of this team or the hired local staff were infected by Ebola virus. This highly successful outcome was due to the meticulous infection control initiatives developed by the team, thereby making a significant contribution to China's ETU "zero infection" of health workers in Liberia. The major infection control initiatives conducted in the China ETU that contributed to achieving "zero infection" of all health workers in the ETU are introduced in this report. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:262-266).

  18. Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicalho, U.O.; Santos, D.C.; Silvestrini, D.R.; Trama, B.; Carmo, D.R. do

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NHNi) were prepared in three medium (aqueous, formamide and aqueous/formamide). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electronica spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region and also by cyclic voltammetry (CV). By spectroscopic analysis of X-ray diffraction was possible to estimate the size of the particles obtained by the Scherrer equation. The graphite paste electrodes containing nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate means formamide was sensitive to different concentrations of Dipyrone. (author)

  19. Nickel sensitisation in mice: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; Wäckerle-Men, Ying; Senti, Gabriela; Kündig, Thomas M

    2010-06-01

    The market release of new domestic and industrial chemical and metal products requires certain safety certification, including testing for skin sensitisation. Although various official guidelines have described how such testing is to be done, the validity of the available test models are in part dubious, for which reason regulatory agencies and research aim to further improve and generalise the models for testing of skin sensitisation. We applied a recently published murine model of nickel allergy as to test its applicability in a regulatory setting and to study and better understand the events leading to type-IV hypersensitivity. Nickel was chosen as model hapten since it induces allergic contact dermatitis with high incidence in the general population. Typically, C57BL/6 mice were sensitised and challenged by intradermal applications of nickel, and cutaneous inflammation was analysed by the mouse ear-swelling test, by histology, and by lymphocyte reactivity in vitro. Surprisingly, the study suggested that the skin reactions observed were results of irritant reactions rather than of adaptive immune responses. Non-sensitised mice responded with cutaneous inflammation and in vitro lymphocyte reactivity which were comparable with nickel-sensitised mice. Furthermore, histological examinations as well as experiments in T-cell deficient mice demonstrated that lymphocytes were not involved and that nickel caused an irritant contact dermatitis rather a true allergic type-IV contact dermatitis. The authors question the validity of the described murine model of nickel allergy. Copyright 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nickel silicide formation in silicon implanted nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Z.; Williams, J. S.; Pogany, A. P.; Sood, D. K.; Collins, G. A.

    1995-04-01

    Nickel silicide formation during the annealing of very high dose (≥4.5×1017 ions/cm2) Si implanted Ni has been investigated, using ion beam analytical techniques, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analysis. An initial amorphous Si-Ni alloy, formed as a result of high dose ion implantation, first crystallized to Ni2Si upon annealing in the temperature region of 200-300 °C. This was followed by the formation of Ni5Si2 in the temperature region of 300-400 °C and then by Ni3Si at 400-600 °C. The Ni3Si layer was found to have an epitaxial relationship with the substrate Ni, which was determined as Ni3Si∥Ni and Ni3Si∥Ni for Ni(100) samples. The minimum channeling yield in the 2 MeV He Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectra of this epitaxial layer improved with higher annealing temperatures up to 600 °C, and reached a best value measured at about 8%. However, the epitaxial Ni3Si dissolved after long time annealing at 600 °C or annealing at higher temperatures to liberate soluble Si into the Ni substrate. The epitaxy is attributed to the excellent lattice match between the Ni3Si and the Ni. The annealing behavior follows the predictions of the Ni-Si phase diagram for this nickel-rich binary system.

  1. Living through conflict and post-conflict: experiences of health workers in northern Uganda and lessons for people-centred health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namakula, Justine; Witter, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    Providing people-centred health systems--or any systems at all--requires specific measures to protect and retain healthcare workers during and after the conflict. This is particularly important when health staff are themselves the target of violence and abduction, as is often the case. This article presents the perspective of health workers who lived through conflict in four districts of northern Uganda--Pader, Gulu, Amuru, and Kitgum. These contained more than 90% of the people displaced by the decades of conflict, which ended in 2006. The article is based on 26 in-depth interviews, using a life history approach. This participatory tool encouraged participants to record key events and decisions in their lives, and to explore areas such as their decision to become a health worker, their employment history, and their experiences of conflict and coping strategies. These were analyzed thematically to develop an understanding of how to protect and retain staff in these challenging contexts. During the conflict, many health workers lost their lives or witnessed the death of their friends and colleagues. They also experienced abduction, ambush and injury. Other challenges included disconnection from social and professional support systems, displacement, limited supplies and equipment, increased workload and long working days and lack of pay. Health workers were not passive in the face of these challenges, however. They adopted a range of safety measures, such as mingling with community members, sleeping in the bush, and frequent change of sleeping place, in addition to psychological and practical coping strategies. Understanding their motivation and their views provides an important insight how to maintain staffing and so to continue to offer essential health care during difficult times and in marginalized areas. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  2. The cost of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    %), followed by aluminium-bronze (62, 17%). In total, 239 denominations released nickel (28%). Coins from Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica did not release nickel. Fewer than one-third of the denominations or issues from China, India, the euro area and Indonesia released nickel. In the United States, the Russian...... Federation, Japan, and Mexico, one-third or more of the denominations released nickel. Conclusions. This worldwide selection of circulating coins covered countries with 75% of the world population, and shows that the majority of the world population lives in countries where coins release nickel. Pertinently...

  3. The challenges of training, support and assessment of healthcare support workers: A qualitative study of experiences in three English acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarre, Sophie; Maben, Jill; Aldus, Clare; Schneider, Justine; Wharrad, Heather; Nicholson, Caroline; Arthur, Antony

    2018-03-01

    Ever-growing demands on care systems have increased reliance on healthcare support workers. In the UK, their training has been variable, but organisation-wide failures in care have prompted questions about how this crucial section of the workforce should be developed. Their training, support and assessment has become a policy priority. This paper examines: healthcare support workers' access to training, support and assessment; perceived gaps in training provision; and barriers and facilitators to implementation of relevant policies in acute care. We undertook a qualitative study of staff caring for older inpatients at ward, divisional or organisational-level in three acute National Health Service hospitals in England in 2014. 58 staff working with older people (30 healthcare support workers and 24 staff managing or working alongside them) and 4 healthcare support worker training leads. One-to-one semi-structured interviews included: views and experiences of training and support; translation of training into practice; training, support and assessment policies and difficulties of implementing them. Transcripts were analysed to identify themes. Induction training was valued, but did not fully prepare healthcare support workers for the realities of the ward. Implementation of hospital policies concerning supervision and formal assessment of competencies varied between and within hospitals, and was subject to availability of appropriate staff and competing demands on staff time. Gaps identified in training provision included: caring for people with cognitive impairment; managing the emotions of patients, families and themselves; and having difficult conversations. Access to ongoing training was affected by: lack of time; infrequent provision; attitudes of ward managers to additional support workforce training, and their need to balance this against patients' and other staff members' needs; and the use of e-learning as a default mode of training delivery. With the

  4. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  5. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  6. Preparation of self-supporting metallic foils of nickel isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao.

    1975-01-01

    This is the fourth report on the practical methods of target preparation for use in low energy nuclear experiments following the previous one (INS-J-150). An electroplating method has been developed as a dependable and reproducible technique for making self-supporting metallic foils of nickel in the thickness range of 0.5 to 10 mg/cm 2 . The procedures minimized the necessary amount of material so that nickel isotopes could be processed economically. Impurity contamination of the nickel foils during the electroplating process was less than 500 ppm, and the thickness variation in each foil was less than 3% of the central thickness. (auth.)

  7. Gender, Cultural Influences, and Coping with Musculoskeletal Pain at Work: The Experience of Malaysian Female Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maakip, Ismail; Oakman, Jodi; Stuckey, Rwth

    2017-06-01

    Purpose Workers with musculoskeletal pain (MSP) often continue to work despite their condition. Understanding the factors that enable them to remain at work provides insights into the development of appropriate workplace accommodations. This qualitative study aims to explore the strategies utilised by female Malaysian office workers with MSP to maintain productive employment. Methods A qualitative approach using thematic analysis was used. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 female Malaysian office workers with MSP. Initial codes were identified and refined through iterative discussion to further develop the emerging codes and modify the coding framework. A further stage of coding was undertaken to eliminate redundant codes and establish analytic connections between distinct themes. Results Two major themes were identified: managing the demands of work and maintaining employment with persistent musculoskeletal pain. Participants reported developing strategies to assist them to remain at work, but most focused on individually initiated adaptations or peer support, rather than systemic changes to work systems or practices. A combination of the patriarchal and hierarchical cultural occupational context emerged as a critical factor in the finding of individual or peer based adaptations rather than organizational accommodations. Conclusions It is recommended that supervisors be educated in the benefits of maintaining and retaining employees with MSP, and encouraged to challenge cultural norms and develop appropriate flexible workplace accommodations through consultation and negotiation with these workers.

  8. Towards Promotion of Community rewards to Volunteer Community Health Workers? Lessons from Experiences of Village Health Teams in Luwero, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turinawe, E.B.; Rwemisisi, J.T.; Musinguzi, L.K.; de Groot, M.; Muhangi, D.; Mafigiri, D.K.; de Vries, D.H.; Pool, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the debate regarding volunteer Community Health Workers (CHWs) some argue that lack of remuneration is exploitation while others caution that any promise to pay volunteers will decrease the volunteer spirit. In this paper we discuss the possibility of community rewards for CHWs. Ethnographic

  9. Adoption and Usage of mHealth Technology on Quality and Experience of Care Provided by Frontline Workers: Observations From Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Sangya; Chaturvedi, Sharad; Chaudhuri, Indrajit; Krishnan, Ram; Lesh, Neal

    2015-05-28

    mHealth apps are deployed with the aim of improving access, quality, and experience of health care. It is possible that any mHealth intervention can yield differential impacts for different types of users. Mediating and determining factors, including personal and socioeconomic factors, affect technology adoption, the way health workers leverage and use the technology, and subsequently the quality and experience of care they provide. To develop a framework to assess whether mHealth platforms affect the quality and experience of care provided by frontline workers, and whether these effects on quality and experience are different depending on the level of technology adoption and individual characteristics of the health worker. Literacy, education, age, and previous mobile experience are identified as individual factors that affect technology adoption and use, as well as factors that affect the quality and experience of care directly and via the technology. Formative research was conducted with 15 community health workers (CHWs) using CommCare, an mHealth app for maternal and newborn care, in Bihar, India. CHWs were first classified on the level of CommCare adoption using data from CommCareHQ and were then shadowed on home visits to evaluate their levels of technology proficiency, and the quality and experience of care provided. Regression techniques were employed to test the relationships. Out of all the CHWs, 2 of them refused to participate in the home visits, however, we did have information on their levels of technology adoption and background characteristics, which were included in the analysis as relevant. Level of technology adoption was important for both quality and experience of care. The quality score for high users of CommCare was higher by 33.4% (P=.04), on average, compared to low users of CommCare. Those who scored higher on CommCare proficiency also provided significantly higher quality and experience of care, where an additional point in Comm

  10. Recovery Of Nickel From Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries Using A Direct Reduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin D.J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most nickel is produced as Ferro-Nickel through a smelting process from Ni-bearing ore. However, these days, there have been some problems in nickel production due to exhaustion and the low-grade of Ni-bearing ore. Moreover, the smelting process results in a large amount of wastewater, slag and environmental risk. Therefore, in this research, spent Ni-Cd batteries were used as a base material instead of Ni-bearing ore for the recovery of Fe-Ni alloy through a direct reduction process. Spent Ni-Cd batteries contain 24wt% Ni, 18.5wt% Cd, 12.1% C and 27.5wt% polymers such as KOH. For pre-treatment, Cd was vaporized at 1024K. In order to evaluate the reduction conditions of nickel oxide and iron oxide, pre-treated spent Ni-Cd batteries were experimented on under various temperatures, gas-atmospheres and crucible materials. By a series of process, alloys containing 75 wt% Ni and 20 wt% Fe were produced. From the results, the reduction mechanism of nickel oxide and iron oxide were investigated.

  11. Reconstruction of historical exposures at a Welsh nickel refinery (1953-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulka, Donna J; Seilkop, Steven K; Lascelles, Keith; Conard, Bruce R; Jones, Sian F; Collinson, Eric C

    2014-07-01

    Past epidemiological studies of workers in a nickel refinery in Clydach, Wales, have shown evidence of large excess respiratory cancer mortality risks [lung cancer relative risk (RR) ≈ 3; nasal cancer RR ≈ 140] in those employed prior to 1930, with risks dropping dramatically in workers hired subsequently. The pre-1930 risks have generally been attributed to high exposures to mixtures of nickel compounds. More recent studies of this refinery's workers have focused on those first hired in 1953, when many of the operations that presumably gave rise to the high exposures were no longer in operation. While these studies have shown greatly decreased lung cancer risks overall (RR ≈ 1.4), and no substantive evidence of increased nasal cancer risk, the absence of reliable exposure estimates have made it difficult to ascertain whether the increased lung cancer risks are nickel related or due to other factors. This study uses nickel measurements from the 1970s to the present, documentation of process changes, and dust measurements taken around the 1950s to construct an exposure matrix for the recent cohort. It provides evidence of at least 30-fold decreases in levels of nickel exposure from the 1950s to the present, with estimated inhalable nickel concentrations in the 1950s in excess of 5mg Ni m(-3). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  12. Gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in occupational exposure to nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Serena; Larese, Francesca Filon; Trevisan, Giusto; Avian, Andrea; Rui, Francesca; Stanta, Giorgio; Bovenzi, Massimo

    2011-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is preceded by a clinically silent phase of sensitisation. In this study, we investigated whether the expression levels of six genes were related to nickel exposure and/or nickel sensitisation, and whether they could predict allergic manifestations to nickel. The mRNA expression level of six genes involved in cell growth (PIM1 and ETS2), metabolism/synthesis (HSD11B1 and PRDX4), apoptosis (CASP8) and signal transduction (CISH) was investigated by means of quantitative real-time RT-PCR in a cohort of 110 subjects, including healthy controls (n=51), nickel-exposed workers (n=23) and patients allergic to nickel (n=36). Our findings show that the expression levels of the analysed genes did not differ between allergic patients and healthy controls, while higher expression levels of ETS2 and CASP8 were detected in the nickel-exposed workers. Changes in ETS2 and CASP8 expression are likely to be related to nickel exposure rather than to allergy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Carbon deposition on nickel ferrites and nickel-magnetite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Jutson, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Carbon deposition on Commercial Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (CAGR) fuel cladding and heat exchanger surfaces lowers heat transfer efficiency and increases fuel pin temperatures. Several types of deposit have been identified including both thin dense layers and also low density columnar deposits with filamentary or convoluted laminar structure. The low-density types are often associated with particles containing iron, nickel or manganese. To identify the role of nickel in the deposition process surfaces composed of nickel-iron spinels or metallic nickel/magnetite mixtures have been exposed to γ radiation in a gas environment simulating that in the reactor. Examination of these surfaces by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have shown that while metallic nickel (Ni(O)) catalyses the formation of filamentary low density carbon deposits, the presence of divalent nickel (Ni(II)) sites in spinel type oxides is associated only with dense deposits. (author)

  14. Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Goswami, Chandrima; Chatterjee, Sumon; Majumder, Arunabha; Mishra, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater has considerably increased in the last few years. It is essential to have an effective removal mechanism of these toxic metals. Current research includes the need to develop environment friendly and cost effective technologies for removing heavy metals from water. In several studies cadmium and nickel have been considerably removed using phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza, common duckweed has been examined in the present study for 3 different concentrations of cadmium (1, 2 and 3 mg/L) and nickel (4, 5 and 6 mg/L). Two sets of experiments for cadmium and nickel were conducted separately. Effect of metal toxicity on Spirodela polyrhiza was evaluated in terms of relative growth factor and cadmium was found to be more toxic than nickel. Under experimental condition BCF value for cadmium removal was more than >1000 in all the 3 concentrations of cadmium. But the BCF value was found to be more than > 1000 only when input nickel concentration was 4 mg/L during phytoremediation process. Experimental results suggest that Spirodela polyrhiza has the potential of accumulating cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution at lower metal concentration. (author)

  15. Rare occupational cause of nasal septum perforation: Nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolek, Ertugrul Cagri; Erden, Abdulsamet; Kulekci, Cagri; Kalyoncu, Umut; Karadag, Omer

    2017-10-06

    Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis), some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine). Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium), it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6):963-967. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Rare occupational cause of nasal septum perforation: Nickel exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Cagri Bolek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis, some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine. Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium, it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6:963–967

  17. Nickel hydrogen/nickel cadmium battery trade studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen cell and battery technology has matured to the point where a real choice exists between Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium batteries for each new spacecraft application. During the past few years, a number of spacecraft programs have been evaluated at Hughes with respect to this choice, with the results being split about fifty-fifty. The following paragraphs contain criteria which were used in making the battery selection.

  18. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. HOW DO WORK HIERARCHIES AND STRICT DIVISIONS OF LABOUR IMPACT CARE WORKERS' EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY? CASE STUDIESOF LONG TERM CARE IN TORONTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, I; Daly, T; Armstrong, P; Lowndes, R; Chadoin, M; Naidoo, V

    2016-01-01

    According to the Canadian Health Care Association (1), there are 2,577 long-term care ("LTC") facilities across Canada, with the largest proportion (33.4%) located in Ontario. Most studies focus on residents' health, with less attention paid to the health and safety experiences of staff. Given that the work performed in Ontario LTC facilities is very gendered, increasingly racialized, task-oriented, and with strict divisions of labour, this paper explores in what ways some of these factors impact workers' experiences of health and safety. The study objectives included the following research question: How are work hierarchies and task orientation experienced by staff? This paper draws on data from rapid team-based ethnographies of the shifting division of labour in LTC due to use of informal carers in six non-profit LTC facilities located in Toronto, Ontario. Our method involved conducting observations and key informant interviews (N=167) with registered nurses, registered practical nurses, personal support workers, dietary aides, recreation therapists, families, privately paid companions, students, and volunteers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. For observations, researchers were paired and covered shifts between 7 a.m. and 11 p.m., as well as into the late night over six days, at each of the six sites. Detailed ethnographic field notes were written during and immediately following observational fieldwork. Our results indicate that employee stress is linked to the experiences of care work hierarchies, task orientation, and strict divisions of labour between and among various staff designations. Findings from this project confirm and extend current research that demonstrates there are challenging working conditions in LTC, which can result in occupational health and safety problems, as well as stress for individual workers.

  20. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  1. Nickel accumulation by Hybanthus floribundus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C

    1974-04-26

    Several ecotypes of Hybanthus floribundus are found across the southern part of Australia. However, the three nickel accumulating ecotypes are restricted to a broad belt in Western Australia. Nickel concentrations in this shrub were observed to decrease southwards (from 8000 to 1000 p.p.m.) as the annual rainfall increased from 7 inches to more than 30 inches. Studies have shown that nickel concentrations increase from the roots through the rootstock, into the stems and reach maximum towards the leaf tips. High nickel concentrations are also seen in seed capsules (1500 p.p.m.), seeds (2000 p.p.m.) and flowers. The maximum nickel concentration recorded is 1.6% (26% nickel in ash) in mature leaf tissue. 16 references, 2 tables.

  2. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  3. Mortality study of nickel platers with special reference to cancers of the stomach and lung, 1945-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, D; Burges, D C; Sorahan, T

    1996-10-01

    To re-examine mortality patterns in a cohort of nickel platers with no history of chromium plating. All 284 men first employed by the company in 1945-75 with a minimum employment of three months in the nickel plating department were identified. Workers who had worked in the chromium plating or nickel/chromium plating departments were excluded. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), P values, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Poisson regression was used to carry out statistical modelling of mortalities within the cohort (internal standard). Four variables were considered to have the potential to influence mortality within the cohort: attained age (age at follow up or age at death), year of starting nickel work, period of follow up (measured from the first period of work with nickel exposure), and duration of exposure to nickel. The only significant difference between observed and expected numbers, when investigated by site of cancer and by broad non-cancer groupings, was that for stomach cancer (observed eight, expected 2.49, SMR 322). The study provides only weak evidence that nickel plating is associated with an excess risk of stomach cancer. This cohort of nickel platers does not seem to have experienced any discernible risk of occupational lung cancer. Other studies of nickel platers rather than nickel/chromium platers would be useful.

  4. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  5. Do Japanese workers who experience an acute myocardial infarction believe their prolonged working hours are a cause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Dracup, Kathleen; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan; Ohno, Miyoshi; Hirayama, Haruo; Shiina, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Fumio

    2005-04-08

    Cardiovascular disease related to excessive work/job stress has been a significant social concern for the Japanese public. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to (1) compare job stress levels between patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and healthy workers, and (2) examine the types of stresses associated with patients' causal belief of AMI among patients with AMI. Forty-seven patients admitted to the hospital with AMI and 47 healthy workers visiting a hospital for their annual physical examination were recruited in Japan. Both groups were employed full time and matched on age and gender. Job stress was assessed by the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, which consists of four subscales: job demand, job control, support from supervisors, and support from coworkers. Causal belief was assessed by a semi-structured interview. Compared with healthy workers (50.7+/-8.6 h), AMI patients worked significantly longer hours per week (58.3+/-15.0 h) prior to their AMI. Among AMI patients, 38% reported that job stress might have contributed to their AMI. AMI patients who reported acute stressful events at work during the month prior to AMI were 6.88 times (95% CI: 1.84, 25.75) more likely to believe that job stress/overwork caused their AMI after controlling for working hours per week and age. Like other known cardiac risk factors, it is important for clinicians to assess patient's excessive working hours. The education and counseling of patients following AMI must take into consideration long working hours, acute stressful events at work, and the patient's perceived view of job stress.

