Sample records for nias-simeulue sumatra earthquake

  1. The 2007 Mentawai earthquake sequence on the Sumatra megathrust (United States)

    Konca, A.; Avouac, J.; Sladen, A.; Meltzner, A. J.; Kositsky, A. P.; Sieh, K.; Fang, P.; Li, Z.; Galetzka, J.; Genrich, J.; Chlieh, M.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Bock, Y.; Fielding, E. J.; Helmberger, D. V.


    The Sumatra Megathrust has recently produced a flurry of large interplate earthquakes starting with the giant Mw 9.15, Aceh earthquake of 2004. All of these earthquakes occurred within the area monitored by the Sumatra Geodetic Array (SuGAr), which provided exceptional records of near-field co-seismic and postseismic ground displacements. The most recent of these major earthquakes, an Mw 8.4 earthquake and an Mw 7.9 earthquake twelve hours later, occurred in the Mentawai islands area where devastating historical earthquakes had happened in 1797 and 1833. The 2007 earthquake sequence provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the variability of the earthquakes along megathrusts and their relation to interseismic coupling. The InSAR, GPS and teleseismic modeling shows that 2007 earthquakes ruptured a fraction of the strongly coupled Mentawai patch of the megathrust, which is also only a fraction of the 1833 rupture area. It also released a much smaller moment than the one released in 1833, or than the deficit of moment that has accumulated since. Both earthquakes of 2007 consist of 2 sub-events which are 50 to 100 km apart from each other. On the other hand, the northernmost slip patch of 8.4 and southern slip patch of 7.9 earthquakes abut each other, but they ruptured 12 hours apart. Sunda megathrust earthquakes of recent years include a rupture of a strongly coupled patch that closely mimics a prior rupture of that patch and which is well correlated with the interseismic coupling pattern (Nias-Simeulue section), as well as a rupture sequence of a strongly coupled patch that differs substantially in the details from its most recent predecessors (Mentawai section). We conclude that (1) seismic asperities are probably persistent features which arise form heterogeneous strain build up in the interseismic period; and (2) the same portion of a megathrust can rupture in different ways depending on whether asperities break as isolated events or cooperate to produce

  2. New constraints on the magnitude of the 4 January 1907 tsunami earthquake off Sumatra, Indonesia, and its Indian Ocean-wide tsunami (United States)

    Martin, S. S.; Li, L.; Okal, E.; Kanamori, H.; Morin, J.; Sieh, K.; Switzer, A.


    On 4 January 1907, an earthquake and tsunami occurred off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, causing at least 2,188 fatalities. The earthquake was given an instrumental surface-wave magnitude (MS) in the range of 7.5 to 8.0 at periods of ≈40s. The tsunami it triggered was destructive on the islands of Nias and Simeulue; on the latter, this gave rise to the legend of the S'mong. This tsunami appears in records in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and as far as the island of La Réunion. In relation to published seismic magnitudes for the earthquake, the tsunami was anomalously large, qualifying it as a "tsunami earthquake." Relocations using reported arrival times suggest an epicentral location near the trench. However, unusually for a tsunami earthquake the reported macroseismic intensities were higher than expected on Nias (6-7 EMS). We present a new study of this event based on macroseismic and tsunami observations culled from published literature and colonial press reports, as well as existing and newly acquired digitized or print seismograms. This multidisciplinary combination of macroseismic and seismological data with tsunami modelling has yielded new insights into this poorly understood but scientifically and societally important tsunami earthquake in the Indian Ocean. With these new data, we discriminated two large earthquakes within an hour of each other with clear differences in seismological character. The first, we interpret to be a tsunami earthquake with low levels of shaking (3-4 EMS). For this event, we estimate a seismic moment (M0) between 0.8 and 1.2 x1021 Nm (≈MW 7.9 to 8.0) based on digitized Wiechert records at Göttingen in the frequency band 6-8 mHz. These records document a regular growth of moment with period and suggest possibly larger values of M0 at even longer periods. The second earthquake caused damage on Nias (6-7 EMS). We estimate MS 6 ¾ - 7 for the second event based on seismograms from Manila, Mizusawa, and Osaka. We also

