Semikhatov, A M; Tipunin, I Yu
We construct chiral algebras that centralize rank-2 Nichols algebras with at least one fermionic generator. This gives ‘logarithmic’ W-algebra extensions of a fractional-level sℓ-hat (2) algebra. We discuss crucial aspects of the emerging general relation between Nichols algebras and logarithmic conformal field theory (CFT) models: (i) the extra input, beyond the Nichols algebra proper, needed to uniquely specify a conformal model; (ii) a relation between the CFT counterparts of Nichols algebras connected by Weyl groupoid maps; and (iii) the common double bosonization U(X) of such Nichols algebras. For an extended chiral algebra, candidates for its simple modules that are counterparts of the U(X) simple modules are proposed, as a first step toward a functorial relation between U(X) and W-algebra representation categories. (paper)
Catchpole, G.; Thomas, G.
The Nichols Ranch ISL Uranium Mine is located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, U.S.A. The mine is owned and operated by Uranerz Energy Corporation (Uranerz), a U.S. corporation headquartered in Casper, Wyoming. Nichols Ranch started operations in February 2014 and is the newest uranium mine to go into production in the USA. The uranium being extracted is hosted in a sandstone, roll-front deposit at a depth ranging from 400 to 800 feet [~120 to ~240 m). The In-Situ Recovery (ISL) mining method is employed at the Nichols Ranch mine which is the method currently being utilized at most uranium mines in the USA. Environmental permit applications for the Nichols Ranch mine were submitted to the appropriate regulatory agencies in late 2007. It required more than three and a half years to obtain all the necessary permits and licenses to construct and operate the mine. Construction of the mining facilities and the first wellfield started in late 2011 and was completed in late 2013. Mining results to date have been better than anticipated and Uranerz expects to reach its 2014 production target. The most challenging part of getting a new uranium mine in production in the United States of America was the three plus years it took to get through the environmental permitting process. Uranerz was one of three companies in 2011 that applied for permits to construct and operate uranium mines in Wyoming at essentially the same time. The Nichols Ranch mine is licensed to produce up to two million pounds per year of uranium (as U_3O_8) [~770 tU] ready for shipment to the converter. At this time only the ion exchange portion of the central processing plant has been installed at Nichols Ranch with uranium loaded resin being shipped to Cameco’s nearby Smith Ranch – Highland ISL uranium mine for elution, precipitation, drying and packaging under a toll processing agreement. Cameco provides Uranerz with dried and drummed yellowcake that Uranerz owns which is shipped to the
Dr. Francine Nichols—President of Lamaze International from 1988 to 1991 (when the organization was known as “the American Society for Psychoprophylaxis in Obstetrics” or “ASPO/Lamaze”) and the founding editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education in 1990—is a woman with many skills that have contributed to her success throughout her career. Dr. Nichols is a knowledgeable leader in maternal-newborn nursing, a respected nurse and childbirth educator, a researcher, and an author. However, these skills were not the abilities she relied upon the most to lead the Lamaze organization through a challenging period in the 1980s; rather, Dr. Nichols's tenacity, business savvy, and willingness to face controversy helped guide Lamaze International back on track so that it was able to grow into the strong organization it remains today. This interview took place by telephone on June 12, 2006, when Dr. Nichols was in Washington, D.C., for the summer to coordinate the National Institute of Nursing Research's Summer Genetics Institute, a doctoral-level course cosponsored by Georgetown University. PMID:17768430
Young, Laurence R.
Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal
Lamb, Lori D.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the perceptions of effective principals' leadership competencies; determine if the perceptions of teachers, principals, and superintendents aligned with the proposed National Framework for Principal Evaluations initiative. This study examined the six domains of leadership outlined by the…
Lucía Gallo Vaulet
Full Text Available A total of 54 clinical samples, including genital lesion swabs, whole blood and cerebrospinal fluid from patients diagnosed with syphilis were collected in 2006 and in 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Treponemal DNA was detected in 43 of the analyzed samples (79.6% and further analyzed using Sequencing-based molecular typing (SBMT and Enhanced CDC-typing (ECDCT. By SBMT, 10 different Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA genotypes were found, of which six were related to the TPA SS14 strain, and four to the TPA Nichols strain. The 23S rRNA gene was amplified in samples isolated from 42 patients, and in six of them (14.3%, either the A2058G (four patients, 9.5% or the A2059G (two patients, 4.8% mutations were found. In addition to Taiwan, Madagascar and Peru, Argentina is another country where the prevalence of Nichols-like isolates (26.8% is greater than 10%.
Full Text Available Angels in America is still Tony Kushner’s major achievement. In adapting it for television, Mike Nichols accurately respected the political agenda of the author (democratic, hebrew and homosexual, who also wrote the screenplay. The choice of Hadrian’s Villa (instead of a San Francisco devastated by the earthquake of 1906 as a background for the scenes which take place in the Paradise can be understood as coherent with Kushner’s ideological perspective, as well as with his original camp aesthetics.
Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.
In their discussion of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence and Helmrich, 1978), Nicholls, et al. (1982) blur two issues. The first concerns the legitimacy of equating the clusters of gender-related personality traits tapped by these instruments with the global constructs of masculinity and feminity. The second concerns item similarity between the PAQ and BSRI M scales and measures of self-esteem and the question of whether the several instruments measure the same or separable constructs. Decisions about each of these issues involve complex considerations that do not directly involve face validity.
Ahn, Rosa; Woodbridge, Alexandra; Abraham, Ann; Saba, Susan; Korenstein, Deborah; Madden, Erin; Boscardin, W John; Keyhani, Salomeh
To examine the association between the presence of individual principal investigators' financial ties to the manufacturer of the study drug and the trial's outcomes after accounting for source of research funding. Cross sectional study of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies published in "core clinical" journals, as identified by Medline, between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013. Random sample of RCTs focused on drug efficacy. Association between financial ties of principal investigators and study outcome. A total of 190 papers describing 195 studies met inclusion criteria. Financial ties between principal investigators and the pharmaceutical industry were present in 132 (67.7%) studies. Of 397 principal investigators, 231 (58%) had financial ties and 166 (42%) did not. Of all principal investigators, 156 (39%) reported advisor/consultancy payments, 81 (20%) reported speakers' fees, 81 (20%) reported unspecified financial ties, 52 (13%) reported honorariums, 52 (13%) reported employee relationships, 52 (13%) reported travel fees, 41 (10%) reported stock ownership, and 20 (5%) reported having a patent related to the study drug. The prevalence of financial ties of principal investigators was 76% (103/136) among positive studies and 49% (29/59) among negative studies. In unadjusted analyses, the presence of a financial tie was associated with a positive study outcome (odds ratio 3.23, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 6.1). In the primary multivariate analysis, a financial tie was significantly associated with positive RCT outcome after adjustment for the study funding source (odds ratio 3.57 (1.7 to 7.7). The secondary analysis controlled for additional RCT characteristics such as study phase, sample size, country of first authors, specialty, trial registration, study design, type of analysis, comparator, and outcome measure. These characteristics did not appreciably affect the relation between financial ties and study outcomes (odds ratio 3.37, 1
M. E. McIntosh; L. A. McDade; A. E. Boyd; P. D. Jenkins
Nicholâs Turkâs Head Cactus (Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii L. Benson; Cactaceae) occurs in a few isolated populations in the Sonoran desert of southcentral Arizona (Pima and Pinal counties). The populations of this variety are disjunct from the more widespread variety that occurs in the Chihuahuan desert of Texas and...
Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe la escala de madurez gonadal macroscópica del jurel Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920, validada con estudios microscópicos y en uso en Perú. La escala consta de seis estadios de maduración para hembras y machos, que van desde el estadio 0 (virginal al estadio V (recuperación en hembras, posexpulsante en machos. Para el estudio, se contó con 350 ejemplares provenientes del plan de seguimiento de la pesquería pelágica y de cruceros de evaluación de recursos pelágicos; dichos ejemplares fueron colectados desde el 2006 al 2009. La escala cataloga a los individuos virginales en el denominado estadio 0, lo cual permite la separación práctica entre juveniles (estadio 0 y adultos (estadios I a V. Se discute las bondades de la escala validada para el jurel T. murphyi, la cual se compara con otras escalas de madurez propuestas para especies de la misma familia. El análisis de las características microscópicas de los ovarios confirman la tipificación de desove parcial ya descrita por otros autores.
Cranston, Neil; Ehrich, Lisa; Billot, Jennie
Investigates the roles and workloads of secondary school principals from Queenslands, Australia, and New Zealand. Finds, for example, that pressure in the role and hours worked per week had increased compared with previous years. Overall principals were highly satisfied with their roles. Provides discussion of skills and competencies required of…
Larrabee, Glenn J; Bianchini, Kevin J; Boone, Kyle B; Rohling, Martin L
To address (1) Whether there is empirical evidence for the contention of Nichols and Gass that the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF FBS/FBS-r Symptom Validity Scale is a measure of Litigation Response Syndrome (LRS), representing a credible set of responses and reactions of claimants to the experience of being in litigation, rather than a measure of non-credible symptom report, as the scale is typically used; and (2) to address their stated concerns about the validity of FBS/FBS-r meta-analytic results, and the risk of false positive elevations in persons with bona-fide medical conditions. Review of published literature on the FBS/FBS-r, focusing in particular on associations between scores on this symptom validity test and scores on performance validity tests (PVTs), and FBS/FBS-r score elevations in patients with genuine neurologic, psychiatric and medical problems. (1) several investigations show significant associations between FBS/FBS-r scores and PVTs measuring non-credible performance; (2) litigants who pass PVTs do not produce significant elevations on FBS/FBS-r; (3) non-litigating medical patients (bariatric surgery candidates, persons with sleep disorders, and patients with severe traumatic brain injury) who have multiple physical, emotional and cognitive symptoms do not produce significant elevations on FBS/FBS-r. Two meta-analytic studies show large effect sizes for FBS/FBS-r of similar magnitude. FBS/FBS-r measures non-credible symptom report rather than legitimate experience of litigation stress. Importantly, the absence of significant FBS/FBS-r elevations in litigants who pass PVTs demonstrating credible performance, directly contradicts the contention of Nichols and Gass that the scale measures LRS. These data, meta-analytic publications, and recent test use surveys support the admissibility of FBS/FBS-r under both Daubert and the older Frye criteria.
Hua, Yang; Liu, Zhanqiang
Residual stresses of turned Inconel 718 surface along its axial and circumferential directions affect the fatigue performance of machined components. However, it has not been clear that the axial and circumferential directions are the principle residual stress direction. The direction of the maximum principal residual stress is crucial for the machined component service life. The present work aims to focuses on determining the direction and magnitude of principal residual stress and investigating its influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718. The turning experimental results show that the principal residual stress magnitude is much higher than surface residual stress. In addition, both the principal residual stress and surface residual stress increase significantly as the feed rate increases. The fatigue test results show that the direction of the maximum principal residual stress increased by 7.4%, while the fatigue life decreased by 39.4%. The maximum principal residual stress magnitude diminished by 17.9%, whereas the fatigue life increased by 83.6%. The maximum principal residual stress has a preponderant influence on fatigue performance as compared to the surface residual stress. The maximum principal residual stress can be considered as a prime indicator for evaluation of the residual stress influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718.
Full Text Available Residual stresses of turned Inconel 718 surface along its axial and circumferential directions affect the fatigue performance of machined components. However, it has not been clear that the axial and circumferential directions are the principle residual stress direction. The direction of the maximum principal residual stress is crucial for the machined component service life. The present work aims to focuses on determining the direction and magnitude of principal residual stress and investigating its influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718. The turning experimental results show that the principal residual stress magnitude is much higher than surface residual stress. In addition, both the principal residual stress and surface residual stress increase significantly as the feed rate increases. The fatigue test results show that the direction of the maximum principal residual stress increased by 7.4%, while the fatigue life decreased by 39.4%. The maximum principal residual stress magnitude diminished by 17.9%, whereas the fatigue life increased by 83.6%. The maximum principal residual stress has a preponderant influence on fatigue performance as compared to the surface residual stress. The maximum principal residual stress can be considered as a prime indicator for evaluation of the residual stress influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718.
The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' organizational socialization levels and perceptions about leadership styles of their principals. Research was conducted with 361 teachers. Research design is determined as survey and correlational. Multi-Factor Leadership Scale originally was developed by Bass (1999) and adapted to Turkish…
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Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.
One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…
Hamidreza Rezazadeh Bahadoran
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of empowerment aspects on the competence level and success of the primary school principals in Pakdasht city in Iran. This research is a descriptive-survey method and in terms purpose is practical. The statistical population of this study consisted of principals of the primary schools in Pakdasht city. The total number of primary school principals in this city is 135 people (75 male schools and 60 female schools. As data gathering tool, a researcher-made questionnaire was used. In order to analyze the validity of the questionnaire in this study, the Content Validation Method was used in which the questionnaires were first examined by the experts and the necessary corrections were made. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Research hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling and AMOS software. The results show that competence and effectiveness aspects affect competence and success of principals of the Pakdasht elementary schools. Autonomy affects the competence level of elementary school principals in Pakdasht city but does not affect principals' success. Meaningfulness aspect did not affect principals’ competency however it is effective on principals’ success in Pakdasht elementary schools. Trust aspect was not effective on the Pakdasht elementary schools principals’ competence and success.
Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna; Mitani, Hajime
Purpose: Time demands faced by school principals make principals' work increasingly difficult. Research outside education suggests that effective time management skills may help principals meet job demands, reduce job stress, and improve their performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate these hypotheses. Design/methodology/approach:…
Plescia, J. B.
This bibliography cites recent publications by principal investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, Planetary Geology Program. It serves as a companion piece to NASA TM-85127, ""Reports of Planetary Programs, 1982". Entries are listed under the following subject areas: solar system, comets, asteroids, meteorites and small bodies; geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; structure, tectonics, and planetary and satellite evolutions; impact craters; volcanism; fluvial, mass wasting, glacial and preglacial studies; Eolian and Arid climate studies; regolith, volatiles, atmosphere, and climate, radar; remote sensing and photometric studies; and cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry. An author index is provided.
Bakir, Asli Agiroglu
This study is aimed to determine the perceptions of principals about innovation management and to investigate whether there is a significant difference in this perception according to various parameters. In the study, descriptive research model is used and universe is consisted from principals who participated in "Acquiring Formation Course…
Bezdek, Robert; And Others
The purposes of this study were to determine the manner in which the imposition of increased bureaucratic control over principals influenced their allocation of time to tasks and to investigate principals' perceptions of the changes in their roles brought about by this increased control. The specific bureaucratic control system whose effects were…
Morris, Robert C.; Chan, Tak Cheung; Patterson, Judith
This study was designed to investigate school principals' perceptions on school public relations in five areas: community demographics, parental involvement, internal and external communications, school council issues, and community resources. Findings indicated that principals' concerns were as follows: rapid population growth, change of…
Amy Corneli, PhD, MPH
Full Text Available Concerns have been raised over the high turnover rate for clinical investigators. Using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA Bioresearch Monitoring Information System database, we conducted an online survey to identify factors that affect principal investigators' (PIs decisions to conduct only a single FDA-regulated drug trial. Of the 201 PIs who responded, 54.2% were classified as “one-and-done.” Among these investigators, 28.9% decided for personal reasons to not conduct another trial, and 44.4% were interested in conducting another trial, but no opportunities were available. Three categories of broad barriers were identified as generally burdensome or challenging by the majority of investigators: 1 workload balance (balancing trial implementation with other work obligations and opportunities (63.8%; 2 time requirements (time to initiate and implement trial; investigator and staff time (63.4%; and 3 data and safety reporting (56.5%. Additionally, 46.0% of investigators reported being generally unsatisfied with finance-related issues. These same top three barriers also affected investigators' decisions to no longer conduct FDA-regulated trials. Our findings illuminate three key aspects of investigator turnover. First, they confirm that investigator turnover occurs, as more than half of respondents were truly “one-and-done.” Second, because a large proportion of respondents wanted to conduct more FDA-regulated trials but lacked opportunities to do so, mechanisms that match interested investigators with research sponsors are needed. Third, by focusing on the barriers we identified that affected investigators' decisions to no longer conduct FDA-regulated trials, future efforts to reduce investigator turnover can target issues that matter the most to investigators.
Chimbari, Moses John
Ecohealth projects are designed to garner ownership among all stakeholders, such as researchers, communities, local leadership and policy makers. Ideally, designs should ensure that implementation goes smoothly and that findings from studies benefit the stakeholders, particularly bringing changes to the communities researched. Paradoxically, the process is fraught with challenges associated with implementation. Notwithstanding these challenges, evidence from projects implemented in southern Africa justify the need to invest in the subject of ecohealth. This paper describes and discusses a principal investigator's experience of leading ecohealth projects in Zimbabwe between 2002 and 2005, in Botswana between 2010 and 2014 and in South Africa (ongoing). The discourse is centred on issues of project management and leadership, transdisciplinarity, students' involvement, data management, community engagement, dissemination of research findings and the role of institutions in project management and implementation. The paper concludes that the ecohealth approach is valuable and should be encouraged making the following recommendations; 1) principal investigators must have a good understanding of socio-ecological systems, have excellent project management and writing skills, 2) more than one PI should be involved in the day-to-day running of the project in order to avoid disruption of project activities in the event that the PI leaves the project before it ends, 3) researchers should be trained in ecohealth principles and methodologies at the time of building the research teams, 4) full proposals should be developed with active participation of communities and stakeholders in order to develop a shared vision, 5) involvement of postdoctoral fellows and dedicated researchers with postgraduate students should be encouraged to avoid situations where some objectives are not fully addressed because of the narrow nature of students' work; and 6) citizen science should be
Introduction: The National Institutes of Health public access policy requires the principal investigators of any Institutes-funded research to submit their manuscript to PubMed Central, and the open access publisher Public Library of Science submits all articles to PubMed Central, irrespective of funder. Whether the investigators, who made the…
Koniaris, Leonidas G; Coombs, Mary I; Meslin, Eric M; Zimmers, Teresa A
Ethical issues related the responsible conduct of research involve questions concerning the rights and obligations of investigators to propose, design, implement, and publish research. When a principal investigator (PI) transfers institutions during a grant cycle, financial and recognition issues need to be addressed to preserve all parties' obligations and best interests in a mutually beneficial way. Although grants often transfer with the PI, sometimes they do not. Maintaining a grant at an institution after the PI leaves does not negate the grantee institution's obligation to recognize the PI's original ideas, contributions, and potential rights to some forms of expression and compensation. Issues include maintaining a role for the PI in determining how to take credit for, share and publish results that involve his or her original ideas. Ascribing proper credit can become a thorny issue. This paper provides a framework for addressing situations and disagreements that may occur when a new PI continues the work after the original PI transfers. Included are suggestions for proactively developing institutional mechanisms that address such issues. Considerations include how to develop solutions that comply with the responsible conduct of research, equitably resolve claims regarding reporting of results, and avoid the possibility of plagiarism.
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate transformative learning strategies implemented by 10 Title I elementary principals that influence novice teacher retention. Data were gathered by individual interviews. Data were analyzed using Creswell's (2013) description of qualitative research as a collection of data…
Turner, Elizabeth Anne
The purposes of this mixed method study were to (a) Examine the relationships among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership, and student achievement; (b) examine the differences among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership and student achievement; and (c) investigate what effective principals do to improve…
Deformation quantization is an algebraic but still geometrical way to define noncommutative spacetimes. In order to investigate corresponding gauge theories on such spaces, the geometrical formulation in terms of principal fibre bundles yields the appropriate framework. In this talk I will explain what should be understood by a deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles and how associated vector bundles arise in this context. (author)
Hindman, Jennifer; Rozzelle, Jan; Ball, Rachel; Fahey, John
The School-University Research Network (SURN) Principal Academy at the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, has a mission to build a leadership development program that increases principals' instructional knowledge and develops mentor principals to sustain the program. The academy is designed to connect and empower principals…
theory. The structural and vibrational properties of dopamine-4-N7GUA and ... There is evidence, however, that DA is involved in the ... spectra to the results of ab initio gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) [14-17] and continuous- ..... Nicholls, G. Proteins, transmitter & synapses, Blackwell Scientific Publication: Scotland;.
This study investigated principals' perception of the relationship between educational inputs and academic performance of students in public junior secondary schools (JSS) in the Central Senatorial District of Delta State, Nigeria. The population was all the 173 public JSS and their principals from which a sample of twenty ...
Nixon, Andy; Packard, Abbot; Dam, Margaret
This quantitative study investigated the relationship between teacher dispositions, subject content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of teachers' contracts. Nearly 2,000 school principals in 13 states completed an emailed survey. In deciding whether to non-renew a teacher contract,…
This study was a phenomenological narrative research investigating the managerial roles of elementary charter school principals. Managerial leadership practices were investigated under three categories personnel management, student management, and finance management. Elementary charter school principals provided positive feedback for having small…
Barone, Lindsay; Williams, Jason; Micklos, David
In a 2016 survey of 704 National Science Foundation (NSF) Biological Sciences Directorate principal investigators (BIO PIs), nearly 90% indicated they are currently or will soon be analyzing large data sets. BIO PIs considered a range of computational needs important to their work, including high performance computing (HPC), bioinformatics support, multistep workflows, updated analysis software, and the ability to store, share, and publish data. Previous studies in the United States and Canada emphasized infrastructure needs. However, BIO PIs said the most pressing unmet needs are training in data integration, data management, and scaling analyses for HPC-acknowledging that data science skills will be required to build a deeper understanding of life. This portends a growing data knowledge gap in biology and challenges institutions and funding agencies to redouble their support for computational training in biology.
Gilbert, Kristen A.
Aim/Purpose: Improving public schools is a focus of federal legislation in the United States with much of the burden placed on principals. However, preparing principals for this task has proven elusive despite many changes in programming by institutions of higher learning. Emerging technologies that rely on augmented and virtual realities are…
Principal instructional leadership has been found to support improved instruction. However, the methods through which principal leadership influences classroom instruction are less clear. This study investigates how principals' leadership may predict the expectations that mathematics teachers perceive for classroom practice. Results from a…
Full Text Available In a 2016 survey of 704 National Science Foundation (NSF Biological Sciences Directorate principal investigators (BIO PIs, nearly 90% indicated they are currently or will soon be analyzing large data sets. BIO PIs considered a range of computational needs important to their work, including high performance computing (HPC, bioinformatics support, multistep workflows, updated analysis software, and the ability to store, share, and publish data. Previous studies in the United States and Canada emphasized infrastructure needs. However, BIO PIs said the most pressing unmet needs are training in data integration, data management, and scaling analyses for HPC-acknowledging that data science skills will be required to build a deeper understanding of life. This portends a growing data knowledge gap in biology and challenges institutions and funding agencies to redouble their support for computational training in biology.
Minus, Eric L.
This study sought to investigate the relationship between middle school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement. In particular, this study investigated the specific principal leadership behaviors of middle level principals that promote student achievement in school. A secondary variable for consideration was student…
Rehmatulla, Nishatabbas; Smith, Tristan
Energy efficiency is a key policy strategy to meet some of the challenges being faced today and to plan for a sustainable future. Numerous empirical studies in various sectors suggest that there are cost-effective measures that are available but not always implemented due to existence of barriers to energy efficiency. Several cost-effective energy efficient options (technologies for new and existing ships and operations) have also been identified for improving energy efficiency of ships. This paper is one of the first to empirically investigate barriers to energy efficiency in the shipping industry using a novel framework and multidisciplinary methods to gauge implementation of cost-effective measures, perception on barriers and observations of barriers. It draws on findings of a survey conducted of shipping companies, content analysis of shipping contracts and analysis of energy efficiency data. Initial results from these methods suggest the existence of the principal agent problem and other market failures and barriers that have also been suggested in other sectors and industries. Given this finding, policies to improve implementation of energy efficiency in shipping need to be carefully considered to improve their efficacy and avoid unintended consequences. -- Highlights: •We provide the first analysis of the principal agent problem in shipping. •We develop a framework that incorporates methodological triangulation. •Our results show the extent to which this barrier is observed and perceived. •The presence of the barrier has implications on the policy most suited to shipping
Jeroen de Ridder
Full Text Available You finished your PhD, have been a postdoc for a while, and you start wondering, “What's next?” Suppose you come to the conclusion that you want to stay in academia, and move up the ladder to become a principal investigator (PI. How does one reach this goal given that academia is one of the most competitive environments out there? And suppose you do manage to snatch your dream position, how do you make sure you hit the ground running? Here we report on the workshop “P2P - From Postdoc To Principal Investigator” that we organized at ISMB 2012 in Long Beach, California. The workshop addressed some of the challenges that many postdocs and newly appointed PIs are facing. Three experienced PIs, Florian Markowetz (Group Leader, Cambridge Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, Gary Bader (Associate Professor, The Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, and Philip Bourne (Professor, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, provided insight into the transition from a trainee to PI and shared advice on how to make the best out it.
Viano, Samantha L.; Hunter, Seth B.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to replicate prior findings on teacher-principal race congruence and teacher job satisfaction and extend the literature by investigating trends over time and if the relationship between race congruence and teacher job satisfaction differs by principal race and region. Design/methodology/approach: The study…
Lopes, Susana S; Distel, Martin; Linker, Claudia; Fior, Rita; Monteiro, Rui; Bianco, Isaac H; Portugues, Ruben; Strähle, Uwe; Saúde, Leonor
The European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting (EZPM) is an ideal forum for group leaders using this fantastic animal model not only to discuss science but also to strengthen their interactions, to push forward technological advances, and to define guidelines for the use of this fish in research. The city of Lisbon (Portugal) was voted by the European group leaders to be the setting for the 4th EZPM, and the organizing committee, composed by Leonor Saúde (iMM Lisboa, PT), Susana Lopes (CEDOC, PT), Michael Orger (Champalimaud Foundation, PT), Rui Oliveira (ISPA, PT), and António Jacinto (CEDOC, PT), was very enthusiastic to organize a productive event. The 4th EZPM took place from March 15 to 19 at Pavilhão do Conhecimento, a Science Museum and Educational Center winner of The Great Prize FAD of Arquitecture 1999 and The Society for Environmental Graphic Design Award 2011. Over 5 days, 135 group leaders (89 men and 46 women) coming from 19 different European countries and also from the United States, Turkey, Israel, Chile, and Singapore presented and discussed their recent research achievements. In addition to the scientific oral and poster presentations, the group leaders gathered in very lively community sessions on morphants versus mutants (chaired by Didier Stainier, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, DE), funding issues (chaired by Uwe Strahle, KIT-ITG, DE), and gender equality (chaired by Corinne Houart, KCL, United Kingdom). One of the highlights of the 4th EZPM was the guided visit to Oceanário de Lisboa, an international award-winning place that celebrates life with a stunning display of living aquatic creatures.