  6. Documenting the experiences of health workers expected to implement guidelines during an intervention study in Kenyan hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warira Ann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although considerable efforts are directed at developing international guidelines to improve clinical management in low-income settings they appear to influence practice rarely. This study aimed to explore barriers to guideline implementation in the early phase of an intervention study in four district hospitals in Kenya. Methods We developed a simple interview guide based on a simple characterisation of the intervention informed by review of major theories on barriers to uptake of guidelines. In-depth interviews, non-participatory observation, and informal discussions were then used to explore perceived barriers to guideline introduction and general improvements in paediatric and newborn care. Data were collected four to five months after in-service training in the hospitals. Data were transcribed, themes explored, and revised in two rounds of coding and analysis using NVivo 7 software, subjected to a layered analysis, reviewed, and revised after discussion with four hospital staff who acted as within-hospital facilitators. Results A total of 29 health workers were interviewed. Ten major themes preventing guideline uptake were identified: incomplete training coverage; inadequacies in local standard setting and leadership; lack of recognition and appreciation of good work; poor communication and teamwork; organizational constraints and limited resources; counterproductive health worker norms; absence of perceived benefits linked to adoption of new practices; difficulties accepting change; lack of motivation; and conflicting attitudes and beliefs. Conclusion While the barriers identified are broadly similar in theme to those reported from high-income settings, their specific nature often differs. For example, at an institutional level there is an almost complete lack of systems to introduce or reinforce guidelines, poor teamwork across different cadres of health worker, and failure to confront poor practice. At an individual

  7. Task shifting--Ghana's community mental health workers' experiences and perceptions of their roles and scope of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Osei, Akwasi; Farren, Conor K; McAuliffe, Eilish

    2015-01-01

    Because of the absence of adequate numbers of psychiatrists, the bulk of mental health care at the community level in Ghana is provided by community mental health workers (CMHWs). To examine the role and scope of practice of CMHWs in Ghana from their own perspectives and to make recommendations to improve the care they provide. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 164 CMHWs from all the 10 administrative regions of Ghana, comprising 71 (43.3%) community psychiatric nurses (CPNs), 19 (11.6%) clinical psychiatric officers (CPOs), and 74 (45.1%) community mental health officers (CMHOs). Overall, only 39 (23.8%) CMHWs worked closely with psychiatrists, 64 (39%) worked closely with social workers, 46 (28%) worked closely with psychologists and 13 (7.9%) worked closely with occupational therapists. A lower proportion of CMHOs worked closely with psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers compared with CPOs and CPNs. There was no significant difference in the proportion of the different CMHW types who expressed confidence in their ability to diagnose any of the commonly named mental health conditions except personality disorders. However, a lower proportion of CMHOs than CPOs and CPNs expressed confidence in their ability to treat all the disorders. The CMHWs ranked schizophrenia as the most frequently treated mental health condition and there was no statistically significant difference in the reported frequency with which the three groups of CMHWs treated any of the mental health conditions. Mental health policy makers and coordinators need to thoroughly review the training curriculum and also evaluate the job descriptions of all CMHWs in Ghana to ensure that they are consistent with the demands and health-care needs of patients they care for in their communities. For example, as CMHOs and CPNs prescribe medication even though they are not expected to do so, it may be worth exploring the merits of including the prescription of common psychotropic medication in

  8. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  9. "Why should I have come here?"--A qualitative investigation of migration reasons and experiences of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirovsky, Elena; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Maier, Manfred; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-02-26

    There are many health professionals from abroad working in the European Union and in Austria. The situation of sub-Saharan health workers in particular has now been studied for the first time. The objective was to explore their reasons for migration to Austria, as well as their personal experiences concerning the living and working situation in Austria. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with African health workers. They were approached via professional networks and a snowball system. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using atlas.ti. For most of our participants, the decision to migrate was not professional but situation dependent. Austria was not their first choice as a destination country. Several study participants left their countries to improve their overall working situation. The main motivation for migrating to Austria was partnership with an Austrian citizen. Other immigrants were refugees. Most of the immigrants found the accreditation process to work as a health professional to be difficult and hindering. This resulted in some participants not being able to work in their profession, while others were successful in their profession or in related fields. There have been experiences of discrimination, but also positive support. Austria is not an explicit target country for health workers from sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the study participants experienced bad work and study conditions in their home countries, but they are in Austria mostly because of personal connections. The competencies of those who are here are not fully utilised. The major reason is Austria's current resident and work permit regulations concerning African citizens. In addition, the accreditation process and the German language appear to be barriers.

  10. Nickel, cobalt, and their alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt, and their alloys. It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt, and related industries.

  11. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ulibarri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of abuse experiences and depression symptoms among injection drug-using female sex workers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K; Silverman, Jay G; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors-ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work-were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  13. "Whenever I can I push myself to go to work": a qualitative study of experiences of sickness presenteeism among workers with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Paula; Collins, Alison M

    2018-02-01

    UK government policy emphasizes the importance of continuing to work for recovery from poor health, yet sickness presenteeism (going to work whilst ill) is commonly regarded as having negative consequences for organizations and individuals. Our study explores experiences of working after onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized by high rates of work disability. An exploratory qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews and six-month follow-up with 11 men and women with RA employed at disease onset. We expand upon previous models of sickness presenteeism by distinguishing between presenteeism that occurs voluntarily (wanting to work despite illness) and involuntarily (feeling pressured to work when ill). RA onset affected participants' ability to work, yet motivation to remain working remained high. The implementation of workplace adjustments enabled participants to stay working and restore their work capacity. Conversely, managers' misinterpretation of organizational sickness absence policies could lead to involuntary presenteeism or delayed return to work, conflicting with the notion of work as an aid to recovery. Workplace adjustments can facilitate voluntary sickness presenteeism. To reduce work disability and sickness absence, organizational policies should be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the needs of workers with fluctuating conditions. Implications for rehabilitation Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at high risk of work disability. Individuals' motivation to remain in work following onset of RA remains high, yet sickness presenteeism (working while ill) has received largely negative attention. It is important to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary forms of sickness presenteeism. Workplace adjustments facilitate voluntary sickness presenteeism (wanting to work despite illness) and improve job retention and productivity among workers with RA. Involuntary presenteeism (feeling

  14. Recent progress in nickel carcinogenesis. [Cornybacterium; E. coli; S. typhimurium; B. subtillis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Research on nickel carcinogenesis from 1979 to 1983 is reviewed. Epidemiological studies have strengthened the evidence that workers in nickel refineries have increased risks of lung and sinonasal cancers, but have not substantiated increased risks of respiratory cancers in other nickel-exposed workers. Carcinogenesis bioassays have demonstrated carcinogenicity of certain nickel sulfide, hydroxide, selenide, arsenide, antimonide, and telluride compounds following parenteral administration to rodents. Positive bacterial mutagenesis tests have been obtained with Ni(II) in Cornybacterium, but not in E. coli, S. typhimurium, or B. subtilis. Transformation assays of several soluble and crystalline Ni compounds have been positive in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Ni(II) binds to DNA, RNA, and nucleoproteins, and becomes localized in nucleoli. Genotoxic effects of Ni include: (a) chromosomal aberrations, including sister-chromatid exchanges, (b) DNA strandbreaks and DNA-protein cross-links, (c) inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis, (d) infidelity of DNA transcription, and (e) mutations at the HGPRTase locus in Chinese hamster cells and the TK locus in mouse lymphoma cells. These findings are consistent with somatic mutation as the mechanism for initiation of nickel carcinogenesis. Ni compounds cause reversible transition of double-stranded poly(dG-dC) DNA from the right-handed B-helix to the left-handed Z-helix, suggesting a mechanism whereby nickel might modulate oncogene expression. 99 references, 6 tables.

  15. Adsorption of nickel on synthetic hydroxyapatite from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Galambos, M.; Pivarciova, L.; Rajec, P.; Caplovicova, M.

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of nickel on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using a batch method and radiotracer technique. The hydroxyapatite samples used in experiments were a commercial hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite of high crystallinity with Ca/P ratio of 1.563 and 1.688, respectively, prepared by a wet precipitation process. The sorption of nickel on hydroxyapatite was pH independent ranging from 4.5 to 6.5 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The adsorption of nickel was rapid and the percentage of Ni sorption on both samples of hydroxyapatite was >98 % during the first 15-30 min of the contact time for initial Ni 2+ concentration of 1 x 10 -4 mol dm -3 . The experimental data for sorption of nickel have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm and the value of maximum sorption capacity of nickel on a commercial hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite prepared by wet precipitation process was calculated to be 0.184 and 0.247 mmol g -1 , respectively. The sorption of Ni 2+ ions was performed by ion-exchange with Ca 2+ cations on the crystal surface of hydroxyapatite under experimental conditions. The competition effect of Co 2+ and Fe 2+ towards Ni 2+ sorption was stronger than that of Ca 2+ ions. NH 4 + ions have no apparent effect on nickel sorption. (author)

  16. Retirement of Dutch male older workers: the role of mid-life educational, work, health and family experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, M.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Kalmijn, M.

    2010-01-01

    The life course perspective suggests that the retirement process cannot be understood thoroughly without paying attention to distal life experiences. In empirical studies on predictors of retirement, however, mid-life experiences often have remained implicit or have been neglected. This study aims

  17. Surface complexation modelling: Experiments on sorption of nickel on quartz, goethite and kaolinite and preliminary tests on sorption of thorium on quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puukko, E.; Hakanen, M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry. Lab. of Radiochemistry

    1997-09-01

    The aim of the work was to study the sorption behaviour of Ni on quartz, goethite and kaolinite at different pH levels and in different electrolyte solutions of different strength. In addition preliminary experiments were made to study the sorption of thorium on quartz. The MUS quartz and Nilsiae quartz were analysed for MnO{sub 2} by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and the experimental results were modelled with the HYDRAQL computer model. 9 refs.

  18. Addressing vulnerabilities of female sex workers in an HIV prevention intervention in Mumbai and Thane: experiences from the Aastha project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranebennur, Virupax; Gaikwad, Sanjeevsingh; Ramesh, Sowmya; Bhende, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for targeted interventions to consider vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSWs) such as poverty, work-related mobility, and literacy, for effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. This paper describes and examines the association of the Aastha HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention project in Mumbai and Thane, India, on the relationship between vulnerability and behavioral outcomes. Materials and methods Data were drawn from the Behavioural Tracking Survey, a cross-sectional behavioral study conducted in 2010 with 2,431 FSWs recruited in Mumbai and Thane. The key independent measures used were program exposure and “vulnerability index”, a composite index of literacy, factors of dependence (alternative livelihood options, current debt, and children), and aspects of sex work (mobility and duration in sex work). Dependent measures included service uptake, self-confidence, self-identity, and individual agency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the study objectives. Results Of the analytical sample of 2,431 FSWs, 1,295 (53.3%) were categorized as highly vulnerable. Highly vulnerable FSWs who were associated with the Aastha program for more than a year were more likely to have accessed crisis-response services in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–3.6; P<0.001), to have visited a clinic to get a checkup for STI symptoms (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–4.8; P<0.015), not to be ashamed to disclose identity as an FSW to health workers (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.5; P<0.008), and to be confident in supporting a fellow FSW in crisis (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.8, P<0.033) compared to those less vulnerable with similar exposure to the Aastha program. Conclusion It is critical for HIV/STI interventions to consider vulnerabilities of FSWs at project inception and address them with focused strategies, including a segmented service-delivery model and community

  19. Sorption of cobalt and nickel on anaerobic granular sludges: isotherms and sequential extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullebusch, van E.D.; Peerbolte, A.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the sorption capacity and the fractionation of sorbed nickel and cobalt onto anaerobic granular sludges. Two different anaerobic granular sludges (non-fed, pH = 7) were loaded with nickel and cobalt in. adsorption experiments (monometal and competitive

  20. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...

  1. "I can't do this, it's too much": building social inclusion in cancer diagnosis and treatment experiences of Aboriginal people, their carers and health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Carla; Gray, Rebecca; Brener, Loren; Jackson, Clair; Saunders, Veronica; Johnson, Priscilla; Harris, Magdalena; Butow, Phyllis; Newman, Christy

    2014-04-01

    Social inclusion theory has been used to understand how people at the margins of society engage with service provision. The aim of this paper was to explore the cancer care experiences of Aboriginal people in NSW using a social inclusion lens. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 Aboriginal people with cancer, 18 carers of Aboriginal people and 16 health care workers. Participants' narratives described experiences that could be considered to be situational factors in social inclusion such as difficulties in managing the practical and logistic aspects of accessing cancer care. Three factors were identified as processes of social inclusion that tied these experiences together including socio-economic security, trust (or mistrust arising from historic and current experience of discrimination), and difficulties in knowing the system of cancer treatment. These three factors may act as barriers to the social inclusion of Aboriginal people in cancer treatment. This challenges the cancer care system to work to acknowledge these forces and create practical and symbolic responses, in partnership with Aboriginal people, communities and health organisations.

  2. Lung cancer mortality in nickel/chromium platers, 1946-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorahan, T; Burges, D C; Hamilton, L; Harrington, J M

    1998-04-01

    To investigate mortality from lung cancer in nickel/chromium platers. The mortality experience of a cohort of 1762 chrome workers (812 men, 950 women) from a large electroplating and light engineering plant in the Midlands, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1946-95. All subjects were first employed in chrome work at the plant during the period 1946-75, and had at least six months employment in jobs associated with exposure to chromic acid mist (hexavalent chromium). Detailed job histories were abstracted from original company personnel records and individual cumulative durations of employment in three types of chrome work were derived as time dependent variables (chrome bath work, other chrome work, any chrome work). Two analytical approaches were used--indirect standardisation and Poisson regression. Based on mortalities for the general population of England and Wales, male workers with some period of chrome bath work had higher lung cancer mortalities (observed deaths 40, expected deaths 25.41, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 157, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 113 to 214, p chrome workers (observed 9, expected 13.70, SMR 66, 95% CI 30 to 125). Similar findings were shown for female workers (chrome bath workers: observed 15, expected 8.57, SMR 175, 95% CI 98 to 289, p = 0.06; other chrome workers: observed 1, expected 4.37, SMR 23, 95% CI 1 to 127). Poisson regression was used to investigate risks of lung cancer relative to four categories of cumulative duration of chrome bath work and four categories of cumulative duration of other chrome work (none, or = 5 y). After adjusting for sex, age, calendar period, year of starting chrome work, period from first chrome work, and employment status (still employed v left employment), there was a significant positive trend (p chrome bath work and risks of mortality for lung cancer. Relative to a risk of unity for those chrome workers without any period of chrome bath work, risks were 2.83 (95% CI 1.47 to

  3. BNFL's experience in preparing and implementing radiation protection programmes for the control of exposure to workers involved with the international transport of nuclear cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, D.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL International Transport have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in the business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations. Arrangements are supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. Exposure to key worker groups continues to be within Category 1 (less than 1mSv/y) of the IAEA Transport Regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1 revised)

  4. Three dimensional characterization of nickel coarsening in solid oxide cells via ex-situ ptychographic nano-tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Angelis, Salvatore; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Tsai, Esther Hsiao Rho

    2018-01-01

    Nickel coarsening is considered a significant cause of solid oxide cell (SOC) performance degradation. Therefore, understanding the morphological changes in the nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) fuel electrode is crucial for the wide spread usage of SOC technology. This paper reports...... a study of the initial 3D microstructure evolution of a SOC analyzed in the pristine state and after 3 and 8 h of annealing at 850 °C, in dry hydrogen. The analysis of the evolution of the same location of the electrode shows a substantial change of the nickel and pore network during the first 3 h...... of treatment, while only negligible changes are observed after 8 h. The nickel coarsening results in loss of connectivity in the nickel network, reduced nickel specific surface area and decreased total triple phase boundary density. For the condition of this experiment, nickel coarsening is shown...

  5. Initial study of Nickel Electrolyte for EnFACE Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widayatno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel electrolyte for a micro-pattern transfer process without photolithography, EnFACE, has been developed. Previous work on copper deposition indicated that a conductivity of ~2.7 Sm-1 is required. Electrochemical parameters of electrolyte i.e. current density and overpotential are also crucial to govern a successful pattern replication. Therefore, the investigation focused on the measurement of physicochemical properties and electrochemical behaviour of the electrolyte at different nickel concentrations and complexing agents of chloride and sulfamate. Nickel electrolytes containing sulfamate, chloride and combined sulfamate-chloride with concentrations between 0.14 M and 0.3 M were investigated. Physicochemical properties i.e. pH and conductivity were measured to ensure if they were in the desired value. The electrochemical behaviour of the electrolytes was measured by polarisation experiments in a standard three-electrode cell. The working electrode was a copper disc (surface area of 0.196 cm2 and the counter electrode was platinum mesh. The potential was measured againts a saturated calomel reference electrode (SCE. The experiments were carried out at various scan rate and Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE rotation speed to see the effect of scan rate and agitation. Based on the measured physicochemical properties, the electrolyte of 0.19 M nickel sulfamate was chosen for experimentation. Polarisation curve of agitated solution suggested that overall nickel electrodeposition reaction is controlled by a combination of kinetics and mass transfer.  Reduction potential of nickel was in the range of -0.7 to -1.0 V. The corresponding current densities for nickel deposition were in the range of -0.1 to -1.5 mA cm-2.

  6. Nickel aggregates produced by radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignier, J.L.; Belloni, J.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel aggregates with subcolloidal size and stable in water have been synthesized by inhibiting the corrosion by the medium. The protective effect of the surfactant is discussed in relation with the characteristics of various types of polyvinyl alcohol studied. The reactivity of aggregates towards oxidizing compounds, nitro blue tetrazolium, methylene blue, silver ions, oxygen, methylviologen, enables an estimation of the redox potential of nickel aggregates (E = - 04 ± 0.05 V). It has been applied to quantitative analysis of the particles in presence of nickel ions. 55 refs [fr

  7. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological co...

  8. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  9. Promotion of flu vaccination among healthcare workers in an Italian academic hospital: An experience with tailored web tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Alessandro; Quattrin, Rosanna; Filiputti, Elisa; Cocconi, Roberto; Arnoldo, Luca; Tricarico, Pierfrancesco; Delendi, Mauro; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2016-10-02

    Influenza causes significant mortality particularly among the elderly and high-risk groups. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of occupational exposure due to contact with patients. Aims of this study was to promote flu shot among HCWs through a multimedia campaign in a large North-Eastern Italian Hospital. The 2013/2014 flu vaccination multimedia campaign addressed to HCWs was developed by maintaining pre-existing tools (letters in pay slip and poster displayed in wards) and creating 4 on-line spots (30") delivered trough the hospital intranet. Campaign effectiveness was assessed in terms of changes in knowledge, attitude and practice comparing data of pre (10 items) and post test (20 items) survey on a randomized sample of HCWs. Response rates were 92.6% (464/501) in pre-test and 83.2% (417/501) in post-test. 93.8% (391/417) of HCWs reported to awareness of the campaign to promote vaccination. Spots were seen by 59.6% (233/391) of HCWs. Some reasons for vaccine denial, "not believing in vaccine efficacy" (34.7% to 14.9%), "not considering flu as a serious problem" (from 24% to 12.6%), "thinking not to get sick" (28.7% to 18.2%) or "being against the vaccine" (32.7% to 21%), showed a statistically significant reduction after the exposure to the campaign. The "intention to get vaccinated in the next year" instead, raised effectively (13.1% to 36.6%). Vaccinated HCWs rate in 2013-2014 season was 7.6% (221/2910), and 5.6% (164/2910) in 2012-2013 (pweb tools deserve to be better studied as effective approach to convey health information among HCWs.

  10. Point defects in nickel; Les defauts ponctuels dans le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I{sub B} (31 deg. K), I{sub C} (42 deg. K), I{sub D} (from to 57 deg. K) and I{sub E} (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I{sub B} the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I{sub D} it is near the <110> direction from the vacancy. In stage I{sub E} there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II{sub B} (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III{sub A} (370 deg. K) and III{sub B} (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [French] Les defauts crees dans le nickel par irradiation avec des electrons a la temperature de 20 deg. K et par irradiation avec des neutrons a la temperature de 28 deg. K sont etudies par l'analyse simultanee du trainage magnetique, de la microscopie electronique et de la restauration de la resistivite electrique. Les echantillons sont en nickel, purifie par la methode de la zone fondue

  11. Point defects in nickel; Les defauts ponctuels dans le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I{sub B} (31 deg. K), I{sub C} (42 deg. K), I{sub D} (from to 57 deg. K) and I{sub E} (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I{sub B} the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I{sub D} it is near the <110> direction from the vacancy. In stage I{sub E} there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II{sub B} (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III{sub A} (370 deg. K) and III{sub B} (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [French] Les defauts crees dans le nickel par irradiation avec des electrons a la temperature de 20 deg. K et par irradiation avec des neutrons a la temperature de 28 deg. K sont etudies par l'analyse simultanee du trainage magnetique, de la microscopie electronique et de la restauration de la resistivite electrique. Les echantillons sont en nickel, purifie par la methode de la zone

  12. Spectrochemical analysis of impurities in nickel and in nickel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbart, Z.; Lorber, A.; Harel, A.

    1981-11-01

    Various spectrochemical methods are described for the quantitative determination of 23 impurities in metallic nickel and in nickel oxide. The average limit of detection is from 1 to 5 ppm and the dynamic range lies over 2.5 orders of magnitude. The elements that were determined are: Al,B,Ba,Bi,Ca,Cd,Co,Cu,Fe,Ga,Ge,In,Mg,Mn,Mo,Nb,Si,Sn,Sr,Ti,Cr,V. (author)

  13. Removing nickel from nickel-coated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, A.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Conductive fibers/yarns are one of the most important materials for smart textiles because of their electrically conductive functionality combined with flexibility and light weight. They can be applied in many fields such as the medical sector, electronics, sensors and even as thermoelectric generators. Temperature sensors, for example, can be made using the thermocouple or thermopile principle which usually uses two different metal wires that can produce a temperature-dependent voltage. However, if metal wires are inserted into a textile structure, they will decrease the flexibility properties of the textile product. Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber (NiCF), a conductive textile yarn, has a potential use as a textile-based thermopile if we can create an alternating region of carbon and nickel along the fiber which in turn it can be used for substituting the metallic thermopile. The idea was to remove nickel from NiCF in order to obtain a yarn that contains alternating zones of carbon and nickel. Due to no literature reporting on how to remove nickel from NiCF, in this paper we investigated some chemicals to remove nickel from NiCF.

  14. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...... phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones....

  15. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones.......Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...

  16. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  17. Gerenciamento participativo em saúde do trabalhador: uma experiência na atividade de controle de vetores Participative management in workers' health: an experience in the vector control activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia Vilela

    2010-12-01

    the activity of chemical control of vectors in the State of São Paulo. OBJECTIVE: To describe the participative management system, the actions that were taken and the main accomplished results. METHODS: Report on what was experienced by the team using qualitative approach, document analysis and report on quantitative data. RESULTS: Eleven COMSAT's (Workers Health Committees were elected, which, together with the technical team, started to identify the occupational risks and proposals to prevent and control them. The investigation resulted in 650 suggestions, 45.7% of which were carried out. Work-related diseases were identified as allergic reactions to pesticides, muscular pain linked to repetitive movements, hearing disorders and back pain caused by excessive weight carrying. A total of 1003 workers participated in the basic courses on workers health, 90.8% of whom classified them as good or excellent. CONCLUSIONS: The participative management system puts into practice the democratic management principles of SUS (Brazil's National Health System; by means of risk mapping, it incorporates workers' experiences; it regards workers as agents in the change and negotiation process; it puts into practice the right to information. The COMSAT's proved to be adequate places for negotiating improvements in working conditions. The approval of the Management System ended up in legal validation through a three-party agreement signed in March 2002.

  18. HIV Status Disclosure in the Workplace: Positive and Stigmatizing Experiences of Health Care Workers Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Brands, Ronald; Baas, Ineke; Lechner, Lilian; Kok, Gerjo; Bos, Arjan E R

    We explored workplace experiences of 10 health care providers with HIV in the Netherlands. We used semi-structured interviews to discuss motivations for disclosure and concealment, reactions to disclosures, the impact of reactions, and coping with negative reactions. Reasons for disclosure were wanting to share the secret, expecting positive responses, observing positive reactions to others, wanting to prevent negative reactions, and being advised to disclose. Reasons for concealment included fearing negative reactions, observing negative reactions, previous negative experiences, having been advised to conceal, and considering disclosure unnecessary. Positive reactions included seeing HIV as a nonissue; showing interest, support, and empathy; and maintaining confidentiality. Negative reactions included management wanting to inform employees, work restrictions, hiring difficulties, gossip, and hurtful comments, resulting in participants being upset, taken aback, angry, depressed, or feeling resignation. Participants coped by providing information, standing above the experience, attributing reactions to ignorance, seeking social support, or leaving their jobs. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of zeolite to neutralise nickel in a soil environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2017-12-30

    Nickel is a heavy metal which is a stable soil pollutant which is difficult to remediate. An attempt to reduce its impact on the environment can be made by changing its solubility. The right level of hydrogen ions and the content of mineral and organic colloids are crucial in this regard. Therefore, methods to neutralise heavy metals in soil are sought. There are no reports in the literature on the possibility of using minerals in the detoxication of a soil environment contaminated with metals. It is important to fill the gap in research on the effect of zeolites on the microbiological, biochemical and physicochemical properties of soils under pressure from heavy metals. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted on two soils which examined the effect of various levels of contamination of soil with nickel on the activity of soil enzymes, physical and chemical properties and growth and development of plants. An alleviating effect of zeolite Bio.Zeo.S.01 on the negative impact of nickel on the soil and a plant (oats) was examined. The enzyme activity and the oat yield were found to be significantly and negatively affected by an excess of nickel in the soil, regardless of the soil type. The metal was accumulated more in the oat roots than in the above-ground parts. An addition of zeolite decreased the level of accumulation of nickel in oats grown only on sandy-silty loam. Zeolite Bio.Zeo.S.01 used in the study only slightly alleviated the negative effect of nickel on the biochemical properties of soil. Therefore, its usability in the remediation of soil contaminated with nickel is small.