  3. Bencana Alam Tak Terhindarkan: Sebuah Tinjauan Pariwisata Nias


    -, Suparwoko


    Indonesian  tourism was grief due to the Bali bombing on October 12, 2002. The tsunami on December 2004 also made the Indonesian tourism was sorrow. The Aceh tsunami devastating some regions of Aceh and North Sumatra had killed more than 125.000 people. The sad feeling from the disaster was not overyet; however, the earthquake in Nias, North Sumatra, was happened just several months after the Aceh tsunami. Because of the Nias victims were more than 500 people, this Nias disaster was proposed ...

  4. GPS Analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Gudmundsson, Ólafur


    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of M w = 9.3 (revised based on normal-mode amplitudes by Stein and Okal,, it is the second largest...... earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about 100 km off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively dense Indo-Australian plate moves beneath the lighter Burma plate, resulting in stress accumulation. The average relative velocity of the two plates is about 6 cm/yr. On 26 December 2004...

  5. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

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    Laowo Idaman


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO, pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO, revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in

  6. Gender inequality : Behind maternal mortality in Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia: Towards a gender audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaluchu, F.


    Singling out Nias Island in North Sumatra Indonesia as the research location, this research attempts to analyze local aspects pertaining to gender inequality in the context of maternal health in Indonesia. This research aims to portray the presence of gender inequality in Nias, and how it affects

  7. Interseismic, postseismic and co-seismic strain on the Sumatra megathrust and their relation to the megathrust frictional properties (United States)

    Konca, A. O.; Avouac, J.-P.; Sladen, A.; Meltzner, A. J.; Kositsky, A.; Sieh, K.; Galetzka, J.; Genrich, J.; Natawidjaja, D. H.


    The Sumatra Megathrust has recently produced a flurry of large interplate earthquakes starting with the giant Mw 9.15, Aceh earthquake of 2004. All of these earthquakes occurred within the area monitored by the Sumatra Geodetic Array (SuGAr), which provided exceptional records of near-field co-seismic and postseismic ground displacements. In addition, based on coral growth pattern, it has also been possible to estimate the pattern of interseismic strain in this area over the last few decades preceding 2004. This earthquake sequence provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the eventual relationship between large megathrust ruptures, interseismic coupling and the frictional properties of the megathrust. The emerging view is a megathrust with strong down-dip and lateral variations of frictional properties. The 2005, Mw 8.6 Nias earthquake ruptured nearly entirely a patch that had ruptured already during a similar earthquake in 1861 and that had remained well locked in the interseismic period allowing for stress to build up to an amount comparable to, or even larger than the stress released in 1861 or 2005. This patch is inferred to obey dominantly velocity-weakening friction and the pattern or interseismic coupling and afterslip suggests that it is surrounded by areas with velocity-strengthening friction. The 2007 Mw 8.4 and 7.9 earthquakes ruptured a fraction of a strongly coupled in the Mentawai area. They each consist of 2 sub-events which are 50 to 100 km apart from each other. On the other hand, the northernmost slip patch of 8.4 and southern slip patch of 7.9 earthquakes abut each other, but they ruptured 12 hours apart. They released a moment much smaller than the giant earthquakes known to have occurred in the Mentawai area in 1833 or in 1797. Also the moment released in 2007 amounts to only a fraction of the deficit of moment that had accumulated as a result of interseismic strain since these historical events, the potential for a large megathrust

  8. Gender inequality: Behind maternal mortality in Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia: Towards a gender audit


    Zaluchu, F.


    Singling out Nias Island in North Sumatra Indonesia as the research location, this research attempts to analyze local aspects pertaining to gender inequality in the context of maternal health in Indonesia. This research aims to portray the presence of gender inequality in Nias, and how it affects the reproductive health of and poses Niasan women to the risk of maternal death. It also carefully examines the social situations in which gender inequality is established and reproduced by the exist...