Eckman, Ellen Wexler; Kelber, Sheryl Talcott
This paper presents a secondary analysis of survey data focusing on role conflict and job satisfaction of 102 female principals. Data were collected from 51 female traditional principals and 51 female co-principals. By examining the traditional and co-principal leadership models as experienced by female principals, this paper addresses the impact…
This study investigated public school principals' reports of professional development implementation at the school level while working in different state- and local-level contexts (state accountability level, geographic locations, socioeconomic status, demographics, and grade levels). I attempted to measure principals' reported changes in levels…
Hachiya, Robert F.
Cell phones and the use of social media have changed the environment in schools, and principals recognize all too well that new technology is almost always accompanied by new ways to misuse or abuse that technology. The addition of a camera to cell phones has unfortunately been accompanied with the serious problem of "sexting" by youth…
Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.
Purpose: While in everyday practice, school leaders are often involved in social relationships with a variety of stakeholders both within and outside their own schools, studies on school leaders' networks often focus either on networks within or outside schools. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which principals occupy…
This article reports on a qualitative study framed in a phenomenological research design and aimed at investigating how school principals describe their mediating role when implementing religion-in-education policy at schools. Data were collected by means of narrative interviews. Stories of twelve school principals ...
The aim of this study is to investigate the transformational and transactional leadership styles of school principals, and to evaluate them in terms of educational administration. Descriptive survey model was used in the research. The data of the research were obtained from a total of 1,117 teachers working in public and private schools subjected to ministry of national education in Avcılar district of Istanbul province in 2014. In this study, data were obtained from the "personal informat...
Cheng, Michelle Y; Sukhov, Andrea; Sultani, Hawa; Kim, Kyoungmi; Maverakis, Emanual
National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants are becoming increasingly competitive in the academic research arena. Identifying NIH funding disparities is an important step in improving academic diversity. To examine recent NIH funding trends in dermatology. Retrospective study with linear regression analysis and repeated-measures analysis of variance of all NIH grants awarded to departments of dermatology from fiscal year 2009 to 2014. Funding data were exported from the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools Expenditures and Results. Publication data were drawn from Scopus. All NIH-funded principal investigators in dermatology were categorized by their academic degree and sex. The NIH funding trends were compared by investigator degree (MD, PhD, or MD/PhD) and sex. A total of 1292 NIH-funded grants were awarded to dermatology research from fiscal year 2009 through 2014. Adjusted NIH funding for dermatologic research diminished by 4.6% from $67.3 million in 2009 to $64.2 million in 2014, with a nadir of $58.6 million in 2013. Funding for the NIH's Research Project Grant Program (R01) decreased by 21.0% from $43.9 million to $34.7 million during this period. The dollar amount of NIH funding significantly trended down for investigators with an MD degree by $1.35 million per year from $23.6 million in 2009 to $18.4 million in 2014 (P = .02) while there was no significant change in NIH funding for MD/PhD (from $17.6 million in 2009 to $19.8 million in 2014; P = .44) and PhD investigators (from $26.1 million in 2009 to $25.9 million in 2014; P = .74). Similarly, the total dollar amount of R01 grants awarded to principal investigators with only an MD degree trended down by $1.4 million per year from $13.2 million in 2009 to $6.0 million in 2014 (P dermatology trended down significantly compared with the trend of their male counterparts (from 49 women in 2009 to 43 women in 2014 vs from 84 men in 2009 to 97 men in 2014; P = .04). There is a downward
Bellibas, Mehmet Sükrü
Contemporary research on instructional leadership has largely concerned itself with developing concrete instructional leadership models and investigating the association of such leadership practices with teaching and learning. Yet there is little research on how the internal school community reacts to the notion of principals influencing classroom…
May, Henry; Supovitz, Jonathan A.
Researchers have used many angles and perspectives to investigate how principals enact instructional leadership in schools. Most research has emphasized the practices of school leaders, although investigations of leadership styles and leadership processes are also present in the literature. In this study, the authors take a different approach by…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership roles and practices of the principal in improving school effectiveness. This descriptive study involved the principal , counselor, and 11 teachers from the Tonsley Park Primary School in South Australia. The findings showed that all respondents generally regarded team leader as the most important role, while supervisor was rated as the least important. Of the 20 tasks observed, generally revealed that a principal should work cooperatively with staff to ensure more effective use of their skills. While, the task of a principal in making decisions on staff development programs was not necessarily expected by the practicing teachers. All respondents considered organization coordination as the most important area within which a principal should provide more leadership, while curriculum or instructional improvement and innovation was regarded as the least important
Martinez-Hicks, Laura M.
This is a constructivist grounded theory study investigating how elementary principals approach the student retention decision process in their schools. Twenty-two elementary principals participated in the study using a selective or snowball sampling method. Principals worked in one of three districts in a mid-Atlantic state and had experience as…
Gertruida M. Steyn
Full Text Available This study focussed on the socialisation of a new principal in a South African primary school with a strong Christian culture. He was appointed when the predecessor retired after more than two decades. The conceptual framework focuses on the three phases of socialisation: professional socialisation, organisational socialisation and occupational identity, which are used to interpret the study. A qualitative study, which occurred during two phases, investigated the phenomenon, principal succession, in the particular school. The data collection methods included a number of interviews with the principal, a focus group interview with staff members who experienced the previous principal’s leadership practice, and individual interviews with staff members. The following categories emerged from the data analysis: Recalling the previous principal: ‘One sees Mr X [the predecessor] everywhere’; Entry and orientation: ‘I found it intimidating initially’; and Immersion and reshaping: ‘Reins that previously were a bit slack, he is now pulling tight’.Die sosialisering van ’n primêre skoolhoof in Suid-Afrika. Hierdie studie het gefokus op die sosialisering van ’n nuwe skoolhoof in ’n Suid-Afrikaanse primêre skool met ’n sterk Christelike kultuur. Hy is aangestel toe sy voorganger ná meer as twee dekades afgetree het. Die konseptuele raamwerk, wat gebruik is om die bevindinge te interpreteer, het op die drie fases van sosialisering gefokus, naamlik professionele sosialisering, organisatoriese sosialisering en beroepsidentiteit. ’n Kwalitatiewe ondersoek na die skoolhoofopvolgingverskynsel in die bepaalde skool is in twee fases gedoen. Die data-insamelingsmetodes het ’n aantal onderhoude met die skoolhoof, ’n fokusgroeponderhoud met personeellede wat ook onder leierskap van die vorige skoolhoof gewerk het en individuele onderhoude met personeellede ingesluit. Tydens die data-analise het die volgende kategorieë na vore gekom
A theory of principal bundles possessing quantum structure groups and classical base manifolds is presented. Structural analysis of such quantum principal bundles is performed. A differential calculus is constructed, combining differential forms on the base manifold with an appropriate differential calculus on the structure quantum group. Relations between the calculus on the group and the calculus on the bundle are investigated. A concept of (pseudo)tensoriality is formulated. The formalism of connections is developed. In particular, operators of horizontal projection, covariant derivative and curvature are constructed and analyzed. Generalizations of the first Structure Equation and of the Bianchi identity are found. Illustrative examples are presented. (orig.)
Sebastian, James; Camburn, Eric M.; Spillane, James P.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how school principals in urban settings distributed their time working on critical school functions. We also examined who principals worked with and how their time allocation patterns varied by school contextual characteristics. Research Method/Approach: The study was conducted in an urban school…
Boyd, Marie Nicole
The purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge of special education law held by public and private school principals as the law pertains to providing the appropriate services to students with disabilities. Numerous studies have investigated public school principals' level of preparation, training, and role within in special education law.…
Frangakis, Constantine E; Rubin, Donald B
Many scientific problems require that treatment comparisons be adjusted for posttreatment variables, but the estimands underlying standard methods are not causal effects. To address this deficiency, we propose a general framework for comparing treatments adjusting for posttreatment variables that yields principal effects based on principal stratification. Principal stratification with respect to a posttreatment variable is a cross-classification of subjects defined by the joint potential values of that posttreatment variable tinder each of the treatments being compared. Principal effects are causal effects within a principal stratum. The key property of principal strata is that they are not affected by treatment assignment and therefore can be used just as any pretreatment covariate. such as age category. As a result, the central property of our principal effects is that they are always causal effects and do not suffer from the complications of standard posttreatment-adjusted estimands. We discuss briefly that such principal causal effects are the link between three recent applications with adjustment for posttreatment variables: (i) treatment noncompliance, (ii) missing outcomes (dropout) following treatment noncompliance. and (iii) censoring by death. We then attack the problem of surrogate or biomarker endpoints, where we show, using principal causal effects, that all current definitions of surrogacy, even when perfectly true, do not generally have the desired interpretation as causal effects of treatment on outcome. We go on to forrmulate estimands based on principal stratification and principal causal effects and show their superiority.
Cooke, Willa D.; Licciardi, Chris
How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? And how have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? There are reliable…
Grissom, Jason A.; Mitani, Hajime; Blissett, Richard S. L.
Many states require prospective principals to pass a licensure exam to obtain an administrative license, but we know little about the potential effects of principal licensure exams on the pool of available principals or whether scores predict later job performance. We investigate the most commonly used exam, the School Leaders Licensure Assessment…
Alexis V. Knaub
Full Text Available Postdoc positions, intended to be advanced or continued research training in a field, are a part of the physics education research (PER enterprise yet little is known about them. PER postdocs differ from their traditional physics counterparts in that they may have different education and research experiences. This study examined the types of postdoc positions available as well as what hiring is like. To determine the types of postdoc positions available, we used the advertisements posted in PERJobs blog. To learn more about hiring practices, interviews were conducted with both principal investigators (PIs and current and former postdocs. Results show that many PER postdoc positions have been available since 2008, with many of these advertisements indicating that the PI will consider hiring someone with a physics or a PER or science, technology, engineering, or mathematics education background. The interviews indicate that there is no typical way for hiring PER postdocs. Some aspects that PIs consider include the background of the candidates and how well the candidates fit in with the group. Postdocs likewise consider whether they like the research group when accepting offers. For both, having ties to the PER community is important for hiring. Overall, PIs and postdocs have been satisfied. Postdocs who were originally in traditional physics have felt that being a PER postdoc has allowed them to transition to PER. In giving advice, both PIs and postdocs reiterate the importance of connecting to the community, evaluating the postdoc position as a stepping stone in the career trajectory, and holistically considering candidates.
Poor performance of managerial tasks culminates declining staff productivity and thus deteriorating students academic performance. Secondary school students performance in most public examinations are not satisfactory in most states in Nigeria. Hence, this study investigate the extent to which secondary school principal ...
Busch, Steve; Johnson, Shirley; Robles-Piña, Rebecca; Slate, John R.
In this study, the researchers examined principal behaviors related with change in school climate. That is, the manner in which principals managed change within their schools and the impact of these change behaviors on the school climate was investigated. Through use of the Leadership Profile (Johnson, 2003) and the Organizational Health Inventory…
ter Avest, Ina; Bakker, C.
Critical incidents in the biography of principals appear to be steering in their innovative way of constructing InterReligious Education in their schools. In this contribution, the authors present the biographical narratives of 4 principals: 1 principal introducing interreligious education in a
Smith, Page A.; Maika, Sean A.
This research investigates the openness that teachers and principals have to change--specifically, the openness of the faculty to community pressure for change. Three dimensions of change are examined (teacher, principal, and community), as well as four aspects of organizational climate (institutional vulnerability, collegial leadership,…
Aiken, Debra L.
The study investigated the relationship between leadership behaviors of high school principals and teacher retention in Texas. A total of 88 Texas high school principals participated in the survey. Leadership behaviors were measured using the Culturally Adapted Leadership for Inspired Business Excellence and Results (CALIBER) Leadership Assessment…
Anast-May, Linda; Buckner, Barbara; Geer, Gregory
Internship programs too often do not provide the types of experiences that effectively bridge the gap between theory and practice and prepare school leaders who are capable of leading and transforming schools. To help address this problem, the current study is directed at providing insight into practicing principals' views of the types of…
Clifford, Matthew; Ross, Steven
The need to improve the quality of principal evaluation systems is long overdue. Although states and districts generally require principal evaluations, research and experience tell that many state and district evaluations do not reflect current standards and practices for principals, and that evaluation is not systematically administered. When…
Taylor Backor, Karen; Gordon, Stephen P.
Although research has established links between the principal's instructional leadership and student achievement, there is considerable concern in the literature concerning the capacity of principal preparation programs to prepare instructional leaders. This study interviewed educational leadership faculty as well as expert principals and teacher…
Sampson, Kristin Morgan
As the U.S. becomes more diverse, school leaders, major corporations, and areas of national defense continue to investigate science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education issues. African-American female students have historically been underrepresented in STEM fields, yet educational leadership research, examining this population is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how principals support African-American female students in schools with a STEM program. The Critical Race Theory (CRT)was used as a theoretical framework to highlight the inadequacies to support educational inequalities. The application of the CRT in this study is due to the embedded inequality practices within the educational system, that have resulted in the underrepresentation of African-American female students in STEM. To complement CRT, the transformative leadership model was also utilized to examine the emancipatory leadership practices principals utilized. These theories framed the context of this study by recognizing the need to address how support is actualized to African-American female students in STEM by their principals. A case study approach was an appropriate method to answer the two research questions, 1) How do principals feel they support African-American female students in their STEM programs? and 2) What practices do principals engage in that support underrepresented students in STEM? This approach intended to uncover how a principal leads a multifaceted population of underrepresented students in STEM programs. Two principals of STEM schools, where more than 50% of the population were African-American, were interviewed and observed completing daily operations at community-wide events. The STEM Coordinators and a teacher were also interviewed, and test scores were examined to provide further information about the STEM program, and public records were obtained to analyze the principals' means of communication. I found that principals supported
Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric
The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…
Evans, Molly Lynn
In public schools, the principal's role is of paramount importance in influencing teachers to excel and to keep their job satisfaction high. The self-efficacy of leaders is an important characteristic of leadership, but this issue has not been extensively explored in school principals. Using internet-based questionnaires, this study obtained…
Stern, Ralph D.; And Others
The three talks included here treat aspects of the law--tort liability, student records, and the age of majority--as they relate to the principal. Specifically, the talk on torts deals with the consequences of principal negligence in the event of injuries to students. Assurance is given that a reasonable and prudent principal will have a minimum…
Mitev, V.; Schomerus, V.; Quella, T.
We investigate the spectrum of the principal chiral model (PCM) on odd-dimensional superspheres as a function of the curvature radius R. For volume-filling branes on S 3 vertical stroke 2 , we compute the exact boundary spectrum as a function of R. The extension to higher dimensional superspheres is discussed, but not carried out in detail. Our results provide very convincing evidence in favor of the strong-weak coupling duality between supersphere PCMs and OSP(2S+2 vertical stroke 2S) Gross-Neveu models that was recently conjectured by Candu and Saleur. (orig.)
Being a principal is a complex job, requiring quick, on-the-job learning. But many principals already have deep experience in a role at the very essence of the principalship. They know how to teach. In interviews with principals, Fahey and his colleagues learned that thinking like a teacher was key to their work. Part of thinking the way a teacher…
The purpose of this study was to determine the primary school principals' views on trust in students and parents and also, to explore the relationships between principals' levels of professional burnout and their trust in students and parents. To this end, Principal Trust Survey and Friedman Principal Burnout scales were administered on 119…
深澤, 真奈美; 重川, 純子
The purpose of this paper is to investigate career development of female principals at elementary and junior high schools. We interviewed eight married principals who had children with respect to their work and private lives, especially child care. Respondents recognized that both teaching jobs on their first stages and management jobs as middle leader led to management jobs as executive. Most respondents were recommended to advance their careers by their supervisors (principals). They recogn...
Zeng, J.; Li, G.; Sun, J.
Principal components analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the properties of different corn varieties. The chemical compositions and some properties of corn flour which processed by drying milling were determined. The results showed that the chemical compositions and physicochemical properties were significantly different among twenty six corn varieties. The quality of corn flour was concerned with five principal components from principal component analysis and the contribution rate of starch pasting properties was important, which could account for 48.90%. Twenty six corn varieties could be classified into four groups by cluster analysis. The consistency between principal components analysis and cluster analysis indicated that multivariate analyses were feasible in the study of corn variety properties. (author)
Walker, Allan; Ko, James
This article presents the findings of a study into the leadership practices of Hong Kong principals working within an environment of increasing accountability. The study set out to investigate the relationships between sets of principal leadership practices and the levels of "alignment," "coherence and structure" and…
This study investigated the instructional management of a private and a government secondary school principal in the Gigit-Baltistan region of Northern Pakistan. The study used the following lenses to examine the instructional behavior of the two principals: supervisory techniques, professional development activities, curriculum enrichment, and…
Liu, R X; Kuang, J; Gong, Q; Hou, X L
The paper introduces all indices of multicollinearity diagnoses, the basic principle of principal component regression and determination of 'best' equation method. The paper uses an example to describe how to do principal component regression analysis with SPSS 10.0: including all calculating processes of the principal component regression and all operations of linear regression, factor analysis, descriptives, compute variable and bivariate correlations procedures in SPSS 10.0. The principal component regression analysis can be used to overcome disturbance of the multicollinearity. The simplified, speeded up and accurate statistical effect is reached through the principal component regression analysis with SPSS.
Bon, Susan C.
In this experimental study, a national random sample of high school principals (stratified by gender) were asked to evaluate hypothetical applicants whose resumes varied by religion (Jewish, Catholic, nondenominational) and gender (male, female) for employment as assistant principals. Results reveal that male principals rate all applicants higher…
Eboka, Obiajulu Chinyelum
The study investigated the perception of teachers on the influence of principals' leadership styles and gender on teacher morale. Four research questions and four research hypotheses guided the study. An ex-post facto research design was adopted in the study. Through the simple random sampling technique a total of 72 principals and 2,506 in 72…
Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.
This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…
This paper examines emotional expression experienced by female principals in the Arab school system in Israel over their managerial careers--role-related emotions that they choose to express or repress before others. I employed narrative methodology, interviewing nine female principals from the Arab school system to investigate expression of…
Arar, Khalid; Shapira, Tamar
This article investigates why very few Arab women persevere to become principals in Arab high schools in Israel. It identifies these trailblazers' distinguishing characteristics through the narratives of two Arab women, high school principals, tracing their transition from teaching to management, describing the intertwining of their personal and…
米沢, 崇; 山崎, 茜; 栗原, 慎二
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of the leadership of school leader and organizational culture to the practice of school guidance. Single time questionnaire was taken, and 182 elementary school teachers participated in. The major findings were as follows : (a)challenging culture among teachers, principal breakthrough leadership, and mid-level leader's consideration effect on information sharing among teachers, (b) challenging culture among teachers, principal' s considerat...
Parker, Kerry L.
The purpose of this study was to identify what southwestern area high school principals reported as the enactment of school crisis plans as described in the Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA (CMHS, 2008), "Resource Aid: Responding to a Crisis at School." The conceptual framework guiding the study was an adaptation of the Crisis…
AMIDON, EDMUND; BLUMBERG, ARTHUR
THE EFFECTS OF FACULTY MEETINGS ON TEACHER MORALE WERE INVESTIGATED VIA A SIX-ITEM QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONDED TO BY 40 ELEMENTARY AND 49 SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ENROLLED IN GROUP DYNAMICS WORK AT ONE UNIVERSITY AND BY 74 ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS SELECTED AT RANDOM FROM A STATE EDUCATIONAL DIRECTORY. RESPONSES WERE ON A NINE-STEP,…
Turnbull, Brenda J.
The work principals do has always mattered, but as the demands of the job increase, it matters even more. Perhaps once they could maintain safety and order and call it a day, but no longer. Successful principals today must also lead instruction and nurture a productive learning community for students, teachers, and staff. They set the tone for the…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Principal Ports are defined by port limits or US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) projects, these exclude non-USACE projects not authorized for publication. The...
Lyons, James E.
Summarizes a study to determine principal's perceptions of their competency in primary responsibility areas and their greatest challenges and frustrations. Beginning principals are challenged by delegating responsibilities and becoming familiar with the principal's role, the local school, and school operations. Their major frustrations are role…
Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N
Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis
McCray, Carlos R.; Beachum, Floyd D.
The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary school principals' perceptions of multicultural education in a rural southeastern state. The researchers wanted to ascertain whether or not the race or gender of school principals have a role in how those principals view multicultural education in theory (its theoretical value). For the…
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to assess school principals' perspectives of the extent to which they apply the principles of andragogy to the professional development of assistant principals in their schools. This study was conducted in school districts that constitute a RESA area in a southeastern state. The schools in these…
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 105-68.995 Section 105-68.995 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.995 Principal. Principal means— (a...
Rock, Wendy D.; Remley, Theodore P.; Range, Lillian M.
Examining whether principal-counselor collaboration and school climate were related, researchers sent 4,193 surveys to high school counselors in the United States and received 419 responses. As principal-counselor collaboration increased, there were increases in counselors viewing the principal as supportive, the teachers as regarding one another…
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal office. 561.39 Section 561.39 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.39 Principal office. The term principal office means the home...
April, Daniel; Bouchamma, Yamina
A questionnaire was used to determine the individual and collective teacher supervision practices of school principals and vice-principals in Québec (n = 39) who participated in a research-action study on pedagogical supervision. These practices were then analyzed in terms of the principals' sociodemographic and socioprofessional characteristics…
on the: Skin of Monkey, Cat, Goat , Guinea Pig, Horse, Rabbit, and Dog 336 68 Action of Dichloroethyl sulfide on Human Skin 345 69 Individual...Weaver farm : Wilson 65 225. The Copper Flame test for G-34 : Carleton and Nichols 72 226. The Detection of Toxic Gases by Means of Organisms 91... goat , guinea pig, horse, rabbit and dog: Smith 59 281. A standard vapor test for skin irritants: Lynch 63 282. Removal of Mustard Gas from the
The effective potential in universal like coordinates(U, V, θ, φ), which are smooth across the event horizon is derived and investigated the ISCO(Innermost Stable Circular Orbits) explicitly in these coordinates for extremal Kerr spacetime. Extremization of the effective potential for timelike circular orbit shows that the existence of a stable circular geodesics in the extremal spacetime for direct orbit, precisely on the event horizon in terms of the radial coordinate which coincides with the principal null geodesic congruences of the event horizon. These null geodesic congruences mold themselves to the spacetime curvature in such a way that Weyl conformal tensor and its dual are vanished, that is why they are in-fact doubly degenerate principal null congruences.
Cone, Mariah Bahar
This study examines what occurs when principals of urban schools meet together to learn and improve their instructional leadership in collaborative principal networks designed to support, sustain, and provide ongoing principal capacity building. Principal leadership is considered second only to teaching in its ability to improve schools, yet few…
Bechger, T.M.; Blanca, M.J.; Maris, G.
Although it is simple to determine whether multivariate group differences are statistically significant or not, such differences are often difficult to interpret. This article is about common principal components analysis as a tool for the exploratory investigation of multivariate group differences
Pendola, Andrew; Fuller, Edward J.
This article examines the unique features of the rural school context and how these features are associated with the stability of principals in these schools. Given the small but growing literature on the characteristics of rural principals, this study presents an exploratory analysis of principal stability across schools located in different…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a piece of research concerning the practice of Cypriot school principals' instructional role and its effect on teachers' job satisfaction, and also to investigate whether higher levels of teachers' job satisfaction can be predicted when school principals deal with and accomplish their…
One of the new avenues in the study of political corruption is that of neo-institutional economics, of which the principal-agent theory is a part. In this article a principal-agent model of corruption is presented, in which there are two principals (one of which is corrupting), and one agent (who is
Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.
Al-Safran, Eissa; Brown, David; Wiseman, Alexander
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of principal's leadership style on school outcome. This study focused on the indirect relationship between the leadership style and the school environment. An additional objective was to investigate the impact of culture on leadership style as related to school environment and outcome.…
Gerard, Libby F.; Bowyer, Jane B.; Linn, Marcia C.
Reforms such as technology-enhanced instruction require principal leadership. Yet, many principals report that they need help to guide implementation of science and technology reforms. We identify strategies for helping principals provide this leadership. A two-phase design is employed. In the first phase we elicit principals' varied ideas about the Technology-enhanced Learning in Science (TELS) curriculum materials being implemented by teachers in their schools, and in the second phase we engage principals in a leadership workshop designed based on the ideas they generated. Analysis uses an emergent coding scheme to categorize principals' ideas, and a knowledge integration framework to capture the development of these ideas. The analysis suggests that principals frame their thinking about the implementation of TELS in terms of: principal leadership, curriculum, educational policy, teacher learning, student outcomes and financial resources. They seek to improve their own knowledge to support this reform. The principals organize their ideas around individual school goals and current political issues. Principals prefer professional development activities that engage them in reviewing curricula and student work with other principals. Based on the analysis, this study offers guidelines for creating learning opportunities that enhance principals' leadership abilities in technology and science reform.