  1. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel content in food may vary considerably from place to place due to the difference in nickel content of the soil. However, certain foods are routinely high in nickel content. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low nickel concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of nickel per day. This can influence the outcome of the disease and can benefit the nickel sensitive patient.

  2. Nuclear orientation on rare earth nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, K.

    1998-01-01

    A hyperfine interaction study of the light rare earth elements, Ce, Pr, Nd and Pm, in the rare earth nickel and CeNi 2 Al 5 compounds by means of the low temperature nuclear orientation is summarised. The magnitudes and directions of the magnetic hyperfine fields obtained through measurements of γ-ray anisotropy and angular distributions reveal the magnetic structures of the ions. The experiments extracted peculiar results for the magnetic properties of the ions, and show certain novel features of the technique to the study of solid-state magnetism. Copyright (1998) Australian Journal of Physics

  3. Electrodeposition of nickel particles and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G. T. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Laboratorio de Microscopia. Blvd. Enrique Reyna No. 140, Saltillo 25253, Coahuila (Mexico); Zavala, G.; Videa, M. [ITESM, Campus Monterrey, Depto. de Fisica, Av. Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Monterrey 64849, N. L. (Mexico)], e-mail: gtadeo@ciqa.mx

    2009-07-01

    Electrodeposition of nickel particles on ITO substrates is achieved by current pulse reduction. A comparison between potential pulse and current pulse experiments presents differences in particle size and particle size distribution. The latter shows smaller particle size dispersion than what is found with potential pulses. Characterization of the particles carried out by Atomic Force Microscopy shows particles with average sizes between 100 to 300 nm. Magnetic characterization by Magnetic Force Microscopy and SQUID shows that particles of {approx} 300 nm were ferromagnetic with a coercive field of 200 Oe and a saturation magnetization of 40 x 10{sup -6} emu at 300 K. (Author)

  4. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C.; Vitiello, V.; Casals, E.; Puntes, V.F.; Iamunno, F.; Pellegrini, D.; Changwen, W.; Benvenuto, G.; Buttino, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Acartia tonsa copepod is more sensitive to NiCl_2 than to nickel nanoparticles. • At the tested concentration egg production was not affected by both form of nickel. • Egg viability is the most sensitive end-point for both form of nickel. • Nickel dissolved in seawater increased with nanoparticle concentration. • Acartia tonsa adults were able to ingest nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl_2 and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the “sonicated experiment” (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the “non-sonicated experiment” (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 mg L"−"1 and 1, 5 and 10 mg L"−"1 NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50 mg L"−"1 NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843 nm after 48 h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC_5_0 values were similar for NON-SON (20.2 mg L"−"1) and SON experiments (22.14 mg L"−"1) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC_5_0 of 7.45 mg L"−"1 and 6.97 mg L"−"1 for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl_2 concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63 mg L"−"1, showed EC_5_0 of 0.164 and 0.039 mg L"−"1, respectively

  5. Health worker experiences of and movement between public and private not-for-profit sectors-findings from post-conflict Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namakula, Justine; Witter, Sophie; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2016-05-05

    Northern Uganda suffered 20 years of conflict which devastated lives and the health system. Since 2006, there has been investment in reconstruction, which includes efforts to rebuild the health workforce. This article has two objectives: first, to understand health workers' experiences of working in public and private not-for-profit (PNFP) sectors during and after the conflict in Northern Uganda, and second, to understand the factors that influenced health workers' movement between public and PNFP sectors during and after the conflict. A life history approach was used with 26 health staff purposively selected from public and PNFP facilities in four districts of Northern Uganda. Staff with at least 10 years' experience were selected, which resulted in a sample which was largely female and mid-level. Two thirds were currently employed in the public sector and just over a third in the PNFP sector. A thematic data analysis was guided by the framework analysis approach, analysis framework stages and ATLAS.ti software version 7.0. Analysis reveals that most of the current staff were trained in the PNFP sector, which appears to offer higher quality training experiences. During the conflict period, the PNFP sector also functioned more effectively and was relatively better able to support its staff. However, since the end of the conflict, the public sector has been reconstructed and is now viewed as offering a better overall package for staff. Most reported movement has been in that direction, and many in the PNFP sector state intention to move to the public sector. While there is sectoral loyalty on both sides and some bonds created through training, the PNFP sector needs to become more competitive to retain staff so as to continue delivering services to deprived communities in Northern Uganda. There has been limited previous longitudinal analysis of how health staff perceive different sectors and why they move between them, particularly in conflict-affected contexts

  6. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive and the D......In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...

  7. Occupational health of self-employed women workers. Experiences from community based studies of the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, M

    1993-02-01

    The Self-Employed Workers' Association (SEWA) has conducted 4 longitudinal, community-based studies to survey the occupational health of self-employed women in Ahmedabad and Indore, India. It included the workers in all stages of research. SEWA staff examined women in readymade garment, bidi, agarbatti, and masala fields. Since SEWA did not use control groups, they could not establish cause and effect relationships. Masala workers had the highest illiteracy rate (66%). At least 50% of all workers (89% of readymade garment workers) worked 8-12 hours/day. Daily wages of most workers did not exceed Rs.10, confirming their low poverty level. The most common occupational health problem while working was pain in the limbs for bidi (63%) and readymade garment workers (80%). They also experienced back pain and headaches. After work, back pain was common among agarbatti (73%) and masala (39%) workers. Masala workers also suffered from blisters and calluses (51%) and burning sensation (45%), particularly in their hands. Gynecological problems (e.g., early periods, white discharge, and burning sensation while urinating) and abdominal pain were common in all 4 groups. These results demonstrated a need for further research on occupational health and gynecological diseases; health facilities to adjust services to meet self-employed workers needs; provision of safe and subsidized tools, safety equipment, benefits (e.g., sick leave and child care), and health insurance; and health education. SEWA recommends that self-employed workers receive identity cards, the government enforce minimum wage laws and regulate working hours, and workers are provided basic amenities (e.g., potable water and sanitation).

  8. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the...

  9. Organising social protection through solidarity of women workers: experiences of the Self-Employed Women’s Association, SEWA, in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Mirai

    2017-01-01

    The world of work has changed significantly in all corners of the globe. In India too, particularly over the last twenty years, there have been major changes. India has always had a large informal economy, with a majority being self-employed workers. However, in recent decades, the numbers of informal workers has grown to over 430 million or over 93 per cent of the workforce. These are workers with no employer-employee relationship – purely self-employed workers like small and marginal farmer...

  10. The biological importance of nickel in the food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anke, M [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Nutrition and Environment; Angelow, L [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Nutrition and Environment; Glei, M [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Nutrition and Environment; Mueller, M [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Nutrition and Environment; Illing, H [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Nutrition and Environment

    1995-05-01

    The ultra trace element nickel (Ni) is both essential and toxic for animals and humans. A Ni-poor nutrition of < 0.1 mg/kg dry matter led to Ni deficiency symptoms. Ni is a component of the urease and it is also essential for several species of bacteria which occur in the rumen of ruminants. Ni deficiency symptoms, however, have not yet been found in animals and humans since the Ni offer exceeds the Ni requirement. On the other hand, an external Ni exposure to nickel alloys induces Ni dermatitis in 8 to 14% of nickel-sensitive women and in > 1% of men after the filling of the Ni depot in the body. Experiments with 4 animal species showed that Ni exposure leads to disturbances in the Mg and above all in the Zn metabolism. Ni excess induces Zn deficiency symptoms which are similar to parakeratosis in pigs. They correspond to the symptoms of nickel allergy in humans. Therefore, the Ni intake of humans, which leads to the gradual filling of the Ni pool in the body and which can then induce nickel dermatitis in Ni-sensitive women and men, is of particular importance. The Ni requirement of adults does not exceed 25 to 35 {mu}g/day. The Ni balance of men and women was positive (+ 20%) and shows the Ni incorporation even in the case of a Ni consumption which exceeds by far the requirement. (orig.)

  11. Research on rejection performance of reverse osmosis to nickel in simulated radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Wang Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    In order to reveal the rejection performance of the reverse osmosis applied in the radioactive wastewater treatment, treatment experiments were carried out on a pilot reverse osmosis equipment using wastewater containing nickel nuclide. Results showed that the rejection ratio of reverse osmosis to nickel was almost not affected by the operation pressure and the ratio of reclaiming, and had no direct relation with the salt rejection ratio. The ratio of nickel rejection reached 95% in the experiment condition and could meet the requirement on the disposal of radioactive wastewater produced by nuclear powered installations. (authors)

  12. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological concern. To date, the mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms and higher eukaryotes are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize nickel homeostasis processes used by microorganisms and highlight in vivo and in vitro effects of exposure to elevated concentrations of nickel. On the basis of this evidence we propose four mechanisms of nickel toxicity: 1) nickel replaces the essential metal of metalloproteins, 2) nickel binds to catalytic residues of non-metalloenzymes; 3) nickel binds outside the catalytic site of an enzyme to inhibit allosterically, and 4) nickel indirectly causes oxidative stress. PMID:21799955

  13. Contraceptive preferences and use among auto artisanal workers in the informal sector of Kumasi, Ghana: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Boahemaa, Mary Yaa; Addy, Ernestine A

    2015-04-12

    Contraceptive uptake in Ghana, especially in the Ashanti region remains low. This may be partly due to products' characteristics and choice which are influenced by attribute utility trade-offs by consumers in determining which method offers the optimal combinations, given the needs and desires of the individuals making the choice. The study sought to determine how specific attributes of contraceptives influence artisanal auto mechanics' stated preferences for a hypothetical contraceptive use in the Tafo-Suame industrial area of Kumasi, Ghana. A discrete choice experiment was conducted with artisanal auto mechanics in the study area from May to September 2011. Based on the summary of the attributes from the focus group discussion and in-depth interviews preceded administration of structured questionnaire, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was created. The attributes used were; side effects, reversibility, ease of use, ability to prevent both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI's), price and privacy in acquiring and attractiveness of the method. A total of 340 consented respondents aged 15 to 49 years participated in the study. Data were entered in Access and Sawtooth software SSI Web CAPi module and then exported to Stata for analysis. The study showed a universal (99.4%) knowledge on contraception, ever used 87% and currently using a method, 58%. The study revealed that methods' reversibility (β = 21.74; 95% CI: 20.17, 23.3), minimal allergic reaction (β = 13.93; 95% CI: 12.8, 15.05) and no effect on blood pressure (β = 12.71; 95% CI: 11.62, 13.79), were strongly associated with contraceptive preference and use. While contraceptives' ability to prevent "only pregnancy", (β = -15.13: 95% CI: -16.2, -14.02; "only STI's") (β = -11.65; 95% CI: -11.84, -11.46); and interrupt during sexual activity (β = -4.26; 95% CI: -5.19, -3.34), had large negative influence on contraceptive preference and use. The study has documented the

  14. Lung clearance and disposition of 63Ni in F344/N rats after intratracheal instillation of nickel sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medinsky, M.A.; Benson, J.M.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology studies have indicated increased incidences of respiratory tract and renal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Since the most likely route of exposure to nickel in the workplace is via the respiratory tract, the objectives of the experiments described here were to determine the retention pattern of Ni in the lungs, identify the target organs for Ni absorbed from the respiratory tract, and determine rates for excretion of Ni. Male and female F344 rats were given 17, 190, or 1800 nmoles Ni (as a nickel sulfate solution) in saline, containing trace amounts of 63 Ni, by intratracheal instillation. Urine and feces were collected, and rats were necropsied at predetermined times up to 96 hr after instillation. At all times, lungs, trachea, larynx, kidney, and urinary bladder contained the highest concentrations of Ni as determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Urine was the major route for excretion of Ni, accounting for 50% of the dose after instillation of 17 or 190 nmoles Ni, and 80% of the dose after instillation of 1800 nmoles Ni. The half-time for urinary excretion of Ni increased from 4.6 hr at the highest dose to 23 hr at the lowest dose used. Fecal excretion accounted for 30% (17- and 190-nmole doses) or 13% (1800 nmoles) of the initial dose. Of the Ni remaining in the body at the end of 96 hr, over 50% was in the lungs. The long-term half-time for clearance of Ni from the lungs ranged from 21 hr at the highest dose to 36 hr at the lowest dose instilled. As the amount of instilled Ni decreased, the fraction of the instilled Ni associated with the long-term clearance component increased (from 24% at the highest dose to 40% at the lowest dose). Results suggest that, over the range of doses studied, both pulmonary clearance of Ni and routes for excretion of Ni were dependent on the instilled dose

  15. The relationship between health worker stigma and uptake of HIV counseling and testing and utilization of non-HIV health services: the experience of male and female sex workers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyblade, Laura; Reddy, Aditi; Mbote, David; Kraemer, John; Stockton, Melissa; Kemunto, Caroline; Krotki, Karol; Morla, Javier; Njuguna, Stella; Dutta, Arin; Barker, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    The barrier HIV-stigma presents to the HIV treatment cascade is increasingly documented; however less is known about female and male sex worker engagement in and the influence of sex-work stigma on the HIV care continuum. While stigma occurs in all spheres of life, stigma within health services may be particularly detrimental to health seeking behaviors. Therefore, we present levels of sex-work stigma from healthcare workers (HCW) among male and female sex workers in Kenya, and explore the relationship between sex-work stigma and HIV counseling and testing. We also examine the relationship between sex-work stigma and utilization of non-HIV health services. A snowball sample of 497 female sex workers (FSW) and 232 male sex workers (MSW) across four sites was recruited through a modified respondent-driven sampling process. About 50% of both male and female sex workers reported anticipating verbal stigma from HCW while 72% of FSW and 54% of MSW reported experiencing at least one of seven measured forms of stigma from HCW. In general, stigma led to higher odds of reporting delay or avoidance of counseling and testing, as well as non-HIV specific services. Statistical significance of relationships varied across type of health service, type of stigma and gender. For example, anticipated stigma was not a significant predictor of delay or avoidance of health services for MSW; however, FSW who anticipated HCW stigma had significantly higher odds of avoiding (OR = 2.11) non-HIV services, compared to FSW who did not. This paper adds to the growing evidence of stigma as a roadblock in the HIV treatment cascade, as well as its undermining of the human right to health. While more attention is being paid to addressing HIV-stigma, it is equally important to address the key population stigma that often intersects with HIV-stigma.

  16. How to make rural jobs more attractive to health workers. Findings from a discrete choice experiment in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstad, Julie Riise

    2011-02-01

    The geographical imbalance of the health workforce in Tanzania represents a serious problem when it comes to delivering crucial health services to a large share of the population. This study provides new quantitative information about how to make jobs in rural areas more attractive to newly educated clinical officers (COs). A unique data set stemming from a discrete choice experiment with CO finalists in Tanzania is applied. The results show that offering continuing education after a certain period of service is one of the most powerful recruitment instruments the authorities have available. Increased salaries and hardship allowances will also substantially increase recruitment in rural areas. Offers of decent housing and good infrastructure, including the provision of equipment, will increase recruitment to rural remote areas but not as much as higher wages and offers of education. Women are less responsive to pecuniary incentives and are more concerned with factors that directly allow them to do a good job, while those with parents living in a remote rural area are generally less responsive to the proposed policies. When the willingness to help other people is a strong motivating force, policies that improve the conditions for helping people appear particularly effective.

  17. School Social Workers' Intent to Stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselman, Tonia D.; Brandt, Mary D.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents findings from a survey that examined school social workers' intent to stay in the field of school social work. Forty-eight school social workers from a midwestern state participated in the study. Effect size estimates were used to examine the relationship between social workers' intent to stay and years of experience,…

  18. Body and emotion in the production of scientfic knowledge: a sociopoetic experience with workers of the solidarity economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Vieira Ferrarini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Debates epistemológicos contemporâneos têm demonstrado a necessidade de ampliação das fronteiras da ciência no sentido de incorporação da pluralidade de saberes e do protagonismo de grupos populares. A pesquisa sociopoétca, apesar de não utilizada em larga escala na pesquisa social, apresenta-se com uma possibilidade metodológica a ser experimentada e avaliada. O artigo apresenta e analisa uma experiência sociopoética com trabalhadores(as da economia solidária (ES sobre o tema da formação e assessoria. Os resultados demonstraram a possibilidade de desconstrução de análises maniqueístas a respeito das disputas no campo da formação e assessoria, bem como a importância do protagonismo dos trabalhadores na defnição dos processos formativos. Em termos metodológicos, a sociopoética mostrou ser um método inovador para a produção cientifica descolonizadora devido ao seu caráter autogestonário e por validar fontes não conscientes de conhecimento (corpo, emoção e subjetvidade, ativadas através de técnicas de relaxamento e artisticas. O ato de pesquisar passou a ser, simultaneamente, um processo envolvente e prazeroso de produção de conhecimento, autoconhecimento, convivência e fortalecimento individual e coletivo. Para o pesquisador, significou também um desafio desconstrutivo de saída do tradicional lugar de poder e de saber, fazendo da pesquisa um ato polítco emancipatório.

  19. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  20. [Prevention of psychosocial issues and drug addiction in workers employed in building great infrastructures: first outcomes of an experience in the Florence area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentiero, L; Costa, G; De Luca, G; Piovanelli, S; Venè, D; Righini, S; Marini, M; Baldanzi, S; Selvi, A; Scalas, S; Cassitto, M G; Sartori, S; Lacangellera, D; Bosco, A

    2009-01-01

    The research on stress, mobbing, and substance dependence in workers employed in the building of the great infrastructures is part of the project Euridice-Ten. The 75% of the workers employed took part in the research through an anonymous and structured questionnaire. The Clinica del Lavoro of the University of Milan elaborated the data. They point out a high risk of stress, a low level of control, a marked risk of mobbing, a high chronic fatigue in the most exhausting jobs, sleep disorders, problems in the social life as well as at home, in nourishment and at work. Many workers drink too much alcohol and the 9% of the workers know workers who use cocaine.

  1. Experiences of Indian Health Workers Using WhatsApp for Improving Aseptic Practices With Newborns: Exploratory Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Background Quality improvement (QI) involves the following 4 steps: (1) forming a team to work on a specific aim, (2) analyzing the reasons for current underperformance, (3) developing changes that could improve care and testing these changes using plan-do-study-act cycles (PDSA), and (4) implementing successful interventions to sustain improvements. Teamwork and group discussion are key for effective QI, but convening in-person meetings with all staff can be challenging due to workload and shift changes. Mobile technologies can support communication within a team when face-to-face meetings are not possible. WhatsApp, a mobile messaging platform, was implemented as a communication tool by a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) team in an Indian tertiary hospital seeking to reduce nosocomial infections in newborns. Objective This exploratory qualitative study aimed to examine experiences with WhatsApp as a communication tool among improvement team members and an external coach to improve adherence to aseptic protocols. Methods Ten QI team members and the external coach were interviewed on communication processes and approaches and thematically analyzed. The WhatsApp transcript for the implementation period was also included in the analysis. Results WhatsApp was effective for disseminating information, including guidance on QI and clinical practice, and data on performance indicators. It was not effective as a platform for group discussion to generate change ideas or analyze the performance indicator data. The decision of who to include in the WhatsApp group and how members engaged in the group may have reinforced existing hierarchies. Using WhatsApp created a work environment in which members were accessible all the time, breaking down barriers between personal and professional time. The continual influx of messages was distracting to some respondents, and how respondents managed these messages (eg, using the silent function) may have influenced their perceptions of

  2. Experiences of Indian Health Workers Using WhatsApp for Improving Aseptic Practices With Newborns: Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Parika; Lunsford, Sarah; Livesley, Nigel

    2018-03-01

    Quality improvement (QI) involves the following 4 steps: (1) forming a team to work on a specific aim, (2) analyzing the reasons for current underperformance, (3) developing changes that could improve care and testing these changes using plan-do-study-act cycles (PDSA), and (4) implementing successful interventions to sustain improvements. Teamwork and group discussion are key for effective QI, but convening in-person meetings with all staff can be challenging due to workload and shift changes. Mobile technologies can support communication within a team when face-to-face meetings are not possible. WhatsApp, a mobile messaging platform, was implemented as a communication tool by a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) team in an Indian tertiary hospital seeking to reduce nosocomial infections in newborns. This exploratory qualitative study aimed to examine experiences with WhatsApp as a communication tool among improvement team members and an external coach to improve adherence to aseptic protocols. Ten QI team members and the external coach were interviewed on communication processes and approaches and thematically analyzed. The WhatsApp transcript for the implementation period was also included in the analysis. WhatsApp was effective for disseminating information, including guidance on QI and clinical practice, and data on performance indicators. It was not effective as a platform for group discussion to generate change ideas or analyze the performance indicator data. The decision of who to include in the WhatsApp group and how members engaged in the group may have reinforced existing hierarchies. Using WhatsApp created a work environment in which members were accessible all the time, breaking down barriers between personal and professional time. The continual influx of messages was distracting to some respondents, and how respondents managed these messages (eg, using the silent function) may have influenced their perceptions of WhatsApp. The coach used WhatsApp to

  3. Occupational health and safety experiences among self-identified immigrant workers living or working in Somerville, MA by ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M

    2012-12-06

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu.

  4. Introduction of a National Minimum Wage Reduced Depressive Symptoms in Low-Wage Workers: A Quasi-Natural Experiment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Mackenbach, Johan; Whitehead, Margaret; Stuckler, David

    2017-05-01

    Does increasing incomes improve health? In 1999, the UK government implemented minimum wage legislation, increasing hourly wages to at least £3.60. This policy experiment created intervention and control groups that can be used to assess the effects of increasing wages on health. Longitudinal data were taken from the British Household Panel Survey. We compared the health effects of higher wages on recipients of the minimum wage with otherwise similar persons who were likely unaffected because (1) their wages were between 100 and 110% of the eligibility threshold or (2) their firms did not increase wages to meet the threshold. We assessed the probability of mental ill health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. We also assessed changes in smoking, blood pressure, as well as hearing ability (control condition). The intervention group, whose wages rose above the minimum wage, experienced lower probability of mental ill health compared with both control group 1 and control group 2. This improvement represents 0.37 of a standard deviation, comparable with the effect of antidepressants (0.39 of a standard deviation) on depressive symptoms. The intervention group experienced no change in blood pressure, hearing ability, or smoking. Increasing wages significantly improves mental health by reducing financial strain in low-wage workers. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Occupational Health and Safety Experiences among Self-Identified Immigrant Workers Living or Working in Somerville, MA by Ethnicity, Years in the US, and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180

  6. Oral nickel exposure may induce Type I hypersensitivity reaction in nickel-sensitized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüköztürk, Suna; Gelincik, Aslı; Ünal, Derya; Demirtürk, Mustafa; Çelik, Dolay Damla; Erden, Sacide; Çolakoğlu, Bahattin; Erdem Kuruca, Serap

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the clinical and immunological changes in the nickel allergic patients with systemic symptoms. We aimed to evaluate T helper cell responses of patients with different clinical presentations due to nickel. Patients having various allergic symptoms and positive patch test results to nickel and 20 controls underwent skin prick tests with nickel. IL-10, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma were measured in the culture supernatants of PBMC stimulated by nickel during lymphocyte proliferation test (LTT). 69 patients (56 female, mean age: 49.2 ± 13.1), 97% having nickel containing dental devices and 20 controls (8 female, mean age 34.9 ± 12.06) were evaluated. Skin prick tests with nickel were positive in 70% of the patients (pnickel. Nickel containing dental alloys and oral nickel intake seem to trigger systemic symptoms in previously nickel sensitized patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... by the EU Nickel Directive. Despite this, the EU Nickel Directive part 2 was expected to work as an operational limit that would sufficiently protect European consumers against nickel allergy and dermatitis. This review presents the accumulation of epidemiological studies that evaluated the possible effect...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...