  9. Coseismic and postseismic deformation of the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (United States)

    Hughes, Kristin Leigh Hellem

    The 26 December 2004 M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (SAE) induced a devastating tsunami when it ruptured over 1300 km of the boundary between the Indo-Australian plate and Burma microplate (Vigny et al., 2005; Bilek, 2007). Three months later on 28 March 2005, the M8.7 Nias earthquake (NE) ruptured over 400 km along the same trench overlapping and progressing to the south of the M9.2 rupture (Banerjee et al., 2007). The spatial and temporal proximity of these two earthquakes suggests that the SAE mechanically influenced the timing of the NE. I analyze the coseismic and postseismic deformation, stress, and pore pressure of the 2004 SAE using 3D finite element models (FEMs) in order to determine the mechanical coupling of the SAE and NE. The motivation for using FEMs is two-fold. First, FEMs allow me to honor the geologic structure of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone, and second, FEMs simulate the mechanical behavior of quasi-static coseismic and postseismic deformation systems (e.g., elastic, poroelastic, and viscoelastic materials). The results of my study include: (1) Coseismic slip distributions are incredibly sensitive to the distribution of material properties (Masterlark and Hughes, 2008), (2) Slip models derived from tsunami wave heights do not match slip models derived from GPS data (Hughes and Masterlark, 2008), (3) These FEMs predict postseismic poroelastic deformation and viscoelastic deformation simultaneously (Masterlark and Hughes, 2008), (4) Pore pressure changes induced by the SAE triggered the NE via fluid flow in the subducting oceanic crust and caused the NE to occur 7 years ahead of interseismic strain accumulation predictions (Hughes et al., 2010; Hughes et al., 2011), (5) Global Conductance Matrices provide a way to smooth an underdetermined FEM for arbitrarily irregular surfaces, and (6) FEMs are capable and desired to model subduction zone deformation built around the complexity of a subducting slab which is usually ignored in geodetic

  10. Integrated study of geophysical and biological anomalies before earthquakes (seismic and non-seismic), in Austria and Indonesia (United States)

    Straka, Wolfgang; Assef, Rizkita; Faber, Robert; Ferasyi, Reza


    of different geological and seismological character (Sabang and Simeulue, Sumatra, and Buleleng, Bali). Field studies, at the moment, are focused on Nias Island, Sumatra, Indonesia, and the Mur-Mürz-Transform Fault (Semmering area) in Austria. Next year it is planned to extend activities to Yogyakarta Province, Java, Indonesia. Geophysical factors selected for analysis include weather (the usual parameters), high-frequency magnetic variations, air ionization, soil gas emissions, and seismic and acoustic vibrations. Long-term measurements are needed to look for behavioral correlates of geophysical variations in general, in order to define "normal", before conclusive evidence can be presented in regard to "abnormal" precursory earthquake phenomena in particular.

  11. Detailed seismotectonic analysis of Sumatra subduction zone revealed by high precision earthquake location (United States)

    Sagala, Ricardo Alfencius; Harjadi, P. J. Prih; Heryandoko, Nova; Sianipar, Dimas


    Sumatra was one of the most high seismicity regions in Indonesia. The subduction of Indo-Australian plate beneath Eurasian plate in western Sumatra contributes for many significant earthquakes that occur in this area. These earthquake events can be used to analyze the seismotectonic of Sumatra subduction zone and its system. In this study we use teleseismic double-difference method to obtain more high precision earthquake distribution in Sumatra subduction zone. We use a 3D nested regional-global velocity model. We use a combination of data from both of ISC (International Seismological Center) and BMKG (Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics, Indonesia). We successfully relocate about 6886 earthquakes that occur on period of 1981-2015. We consider that this new location is more precise than the regular bulletin. The relocation results show greatly reduced of RMS residual of travel time. Using this data, we can construct a new seismotectonic map of Sumatra. A well-built geometry of subduction slab, faults and volcano arc can be obtained from the new bulletin. It is also showed that at a depth of 140-170 km, there is many events occur as moderate-to-deep earthquakes, and we consider about the relation of the slab's events with volcanic arc and inland fault system. A reliable slab model is also built from regression equation using new relocated data. We also analyze the spatial-temporal of seismotectonic using b-value mapping that inspected in detail horizontally and vertically cross-section.