Anna Maria Stellacci
Full Text Available Hyperspectral (HS data represents an extremely powerful means for rapidly detecting crop stress and then aiding in the rational management of natural resources in agriculture. However, large volume of data poses a challenge for data processing and extracting crucial information. Multivariate statistical techniques can play a key role in the analysis of HS data, as they may allow to both eliminate redundant information and identify synthetic indices which maximize differences among levels of stress. In this paper we propose an integrated approach, based on the combined use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA, to investigate HS plant response and discriminate plant status. The approach was preliminary evaluated on a data set collected on durum wheat plants grown under different nitrogen (N stress levels. Hyperspectral measurements were performed at anthesis through a high resolution field spectroradiometer, ASD FieldSpec HandHeld, covering the 325-1075 nm region. Reflectance data were first restricted to the interval 510-1000 nm and then divided into five bands of the electromagnetic spectrum [green: 510-580 nm; yellow: 581-630 nm; red: 631-690 nm; red-edge: 705-770 nm; near-infrared (NIR: 771-1000 nm]. PCA was applied to each spectral interval. CDA was performed on the extracted components to identify the factors maximizing the differences among plants fertilised with increasing N rates. Within the intervals of green, yellow and red only the first principal component (PC had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained more than 95% of total variance; within the ranges of red-edge and NIR, the first two PCs had an eigenvalue higher than 1. Two canonical variables explained cumulatively more than 81% of total variance and the first was able to discriminate wheat plants differently fertilised, as confirmed also by the significant correlation with aboveground biomass and grain yield parameters. The combined
Nicholls, David P. [UIC-MSCS
Over the past four years the Principal Investigator (PI) David Nicholls has worked on several projects in connection with award DE-SC0001549. Of the greatest import has been the continued supervision of ve Ph.D. students (Robyn Canning, Travis McBride, Andrew Sward, Zheng Fang, and Venu Tammali). Canning and McBride defended their theses and graduated in May 2012, while Sward defended his thesis and graduated in May 2013. Both Fang and Tammali plan to defend their theses within the year and graduate in May 2015. Fang is now a very experienced graduate researcher with one paper accepted for publication and another in preparation. Tammali is nearly to the point of writing a paper and will work this summer as an intern at Argonne National Laboratory in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division under the supervision of Paul Fischer.
Royzman, Edward B.; Leeman, Robert F.; Baron, Jonathan
In this paper, we offer an overview and a critique of the existing theories of the moral-conventional distinction, with emphasis on Nichols's [Nichols, S. (2002). Norms with feeling: Towards a psychological account of moral judgment. "Cognition, 84", 221-236] neo-sentimentalist approach. After discussing some distinctive features of Nichols's…
Full Text Available A codimension-4 homoclinic bifurcation with one orbit flip and one inclination flip at principal eigenvalue direction resonance is considered. By introducing a local active coordinate system in some small neighborhood of homoclinic orbit, we get the Poincaré return map and the bifurcation equation. A detailed investigation produces the number and the existence of 1-homoclinic orbit, 1-periodic orbit, and double 1-periodic orbits. We also locate their bifurcation surfaces in certain regions.
Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna
While the importance of effective principals is undisputed, few studies have addressed what specific skills principals need to promote school success. This study draws on unique data combining survey responses from principals, assistant principals, teachers and parents with rich administrative data to identify which principal skills matter most…
Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.
Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal
Condon, Christopher; Clifford, Matthew
This brief reviews the publicly available principal assessments and points superintendents and policy makers toward strong instruments to measure principal performance. Specifically, the measures included in this review are expressly intended to evaluate principal performance and have varying degrees of publicly available evidence of psychometric…
Hallinger, Philip; Walker, Allan; Nguyen, Dao Thi Hong; Truong, Thang; Nguyen, Thi Thinh
Purpose: Worldwide interest in principal instructional leadership has led to global dissemination of related research findings despite their concentration in a limited set of western cultural contexts. An urgent challenge in educational leadership and management lies in expanding the range of national settings for investigations of instructional…
Becoming a principal is a milestone in an educator's professional life. The principalship is an opportunity to provide leadership that will afford students opportunities to thrive in a nurturing and supportive environment. Despite the continuously expanding demands of being a new principal, effective time management will enable an individual to be…
Achievement and recognition were mentioned as factors appearing with greater frequency in principal's job satisfactions; school district policy and interpersonal relations were mentioned as job dissatisfactions. (Editor)
Perkins, Arland Early
The purpose of this study was to determine what sources of professional knowledge are available to principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district. Qualitative research methods were applied to gain an understanding of what sources of knowledge are used by school principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district and the barriers they face…
Lacirasella, Ignazio; Marrero, Juan Carlos; Padrón, Edith
We describe a reduction process for symplectic principal R-bundles in the presence of a momentum map. These types of structures play an important role in the geometric formulation of non-autonomous Hamiltonian systems. We apply this procedure to the standard symplectic principal R-bundle associated with a fibration π:M→R. Moreover, we show a reduction process for non-autonomous Hamiltonian systems on symplectic principal R-bundles. We apply these reduction processes to several examples. (paper)
Celoria, Davide; Roberson, Ingrid
This study examines new principal coaching as an induction process and explores the emotional dimensions of educational leadership. Twelve principal coaches and new principals--six of each--participated in this qualitative study that employed emergent coding (Creswell, 2008; Denzin, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1998; Spradley, 1979). The major…
The methodology was principal component analysis (PCA) using data obtained from the hospital to estimate regression coefficients and parameters. It was found that the principal component regression model that was derived was good predictive tool. The principal component regression model obtained was okay and this ...
Edwards, LaWanda; Grace, Ronald; King, Gwendolyn
An effective relationship between the principal and school counselor is essential when improving student achievement. To have an effective relationship, there must be communication, trust and respect, leadership, and collaborative planning between the principal and school counselor (College Board, 2011). Principals and school counselors are both…
Gaston, Sean Maurice
The role of the "principal" in encouraging and supporting parent involvement has not received as much research attention as it would seem to merit. While the recent literature on parent involvement is extensive, virtually none are devoted to investigating the impact of school leadership, particularly the function of the principal on…
Werner, Kathleen J.
This study investigated whether there was a correlation between principal's emotional intelligence and servant leadership behaviors, as perceived by the teachers in their schools. The teachers ratings their principals' emotional intelligence and servant leadership behaviors were also compared with and the principals' self-ratings on the same…
This study compared the management of indiscipline among teachers by public and private school principals in Akwa Ibom State. The sample comprised four hundred and fifty (450) principals/vice principals randomly selected from a population of one thousand, four hundred and twenty eight (1,428) principals. The null ...
Much has been written during the past decade about the changing role of the principal and the shift in emphasis from manager to instructional leader. Anyone in education, and especially principals themselves, could develop a mental list of responsibilities that fit within each of these realms. But research makes it clear that both those aspects of…
McAvoy, Brenda, Ed.
This collection of essays was written by principals who participated in the 1986-87 Humanities Seminar sponsored by the Principals' Institute of Georgia State University. The focus was "The Evolution of Intellectual Leadership." The roles of the principal as philosopher, historian, ethnician, writer and team member are examined through…
Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Liu, Yan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which principals' instructional leadership predicts teacher self-efficacy, in order to identify whether a relationship exists between principals' perceived instructional leadership practices and teachers perceived self-efficacy in classroom management, instruction, and student…
Wise, Donald; Cavazos, Blanca
Surveys were sent to a large representative sample of public school principals in the United States asking if they had received leadership coaching. Comparison of responses to actual numbers of principals indicates that the sample represents the first national study of principal leadership coaching. Results indicate that approximately 50% of all…
Ahlbrandt, C.D.; Hooker, J.W.
Consider a second-order linear matrix difference equation. A definition of principal and anti-principal, or recessive and dominant, solutions of the equation are given and the existence of principal and anti-principal solutions and the essential uniqueness of principal solutions is proven
Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree
This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among principals' technological leadership, teachers' technological literacy, and teaching effectiveness. The survey target population consists of 1,000 teachers randomly selected from Taiwanese elementary schools. The survey asked teachers to measure the effectiveness of principals'…
This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to investigate the behaviors and beliefs of eight Texas principals in high achieving Title I elementary schools. Participant interviews were analyzed using Creswell (2007) six-step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings suggested that successful Title I…
Renihan, Patrick; Noonan, Brian
This article reports a study of rural school principals' assessment leadership roles and the impact of rural context on their work. The study involved three focus groups of principals serving small rural schools of varied size and grade configuration in three systems. Principals viewed assessment as a matter of teacher accountability and as a…
Reep, Beverly B.
School building level public relations depends on the principal or vice principal. Strategies designed to enhance school public relations programs include linking school and community, working with the press, and keeping morale high inside the school. (MLF)
Kenyon, Richard; Pemantle, Robin
The algebraic relations between the principal minors of a generic n × n matrix are somewhat mysterious, see e.g. Lin and Sturmfels (2009 J. Algebra 322 4121–31). We show, however, that by adding in certain almost principal minors, the ideal of relations is generated by translations of a single relation, the so-called hexahedron relation, which is a composition of six cluster mutations. We give in particular a Laurent-polynomial parameterization of the space of n × n matrices, whose parameters consist of certain principal and almost principal minors. The parameters naturally live on vertices and faces of the tiles in a rhombus tiling of a convex 2n-gon. A matrix is associated to an equivalence class of tilings, all related to each other by Yang–Baxter-like transformations. By specializing the initial data we can similarly parameterize the space of Hermitian symmetric matrices over R,C or H the quaternions. Moreover by further specialization we can parametrize the space of positive definite matrices over these rings. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras mathematical physics’. (paper)
Kriemeen, Hani; Hajaia, Sulaiman
The study aimed at investigating the level of the social intelligence among the male and female principals in Tafila Governorate from the teachers views and its relationship with creative behavior. The sample consisted of 190 male and female teachers chosen randomly. For achieving the goals of the study, the researchers developed two instruments,…
Haller, Alicia; Hunt, Erika
Research has demonstrated that principals have a powerful impact on school improvement and student learning. Principals play a vital role in recruiting, developing, and retaining effective teachers; creating a school-wide culture of learning; and implementing a continuous improvement plan aimed at increasing student achievement. Leithwood, Louis,…
Tahir, Lokman Mohd; Khan, Aqeel; Musah, Mohammed Borhandden; Ahmad, Roslee; Daud, Khadijah; Al-Hudawi, Shafeeq Hussain Vazhathodi; Musta'Amal, Aede Hatib; Talib, Rohaya
Principals are school leaders who experienced stress while leading their schools towards excellence. However, principals stress experiences are always ignored and least studied. This mixed-methods study investigates primary principals' stress experiences and their Islamic coping strategies used in incapacitating the stress experiences. A total of 216 Muslim primary principals across different gender, types of schools and years of experiences as school leaders responded to the administrative stress and the Islamic coping strategies items. In addition, seven primary principals were purposefully selected and interviewed in exploring their reasons of using Islamic coping strategies for their relieving process. Results discovered that primary principals experienced fairly stress level and they perceived managing students' academic achievement was the most stressor followed by managing teachers' capabilities. Although findings revealed that no significant differences in terms primary principals' demographics; male primary principals, and experienced between 6 and 10 years and positioned in schools with least students (SLS) category have slightly higher level of stress. In terms of Islamic coping strategies used by primary principals, saying dhua to Allah, performing dhikir and reciting the Yassen are selected coping approaches employed in handling their stress. From interviews, primary principals also revealed that they used Islamic religious approaches as part of meaningful activities not just to overcoming their stress but also as part of religious approaches in remembering Allah, thinking back their past mistakes as part of the Muhasabah process. Therefore, we believed that religious approaches should be taken into consideration in principals' training as it provides peaceful and treatment in managing principals' stress issue.
Asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the equations of principal chiral field when one of the arguments tends to infinity is investigated. Asymptotics of solutions of the corresponding spectral problem is investigated as well. explicit formulas are constructed which connect the coefficients of the asymptotic decomposition of the potential with the data of the corresponding inverse problem by means of a birational transformation
Leaf, Ann; Odhiambo, George
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study examining the perceptions of secondary principals, deputies and teachers, of deputy principal (DP) instructional leadership (IL), as well as deputies' professional learning (PL) needs. Framed within an interpretivist approach, the specific objectives of this study were: to explore the…
Herrmann, Mariesa; Ross, Christine
States and districts across the country are implementing new principal evaluation systems that include measures of the quality of principals' school leadership practices and measures of student achievement growth. Because these evaluation systems will be used for high-stakes decisions, it is important that the component measures of the evaluation…
Zhang, Zhihui; Guo, Hongwei
Fringe tracking is one of the most straightforward techniques for analyzing a single fringe pattern. This work presents a principal-vector-directed fringe-tracking technique. It uses Gaussian derivatives for estimating fringe gradients and uses hysteresis thresholding for segmenting singular points, thus improving the principal component analysis method. Using it allows us to estimate the principal vectors of fringes from a pattern with high noise. The fringe-tracking procedure is directed by these principal vectors, so that erroneous results induced by noise and other error-inducing factors are avoided. At the same time, the singular point regions of the fringe pattern are identified automatically. Using them allows us to determine paths through which the "seed" point for each fringe skeleton is easy to find, thus alleviating the computational burden in processing the fringe pattern. The results of a numerical simulation and experiment demonstrate this method to be valid.
Gardiner, Mary E.; Canfield-Davis, Kathy; Anderson, Keith LeMar
This exploratory study investigated how six practicing school principals responded to the requirements of the No Child Left Behind law (United States Congress Public Law 107-110, 2002, January, No Child Left Behind Act, http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/107-110.pdf ) in light of the multicultural leadership demands presented by an urban…
Park, Joo-Ho; Ham, Seung-Hwan
This study examines teacher collaboration across three Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Malaysia, and South Korea), focusing on the possibility that principal-teacher perceptual disagreement regarding principal instructional leadership performance may impede progress toward a school organizational condition conducive to collaborative teacher…
Sjöstrand, Karl; Stegmann, Mikkel B.; Larsen, Rasmus
Principal component analysis (PCA) is a widely used tool in medical image analysis for data reduction, model building, and data understanding and exploration. While PCA is a holistic approach where each new variable is a linear combination of all original variables, sparse PCA (SPCA) aims at producing easily interpreted models through sparse loadings, i.e. each new variable is a linear combination of a subset of the original variables. One of the aims of using SPCA is the possible separation of the results into isolated and easily identifiable effects. This article introduces SPCA for shape analysis in medicine. Results for three different data sets are given in relation to standard PCA and sparse PCA by simple thresholding of small loadings. Focus is on a recent algorithm for computing sparse principal components, but a review of other approaches is supplied as well. The SPCA algorithm has been implemented using Matlab and is available for download. The general behavior of the algorithm is investigated, and strengths and weaknesses are discussed. The original report on the SPCA algorithm argues that the ordering of modes is not an issue. We disagree on this point and propose several approaches to establish sensible orderings. A method that orders modes by decreasing variance and maximizes the sum of variances for all modes is presented and investigated in detail.
Salkind, Gwenanne M.
Many schools employ coaches to support mathematics instruction and student learning. This research study investigated the roles of coaches from five school districts in Virginia. Participants included 125 elementary mathematics coaches and 59 principals. Results from cross-sectional surveys revealed that most coaches did not have a degree in…
Berkovich, Izhak; Eyal, Ori
Research on school principals' behaviours that affect teachers' emotional states is limited. Currently, the focus is primarily on extreme manifestations of mistreatment and emotional abuse; normative daily behaviours, such as emotionally manipulative ones, have yet to be explored. The purpose of the present study is to investigate primary school…
Schermuly, Carsten C.; Schermuly, Rene A.; Meyer, Bertolt
Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, and burnout among vice-principals (VPs) in primary schools. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 103 VPs at 103 different primary schools in Germany were surveyed with a questionnaire that assessed the four dimensions of psychological…
Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.
This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…
The pulser of the principal power of the PS is the unit that makes it possible to generate the reference function of the voltage of the principal magnet. This function depends on time and on the magnetic field of the magnet. It also generates various synchronization and reference pulses
Pengilly, Michelle M.
As education continues to succumb to deficits in budgets and increasingly high levels of student performance to meet the federal and state mandates, the quest to sustain and retain successful principals is imperative. The National Association of School Boards (1999) portrays effective principals as "linchpins" of school improvement and…
Fauske, Janice R.; Ogawa, Rodney T.
Applying theory from organizational and cultural perspectives to succession of principals, this study observes and records the language and culture of a small suburban elementary school. The study's procedures included analyses of shared organizational understandings as well as identification of the principal's influence on the school. Analyses of…
Cox, Dan; McLeod, Scott
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals who use multiple social media tools with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications practices. Additionally, it examined why school principals have chosen to communicate with their stakeholders through social media.…
Soehner, David; Ryan, Thomas
This review illuminated principal school leadership as a variable that impacted achievement. The principal as school leader and manager was explored because these roles were thought to impact student achievement both directly and indirectly. Specific principal leadership behaviors and principal effectiveness were explored as variables potentially…
Kimball, Steven M.; Arrigoni, Jessica; Clifford, Matthew; Yoder, Maureen; Milanowski, Anthony
Research demonstrating principals' impact on student learning outcomes has fueled the shift from principals as facilities managers to an emphasis on instructional leadership (Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, & Wahlstrom, 2004; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005). Principals are under increasing pressure to carry out…
Wildy, Helen; Louden, William
The complexity of principals' work may be characterized according to three dilemmas: accountability, autonomy, and efficiency. Narrative vignettes of 74 Australian principals revealed that principals were fair and inclusive. When faced with restructuring dilemmas, however, they favored strong over shared leadership, efficiency over collaboration,…
Jacob, Brian A.
This article takes advantage of a unique policy change to examine how principals make decisions regarding teacher dismissal. In 2004, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Chicago Teachers Union signed a new collective bargaining agreement that gave principals the flexibility to dismiss probationary teachers for any reason and without the…
In Washington, D.C., and Tulsa, Okla., districts whose efforts are supported by the Wallace Foundation, principal supervisors concentrate on bolstering their principals' work to improve instruction, as opposed to focusing on the managerial or operational aspects of running a school. Supervisors oversee fewer schools, which enables them to provide…
Bauer, David G.
This book provides principals of public and private elementary and middle schools with a step-by-step approach for developing a system that empowers faculty, staff, and the school community in attracting grant funds. Following the introduction, chapter 1 discusses the principal's role in supporting grantseeking. Chapter 2 describes how to…
Research programmes appear to represent one of the more powerful instruments through which research funders (principals) steer and shape what researchers (agents) do. The fact that agents navigate between different sources and styles of programme funding and that they use programmes to their own ends is readily accommodated within principal-agent theory with the help of concepts such as shirking and defection. Taking a different route, I use three examples of research programming (by the UK, ...
Stern, Ralph D., Ed.
Negligence, a tort liability, is defined, discussed, and reviewed in relation to several court decisions involving school principals. The history of liability suits against school principals suggests that a reasonable, prudent principal can avoid legal problems. Ten guidelines are presented to assist principals in avoiding charges of negligence.…
Doverspike, David E.; Cone, W. Henry
Developments over the past 25 years in school-related legal issues in elementary schools have significantly changed the principal's role. In 1975, a decision of the U.S. Supreme Court established three due-process guidelines for short-term suspension. The decision requires student notification of charges, explanation of evidence, and an informal…
Doctor, Tyrus L.
Educational law is a critical piece of the education conundrum. Principals reference law books on a daily basis in order to address the wide range of complex problems in the school system. A principal's knowledge of law issues and legal decision-making are essential to provide effective feedback for a successful school.
The aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between the leadership styles of principals and organizational citizenship behaviors of teachers according to teachers' perceptions. In this research, a relational survey model was used. Data for the research were obtained from 1,723 teachers working in public and private schools which…
This study investigates school principals' listening skills according to teacher feedback in terms of a number of variables. The study is conducted according to a general survey model. The sample consists of 477 elementary, general and vocational secondary school teachers working in Konya, Turkey, in the 2007-2008 education year. The sample was…
Foch, Eric; Milner, Clare E
Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common knee overuse injury among female runners. Atypical discrete trunk and lower extremity biomechanics during running may be associated with the etiology of ITBS. Examining discrete data points limits the interpretation of a waveform to a single value. Characterizing entire kinematic and kinetic waveforms may provide additional insight into biomechanical factors associated with ITBS. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine whether female runners with previous ITBS exhibited differences in kinematics and kinetics compared to controls using a principal components analysis (PCA) approach. Forty participants comprised two groups: previous ITBS and controls. Principal component scores were retained for the first three principal components and were analyzed using independent t-tests. The retained principal components accounted for 93-99% of the total variance within each waveform. Runners with previous ITBS exhibited low principal component one scores for frontal plane hip angle. Principal component one accounted for the overall magnitude in hip adduction which indicated that runners with previous ITBS assumed less hip adduction throughout stance. No differences in the remaining retained principal component scores for the waveforms were detected among groups. A smaller hip adduction angle throughout the stance phase of running may be a compensatory strategy to limit iliotibial band strain. This running strategy may have persisted after ITBS symptoms subsided. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Manisera, M.; Kooij, A.J. van der; Dusseldorp, E.
The component structure of 14 Likert-type items measuring different aspects of job satisfaction was investigated using nonlinear Principal Components Analysis (NLPCA). NLPCA allows for analyzing these items at an ordinal or interval level. The participants were 2066 workers from five types of social
California Natural Resource Agency — The Principal Port file contains USACE port codes, geographic locations (longitude, latitude), names, and commodity tonnage summaries (total tons, domestic, foreign,...
California Department of Resources — The Principal Port file contains USACE port codes, geographic locations (longitude, latitude), names, and commodity tonnage summaries (total tons, domestic, foreign,...
Studies of school leadership suggest that visiting classrooms, emphasizing achievement and training, and supporting teachers are important indicators of the effectiveness of school principals. The utility of a behavior-analytic program to support the enhancement of these behaviors in 2 school principals and the impact of their involvement upon teachers' and students' performances in three classes were examined in two experiments, one at an elementary school and another at a secondary school. Treatment conditions consisted of helping the principal or teacher to schedule his or her time and to use goal setting, feedback, and praise. A withdrawal design (Experiment 1) and a multiple baseline across classrooms (Experiment 2) showed that the principal's and teacher's rates of praise, feedback, and goal setting increased during the intervention, and were associated with improvements in the academic performance of the students. In the future, school psychologists might analyze the impact of involving themselves in supporting the principal's involvement in improving students' and teachers' performances or in playing a similar leadership role themselves.
The aim of the present study is to identify primary school principals' self-monitoring skills. The study adopted the general survey model and its population comprised primary school principals serving in the city of Diyarbakir, Turkey, while 292 of these constituted the sample. Self-Monitoring Scale was used as the data collection instrument. In…
Davis, Stephen H.; Leon, Ronald J.
Instead of focusing on how principals should be trained, an contrarian view is offered, grounded upon theoretical perspectives of experiential learning, and in particular, upon the theory of andragogy. A brief parable of the DoNoHarm School of Medicine is used as a descriptive analog for many principal preparation programs in America. The…
Pannell, Summer; Peltier-Glaze, Bernnell M.; Haynes, Ingrid; Davis, Delilah; Skelton, Carrie
This study sought to determine the effectiveness on increasing student achievement of principals trained in a traditional principal preparation program and those trained in an alternate route principal preparation program within the same Mississippi university. Sixty-six Mississippi principals and assistant principals participated in the study. Of…
Ni, Yongmei; Sun, Min; Rorrer, Andrea
Purpose: Informed by literature on labor market and school choice, this study aims to examine the dynamics of principal career movements in charter schools by comparing principal turnover rates and patterns between charter schools and traditional public schools. Research Methods/Approach: This study uses longitudinal data on Utah principals and…
... Logging, Mccuen Jones, San Poil Logging, Scott Thorndike, Silver Nichol Trucking and Stensgar Logging..., Mawdsley Logging, McCuen Jones, San Poil Logging, Scott Thorndike, Silver Nichol Trucking and Stensgar...
This research study intended to discover the perceptions of 10 Illinois Generation Y novice high school principals pertaining to the effectiveness of their principal preparation programs in terms of how well it prepared them to lead in the first three years of their principalship, and what subsequent professional development they deemed necessary…
Gumus, Emine; Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which professional development predicts principals' instructional leadership in order to identify whether a relationship exists between the duration of principals' participation in distinct professional development activities and their perceived practice of instructional leadership while…
Béteille, Tara; Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna
More than one out of every five principals leaves their school each year. In some cases, these career changes are driven by the choices of district leadership. In other cases, principals initiate the move, often demonstrating preferences to work in schools with higher achieving students from more advantaged socioeconomic backgrounds. Principals often use schools with many poor or low-achieving students as stepping stones to what they view as more desirable assignments. We use longitudinal data from one large urban school district to study the relationship between principal turnover and school outcomes. We find that principal turnover is, on average, detrimental to school performance. Frequent turnover of school leadership results in lower teacher retention and lower student achievement gains. Leadership changes are particularly harmful for high poverty schools, low-achieving schools, and schools with many inexperienced teachers. These schools not only suffer from high rates of principal turnover but are also unable to attract experienced successors. The negative effect of leadership changes can be mitigated when vacancies are filled by individuals with prior experience leading other schools. However, the majority of new principals in high poverty and low-performing schools lack prior leadership experience and leave when more attractive positions become available in other schools. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suryakant B. Chandgude
Full Text Available The optimum selection of process parameters has played an important role for improving the surface finish, minimizing tool wear, increasing material removal rate and reducing machining time of any machining process. In this paper, optimum parameters while machining AISI D2 hardened steel using solid carbide TiAlN coated end mill has been investigated. For optimization of process parameters along with multiple quality characteristics, principal components analysis method has been adopted in this work. The confirmation experiments have revealed that to improve performance of cutting; principal components analysis method would be a useful tool.
Full Text Available Orientation: School principals have an important role to play in the quality of service delivery in schools. Evidence suggests that school principals are generally poorly compensated, which has an adverse impact on their well-being and subsequent service quality orientation. Research purpose: This study investigated whether rewards are a predictor of well-being and service orientation of school principals in the North-West province. Motivation for the study: Effective school principals are fundamental to the success of any school, which necessitates the establishment of an effective reward and remuneration system. Research design, approach and method: Quantitative research was carried out among school principals (N = 155 in four districts of the North-West province. The Total Rewards Scale, Maslach’s Burnout Inventory – General Survey, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the SERVQUAL measure were administered among the principals. Main findings: The results showed that rewards are a significant predictor of the well-being and service quality of school principals. The results further showed that burnout significantly reduces the service quality of school principals. No significant relationships were found between work engagement and the service quality of school principals. Practical/managerial implications: An effective total rewards system enhances the well-being of school principals and, subsequently, their willingness and commitment to delivering quality services. Contribution: The results of this study point out some key elements that need to be considered by the Department of Education to enable quality service delivery in South African schools.
morphine effectiveness . Pharmacol Rep 2008; 60: 297–307. Nichols TE, Holmes AP. Nonparametric permutation tests for func- tional neuroimaging: a primer...potentially more effective treatment approaches for both conditions. Furthermore, if disease-‐specific patterns of...were withdrawn for significant history of psychological illness (2) and comorbid autoimmune disorder
Snodgrass Rangel, Virginia
Among the many challenges facing public schools are high levels of principal turnover. Given the important role that principals play and are expected to play in the improvement process, concerns about principal turnover have resulted in a growing body of research on its causes and consequences. The purpose of this review is to take stock of what…
The purpose of this study was to explore if there was a connection between regular aerobic physical activity and the stress and energy levels of principals as they reported it. To begin the research, the current aerobic physical activity level of principals was discovered. Additionally, the energy and stress levels of the principals who do engage…
Farver, Anita R.; Holt, Carleton R.