  8. Nickel may be released from laptop computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    Consumer nickel sensitization and dermatitis is caused by prolonged or repeated skin exposure to items that release nickel, for example jewellery, belts, buttons, watches, and mobile phones (1–3). We recently described a patient in whom primary nickel contact sensitization and dermatitis develope...

  9. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  10. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...

  11. Phase transformation in nickel during tribotesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershberger, J. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: jhersh@anl.gov; Ajayi, O.O. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fenske, G.R. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Commercially pure nickel was subjected to a polyalphaolefin-lubricated reciprocating tribotest with increasing load. A friction transition was observed and X-ray diffraction was performed on low-friction and high-friction areas. Hexagonal nickel or nickel carbide was formed at high friction. Broadening of the face-centered cubic peaks did not show dislocation structures characteristic of scuffing.

  12. Phase transformation in nickel during tribotesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, J.; Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Commercially pure nickel was subjected to a polyalphaolefin-lubricated reciprocating tribotest with increasing load. A friction transition was observed and X-ray diffraction was performed on low-friction and high-friction areas. Hexagonal nickel or nickel carbide was formed at high friction. Broadening of the face-centered cubic peaks did not show dislocation structures characteristic of scuffing

  13. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  14. Nickel-accumulating plant from Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C; Brooks, R R

    1972-01-01

    A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  15. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  16. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinlong, Lv, E-mail: ljlbuaa@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  17. Void formation in irradiated binary nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Akhter, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    In this work a computer program has been used to compute void radius, void density and swelling parameter for nickel and binary nickel-carbon alloys irradiated with nickel ions of 100 keV. The aim is to compare the computed results with experimental results already reported

  18. Constructions and experiences of motherhood in the context of an early intervention for Aboriginal mothers and their children: mother and healthcare worker perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Jane M; Charter, Rosie; Parton, Chloe; Perz, Janette

    2016-07-22

    The colonisation of Australia has been associated with traumatic consequences for Aboriginal health and wellbeing, including the breakdown of the traditional family unit and negative consequences for the mother/child relationship. Early-intervention programs have been developed to assist families to overcome disadvantage and strengthen mother/child attachment. However, there is no research examining Aboriginal women's subjective experiences and constructions of motherhood in the context of such programs, and no research on the perceived impact of such programs, from the perspective of Aboriginal mothers and healthcare workers (HCWs), with previous research focusing on child outcomes. Researchers conducted participant observation of an early intervention program for Aboriginal mothers and young children over a 6 month period, one-to-one interviews and a focus group with 10 mothers, and interviews with nine HCWs, in order to examine their perspectives on motherhood and the intervention program. Thematic analysis identified 2 major themes under which subthemes were clustered. Constructions of motherhood: 'The resilient mother: Coping with life trauma and social stress' and 'The good mother: Transformation of self through motherhood'; Perspectives on the intervention: '"Mothers come to life": Transformation through therapy'; and '"I know I'm a good mum": The need for connections, skills and time for self'. The mothers constructed themselves as being resilient 'good mothers', whilst also acknowledging their own traumatic life experiences, predominantly valuing the peer support and time-out aspects of the program. HCWs positioned the mothers as 'traumatised', yet also strong, and expressed the view that in order to improve mother/child attachment a therapeutic transformation is required. These results suggest that early interventions for Aboriginal mothers should acknowledge and strengthen constructions of the good and resilient mother. The differing perspectives of

  19. Designing eLearning courses to meet the digital literacy needs of healthcare workers in lower- and middle-income countries: Experiences from the Knowledge for Health Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali J. Limaye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional conceptualizations of knowledge management fail to incorporate the social aspects in which knowledge management work operates. Social knowledge management places people at the center of all knowledge management, including placing the end user at the center when developing eLearning packages, particularly within the context of digital health literacy. As many health professionals working in lower-resource settings face the digital divide, or experience unequal patterns of access and usage capabilities from computer-based information and communication technologies (ICTs, ensuring that eLearning packages are tailored for their specific needs is critical. Grounded in our conceptualization of social knowledge management, we outline two of our experiences with developing eLearning packages for health professionals working primarily in lower- and middle-income countries. The Global Health eLearning Center provides eLearning courses to health professionals primarily working in the lower- and middle-income country context. The courses have robust and exhaustive mechanisms in place to ensure that issues related to digital health literacy are not barriers to taking the courses and subsequently, applying the course material in practice. In Bangladesh, we developed a digital health package for frontline community fieldworkers that was loaded on netbook computers. To develop this package, community fieldworkers were provided support during the implementation phase to ensure that they were able to use the netbooks correctly with their clients. As new digital technologies proliferate, guaranteeing that global health workers have the prerequisite skills to utilize and apply digital health tools is essential for improving health care.

  20. Health care waste management in community-based care: experiences of community health workers in low resource communities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Hangulu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, community health workers (CHWs working in community-based care (CBC programmes provide care to patients most of whom are living with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB. Although studies have shown that the caregiving activities provided by the CHWs generate health care waste (HCW, there is limited information about the experiences of CHWs on health care waste management (HCWM in CBC. This study explored HCWM in CBC in Durban, South Africa from the perspectives CHWs. Methods We used three ethnographic approaches to collect data: focus group discussions, participant observations and informal discussions. Data was collected from 85 CHWs working in 29 communities in the Durban metropolis, South Africa. Data collection took place from July 2013 to August 2014. Results CHWs provided nursing care activities to patients many of whom were incontinent or bedridden. Some the patients were living with HIV/AIDS/TB, stroke, diabetes, asthma, arthritis and high blood pressure. These caregiving activities generate sharps and infectious waste but CHWs and family members did not segregate HCW according to the risk posed as stipulated by the HCWM policy. In addition, HCW was left with domestic waste. Major barriers to proper HCWM identified by CHWs include, lack of assistance from family members in assisting patients to use the toilet or change diapers and removing HCW from homes, irregular waste collection by waste collectors, inadequate water for practicing hygiene and sanitation, long distance between the house and the toilets and poor conditions of communal toilets and pit latrines. As a result of these barriers, HCW was illegally dumped along roads or in the bush, burnt openly and buried within the yards. Liquid HCW such as vomit, urine and sputum were disposed in open spaces near the homes. Conclusion Current policies on primary health care (PHC and HCWM in South Africa have not paid attention to HCWM. Findings suggest the

  1. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the

  2. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  3. Ecological Considerations on Nickel Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Poul V.

    1960-01-01

    The incidence of nickel dermatoses has shifted from the plating industry to other occupations and particularly to non-occupational causes. A Danish survey of 621 cases shows that 4% are due to nickel plating, 9·5% to other occupations, and 86·5% were not due to occupation. A primary eruption not due to occupation had occurred in 14% of the occupational cases. The importance of preventive measures for the community more than for the adequately controlled industry is underlined. PMID:14420983

  4. Carbon formation on nickel and nickel-copper alloy catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstrup, I.; Soerensen, O.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R. [Haldor Topsoe Research Labs., Lyngby (Denmark); Tavares, M.T.; Bernardo, C.A.

    1998-05-01

    Equilibrium, kinetic and morphological studies of carbon formation in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, CO, and CO + H{sub 2} gases on silica supported nickel and nickel-copper catalysts are reviewed. The equilibrium deviates in all cases from graphite equilibrium and more so in CO + CO{sub 2} than in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on information from surface science results with chemisorption of CH{sub 4} and possibly also the first dehydrogenation step as rate controlling describes carbon formation on nickel catalyst in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2} well. The kinetics of carbon formation in CO and CO + H{sub 2} gases are in agreement with CO disproportionation as rate determining step. The presence of hydrogen influences strongly the chemisorption of CO. Carbon filaments are formed when hydrogen is present in the gas while encapsulating carbon dominates in pure CO. Small amounts of Cu alloying promotes while larger amounts (Cu : Ni {>=} 0.1) inhibits carbon formation and changes the morphology of the filaments (``octopus`` carbon formation). Adsorption induced nickel segregation changes the kinetics of the alloy catalysts at high carbon activities. Modifications suggested in some very recent papers on the basis of new results are also briefly discussed. (orig.) 31 refs.

  5. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Cells: Fiber Substrates Nickel Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Howard H.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of nickel fiber mat electrodes were investigated over a wide range of fiber diameters, electrode thickness, porosity and active material loading levels. Thickness' were 0.040, 0.060 and 0.080 inches for the plaque: fiber diameters were primarily 2, 4, and 8 micron and porosity was 85, 90, and 95%. Capacities of 3.5 in. diameter electrodes were determined in the flooded condition with both 26 and 31% potassium hydroxide solution. These capacity tests indicated that the highest capacities per unit weight were obtained at the 90% porosity level with a 4 micron diameter fiber plaque. It appeared that the thinner electrodes had somewhat better performance, consistent with sintered electrode history. Limited testing with two-positive-electrode boiler plate cells was also carried out. Considerable difficulty with constructing the cells was encountered with short circuits the major problem. Nevertheless, four cells were tested. The cell with 95% porosity electrodes failed during conditioning cycling due to high voltage during charge. Discharge showed that this cell had lost nearly all of its capacity. The other three cells after 20 conditioning cycles showed capacities consistent with the flooded capacities of the electrodes. Positive electrodes made from fiber substrates may well show a weight advantage of standard sintered electrodes, but need considerably more work to prove this statement. A major problem to be investigated is the lower strength of the substrate compared to standard sintered electrodes. Problems with welding of leads were significant and implications that the electrodes would expand more than sintered electrodes need to be investigated. Loading levels were lower than had been expected based on sintered electrode experiences and the lower loading led to lower capacity values. However, lower loading causes less expansion and contraction during cycling so that stress on the substrate is reduced.

  6. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  7. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudel

    Full Text Available Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water, we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  8. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  9. Heat treatment of nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F. Jr.; Clatworthy, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    A heat treating process is described that can be used to produce desired combinations of strength, ductility, and fabricability characteristics in heat resistant age-hardenable alloys having precipitation-hardening amounts of niobium, titanium, and/or tantalum in a nickel-containing matrix. (U.S.)

  10. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.; Chauvin, G.; Coriou, H.; Hure, J.

    1958-01-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [fr

  11. Iron-nickel-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karenko, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    A specification is given for iron-nickel-chromium age-hardenable alloys suitable for use in fast breeder reactor ducts and cladding, which utilize the gamma-double prime strengthening phase and are characterized in having a delta or eta phase distributed at or near grain boundaries. A range of compositions is given. (author)

  12. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is described for preparing uranium objects prior to nickel electroplating. The process consiats in treating the surface of the uranium with molten ferric chloride hexahydrate, at a slightiy elevated temperature. This treatment etches the metal surface providing a structure suitable for the application of adherent electrodeposits and at the same time plates the surface with a thin protective film of iron.

  13. Formation of nickel-tantalum compounds in tantalum fluoride halide melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matychenko, Eh.S.; Zalkind, O.A.; Kuznetsov, B.Ya.; Orlov, V.M.; Sukhorzhevskaya, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Interaction of nickel with NaCl-K 2 TaF 7 melt (14 mol.%) at 750 deg C was studied, the composition of intermetallic compounds formed in Ni-Ta system being analyzed, using the methods of chemical and X-ray phase analyses, IR spectroscopy. It was ascertained that composition of intermetallic compounds (Ni 3 Ta, Ni 2 Ta) depends on K 2 TaF 7 concentration in the melt, metallic tantalum additions, nickel substrate thickness and experiment duration. The mechanism of currentless deposition of tantalum on nickel was considered and the assumption was made that disproportionation reaction lies in the basis of the process [ru

  14. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  15. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2011-12-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones. To investigate the proportion of mobile phones sold in Denmark that release nickel after regulation. Metallic parts from 50 randomly selected mobile phones currently for sale in Denmark were tested for nickel release by use of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-nickel spot test. Nine (18%) phones showed at least one positive DMG test reaction and two phones had more than one DMG test-positive spot. Apparently, the proportion of mobile phones with significant nickel release remains unchanged, despite the 2009 revision of the EU Nickel Directive. We encourage manufacturers to measure nickel release from metallic components used in the assembly of mobile phones to ensure safe products. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Experiences and perspectives of community health workers from implementing treatment for schistosomiasis using the community directed intervention strategy in an informal settlement in Kisumu City, western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Gladys O; Musuva, Rosemary M; Odiere, Maurice R; Mwinzi, Pauline N

    2016-09-15

    The Community Directed Intervention (CDI) strategy has been used to conduct various health interventions in Africa, including control of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). Although the CDI approach has shown good results in the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis with respect to treatment coverage using community drug distributors, its utility in the control of schistosomiasis among urban poor is yet to be established. Using a longitudinal qualitative study, we explored the experiences, opportunities, challenges as well as recommendations of Community Health Workers (CHWs) after participation in annual mass drug administration (MDA) activities for schistosomiasis using the CDI approach in an urban setting. Unstructured open-ended group discussions were conducted with CHWs after completion of annual MDA activities. Narratives were obtained from CHWs using a digital audio recorder during the group discussions, transcribed verbatim and translated into English where applicable. Thematic decomposition of data was done using ATLAS.ti. software, and themes explored using the principle of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). From the perspective of the CHWs, opportunities for implementing CDI in urban settings, included the presence of CHWs, their supervisory structures and their knowledge of intervention areas, and opportunity to integrate MDA with other health interventions. Several challenges were mentioned with regards to implementing MDA using the CDI strategy among them lack of incentives, fear of side effects, misconceptions regarding treatment and mistrust, difficulties working in unsanitary environmental conditions, insecurity, and insufficient time. A key recommendation in promoting more effective MDA using the CDI approach was allocation of more time to the exercise. Findings from this study support the feasibility of using CDI for implementing MDA for schistosomiasis in informal settlements of urban areas. Extensive community

  17. Experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of eye problems were age-related, and preventable. ... workers to recognize and treat these conditions would serve the ... A prevention strategy was thereforeidentified ... glaucoma and macular degeneration to be common in.

  18. Worker and public safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1984-09-01

    Nuclear regulatory controls have been in place for many years in Canada to ensure that the risk for the safety of workers and members of the public is as low as reasonably possible. The Atomic Energy Control Board implements these controls by virtue of a broadly based Act of Parliament, rigorous regulations and compliance procedures. The Canadian experience with nuclear practices involves about 1 million person-years at risk without a fatality due to acute exposure to radiation

  19. Use of mobile phone consultations during home visits by Community Health Workers for maternal and newborn care: community experiences from Masindi and Kiryandongo districts, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangwi Ayiasi, Richard; Atuyambe, Lynn Muhimbuura; Kiguli, Juliet; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick; Criel, Bart

    2015-06-18

    Home visits by Community Health Workers [In Uganda Community Health Workers are given the collective term of Village Health Teams (VHTs). Hereafter referred to as VHTs] is recommended to improve maternal and newborn care. We investigated perceived maternal and newborn benefits of home visits made by VHTs, combined with mobile phone consultations with professional health workers for advice. A qualitative study was conducted in Masindi and Kiryandongo districts, Uganda, in December-2013 to March-2014. Study participants were drawn from the intervention arm of a randomised community-intervention trial. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 prenatal and 16 postnatal women who were visited by VHTs; 5 group discussions and 16 key informant interviews were held with VHTs and 10 Key Informant Interviews with professional health workers. Data were analysed using latent content analysis techniques. Majority women and VHTs contend that the intervention improved access to maternal and newborn information; reduced costs of accessing care and facilitated referral. Women, VHTs and professional health workers acknowledged that the intervention induced attitudinal change among women and VHTs towards adapting recommended maternal and newborn care practices. Mobile phone consultations between VHTs and professional health workers were considered to reinforce VHT knowledge on maternal newborn care and boosted the social status of VHTs in community. A minority of VHTs perceived the implementation of recommended maternal and newborn care practices as difficult. Some professional health workers did not approve of the transfer of promotional maternal and newborn responsibility to VHTs. For a range of reasons, a number of professional health workers were not always available on phone or at the health centre to address VHT concerns. Results suggest that home visits made by VHTs for maternal and newborn care are reasonably well accepted. Our study highlights potential benefits of

  20. Electroplated tin-nickel coatings as a replacement for nickel to eliminate nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Boyce, Jan M.; Nielsen, Lars Pleth

    2013-01-01

    . The main focus will be on the corrosion properties where the following corrosion investigations will be covered; corrosion potential measurements for the different coatings, estimation of corrosion rates for materials in galvanic coupling with tin/nickel coatings, salt spray test, medical tests...

  1. Constructions and experiences of motherhood in the context of an early intervention for Aboriginal mothers and their children: mother and healthcare worker perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Ussher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The colonisation of Australia has been associated with traumatic consequences for Aboriginal health and wellbeing, including the breakdown of the traditional family unit and negative consequences for the mother/child relationship. Early-intervention programs have been developed to assist families to overcome disadvantage and strengthen mother/child attachment. However, there is no research examining Aboriginal women’s subjective experiences and constructions of motherhood in the context of such programs, and no research on the perceived impact of such programs, from the perspective of Aboriginal mothers and healthcare workers (HCWs, with previous research focusing on child outcomes. Method Researchers conducted participant observation of an early intervention program for Aboriginal mothers and young children over a 6 month period, one-to-one interviews and a focus group with 10 mothers, and interviews with nine HCWs, in order to examine their perspectives on motherhood and the intervention program. Results Thematic analysis identified 2 major themes under which subthemes were clustered. Constructions of motherhood: ‘The resilient mother: Coping with life trauma and social stress’ and ‘The good mother: Transformation of self through motherhood’; Perspectives on the intervention: ‘“Mothers come to life”: Transformation through therapy’; and ‘“I know I’m a good mum”: The need for connections, skills and time for self’. Conclusions The mothers constructed themselves as being resilient ‘good mothers’, whilst also acknowledging their own traumatic life experiences, predominantly valuing the peer support and time-out aspects of the program. HCWs positioned the mothers as ‘traumatised’, yet also strong, and expressed the view that in order to improve mother/child attachment a therapeutic transformation is required. These results suggest that early interventions for Aboriginal mothers should

  2. Effect of charge state and stoichiometry on the structure and reactivity of nickel oxide clusters with CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Reilly, Nelly M.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    The collision induced fragmentation and reactivity of cationic and anionic nickel oxide clusters with carbon monoxide were studied experimentally using guided-ion-beam mass spectrometry. Anionic clusters with a stoichiometry containing one more oxygen atom than nickel atom (NiO2-, Ni2O3-, Ni3O4- and Ni4O5-) were found to exhibit dominant products resulting from the transfer of a single oxygen atom to CO, suggesting the formation of CO2. Of these four species, Ni2O3- and Ni4O5- were observed to be the most reactive having oxygen transfer products accounting for approximately 5% and 10% of the total ion intensity at a maximum pressure of 15 mTorr of CO. Our findings, therefore, indicate that anionic nickel oxide clusters containing an even number of nickel atoms and an odd number of oxygen atoms are more reactive than those with an odd number of nickel atoms and an even number of oxygen atoms. The majority of cationic nickel oxides, in contrast to anionic species, reacted preferentially through the adsorption of CO onto the cluster accompanied by the loss of either molecular O2 or nickel oxide units. The adsorption of CO onto positively charged nickel oxides, therefore, is exothermic enough to break apart the gas-phase clusters. Collision induced dissociation experiments, employing inert xenon gas, were also conducted to gain insight into the structural properties of nickel oxide clusters. The fragmentation products were found to vary considerably with size and stoichiometry as well as ionic charge state. In general, cationic clusters favored the collisional loss of molecular O2 while anionic clusters fragmented through the loss of both atomic oxygen and nickel oxide units. Our results provide insight into the effect of ionic charge state on the structure of nickel oxide clusters. Furthermore, we establish how the size and stoichiometry of nickel oxide clusters influences their ability to oxidize CO, an important reaction for environmental pollution abatement.

  3. Theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of a substituted nickel phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Prabhjot, E-mail: prabhphysics@gmail.com; Sachdeva, Ritika [Department of Physics, Panjab University Chandigarh-160014, Chandigarh (India); Singh, Sukhwinder [Department of Physics, Govt. College for Girls, Ludhiana-141008, Ludhiana (India)

    2016-05-23

    The optimized geometry and electronic structure of an organic compound nickel phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt have been investigated using density functional theory. We have also optimized the structure of nickel phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt in dimethyl sulfoxide to study effects of solvent on the electronic structure and transitions. Experimentally, the electronic transitions have been studied using UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. It is observed that the electronic transitions obtained from the theoretical studies generally agree with the experiment.

  4. Comparative effects of cobalt, nickel and copper on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, W E

    1938-11-01

    An account is given of the present position of our knowledge with regard to the distribution and the physiological importance of nickel and cobalt, in relation to plants and animals. Experiments on barley and broad beans were carried out in water cultures with the sulfates and chlorides of cobalt, nickel and copper. In every case a range of low concentrations did little or no damage, but toxic action occurred abruptly above a concentration which varied with the species and with the compound. With barley, copper was the most poisonous element in either compound, but the differences were not striking. Low concentrations of the sulfate were innocuous, but parallel low strengths of the chloride caused a slight, significant depression in growth. With broad beans, cobalt was much more poisonous than either nickel or copper, particularly with the sulfate. No slight depression with low concentrations of the chloride was noticeable with this species. The morphological response to toxicity varied with the element concerned. Copper, in poisonous strengths, caused shortening and bunching of barley roots, whereas nickel and cobalt permitted the growth of elongated roots of a very attenuated nature. The individuality of plant response to poison was frequently shown by the great variation in growth in the borderline concentrations just below those which caused marked depression of growth.

  5. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  6. The Influence of Salt Anions on Heavy Metal Ion Adsorption on the Example of Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Mandy; Schwarz, Dana; Steinbach, Christine; Schwarz, Simona

    2018-01-01

    The biodegradable polysaccharide chitosan possesses protonated and natural amino groups at medium pH values and has therefore been used as an adsorbing material for nickel salts in water treatment. Nickel is a problematic heavy metal ion which can cause various diseases and disorders in living organisms. Here, we show the influence of oxyanions (e.g., nitrate and sulfate) to the adsorption of nickel ions. Hence, simultaneously we are addressing the increasing global problem of nitrate and sulfate ion pollution in groundwater and surface water. A series of adsorption experiments was carried out in order to determine (i) the adsorption equilibrium, (ii) the adsorption capacity in dependence on the initial nickel ion concentration, and (iii) the influence of the anion presented in solution for the adsorption capacity. Surface morphology of chitosan flakes before and after the adsorption process has been studied with SEM-EDX analysis. The chitosan flakes exhibited promising adsorption capacities of 81.9 mg·g−1 and 21.2 mg·g−1 for nickel (sulfate) and nickel (nitrate), respectively. The calculated values of Gibbs free energy change ΔG0 confirm the higher adsorption of nickel ions in presence of sulfate ions. Hence, higher anion valence leads to a higher adsorption capacity. PMID:29510485

  7. Nickel-based anodic electrocatalysts for fuel cells and water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayi

    Our world is facing an energy crisis, so people are trying to harvest and utilize energy more efficiently. One of the promising ways to harvest energy is via solar water splitting to convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in hydrogen. Another of the options to utilize energy more efficiently is to use fuel cells as power sources instead of combustion engines. Catalysts are needed to reduce the energy barriers of the reactions happening at the electrode surfaces of the water-splitting cells and fuel cells. Nickel-based catalysts happen to be important nonprecious electrocatalysts for both of the anodic reactions in alkaline media. In alcohol fuel cells, nickel-based catalysts catalyze alcohol oxidation. In water splitting cells, they catalyze water oxidation, i.e., oxygen evolution. The two reactions occur in a similar potential range when catalyzed by nickel-based catalysts. Higher output current density, lower oxidation potential, and complete substrate oxidation are preferred for the anode in the applications. In this dissertation, the catalytic properties of nickel-based electrocatalysts in alkaline medium for fuel oxidation and oxygen evolution are explored. By changing the nickel precursor solubility, nickel complex nanoparticles with tunable sizes on electrode surfaces were synthesized. Higher methanol oxidation current density is achieved with smaller nickel complex nanoparticles. DNA aggregates were used as a polymer scaffold to load nickel ion centers and thus can oxidize methanol completely at a potential about 0.1 V lower than simple nickel electrodes, and the methanol oxidation pathway is changed. Nickel-based catalysts also have electrocatalytic activity towards a wide range of substrates. Experiments show that methanol, ethanol, glycerol and glucose can be deeply oxidized and carbon-carbon bonds can be broken during the oxidation. However, when comparing methanol oxidation reaction to oxygen evolution reaction catalyzed by current nickel

  8. [Analytical quality in biological monitoring of workers exposed to chemicals: experience of the Prevention and Safety at the Workplace Service in Modena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaca, R I Paredes; Migliore, A; Di Rico, R; Canali, Claudia; Rota, Cristina; Trenti, T; Cariani, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The quality of laboratory data is one of the main factors in guaranteeing efficacy of biological monitoring. To analyze the quality of laboratory data used for biological monitoring of exposed workers. A survey involving 18 companies employing 945 workers in the area of Modena, Italy, was carried out in 2008. Most of the 9 private laboratories receiving biological samples did not perform directly part or all of the laboratory assessments requested, but this was not indicated in the final report. Major problems were observed in the application of internal quality control, and only one laboratory participated in external quality assessment for blood lead measurements. Our results raise major concerns on the traceability and reliability of laboratory assessments performed for biomonitoring of exposed workers. Systematic evaluation of the quality of analytical data would be highly recommendable.