  12. 2Dbasin modelling of the hydrocarbon systems in the forearc basin of Sumatra; 2D-Beckenmodellierung des Kohlenwasserstoff-Systems im Forearc-Bereich von Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratmann, V.; Berglar, K.; Lutz, R.; Schloemer, S. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Djajadihardja, Y.S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)


    In the forearc basin of Sumatra, individual industrial drillings indicated the existence of hydrocarbons. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an investigation of the hydrocarbon system within this forearc basin by means of a two-dimensional modelling of this basin. The structural development of the basins in the forearc area proceeded differently. Therefore, geophysical data for the investigation of the geological structures as well as geological/geochemical data were raised. The preliminary results of the two-dimensional modelling of the Simeulue basin northwest from Sumatra are presented.

  13. Analyses of surface motions caused by the magnitude 9.0 2004 Sumatra earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Gudmundsson, Ó.

    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on December 26th was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of Mw = 9.0 it is the forth largest earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about one hundred kilometers off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively thin...... of years. The result was a devastating tsunami hitting coastlines across the Indian Ocean killing more than 225,000 people in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. An earthquake of this magnitude is expected to involve a displacement on the fault on the order of 10 meters. But, what...... was the actual amplitude of the surface motions that triggered the tsunami? This can be constrained using the amplitudes of elastic waves radiated from the earthquake, or by direct measurements of deformation. Here we present estimates of the deformation based on continuous Global Positioning System (GPS...

  14. Analysis of Seismotektonic Patterns in Sumatra Region Based on the Focal Mechanism of Earthquake Period 1976-2016 (United States)

    Indah, F. P.; Syafriani, S.; Andiyansyah, Z. S.


    Sumatra is in an active subduction zone between the indo-australian plate and the eurasian plate and is located at a fault along the sumatra fault so that sumatra is vulnerable to earthquakes. One of the ways to find out the cause of earthquake can be done by identifying the type of earthquake-causing faults based on earthquake of focal mechanism. The data used to identify the type of fault cause of earthquake is the earth tensor moment data which is sourced from global cmt period 1976-2016. The data used in this research using magnitude m ≥ 6 sr. This research uses gmt software (generic mapping tolls) to describe the form of fault. From the research result, it is found that the characteristics of fault field that formed in every region in sumatera island based on data processing and data of earthquake history of 1976-2016 period that the type of fault in sumatera fault is strike slip, fault type in mentawai fault is reverse fault (rising faults) and dip-slip, while the fault type in the subduction zone is dip-slip.

  15. Coseismic and post-seismic signatures of the Sumatra 2004 December and 2005 March earthquakes in GRACE satellite gravity (United States)

    Panet, I.; Mikhailov, V.; Diament, M.; Pollitz, F.; King, G.; de Viron, O.; Holschneider, M.; Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.-M.


    The GRACE satellite mission has been measuring the Earth's gravity field and its temporal variations since 2002 April. Although these variations are mainly due to mass transfer within the geofluid envelops, they also result from mass displacements associated with phenomena including glacial isostatic adjustment and earthquakes. However, these last contributions are difficult to isolate because of the presence of noise and of geofluid signals, and because of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution (>400 km half-wavelength). In this paper, we show that a wavelet analysis on the sphere helps to retrieve earthquake signatures from GRACE geoid products. Using a wavelet analysis of GRACE geoids products, we show that the geoid variations caused by the 2004 December (Mw = 9.2) and 2005 March (Mw = 8.7) Sumatra earthquakes can be detected. At GRACE resolution, the 2004 December earthquake produced a strong coseismic decrease of the gravity field in the Andaman Sea, followed by relaxation in the area affected by both the Andaman 2004 and the Nias 2005 earthquakes. We find two characteristic timescales for the relaxation, with a fast variation occurring in the vicinity of the Central Andaman ridge. We discuss our coseismic observations in terms of density changes of crustal and upper-mantle rocks, and of the vertical displacements in the Andaman Sea. We interpret the post-seismic signal in terms of the viscoelastic response of the Earth's mantle. The transient component of the relaxation may indicate the presence of hot, viscous material beneath the active Central Andaman Basin. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.