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand how coaching support structures enabled and sustained leadership practices of urban principals. The study investigated how the intervention of coaching for academic leaders can serve as evidence-based professional development for building leadership capacity. The central focus was on…
Vitton, Charles J.; Wasonga, Teresa A.
This research investigated levels of moral judgment among public elementary school principals as measured by the Defining Issues Test Version 2 for occupationally relevant and other moral dilemmas. The participants scored lower (38.7) than the predicted average P score (postconventional thinking) for individuals who have attained graduate level…
SUSAN C. BON
Full Text Available In this experimental study, a national random sample of high school principals (stratified by gender were asked to evaluate hypothetical applicants whose resumes varied by religion (Jewish, Catholic, nondenominational and gender (male, female for employment as assistant principals. Results reveal that male principals rate all applicants higher than female principals and that the gender and religion of applicants failed to negatively or positively affect principals’ evaluations. These results suggest that discrimination based on an applicant’s gender and religion failed to be manifested during the pre-interview stage of the selection process. The paper concludes with a theoretical discussion of the distinction between explicit and implicit prejudice, and encourages future researchers to investigate the potential impact of prejudice on employment selection decisions and to consider whether schools should promote diversity in leadership positions.
Vickerman, John C
This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c
Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus
. In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...... of the agent) if this does not affect their pay-off....
Kang, Ho Yang [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Bok [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
In this study, acoustic emission (AE) signals due to surface cracking and moisture movement in the flat-sawn boards of oak (Quercus Variablilis) during drying under the ambient conditions were analyzed and classified using the principal component analysis. The AE signals corresponding to surface cracking showed higher in peak amplitude and peak frequency, and shorter in rise time than those corresponding to moisture movement. To reduce the multicollinearity among AE features and to extract the significant AE parameters, correlation analysis was performed. Over 99% of the variance of AE parameters could be accounted for by the first to the fourth principal components. The classification feasibility and success rate were investigated in terms of two statistical classifiers having six independent variables (AE parameters) and six principal components. As a result, the statistical classifier having AE parameters showed the success rate of 70.0%. The statistical classifier having principal components showed the success rate of 87.5% which was considerably than that of the statistical classifier having AE parameters
Kang, Ho Yang; Kim, Ki Bok
In this study, acoustic emission (AE) signals due to surface cracking and moisture movement in the flat-sawn boards of oak (Quercus Variablilis) during drying under the ambient conditions were analyzed and classified using the principal component analysis. The AE signals corresponding to surface cracking showed higher in peak amplitude and peak frequency, and shorter in rise time than those corresponding to moisture movement. To reduce the multicollinearity among AE features and to extract the significant AE parameters, correlation analysis was performed. Over 99% of the variance of AE parameters could be accounted for by the first to the fourth principal components. The classification feasibility and success rate were investigated in terms of two statistical classifiers having six independent variables (AE parameters) and six principal components. As a result, the statistical classifier having AE parameters showed the success rate of 70.0%. The statistical classifier having principal components showed the success rate of 87.5% which was considerably than that of the statistical classifier having AE parameters
Hamilton, Charles L., Jr.
This exploratory study surveyed the promotion of instructional leadership of high school principals by superintendents, as perceived by self and the principals they supervise. The two-phased study included an initial questionnaire administered to both study groups and comparisons of responses analyzed. All superintendents (N = 173), except the…
Gaziel, Haim Henry; Cohen-Azaria, Yael; Ermenc, Klara Skubic
The objective of the present study was to compare principals' perceptions of their leadership roles in regular (Dovno, 1999) versus special education (Zaretzky, Faircloth & Moreau, 2005) schools, and how these perceptions affect feelings of job stress (Friedman, 2001; Margalit, 1999). We predicted that regular school principals would differ in…
A study of Chicago (Illinois) principals revealed many ways principals practiced "creative insubordination"--avoiding following instructions but still getting things done. Among the dodges are deliberately missing deadlines, following orders literally, ignoring channels to procure teachers or materials, and using community members to…
Hamrlová, Jana [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Legut, Dominik [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Veis, Martin [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Pištora, Jaromír [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Hamrle, Jaroslav, E-mail: email@example.com [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic)
We provide unified phenomenological description of magnetooptic effects being linear and quadratic in magnetization. The description is based on few principal spectra, describing elements of permittivity tensor up to the second order in magnetization. Each permittivity tensor element for any magnetization direction and any sample surface orientation is simply determined by weighted summation of the principal spectra, where weights are given by crystallographic and magnetization orientations. The number of principal spectra depends on the symmetry of the crystal. In cubic crystals owning point symmetry we need only four principal spectra. Here, the principal spectra are expressed by ab initio calculations for bcc Fe, fcc Co and fcc Ni in optical range as well as in hard and soft x-ray energy range, i.e. at the 2p- and 3p-edges. We also express principal spectra analytically using modified Kubo formula.
Rorrer, Audrey S
This paper describes the approach and process undertaken to develop evaluation capacity among the leaders of a federally funded undergraduate research program. An evaluation toolkit was developed for Computer and Information Sciences and Engineering(1) Research Experiences for Undergraduates(2) (CISE REU) programs to address the ongoing need for evaluation capacity among principal investigators who manage program evaluation. The toolkit was the result of collaboration within the CISE REU community with the purpose being to provide targeted instructional resources and tools for quality program evaluation. Challenges were to balance the desire for standardized assessment with the responsibility to account for individual program contexts. Toolkit contents included instructional materials about evaluation practice, a standardized applicant management tool, and a modulated outcomes measure. Resulting benefits from toolkit deployment were having cost effective, sustainable evaluation tools, a community evaluation forum, and aggregate measurement of key program outcomes for the national program. Lessons learned included the imperative of understanding the evaluation context, engaging stakeholders, and building stakeholder trust. Results from project measures are presented along with a discussion of guidelines for facilitating evaluation capacity building that will serve a variety of contexts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wolfrom, Katy J.
According to Glanz's early research, school principals have been depicted as autocrats, bureaucrats, buffoons, and/or villains in movies from 1950 to 1996. The purpose of this study was to determine if these stereotypical characterizations of school principals have continued in films from 1997-2009, or if more favorable images have emerged that…
Davis, Barbara; Elliott, Karen
Discusses the roles of the director of religious education (DRE) and the school principal at Catholic schools, viewing them as complimentary rather than competitive. Provides examples of positive cooperation between the principal and DRE at Most Pure Heart of Mary Parish, in Shelby, Ohio. (KP)
Gentilucci, James L.; Denti, Lou; Guaglianone, Curtis L.
This study utilizes Symbolic Interactionism to explore perspectives of neophyte principals. Findings explain how these perspectives are modified through complex interactions throughout the school year, and they also suggest preparation programs can help new principals most effectively by teaching "soft" skills such as active listening…
O'Doherty, Ann; Ovando, Martha N.
This qualitative study examined the instructional leadership perceptions of four first-year principals. Findings illuminate five themes drawn from the data: definitions of instructional leadership, challenges that first-year principals faced, how these principals addressed these challenges, how the novice principals plan to enact their…
Full Text Available The importance of the teacher-student relationship in educational practice is well established, as is the idea of principal leadership in relationship to staff. Even though principal leadership is regarded as a factor in student success, the principal’s effect is usually assumed to take place via the teaching staff. There is an absence of research about the “lived experience” of direct principal-student relationships that shed lights on the ways in which these relationships play a role in student success and principal transformation. This paper presents two narratives written about a particular set of principal-student interactions experienced by the researcher (principal and participant (student. The analysis uses a narrative inquiry approach to explore both the individual and collective meanings of this principal-student relationship. The stories and their derived meanings have the potential to enliven and influence educational practice as they explore the subtleties of the principal-student relationship.
Drury, William R.
In existing school-based management models, the principal's role ranges from chairing the local council to being a coach/facilitator. With teachers and parents assuming greater control over governance, curriculum, and budgeting, paranoid principals may establish more formal bargaining relationships with district boards. Caution is advised, because…
"Leadership Standards In Action: The School Principal as Servant-Leader" is a powerful resource for aspiring principals, practicing principals, district leadership, and university faculty. The book responsibly unpacks the metaphor of principal as servant leader to the school's people and purpose. As a framework, the six ISLLC Standards of…
Muhammad Javed Sawati; Saeed Anwar; Muhammad Iqbal Majoka
The main focus of present study was to find out the prevalent leadership styles of principals in government schools of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and to find relationship of leadership styles with qualifications, age and experience of the principals. On the basis of analyzed data, four major leadership styles of the principals were identified as Eclectic, Democratic, Autocratic, and Free-rein. However, a small proportion of the principal had no dominant leadership style. This study shows that princip...
Machado, Lucas J.; Chung, Chia-Jung
There are many factors that influence technology integration in the classroom such as teacher willingness, availability of hardware, and professional development of staff. Taking into account these elements, this paper describes research on technology integration with a focus on principals' attitudes. The role of the principal in classroom…
The Life History approach was used to collect data from six ... experience as the most significant leadership factors that influence principals' ... ranging from their entry into the teaching profession to their appointment as ..... teachers. I think I learnt from my principal to be strict but accommodating ..... Teachers College Press.
This study reports the reflections of grade 6 rural primary principals in Mpumalanga province. A qualitative method of inquiry was used in this article, where data were collected using individual interviews with three principals and focus group discussions with the school management teams (SMTs) of three primary schools.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE is a novel approach in drug use epidemiology which aims to monitor the extent of use of various drugs in a community. In this study, we investigate functional principal component analysis (FPCA as a tool for analysing WBE data and compare it to traditional principal component analysis (PCA and to wavelet principal component analysis (WPCA which is more flexible temporally. Methods We analysed temporal wastewater data from 42 European cities collected daily over one week in March 2013. The main temporal features of ecstasy (MDMA were extracted using FPCA using both Fourier and B-spline basis functions with three different smoothing parameters, along with PCA and WPCA with different mother wavelets and shrinkage rules. The stability of FPCA was explored through bootstrapping and analysis of sensitivity to missing data. Results The first three principal components (PCs, functional principal components (FPCs and wavelet principal components (WPCs explained 87.5-99.6 % of the temporal variation between cities, depending on the choice of basis and smoothing. The extracted temporal features from PCA, FPCA and WPCA were consistent. FPCA using Fourier basis and common-optimal smoothing was the most stable and least sensitive to missing data. Conclusion FPCA is a flexible and analytically tractable method for analysing temporal changes in wastewater data, and is robust to missing data. WPCA did not reveal any rapid temporal changes in the data not captured by FPCA. Overall the results suggest FPCA with Fourier basis functions and common-optimal smoothing parameter as the most accurate approach when analysing WBE data.
Carlos R. McCray
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary school principals’ perceptions of multicultural education in a rural southeastern state. The researchers wanted to ascertain whether or not the race or gender of school principals have a role in how those principals view multicultural education in theory (its theoretical value. For the purpose of this study, multicultural education in theory was defined as the belief that multicultural education is for all students, elevates students’ self-esteem, is embedded in cultural pluralism, and recognizes the social, political, and economic community and societal constructs on students of color (Fernandez, 1996. Three hundred and two secondary school principals were surveyed in a designated southeastern state. A significant difference was discovered with regard to the gender of the school principals and their perceptions of the theoretical value of multicultural education.
Jones, Michelle; Adams, Donnie; Joo, Mabel Tan Hwee; Muniandy, Vasu; Perera, Corinne Jaqueline; Harris, Alma
This article outlines the findings from a contemporary study of principals' leadership practices in Malaysia as part of the 7 System Leadership Study. Recent policy developments within Malaysia have increased principals' accountability and have underlined the importance of the role of the principals in transforming school performance and student…
The classical curvatures of smooth surfaces (Gaussian, mean and principal curvatures) have been widely used in 3D face recognition (FR). However, facial surfaces resulting from 3D sensors are discrete meshes. In this paper, we present a general framework and define three principal curvatures on discrete surfaces for the purpose of 3D FR. These principal curvatures are derived from the construction of asymptotic cones associated to any Borel subset of the discrete surface. They describe the local geometry of the underlying mesh. First two of them correspond to the classical principal curvatures in the smooth case. We isolate the third principal curvature that carries out meaningful geometric shape information. The three principal curvatures in different Borel subsets scales give multi-scale local facial surface descriptors. We combine the proposed principal curvatures with the LNP-based facial descriptor and SRC for recognition. The identification and verification experiments demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the third principal curvature and the fusion of multi-scale Borel subset descriptors on 3D face from FRGC v2.0.
Tang, Yinhang; Sun, Xiang; Huang, Di; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Wang, Yunhong; Chen, Liming
The classical curvatures of smooth surfaces (Gaussian, mean and principal curvatures) have been widely used in 3D face recognition (FR). However, facial surfaces resulting from 3D sensors are discrete meshes. In this paper, we present a general framework and define three principal curvatures on discrete surfaces for the purpose of 3D FR. These principal curvatures are derived from the construction of asymptotic cones associated to any Borel subset of the discrete surface. They describe the local geometry of the underlying mesh. First two of them correspond to the classical principal curvatures in the smooth case. We isolate the third principal curvature that carries out meaningful geometric shape information. The three principal curvatures in different Borel subsets scales give multi-scale local facial surface descriptors. We combine the proposed principal curvatures with the LNP-based facial descriptor and SRC for recognition. The identification and verification experiments demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the third principal curvature and the fusion of multi-scale Borel subset descriptors on 3D face from FRGC v2.0.
Full Text Available This study investigates variability of tomato genotypes based on morphological and biochemical fruit traits. Experimental material is a part of tomato genetic collection from Institute of Filed and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Serbia. Genotypes were analyzed for fruit mass, locule number, index of fruit shape, fruit colour, dry matter content, total sugars, total acidity, lycopene and vitamin C. Minimum, maximum and average values and main indicators of variability (CV and σ were calculated. Principal component analysis was performed to determinate variability source structure. Four principal components, which contribute 93.75% of the total variability, were selected for analysis. The first principal component is defined by vitamin C, locule number and index of fruit shape. The second component is determined by dry matter content, and total acidity, the third by lycopene, fruit mass and fruit colour. Total sugars had the greatest part in the fourth component.
Sontz, Stephen Bruce
This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles. While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.
Spillane, James P.; Camburn, Eric M.; Pareja, Amber Stitziel
Focusing on the school principal's day-to-day work, we examine who leads curriculum and instruction- and administration-related activities when the school principal is not leading but participating in the activity. We also explore the prevalence of coperformance of management and leadership activities in the school principal's workday. Looking…
The importance of principal preparation in special education has increased since the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was passed in 1975. There are significant financial reasons for preparing principals in the area of special education. Recent research also shows that all children learn better in an inclusive environment. Principals who…
Gardiner, Mary E.; Enomoto, Ernestine K.
This study focuses on the role of urban school principals as multicultural leaders. Using cross-case analysis, the authors describe what 6 practicing principals do in regard to multicultural leadership. The findings suggest that although multicultural preparation was lacking for these principals, some did engage in work that promoted diversity in…
Kimball, Steven M.
Being a principal is more than just being an instructional leader. Principals also must manage their schools' teaching talent in a strategic way so that it is linked to school instructional improvement strategies, to the competencies needed to enact the strategies, and to success in boosting student learning. Teacher acquisition and performance…
Hsiao, Hsi-Chi; Lee, Ming-Chao; Tu, Ya-Ling
Deregulation has formed the primary core of education reform in Taiwan in the past decade. The principal selection system was one of the specific recommendations in the deregulation of education. The method of designation of senior high school principals has changed from being "appointed" to being "selected." The issue as to…
Denton, Edward A.
Increased uses of educational technology by students and teachers in recent years have compelled elementary principals to expand educational technology resources and replace educational technology resources at the end of it's service life. The purpose of this study was to investigate strategies and practices employed by elementary principals…
Briggs, Derek C.; Dadey, Nathan
Results from a sample of 1,013 Georgia principals who rated 12,617 teachers are used to compare holistic and analytic principal judgments with indicators of student growth central to the state's teacher evaluation system. Holistic principal judgments were compared to mean student growth percentiles (MGPs) and analytic judgments from a formal…
Mitchell, Cathryn M.
The purpose of this study was to determine job satisfaction levels of elementary principals in "major urban" districts in Texas and to identify strategies these principals used to cope with the demands of the position. Additionally, the project sought to find structures and supports needed to attract and retain principals in the…
Mehdinezhad, Vali; Sardarzahi, Zaid
This paper aims at studying the leadership behaviors reported by principals and observed by teachers and its relationship with management experience of principals. A quantitative method was used in this study. The target population included all principals and teachers of guidance schools and high schools in the Dashtiari District, Iran. A sample…
Persoon, ACM; Van den Ouweland, JMW; Wilde, J; Kema, IP; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Links, TP
Background: Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements are important in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We evaluated the analytical and clinical performance of a new automated immunochemiluminometric assay for Tg (Tg-ICMA; Nichols Advantage Tg; Nichols Institute
Quant C; Fischer P; Buringh E; Ameling C; Houthuijs D; Cassee F; MGO
We investigated whether cause-specific daily mortality can be attributed to specific sources of air pollution. To construct indicators of source-specific air pollution, we applied a principal component analysis (PCA) on routinely collected air pollution data in the Netherlands during the period
Escalante, Karen Elizabeth
This study applies transformational leadership theory practices, specifically inspiring a shared vision, modeling the way and enabling others to act to examine the purposeful ways in which principals work to build the next generation of teacher leaders in response to the dearth of K-12 principals. The purpose of this study was to discover how one…
Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Jank, Wolfgang S
We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions.
Full Text Available Although principals are ultimately held accountable to student learning in their buildings, the most consistent research results have suggested that their impact on student achievement is largely indirect. Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi proposed four paths through which this indirect influence would flow, and the purpose of this special issue is to examine in greater depth these mediating variables. Among mediating variables, we assert that trust is key. In this paper, we explore the evidence that points to the role that faculty trust in the principal plays in student learning and how principals can cultivate trust by attending to the five facets of trust, as well as the correlates of trust that mediate student learning, including academic press, collective teacher efficacy, and teacher professionalism. We argue that trust plays a role in each of the four paths identified by Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi. Finally, we explore possible new directions for future research.
Abrahamsen, Hedvig; Aas, Marit; Hellekjaer, Glenn Ole
A growing body of research has emphasised the importance of school leadership practice for quality improvement in schools. Yet, little attention has been paid to the investigation of how principals reshape their leadership role and leadership practices when schools reorganise the leadership team with the purpose of increasing the number of…
Mehdinezhad, Vali; Mansouri, Masoumeh
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between school principals' leadership behaviours and teachers' sense of self-efficacy. The research method was descriptive and correlational. A sample size of 254 teachers was simply selected randomly by proportional sampling. For data collection, the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale of…
Echterhoff, Siegfried; Nest, Ryszard; Oyono-Oyono, Herve
of bivariant K-theory (denoted RKK-theory) due to Kasparov. Using earlier results of Echterhoff and Williams, we shall give a complete classification of principal non-commutative torus bundles up to equivariant Morita equivalence. We then study these bundles as topological fibrations (forgetting the group...
... existing AD, which requires an inspection to determine if certain motor operated valve (MOV) actuators for... CONTACT: Rebel Nichols, Aerospace Engineer, Propulsion Branch, ANM-140S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft... inspection to determine if certain MOV actuators for the fuel tanks are installed, and related investigative...
Nobi, Ashadun; Alam, Shafiqul; Lee, Jae Woo
This study investigates financial states and group dynamics by applying principal component analysis to the cross-correlation coefficients of the daily returns of commodity futures. The eigenvalues of the cross-correlation matrix in the 6-month timeframe displays similar values during 2010-2011, but decline following 2012. A sharp drop in eigenvalue implies the significant change of the market state. Three commodity sectors, energy, metals and agriculture, are projected into two dimensional spaces consisting of two principal components (PC). We observe that they form three distinct clusters in relation to various sectors. However, commodities with distinct features have intermingled with one another and scattered during severe crises, such as the European sovereign debt crises. We observe the notable change of the position of two dimensional spaces of groups during financial crises. By considering the first principal component (PC1) within the 6-month moving timeframe, we observe that commodities of the same group change states in a similar pattern, and the change of states of one group can be used as a warning for other group.
Malmquist, Linus M.V.; Olsen, Rasmus R.; Hansen, Asger B.
weathering state and to distinguish between various weathering processes is investigated and discussed. The method is based on comprehensive and objective chromatographic data processing followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of concatenated sections of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry...
Full Text Available To overcome the shortcomings of traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms, incremental tensor principal component analysis (ITPCA based on updated-SVD technique algorithm is proposed in this paper. This paper proves the relationship between PCA, 2DPCA, MPCA, and the graph embedding framework theoretically and derives the incremental learning procedure to add single sample and multiple samples in detail. The experiments on handwritten digit recognition have demonstrated that ITPCA has achieved better recognition performance than that of vector-based principal component analysis (PCA, incremental principal component analysis (IPCA, and multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA algorithms. At the same time, ITPCA also has lower time and space complexity.
... Logging, Lone Rock Contracting, Mawdsley Logging, Mccuen Jones, San Poil Logging, Scott Thorndike, Silver... McCuen Jones, San Poil Logging, Scott Thorndike, Silver Nichol Trucking and Stensgar Logging were... Logging, Scott Thorndike, Silver Nichol Trucking and Stensgar Logging, Omak, Washington, who became...
Atkinson, Ronald E., Jr.
This study examined the extent to which the role of the assistant principal is perceived to include instructional leadership behaviors. Specifically, this study compared the perceptions of instructional leadership practices of elementary, middle, and high school assistant principals from the perspectives of assistant principals, principals, and…
Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal component analysis of trace contaminants in a slightly polluted seasonal river: a case study of the Arenales River (Salta, Argentina) ... Keywords: trace element contamination, water quality, principal component analysis, Arenales River, Salta, Argentina ...
Bickmore, Dana L.; Sulentic Dowell, Margaret-Mary
This comparative case (Merriam, 2009) study explored two charter school principals' engagement in instructional leadership. Analysis of three data sources--interviews, observations, and documents--revealed that principals were almost exclusively focused on state accountability and possessed limited knowledge of pedagogical practices. In…
Globally, education systems have been affected by radical social, political and economic changes. Although school principals play a pivotal role in improving student learning and attaining educational outcomes, they work under strenuous conditions to deal with multifaceted transformational issues. Principals experience ...
Full Text Available One of the fundamental concerns in education is the management and the improvement of principals and teachers’ performance where selecting intelligent and capable managers can help solve many of present challenges and problems. Various researches conducted so far indicate that commonly the effective principals enjoy some of the essential multiple intelligences. In the present study, the relationship between the three types of Maneh & Semelqan high school principals and teachers’ intelligences, namely, intrapersonal intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, and verbal/linguistic intelligence and the strategic thinking skills was investigated. The research method was descriptive-correlational and the population consisted of 200 subjects of whom 127 were randomly selected. After assigning the subjects to the investigation, 127 questionnaires were distributed among them. Two standard questionnaires of multiple intelligences and strategic thinking skills were administered where Cronbach’s Alpha for the multiple intelligences was 0.893 and that of the strategic thinking skills was 0.944. To analyze the data, the researchers used the SPSS19 package and the EXCELL2013. The frequency distribution tabulation was organized by using descriptive statistics and the Pearson correlation test was based on the inferential statistics employed in the present study. At the end, the findings of study indicated that there was a significant relationship between high school principals and teachers’ multiple intelligences and their strategic thinking skills.
Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,
Moriarty, Margaret E.
This mixed-methods study was designed to determine how principals perceived the ethicality of sanctions for students engaged in sexting behavior relative to the race/ethnicity and gender of the student. Personality traits of the principals were surveyed to determine if Openness and/or Conscientiousness would predict principal response. Sexting is…
Sarikaya, Nuray; Erdogan, Çetin
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between the instructional leadership behaviors of high school principals and teachers' perceptions of organizational commitment and to test the extent to which instructional leadership behaviors predict organizational commitment. The study is designed in relational method. The…
Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.
An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.
Gajjar, Shriram; Kulahci, Murat; Palazoglu, Ahmet
Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely used for data dimension reduction and process fault detection. However, interpreting the principal components and the outcomes of PCA-based monitoring techniques is a challenging task since each principal component is a linear combination of the ...
Full Text Available In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa, this paper highlights four overarching characteristics of this market with implications for informing principal policy reforms. The paper notes that improving the design and implementation of policies guiding the appointment process for principals is a matter of urgency. A substantial and increasing number of principal replacements are taking place across South African schools given a rising age profile of school principals. In a context of low levels of principal mobility and high tenure, the leadership trajectory of the average school is established for nearly a decade with each principal replacement. Evidence-based policy making has a strong role to play in getting this right.
Lin, Chia-Fen; Lee, John Chi-Kin
The role of a principal's curriculum leadership has become an educational issue in Taiwan's early childhood education. This study represents a pioneering attempt in adopting a target school interview, fuzzy Delphi, and analytic hierarchy process for constructing preschool principal's curriculum leadership indicators. Fifteen experts and…
This paper studies a principal-agent relationship with moral hazard in which the principal or the supervisor can monitor the agent's hidden action by using identical monitoring technologies. The paper shows that delegation of monitoring to the supervisor is profitable because of two effects. With
Shen, Ji; Gerard, Libby; Bowyer, Jane
In this study we investigate how federal and state policy makers, and school principals are working to improve science teacher quality. Interviews, focused discussions, and policy documents serve as the primary data source. Findings suggest that both policy makers and principals prioritize increasing incentives for teachers entering the science teaching profession, providing professional development for new teachers, and using students’ data to evaluate and improve instruction. Differences between the two leadership groups emerged in terms of the grain size and practicality of their concerns. Our findings indicate that the complexity of educational challenges to improve science teacher quality call for the co-construction of policy by multiple constituent groups including school principals, federal and state policy makers, and science education researchers.
The aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between the leadership styles of principals and organizational citizenship behaviors of teachers according to teachers' perceptions. In this research, a relational survey model was used. Data for the research were obtained from 1,723 teachers working in public and private schools which were subject to Ministry of National Education in the Kadikoy district of Istanbul province in 2014. In this research, data were collected...
Full Text Available This research aims to determine the manner of school principals regarding knowledge managementin primary school education. The research is a subjective one conducted in general scanning method. Personal informationform and five-likert scale are the main means in which data was collected. During the data collection stage, school principalswere requested to provide information about the way in which they obtain, share, process, evaluate knowledge, take decisionand analyze problems within the scope of knowledge management. In the virtue of the data acquired, the research shows that;the school principals obtain knowledge by attending meetings with teachers, making personal observation, their personalexperience and online resources. Regarding the sharing of knowledge, the research shows the principals always shareknowledge with their assistant principals and teachers; in using of knowledge, decision making and analyzing problemsresearch also shows that principals take decisions in co-operation with assistant principals and teachers. Last but not least,research shows that in storing the knowledge principals mainly use computers and traditional filing techniques. Seminarsshould be organized periodically by specialists with respect to acquiring, sharing, using and also filling knowledge followingdecision-making in order for school administrators to keep abreast of the latest developments in knowledge management
Brubaker, Dale L.
The life stories of (North Carolina) principals in a graduate education class reveal vast changes over the past 20 years. "Good ol' boy" superintendents and principals have been replaced by self-interested political "sharks" concerned more with image than substance. Fortunately, principals with resiliency, caring values, and…
Delreux, Tom; Adriaensen, J.
This book assesses the use and limitations of the principal-agent model in a context of increasingly complex political systems such as the European Union. Whilst a number of conceptual, theoretical and methodological challenges need to be addressed, the authors show that the principal-agent model
Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed
This qualitative study analyzes the career path narratives of active principals. Structural narrative analysis was supplemented with sociolinguistic theory and thematic narrative analysis to discern the similarities and differences, as well as the patterns in the language used by participating principals. Thematic analysis found four major themes…
Roberts, Maria Banda; Guerra, Federico R., Jr.
With the "Every Student Succeeds Act" continuing to legislate accountability for special education and Hispanic students, the appropriate content in principal preparation programs relevant to successful leadership of special education programs is vital. This mixed methods study analyzed the survey responses of 84 principals in South…
Abdullah, Jamelaa Bibi; Kassim, Jainabee
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the learning environment in schools that influence teaching and learning. Design/methodology/approach: A study was conducted using the Instructional Leadership Model to compare principal practices of instructional leaders in the Islamic Religious Secondary Schools and Islamic Religious Schools…
The role a principal plays in school improvement has evolved over time. The transition from principal as manager to principal as instructional leader began with and was driven in large part by the effective schools movement of the 1970's and 1980's (Hallinger, 2003; Zigarelli, 1996). Since the inception of NCLB in 2001, the leader's role in…
Norman, Alexis Cienfuegos
The purpose of this study was to understand the decisions elementary principals have made during the Common Core State Standards reform. Specifically, (a) what decisions principals have made to support Common Core implementation, (b) what strategies elementary principals have employed to communicate with stakeholders about Common Core State…
Bunzmann, Christoph; Urbanczik, Robert; Biehl, Michael
A training algorithm for multilayer perceptrons is discussed and studied in detail, which relates to the technique of principal component analysis. The latter is performed with respect to a correlation matrix computed from the example inputs and their target outputs. Typical properties of the training procedure are investigated by means of a statistical physics analysis in models of learning regression and classification tasks. We demonstrate that the procedure requires by far fewer examples for good generalization than traditional online training. For networks with a large number of hidden units we derive the training prescription which achieves, within our model, the optimal generalization behavior
Principal leadership has been identified as the key to successful implementation of inclusive education for students with disabilities. Prospective principals require knowledge, skills, and dispositions to equip them to work with key stakeholders to initiate and sustain inclusive practices within their schools. The purpose of this action research…
Fischer, M. J.
There are many different methods for investigating the coupling between two climate fields, which are all based on the multivariate regression model. Each different method of solving the multivariate model has its own attractive characteristics, but often the suitability of a particular method for a particular problem is not clear. Continuum regression methods search the solution space between the conventional methods and thus can find regression model subspaces that mix the attractive characteristics of the end-member subspaces. Principal covariates regression is a continuum regression method that is easily applied to climate fields and makes use of two end-members: principal components regression and redundancy analysis. In this study, principal covariates regression is extended to additionally span a third end-member (partial least squares or maximum covariance analysis). The new method, regularized principal covariates regression, has several attractive features including the following: it easily applies to problems in which the response field has missing values or is temporally sparse, it explores a wide range of model spaces, and it seeks a model subspace that will, for a set number of components, have a predictive skill that is the same or better than conventional regression methods. The new method is illustrated by applying it to the problem of predicting the southern Australian winter rainfall anomaly field using the regional atmospheric pressure anomaly field. Regularized principal covariates regression identifies four major coupled patterns in these two fields. The two leading patterns, which explain over half the variance in the rainfall field, are related to the subtropical ridge and features of the zonally asymmetric circulation.
S. Helwig Rob Mahoney Joshua A. Minix David J. Nicholls Paul H. Richanbach Robert W. Thomas Laura M. Williams Approved for public release...Helwig Rob Mahoney Joshua A. Minix David J. Nicholls Paul H. Richanbach Robert W. Thomas Laura M. Williams iii PREFACE The Institute for Defense
Zirkel, Perry A.
Defamation is a common-law claim for liability that encompasses "libel," which is the written form, and "slander," which is the oral form. School principals can be plaintiffs or defendants in defamation suits. Relevant case law provides illustrations of the various elements of defamation for both roles of the principal. Court…
Roberts, Maria B.; Guerra, Federico, Jr.
This mixed methods study used a survey by Frost and Kersten to answer the following questions: (a) Do principals of predominantly Hispanic schools perceive themselves as having adequate knowledge in special education? (b) Which areas are these principals most involved in with special education teachers? (c) What suggestions do these principals…
Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors associated with occupational stress and job satisfaction among Irish primary school principals. A principal's job has become increasingly demanding and complex in recent decades. However, there is little current research into their levels of stress and job satisfaction, particularly…
Range, Bret; Hewitt, Paul; Young, Suzie
This descriptive study used an online survey to determine how principals in two states viewed the supervision of marginal teachers. Principals ranked their own evaluation of the teacher as the most important factor when identifying marginal teachers and relied on informal methods to diagnose marginal teaching. Female principals rated a majority of…
Chithambo, M.L.; Ogundare, F.O.; Feathers, J.
Time-resolved luminescence spectra from quartz can be separated into components with distinct principal and secondary lifetimes depending on certain combinations of annealing and measurement temperature. The influence of annealing on properties of the lifetimes related to irradiation dose and temperature of measurement has been investigated in sedimentary quartz annealed at various temperatures up to 900 deg. C. Time-resolved luminescence for use in the analysis was pulse stimulated from samples at 470 nm between 20 and 200 deg. C. Luminescence lifetimes decrease with measurement temperature due to increasing thermal effect on the associated luminescence with an activation energy of thermal quenching equal to 0.68±0.01eV for the secondary lifetime but only qualitatively so for the principal lifetime component. Concerning the influence of annealing temperature, luminescence lifetimes measured at 20 deg. C are constant at about 33μs for annealing temperatures up to 600 0 C but decrease to about 29μs when the annealing temperature is increased to 900 deg. C. In addition, it was found that lifetime components in samples annealed at 800 deg. C are independent of radiation dose in the range 85-1340 Gy investigated. The dependence of lifetimes on both the annealing temperature and magnitude of radiation dose is described as being due to the increasing importance of a particular recombination centre in the luminescence emission process as a result of dynamic hole transfer between non-radiative and radiative luminescence centres
Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of. 211 teachers, 28 principals and 22 chairpersons of parent- teachers association. Data were ..... their role expectation in discipline management. Data from the 20 ...
The importance of the teacher-student relationship in educational practice is well established, as is the idea of principal leadership in relationship to staff. Even though principal leadership is regarded as a factor in student success, the principal's effect is usually assumed to take place via the teaching staff. There is an absence of research…
Jackson, K. A'jaydin
The purpose of this research study was to examine principals' leadership styles and how and what extent it impacted teachers' job satisfaction. Principals' leadership styles were examined by middle and high school teachers' perceptions. This study drew from 10 middle and 10 high schools in a large school district located in Texas. Participants…
Méndez-Morse, Sylvia; Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Byrne-Jiménez, Mónica; Hernandez, Frank
This article is based on a national survey of Latina/o principals and assistant principals conducted by the National Latina/o Leadership Project and focuses on the women participants. Included is a description of Latinas' leadership experiences, their career paths, and the influence of racial/ethnic identity on their leadership practice. The…
Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Hernandez, Frank; Mendez-Morse, Sylvia; Byrne-Jimenez, Monica
This study sought to further define and inform about the influence of Latina/o principals in schools as an alternative to traditional forms of leadership. The principals' Latina/o identity, their leadership styles and advocacy towards the improvement of student achievement were examined. This research focused on three questions: (a) How did…
They may never grace the pages of The Wall Street Journal or Fortune magazine, but they might possibly be the most important CEOs in our country. They are elementary school principals. Each of them typically serves the learning needs of 350-400 clients (students) while overseeing a multimillion-dollar facility staffed by 20-25 teachers and 10-15…
Markovich Slobodan G.
Full Text Available The paper deals with Western (Anglo-American views on the Sarajevo assassination/attentat and Gavrilo Princip. Articles on the assassination and Princip in two leading quality dailies (The Times and The New York Times have particularly been analysed as well as the views of leading historians and journalists who covered the subject including: R. G. D. Laffan, R. W. Seton-Watson, Winston Churchill, Sidney Fay, Bernadotte Schmitt, Rebecca West, A. J. P. Taylor, Vladimir Dedijer, Christopher Clark and Tim Butcher. In the West, the original general condemnation of the assassination and its main culprits was challenged when Rebecca West published her famous travelogue on Yugoslavia in 1941. Another Brit, the remarkable historian A. J. P. Taylor, had a much more positive view on the Sarajevo conspirators and blamed Germany and Austria-Hungary for the outbreak of the Great War. A turning point in Anglo-American perceptions was the publication of Vladimir Dedijer’s monumental book The Road to Sarajevo (1966, which humanised the main conspirators, a process initiated by R. West. Dedijer’s book was translated from English into all major Western languages and had an immediate impact on the understanding of the Sarajevo assassination. The rise of national antagonisms in Bosnia gradually alienated Princip from Bosnian Muslims and Croats, a process that began in the 1980s and was completed during the wars of the Yugoslav succession. Although all available sources clearly show that Princip, an ethnic Serb, gradually developed a broader Serbo-Croat and Yugoslav identity, he was ethnified and seen exclusively as a Serb by Bosnian Croats and Bosniaks and Western journalists in the 1990s. In the past century imagining Princip in Serbia and the West involved a whole spectrum of views. In interwar Anglo-American perceptions he was a fanatic and lunatic. He became humanised by Rebecca West (1941, A. J. P. Taylor showed understanding for his act (1956, he was fully
Suryanarayana, T M V
This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...
The aim of this study is to determine the primary and high school principals' competency in technology leadership and so to define implications for advanced competency. The population of the study was formed by 134 school principals in Maltepe and Kadikoy districts in Istanbul. On account of the fact that population was reachable, no specific…
Hord, Shirley M.; Thurber, John C.
Recent research has shown that, to exercise more effective leadership, principals need to match their behaviors with the appropriate needs and concerns of teachers. Concepts and tools from work done by the Research on Concerns-Based Adoption Project at the Austin campus of the University of Texas were employed to provide principals in the Palm…
Rieckhoff, Barbara Stacy
This article describes the Catholic School Principal Support Program (CSPSP), a mentoring program for first and second-year Catholic school principals in a large urban diocese, and identifies key challenges, impacts and influences on decision-making. Ten school leaders describe their work and provide the lens by which they reflect on their role as…
McCullers, J. F.; Bozeman, William
This study examined how self-efficacy beliefs might be used to inform leadership regarding accountability. A survey of principals was used to investigate the degree to which they believed the goals of federal and state school measures were actually attainable, and to what degree they believed their leadership helped achieve these goals. The…
A 1st-year principal encounters homonegativity and an ethical dilemma when she attempts to terminate a teacher because of the teacher's inadequate and ineffective teaching. The teacher responds by threatening to "out" Ms. L. to the parents.
Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Shokoohi, Zainab
The objective of this paper is to investigate the co-movement of food prices and the macroeconomic index, especially the oil price, by principal component analysis to further understand the influence of the macroeconomic index on food prices. We examined the food prices of seven major products: eggs, meat, milk, oilseeds, rice, sugar and wheat. The macroeconomic variables studied were crude oil prices, consumer price indexes, food production indexes and GDP around the world between 1961 and 2005. We use the Scree test and the proportion of variance method for determining the optimal number of common factors. The correlation coefficient between the extracted principal component and the macroeconomic index varies between 0.87 for the world GDP and 0.36 for the consumer price index. We find the food production index has the greatest influence on the macroeconomic index and that the oil price index has an influence on the food production index. Consequently, crude oil prices have an indirect effect on food prices. - Research Highlights: →We investigate the co-movement of food prices and the macroeconomic index. →The crude oil price has indirect effect on the world GDP via its impacts on food production index. →The food production index is the source of causation for CPI and GDP is affected by CPI. →The results confirm an indirect effect among oil price, food price principal component.
Hsieh, Chuan-Chung; Yen, Hung-Chin; Kuan, Liu-Yen
This study empirically investigates the relationships among principals' technology leadership, teaching innovations, and students' academic optimism by surveying elementary school educators across Taiwan. Of the total 1,080 questionnaires distributed, 755 valid surveys were returned for a 69.90% return rate. Teachers were asked to indicate the…
Hess, Itay; Zamir, Sara
The main goal of this study was to determine whether, in schools that practice inclusion, there is a correlation between the attitudes of school principals and teachers in their schools, towards inclusion of student with special needs. For this purpose, 38 schools were sampled in each of which the school principal and five teachers who work with…
Ma, Jianzhong; Amos, Christopher I
Despite the significant advances made over the last few years in mapping inversions with the advent of paired-end sequencing approaches, our understanding of the prevalence and spectrum of inversions in the human genome has lagged behind other types of structural variants, mainly due to the lack of a cost-efficient method applicable to large-scale samples. We propose a novel method based on principal components analysis (PCA) to characterize inversion polymorphisms using high-density SNP genotype data. Our method applies to non-recurrent inversions for which recombination between the inverted and non-inverted segments in inversion heterozygotes is suppressed due to the loss of unbalanced gametes. Inside such an inversion region, an effect similar to population substructure is thus created: two distinct "populations" of inversion homozygotes of different orientations and their 1:1 admixture, namely the inversion heterozygotes. This kind of substructure can be readily detected by performing PCA locally in the inversion regions. Using simulations, we demonstrated that the proposed method can be used to detect and genotype inversion polymorphisms using unphased genotype data. We applied our method to the phase III HapMap data and inferred the inversion genotypes of known inversion polymorphisms at 8p23.1 and 17q21.31. These inversion genotypes were validated by comparing with literature results and by checking Mendelian consistency using the family data whenever available. Based on the PCA-approach, we also performed a preliminary genome-wide scan for inversions using the HapMap data, which resulted in 2040 candidate inversions, 169 of which overlapped with previously reported inversions. Our method can be readily applied to the abundant SNP data, and is expected to play an important role in developing human genome maps of inversions and exploring associations between inversions and susceptibility of diseases.
Ratna Sari, Eminugroho; Insani, Nur; Lestari, Dwi
Behaviour analysis for host-vector model without control of dengue disease is based on the value of basic reproduction number obtained using next generation matrices. Furthermore, the model is further developed involving a preventive control to minimize the contact between host and vector. The purpose is to obtain an optimal preventive strategy with minimal cost. The Pontryagin Minimum Principal is used to find the optimal control analytically. The derived optimality model is then solved numerically to investigate control effort to reduce infected class.
Enrique Javier Diez Gutierrez
Full Text Available Abstract Spanish schools are characterised by having a high proportion of female staff. However, statistics show that a proportionately higher number of men hold leadership positions. The aim of this study was to analyse the reasons why this is so, and to determine the motivations and barriers that women encounter in attaining and exercising these positions of greater responsibility and power. Questionnaires were administered to 2,022 female teachers, 430 female principals and 322 male principals. In addition, semi-structured interviews were held with 60 female principals, 14 focus group discussions were held with female principals and 16 autobiographical narratives were compiled with female principals and school inspectors. The reasons identified were related to structural aspects linked to the patriarchal worldview that is still dominant in our society and culture. Nevertheless, we also found motivations among women for attaining and exercising leadership roles.
Gordon, Lynn Melby
Should principals enforce mandatory separation of twins in kindergarten? Do school separation beliefs of principals differ from those of teachers, parents of twins, and twins themselves? This survey questioned 131 elementary principals, 54 kindergarten teachers, 201 parents of twins, and 112 twins. A majority of principals (71%) believed that…
... sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. Applicants: Principal Management Corporation (``PMC''), Principal... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 30692; 812-14136] Principal Management Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application September 20, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...
We develop a new principal components analysis (PCA) type dimension reduction method for binary data. Different from the standard PCA which is defined on the observed data, the proposed PCA is defined on the logit transform of the success probabilities of the binary observations. Sparsity is introduced to the principal component (PC) loading vectors for enhanced interpretability and more stable extraction of the principal components. Our sparse PCA is formulated as solving an optimization problem with a criterion function motivated from a penalized Bernoulli likelihood. A Majorization-Minimization algorithm is developed to efficiently solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed sparse logistic PCA method is illustrated by application to a single nucleotide polymorphism data set and a simulation study. © Institute ol Mathematical Statistics, 2010.
Full Text Available The critical plane calculation for multiaxial damage assessment is often a demanding task, particularly for large FEM models of real components. Anyway, in actual engineering requests, sometime, it is possible to take advantage of the specific properties of the investigated case. This paper deals with the problem of a mechanical component loaded by multiple, but “time-separated”, multiaxial external loads. The specific material damage is dependent from the max principal stress variation with a significant mean stress sensitivity too. A specifically fitted procedure was developed for a fast computation, at each node of a large FEM model, of the direction undergoing the maximum fatigue damage; the procedure is defined according to an effective stress definition based on the max principal stress amplitude and mean value. The procedure is presented in a general form, applicable to the similar cases.
The principal-agent literature has focussed on situations where both principal and agent are assumed to be capable of defining and defending their own interests. The principal-agent literature has thus ignored an important set of cases where the principal is incapable of acting on her own behalf, and so is assigned an agent by law or custom. Such cases account for around 40% of humanity and for a similarly substantial proportion of all principal-agent interactions. This paper applies principa...
Álvarez-Cónsul, Luis; Biswas, Indranil; García-Prada, Oscar
Let P be a parabolic subgroup of a connected simply connected complex semisimple Lie group G. Given a compact Kähler manifold X, the dimensional reduction of G-equivariant holomorphic vector bundles over X × G / P was carried out in Álvarez-Cónsul and García-Prada (2003). This raises the question of dimensional reduction of holomorphic principal bundles over X × G / P. The method of Álvarez-Cónsul and García-Prada (2003) is special to vector bundles; it does not generalize to principal bundles. In this paper, we adapt to equivariant principal bundles the Tannakian approach of Nori, to describe the dimensional reduction of G-equivariant principal bundles over X × G / P, and to establish a Hitchin-Kobayashi type correspondence. In order to be able to apply the Tannakian theory, we need to assume that X is a complex projective manifold.
Martinez, Josue G.
The authors consider the analysis of hierarchical longitudinal functional data based upon a functional principal components approach. In contrast to standard frequentist approaches to selecting the number of principal components, the authors do model averaging using a Bayesian formulation. A relatively straightforward reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo formulation has poor mixing properties and in simulated data often becomes trapped at the wrong number of principal components. In order to overcome this, the authors show how to apply Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) to this problem, a method that has the potential to explore the entire space and does not become trapped in local extrema. The combination of reversible jump methods and SAMC in hierarchical longitudinal functional data is simplified by a polar coordinate representation of the principal components. The approach is easy to implement and does well in simulated data in determining the distribution of the number of principal components, and in terms of its frequentist estimation properties. Empirical applications are also presented.
Abstract Background Data from metabolomic studies are typically complex and high-dimensional. Principal component analysis (PCA) is currently the most widely used statistical technique for analyzing metabolomic data. However, PCA is limited by the fact that it is not based on a statistical model. Results Here, probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA) which addresses some of the limitations of PCA, is reviewed and extended. A novel extension of PPCA, called probabilistic principal component and covariates analysis (PPCCA), is introduced which provides a flexible approach to jointly model metabolomic data and additional covariate information. The use of a mixture of PPCA models for discovering the number of inherent groups in metabolomic data is demonstrated. The jackknife technique is employed to construct confidence intervals for estimated model parameters throughout. The optimal number of principal components is determined through the use of the Bayesian Information Criterion model selection tool, which is modified to address the high dimensionality of the data. Conclusions The methods presented are illustrated through an application to metabolomic data sets. Jointly modeling metabolomic data and covariates was successfully achieved and has the potential to provide deeper insight to the underlying data structure. Examination of confidence intervals for the model parameters, such as loadings, allows for principled and clear interpretation of the underlying data structure. A software package called MetabolAnalyze, freely available through the R statistical software, has been developed to facilitate implementation of the presented methods in the metabolomics field.
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What kind of lifestyle do the principals and entrepreneurs lead? Does the lifestyle of principals and entrepreneurs influence burnout? Purpose: To find out, based on the results of a questionnaire, what kind of lifestyle both researched groups lead. Does lifestyle have an influence on the occurrence of the phenomenon of burnout. Method: We used the method of data collection by questionnaire. Acquired data were analyzed using SPSS, descriptive and inference statistics. Results: Results showed, that both groups lead a similar lifestyle and that lifestyle influences burnout with principals, as well as entrepreneurs. Organization: School principals and entrepreneurs are the heads of individual organizations or companies, the goal of which is success. To be successful in their work, they must adapt their lifestyle, which can be healthy or unhealthy. If their lifestyle is unhealthy, it can lead to burnout. Society: With results of the questionnaire we would like to answer the question about the lifestyle of both groups and its influence on the occurrence of burnout. Originality: The study of lifestyle and the occurrence of burnout in these two groups is the first study in this area. Limitations/Future Research: In continuation, research groups could be submitted to the research fields of effort physiology and tracking of certain haematological parameters, such as cholesterol, blood sugar and stress hormones - adrenaline, noradrenalin, cortisol. Thus, we could carry out an even more in depth research of the connection between lifestyle and burnout.
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal place of business of partnership. 301... Principal place of business of partnership. (a) In general. The principal place of a partnership's business... partnership items may be filed is its principal place of business as of the date the petition is filed. (b...
Prytula, Michelle; Noonan, Brian; Hellsten, Laurie
This paper describes a study of the perceptions that Saskatchewan school principals have regarding large-scale assessment reform and their perceptions of how assessment reform has affected their roles as principals. The findings revealed that large-scale assessments, especially provincial assessments, have affected the principal in Saskatchewan…
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent secondary assistant principals in large Texas high schools demonstrate behaviors consistent with what the literature describes as instructional leadership. Three hundred seventy principals and assistant principals of large Texas high schools participated in this study. The Principal…
In recent decades, economic analysis has been extended to situations in which there are important asymmetries of information between actors. One important class of these situations are principal-agent relationships, in which one party, the agent, acts on behalf of the other, the principal. In such situations of incomplete and asymmetric information (in which the agent may be better informed than the principal), is it possible to devise mechanisms to ensure that the agent acts in the best interests of the principal? How can we construct relationships so that physicians act in the best interests of patients, lawyer in the best interests of their clients, or public officials in the best interests of their constituents?
Gender and Behaviour ... women have managed curriculum implementation in secondary schools in order to inform both policy makers, school principals and scholars of gender studies about good practices from ... The study found that: One, these principals possessed social skills, such as warmth and strong relationships.
This paper describes a principal-agent relationship with a supervisor who has information about the agent. The agent and the supervisor have the possibility to collude and misinform the principal. From the literature we know that there exists an optimal contract which excludes collusion in
In multivariate data analysis, regression techniques predict one set of variables from another while principal component analysis (PCA) finds a subspace of minimal dimensionality that captures the largest variability in the data. How can regression analysis and PCA be combined in a beneficial way? Why and when is it a good idea to combine them? What kind of benefits are we getting from them? Addressing these questions, Constrained Principal Component Analysis and Related Techniques shows how constrained PCA (CPCA) offers a unified framework for these approaches.The book begins with four concre
Tai, Mei Kin; Kareem, Omar Abdul; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari; Khuan, Wai Bing
This study investigates the relationship between "Principal Change Leadership Competencies," "Teacher Change Beliefs" and "Teacher Attitudes toward Change." A total of 936 teachers from 47 High Performing Secondary Schools in Malaysia completed the survey. Structural equation modelling was applied to test the models.…
Younis, Matthew Christopher Zadin
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Invitational Leadership behaviors on school teacher satisfaction, teacher perceptions of the school principal's performance, and to identify if there was a difference between the levels of inviting behaviors of principals at high-achieving and low-achieving rural schools in North Carolina. The…
Beteille, Tara; Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna
Principals tend to prefer working in schools with higher-achieving students from more advantaged socioeconomic backgrounds. Principals often use schools with many poor or low-achieving students as stepping stones to what they view as more desirable assignments. District leadership can also exacerbate principal turnover by implementing policies…
Fasasi, Yunus Adebunmi; Oyeniran, Saheed
This paper examined principals' quality assurance strategies in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 male and 10 female principals, and 190 male and190 female teachers. "Secondary School Principal Quality Assurance…
Seifert, Edward H.