  9. THE EFFECT OF SINGLE NICKEL AND COMBINED NICKEL AND ZINC PERORAL ADMINISTRATION ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Emrichová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single nickel (NiCl2 and nickel in combination with zinc (ZnCl2 on selected haematological parameters of rabbits: white blood cell, red blood cell, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelets, mean platelet volume, red cell distribution width, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils. Twenty rabbits of broiler line Californian were used in this experiment. The animals were divided into the five groups, four animals in each ones (control group K and experimental groups E1, E2, E3 and E4. Animals were fed ad libitum using KKV1 feeding mixture (FM with or without nickel and zinc addition for 90 days follows: group E1 received 17.5 g of NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E2 35 g NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E3 17.5 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM and group E4 35 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM. The parameters were analysed using Advia – 120. Blood was collected into tubes containing anticoagulant agents K – EDTA. Statistical analyse showed a significant changes (P 0.05. Nickel has negative effect on some haematological parameters, but zinc can eliminates its influence.

  10. Social care as first work experience in England: a secondary analysis of the profile of a national sample of migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Stevens, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Migrant workers are increasingly important to the care sector in England as well as in other developed countries. The profile of migrants is likely to continue changing due to reforms in immigration policy and legislation limiting the range of jobs open to migrants from non-EU countries while facilitating migration from the new European Union accession countries. This article reports on detailed secondary analysis of newly available data on the characteristics of migrants working in the care sector as their first job. The analysis was undertaken in 2009 as part of research investigating the contribution made by migrant care workers in England. The sample was identified from the new National Minimum Data Set for Social Care (NMDSSC), which is completed by social care employers in England. Workers whose ethnicity was identified as not White British and who had their previous job abroad were used as a proxy of recent migrants. The analysis shows that this group of workers has a significantly different profile compared with other workers. Recent migrants in the care sector were significantly younger and held higher qualifications relevant to social care; however, there were no significant gender differences. They were also significantly concentrated in the private and voluntary sectors and in direct care work. There were variations between recent migrants' ethnicity and their job roles, with Asian workers more prevalent in senior care positions. These findings have a number of possible implications for social care workforce and providers, particularly within the current context of changing migration rules and social care reforms. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Synthesis of Nickel and Nickel Hydroxide Nano powders by Simplified Chemical Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tientong, J.; Garcia, S.; Thurber, C.R.; Golden, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel nano powders were synthesized by a chemical reduction of nickel ions with hydrazine hydrate at ph ∼ 12.5. Sonication of the solutions created a temperature of 54-65 °C to activate the reduction reaction of nickel nanoparticles. The solution ph affected the composition of the resulting nanoparticles. Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles were formed from an alkaline solution (ph ∼10) of nickel-hydrazine complexed by dropwise titration. X-ray diffraction of the powder and the analysis of the resulting Williamson-Hall plots revealed that the particle size of the powders ranged from 12 to 14 nm. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone into the synthesis decreased the nickel nanoparticle size to approximately 7 nm. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were in the nanometer range. The structure of the synthesized nickel and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles was identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Logutenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nanocrystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nanowires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130°C are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nanowires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  13. Nickel and cobalt base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel base alloys have a good resistance to pitting, cavernous or cracks corrosion. Nevertheless, all the nickel base alloys are not equivalent. Some differences exit between all the families (Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Cr-Fe, Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo/W-Cu, Ni-Cr-Mo/W, Ni-Mo). Cobalt base alloys in corrosive conditions are generally used for its wear and cracks resistance, with a compromise to its localised corrosion resistance properties. The choice must be done from the perfect knowledge of the corrosive medium and of the alloys characteristics (chemical, metallurgical). A synthesis of the corrosion resistance in three medium (6% FeCl 3 , 4% NaCl + 1% HCl + 0.1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 11.5% H 2 SO 4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 1% CuCl 2 ) is presented. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  14. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Reconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Erik L.

    1997-01-01

    Reconditioning has traditionally been used as a means of maintaining the performance of normal cells and batteries. This paper describes methods and results in which reconditioning was used to improve the performance of nickel-hydrogen batteries. The following method are discussed: (1) SS/L reconditioning implementation; (2) Superbird reconditioning - pressure/capacity growth; (3) INTELSAT 7/7A reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus and life testing; and (4) N-Star reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus (capacity fading and recovery).

  15. Experiences and perspectives of community health workers from implementing treatment for schistosomiasis using the community directed intervention strategy in an informal settlement in Kisumu City, western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys O. Odhiambo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Community Directed Intervention (CDI strategy has been used to conduct various health interventions in Africa, including control of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs. Although the CDI approach has shown good results in the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis with respect to treatment coverage using community drug distributors, its utility in the control of schistosomiasis among urban poor is yet to be established. Using a longitudinal qualitative study, we explored the experiences, opportunities, challenges as well as recommendations of Community Health Workers (CHWs after participation in annual mass drug administration (MDA activities for schistosomiasis using the CDI approach in an urban setting. Methods Unstructured open-ended group discussions were conducted with CHWs after completion of annual MDA activities. Narratives were obtained from CHWs using a digital audio recorder during the group discussions, transcribed verbatim and translated into English where applicable. Thematic decomposition of data was done using ATLAS.ti. software, and themes explored using the principle of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA. Results From the perspective of the CHWs, opportunities for implementing CDI in urban settings, included the presence of CHWs, their supervisory structures and their knowledge of intervention areas, and opportunity to integrate MDA with other health interventions. Several challenges were mentioned with regards to implementing MDA using the CDI strategy among them lack of incentives, fear of side effects, misconceptions regarding treatment and mistrust, difficulties working in unsanitary environmental conditions, insecurity, and insufficient time. A key recommendation in promoting more effective MDA using the CDI approach was allocation of more time to the exercise. Conclusion Findings from this study support the feasibility of using CDI for implementing MDA for schistosomiasis in

  16. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Logutenko, Olga A.; Titkov, Alexander I.; Vorob’yov, Alexander M.; Yukhin, Yriy M.; Lyakhov, Nikolay Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission ...

  17. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, O B

    1979-01-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl/sub 2/ solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  18. Melt refining of uranium contaminated copper, nickel, and mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xinwen; Liu Wencang; Zhang Yuan

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the experiment results on melt refining of uranium contaminated metallic discards such as copper, nickel, and mild steel. Based on recommended processes, uranium contents in ingots shall decrease below 1 ppm; metal recovery is higher than 96%; and slag production is below 5% in weight of the metal to be refined. The uranium in the slag is homogeneously distributed. The slag seems to be hard ceramics, insoluble in water, and can be directly disposed of after proper packaging

  19. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  20. Copper and copper-nickel-alloys - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassert, Anton; Tikana, Ladji [Deutsches Kupferinstitut e.V. Am Bonneshof 5, 40474 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing level of industrialization the demand for and the number of copper alloys rose in an uninterrupted way. Today, the copper alloys take an important position amongst metallic materials due to the large variety of their technological properties and applications. Nowadays there exist over 3.000 standardized alloys. Copper takes the third place of all metals with a worldwide consumption of over 15 millions tons per year, following only to steel and aluminum. In a modern industrial society we meet copper in all ranges of the life (electro-technology, building and construction industry, mechanical engineering, automotive, chemistry, offshore, marine engineering, medical applications and others.). Copper is the first metal customized by humanity. Its name is attributed to the island Cyprus, which supplied in the antiquity copper to Greece, Rome and the other Mediterranean countries. The Romans called it 'ore from Cyprus' (aes cyprium), later cuprum. Copper deposited occasionally also dapper and could be processed in the recent stone age simply by hammering. Already in early historical time copper alloys with 20 to 50 percent tin was used for the production of mirrors because of their high reflecting power. Although the elementary nickel is an element discovered only recently from a historical perspective, its application in alloys - without any knowledge of the alloy composition - occurred at least throughout the last 2.000 years. The oldest copper-nickel coin originates from the time around 235 B.C.. Only around 1800 AD nickel was isolated as a metallic element. In particular in the sea and offshore technology copper nickel alloys found a broad field of applications in piping systems and for valves and armatures. The excellent combination of characteristics like corrosion resistance, erosion stability and bio-fouling resistance with excellent mechanical strength are at the basis of this success. An experience of many decades supports the use

  1. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Blaine Kermit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  2. Flare up of Nickel Contact Dermatits Following Oral Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C R Srinivas

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient having contact dermatitis due to nickel on the wrist, sides of neck, thighs and legs, confirmed by patch tests with nickel sulphate, showed aggravation of the dermatitis following oral provocation with 25 mg nickel sulphate.

  3. Air Force standards for nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Warren; Milden, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed are presented in viewgraph form and include Air Force nickel hydrogen standardization goals, philosophy, project outline, cell level standardization, battery level standardization, and schedule.

  4. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This was stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low Earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  5. On the reflectivity of nickel neutron mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Habib, N. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt). Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept.); Kenawy, M.A.; Wahba, M.; Ashry, A.H. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-02-01

    Neutron reflectivities were determined for 300 nm thick films of natural nickel and nickel 58 coated on glass plates. The measurements were performed at glancing angles between 40' and 60'. The incident neutron beam from one of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels covered neutron wavelengths between 0.55 and 0.80 nm. It was found that nickel 58, because of the high value of its critical glancing angle, is more efficient as a neutron mirror than natural nickel. (orig.).

  6. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  7. Nickel-induced cytokine production from mononuclear cells in nickel-sensitive individuals and controls. Cytokine profiles in nickel-sensitive individuals with nickel allergy-related hand eczema before and after nickel challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, L; Christensen, J M; Kristiansen, J

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to nickel is a major cause of allergic contact dermatitis which is considered to be an inflammatory response induced by antigen-specific T cells. Here we describe the in vitro analysis of the nickel-specific T-cell-derived cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35...... was somewhat of a surprise, since previous studies have suggested a Th1 response in nickel-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. Subsequently, the nickel-allergic individuals were randomized to experimental exposure to nickel or vehicle in a double-blind design. A daily 10-min exposure of one finger to 10 ppm...... nickel solution for 1 week followed by 100 ppm for an additional week evoked a clinical response of hand eczema in the nickel-exposed group. Blood samples were drawn on days 7 and 14 after the start of this exposure to occupationally relevant concentrations of nickel. No statistically significant...

  8. What does the literature tell us about health workers' experiences of task-shifting projects in sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic, qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijovic, Hana; McKnight, Jacob; English, Mike

    2016-08-01

    To review systematically, qualitative literature covering the implementation of task shifting in sub-Saharan Africa to address the growing interest in interventions of this kind. This review aims to distil the key practical findings to both guide a specific project aiming to improve the quality of neonatal care in Kenya and to contribute to the broader literature. Task-shifting programmes aim to improve access to healthcare by delegating specific tasks from higher to lower skilled health workers. Evidence suggests that task-shifting programmes in sub-Saharan Africa may improve patient outcomes, but they have also been criticised for providing fragmented, unsustainable services. This systematic review of qualitative literature summarises factors affecting implementation of task shifting and how such interventions in sub-Saharan Africa may have affected health workers' feelings about their own positions and their ability to provide care. Following literature search, a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) framework was used to assess quality. Thereafter, analysis adopted a thematic synthesis approach. A systematic literature search identified qualitative studies examining task -shifting interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Thematic synthesis was used to identify overarching themes arising from across the studies and infer how task-shifting interventions may impact on the health workers from whom tasks are being shifted. From the 230 studies screened, 13 met the inclusion criteria. Overarching themes identified showed that task shifting has been associated with jurisdictional debates linked to new cadres working beyond their scope of practice, and tension around compensation and career development for those taking on tasks that were being delegated. Based on the qualitative data available, it appears that task shifting may negatively impact the sense of agency and the ability to perform of health workers' from whom tasks are shifted. The potential

  9. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries (NiMH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in nickel (Ni and rare earth elements (La and Ce from spent nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent nickel metal hydride batteries were heated over range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that nickel and rare earth elements were mainly recovered to about 45 wt.% and 12 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  10. Influence of nickel and beryllium content on swelling behavior of copper irradiated with fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N.; Garner, F.A.; Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Evans, J.H.

    1996-10-01

    In the 1970`s, the effects of nickel content on the evolution of dislocation microstructures and the formation and growth of voids in Cu-Ni alloys were studied using 1 MeV electrons in a high voltage electron microscope. The swelling rate was found to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. The decrease in the swelling rate was associated with a decreasing void growth rate with increasing nickel content at irradiation temperatures up to 450{degrees}C. At 500{degrees}C, both void size and swelling rate were found to peak at 1 and 2% Ni, respectively, and then to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. However, recent work has demonstrated that the swelling behavior of Cu-5%Ni irradiated with fission neutrons is very similar for that of pure copper. The present experiments were designed to investigate this apparent discrepancy.

  11. Work values among Lebanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Y M; Gardner, W L

    2000-10-01

    On the basis of a review of the existing literature, the authors tested 4 hypotheses to determine the applicability of work values in Arab societies to employees in Lebanese organizations. Only 1 hypothesis was supported: Organizational policies that ran counter to the worker's religious values had an adverse effect on job satisfaction. There was no support for the hypotheses (a) that workers' religiosity in inversely related to positive attitudes toward women's involvement at work, (b) that employee satisfaction is related to a mechanistic organizational design, or (c) that workers with an internal locus of control experience higher job satisfaction. The Lebanese workers, thus, did not appear to share some of the attributes claimed to exist in Arab societies.

  12. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Vitiello, V; Casals, E; Puntes, V F; Iamunno, F; Pellegrini, D; Changwen, W; Benvenuto, G; Buttino, I

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl2 and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the "sonicated experiment" (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the "non-sonicated experiment" (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50mgL(-1) and 1, 5 and 10mgL(-1) NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50mgL(-1) NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843nm after 48h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC50 values were similar for NON-SON (20.2mgL(-1)) and SON experiments (22.14mgL(-1)) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC50 of 7.45mgL(-1) and 6.97mgL(-1) for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl2 concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63mgL(-1), showed EC50 of 0.164 and 0.039mgL(-1), respectively. Overall, A. tonsa is more sensitive to NiCl2 than NiNPs with EC50 being one order of magnitude higher for NiNPs. Finally, we exposed adult copepods for 4 days to NiCl2 and NiNPs (chronic exposure) to study the effect on fecundity in terms of daily egg production and naupliar viability. Egg production is not affected by either form of nickel, whereas egg viability is significantly reduced by 0.025mgL(-1) NiCl2 and by 8.5mgL(-1) NiNPs. At NiNP concentration

  13. Solubility of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) from 100 to 200 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellefleur, Alexandre; Bachet, Martin; Benezeth, Pascale; Schott, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    The solubility of nickel ferrite was measured in a Hydrogen-Electrode Concentration Cell (HECC) at temperatures of 100 deg. C, 150 deg. C and 200 deg. C and pH between 4 and 5.25. The experimental solution was composed of HCl and NaCl (0.1 mol.L -1 ). Based on other studies ([1,2]), pure nickel ferrite was experimentally synthesized by calcination of a mixture of hematite Fe 2 O 3 and bunsenite NiO in molten salts at 1000 deg. C for 15 hours in air. The so obtained powder was fully characterized. The Hydrogen-Electrode Concentration cell has been described in [3]. It allowed us to run solubility experiments up to 250 deg. C with an in-situ pH measurement. To avoid reduction of the solid phase to metallic nickel, a hydrogen/argon mixture was used instead of pure hydrogen. Consequently, the equilibration time for the electrodes was longer than with pure hydrogen. Eight samples were taken on a 70 days period. After the experiments, the powder showed no significant XRD evidence of Ni (II) reduction. Nickel concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and iron concentration was measured by UV spectroscopy. The protocol has been designed to be able to measure both dissolved Fe (II) and total iron. The nickel solubility of nickel ferrite was slightly lower than the solubility of nickel oxide in close experimental conditions [3]. Dissolved iron was mainly ferrous and the solution was under-saturated relative to both hematite and magnetite. The nickel/iron ratio indicated a non-stoichiometric dissolution. The solubility measurements were compared with equilibrium calculations using the MULTEQ database. [1] Hayashi et al (1980) J. Materials Sci. 15, 1491-1497. [2] Ziemniak et al (2007) J. Physics and Chem. of Solids. 68,10-21. [3] EPRI Report 1003155 (2002). (authors)

  14. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Academic Centre for Innovation and Development in the Food Industry (CAISIAL), Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80055 Portici (Italy); Vitiello, V. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Casals, E. [Institut Català de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelone, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Puntes, V.F. [Institut Català de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelone, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut Català de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Iamunno, F. [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Napoli (Italy); Pellegrini, D. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Changwen, W. [Zhejiang Ocean University, 1 Rd. South Haida, Lincheng New Area, Dinghai District Zhoushan City, 316022 (China); Benvenuto, G. [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Napoli (Italy); Buttino, I., E-mail: isabella.buttino@isprambiente.it [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Acartia tonsa copepod is more sensitive to NiCl{sub 2} than to nickel nanoparticles. • At the tested concentration egg production was not affected by both form of nickel. • Egg viability is the most sensitive end-point for both form of nickel. • Nickel dissolved in seawater increased with nanoparticle concentration. • Acartia tonsa adults were able to ingest nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl{sub 2} and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the “sonicated experiment” (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the “non-sonicated experiment” (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 mg L{sup −1} and 1, 5 and 10 mg L{sup −1} NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50 mg L{sup −1} NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843 nm after 48 h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC{sub 50} values were similar for NON-SON (20.2 mg L{sup −1}) and SON experiments (22.14 mg L{sup −1}) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC{sub 50} of 7.45 mg L{sup −1} and 6.97 mg L{sup −1} for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl{sub 2} concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63 mg L{sup −1

  15. Direito e marxismo: a política de qualificação para trabalhadores desempregados na experiência do MTD em João Pessoa / Law and marxism: the qualification policy for unemployed workers and the unemployed workers movement experience in João Pessoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Giovanni Fernandes Correia

    2012-12-01

    capitalist logistics. Since the workers had taken away from them the means of production, they end up having only their workforce to sell and only by that being able to obtain what is necessary for them to survive. To justify this logic of domination of the man by the capital, the school gave its contribution. It served to form individuals who were worried with the competition and social ascension through merit; creating, then, people who are programmed to compete to succeed and reach a spot in the job market and, consequently, to an improvement in their material conditions. Education still follows a rhythm of employability condition, now increased by the neoliberal context, in which the portfolios tend to be larger by efforts of the individuals who try to enter the job market through qualification or professionalisation programs. It is intended, thus, to review: some concepts of exploration by work and structural unemployment; the neoliberal discourse of employability that harms unemployed workers; the relationship between the theoretical basis and the extensionist experience that followed the Unemployed Workers Movement, in João Pessoa, during the conquest and participation in a public policy of qualification to combat unemployment and reflect its consequences. Key words: Popular Juridical Advisement; professional qualification x job market; market margin policies.

  16. Nickel allergy in a Danish population 25 years after the first nickel regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel in metallic items has been regulated in Denmark since 1990; however, 10% of young Danish women are still sensitized to nickel. There is a need for continuous surveillance of the effect of regulation. OBJECTIVES: To identify current self-reported metallic exposures leading...... reactions within 30 min of contact were reported by 30.7% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel exposures that led to the implementation of a nickel regulation seem to persist. The durations of contact with metallic items to fall under the current REACH regulation of nickel correspond well with the results...... to dermatitis in nickel-allergic patients, and the minimum contact time needed for dermatitis to occur. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all patients who reacted positively to nickel sulfate 5% pet. within the last 5 years at the Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Gentofte Hospital. RESULTS...

  17. Nickel concentrations in fingernails as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, K; Gammelgaard, Bente; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    in nails (p less than 0.001). The difference between the 2 levels was also significant (p less than 0.001). No correlation between the nickel concentration in fingernails and the duration of exposure could be demonstrated. It was concluded that the higher the nickel level in the fingernails, the greater...... is the possibility that the person is occupationally exposed to nickel. Nail analysis is suggested as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel.......The nickel concentration in fingernails from 2 groups of people occupationally exposed to nickel was determined. In one group, comprising 83 persons moderately exposed to nickel, the mean +/- standard deviation (SD) was 29.2 micrograms/g +/- 56.7 micrograms/g and the median 13.8 micrograms/g (range...

  18. Prevalence of nickel allergy in Europe following the EU Nickel Directive - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2017-01-01

    .4% versus 19.8%) (p = 0.02), in female dermatitis patients aged ≤17 years (14.3% versus 29.2%) (p women: 20.2% versus 36.6%) (p men: 4.9% versus 6.6%) (p ..., and generally remained high, affecting 8-18% of the general population. A consistent pattern of decreasing prevalence of nickel allergy in some EU countries was observed, although the prevalence among young women remains high. Steps should be taken for better prevention of nickel allergy in EU countries.......Nickel contact allergy remains a problem in EU countries, despite the EU Nickel Directive. To study the prevalence of nickel allergy in EU countries following the implementation of the EU Nickel Directive, we performed a systematic search in PubMed for studies that examined the prevalence of nickel...

  19. How do health workers experience and cope with shocks? Learning from four fragile and conflict-affected health systems in Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Witter, Sophie; Wurie, Haja; Chandiwana, Pamela; Namakula, Justine; So, Sovannarith; Alonso-Garbayo, Alvaro; Ssengooba, Freddie; Raven, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    This article is grounded in a research programme which set out to understand how to rebuild health systems post-conflict. Four countries were studied – Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, and Cambodia – which were at different distances from conflict and crisis, as well as each having a unique conflict story. During the research process, the Ebola epidemic broke out in West Africa. Zimbabwe has continued to face a profound economic crisis. Within our research on health worker incentives, we captu...

  20. Hot corrosion studies on nickel-based alloys containing silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.W.; Simkovich, G.