  16. Atmospheric processes in reaction of Northern Sumatra Earthquake sequence Dec 2004-Apr 2005 (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Cervone, G.; Singh, R.; Taylor, P.


    This work describes our first results in analyzing data from different and independent sources ûemitted long-wavelength radiation (OLR), surface latent heat flux (SHLF) and GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) collected from ground based (GPS) and satellite TIR (thermal infra-red) data sources (NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS). We found atmosphere and ionosphere anomalies one week prior to both the Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake (Dec 26, 2004) and M 8.7 - Northern Sumatra, March 28, 2005. We analyzed 118 days of data from December 1, 2004 through April 1, 2005 for the area (0°-10°,north latitude and 90°-100° east longitude) which included 125 earthquakes with M>5.5. Recent analysis of the continuous OLR from the Earth surface indicates anomalous variations (on top of the atmosphere) prior to a number of medium to large earthquakes. In the case of M 9.0 - Sumatra-Andaman Islands event, compared to the reference fields for the months of December between 2001 and 2004, we found strongly OLR anomalous +80 W/m2 signals (two sigma) along the epicentral area on Dec 21, 2004 five days before the event. In the case of M8.7 March 28, 2005 anomalues signatures over the epicenter appears on March 26 is much weaker (only +20W/m2) and have a different topology. Anomalous values of SHLF associated with M9.0 - Sumatra-Andaman Islands were found on Dec 22, 2005 (SLHF +280Wm2) and less intensity on Mar 23, 2005 (SLHF +180Wm2). Ionospheric variations (GPS/TEC) associated with the Northern Sumatra events were determine by five Regional GPS network stations (COCO, BAKO, NTUS, HYDE and BAST2). For every station time series of the vertical TEC (VTEC) were computed together with correlation with the Dst index. On December 22, four days prior to the M9.0 quake GPS/TEC data reach the monthly maximum for COCO with minor DST activity. For the M 8.7-March 28 event, the increased values of GPS/TEC were observed during four days (March 22-25) in quiet geomagnetic background. Our results need additional

  17. Seismic Hazard characterization study using an earthquake source with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) method in the Northern of Sumatra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, A.; Palupi, M. I. R.; Suharsono


    Sumatra region is one of the earthquake-prone areas in Indonesia because it is lie on an active tectonic zone. In 2004 there is earthquake with a moment magnitude of 9.2 located on the coast with the distance 160 km in the west of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and triggering a tsunami. These events take a lot of casualties and material losses, especially in the Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and North Sumatra. To minimize the impact of the earthquake disaster, a fundamental assessment of the earthquake hazard in the region is needed. Stages of research include the study of literature, collection and processing of seismic data, seismic source characterization and analysis of earthquake hazard by probabilistic methods (PSHA) used earthquake catalog from 1907 through 2014. The earthquake hazard represented by the value of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) in the period of 0.2 and 1 second on bedrock that is presented in the form of a map with a return period of 2475 years and the earthquake hazard curves for the city of Medan and Banda Aceh. (paper)

  18. Co-seismic Earth’s rotation change caused by the 2012 Sumatra earthquake

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    Xu Changyi


    Full Text Available Earthquakes heavily deform the crust in the vicinity of the fault, which leads to mass redistribution in the earth interior. Then it will produce the change of the Earth’s rotation (polar motion and length of day due to the change of Earth inertial moment. This paper adopts the elastic dislocation to compute the co-seismic polar motion and variation in length of day (LOD caused by the 2011 Sumatra earthquake. The Earth’s rotational axis shifted about 1 mas and this earthquake decreased the length of day of 1 μs, indicating the tendency of earthquakes make the Earth rounder and to pull the mass toward the centre of the Earth. The result of variation in length of day is one order of magnitude smaller than the observed results that are available. We also compared the results of three fault models and find the co-seismic change is depended on the fault model.