A random sample of 559 secondary small school principals in Arkansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas revealed that 73 percent of the principals were actively seeking new positions or were leaving school administration. The findings have implications for selection procedures, salary/fringe benefit packages, principal autonomy, evaluation…
This article considers principals' assumptions about human nature in Turkey and the relationship between the assumptions held and the leadership style adopted in schools. The findings show that school principals hold Y-type assumptions and prefer a relationship-oriented style in their relations with assistant principals. However, both principals…
Holmes, William Tobias
This study implemented a Sequential Transformative Mixed Methods design with teachers (as recipients) and principals (to give voice) in the examination of principal talk in two different school accountability contexts (Continuously Improving and Continuously Zigzag) using the conceptual framework of Motivating Language Theory. In phase one,…
Ellis, Cailin Patrice
This study implemented an exploratory mixed-methods design to better understand how the characteristics of a principal, specifically the strategies, behaviors, and actions, lead to the perception of empowerment as perceived by the teachers themselves. An expert panel identified three "highly successful" principals assigned to elementary…
Essex, Nathan L.
Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…
The principal radionuclides in high level radioactive waste management. The selection of the principal radionuclides in the high level waste (HLW) management was developed in order to improve the disposal scenario of HLW. In this study the unified criteria for selection of the principal radionuclides were proposed as; (1) the value of hazard index estimated by annual limit of intake (ALI) for long-term tendency,(2) the relative dose factor related to adsorbed migration rate transferred by ground water, and (3) heat generation in the repository. From this study it can be concluded that the principal radionuclides in the HLW management were minor actinide (MA=Np, Am, Cm, etc), Tc, I, Cs and Sr, based on the unified basic criteria introduced in this study. The remaining short-lived fission product (SLFPs), after the selected nuclides are removed, should be immobilized and solidified in a glass matrix. Potential risk due to the remaining SLFPs can be lower than that of uranium ore after about 300 year. (author)
Akdemir, Öznur Atas; Ayik, Ahmet
This study aims to investigate the effect of school principals' distributed leadership behaviors on teachers' organizational commitment. For this purpose, correlational survey model has been used in this study. The study group consists of 772 teachers working at secondary schools of Erzurum. The data of the study has been collected by using…
Vidal-Butler, Stacey Lynn
The role of the school principal is demanding in a variety of ways. School principals are faced with the daily challenge of balancing their roles of site manager and instructional leader. This study examined and identified the knowledge and learning opportunities school principals rely upon to lead schools, particularly those that lead schools…
Barnett, Bruce G.; Shoho, Alan R.; Oleszewski, Ashley M.
This study examined the perceptions of a cross section of new and experienced assistant principals regarding the realities of their jobs. Findings indicated that their challenges pertain to workload and task management, conflicts with adults and students, and curriculum and instruction issues. Novice and experienced assistant principals' responses…
Azzara, Judith R.
A retired elementary principal who was actively tied to her community for decades explains how to put a positive spin on retirement. New retirees should treasure their gifts and talents, develop new ones, take advantage of travel opportunities, mentor a new principal, and/or go back to college. (MLH)
... 3235-AJ96 Principal Trades with Certain Advisory Clients AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... certain of their advisory clients. The amendment extends the date on which rule 206(3)- 3T will sunset... a principal capacity in transactions with certain of their advisory clients.\\1\\ In December 2009, we...
Clarke, Simon; Stevens, Elizabeth; Wildy, Helen
This article is concerned with the nature of novice teaching principals' interactions in Queensland rural communities. Stories selected from case accounts are used to provide insights into the teaching principals' interrelationship with the community. The article concludes with a discussion of some implications for practice suggested by these…
Anthony, Anika Ball; Patravanich, Supawaree
This case provides principal licensure candidates a strategic perspective on leading and managing educational technology initiatives. It presents issues related to vision setting, planning, implementation, organizational structure, and decision making. The case narrative is presented from the perspective of a principal, but it can also be used to…
Reavis, Charles A.; Vinson, David; Fox, Richard
Examines how a new principal at a historically low-performing high school brought about changes in the school culture and in student achievement. Describes how the principal emphasized achievement at the highest levels through heroes and heroines, rites and rituals, stories, governance and leadership, symbols, enforcing expectations, and serving…
Hu, Chun-mei; Cui, Shu-jing; Wang, Lei
Objective: To investigate the path analysis of work family conflict, job salary and promotion satisfaction, work engagement to subjective well-being of the primary and middle school principals, and provide advice for enhancing their well-being. Methods: Using convenient sampling, totally 300 primary and middle school principals completed the WFC,…
Walker, Jeffrey A.
This study investigated characteristics and behaviors of middle school principals that enhance the efficacy of new and experienced middle school teachers. Existing research has established a positive relationship between high levels of teacher efficacy and increased student achievement. Prior research has also demonstrated a positive link between…
This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to investigate the effective practices and beliefs of 10 Texas principals in high achieving majority Hispanic mid-level schools. Participant interviews were analyzed using the Creswell (2007) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings from this study…
Blase, Joseph; Blase, Jo
Although there is some important scholarly work on the problem of workplace mistreatment/abuse, theoretical or empirical work on abusive school principals is nonexistent. Symbolic interactionism was the theoretical structure for the present study. This perspective on social research is founded on three primary assumptions: (1) individuals act…
Johnson, Arvin D.
Principals and assistant principals currently serving in Florida and Georgia school districts were surveyed about their perceptions of university educational leadership preparation and professional learning. The results revealed that many principals and assistant principals agreed that university educational leadership preparation programs…
Zeigler, Earle F.
There is every reason to believe that a new "principal principle" of physical activity education is emerging. In this article, the author talks about the new "principal principle"(#14) of physical education. Revisiting a historical milestone in the field's history to explain the origin of the term "principal principle," Dr. Arthur H. Steinhaus,…
Economides, M. [Texas A and M Univ., TX (United States); Munoz, A.; Ehlig-Economides, C.
A method for obtaining principal permeability magnitudes and direction that requires only the linear flow regime from transient tests in three horizontal wells oriented in three distinct and arbitrary directions, is described. Well design optimization strategies require knowledge of both the principal permeability orientation as well as the horizontal permeability magnitudes. When the degree of horizontal permeability anisotropy (i.e. permeability in the bedding plane with respect to direction) is significant, the productivity of a long horizontal well will depend greatly on its direction, especially when the well is first brought into production. Productivities have been found to deviate substantially among wells in the same reservoir and this deviation has been attributed to differences in well orientation. In view of this fact, measuring permeability anisotropy becomes a compelling necessity. The success of the proposed method is illustrated by a case study in which the principal permeability magnitudes and direction from three wells were used to predict the productivity of a fourth well within 10 per cent. Use of the computed principal permeabilities from the case study, it was possible to forecast the cumulative production to show the significance of well trajectory optimization on the discounted cash flow and the net present value. 20 refs., 3 figs.
Psychological insight is the notion that all participants agreed on and emphasised when asked to offer a definition of loneliness at schools. Participants also agreed on the fact that the organisational climate at Turkish schools represented the most significant reason for principals' loneliness at work. The school principals that ...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal types of unallowable claims... PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 14.12 Principal types of unallowable claims. Claims that ordinarily will not be... valid appraisal or authentication with the carrier prior to shipment of the item; (d) Loss of bankbooks...
Social media have the potential to improve educational opportunities for high school students, but also present legal and policy challenges for public school principals. Those were among opinions expressed in the 2010 Principals' Partnership Poll. The most frequently-cited request by the 306 respondents was help in integrating social media into…
Thomas III, Harry R.
This study presents a qualitative analysis of principals' perceptions of the relationship among principal preparation programs, professional development and instructional leadership confidence in one urban school division in Virginia. Levine (2005) argued that the principal has a salient effect on the instructional programs within schools, and the preparation and professional development of the principal affects the degree to which they maintain and improve instruction. To examine principal p...
Makai, M.; Temesvari, E.
Surveillance of a nuclear reactor core comprehends determination of assemblies' three-dimensional (3D) power distribution. Derived from other assemblies' measured values, power of non-measured assembly is calculated for every assembly with the help of principal components method (PCM) which is also presented. The measured values are interpolated for different geometrical coverings of the WWER-440 core. Different procedures have been elaborated and investigated, among them the most successful methods are discussed. Each method offers self consistent means to determine numerical errors of the interpolated values. (author). 13 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs
John O. MASON
This paper demonstrates how easy it is use Microsoft Excel’s CUMPRINC and CUMIPMT functions to compute principal and interest paid for an entire year, even though the payments were made monthly. The CUMPRINC function computes the principal paid by a series of loan payments; the CUMIPMT function computes the interest paid. These two functions provide an alternative to preparing a monthly loan amortization schedule and adding up the amounts of monthly interest paid and principal paid for the ye...
Palermo, Thelma D.
The grounded theory presented in this study describes practices elementary principals utilize in influencing new teachers to remain in education. Eleven teachers and three elementary principals from one school division in Virginia participated in this study. Interview data were collected, elementary principals were shadowed, and documents were analyzed. Thematic categories and sub categories were formed through data analysis. The grounded theory that resulted from this study is: principals wh...
Manage, Ananda B. W.; Scariano, Stephen M.
Principal Component Analysis is widely used in applied multivariate data analysis, and this article shows how to motivate student interest in this topic using cricket sports data. Here, principal component analysis is successfully used to rank the cricket batsmen and bowlers who played in the 2012 Indian Premier League (IPL) competition. In…
The Schools Act 84 of 1996 prescribes how a school should manage its funds. It also provides guidelines for the school governing body and the principal on their roles and responsibilities in managing the finances of the school. However, there are school governing bodies and principals that have little knowledge of the ...
Mingyue, Luo; Hong, Shan; Zaibo, Jiang; Lufang, Li; Jiansheng, Zhang [Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou (China). The Third Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiology; Lijia, Gu; Shaohong, Huang; Yi, Jin; Zhiqiang, Hou
Objective: To investigate the clinical diagnostic value of multidetector spiral CT (MSCT) and its reconstruction techniques including multiplanar volume reformation (MPVR), volume rendering (VR), and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) in the trachea and principal bronchus tumors. Methods: Thin slice MSCT scanning was performed in 31 patients with suspected trachea or principal bronchus tumors, and image reconstruction data were formed after retro-reconstructing of initial scanning data. MPVR, VR, and VB images were obtained respectively by postprocessing of image reconstruction data with MPVR, VR, and VB image processing software in AW workstation. The findings of MSCT initial axial images, MPVR, VR, and VB images were compared with surgical and pathological results. Results: MSCT initial axial images combined with MPVR, VR, and VB images displayed the locations (tracheae, n=19; right principal bronchi, n=6; left principal bronchi, n=6), morphologies (endoluminal nodular tumors with narrow bases, n=2; endoluminal nodular tumors with wide bases, n=13; intraluminal and extraluminal massive tumors, n=16), internal features (1 had homogeneous density, 1 had low density, they both without obvious enhancement; 23 squamous cell carcinomas and 3 adenocarcinomas had fairly homogeneous density and rather obvious enhancement; 1 had homogeneous density, 1 had inhomogeneous density, 1 had punctate calcification, all with obvious enhancement), extramural invasion situations (broke through only serous membrane, n=1; no clear border with right atelectatic lung tissue, n=1; ranges of extramural invasion 4-56 mm, n=14), morphologies of luminal stenoses (eccentric, n=1; irregular, n=26; circular, n=3; conical interruption, n=1), extents (mild, n=5; moderate, n=7; severe, n=19); measured longitudinal invasion ranges (only 3 mm, n=1; invaded the whole right principal bronchus wall and carina, n=1; 5-68 mm, n=29), and distances between principal bronchus tumors and carina (invaded carina, n=1
Zhang, Zhongheng; Castelló, Adela
In multivariate analysis, independent variables are usually correlated to each other which can introduce multicollinearity in the regression models. One approach to solve this problem is to apply principal components analysis (PCA) over these variables. This method uses orthogonal transformation to represent sets of potentially correlated variables with principal components (PC) that are linearly uncorrelated. PCs are ordered so that the first PC has the largest possible variance and only some components are selected to represent the correlated variables. As a result, the dimension of the variable space is reduced. This tutorial illustrates how to perform PCA in R environment, the example is a simulated dataset in which two PCs are responsible for the majority of the variance in the data. Furthermore, the visualization of PCA is highlighted.
Sumintono, Bambang; Sheyoputri, Elslee Y. A.; Jiang, Na; Misbach, Ifa H.; Jumintono
The preparation and development of school leaders is now considered to be fundamental to school and system improvement. In the pursuit of educational change and reform, the leadership of the principal is deemed to be of critical importance. This qualitative study is part of a large scale research project that is exploring principal preparation and…
DeArmond, Michael; Ouijdani, Monica
When people talk about human capital or talent in public education, they generally focus on teachers, not principals. That's a mistake. School districts and states generally don't take a strategic approach toward managing their principal workforce. Often, they lack even the most basic information about who is leading their schools: Where do most…
Carlson, Kristian J
Investigations of cross-sectional geometry in nonhuman primate limb bones typically attribute shape ratios to qualitative behavioral characterizations, e.g., leaper, slow climber, brachiator, or terrestrial vs. arboreal quadruped. Quantitative positional behavioral data, however, have yet to be used in a rigorous evaluation of such shape-behavior connections. African apes represent an ideal population for such an investigation because their relatedness minimizes phylogenetic inertia, they exhibit diverse behavioral repertoires, and their locomotor behaviors are known from multiple studies. Cross-sectional data from femoral and humeral diaphyses were collected for 222 wild-shot specimens, encompassing Pan paniscus and all commonly recognized African ape subspecies. Digital representations of diaphyseal cross sections were acquired via computed tomography at three locations per diaphysis. Locomotor behaviors were pooled broadly into arboreal and terrestrial categories, then partitioned into quadrupedal walking, quadrumanous climbing, scrambling, and suspensory categories. Sex-specific taxonomic differences in ratios of principal moments of area (PMA) were statistically significant more often in the femoral diaphysis than the humeral diaphysis. While it appears difficult to relate a measure of shape (e.g., PMA ratio) to individual locomotor modes, general locomotor differences (e.g., percentage arboreal vs. terrestrial locomotion) are discerned more easily. As percentage of arboreal locomotion for a group increases, average cross sections appear more circular. Associations between PMA ratio and specific locomotor behaviors are less straightforward. Individual behaviors that integrate eccentric limb positions (e.g., arboreal scrambling) may not engender more circular cross sections than behaviors that incorporate repetitive sagittal movements (e.g., quadrupedal walking) in a straightforward manner. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc
Full Text Available Information about how school principals operate pertains mainly to the actions of principals. However, the kinds of knowledge that the principalship demands have not been isolated as clearly, more often than not being conflated with actions. As principals’ duties become more complex, it becomes more important to ground specific practices in robust knowledge of relevant theoretical principles. One aspect of the principal’s job where this is particularly germane is the resolution of unfamiliar, complex, unstructured challenges. This paper presents findings from research into how principals think when dealing with problematic situations, in particular the types of knowledge they use. Four broad categories of knowledge were identified and, within those, twelve specific types. The research lends credence to the oral report or think-aloud method for making thinking processes available for analysis, and the findings indicate how the content of preparation programs may be adjusted to better qualify principals for the contemporary demands of their work. A prime recommendation is the inclusion of opportunities for the development of tacit knowledge.
Deiermann, P.J.; Opelka, J.H.
The purpose of this study is to find an optimal blend between three safeguards systems for special nuclear material (SNM), the material accounting system and the physical security and material control systems. The latter two are denoted as principal deterrent systems. The optimization methodology employed is a two-stage decision algorithm, first an explicit maximization of expected diverter benefits and subsequently a minimization of expected defender costs for changes in material accounting procedures and incremental improvements in the principal deterrent systems. The probability of diverter success function dependent upon the principal deterrents and material accounting system variables is developed. Within the range of certainty of the model, existing material accounting, material control and physical security practices are justified
Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Sharma, Shashikant; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn; Ranjan, Aashish
For the realization of face recognition systems in the static as well as in the real time frame, algorithms such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, linear discriminate analysis, neural networks and genetic algorithms are used for decades. This paper discusses an approach which is a wavelet decomposition based principal component analysis for face recognition. Principal component analysis is chosen over other algorithms due to its relative simplicity, efficiency, and robustness features. The term face recognition stands for identifying a person from his facial gestures and having resemblance with factor analysis in some sense, i.e. extraction of the principal component of an image. Principal component analysis is subjected to some drawbacks, mainly the poor discriminatory power and the large computational load in finding eigenvectors, in particular. These drawbacks can be greatly reduced by combining both wavelet transform decomposition for feature extraction and principal component analysis for pattern representation and classification together, by analyzing the facial gestures into space and time domain, where, frequency and time are used interchangeably. From the experimental results, it is envisaged that this face recognition method has made a significant percentage improvement in recognition rate as well as having a better computational efficiency.
Peterson, Jane W.
A study asked selected high school principals to respond to statements about the value of high school journalism to the high school student and about the rights and responsibilities of the high school journalist. These responses were then checked against such information as whether or not the high school principal had worked on a high school…
Presents a detailed result on Franaszek's (1968) principal state method for the generation of run-length constrained codes. The authors show that, whenever the constraints k and d satisfy k 2d>0, the set of "principal states" is s0, s1, ···, sk-1. Thus there is no need for Franaszek's search
Full Text Available More and more the competence concept of school principals have an impact on two conditions, namely: (1 to develop the concept can complement and support each other; and (2 to develop the concept of possible contradict, giving rise to different interpretations. Therefore, this becomes the main issue researchers to identify the competence concept of school principals with adaptation of Jackson-Trochim method that is capable of illustrating the concept of competencies. Results of adaptation Jackson-Trochim method that school principals should have three types of competencies to lead the school effectively and efficiently. Kind of competencies are such as school leadership, instructional leadership, and operational leadership. Based on these results, the adaptationof Jackson-Trochim method to build the competence concept of school principals suggests this concept obtained may serve as a reference for school principals continue to build competencies in the future
Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus
find that agents sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if the agents' payoff is independent of the principals' feedback. Based on our experimental analysis we propose a principal-agent model with subjective performance evaluations that accommodates...
Touloupis, Thanos; Athanasiades, Christina
The present study aimed to investigate primary school principals' attitudes towards risky internet use of school-aged students and how occupational factors, such as work self-efficacy, job satisfaction, and burnout, may affect these attitudes especially in a context of economic crisis, which has adversely affected working conditions and duties of…
Axelsson, Östen; Nilsson, Mats E; Berglund, Birgitta
There is a need for a model that identifies underlying dimensions of soundscape perception, and which may guide measurement and improvement of soundscape quality. With the purpose to develop such a model, a listening experiment was conducted. One hundred listeners measured 50 excerpts of binaural recordings of urban outdoor soundscapes on 116 attribute scales. The average attribute scale values were subjected to principal components analysis, resulting in three components: Pleasantness, eventfulness, and familiarity, explaining 50, 18 and 6% of the total variance, respectively. The principal-component scores were correlated with physical soundscape properties, including categories of dominant sounds and acoustic variables. Soundscape excerpts dominated by technological sounds were found to be unpleasant, whereas soundscape excerpts dominated by natural sounds were pleasant, and soundscape excerpts dominated by human sounds were eventful. These relationships remained after controlling for the overall soundscape loudness (Zwicker's N(10)), which shows that 'informational' properties are substantial contributors to the perception of soundscape. The proposed principal components model provides a framework for future soundscape research and practice. In particular, it suggests which basic dimensions are necessary to measure, how to measure them by a defined set of attribute scales, and how to promote high-quality soundscapes.
Gajamannage, Kelum; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio; Bollt, Erik M.
While the existence of low-dimensional embedding manifolds has been shown in patterns of collective motion, the current battery of nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods is not amenable to the analysis of such manifolds. This is mainly due to the necessary spectral decomposition step, which limits control over the mapping from the original high-dimensional space to the embedding space. Here, we propose an alternative approach that demands a two-dimensional embedding which topologically summarizes the high-dimensional data. In this sense, our approach is closely related to the construction of one-dimensional principal curves that minimize orthogonal error to data points subject to smoothness constraints. Specifically, we construct a two-dimensional principal manifold directly in the high-dimensional space using cubic smoothing splines, and define the embedding coordinates in terms of geodesic distances. Thus, the mapping from the high-dimensional data to the manifold is defined in terms of local coordinates. Through representative examples, we show that compared to existing nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods, the principal manifold retains the original structure even in noisy and sparse datasets. The principal manifold finding algorithm is applied to configurations obtained from a dynamical system of multiple agents simulating a complex maneuver called predator mobbing, and the resulting two-dimensional embedding is compared with that of a well-established nonlinear dimensionality reduction method.
Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the major resources of the drinking water in Sagar city (India.. In this study 15 sampling station were selected for the investigations on 14 chemical parameters. The work was carried out during different months of the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in June 2009 to June 2010. The multivariate statistics such as principal component and cluster analysis were applied to the datasets to investigate seasonal variations in groundwater quality. Principal axis factoring has been used to observe the mode of association of parameters and their interrelationships, for evaluating water quality. Average value of BOD, COD, ammonia and iron was high during entire study period. Elevated values of BOD and ammonia in monsoon, slightly more value of BOD in post-monsoon, BOD, ammonia and iron in pre-monsoon period reflected contribution on temporal effect on groundwater. Results of principal component analysis evinced that all the parameters equally and significantly contribute to groundwater quality variations. Factor 1 and factor 2 analysis revealed the DO value deteriorate due to organic load (BOD/Ammonia in different seasons. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 15 stations into four clusters in monsoon, five clusters in post-monsoon and five clusters in pre-monsoon with similar water quality features. Clustered group at monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon consisted one station exhibiting significant spatial variation in physicochemical composition. The anthropogenic nitrogenous species, as fallout from modernization activities. The study indicated that the groundwater sufficiently well oxygenated and nutrient-rich in study places.
Federici, Roger A.
The purpose of the present study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, perceived job autonomy, job satisfaction, and perceived contextual constraints to autonomy. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Job autonomy, job satisfaction, and contextual…
... 3235-AJ96 Temporary Rule Regarding Principal Trades With Certain Advisory Clients AGENCY: Securities... principal capacity in transactions with certain of their advisory clients. The amendment would extend the... Advisers Act when they act in a principal capacity in transactions with certain of their advisory clients...
... 3235-AJ96 Temporary Rule Regarding Principal Trades With Certain Advisory Clients AGENCY: Securities... principal capacity in transactions with certain of their advisory clients. The amendment would extend the... Advisers Act when they act in a principal capacity in transactions with certain of their advisory clients...
Stern, Ralph D.
The emphasis of this chapter is on the tort liability of principals, especially their commission of unintentional torts or torts resulting from negligent conduct. A tort is defined as a wrongful act, not including a breach of contract or trust, which results in injury to another's person, property, or reputation and for which the injured party is…
Full Text Available Adopting a humanistic perspective to the study of leadership, I discuss and describe how school principals adapt to their new roles, owing to the new education policies and educational restructuring within the South African Department of Education. The Life History approach was used to collect data from six selected school principals in KwaZulu-Natal. On the basis of the analysis of data, I conclude that leaders create their provisional selves and construct their professional identities from their personal and professional knowledge. Provisional selves, in this context, are temporary solutions principals use to close the gap between their current capacities and self-concepts, and the ideas they hold about what attitudes and behaviours are expected in their new roles.
Leadership Styles of Principals and Job Performance of Staff in Secondary Schools in Delta State of Nigeria. ... recommended that principals should adopt the democratic leadership style to boost better job performance among staff and in essence enhance administrative effectiveness and students‟ academic performance.
Jackson, Karen M.; Marriott, Christine
Purpose: This article presents the design and test of a measure of school leadership as an organizational quality through the interaction of principal and teacher instructional influence. The Organizational Leadership Model hypothesizes four distinct conditions of school leadership, and the analysis investigates the relationship between teacher,…
Mathews, Tracy A.
This quantitative correlation survey study investigated the relationship between teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of school principals as instructional leaders in professional learning communities (PLCs) and self-efficacy beliefs of teachers. Social Cognitive Theory, self-efficacy concept, and Adult Learning Theory were at the core of…
Gerard, Libby F.; Bowyer, Jane B.; Linn, Marcia C.
Active principal leadership can help sustain and scale science curriculum reform. This study illustrates how principal leadership developed in a professional learning community to support a technology-enhanced science curriculum reform funded by the National Science Foundation. Seven middle school and high school principals in one urban-fringe…
Bonuso, Carl; Shakeshaft, Charol
A study was conducted to understand why so few of the secondary school principals in New York State are women. Results suggest two possible causes: either sufficient women candidates do not apply for the positions, or sex discrimination still exists. (KH)
Finnigan, Kara S.
This article examines principal leadership and teacher motivation in schools under accountability sanctions. The conceptual framework is grounded in research on expectancy theory and transformational leadership. The study involves a survey of Chicago teachers and indicates that principal instructional leadership and support for change are…
Aydin, Inayet; Karaman-Kepenekci, Yasemin
Purpose--This study aims to present the opinions of public elementary school principals in Turkey about the current organisational justice practices among teachers from the distributive, procedural, interactional, and rectificatory dimensions. Design/methodology/approach--The opinions of 11 public elementary school principals in Ankara about…
Munoz Aguirre, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Oaxaca (Mexico); Alexandrov, V. V. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)
This paper will describe the generalized principal resonance of systems as described by the second order of ordinary differential equations and proved by the Pontriaguin maximal principle to coincide with the lengthened solution of an external problem of the same system. The results are verified in special cases of general resonance and parametric resonance for the Mathieu equation. [Spanish] En el presente articulo se estudia la resonancia principal generalizada para sistemas descritos por ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias de segundo orden y se demuestra con ayuda del principio del maximo de Pontriaguin, la coincidencia de esta con la solucion prolongada de un problema extremal para el mismo sistema. Ademas se verifican estos resultados en los casos particulares de resonancia general y resonancia parametrica para la ecuacion de Mathieu.