    1976-01-01

    Alloys of Ni--Cr, Ni--Si and Ni--Cr--Si were oxidized and ''hot corroded'' in pure oxygen at 1000 0 C. In the oxidation experiments it was found that small amounts of either chromium or silicon in nickel increased the oxidation rates in comparison to pure nickel in accord with Wagner's parabolic oxidation theory. At high concentrations of the alloying elements the oxidation rates decreased due to the formation of oxide phases other than nickel oxide in the scale. Hot corrosion experiments were conducted on both binary and ternary alloys by oxidizing samples coated with 1.0 mg/cm 2 of Na 2 SO 4 in oxygen at 1000 0 C. In general it was found that high chromium and high silicon alloys displayed excellent resistance to the hot corrosion process gaining or losing less than 0.5 mg/cm 2 in 1800 min at temperature. Microprobe and x-ray diffraction studies of the alloy and the scale indicate that amorphous SiO 2 probably formed to aid in retarding both the oxidation and the hot corrosion process

  1. Investigations on laser induced nickel and titanium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.K.U.; Latif, A.; Bhatti, K.A.; Rafique, M.S.; Yousaf, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were performed to find out plasma parameters for Nickel and Titanium metals which were irradiated in air (1 atm) to produce plasma plume using Q switched Nd: YAG pulsed laser of 1.1 MW, 10 m J, 1064 nm and 9-14 ns. Langmuir probe was used as a diagnostic tool. The signals at different probe voltages were recorded on digital storage oscilloscope. The information carried by the signals was utilized to calculate electron density, electron temperature, Debye's length and number of particles in Debye's sphere. The study shows that the calculated values of these parameters for Nickel and Titanium are different except Debye's length. Plasma parameters strongly depend on probe potentials, material used and ambient conditions. (author)

  2. Sodium hypophosphite radiographic process using an ammoniacal nickel developer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of four factors on the yield of nickel from samples of sodium hypophosphite which were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation and then treated to an ammoniacal nickel chloride developer. The factors included sample mass, radiation exposure, development time, and concentration of NiCl 2 in the developer. Optimum normalized yields were obtained with a sample mass of 0.5 g, an exposure of 1.2 x 10 6 rad, and a development time of 8 h. The yield of Ni was observed to increase linearly with developer concentration. Attempts to prepare radiographic emulsions containing sodium hypophosphite met with limited success as only ethyl cellulose proved successful, and even these exhibited reduced sharpness of the image after only one or two days of storage

  3. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However...

  4. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Nickel ferrite is one of the important ferrites used in microwave devices. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of nickel ferrite using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied using XRD. The microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured.

  5. Method of nickel-plating large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention concerns a method of nickel-plating components, according to which even large components can be provided with an adequate layer of nickel which is pore- and stress-free and such that water is not lost. According to the invention, the component is heated and, after heating, is pickled, rinsed, scoured, plated in an electrolysis process, and rinsed again. (author)

  6. Evolution of the nickel/zirconia interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.L.; Olson, D.A.; De Jonghe, L.C.; Miller, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The changes taking place at the nickel zirconia interface during oxidation in air at 900 0 C were studied using analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The nickel oxide layer growing at the interface and the stabilizers used in zirconia interact, giving different interface morphologies

  7. Systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruli Olivia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a systemic reactivation of a previous allergic contact dermatitis. The initial exposure may usually be topical, followed by oral, intravenous or inhalation exposure leading to a systemic hypersensitivity reaction. A case of a 27 year-old male with SCD due to nickel is reported Case Report: A 27 year-old male presented with recurrent pruritic eruption consist of deep seated vesicles on both palmar and left plantar since 6 months before admission. This complaint began after patient consumed excessive amounts of chocolate, canned food, and beans. The patient worked as a technician in a food factory. History of allergy due to nickel was acknowledged since childhood. The clinical presentation was diffuse deep seated vesicles, and multiple erythematous macules to plaques, with collarette scale. Patch test using the European standard showed a +3 result to nickel. The patient was diagnosed as systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel. The treatments were topical corticosteroid and patient education of avoidance of both contact and systemic exposure to nickel. The patient showed clinical improvement after 2 weeks. Discussion: SCD was diagnosed due to the history of massive consumption of food containing nickel in a patient who had initial sensitization to nickel, with clinical features and the patch test result. Advice to be aware of nickel and its avoidance is important in SCD management.

  8. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  9. Structure investigations of electrodeposited nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Czako-Nagy, I.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Brauer, G.; Leidheiser, H. Jr

    1981-01-01

    Electrodeposited nickel samples were investigated by positron annihilation (lifetime and Doppler-broadening), Moessbauer effect and X-ray diffraction measurements. Two-component positron lifetime spectra were obtained. The first component is thought to result from bulk annihilation and trapping at single trapping centres (TC), their concentrations are obtained from the trapping model. The second one possibly denotes annihilation at voids, the number of which is dependent on the stress in the deposit. The Moessbauer results show differences in the magnetic orientation in the three samples examined. (author)

  10. Comparing patient and healthcare worker experiences during a dengue outbreak in Singapore: understanding the patient journey and the introduction of a point-of-care test (POCT) toward better care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qinghui; Hildon, Zoe J-L; Singh, Shweta; Jing, Jin; Thein, Tun Linn; Coker, Richard; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Leo, Yee Sin

    2017-07-19

    In the aftermath of an upsurge in the number of dengue cases in 2013 and 2014, the SD BIOLINE Dengue Duo rapid diagnostic Point-of-Care Test (POCT) kit was introduced in Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore in June 2013. It is known that the success of POCT usage is contingent on its implementation within the health system. We evaluated health services delivery and the Dengue Duo rapid diagnostic test kit application in Singapore from healthcare workers' perspectives and patient experiences of dengue at surge times. Focus group discussions were conducted with dengue patients, from before and after the POCT implementation period. In-depth interviews with semi-structured components with healthcare workers were carried out. A patient centred process mapping technique was used for evaluation, which mapped the patient's journey and was mirrored from the healthcare worker's perspective. Patients and healthcare workers confirmed a wide range of symptoms in adults, making it challenging to determine diagnosis. There were multiple routes to help seeking, and no 'typical patient journey', with patients either presenting directly to the hospital emergency department, or being referred there by a primary care provider. Patients groups diagnosed before and after POCT implementation expressed some differences between speed of diagnoses and attitudes of doctors, yet shared negative feelings about waiting times and a lack of communication and poor information delivery. However, the POCT did not in its current implementation do much to help waiting times. Healthcare workers expressed that public perceptions of dengue in recent years was a major factor in changing patient management, and that the POCT kit was helpful in improving the speed and accuracy of diagnoses. Health service delivery for dengue patients in Singapore was overall perceived to be of an acceptable clinical standard, which was enhanced by the introduction of the POCT. However, improvements can be focused on Adapting

  11. Management of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Torres1

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Torres1, Maria das Graças Mota Melo2, Antonella Tosti31Department of Dermatology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Occupational Dermatology Sector, Center for the Study of Worker Health and Human Ecology, National School of Public Health, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Department of Dermatology, University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Nickel is the major cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the general population, both among children and adults, as well as in large occupational groups. This metal is used in numerous industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, metal plating, coinage, and special alloys, and is therefore almost impossible to completely avoid in daily life. Nickel contact dermatitis can represent an important morbidity, particularly in patients with chronic hand eczema, which can lead to inability to work, a decrease in quality of life and significant healthcare expenses. Therefore, its management is of great importance. This article reviews diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in this field.Keywords: allergic contact dermatitis, metals, contact hypersensitivity, occupational exposure, children, contact dermatitis

  12. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  13. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; Odonnell, P.M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market.

  14. Evaluation of cyclic flexural fatigue of M-wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadlaq, Solaiman M S; Aljarbou, Fahad A; AlThumairy, Riyadh I

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate cyclic flexural fatigue resistance of GT series X rotary files made from the newly developed M-wire nickel-titanium alloy compared with GT and Profile nickel-titanium files made from a conventional nickel-titanium alloy. Fifteen files, size 30/0.04, of each type were used to evaluate the cyclic flexural fatigue resistance. A simple device was specifically constructed to measure the time each file type required to fail under cyclic flexural fatigue testing. The results of this experiment indicated that the GT series X files had superior cyclic flexural fatigue resistance than the other 2 file types made from a conventional nickel-titanium alloy (P = .004). On the other hand, the difference between the Profile and the GT files was not statistically significant. The findings of this study suggest that size 30/0.04 nickel-titanium rotary files made from the newly developed M-wire alloy have better cyclic flexural fatigue resistance than files of similar design and size made from the conventional nickel-titanium alloy. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nickel Electroless Plating: Adhesion Analysis for Mono-Type Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun Gu; Rehman, Atteq ur; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Soo Hong

    2015-10-01

    The adhesion of the front electrodes to silicon substrate is the most important parameters to be optimized. Nickel silicide which is formed by sintering process using a silicon substrate improves the mechanical and electrical properties as well as act as diffusion barrier for copper. In this experiment p-type mono-crystalline czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers having resistivity of 1.5 Ω·cm were used to study one step and two step nickel electroless plating process. POCl3 diffusion process was performed to form the emitter with the sheet resistance of 70 ohm/sq. The Six, layer was set down as an antireflection coating (ARC) layer at emitter surface by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. Laser ablation process was used to open SiNx passivation layer locally for the formation of the front electrodes. Nickel was deposited by electroless plating process by one step and two step nickel electroless deposition process. The two step nickel plating was performed by applying a second nickel deposition step subsequent to the first sintering process. Furthermore, the adhesion analysis for both one step and two steps process was conducted using peel force tester (universal testing machine, H5KT) after depositing Cu contact by light induced plating (LIP).

  16. Migrant Workers and the Changing Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Arthur; Finniear, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The influx of migrant workers in the UK has widespread interest. This group's experience of the British work place has evoked considerable debate ranging from the potential to be exploited through unscrupulous practices to allegations about taking away jobs from British workers. The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge about the…

  17. Keys to Successful Community Health Worker Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Patricia; Hahn, Janet S.; Philippi, Evelyn; Sanchez, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    For many years community health workers (CHW) have been important to the implementation of many of our health system's community health interventions. Through this experience, we have recognized some unique challenges in community health worker supervision and have highlighted what we have learned in order to help other organizations effectively…

  18. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  19. Evaluation of Beryllium, Total Chromium and Nickel in the Surface Contaminant Layer Available for Dermal Exposure After Abrasive Blasting in a Shipyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    workers are potentially exposed to metals including cadmium, chromium, beryllium, iron, lead, nickel, tin, zinc and copper (43). 2 Potential worker...identified in the breathing zone air samples at Portsmouth NSY, coal slag was the abrasive in use. Within Portsmouth NSY, there are two main areas...where coal slag is used for blasting: the dry docks for blasting of submarines and in Building 286. Building 286 is a large bay room building where

  20. Recent progress in nickel carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Positive bacterial mutagenesis tests have been obtained with Ni(II) in Corynybacterium, but not in E. coli, S. typhimurium, or B. subtilis. Transformation assays of several soluble and crystalline Ni compounds have been positive in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Ni(II) binds to DNA, RNA, and nucleoproteins, and becomes localized in nucleoli. Genotoxic effects of Ni include: (a) chromosomal aberrations, including sister-chromatid exchanges, (b) DNA strandbreaks and DNA-protein crosslinks, (c) inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis, (d) infidelity of DNA transcription, and (e) mutations at the HGPRTase locus in Chinese hamster cells and the TK locus in mouse lymphoma cells. These findings are consistent with somatic mutation as the mechanism for initiation of nickel carcinogenesis. Ni compounds cause reversible transition of double-stranded poly(dG-dC) DNA from the right-handed B-helix to the left-handed Z-helix, suggesting a mechanism whereby nickel might modulate oncogene expression. 99 references, 4 tables.

  1. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  2. Actions of female sex workers who experience male condom failure during penetrative sexual encounters with clients in Cape Town: Implications for HIV prevention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Condom failure has always been found to coexist with condom usage, especially among sex workers. Objective To describe the actions of female sex workers when they are faced with situations of condom failure. Methods Using the survey design, the participants were selected through the snowball sampling method. Their responses were obtained using a structured questionnaire. A total of 100 questionnaires were analysed. Results With respect to the immediate actions of sex workers after condom failure, 36% of the respondents continued with the sexual encounter after noticing that the condom was broken. Another 36% stopped immediately when they noticed that the condom had failed, but replaced the condom; 13% of the participants stopped the sexual encounter completely; 3% applied vaginal spermicidal foam; and 5% of the respondents stopped immediately and took a douche when they had the chance. For the actions within the next 24 hours of experiencing condom failure with a client, 53% of the participants did nothing; 4% sought counsel from a professional; 3% of the respondents took alcohol or drugs to forget the incident, 25% went to the clinic for assistance and 8% offered other responses. Conclusion While continuing the sexual encounter without replacing the condom, taking alcohol and drugs or doing nothing could increase the risk of contracting HIV; however, actions like stopping the sexual encounter completely and visiting a clinic or a professional could make a difference between staying HIV negative or seroconverting. There is a need for targeted intervention to address issues of inappropriate behaviours after experiencing condom failure. PMID:29568633

  3. Reexamining workers' compensation: a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Leslie I

    2012-06-01

    Injured workers, particularly those with more severe injuries, have long experienced workers' compensation systems as stressful and demeaning, have found it difficult to obtain benefits, and, when able to obtain benefits, have found them inadequate. Moreover, the last two decades have seen a substantial erosion of the protections offered by workers' compensation. State after state has erected additional barriers to benefit receipt, making the workers' compensation experience even more difficult and degrading. These changes have been facilitated by a framing of the political debate focused on the free market paradigm, employer costs, and worker fraud and malingering. The articles in this special issue propose an alternate framework and analysis, a human rights approach, that values the dignity and economic security of injured workers and their families. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation by the worker. Indirect participation involves employee representation, while direct participation relates to individual involvement in management’s decision-making processes. In the Framework Dir...

  5. Temporary workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Verbiest, S.; Goudswaard, A.

    2014-01-01

    Temporary employment contracts are often used by employers to manage fluctuations in personnel needs. Many sectors of industry experience these fluctuations, which are often seasonal. This creates uncertainty about the continuousness of demand for work, which is transferred from employers to

  6. High power nickel - cadmium cells with fiber electrodes (FNC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschka, F.; Schlieck, D.

    1986-01-01

    Nickel cadmium batteries differ greatly in their mechanical design and construction of the electrodes. Using available electrode constructions, batteries are designed which meet the requirements of specific applications and offer optimum performance. Pocket- and tubular cells are basically developed with the technology of the year 1895. Since then some improvements with todays technology have been made. The sintered cells use the technology of the 1930's and they are still limited to high power application. With this knowledge and the technology of today the fiber-structured nickel electrode (FNC) was developed at DAUG laboratory, a subsidiary company of Mercedes-Benz and Volkswagen. After ten years of experience in light weight prototype batteries for electric vehicles (1-2), the system was brought into production by a new company, DAUG-HOPPECKE. Characteristics of fiber electrodes: thickness and size can be easily changed; pure active materials are used; high conductor density; high elasticity of the structure; high porosity. Since 1983 NiCd-batteries with fiber-structured nickel electrodes (FNC) have been in production. Starting with the highly demanded cell-types for low, medium and high performance called L, M and H according to IEC 623 for low, medium and high performance applications, the program was recently completed with the X-type cell for very high power, as an alternative to sintered cells

  7. SAFT 4{1/2} inch nickel hydrogen battery cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquesne, D.; Lacout, B.; Sennet, A. [SAFT Advanced Batteries, Poitiers (France)

    1995-12-31

    SAFT Advanced Batteries has now produced over 400 high capacity 4{1/2} inch Nickel Hydrogen Battery Cells for flight programs. The 4.5 inch diameter, rabbit-ear cell design is designed to provide the anticipated energy required at the lowest practical weight. SAFT has incorporated into the design of the dry-powder nickel electrode, truly hermetic ceramic to metal seals, qualified terminal feedthroughs, high reliability mechanical design, composite pure platinum negative electrode, and zircar separator, plus more than 25 years experience in aerospace nickel cell technology, resulting in a 4{1/2} inch configuration with the 3{1/2} inch cell design carryover heritage. General performance requirements for GEO missions that SAFT cells meet are 15 years in orbit lifetime, 80% DOD, low mass to energy ratios, and flexible capacity by modifying number of electrodes in the stack. This design is qualified for geostationary orbits based on SAFT`s 3{1/2} inch qualification heritage, design verification, and cycling performed by customer Space Systems/LORAL in support of the INTELSAT VIIA and N-STAR flight programs.

  8. Nickel production in Serbia-technological and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kamberović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Demand for nickel is constantly growing due to the versatility of its application, at the first place for stainless steel production. Ore reserves and possibility of nickel production of today’s Serbia and in neighboring countries were thoroughly investigated, and presented work is part of a wider project of sublimation of scientific and professional experience in the field of nickel extractive metallurgy on domestic raw materials. Presented research explores the possibility of high pressure sulfuric acid leaching of Serbian lateritic ores from localities Rudjinci, Ba and Lipovac. All three investigated ore deposits behaved differently both during preparation and during hydrometallurgical treatment. As optimal method for ore preparation proved to be crushing-milling-sieving route, but without possibility of concentrate production. Only for Rudjinci ore deposit achieved leaching efficiency reached satisfactory level of 95%. Within presented paper flow-sheet is proposed for processing high-magnesium laterite ores, with iron and magnesium oxide Both could be recirculated and used again in technological process; MgO for iron precipitation and SO2 for production of leaching agent, sulfuric acid. Final decision on the sustainability of the process will be made according to techno-economic and environmental evaluation. Estimated overall impact of the project implementation on the environment is negative.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Electroplated Nickel Coating on Hard Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt’s solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1 Amp, electric potential: 1.0 V, and pH: 3.5 constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15 mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models.

  10. An effective strategy for influenza vaccination of healthcare workers in Australia: experience at a large health service without a mandatory policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich-Morrison, Kristina; McLellan, Sue; McGinnes, Ursula; Carroll, Brendan; Watson, Kerrie; Bass, Pauline; Worth, Leon J; Cheng, Allen C

    2015-02-06

    Annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) is recommended in Australia, but uptake in healthcare facilities has historically been low (approximately 50%). The objective of this study was to develop and implement a dedicated campaign to improve uptake of staff influenza annual vaccination at a large Australian health service. A quality improvement program was developed at Alfred Health, a tertiary metropolitan health service spanning 3 campuses. Pre-campaign evaluation was performed by questionnaire in 2013 to plan a multimodal vaccination strategy. Reasons for and against vaccination were captured. A campaign targeting clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers was then implemented between March 31 and July 31 2014. Proportional uptake of influenza vaccination was determined by campus and staff category. Pre-campaign questionnaire responses were received from 1328/6879 HCWs (response rate 20.4%), of which 76% were vaccinated. Common beliefs held by unvaccinated staff included vaccine ineffectiveness (37.1%), that vaccination makes staff unwell (21.0%), or that vaccination is not required because staff are at low risk for acquiring influenza (20.2%). In 2014, 6009/7480 (80.3%) staff were vaccinated, with significant improvement in uptake across all campuses and amongst nursing, medical and allied health staff categories from 2013 to 2014 (p strategy utilising social marketing and a customised staff database was successful in increasing influenza vaccination uptake by all staff categories. The sustainability of dedicated campaigns must be evaluated.

  11. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis among construction workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the important occupational hazards in construction workers and it often leads to poor quality of life of the workers with substantial financial loss. However, this is often a neglected entity. There are no past studies on the construction workers in Indian subcontinent. Objective: This pilot study has been done to assess the allergological profile among the workers engaged in construction of roads and bridges. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among the workers working on construction of a bridge, flyover, and roads in West Bengal, India. Sixteen workers were selected on clinical suspicion. Ten were selected randomly and patch tested with Indian standard battery of patch test allergens. Analysis of reactions and relevance of positive test was assessed as per standard guidelines. Results: All the workers were men. Average age of workers was 24.8 years (range, 19-34 years. Dermatitis affected exposed parts in 93.75% and covered areas in 62.5%. Total positive test was 24 and relevant 11. Most common allergens were chromate (relevant allergy/RA: in 60% of patch tested workers, epoxy resin (RA: 30%, cobalt (RA: 20%, nickel (RA: 20%, thiuram mixture (RA: 10% and black rubber mix (RA: 10%. Two cases (20% had irritant contact dermatitis. Conclusion: The result indicated that chromate is the most frequent allergen among construction workers in this part of India. High frequency of involvement of the covered areas as well as the exposed areas highlighted the fact that the allergens had access to most body parts of the workers.

  12. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  13. Exploring experience and perspectives of foreign-born direct care workers in dementia care: Accounts of Korean American personal care aides caring for older Korean Americans with dementia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang E; Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin

    2018-05-01

    This focus group study explored experience of Korean American personal care aides caring for older Korean Americans with dementia symptoms. Personal care aides described dementia caregiving as challenging, demanding and stressful, yet they cared for their clients with love and affection, particularly with jeong (i.e., a Korean cultural concept of love, affection, sympathy, and bondage). They learned about dementia mostly through their caregiving experience and expressed their need and strong desire to learn more about dementia. They felt for family struggle and observed family conflict and filial obligation. They advocated the value of personal care aides' involvement in dementia care. This study revealed a pressing need for dementia training for personal care aides and called for an outreach effort to recruit and train direct care workers with potential of providing culturally competent care for traditionally underserved ethnic minorities.

  14. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, K A; Galevsky, G V; Rudneva, V V; Kozyrev, N A; Orshanskaya, E G

    2015-01-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density. (paper)

  15. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  16. Determination of electroless deposition by chemical nickeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Badida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of technical level and reliability of machine products in compliance with the economical and ecological terms belongs to the main trends of the industrial development. During the utilisation of these products there arise their each other contacts and the interaction with the environment. That is the reason for their surface degradation by wear effect, corrosion and other influences. The chemical nickel-plating allows autocatalytic deposition of nickel from water solutions in the form of coherent, technically very profitable coating without usage of external source of electric current. The research was aimed at evaluating the surface changes after chemical nickel-plating at various changes of technological parameters.

  17. Nickel exposure and prevalent albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria: evidence from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Qi; Zhu, Mingjiang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Huaixing; Li, Zi; Chen, Yan; Yin, Huiyong; Lin, Xu

    2016-05-01

    High exposure to nickel could induce renal dysfunction in rodents and occupational workers. However, little is known about the effects of non-occupational exposure to nickel on renal health in the general population. We aimed to examine the associations of urinary nickel concentrations with albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria in Chinese adults. 2115 non-institutionalised Chinese men and women aged 55-76 years from Beijing and Shanghai were included. Urinary nickel concentrations were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Plasma uric acid, urea nitrogen, C reactive protein and urinary albumin, β2-microglobulin and creatinine were measured. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin ≥30 mg/g creatinine, and β2-microglobulinuria was defined as urinary β2-microglobulin ≥200 µg/g creatinine. Median concentration of urinary nickel was 3.95 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 2.57-6.71 μg/g creatinine), and prevalence of albuminuria, β2-microglobulinuria and both albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria was 22.1%, 24.5% and 9.7%, respectively. Comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of urinary nickel, the ORs (95% CIs) were 1.99 (1.46 to 2.78) for albuminuria, 1.44 (1.07 to 1.95) for β2-microglobulinuria, and 2.95 (1.74 to 4.97) for both albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria, after adjustment for demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviours, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. The association remained significant when further controlling for inflammatory markers or other heavy metals (all p trend nickel levels were positively associated with albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria in Chinese men and women, who had relatively low background nickel exposure. More prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Degradation of creep properties in a long-term thermally exposed nickel base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrnik, J.; Strunz, P.; Vrchovinsky, V.; Muransky, O.; Novy, Z.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    When exposed for long time at elevated temperatures of 430 and 650 deg. C the nickel base superalloy EI 698 VD can experience a significant decrease in creep resistance. The cause of the creep degradation of nickel base superalloy is generally attributed to the microstructural instability at prolonged high temperature exposure. In this article, the creep-life data, generated on long thermally exposed nickel base superalloy EI698 VD were related to the local microstructural changes observed using SEM and TEM analysing techniques. While structure analysis provided supporting evidence concerning the changes associated with grain boundary carbide precipitation, no persuasive evidence of a morphological and/or dimensional gamma prime change was showed. For clarifying of the role of gamma prime precipitates on alloy on creep degradation, the SANS (small angle neutron scattering) experiment was crucial in the characterization of the bulk-averaged gamma prime morphology and its size distribution with respect to the period of thermal exposure

  19. «There’s no more Progressive Party in Barcelona». Social experience and workers protest into the 1869 republican up-rising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert García Balañà

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain the 1869 Republican up-rising in Barcelona by adding an evidence unknown to the historiography of republicanism: its confluence with a massive cotton workers strike that paralyzed the first industry of the city from august to October in the aftermath of the armed fighting. So, the 1869 Republican up-rising in Barcelona can be seen as a relevant case study in order to understand some major issues on 1868-1874 Spain: the nature of the rank-and-file/leadership relationship into the republican movement; the social (and not only political sources of popular or plebeian unrest; and the so many faces of the «cuestión obrera» in industrial and liberal societies, as Barcelona had been since the 1830s.