  19. Postseismic Deformations of the Aceh, Nias and Benkulu Earthquakes and the Viscoelastic Properties of the Mantle (United States)

    Fleitout, L.; Garaud, J.; Cailletaud, G.; Vigny, C.; Simons, W. J.; Ambrosius, B. A.; Trisirisatayawong, I.; Satirapod, C.; Geotecdi Song


    The giant seism of Aceh (december 2004),followed by the Nias and Bengkulu earthquakes, broke a large portion of the boundary between the Indian ocean and the Sunda block. For the first time in history, the deformations associated with a very large earthquake can be followed by GPS, in particular by the SEAMERGE (far-field) and SUGAR (near-field) GPS networks. A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to model both the cosismic and the postseismic deformations. The modeled zone is a large portion of spherical shell around Sumatra extanding over more than 60 degrees in latitude and longitude and from the Earth's surface to the core-mantle boundary. The mesh is refined close to the subduction zone. First, the inverted cosismic displacements on the subduction plane are inverted for and provide a very good fit to the GPS data for the three seisms. The observed postseismic displacements, non-dimensionalized by the cosismic displacements, present three very different patterns as function of time: For GPS stations in the far-field, the total horizontal post-seismic displacement after 4 years is as large as the cosismic displacement. The velocities vary slowly over 4 years. A large subsidence affects Thailand and Malaysia. In the near-field, the postseismic displacement reaches only some 15% of the cosismic displacement and it levels off after 2 years. In the middle-field (south-west coast of Sumatra), the postseismic displacement also levels-off with time but more slowly and it reaches more than 30% of the cosismic displacement after four years. In order to fit these three distinct displacement patterns, we need to invoke both viscoelastic deformation in the asthenosphere and a low-viscosity wedge: Neither the vertical subsidence nor the amplitude of the far-field horizontal velocities could be explained by postseismic sliding on the subduction interface. The low viscosity wedge permits to explain the large middle-field velocities. The viscoelastic properties of the

  20. Kajian kesesuaian lingkungan untuk pengembangan wisata di Pantai Ganting, Pulau Simeulue, Provinsi Aceh

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    Herdiana Mutmainah


    Full Text Available Abstract. Simeulue Island is situated Indian Ocean in western part of Aceh Province, this is one of the outer island in Indonesia. Simeulue has big potency in marine resources such as  clean waters and beautiful beach, coral reefs and mangrove ecosystems. Therefore, Simeulue is very promising as an ecotourism destination. The objective of present study was to evaluate the condition of the water quality and the potency for a marine ecotourism development. The feasibility study was conducted on August in Ganting Beach, Village of Kuala Makmur, Simeulue Island. The purposive random sampling method was used to determine twelve sampling stations. The measured water quality parameters were pH, temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, brightness, BOD5, odors, oil and debris. These parameters were analyized and mapped using software ODV, and then compared to the sea water quality standard for marine tourism as well as the characteristics of the coast to the suitability index of recreational area. The results showed that the water quality of Ganting Beach is very suitable for recreational activities (index 77, category S1  andit is suitable for swimming and also for boating tourism activities, banana boats and jet skis (index 16, category S2. Keywords: water quality; marine tourism; Ganting Beach   Abstrak. Pulau Simeulue, merupakan salah satu pulau terdepan sebelah barat Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia (NKRI, dan terletak di Samudera Hindia.Simeulue memiliki potensi sumberdaya laut yang besar, diantaranya perairan yang besih dan jenih, pantai yang indah, terumbu karang dan hutan bakau, sehingga sangat berpotensi untuk dikembang menjadi tujuan wisata. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai kondisi kualitas perairan dan potensi kesesuaian wisata Pulau Simeulue.Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Agustus 2015 bertempat di Pantai Ganting, Kelurahan Kuala Makmur, Kabupaten Simeulue. Sebanyak 12 lokasi pengambilan sampel kualitas air

  1. Earthquakes & Tsunamis flirting with the Ionosphere: the Sumatra gossip !! (United States)

    Occhipinti, G.; Coïsson, P.; Rolland, L. M.; Lognonne, P.