Although some districts and areas have experienced difficulty finding good principals, there are far more candidates certified to be principals than there are principal vacancies to fill. This report describes a study based on a written indepth survey of human-resource directors supplemented by formal survey questions to school superintendents and…
Cheng, Lin; Zhu, Yang; Sun, Junfeng; Deng, Lifu; He, Naying; Yang, Yang; Ling, Huawei; Ayaz, Hasan; Fu, Yi; Tong, Shanbao
Task-related reorganization of functional connectivity (FC) has been widely investigated. Under classic static FC analysis, brain networks under task and rest have been demonstrated a general similarity. However, brain activity and cognitive process are believed to be dynamic and adaptive. Since static FC inherently ignores the distinct temporal patterns between rest and task, dynamic FC may be more a suitable technique to characterize the brain's dynamic and adaptive activities. In this study, we adopted [Formula: see text]-means clustering to investigate task-related spatiotemporal reorganization of dynamic brain networks and hypothesized that dynamic FC would be able to reveal the link between resting-state and task-state brain organization, including broadly similar spatial patterns but distinct temporal patterns. In order to test this hypothesis, this study examined the dynamic FC in default-mode network (DMN) and motor-related network (MN) using Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD)-fMRI data from 26 healthy subjects during rest (REST) and a hand closing-and-opening (HCO) task. Two principal FC states in REST and one principal FC state in HCO were identified. The first principal FC state in REST was found similar to that in HCO, which appeared to represent intrinsic network architecture and validated the broadly similar spatial patterns between REST and HCO. However, the second FC principal state in REST with much shorter "dwell time" implied the transient functional relationship between DMN and MN during REST. In addition, a more frequent shifting between two principal FC states indicated that brain network dynamically maintained a "default mode" in the motor system during REST, whereas the presence of a single principal FC state and reduced FC variability implied a more temporally stable connectivity during HCO, validating the distinct temporal patterns between REST and HCO. Our results further demonstrated that dynamic FC analysis could offer unique
Mazzoni, Matthew J.
The purpose of this case study was to explore a principal's experiences and how they aligned to Hallinger and Murphy's (1985) effective instructional leadership practices in an era of accountability. This study of effective principal leadership is timely and relevant due to the recent implementation of national and state mandates for principals to…
De Jong, David; Grundmeyer, Trent; Yankey, Julie
Secondary principals serve in important roles that are complex, high-stress, and include demanding job responsibilities. Key stakeholders such as superintendents, school board members, and legislators must understand the challenges facing secondary principals in order to address the current themes of job dissatisfaction. Using new survey data…
Findlay, Nora M.
Little research exists that examines the exercise of discretion by principals in their disciplinary decision making. This study sought to understand the application of values by principals as they engage in student disciplinary decision making within legally fixed parameters of their administrative discretion. This qualitative methodology used…
Charles, Gregory Stewart; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
This paper reviews research on principals' and teachers' roles in site-based decision making (SBDM). Research examining teacher participation in SBDM is reviewed, finding that higher quality teaching behaviors and higher student academic attainment resulted from teacher participation. The review focuses on steps in implementing SBDM, means for…
Creating a New Approach to Principal Leadership: The National Institute of School Leadership has Borrowed from the Leadership Practices of Other Professions to Build an Innovative Program for Principals
Hughes, Robert C.
The author describes a principal training program resulting from a study that found disconnects between education leadership programs and what principals need to know and be able to do to guide improved instruction. The National Institute for School Leadership program focuses on practicing principals but also has applications for aspiring…
Moretti, M. I.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Karampelas, A.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Gavras, P.; Yang, M.
Principal component analysis (PCA) is being extensively used in Astronomy but not yet exhaustively exploited for variability search. The aim of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of using the PCA as a method to search for variable stars in large photometric data sets. We apply PCA to variability indices computed for light curves of 18 152 stars in three fields in M 31 extracted from the Hubble Source Catalogue. The projection of the data into the principal components is used as a stellar variability detection and classification tool, capable of distinguishing between RR Lyrae stars, long-period variables (LPVs) and non-variables. This projection recovered more than 90 per cent of the known variables and revealed 38 previously unknown variable stars (about 30 per cent more), all LPVs except for one object of uncertain variability type. We conclude that this methodology can indeed successfully identify candidate variable stars.
Steyn, G. M.
This study investigates a South African principal's view of implementing invitational education (IE) as an example of a professional development programme (PD) within a particular school setting. Two types of literature inform this study: leadership supportive of school development and the invitational education approach to teaching and learning.…
Davenport, Marcus G.
In this dissertation, the researcher investigates the success of productive learning environments in Detroit Public Schools. Using interviews with three productive principals from the Detroit school system, the researcher explores three related issues in public schooling. The first issue is the definition of a productive learning environment. By…
Sjöstrand, Karl; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus
Principal component analysis (PCA) is a widely used tool in medical image analysis for data reduction, model building, and data understanding and exploration. While PCA is a holistic approach where each new variable is a linear combination of all original variables, sparse PCA (SPCA) aims...... analysis in medicine. Results for three different data sets are given in relation to standard PCA and sparse PCA by simple thresholding of sufficiently small loadings. Focus is on a recent algorithm for computing sparse principal components, but a review of other approaches is supplied as well. The SPCA...
Erdem, Ali Riza; Cicekdemir, Ibrahim
Problem Statement: "Motivation" can be defined as the action of directing human behavior in a desirable way. School principals are not only the managers who are the most responsible for the school. The vice principals who are officially charged and help the principals with the school tasks are also called school managers. School managers…
Wildy, Helen; Clarke, Simon; Styles, Irene; Beycioglu, Kadir
Part of a 13-nation, cross-cultural study of the extent to which principals perceive their pre-appointment experiences had prepared them for the job, the International Study of Principal Preparation (ISPP), this paper compares the responses of novice principals in Turkey and Western Australia. Using a survey based on data from case studies of…
Where there are people, there is social in/justice. Using Nancy Fraser's framework, this qualitative research examines how school principals perceive social justice in schools. Twenty-one elementary and secondary school principals were interviewed in the Greater Toronto Area. The study provides some empirical evidence on the ways social…
Boucher, Miriam Miley
Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined conflict management styles of elementary school principals in South Carolina and the relationship of conflict management style and school climate. The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form B, which identifies five styles of managing conflict, was used to determine principal conflict…
Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…
Lewis-Durham, Tiffanie C.
Using New York City schools as a case study, this study draws on interview data from principals, district consultants and administrators, and principal's union representatives to explore the relationship between market-based reform and colorblindness in educational policy. The study is informed by colorblindness theory, which explores the subtle…
This study examined teachers' perceptions of principals' authentic leadership and the relationship of authentic leadership to teachers' psychological capital in Taiwan. A total of 1,429 elementary and secondary school teachers were surveyed. The results showed that teachers perceived their principals' authentic leadership as moderate and that the…
Because of public concern over the effectiveness of our schools, a new evaluation system was put in place to hold principals and teachers directly accountable for student academic achievement. Part of this evaluation included student performance on state assessments. The purpose of this qualitative study sought to examine how the transformation…
Gurley, D. Keith; Anast-May, Linda; O'Neal, Marcia; Lee, H. T.; Shores, Melanie
Focus on the development of instructional leadership skills for school principals in the U.S. continues to be at the forefront of educational research and reform in response to the increased call for accountability. In this article we review relevant literature regarding instructional leadership from a historical perspective, then present a…
Gibbs-Harper, Nzinga A.
The purpose of this research study was to determine if a relationship exists between teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership behaviors and middle school teacher job satisfaction. Additionally, this study sought to assess whether principal's instructional leadership skills were predictors of middle school teachers' satisfaction with work itself. This study drew from 13 middle schools in an urban Mississippi school district. Participants included teachers who taught science. Each teacher was given the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS; Hallinger, 2011) and the Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ; Lester, 1987) to answer the research questions. The study was guided by two research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between the independent variables Defining the School's Mission, Managing the Instructional Program, and Developing the School Learning Climate Program and the dependent variable Work Itself?; (b) Are Defining the School's Mission, Managing the Instructional Program, and Developing the School Learning Climate Program predictors of Work Itself? The Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis were utilized to examine the relationship between the three dimensions of principals' instructional leadership and teacher satisfaction with work itself. The data revealed that there was a strong, positive correlation between all three dimensions of principals' instructional leadership and teacher satisfaction with work itself. However, the multiple regression analysis determined that teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional management skills is a slight predictor of Defining the School's Mission only.
Full Text Available To estimate the rate of hospitalized eye trauma in Taiwan and investigate the role between principal and secondary diagnoses of such trauma.Nationwide fixed cohort study of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Database was used and 4819 patients who were hospitalized for eye trauma during 1996-2010 were analyzed.During 1996-2010, the incidence rates of hospitalized eye trauma (per 100 000 person-years were 35.0 (95% confidence interval (CI, 34.0 to 36.0 for total diagnosis, 9.8 (95% CI, 9.3 to 10.3 for a principal diagnosis, and 25.3 (95% CI, 24.4 to 26.1 for a secondary diagnosis. The sex risk ratio was 3.1 for a principal diagnosis and 2.1 for a secondary diagnosis. The main causes of eye trauma were traffic accident, work accident, assault (among males <60 years of age, and falls (among elderly men and women. The proportion admitted to an ophthalmic department among those with a principal diagnosis of eye trauma (64.8% was significantly higher than among those with a secondary diagnosis (2.3% (p<.0001. Patients with a principal diagnosis of eye trauma had shorter hospital stays (7.1±10.2 days and lower fatality (0.07% than those with a secondary diagnosis of eye trauma (10.0±31.6 days and 0.3%, respectively.Data only from ophthalmic admissions tends to underestimate the true incidence rate of hospitalized eye trauma. Patients with a principal diagnosis of eye trauma had less severe injuries than did those with a secondary diagnosis.
Gaudioso, Jennifer A.
Perceptions of School Principals on Participation in Professional Learning Communities as Job-Embedded Learning Jennifer Gaudioso Principal Professional Learning Communities (PPLCs) have emerged as a vehicle for professional development of principals, but there is little research on how principals experience PPLCs or how districts can support…
Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo
Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.
Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…
Imhoff, M. L.; Campbell, W. J.
The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.
Li, Xibing; Feng, Fan; Li, Diyuan; Du, Kun; Ranjith, P. G.; Rostami, Jamal
The failure modes and peak unloading strength of a typical hard rock, Miluo granite, with particular attention to the sample height-to-width ratio (between 2 and 0.5), and the intermediate principal stress was investigated using a true-triaxial test system. The experimental results indicate that both sample height-to-width ratios and intermediate principal stress have an impact on the failure modes, peak strength and severity of rockburst in hard rock under true-triaxial unloading conditions. For longer rectangular specimens, the transition of failure mode from shear to slabbing requires higher intermediate principal stress. With the decrease in sample height-to-width ratios, slabbing failure is more likely to occur under the condition of lower intermediate principal stress. For same intermediate principal stress, the peak unloading strength monotonically increases with the decrease in sample height-to-width. However, the peak unloading strength as functions of intermediate principal stress for different types of rock samples (with sample height-to-width ratio of 2, 1 and 0.5) all present the pattern of initial increase, followed by a subsequent decrease. The curves fitted to octahedral shear stress as a function of mean effective stress also validate the applicability of the Mogi-Coulomb failure criterion for all considered rock sizes under true-triaxial unloading conditions, and the corresponding cohesion C and internal friction angle φ are calculated. The severity of strainburst of granite depends on the sample height-to-width ratios and intermediate principal stress. Therefore, different supporting strategies are recommended in deep tunneling projects and mining activities. Moreover, the comparison of test results of different σ 2/ σ 3 also reveals the little influence of minimum principal stress on failure characteristics of granite during the true-triaxial unloading process.
Hutton, Disraeli M.
The study explored critical factors that explain leadership performance of high-performing principals and examined the relationship between these factors based on the ratings of school constituents in the public school system. The principal component analysis with the use of Varimax Rotation revealed that four components explain 51.1% of the…
Wang, Fei; Pollock, Katina; Hauseman, Cameron
This study examines principals' job satisfaction in relation to their work intensification. Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory was used to shed light on how motivating and maintenance factors affect principals' job satisfaction. Logistic multiple regressions were used in the analysis of survey data that were collected from 2,701 elementary and…
School principals play an important role in managing media and technology integration into school teaching since they can foster the use of information communication technologies (ICT) at a strategic level, even supporting the introduction of media literacy education activities into teaching. Starting from a review on the role of principals'…
In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa...
Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Liu, Yan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which leadership styles predict school climate, in order to identify whether a relationship exists between principals' perceived practices of instructional and distributed leadership and their perceptions of school climate (mutual respect and school delinquency), controlling for a net of…
Tavassoli, A.A.; Bougault, A.
Failure of many metallic components investigated can be classified into two categories: intergranular or transgranular according to their principal mode of rupture. Intergranular ruptures are often provoked by segregation of impurities at the grain boundaries. Three examples are cited where this phenomenon occured, one of them is a steel (A 508 cl 3) used for PWR vessel. Intergranular failures are in general induced by fatigue in the advanced components operating under thermal or load transients. One example concerning a sodium mixer which was subjected to thermal loadings is presented. Examples of stress corrosion and intergranular sensitization failures are cited. These examples show the importance of fractography for the determination of rupture causes [fr
Roberts, Erica; McLeod, Nicole; Montemurro, Genevieve; Veugelers, Paul J; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate E
Comprehensive School Health (CSH) is an internationally recognized framework that moves beyond the individual to holistically address school health, leading to the development of health-enhancing behaviors while also improving educational outcomes. Previous research has suggested that principal support for CSH implementation is essential, but this role has yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine the role of the principal in the implementation of a CSH project aimed at creating a healthy school culture. This research was guided by the grounded ethnography method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with APPLE School principals (n = 29) to qualitatively explore their role in creating a healthy school culture. A model consisting of five major themes emerged, suggesting that the principal played a fluid role throughout the CSH implementation process. Principals (i) primed the cultural change; (ii) communicated the project's importance to others; (iii) negotiated concerns and collaboratively planned; (iv) held others accountable to the change, while enabling them to take ownership and (v) played an underlying supportive role, providing positive recognition and establishing ongoing commitment. This research provides recommendations to help establish effective leadership practices in schools, conducive to creating a healthy school culture. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis ... anthropogenic (agricultural activities and domestic wastewaters), and marine ... The PC scores reflect the change of groundwater quality of geogenic origin ...
Salvatore, Stefania; Røislien, Jo; Baz-Lomba, Jose A; Bramness, Jørgen G
Wastewater-based epidemiology is an alternative method for estimating the collective drug use in a community. We applied functional data analysis, a statistical framework developed for analysing curve data, to investigate weekly temporal patterns in wastewater measurements of three prescription drugs with known abuse potential: methadone, oxazepam and methylphenidate, comparing them to positive and negative control drugs. Sewage samples were collected in February 2014 from a wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The weekly pattern of each drug was extracted by fitting of generalized additive models, using trigonometric functions to model the cyclic behaviour. From the weekly component, the main temporal features were then extracted using functional principal component analysis. Results are presented through the functional principal components (FPCs) and corresponding FPC scores. Clinically, the most important weekly feature of the wastewater-based epidemiology data was the second FPC, representing the difference between average midweek level and a peak during the weekend, representing possible recreational use of a drug in the weekend. Estimated scores on this FPC indicated recreational use of methylphenidate, with a high weekend peak, but not for methadone and oxazepam. The functional principal component analysis uncovered clinically important temporal features of the weekly patterns of the use of prescription drugs detected from wastewater analysis. This may be used as a post-marketing surveillance method to monitor prescription drugs with abuse potential. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ng, David Foo Seong; Nguyen, Dong Thanh; Wong, Benjamin Koon Siak; Choy, William Kim Weng
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a review of empirical studies on principal leadership in Singapore. It seeks to provide a general picture of Singapore principals' leadership qualities, styles, and roles. Design/methodology/approach: This is a systematic review of empirical studies, using a "bounded" approach with a focus…
Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Bonner, Jessica L.; Styron, Jennifer L.; Bridgeforth, James; Martin, Cecelia
The purpose of this study was to examine the preparation of teacher and principal candidates to address problems created in K-12 settings as a result of cyberbullying. Participants included teacher and principal preparation students. Findings indicated that respondents were familiar with the most common forms of cyberbullying and its impact on…
Mascall, Blair; Leithwood, Kenneth
This article presents the results of research into the impact of principal turnover on schools, and the ability of schools to mitigate the negative effects of frequent turnover by distributing leadership in the schools. The findings from this qualitative and quantitative analysis show that rapid principal turnover does indeed have a negative…
Bolton, David A.
This quantitative study looks at the relationship between a principals' transformational leadership behaviors and the culture of their school. The goal of the study is to determine if transformational leadership qualities have a positive impact on the culture present in a school. Congruency between the views of a principal and their staff will…
Shore, Kevin; Walshaw, Margaret
The roles and aspirations of Assistant/Deputy Principals (AP/DPs) have received attention for a number of decades. In contrast to much of the reported research that either highlights the administrative and management tasks or foregrounds principal succession, we explore levels of satisfaction that play into DP/APs' interpretations of the realities…
Hurley, Peter D.; Oliver, Seb; Farrah, Duncan; Wang, Lingyu; Efstathiou, Andreas
The mid-infrared spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) contain a variety of spectral features that can be used as diagnostics to characterize the spectra. However, such diagnostics are biased by our prior prejudices on the origin of the features. Moreover, by using only part of the spectrum they do not utilize the full information content of the spectra. Blind statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) consider the whole spectrum, find correlated features and separate them out into distinct components. This code, written in IDL, classifies principal components of IRS spectra to define a new classification scheme using 5D Gaussian mixtures modelling. The five PCs and average spectra for the four classifications to classify objects are made available with the code.
Mata, Robert L.; Garcia, Richard L.
Intended to provide current or potential project principals/directors with the basic knowledge, skills, abilities, and sensitivities needed to manage a summer migrant school project in the local educational setting, this module provides instruction in the project management areas of planning, preparation, control, and termination. The module…
In recent years, a principal supply shortage crisis has emerged in the USA. This problem has been exacerbated by an increase in principal departures, which has been found to be negatively related to school outcomes. While research exists on several determinants of principal turnover, any examination of the relationship between principals'…
Full Text Available The matter election of principal in schools can sometimes becomea political issue. All political parties are interested in this position,especially the ones that are now in power. The work of a principalis a rather complex activity, especially during the time of transition,when teachers, who are managed by the principals, expectthe implementation of every outlined change and to achieve thegoals of educational reform. Principals often must struggle to superviseteachers and deal with difficulties, because during theirprofessional development they did not acquire basic competencyin management, or management in education. This article discussesresearch among the main participants in education (teachers,principals, and advisors and examines what kind of influenceeducation has on principals’ ability to provide leadership intimes of change. The results of this research show that leadershipin schools is more efficient if principals are more educated in disciplines such as management in education.
Garland, Virginia E.
What is the school principal's role in ensuring ethical technology use while promoting the use of wireless and advanced technologies in instruction? The rapid advances in technology in only the past 5 years, including the increase in laptops and smart phones, have transformed both educational practices and the role of the school principal as…
Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie; Clarke, Simon; Wildy, Helen
In this article, we report on our initial work with the International School Leadership Development Network. In doing so, we present two cases of principals leading high-need schools, and conclude with some key observations in relation to what is distinctive about leading these schools. The first case features a principal leading a suburban school…
Larsen, Donald E.; Derrington, Mary Lynne
No textbook that an aspiring principal encounters in preparing for the role of school leader discusses what steps to follow when a member--or members--of the school staff challenge standards of professional judgment and moral rectitude. Instead, the most reliable guide at the principal's disposal may be the "moral compass" upon which the…
Keskinkilic-Kara, Sultan-Bilge; Zafer-Gunes, Demet
The aim of this research is to define the school principals' implicit leadership theory and to reveal its relationship with the proactive behavior. The study is conducted in Bagcilar and Basaksehir districts in Istanbul and the target population of the research is 153 school principals working in state elementary schools, middle schools and high…
Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman
The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…
Ogunshola, Roseline Folashade; Adeniyi, Abiodun
The study investigated principals' personal variables and information and communication technology utilization in Federal Capital Territory (FCT) senior secondary schools, Abuja, Nigeria. The study adopted the correlational research design. The study used a sample of 94 senior secondary schools (including public and private) in FCT. Stratified…
Dong, Jianghu J; Wang, Liangliang; Gill, Jagbir; Cao, Jiguo
This article is motivated by some longitudinal clinical data of kidney transplant recipients, where kidney function progression is recorded as the estimated glomerular filtration rates at multiple time points post kidney transplantation. We propose to use the functional principal component analysis method to explore the major source of variations of glomerular filtration rate curves. We find that the estimated functional principal component scores can be used to cluster glomerular filtration rate curves. Ordering functional principal component scores can detect abnormal glomerular filtration rate curves. Finally, functional principal component analysis can effectively estimate missing glomerular filtration rate values and predict future glomerular filtration rate values.
Site level administrators make decisions during the course of a day that have ethical dimensions that challenge their personal values and ethics. This study examined the extent to which particular factors would affect principals' and vice principals' judgments of the ethicality of sanctions given a teacher who had been sending sexually…
Moorosi, Pontso; Bantwini, Bongani D.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how leadership styles in the Eastern Cape school districts support school improvement. Mixed methods research was employed and data was collected through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with school principals in various districts. The study was guided by the following questions:…
Full Text Available The present investigation is an experimental approach to deposit electroless Ni-P-W coating on mild steel substrate and find out the optimum combination of various tribological performances on the basis of minimum friction and wear, using weighted principal component analysis (WPCA. In this study three main tribological parameters are chosen viz. load (A, speed (B and time(C. The responses are coefficient of friction and wear depth. Here Weighted Principal Component Analysis (WPCA method is adopted to convert the multi-responses into single performance index called multiple performance index (MPI and Taguchi L27 orthogonal array is used to design the experiment and to find the optimum combination of tribological parameters for minimum coefficient of friction and wear depth. ANOVA is performed to find the significance of the each tribological process parameters and their interactions. The EDX analysis, SEM and XRD are performed to study the composition and structural aspects.
Harnish, David Alan
Many schools struggle to meet No Child Left Behind's stringent adequate yearly progress standards, although the benchmark has stimulated national creativity and reform. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of principals' leadership styles, curriculum reform, and student achievement to ascertain possible factors to improve…
Gaudreault, Nathaly; Mezghani, Neila; Turcot, Katia; Hagemeister, Nicola; Boivin, Karine; de Guise, Jacques A
Interpreting gait data is challenging due to intersubject variability observed in the gait pattern of both normal and pathological populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of using principal component analysis for grouping knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients' gait data in more homogeneous groups when studying the effect of a physiotherapy treatment. Three-dimensional (3D) knee kinematic and kinetic data were recorded during the gait of 29 participants diagnosed with knee OA before and after they received 12 weeks of physiotherapy treatment. Principal component analysis was applied to extract groups of knee flexion/extension, adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation angle and moment data. The treatment's effect on parameters of interest was assessed using paired t-tests performed before and after grouping the knee kinematic data. Increased quadriceps and hamstring strength was observed following treatment (Pphysiotherapy on gait mechanics of knee osteoarthritis patients may be masked or underestimated if kinematic data are not separated into more homogeneous groups when performing pre- and post-treatment comparisons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yeh, J.-W.; Chang, S.-Y.; Hong, Y.-D.; Chen, S.-K.; Lin, S.-J.
With an aim to understand the great reduction in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) intensities of high-entropy alloys, a series of Cu-Ni-Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Si alloys with systematic addition of principal elements from pure element to seven elements was investigated for quantitative analysis of XRD intensities. The variation of XRD peak intensities of the alloy system is similar to that caused by thermal effect, but the intensities further drop beyond the thermal effect with increasing number of incorporated principal elements. An intrinsic lattice distortion effect caused by the addition of multi-principal elements with different atomic sizes is expected for the anomalous decrease in XRD intensities. The mathematical factor of this distortion effect for the modification of XRD structure factor is formulated analogue to that of thermal effect
probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). ... topography, soil type, depth of water levels, and water usage. Thus, the ... of effective sites for infiltration of recharge water.
Egerton University, P. O. Box 16568, NAKURU KENYA email@example.com ... teacher and parental input while it was negatively correlated with the level of .... principal's attitude, gender qualifications, and leadership experience (Green,. 1999 ...
Sezgin-Nartgün, Senay; Ekinci, Serkan
This study aimed to identify administrators' views related to the assessment of school principals' reassignment in educational organizations. The study utilized qualitative research design and the study group composed of 8 school administrators selected via simple sampling who were employed in the Bolu central district in 2014-2015 academic year.…
Lindstrom, Phyllis H.; Speck, Marsha
Individual teachers have the greatest effect on student performance. Principals, as professional development leaders, are in the best position to provide teachers with the professional development strategies they need to improve skills and raise student achievement. This book guides readers through a step-by-step process to formulate, implement,…
The present study purpose was to investigate the unique role and activities of school principals in managing their senior management team (SMT) boundaries. The study examined how school principals' internal and external activities mediate the relationship of principals' personal factors from the Big Five typology, the team and contextual…
Roy, Kay; Smith, Jacky; Kolsum, Umme
BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation in COPD can be measured using biomarkers such as induced sputum and Fe(NO). This study set out to explore the heterogeneity of COPD using biomarkers of airway and systemic inflammation and pulmonary function by principal components analysis (PCA). SUBJECTS...... AND METHODS: In 127 COPD patients (mean FEV1 61%), pulmonary function, Fe(NO), plasma CRP and TNF-alpha, sputum differential cell counts and sputum IL8 (pg/ml) were measured. Principal components analysis as well as multivariate analysis was performed. RESULTS: PCA identified four main components (% variance...... associations between the variables within components 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: COPD is a multi dimensional disease. Unrelated components of disease were identified, including neutrophilic airway inflammation which was associated with systemic inflammation, and sputum eosinophils which were related to increased Fe...