  20. Left alone--Swedish nurses' and mental health workers' experiences of being care providers in a social psychiatric dwelling context in the post-health-care-restructuring era. A focus-group interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Hellzén, Ove; Asplund, Kenneth

    2010-09-01

    The professional role of nurses and mental health workers in social psychiatry is being re-defined towards a recovery, client-focused perspective. Approximately 0.7 percent of the adult population in Sweden suffers from severe mental illness leading to a need for community services. The primary aims of the Mental Health Reform in 1995 in Sweden were to improve the quality of life for people with severe, long-term mental illness and, through normalization and integration, enhancing their opportunities to communicate with and participate in society. This study examines nurses' and mental health workers' views and experiences of being care providers in a municipal psychiatric group dwelling context when caring for clients suffering from severe mental illness. Three focus group interviews were made and thematic content analysis was conducted. Four themes were formulated: 'Being a general human factotum not unlike the role of parents', 'Having a complex and ambiguous view of clients', 'Working in a mainly 'strangled' situation', and 'Feeling overwhelming frustration'. The staff, for instance, experienced a heavy workload that highly involved themselves as persons and restricted organization. The individual relational aspects of the nursing role, the risk of instrumentalizing the staff due to an organizational economical teleopathy (meaning a pathological desire to react goals), and the high societal demands on accomplishing the Mental Health Reform goals are discussed. To redefine the professional role of nurses and mental health workers in the community, in Sweden known as municipality, they need support in the form of continuously education, supervision, and dialogue with politicians as well as the public in general. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Nickel nanostructured materials from liquid phase photodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, Salvatore; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Costanzo, Lucia L.; Ventimiglia, Giorgio; Nigro, Raffaella Lo; Favazza, Maria; Votrico, Enrico; Bongiorno, Corrado; Fragala, Ignazio L.

    2007-01-01

    Liquid Phase Photo-Deposition (LPPD) technique has been used to obtain both colloidal particles and thin films of metallic and chloride nickel from solutions of only precursor Ni(acac) 2 (acac=2,4-pentandionato). Metallic nickel was obtained from ethanol solutions by direct nickel(II) photoreduction at 254 nm and by acetone sensitised reaction at 300 nm. In this latter process the rate was higher than in the first one. NiCl 2 was formed from CCl 4 solution by a solvent-initiated reaction. TEM analysis, performed on colloidal particles of nickel, showed that their dimensions are in the range 2-4 nm. The films did not present carbon contamination and were characterized by AFM, XPS and GIXRD. Metallic films consisted of particles of 20-40 nm that are the result of the aggregation of smaller crystallites (4-5 nm). Larger agglomerations (around 200 nm) have been observed for NiCl 2 films

  2. Annealing texture of rolled nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshchaninov, I.V.; Khayutin, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    A texture of pure nickel and binary alloys after the 95% rolling and annealing has been studied. Insoluble additives (Mg, Zr) slacken the cubic texture in nickel and neral slackening of the texture (Zr). In the case of alloying with silicium (up to 2%) the texture practically coinsides with that of a technical-grade nickel. The remaining soluble additives either do not change the texture of pure nickel (C, Nb) or enhance the sharpness and intensity of the cubic compontnt (Al, Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, W, Co -at their content 0.5 to 2.0%). A model is proposed by which variation of the annealing texture upon alloying is caused by dissimilar effect of the alloying elements on the mobility of high- and low-angle grain boundaries

  3. Three dimensional characterization of nickel coarsening in solid oxide cells via ex-situ ptychographic nano-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Salvatore; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Tsai, Esther Hsiao Rho; Holler, Mirko; Kreka, Kosova; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2018-04-01

    Nickel coarsening is considered a significant cause of solid oxide cell (SOC) performance degradation. Therefore, understanding the morphological changes in the nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) fuel electrode is crucial for the wide spread usage of SOC technology. This paper reports a study of the initial 3D microstructure evolution of a SOC analyzed in the pristine state and after 3 and 8 h of annealing at 850 °C, in dry hydrogen. The analysis of the evolution of the same location of the electrode shows a substantial change of the nickel and pore network during the first 3 h of treatment, while only negligible changes are observed after 8 h. The nickel coarsening results in loss of connectivity in the nickel network, reduced nickel specific surface area and decreased total triple phase boundary density. For the condition of this experiment, nickel coarsening is shown to be predominantly curvature driven, and changes in the electrode microstructure parameters are discussed in terms of local microstructural evolution.

  4. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards

  5. Work-Life Balance and Ideal Worker Expectations for Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the work-life experiences of administrators as well as whether and how the ideal worker model affects those experiences. Departmental and supervisory differences and technology complicate administrators' work-life experiences.

  6. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; O`Donnell, P.M. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (>30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4,000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft.

  7. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  8. Effect of pulp density and particle size on indirect bioleaching of Pomalaa nickel laterite using metabolic citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, H. B. T. M.; Wanta, K. C.; Setiawan, H.; Perdana, I.; Astuti, W.

    2018-01-01

    Nickel laterite ore contains oxide of iron, aluminum or both with nickel, cobalt and chromium which can be leached out using hydrometallurgical process. For the purpose of meeting the world’s increasing demand of nickel, there is a need to invent environmentally friendly process to efficiently leach nickel. This experiment used nickel laterite ore obtained from Pomalaa, South Sulawesi. The leaching agent is metabolic citric acid produced by Aspergillus niger under optimum condition. Leaching process was done in three-necked flask in atmospheric temperature and constant stirring speed of 200 rpm. The variable examined in the experiment was pulp density and particle size of nickel laterite ore. Samples were taken at 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 minutes and then filtered and diluted to be analyzed using ICP-AES. The result of the experiment showed the maximum recovery of metals increase with the decrease of the pulp density. The maximum recovery for varying pulp density were at 5% solid/liquid ratio and the recovery were Ni at 1.63%, Al at 0.47%, Fe at 0.23% and Mg at 1.09%. The effect of particle size on leaching process showed that the leaching process follows the shrinking core model. The maximum recovery of metals at particle size were at 100-120 mesh with Ni at 1.37%, Fe at 0.10%, Al at 0.72% and Mg at 0.62%.

  9. Chemoorganotrophic Bioleaching of Olivine for Nickel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wai Chiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching of olivine, a natural nickel-containing magnesium-iron-silicate, was conducted by applying chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi. The tested fungus, Aspergillus niger, leached substantially more nickel from olivine than the tested bacterium, Paenibacillus mucilaginosus. Aspergillus niger also outperformed two other fungal species: Humicola grisae and Penicillium chrysogenum. Contrary to traditional acid leaching, the microorganisms leached nickel preferentially over magnesium and iron. An average selectivity factor of 2.2 was achieved for nickel compared to iron. The impact of ultrasonic conditioning on bioleaching was also tested, and it was found to substantially increase nickel extraction by A. niger. This is credited to an enhancement in the fungal growth rate, to the promotion of particle degradation, and to the detachment of the stagnant biofilm around the particles. Furthermore, ultrasonic conditioning enhanced the selectivity of A. niger for nickel over iron to a value of 3.5. Pre-carbonating the olivine mineral, to enhance mineral liberation and change metal speciation, was also attempted, but did not result in improvement as a consequence of the mild pH of chemoorganotrophic bioleaching.

  10. Healing or harming? Healthcare provider interactions with injured workers and insurers in workers' compensation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Elizabeth; Kosny, Agnieszka; McKenzie, Donna; Collie, Alex

    2015-03-01

    Healthcare providers (HCPs) are influential in the injured worker's recovery process and fulfil many roles in the delivery of health services. Interactions between HCPs and insurers can also affect injured workers' engagement in rehabilitation and subsequently their recovery and return to work. Consideration of the injured workers' perceptions and experiences as consumers of medical and compensation services can provide vital information about the quality, efficacy and impact of such systems. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize published qualitative research that focused on the interactions between injured workers, HCPs and insurers in workers' compensation systems in order to identify processes or interactions which impact injured worker recovery. A search of six electronic databases for literature published between 1985 and 2012 revealed 1,006 articles. Screening for relevance identified 27 studies which were assessed for quality against set criteria. A final 13 articles of medium and high quality were retained for data extraction. Findings were synthesized using a meta-ethnographic approach. Injured workers reported that HCPs could play both healing and harming roles in their recovery. Supportive patient-centred interaction with HCPs is important for injured workers. Difficult interactions between HCPs and insurers were highlighted in themes of adversarial relations and organisational pressures. Insurer and compensation system processes exerted an influence on the therapeutic relationship. Recommendations to improve relationships included streamlining administrative demands and increasing education and communication between the parties. Injured workers with long term complex injuries experience difficulties with healthcare in the workers' compensation context. Changes in insurer administrative demands and compensation processes could increase HCP participation and job satisfaction. This in turn may improve injured worker recovery

  11. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Vennegaard, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Metal allergy is the most frequent form of contact allergy with nickel and cobalt being the main culprits. Typically, exposure comes from metal-alloys where nickel and cobalt co-exist. Importantly, very little is known about how co-exposure to nickel and cobalt affects the immune system. We...... investigated these effects by using a recently developed mouse model. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with i) nickel alone, ii) nickel in the presence of cobalt, iii) cobalt alone, or iv) cobalt in the presence of nickel, and then followed by challenge with either nickel or cobalt alone. We found...... that sensitization with nickel alone induced more local inflammation than cobalt alone as measured by increased ear-swelling. Furthermore, the presence of nickel during sensitization to cobalt led to a stronger challenge response to cobalt as seen by increased ear-swelling and increased B and T cell responses...

  12. Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    and nickel allergy, either on normal or on SLS-treated forearm skin. The present study strongly suggests that the changes observed were specific to nickel exposure. Standardized methods to assess trace to moderate nickel exposure on the hands, and the associated effects in nickel-sensitized subjects......We studied the effects of repeated daily exposure to low nickel concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and nickel allergy. The concentrations used were chosen to represent the range of trace to moderate occupational nickel exposure. The study was double-blinded and placebo...... controlled. Patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into a 10-p.p.m. nickel concentration in water for the first week, and during the second week into a 100-p.p.m. nickel concentration. This regimen significantly increased (P = 0.05) local vesicle formation and blood flow (P = 0.03) as compared...

  13. Heuristic for Task-Worker Assignment with Varying Learning Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawee Tharmmaphornphilas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fashion industry has variety products, so the multi-skilled workers are required to improve flexibility in production and assignment. Generally the supervisor will assign task to the workers based on skill and skill levels of worker. Since in fashion industry new product styles are launched more frequently and the order size tends to be smaller, the workers always learn when the raw material and the production process changes. Consequently they require less time to produce the succeeding units of a task based on their learning ability. Since the workers have both experience and inexperience workers, so each worker has different skill level and learning ability. Consequently, the assignment which assumed constant skill level is not proper to use. This paper proposes a task-worker assignment considering worker skill levels and learning abilities. Processing time of each worker changes along production period due to a worker learning ability. We focus on a task-worker assignment in a fashion industry where tasks are ordered in series; the number of tasks is greater than the number of workers. Therefore, workers can perform multiple assignments followed the precedence restriction as an assembly line balancing problem. The problem is formulated in an integer linear programming model with objective to minimize makespan. A heuristic is proposed to determine the lower bound (LB and the upper bound (UB of the problem and the best assignment is determined. The performance of the heuristic method is tested by comparing quality of solution and computational time to optimal solutions.

  14. Investigation of the phase formation from nickel coated nanostructured silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilyaeva, Yulia I.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Berezkina, Alexandra Yu.; Sysa, Artem V.; Dudin, Alexander A.; Smirnov, Dmitry I.; Gavrilov, Sergey A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the influence of the conditions of chemical and electrochemical nickel plating of nanostructured silicon and subsequent heat treatment on the phase composition of Si/Ni structures with advanced interface is studied. Nanostructured silicon formed by chemical and electrochemical etching was used for the formation of a developed interphase surface. The resulting Si/Ni samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray phase analysis. The experiments have revealed the differences in phase composition of the Si/Ni structures obtained by different methods, both before and after heat treatment.

  15. Scattering of polarized protons by yttrium, iron and nickel nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melssen, J.P.M.G.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented of scattering experiments performed on yttrium and some iron and nickel isotopes with polarized proton beams at energies around 20 MeV. The angular distributions of the differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured and comparison of these with predictions from theoretical models has led to information about excited nuclear states like spin, parity and details of the wavefunctions. The DWBA has been mostly used to describe the reaction at the bombarding energies and for the target nuclei investigated. (C.F.)

  16. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  17. Protection of uranium by electrodeposition of nickel and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, G.; Coriou, H.; Hure, J.

    1959-01-01

    This work forms part of the overall scheme for investigating uranium canning for nuclear reactors. It is necessary to: - Protect the fuel (uranium) against corrosion by the cooling medium (heavy water, CO 2 , etc.), in the case of a rupture of the can; - Avoid dangerous U-Al diffusion (when it is question of an aluminium can) by using an intermediate layer of a metal whose rate of diffusion in uranium is very much less than that of aluminium under the same conditions. In the present work based on the use of an intermediate layer of nickel the following points are apparent: 1) After having treated the uranium surface it is possible to electroplate nickel on it in such a way that after annealing without the application of any pressure these deposits give a very good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion. Though this diffusion is inferior to that of the UAl system, it enables the protection to be reinforced and thus the corrosion resistance to be increased. 2) When no other factor varies, the experiments show that the quality of the diffusion zones obtained depends on the nature of the electrolytic nickel bath. 3) The classical nickel baths used previously for this type of work contain 20 to 40 g/l of boric acid acting as an electrolytic buffer. As a result of this, the deposits are highly contaminated by boron (400 to 500 ppm of boron). We shall show that with a bath which does not contain nuclear poisons, a very clean U-Ni diffusion zone can be obtained. 4) After annealing for 100 hours at 700 deg. C, microscopic examination of the diffusion front reveals the existence of five layers under bright field illumination and six Layers in polarised light: at least four of these layers are well crystallised. 5) Important irregularities in the interface between uranium and the first intermetallic compound U 6 Ni seem to be result of barriers to the diffusion caused by certain impurities in the uranium. 6) Of the seven definite compounds which can be formed during the diffusion, that

  18. Acute toxicity, uptake and accumulation kinetics of nickel in an invasive copepod species: Pseudodiaptomus marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Sofiène; Ovaert, Julien; Souissi, Anissa; Ouddane, Baghdad; Souissi, Sami

    2016-02-01

    Pseudodiaptomus marinus is a marine calanoid copepod originating of the Indo-Pacific region, who has successfully colonized new areas and it was recently observed in the European side of the Mediterranean Sea as well as in the North Sea. Actually, many questions were posed about the invasive capacity of this copepod in several non-native ecosystems. In this context, the main aim of this study was to investigate the tolerance and the bioaccumulation of metallic stress in the invasive copepod P. marinus successfully maintained in mass culture at laboratory conditions since 2 years. In order to study the metallic tolerance levels of P. marinus, an emergent trace metal, the nickel, was chosen. First, lethal concentrations determination experiments were done for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to calculated LC50% but also to select a relevant ecological value for the suite of experiments. Then, three types of experiments, using a single concentration of nickel (correspond the 1/3 of 96 h-LC50%) was carried in order to study the toxico-kinetics of nickel in P. marinus. Concerning lethal concentrations, we observed that P. marinus was in the same range of sensitivity compared to other calanoid copepods exposed to nickel in the same standardized experimental conditions. Results showed that the uptake of nickel in P. marinus depends from the pathways of entrance (water of food), but also that Isochrysis galbana, used as a food source, has an important bioaccumulation capacity and a rapid uptake of nickel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of nickel on irradiation embrittlement of light water reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This TECDOC was developed under the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled Effects of Nickel on Irradiation Embrittlement of Light Water Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels. This CRP is the sixth in a series of CRPs to determine the influence of the mechanism and quantify the influence of nickel content on the deterioration of irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels of the Ni-Cr-Mo-V or Mn-Ni-Cr-Mo types. The scientific scope of the programme includes procurement of materials, determination of mechanical properties, irradiation and testing of specimens in power and/or test reactors, and microstructural characterization. Eleven institutes from eight different countries and the European Union participated in this CRP and six institutes conducted the irradiation experiments of the CRP materials. In addition to the irradiation and testing of those materials, irradiation experiments of various national steels were also conducted. Moreover, some institutes performed microstructural investigations of both the CRP materials and national steels. This TECDOC presents and discusses all the results obtained and the analyses performed under the CRP. The results analysed are clear in showing the significantly higher radiation sensitivity of high nickel weld metal (1.7 wt%) compared with the lower nickel base metal (1.2 wt%). These results are supported by other similar results in the literature for both WWER-1000 RPV materials, pressurized water reactor (PWR) type materials, and model alloys. Regardless of the increased sensitivity of WWER-1000 high nickel weld metal (1.7 wt%), the transition temperature shift for the WWER-1000 RPV design fluence is still below the curve predicted by the Russian code (standard for strength calculations of components and piping in NPPs - PNAE G 7-002-86). For higher fluence, no data were available and the results should not be extrapolated. Although manganese content was not incorporated directly in this CRP

  20. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited nickel and nickel-based alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Had, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 215-226 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, nickel, nickel-based alloys Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  1. Synthesis of Nickel and Nickel Hydroxide Nanopowders by Simplified Chemical Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerapan Tientong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel nanopowders were synthesized by a chemical reduction of nickel ions with hydrazine hydrate at pH ~12.5. Sonication of the solutions created a temperature of 54–65°C to activate the reduction reaction of nickel nanoparticles. The solution pH affected the composition of the resulting nanoparticles. Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles were formed from an alkaline solution (pH~10 of nickel-hydrazine complexed by dropwise titration. X-ray diffraction of the powder and the analysis of the resulting Williamson-Hall plots revealed that the particle size of the powders ranged from 12 to 14 nm. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone into the synthesis decreased the nickel nanoparticle size to approximately 7 nm. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were in the nanometer range. The structure of the synthesized nickel and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles was identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Performance improvement of pasted nickel electrodes with multi-wall carbon nanotubes for rechargeable nickel batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.S.; Aravindaraj, G.K.; Sultana, H.; Chan, S.L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were employed as a functional additive to improve the electrochemical performance of pasted nickel-foam electrodes for rechargeable nickel-based batteries. The nickel electrodes were prepared with spherical β-Ni(OH) 2 powder as the active material and various amounts of CNTs as additives. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests showed that in comparison with the electrode without CNTs, the pasted nickel electrode with added CNTs exhibited better electrochemical properties in the chargeability, specific discharge capacity, active material utilization, discharge voltage, high-rate capability and cycling stability. Meanwhile, the CNT addition also lowered the packing density of Ni(OH) 2 particles in the three-dimensional porous nickel-foam substrate, which could lead to the decrease in the active material loading and discharge capacity of the electrode. Hence, the amount of CNTs added to Ni(OH) 2 should be optimized to obtain a high-performance nickel electrode, and an optimum amount of CNT addition was found to be 3 wt.%. The superior electrochemical performance of the nickel electrode with CNTs could be attributed to lower electrochemical impedance and less γ-NiOOH formed during charge/discharge cycling, as indicated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. Thus, it was an effective method to improve the electrochemical properties of pasted nickel electrodes by adding an appropriate amount of CNTs to spherical Ni(OH) 2 as the active material

  3. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher...... than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded...... to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water...

  4. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...

  5. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previously, patch test reactivity to nickel sulphate in a cohort of unselected infants tested repeatedly at 3-72 months of age has been reported. A reproducible positive reaction at 12 and 18 months was selected as a sign of nickel sensitivity, provided a patch test with an empty Finn...

  6. Exposure of nickel and the relevance of nickel sensitivity among hospital cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmensen, O J; Menne, T; Kaaber, K; Solgaard, P

    1981-01-01

    The nickel content of water specimens from consecutive stages during the cleaning process in a Danish hospital was analyzed. Statistically significant increases of the nickel concentrations were found from step to step of the cleaning, eventually exceeding the theoretical sensitizing safety limit. The relevance of the findings in relation to hand eczema is discussed.

  7. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  8. Nickel allergy from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood, and the ......Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood...

  9. Biosorption of nickel (II) ions from aqueous solutions by tapioca peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tapioca peel, waste from native tapioca starch industry in Thailand, was used for the biosorption of nickel from aqueous solution. The experimental parameter focuses on the influence of contact time, solution pH, initial concentration and temperature using batch experiments. The results indicated that the biosorption ...

  10. CO dissociation on Ni: The effect of steps and of nickel carbonyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Lytken, Ole; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2008-01-01

    The dissociation of CO was investigated on a stepped Ni(141313) crystal. The experiments show that the monoatomic steps completely dominate the dissociation of CO on the nickel surface. The activation energy for dissociation of CO along the steps is measured at 500 K to be 150 kJ/mol in the press...... and in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis....

  11. Influence of disorder on phonon resistivity of ion-implanted nickel hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard, L.; Bernas, H.; Thome, L.; Traverse, A.; Nedellec, P.

    1982-01-01

    Metastable nickel hydride NiHsub(1.00) is produced by low energy proton implantation into thin nickel films at 6 K. After annealing at different temperatures (125, 185 K), the sample resistivity-temperature dependence is studied by cycling between 4.2 K and the annealing temperature. The temperature-dependent term in the resistivity is thus determined - for the first time - in an implanted system. A T 3 -dependence is found, in contrast to the T 5 -dependence of the ordered NiH β-phase obtained by electrolytic charging. This result is ascribed to implantation induced disorder. Isochronal annealing experiments are discussed elsewhere. (author)

  12. Copper removal and nickel for exchange cationic with a natural zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estupinan, Arnoldy; Sarmiento, Diego; Belalcazar de Galvis, Ana Maria

    1998-01-01

    Natural zeolite clinoptilolite, was used to remove copper and nickel from waste waters of a galvanotechnical company. Exchange capacity determined for the zeolite after its transformation to homoionic sodium form, was 0.794 meq/g for copper and 0.447 meq/g for nickel. There were made batch and column experiments, reaching the last one a better approach to the equilibrium. From the degeneration essays, the sodical zeolite concentrates the copper in the waste waters to 23.5 up times the level found for the acid rinsing waters; it shows its potential use in treatment of these waste, because its effectiveness and low cost

  13. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...