    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra Earthquake and the related Indian Ocean Tsunami generated the largest remote sensing data-set observing natural hazards. The observations showed both, ground motion and ocean sea surface displacement, as well as the related strong ionospheric anomalies. Total electron content (TEC) perturbations have been observed on a global scale, using ground-based GPS receivers [DasGupta et al., 2006, Liu et al., 2006b] and dual-frequency altimeters (e.g., Jason-1 and Topex/Poseidon [Artru et al., 2005]); plasma velocity perturbation has been observed by Doppler soundings [Liu et al., 2006b, Occhipinti et al., 2009]. The observed perturbations may be characterized as two different waves: the first one is an atmospheric wave in the acoustic domain induced by propagation of Rayleigh waves on the Earth surface; the second one is a slower atmospheric wave in the gravity domain strongly coupled with the generated tsunami. Both waves are reproduced by our accurate modeling taking into account the earthquake/tsunami-neutral atmosphere coupling at the base of the atmosphere, as well as the neutral-plasma coupling in the overlying ionosphere [Occhipinti et al., 2006, 2006, 2009]. Here we present a review of the ionospheric observations related to the Sumatra event in the light of modeling to deeply investigate the coupling mechanism between Solid-Earth/Ocean/Atmosphere/Ionosphere. The matching between data and modeling opens new perspectives in the solid earth research as well as in the tsunami detection providing a new insight into the role of the remote sensing in the monitoring of natural hazard. [Artru et al., 2005] Geophys. J. Int., 160, 2005 [DasGupta et al., 2006] Earth Planet. Space, 35, 929-959. [Liu et al., 2006a] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L02103, 2006. [Liu et al., 2006b] J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05303. [Occhipinti et al., 2006] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20104, 2006 [Occhipinti et al., 2008] Geophys. J. Int., 173, 3, 753-1135, 2008. [Occhipinti et

  2. Anomalous variation in GPS based TEC measurements prior to the 30 September 2009 Sumatra Earthquake (United States)

    Karia, Sheetal; Pathak, Kamlesh

    This paper investigates the features of pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies in the total elec-tron content (TEC) data obtained on the basis of regular GPS observations from the GPS receiver at SVNIT Surat (21.16 N, 72.78 E Geog) located at the northern crest of equatorial anomaly region. The data has been analysed for 5 different earthquakes that occurred during 2009 in India and its neighbouring regions. Our observation shows that for the cases of the earthquake, in which the preparation area lies between the crests of the equatorial anomaly close to the geomagnetic equator the enhancement in TEC was followed by a depletion in TEC on the day of earthquake, which may be connected to the equatorial anomaly shape distortions. For the analysis of the ionospheric effects of one of such case-the 30 September 2009 Sumatra earthquake, Global Ionospheric Maps of TEC were used. The possible influence of the earth-quake preparation processes on the main low-latitude ionosphere peculiarity—the equatorial anomaly—is discussed.

  3. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail:; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail:; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail:


    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  4. Refinements on the inferred causative faults of the great 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes (United States)

    Revathy, P. M.; Rajendran, K.


    As the largest known intra-plate strike-slip events, the pair of 2012 earthquakes in the Wharton Basin is a rarity. Separated in time by 2 hours these events rouse interest also because of their short inter-event duration, complex rupture mechanism, and spatial-temporal proximity to the great 2004 Sumatra plate boundary earthquake. Reactivation of fossil ridge-transform pairs is a favoured mechanism for large oceanic plate earthquakes and their inherent geometry triggers earthquakes on conjugate fault systems, as observed previously in the Wharton Basin. The current debate is whether the ruptures occurred on the WNW-ESE paleo ridges or the NNE-SSW paleo transforms. Back-projection models give a complex rupture pattern that favours the WNW-ESE fault [1]. However, the static stress changes due to the 2004 Sumatra earthquake and 2005 Nias earthquake favour the N15°E fault [2]. We use the Teleseismic Body-Wave Inversion Program [3] and waveform data from Global Seismic Network, to obtain the best fit solutions using P and S-wave synthetic modelling. The preliminary P-wave analysis of both earthquakes gives source parameters that are consistent with the Harvard CMT solutions. The obtained slip distribution complies with the NNE-SSW transforms. Both these earthquakes triggered small tsunamis which appear as two distinctive pulses on 13 Indian Ocean tide gauges and buoys. Frequency spectra of the tsunami recordings from various azimuths provide additional constraint for the choice of the causative faults. References: [1] Yue, H., T. Lay, and K. D. Koper (2012), En echelon and orthogonal fault ruptures of the 11 April 2012 great intraplate earthquakes, Nature, 490, 245-249, doi:10.1038/nature11492 [2] Delescluse, M., N. Chamot-Rooke, R. Cattin, L. Fleitout, O. Trubienko and C. Vigny April 2012 intra-oceanic seismicity off Sumatra boosted by the Banda-Aceh megathrust, Nature, 490(2012), pp. 240-244, doi:10.1038/nature11520 [3] M. Kikuchi and H. Kanamori, Note on