Nash, Steve; Bangert, Art
The primary objective of this research study was to explore the relationships between principals' life experiences and their transformational leadership behaviours. Over 212 public school principals completed both the lifetime leadership inventory (LLI) and the multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor…
Maadooliat, Mehdi; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Hu, Jianhua
Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular dimension reduction method to reduce the complexity and obtain the informative aspects of high-dimensional datasets. When the data distribution is skewed, data transformation is commonly used prior
Gates, Daniel R; Yoder, E. C; Coughlan, Peter J
.... This report describes the principal-agent theory, identifies principal-agent problems in the current DoD contracting environment, discusses how the TRIM addresses these problems more effectively...
Sebetlele, Sewagodimo Amos
The study focuses on the use of negotiation skills as a managerial task of the school principal in order to reduce conflicts between teachers and between teachers and themselves, so as to enhance a good working interpersonal relationship between them. This will lead to the building of trust, professional development and success. The purpose of this study was to determine through a literature study and empirical investigation, the nature of negotiation in schools and the skills ...
Valentine, Jerry W.; Bowman, Michael L.
Using the literature and research on principal effectiveness as a foundation, the Audit of Principal Effectiveness was developed. Initially, 162 items forming 12 theoretical factors describing effective principal behavior were identified and sorted into two documents. The documents, each containing 81 items, were mailed to a total of 3,660…
Li, Fachao; Jin, Chenxia
In this paper, starting from the structure of fuzzy information, by distinguishing principal indexes and assistant indexes, give comparison of fuzzy information on synthesizing effect and operation of fuzzy optimization on principal indexes transformation, further, propose axiom system of fuzzy inequity degree from essence of constraint, and give an instructive metric method; Then, combining genetic algorithm, give fuzzy optimization methods based on principal operation and inequity degree (denoted by BPO&ID-FGA, for short); Finally, consider its convergence using Markov chain theory and analyze its performance through an example. All these indicate, BPO&ID-FGA can not only effectively merge decision consciousness into the optimization process, but possess better global convergence, so it can be applied to many fuzzy optimization problems.
Figure 55. SHORT AFT TAIL, HIGH q, X -P o Sol, 2 w .35, h/h NICHOLS PLOT 113 w= .33 r/a K = .0012 +q413 ccN Se OTFgue5 cv. a-T Fiue5.SOR F AL.X- IHq A S...274 T SnI ty G.q I n/a r equir -Zs I ve s PILOT B IC ATITD RESPONSE T SiAlG. I ti hd m r li RATING Long qnHi 92.5 A 4.2 1.0 .44 18 A haO t r SP Td y1...NU?4. COEFF.) F- - equivalent numerator zero, fixed at the true value of L or,- 0e or allowed to run free, I .sec -- ~ ~~ " " QIe -- " TD
Full Text Available Aim: study was to investigate any possible effect(s of experiences from active membership and participation in task or ego orientations among referees in the sport of wrestling. Material: The sample consisted of 213 international referees from 30 countries (Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, France, Italy, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, Poland, Hungary, U.S.A, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Egypt, Canada, Georgia, Croatia, Uzbekistan, Norway, Cuba, Belarus, & Tunisia. Their age ranged from 26 to 60 yrs. old ( M =43, SD =8.6. During the procedure, the participants were asked to fill a specific questionnaire, the «Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire» (Duda & Nicholls, 1992. Results: Results showed that the referees from elite wrestling level’ countries (Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, U.S.A., Korea, Japan, Kazakhstan, & Cuba are more task oriented than those from the non-elite wrestling level’ countries. Researchers believe that this occurred because referees from non-elite wrestling level’ countries might have less game-sport experience and more specifically in high level games. At the same time, the Olympic experience referees were more task oriented than the non-Olympic experienced. Conclusion: Referee’s decisions are an important issue in the sport milieu. The investigations in decision-making by referees and factors that affect it are rather scarce and research should focus on such topics. Improvement of decision-making by referees, would lead to safer and better performance. Thus, better understanding of referees’ behavior, through identification and operationalization of the factors affecting it, might lead to more effective selection, training and performance.
Foley, Charles F.
The principal of Concord High School (New Hampshire) recounts the 1985-86 school year's four crises--the visits of teacher-astronaut Christa McAuliffe and Secretary of Education William Bennett, the shooting of a former student, and the Challenger space shuttle explosion. The greatest challenge was resuming the normal schedule and fielding media…
Purpose: This paper aims to contribute experience and ideas of the transformational leadership, not only for the principal want to improve leadership himself (herself), but also for the school at critical period of improvement, through summarizing forming process and the problem during the course and key factors that affect the course.…
‘De financiële crisis zou niet hebben plaatsgevonden, als de wereld de principes van islamitisch bankieren en financieren zou hebben aangenomen.’ Dat was één van de kenmerkende reacties van de kant van de islamitische bankiers, in de laatste maanden van 2008. Toen begon de wereldwijde financiële
The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically...... closed field k and let X be a smooth, projective variety over k together with a very ample line bundle O(1). The main result of the paper is that if E is a semistable (resp. stable) principal G-bundle on X w.r.t O(1), then the restriction of E to a general, high multi-degree, complete-intersection curve...
Anast-May, Linda; Mitchell, Mark; Buckner, Barbara Chesler; Elsberry, Cindy
This study examined the relative importance that school principals attach to aspects of their role as marketing managers for their schools and their relative satisfaction with their efforts to date. The study included 60 principals from two school districts. Findings suggest that principals are aware of the importance of marketing in today's…
Uzun, Tevfik; Ayik, Ahmet
Purpose: Determining the relationship between communication competence and conflict management styles of school principals, according to teacher perceptions, is important for school principals to effectively manage and foster a positive school environment. Conflicts are inevitable in all types of schools. Managing conflicts and maintaining…
Berson, Yair; Oreg, Shaul
Instilling values in children is among the cornerstones of every society. There is wide agreement that beyond academic teaching, schools play an important role in shaping schoolchildren's character, imparting in them values such as curiosity, achievement, benevolence, and citizenship. Despite the importance of this topic, we know very little about whether and how schools affect children's values. In this large-scale longitudinal study, we examined school principals' roles in the development of children's values. We hypothesized that relationships exist between principals' values and changes in children's values through the mediating effect of the school climate. To test our predictions, we collected data from 252 school principals, 3,658 teachers, and 49,401 schoolchildren. A multilevel structural-equation-modeling analysis yielded overall support for our hypotheses. These findings contribute to understanding the development of children's values and the far-reaching impact of leaders' values. They also demonstrate effects of schools on children beyond those on academic achievement.
Tracheoesophageal Fistula: Diagnosis with CT. Pediatr Radiol 15:134-135, 1985 Sueoka BL, Johnson JF, Enzenauer RW, Kolina JS: Infantile Infectious Sacroiliitis...C) Stokes WS: Spontaneous Diabetes Mellitus in a Baboon (Papio anubis). 35th Annual Session, American Association for Laboratory Animal Science...Summary Sheet Prot No: 21H/85 Status: Ongoing TITLE: Efficacy of Cholestyramine in Acute Infantile Diarrhea Principal Investigator: CPT George M. Maher
Liu, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhiwei
There is growing interest in assessing immune biomarkers, which are quick to measure and potentially predictive of long-term efficacy, as surrogate endpoints in randomized, placebo-controlled vaccine trials. This can be done under a principal stratification approach, with principal strata defined using a subject's potential immune responses to vaccine and placebo (the latter may be assumed to be zero). In this context, principal surrogacy refers to the extent to which vaccine efficacy varies across principal strata. Because a placebo recipient's potential immune response to vaccine is unobserved in a standard vaccine trial, augmented vaccine trials have been proposed to produce the information needed to evaluate principal surrogacy. This article reviews existing methods based on an estimated likelihood and a pseudo-score (PS) and proposes two new methods based on a semiparametric likelihood (SL) and a pseudo-likelihood (PL), for analyzing augmented vaccine trials. Unlike the PS method, the SL method does not require a model for missingness, which can be advantageous when immune response data are missing by happenstance. The SL method is shown to be asymptotically efficient, and it performs similarly to the PS and PL methods in simulation experiments. The PL method appears to have a computational advantage over the PS and SL methods.
Keng, S.E.; Abbas Fadhl Mubarek Al-Karkhi; Mohd Khairuddin Mohd Talib; Azhar Mat Easa; Hoong, C.L.
This study was triggered by Malaysia Ministry of Health to monitor quality of commercial orange juice products sold in Malaysia market. A total of 19 orange juice samples from 14 different brands of packed orange juice products and 5 different brands of fresh orange fruit juices were analyzed for total soluble solids content, total titratable acidity, sugar composition and amino acid profiles. Hierarchical Cluster analysis (HCA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) on amino acid composition alone allowed visual discrimination between fresh squeezed orange juices and commercial packed orange juices. Suspicion of mislabel was raised in cases of miss-classification. (author)
While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…
Hu, Weiming; Hu, Min; Zhou, Xue; Tan, Tieniu; Lou, Jianguang; Maybank, Steve
Visual surveillance using multiple cameras has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Correspondence between multiple cameras is one of the most important and basic problems which visual surveillance using multiple cameras brings. In this paper, we propose a simple and robust method, based on principal axes of people, to match people across multiple cameras. The correspondence likelihood reflecting the similarity of pairs of principal axes of people is constructed according to the relationship between "ground-points" of people detected in each camera view and the intersections of principal axes detected in different camera views and transformed to the same view. Our method has the following desirable properties: 1) Camera calibration is not needed. 2) Accurate motion detection and segmentation are less critical due to the robustness of the principal axis-based feature to noise. 3) Based on the fused data derived from correspondence results, positions of people in each camera view can be accurately located even when the people are partially occluded in all views. The experimental results on several real video sequences from outdoor environments have demonstrated the effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of our method.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...
Denver Public Schools, one of 14 districts that receive funding from The Wallace Foundation to improve principal effectiveness, is also one of a number of districts around the country emphasizing the development of principals' managers in the central office. The principal's job has changed over the last decade, going from a role that revolved…
Narro, Laurie Irene
The role of the principal is a demanding one. Many principals report that they don't believe they have the necessary training to act as a manager, instructional and transformational leader. Yet many principals do not avail themselves to ongoing professional development. It is for that reason that this study was undertaken: to discover the…
Grant, Catherine Miles; Davenport, Linda Ruiz
One of the most promising developments in math education is the fact that many districts are hiring math coaches--also called math resource teachers, math facilitators, math lead teachers, or math specialists--to assist elementary-level teachers with math instruction. What must not be lost, however, is that principals play an essential role in…
Pan, Hui-Ling Wendy; Nyeu, Fong-Yee; Chen, June S.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how instructional leadership, a concept imported from Western scholarship, has been conceptualized in the Taiwanese context and how principal instructional leadership is realized in schools. The development trajectory of principal instructional leadership is delineated by examining empirical studies…
Kalman, Mahmut; Arslan, Mustafa Cüneyt
The purpose of the current study was to examine primary and middle school principals' evaluations of their own instructional leadership behaviours, and thereby pay closer attention to the ideal instructional leadership behaviours suggested in the related literature and the realities of principals' instructional leadership behaviours. Although…
Wells, Caryn M.
This conceptual article presents a review of the research concerning the stress level of principals over the past three decades, with emphasis on the occupational stress that principals encounter because of heightened accountability and expectations for student achievement. Mindfulness meditation, as a stress management intervention, provides the…
An empirical approach to analysing the forward curve dynamics of energy futures is presented. For non-seasonal commodities-such as crude oil-the forward curve is well described by the first three principal components: the level, slope and curvature. A principal component indicator is described that
It was recommended among others that principals of secondary schools should adopt all the management strategies in this study as this will improve school administration and consequently students‟ academic performance. Keywords: Management Strategies; Secondary Schools; Administrative Effectiveness ...
Wildy, Helen; Clarke, Simon
This paper examines the complex matter of initial principal preparation in a context where traditionally beginning principals have learned their role from experience, on the job. Using data from both novice and experienced primary principals it was found that while what was needed in the job was agreed upon--how to deal with place, with people,…
Adams, Mark Thomas
This qualitative study investigated the nature of the relationship between principal leadership and school culture within a school-wide implementation of Professional Crisis Management (PCM). PCM is a comprehensive and fully integrated system designed to manage crisis situations effectively, safely, and with dignity. While designed primarily to…
Evolutionary explanations of psychological phenomena have become widespread. This paper examines a recent attempt by Nichols and Grantham (2000) to circumvent the problem of epiphenomenalism in establishing the selective status of consciousness. Nichols and Grantham (2000) argue that a case can be made for the view that consciousness is an adaptation based on its complexity. I set out this argument and argue that it fails to establish that phenomenal consciousness is a complex system. It ...
NOVEMBER 1984, SUBJECT: ENHANCEMENT OF THE CINCS ROLE IN PPBS......152 APPENDIX C: EXTRACTS FROM THE GOLDWATER-NICHOLS ACT RELATING TO THE CINCS...18 The law refers to combatant commands and later combatant commanders who are more commonly referred to as CINCs or Commanders-in-Chief. 19 Boldin ...Appendix D for extracts from the Goldwater-Nichols Act .-- and other documents relating to the CINCs.) For the first time, and because of the Act
Firestone, William A.; Wilson, Bruce L.
Principals can influence teachers and instructional behavior by working through linkage mechanisms within the organizational structure of the school. Two types of linkages are identified: bureaucratic and cultural. Principals have access to linkages of both kinds; using linkages effectively, they can generate a common purpose in their schools. (MD)
Boyland, Lori G.; Swensson, Jeff; Ellis, John G.; Coleman, Lauren L.; Boyland, Margaret I.
School principals should lead for social change, particularly in support of vulnerable or marginalized students. An important social justice issue in which principals must provide strong leadership, but may not be adequately prepared in university training, is creating positive and inclusive school environments for lesbian, gay, transgender,…
Fuller, Ed; Hollingworth, Liz
Policymakers are proposing the use of outcome measures as indicators of effective principal preparation programs. The three most common metrics recommended are: (1) graduates' effectiveness in improving student achievement test scores, (2) graduate job placement rates, and (3) principal job retention once employed. This article explores the use of…
Full Text Available Personal recognition using palm-vein patterns has emerged as a promising alternative for human recognition because of its uniqueness, stability, live body identification, flexibility, and difficulty to cheat. With the expanding application of palm-vein pattern recognition, the corresponding growth of the database has resulted in a long response time. To shorten the response time of identification, this paper proposes a simple and useful classification for palm-vein identification based on principal direction features. In the registration process, the Gaussian-Radon transform is adopted to extract the orientation matrix and then compute the principal direction of a palm-vein image based on the orientation matrix. The database can be classified into six bins based on the value of the principal direction. In the identification process, the principal direction of the test sample is first extracted to ascertain the corresponding bin. One-by-one matching with the training samples is then performed in the bin. To improve recognition efficiency while maintaining better recognition accuracy, two neighborhood bins of the corresponding bin are continuously searched to identify the input palm-vein image. Evaluation experiments are conducted on three different databases, namely, PolyU, CASIA, and the database of this study. Experimental results show that the searching range of one test sample in PolyU, CASIA and our database by the proposed method for palm-vein identification can be reduced to 14.29%, 14.50%, and 14.28%, with retrieval accuracy of 96.67%, 96.00%, and 97.71%, respectively. With 10,000 training samples in the database, the execution time of the identification process by the traditional method is 18.56 s, while that by the proposed approach is 3.16 s. The experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is more efficient than the traditional method, especially for a large database.
Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike
This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…
Khammar, Zahra; Heidarzadegan, Alireza; Balaghat, Seyed Reza; Salehi, Hadi
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between knowledge management and organizational learning with the effectiveness of ordinary and smart high school principals in Zahedan Pre-province. The statistical community of this research is 1350 male and female teachers teaching in ordinary and smart students of high schools in that 300 ones…
Xu, Lihua; Wubbena, Zane; Stewart, Trae
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12 school principals (n=6,317) in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Nine first-order factor models and four second-order factor models were tested using confirmatory…
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study enhances the principal-agent model by incorporating a multilevel perspective and differences among agency situations. A theoretical discussion is developed using a proposed intersection of methodological focuses and a descriptive-exemplificative hypothetical analysis. The analysis is applied to public expenditure social control in representative democracies, and as a result, a principal-agent model unfolds that incorporates a decision-making perspective and focuses on formulation, negotiation, articulation, and implementation competencies. Thus, it is possible to incorporate elements into the principal-agent model to make it more permeable to individual, group, and societal idiosyncrasies with respect to public expenditure social control.
Jacob, Brian A.
This paper takes advantage of a unique policy change to examine how principals make decisions regarding teacher dismissal. In 2004, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Chicago Teachers Union (CTU) signed a new collective bargaining agreement that gave principals the flexibility to dismiss probationary teachers for any reason and without the…
Karakose, Turgut; Kocabas, Ibrahim; Yirci, Ramazan; Esen, Coskun; Celik, Mustafa
The purpose of this study is to explore school administrations' burnout situation and life satisfaction levels and the relationship between burnout and life satisfaction. The study was designed with the screening model. The research sample consists of 92 school principals and vice principals. Research data was collected with "Maslach Burnout…
As schools across Arizona worked to meet NCLB's AYP requirement in 2010-2011, they were also labeled and sanctioned by AZ Learns. This phenomenological study focused on six effective high school principals in two Arizona school districts to ascertain how accountability policies impacted the principals' job responsibilities, autonomy, and ability…
Zepeda, Sally J.
In the updated third edition of this highly successful book, leadership expert, Sally Zepeda offers savvy advice to both new and seasoned principals and assistant principals. You get practical tools and strategies, along with real-world examples to help you improve teacher effectiveness and boost student achievement. This edition features valuable…
Wiezorek, Douglas; Manard, Carolyn
We report on a phenomenological study of the leadership experiences of six novice, rural public school principals in a midwestern U.S. state. We situated our analysis within existing research on leadership for learning, particularly how novice principals interpreted instructional leadership challenges in the context of rural school leadership. Our…
Shoemaker, D.D.; Cysyk, R.L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Bhat, H.B.; Malspeis, L.
m-AMSA [4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide] labeled in either the acridine or anilino portion was used to investigate the disposition of this antitumor agent in rats. The principal biliary metabolite, which accounts for approximately 80% of the total biliary radioactivity for 90 min after administration and greater than 50% of the administered dose by 180 min after administration, had both the acridine and the anilino portions intact. Isolation and purification of the principal metabolite was achieved by preparative thin-layer chromatography on silica gel and column chromatography on Amberlite XAD-2 resin. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the CID salt in D 2 O showed that the metabolite is the m-AMSA-glutathione conjugate in which the thioether linkage occurs at the 5'-position of the anilino ring. Synthesis of the metabolite was achieved by oxidizing m-AMSA with active MnO 2 to -methanesulfonyl - - (9-acridinyl)-3'-methoxy - 2',5' - cyclohexadiene-1',4'-diimine (m-AQDI) followed by reaction of m-AQDI with glutathione. The 1 H-NMR spectrum of the synthetic product proved identical with that of the isolated metabolite. The demonstration that the principal biliary metabolite on m-AMSA involves glutathione bound to the 9-anilino ring suggests that m-AMSA may be bioactivated in vivo to the quinoidal diimine, m-AQDI
Full Text Available Face recognition is one of many important researches, and today, many applications have implemented it. Through development of techniques like Principal Components Analysis (PCA, computers can now outperform human in many face recognition tasks, particularly those in which large database of faces must be searched. Principal Components Analysis was used to reduce facial image dimension into fewer variables, which are easier to observe and handle. Those variables then fed into artificial neural networks using backpropagation method to recognise the given facial image. The test results show that PCA can provide high face recognition accuracy. For the training faces, a correct identification of 100% could be obtained. From some of network combinations that have been tested, a best average correct identification of 91,11% could be obtained for the test faces while the worst average result is 46,67 % correct identification Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pengenalan wajah manusia merupakan salah satu bidang penelitian yang penting, dan dewasa ini banyak aplikasi yang dapat menerapkannya. Melalui pengembangan suatu teknik seperti Principal Components Analysis (PCA, komputer sekarang dapat melebihi kemampuan otak manusia dalam berbagai tugas pengenalan wajah, terutama tugas-tugas yang membutuhkan pencarian pada database wajah yang besar. Principal Components Analysis digunakan untuk mereduksi dimensi gambar wajah sehingga menghasilkan variabel yang lebih sedikit yang lebih mudah untuk diobsevasi dan ditangani. Hasil yang diperoleh kemudian akan dimasukkan ke suatu jaringan saraf tiruan dengan metode Backpropagation untuk mengenali gambar wajah yang telah diinputkan ke dalam sistem. Hasil pengujian sistem menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan PCA untuk pengenalan wajah dapat memberikan tingkat akurasi yang cukup tinggi. Untuk gambar wajah yang diikutsertakankan dalam latihan, dapat diperoleh 100% identifikasi yang benar. Dari beberapa kombinasi jaringan yang
Fauske, Janice R.; Ogawa, Rodney T.
Describes how an elementary school coped with its principal's impending departure and extends R. Gephart's grounded theory of leader succession--that faculty collectively degrade the departing principal's status. This study finds individual degradation attitudes prevalent among teachers lacking meaningful contact with the departing principal.…
Kouali, Georgia; Pashiardis, Petros
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a piece of research concerning the time management of Cypriot primary school principals. Time management refers to the interrelation of five independent variables: the various tasks principals perform, their frequency, the degree of accomplishment of those tasks, the use of time…
Hansson, Per H.; Andersen, Jon Aarum
The Swedish schools have been under pressure for change for several decades. How leaders behave can be of vital importance in times of change. The principal is responsible for both the educational program and for the school budget. Two hundred Swedish principals (male and female) responded to questionnaires concerning their leadership style,…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the variations in the ways that principals conceptualize their basis of power in schools. Design/methodology/approach: Phenomenography was used as the research method of this study. The interviewees consisted of 16 principals, eight from public schools and eight from private schools. Findings: The…
Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang; Watson, Jim R.; Murray, Louise
This study examined the relationships among the authentic leadership style of school principals and the trust and engagement levels of their teachers in a county school district in a Southeastern state. The authenticity of the school principal was found to be significantly positively related to teacher trust and teacher engagement levels. The…
Ian Alwyn Marshall
Full Text Available In Barbados, the issue of principal leadership and teacher productivity has occupied the attention of teacher unions and educational authorities alike. The teachers have been calling for principals to be removed while the principals have been arguing for greater autonomy to discipline teachers. This state of affairs has, understandably, adversely impacted teacher commitment levels. In the literature there is a clear correlation between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, however, it is important to know whether or not the relationship holds true in the context of Barbadian schools. This author is of the view that if teacher commitment levels are to return to those in evidence in effective schools, then attention must be given to the way in which principals exercise their leadership functions. This study was therefore designed to examine in greater detail the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment. The author employed purposive sampling to survey a cohort of ninety (90 teachers and eleven (11 principals drawn from eleven secondary schools. Results confirmed the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, and a statistically significant difference in the level of commitment reported by teachers at newer secondary schools and teachers at older secondary schools. Results also indicated that biographical variables moderated the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment. Additionally, the regression model indicated that the principal leadership style sub-variables, in combination, accounted for some variance in the commitment demonstrated by teachers.
Full Text Available Thermography is a powerful tool for non-destructive testing of a wide range of materials. Thermography has a number of approaches differing in both experiment setup and the way the collected data are processed. Among such approaches is the Principal Component Thermography (PCT method, which is based on the statistical processing of raw thermal images collected by thermal camera. The processed images (principal components or empirical orthogonal functions form an orthonormal basis, and often look like a superposition of all possible structural features found in the object under inspection—i.e., surface heating non-uniformity, internal defects and material structure. At the same time, from practical point of view it is desirable to have images representing independent structural features. The work presented in this paper proposes an approach for separation of independent image patterns (archetypes from a set of principal component images. The approach is demonstrated in the application of inspection of composite materials as well as the non-invasive analysis of works of art.
Acton, P.D.; Ell, P.J.; Pilowsky, L.S.; Brammer, M.J.; Suckling, J.
This paper describes a novel technique for registering a dynamic sequence of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) dopamine D 2 receptor images, using principal component analysis (PCA). Conventional methods for registering images, such as count difference and correlation coefficient algorithms, fail to take into account the dynamic nature of the data, resulting in large systematic errors when registering time-varying images. However, by using principal component analysis to extract the temporal structure of the image sequence, misregistration can be quantified by examining the distribution of eigenvalues. The registration procedures were tested using a computer-generated dynamic phantom derived from a high-resolution magnetic resonance image of a realistic brain phantom. Each method was also applied to clinical SPET images of dopamine D 2 receptors, using the ligands iodine-123 iodobenzamide and iodine-123 epidepride, to investigate the influence of misregistration on kinetic modelling parameters and the binding potential. The PCA technique gave highly significant (P 123 I-epidepride scans. The PCA method produced data of much greater quality for subsequent kinetic modelling, with an improvement of nearly 50% in the χ 2 of the fit to the compartmental model, and provided superior quality registration of particularly difficult dynamic sequences. (orig.)
Amailland, Sylvain; Thomas, Jean-Hugh; Pézerat, Charles; Boucheron, Romuald
The acoustic study of propellers in a hydrodynamic tunnel is of paramount importance during the design process, but can involve significant difficulties due to the boundary layer noise (BLN). Indeed, advanced denoising methods are needed to recover the acoustic signal in case of poor signal-to-noise ratio. The technique proposed in this paper is based on the decomposition of the wall-pressure cross-spectral matrix (CSM) by taking advantage of both the low-rank property of the acoustic CSM and the sparse property of the BLN CSM. Thus, the algorithm belongs to the class of robust principal component analysis (RPCA), which derives from the widely used principal component analysis. If the BLN is spatially decorrelated, the proposed RPCA algorithm can blindly recover the acoustical signals even for negative signal-to-noise ratio. Unfortunately, in a realistic case, acoustic signals recorded in a hydrodynamic tunnel show that the noise may be partially correlated. A prewhitening strategy is then considered in order to take into account the spatially coherent background noise. Numerical simulations and experimental results show an improvement in terms of BLN reduction in the large hydrodynamic tunnel. The effectiveness of the denoising method is also investigated in the context of acoustic source localization.
The article explores the proposed performance agreement and its potential influence on principals' motivation to improve their own, and therefore also the ... performance agreements; performance management; power; school leadership;