  14. Occupational Stress Among Home Healthcare Workers: Integrating Worker and Agency-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeckler, Jeanette M

    2018-02-01

    Home healthcare work is physically and emotionally exhausting. In addition, home healthcare workers frequently work under precarious work arrangements for low wages and in poor work conditions. Little is known about how sources of job strain for home healthcare workers might be reduced. This research examines the occupational stressors among paid home care workers by analyzing home healthcare agency characteristics and individual home healthcare workers' experiences in upstate New York agencies (n = 9). The study augments existing theoretical models and describes new sources of stress arising from the nature of agency-based caregiving. Results feature the analysis of both agency executives' (n = 20) and home healthcare workers' narratives (n = 25) to make the agency's inner workings more transparent. Agency structures and culture are implicated in the lack of progress to address home care workers' health problems. Policy change should focus on compensation, healthier work conditions, and training requirements.

  15. A qualitative study exploring the experiences and emotional responses of female community continence link workers and female patients in relation to performing clean intermittent self-catheterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm, Dianne; Kane, Ros

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This paper represents a report of a study designed to explore the experiences of female community continence link nurses in relation to female catheterisation and their psychological and educational preparedness to teach it. The lived experiences and emotional responses of female patients learning to perform Clean Intermittent Self-Catheterisation (CISC) are also examined. Background: There is general consensus that CISC should be considered in preference to indwelling catheterisat...

  16. Comparison of chromium and nickel uptake of plants grown in different soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vago, I. [University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agronomy, H-4015 Debrecen, P.O. Box 36 (Hungary); Gyoeri, Z. [University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agronomy, H-4015 Debrecen, P.O. Box 36 (Hungary); Loch, J. [University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agronomy, H-4015 Debrecen, P.O. Box 36 (Hungary)

    1996-03-01

    The chromium and nickel uptake of ryegrass has been examined in pot experiments in extremely different soils, poor sandy and fertile black chernozem. The effect of calcium carbonate doses and nitrogen supply on heavy metal uptake of the plant has been studied for chromium and nickel loadings (0-100 mg/kg Cr{sup 3+} or Ni{sup 2+}) applied as inorganic salts. The ability to uptake Cr{sup 3+} and Ni{sup 2+} differs significantly and is highly affected by the characteristics of soils, and depends on the metal investigated. The heavy metal uptake of the plant differs significantly in acid, colloid deficient sandy soils; while artificial chromium contamination did not modify the dry-matter production in the pots in either soil, a large quantity of nickel reduced the yields significantly. Nitrogen application did not change significantly the uptake of heavy metals. Lime application reduced the Ni{sup 2+} uptake of plants considerably, especially in sandy soil. In case of a calcium carbonate addition the dry-matter production of the plant was not affected by nickel. In chernozem soil the effect of lime application - i.e., the reduction of nickel uptake - was of a lesser degree. The significantly lesser Cr{sup 3+} uptake was further limited by a calcium carbonate application for both soils studied. A graphic presentation of these effects is given. (orig.). With 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Nickel exposure promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in Oreochromis niloticus gills: histopathological and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, A C C; Yabuki, A T; Fontanetti, C S

    2014-11-01

    Water is an essential factor for maintaining the vital functions of living beings. Nickel is the 24th most abundant element on Earth; it is a heavy metal that is genotoxic and mutagenic in its chloride form. Due to industrial use, its concentration in surface sediments increased considerably. Fish develop characteristics that make them excellent experimental models for studying aquatic toxicology. They are particularly useful because they can alert of the potential danger of chemical substances or environmental pollution. Due to water quality impairment and because there are few published studies that relate nickel to tissue alteration, this study aimed to examine the consequences of nickel in an aquatic environment. For this analysis, individuals of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed for 96 h to three different concentrations of nickel dissolved in water according to the standard established by Brazilian law and compared them to a control group. After exposure, the gills were analyzed using X-ray microanalysis, ultramorphology, and histological and histochemical analysis. The results demonstrated that all the concentrations used in the experiment altered the histophysiology of the individuals exposed. In conclusion, the nickel presents a toxic potential to fish, even at the lowest concentration tested, which is equivalent to half of the concentration allowed by law. The CONAMA resolution should be revised for this parameter because of the interference of this metal in the histophysiology of the tested organism.

  18. [Nickel exposure to A549 cell damage and L-ascorbic acid interference effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Wang, Yue; Dan, Han; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Wenhan; Pan, Yulin; Wu, Yonghui

    2015-05-01

    Studying different concentrations of nickel smelting smoke subjects of human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) carcinogenic effects, discusses the influence of L-ascorbic acid protection. The A549 cells were divided into experimental and L-ascorbic acid in the intervention group. Plus exposure group concentration of nickel refining dusts were formulated 0.00, 6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00 µg/ml suspension, the intervention group on the basis of the added exposure group containing L-ascorbic acid (100 mmol/L), contact 24 h. Detection of cell viability by MTT assay. When the test substance concentration select 0.00, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00 µg/ml experiment for internal Flou-3 fluorescent probe to detect cell Ca²⁺ concentration, within DCFH-DA detect intracellular reactive oxygen (ROS) content, real-time quantitative PCR (real time, in the RT-PCR) was used to detect cell HIF-1α gene expression. With the increase of concentration, subjects increased cell growth inhibition rate, intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration increases, ROS content increased, HIF-1α gene expression increased, differences were statistically significant (P nickel exposure damage to cells. With subjects following exposure to nickel concentration increased, its effect on A549 cell damage increases, L-ascorbic acid cell damage caused by nickel has certain protective effect.

  19. Experiencias de Inserción Laboral en Jóvenes Obreros en Azcapotzalco, Ciudad de México The Experience of Labor Insertion in Young Workers in Azcapotzalco, Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Garabito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda la relación entre trabajo, familia y espacio en jóvenes obreros mexicanos en sus primeras experiencias de inserción laboral en el contexto de la crisis manufacturera actual. Con una metodología cualitativa, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a una muestra intencionada de 18 jóvenes obreros de Azcapotzalco (8 mujeres y 10 hombres entre 14 y 29 años de edad y se analizaron sus narrativas bajo una articulación de los ámbitos que conforman su experiencia de trabajo fabril. Entre los hallazgos más importantes destaca cómo los jóvenes obreros construyen su trayectoria laboral a partir de procesos de transición diferenciados por género. En los varones, la salida de la escuela y la inmediata inserción a la manufactura, el nacimiento del primogénito y la conformación familiar se dan en rituales de paso en los que el trabajo predomina sobre la escuela. En el caso de las mujeres, el ingreso al trabajo fabril es el resultado del nacimiento del primogénito y el consecuente abandono escolar, truncando su aspiración de estudios profesionales.The article discusses the relationship between work, family, and youth space in young Mexican workers during their first employment experiences in the context of the current manufacturing crisis. With a qualitative methodology, semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 18 young workers from Azcapotzalco (8 women and 10 men between 14 and 29 years old, whose narratives were analyzed considering the fields that make up their experience of factory work. Among the most important findings, it highlights how youth workers build their career path based on transition processes differentiated by gender. In males, starting work on a factory immediately after leaving school, the birth of the first child, and forming a family constitute rites of passage where work prevails over school. For women, entering factory work is a result of the birth of the first child

  20. Contribution to the study of point defects formed in nickel by electron bombardment; Contribution a l'etude des defauts ponctuels crees par bombardement electronique dans le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddou, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    After a short account of the experimental techniques employed in our studies, the experimental results obtained on pure nickel samples are exposed. The apparition of the successive annihilation stages of point defects created by electron bombardment is established by isochronal heat treatments: the annihilation kinetics and the corresponding activation energies are determined. The effect of the incident particle doses is also studied. The experimental results are then compared with R.A. Johnson's theoretical calculations of the stability and the migration of point defects in nickel, and taking into account the results obtained by Peretto in magnetic after effect measurements. This leads us to a model in good agreement with calculations and experiment for the first stages. In a second chapter the behaviour of nickel doped by certain impurities is studied. First, the results concerning the rate of increase of resistivity (function of sample purity) is investigated. Two possible explanations of the observed phenomenon are proposed: either a deviation with respect to Mathiessen's law, or an increase of the number of defects formed in the presence of impurity atoms. Finally, a study of the resistivity recovery of the doped samples permits us to suggest an order of magnitude for the binding energy interstitial/impurity atom in the nickel matrix. (author) [French] Apres avoir brievement rappele les techniques experimentales que nous avons utilisees pour cette etude, nous exposons les resultats experimentaux obtenus sur des echantillons de nickel pur. Les stades successifs d'annihilation des defauts ponctuels crees par bombardement electronique sont mis en evidence par traitements thermiques isochrones; les cinetiques de disparition, et les energies d'activation correspondantes sont determinees. Nous etudions egalement l'effet de la dose des particules incidentes. Les resultats experimentaux sont ensuite compares avec les calculs theoriques de R.A JOHNSON sur la stabilite

  1. Nickel release from inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased in an EU country - Are consumers sufficiently protected from nickel exposure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel allergic subjects are at risk factor of acquiring hand eczema. In 1990 and 1994, respectively, Denmark and member states in the EU regulated nickel release from selected consumer products. The intention was that the nickel epidemic could be controlled and prevented if the general...... population was protected from high cutaneous nickel concentrations. Despite a decrease, the prevalence of nickel allergy remains high as nearly 10% of young women are nickel allergic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform dimethylglyoxime (DMG) testing of inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased from...

  2. Use of interferon-gamma release assays in a health care worker screening program: experience from a tertiary care centre in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Monson, Thomas P; Woods, Gail L

    2012-01-01

    Interferon-gamma release assays including the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT [Cellestis Ltd, Australia]) may be used in place of the tuberculin skin test (TST) in surveillance programs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection control. However, data on performance and practicality of the QFT-GIT in such programs for health care workers (HCWs) are limited. To assess the performance, practicality and reversion rate of the QFT-GIT among HCWs at a tertiary health care institution in the United States. Retrospective chart review of HCWs at Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System (Arkansas, USA) who underwent QFT-GIT testing as a part of their employee screening between November 1, 2008 and October 31, 2009. QFT-GIT was used to screen 3290 HCWs. The initial QFT-GIT was interpreted as positive for 129 (3.9%) HCWs, negative for 3155 (95.9%) and indeterminate for six (0.2%). Testing with QFT-GIT was repeated in 45 HCWs who had positive results on the initial test. The QFT-GIT reverted to negative in 18 (40.0%) HCWs, all of whom had negative TST status and initial interferon-gamma values of 0.35 IU⁄mL to 2.0 IU⁄mL. The QFT-GIT test is feasible in large health care setting as an alternative to TST for M tuberculosis infection screening in HCWs but is not free from challenges. The major concerns are the high number of positive test results and high reversion rates on repeat testing, illustrating poor short-term reproducibility of positive QFT-GIT test results. These results suggest adopting a borderline zone between interferon-gamma values of 0.35 IU⁄mL to 2.0 IU⁄mL, and cautious clinical interpretation of values in this range.

  3. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Scheman, Andrew J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Keys are an important exposure source of metal allergens to consumers and confer a significant problem for nickel-allergic individuals because of repeated daily use. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of nickel and cobalt release in keys and to consider the effectiveness of coatings for preventing metallic allergen release from common metal allergen-releasing keys. Keys from a variety of common stores were nickel and cobalt spot tested. Nickel-releasing keys were coated with enamel sprays, subjected to a use test, and retested to assess for metal allergen release. Of 55 tested keys, 80% showed a strong positive result to the nickel spot test. None of the tested keys exhibited cobalt release. No keys initially released nickel after enamel coatings. Key coatings chipped at the portion inserted into a lock after 30 insertions, and keys were found to release nickel. The handle of the key was not found to release nickel after 60 insertions. Nickel release from keys is very common; nickel-allergic consumers should consider purchasing keys that do not release nickel (eg, brass, anodized). Enamel coating may be useful in protecting nickel-sensitive individuals from their keys but cannot consistently prevent nickel-release from portions used frequently.

  4. Transfert de nickel, de cuivre et de zinc lors de la manipulation de pièces de monnaie : le cas du dirham marocain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Paul-Guy; Nourtier, Alain; Monkade, Mohammed; Berrada, Khalid; Boughaleb, Hichame; Outzourhit, Abdelkader; Pichon, Rémy; Haut, Christian; Govers, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    When the euro was introduced, the fact that some coins contain nickel, which is known to be an allergen, gave rise to controversy. More generally, this raises the question of metal transfer from coins to skin. Morocco has used for decades one-dirham coins made of pure or alloyed nickel. Studying their wear, the labile metal on their surface and the transfer to fingers in handling may therefore be especially instructive. Weighing statistics for a sample of 401 coins confirm that cupronickel coins wear out more quickly than pure nickel coins and reveal that the dirham suffers a much stronger wear than other currencies for which wear statistics are available. SEM studies supplemented by ICP quantitative analyses show that the labile metal is mainly made up of chips, even after many handlings. These chips are often cupronickel, even on pure nickel coins, which shows that they are produced by the friction of coins against one another. Secondly, the surface of coins presents sweat residue with an important proportion of copper and a little nickel, which confirms that sweat dissolves surface copper. Depending on the alloy and date, coins have between 20 and 140 μg of labile copper and nickel, with a content of one quarter of nickel on cupronickel coins and about one half on pure nickel coins. The most worn cupronickel coins are the coins that present the largest amount of labile metal, and even labile nickel. In our experiments, the metal transfer to fingers when a cupronickel coin is handled for the first time represents between 4 and 9% of the labile metal and 0.05% of the annual wear. A simple and reliable test of nickel contamination consists in measuring the labile nickel. To cite this article: P.-G. Fournier et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  5. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery: has the use of cobalt replaced nickel following regulatory intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten S; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure.......Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure....

  6. Cobalt allergy in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, T; Rystedt, I

    1983-03-01

    Hard metal contains about 10% cobalt. 853 hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with substances from their environment. Initial patch tests with 1% cobalt chloride showed 62 positive reactions. By means of secondary serial dilution tests, allergic reactions to cobalt were reproduced in 9 men and 30 women. Weak reactions could not normally be reproduced. A history of hand eczema was found in 36 of the 39 individuals with reproducible positive test reactions to cobalt, while 21 of 23 with a positive initial patch test but negative serial dilution test had never had any skin problems. Hand etching and hand grinding, mainly female activities and traumatic to the hands, were found to involve the greatest risk of cobalt sensitization. 24 individuals had an isolated cobalt allergy. They had probably been sensitized by hard metal work, while the individuals, all women, who had simultaneous nickel allergy had probably been sensitized to nickel before their employment and then became sensitized to cobalt by hard metal work. A traumatic occupation, which causes irritant contact dermatitis and/or a previous contact allergy or atopy is probably a prerequisite for the development of cobalt allergy.

  7. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condé-Salazar, L; Guimaraens, D; Villegas, C; Romero, A; Gonzalez, M A

    1995-10-01

    We report the patch test results of 449 construction workers who came as patients to the Occupational Dermatology Service of the Instituto Nacional de Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo in Madrid between 1989 and 1993. 90.8% of them were patch tested, because they had cutaneous lesions or a clinical history suggestive of occupational dermatitis. 65.5% (268) of those patch tested showed one or more reactions connected with their work. Chromate at 42.1% was the main allergen, followed by cobalt, 20.5%, nickel, 10%, and epoxy resin, 7.5%. 25.9% (106) of patients showed sensitization to rubber components, the majority at 23.7% to thiuram mix, with TETD being the main allergen.

  8. Numerous dilemmas surrounding the 1917 nickel coins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law on Extraordinary Loans Amounting to 200 Million Dinars and the Minting of Silver and Nickel Coins in 1916 was the legal basis for minting the 5-, 10-, and 20-para nickel coins of the Kingdom of Serbia featuring the year 1917 as their minting year. Some authors believe that these coins were minted in the Minting House in Paris, whereas the others agree that they were certainly minted in France, but in a still unidentified minting house. There are authors who in recent reference literature underline the possibility of their minting in the USA Gorham Company, in Providence, Rhode Island. These coins had all the characteristics of the nickel coins of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1883, 1884, 1904 and 1912. Although, according to the Law, the Minister of Finance was authorized to mint 10 million dinars of these nickel coins, only 5 million pieces in each denomination were actually minted, in the total nominal value of just 1,750,000 dinars. The general opinion is that after the war only a small amount of these nickel coins reached Serbia, because the ships transporting the Serbian coins from the minting house sank on their way. The only varying aspect in this explanation is the location from which the ships were sailing towards Corfu, i.e. from the USA or from France. These coins stopped being legal tender as of 30 November 1931.

  9. Bioavailability of nickel in man: effects of foods and chemically-defined dietary constituents on the absorption of inorganic nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Viteri, F; Shuler, T R; Nielsen, F H

    1982-01-01

    By serial determination of the change in plasma nickel concentration following a standard dose of 22.4 mg of nickel sulfate hexahydrate containing 5 mg of elemental nickel, the bioavailability of nickel was estimated in human subjects. Plasma nickel concentration was stable in the fasting state and after an unlabeled test meal, but after the standard dose of nickel in water was elevated 48.8, 73.0, 80.0, and 53.3 microgram/1, respectively, at hours 1, 2, 3, and 4. Plasma nickel did not rise above fasting levels when 5 mg of nickel was added to two standard meals: a typical Guatemalan meal and a North American breakfast. When 5 mg of nickel was added to five beverages-whole cow milk, coffee, tea, orange juice, and Coca Cola-the rise in plasma nickel was significantly suppressed with all but Coca Cola. Response to nickel also was suppressed in the presence of 1 g of ascorbic acid. Phytic acid in a 2:1 molar ratio with nickel, however, did not affect the rise in plasma nickel. The chelate of iron and ethylenediaminetetraacetate, NaFeEDTA, an iron-fortifying agent suggested for application in Central America, slightly but not significantly depressed plasma nickel rise at 2 hours, whereas disodium EDTA depressed plasma nickel levels significantly below the fasting nickel curve at 3 and 4 hours postdose. These studies suggest that the differential responses of inorganic nickel to distinct foods, beverages, and chemically-defined dietary constituents could be important to human nutrition.

  10. Introduction of a National Minimum Wage Reduced Depressive Symptoms in Low-Wage Workers: A Quasi-Natural Experiment in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Reeves (Aaron); M. McKee (Martin); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); M. Whitehead (Margaret); D. Stuckler (David)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDoes increasing incomes improve health? In 1999, the UK government implemented minimum wage legislation, increasing hourly wages to at least £3.60. This policy experiment created intervention and control groups that can be used to assess the effects of increasing wages on health.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Electrolyte Jet Electrodeposited Nickel Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the preparation of nickel foam by electrolyte jet electrodeposition were introduced, Nickel foam samples with different porosity were fabricated. Effect of different porosity on microhardness and uniaxial tensile properties of nickel foam was discussed. The results show that the microhardness of nickel foam is 320~400 HV, lower than entitative metal clearly. The lower the porosity of nickel foam, the higher the microhardness is. During the process of uniaxial tensile, nickel foam is characterized by three distinct regions, e.g. elastic deforming region, plastic plateau region and densification region. The higher the porosity of nickel foam, the lower the plastic plateau and the poorer the strength of nickel foam, accordingly

  12. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of new nickel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A novel nickel molybdenum complex with the 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid ligand was success- ... made for preparing nanoparticles with controllable size and shape. 2. ... Formula weight ..... talline nickel molybdates J. Alloys Compd.

  13. THE LOCAL LASER-STIMULATED ELECTRODEPOSITION OF THE NICKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zabludovskyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mask-free method for obtaining the local nickel coatings using laser radiation is developed. The parameters of local nickel coatings are calculated. The rate of electroplating process is estimated.

  14. Sleep, immunity and shift workers: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Oliveira de Almeida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, shift workers represent between 15% and 25% of the modern day workforce. Work time poses a great challenge to workers as it requires that they balance productivity and sleep time between shifts. As a result, these workers experience chronic sleep deprivation with increased fatigue and drowsiness due to this sleep deprivation. The impact of this kind of work on the immune system is not yet known. We conducted a literature review with the aim of evaluating articles on this specific type of work's effects on sleep and immunity.

  15. How do health workers experience and cope with shocks? Learning from four fragile and conflict-affected health systems in Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Wurie, Haja; Chandiwana, Pamela; Namakula, Justine; So, Sovannarith; Alonso-Garbayo, Alvaro; Ssengooba, Freddie; Raven, Joanna

    2017-11-01

    This article is grounded in a research programme which set out to understand how to rebuild health systems post-conflict. Four countries were studied-Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Cambodia-which were at different distances from conflict and crisis, as well as having unique conflict stories. During the research process, the Ebola epidemic broke out in West Africa. Zimbabwe has continued to face a profound economic crisis. Within our research on health worker incentives, we captured insights from 128 life histories and in-depth interviews with a variety of staff that had remained in service. This article aims to draw together lessons from these contexts which can provide lessons for enhancing staff and therefore health system resilience in future, especially in similarly fragile and conflict-affected contexts. We examine the reported effects, both personal and professional, of the three different types of shock (conflicts, epidemics and prolonged political-economic crises), and how staff coped. We find that the impact of shocks and coping strategies are similar between conflict/post-conflict and epidemic contexts-particularly in relation to physical threats and psychosocial threats-while all three contexts create challenges and staff responses for working conditions and remuneration. Health staff showed considerable inventiveness and resilience, and also benefited from external assistance of various kinds, but there are important gaps which point to ways in which they should be better protected and supported in the future. Health systems are increasingly fragile and conflict-prone, and shocks are often prolonged or repeated. Resilience should not be taken for granted or used as an excuse for abandoning frontline health staff. Strategies should be in place at local, national and international levels to prepare for predictable crises of various sorts, rather than waiting for them to occur and responding belatedly, or relying on personal sacrifices by staff to keep

  16. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  17. Essential elucidation for preparation of supported nickel phosphide upon nickel phosphate precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Baoquan

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of supported nickel phosphide (Ni 2 P) depends on nickel phosphate precursor, generally related to its chemical composition and supports. Study of this dependence is essential and meaningful for the preparation of supported Ni 2 P with excellent catalytic activity. The chemical nature of nickel phosphate precursor is revealed by Raman and UV–vis spectra. It is found that initial P/Ni mole ratio ≥0.8 prohibits the Ni-O-Ni bridge bonding (i.e., nickel oxide). This chemical bonding will not result in Ni 2 P structure, verified by XRD characterization results. The alumina (namely, γ-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , or α-Al 2 O 3 ) with distinct physiochemical properties also results in diverse chemical nature of nickel phosphate, and then different nickel phosphides. The influence of alumina support on producing Ni 2 P was explained by the theory of surface energy heterogeneity, calculated by the NLDFT method based on N 2 -sorption isotherm. The uniform surface energy of α-Al 2 O 3 results only in the nickel phosphosate precursor and thus the Ni 2 P phase. - Graphical abstract: Surface energy heterogeneity in alumina (namely α-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , and γ-Al 2 O 3 ) supported multi-oxidic precursors with different reducibilities and thus diverse nickel phosphides (i.e., Ni 3 P, Ni 12 P 5 , Ni 2 P). - Highlights: • Preparing pure Ni 2 P. • Elucidating nickel phosphate precursor. • Associating with surface energy

  18. Nickel - iron battery. Nikkel - jern batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H. A.

    1989-03-15

    A newer type of nickel-iron battery, (SAFT 6v 230 Ah monobloc), which could possibly be used in relation to electrically driven light road vehicles, was tested. The same test methods used for lead batteries were utilized and results compared favourably with those reached during other testings carried out, abroad, on a SAFT nickle-iron battery and a SAB-NIFE nickel-iron battery. Description (in English) of the latter-named tests are included in the publication as is also a presentation of the SAFT battery. Testing showed that this type of battery did not last as long as had been expected, but the density of energy and effect was superior to lead batteries. However energy efficiency was rather poor in comparison to lead batteries and it was concluded that nickel-iron batteries are not suitable for stationary systems where recharging under a constant voltage is necessary. (AB).

  19. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  20. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nano wires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logutenko, O.A.; Titkov, A.I.; Vorobyov, A.M.; Yukhin, Y.M.; Lyakhov, N.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nano structures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nano wires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nano crystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nano wires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130 degree are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nano wires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.