  5. Tsunami Deposits on Simeulue Island, Indonesia--A tale of two tsunamis (United States)

    Jaffe, B. E.; Higman, B.


    As tsunami deposits become more widely used for evaluating tsunami risk, it has become increasingly valuable to improve the ability to interpret deposits to determine tsunami characteristics such as size and flow speed. A team of U.S. and Indonesian scientists went to Simeulue Island 125 km east of Sumatra in April 2005 to learn more about the relation between tsunami deposition and flow. Busong, on the southeast coast of Simeulue Island, was inundated twice in a three-months period by tsunamis. The 26 December 2004 tsunami inundated 130 m inland to an elevation of approximately 4 m. The 28 March 2005 tsunami inundated less than 100 m to an elevation of approximately 2 m. Both tsunamis created deposits that were observed to be an amalgamated 20- cm thick, predominately fine to medium sand overlying a sandy soil. The contact between 2004 and 2005 tsunami deposits is at 13 cm above the top of the sandy soil and is clearly marked by vegetation that grew on the 2004 deposit in the 3 months between tsunamis. Grass roots are present in the upper half of the 2004 deposit and absent both below that level and in the 2005 deposit. We analyzed the fine-scale sedimentary structures and vertical variation in grain size of the deposits to search for diagnostic criteria for unequivocally identifying deposits formed by multiple tsunamis. At Busung, we expected there to be differences between each tsunami's deposits because the tsunami height, period, and direction of the 2004 and 2005 tsunamis were different. Both the 2004 and 2005 deposits were predominately normally graded, although each had inversely graded and massive sections. Faint laminations, which became more defined in a peel of the deposit, were discontinuous and predominately quasi-parallel. Knowing where the contact between the two tsunamis was, subtle sedimentary differences were identified that may be used to tell that it is composed of two separate tsunamis. We will present quantitative analyses of the variations

  6. December 2004 Sumatra, Indonesia Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The December 26, 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra, Indonesia earthquake (3.316 N, 95.854 E, depth 30 km) generated a tsunami that was observed worldwide and caused...

  7. Dominant seismic sources for the cities in South Sumatra (United States)

    Sunardi, Bambang; Sakya, Andi Eka; Masturyono, Murjaya, Jaya; Rohadi, Supriyanto; Sulastri, Putra, Ade Surya


    Subduction zone along west of Sumatra and Sumatran fault zone are active seismic sources. Seismotectonically, South Sumatra could be affected by earthquakes triggered by these seismic sources. This paper discussed contribution of each seismic source to earthquake hazards for cities of Palembang, Prabumulih, Banyuasin, OganIlir, Ogan Komering Ilir, South Oku, Musi Rawas and Empat Lawang. These hazards are presented in form of seismic hazard curves. The study was conducted by using Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) of 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Seismic sources used in analysis included megathrust zone M2 of Sumatra and South Sumatra, background seismic sources and shallow crustal seismic sources consist of Ketaun, Musi, Manna and Kumering faults. The results of the study showed that for cities relatively far from the seismic sources, subduction / megathrust seismic source with a depth ≤ 50 km greatly contributed to the seismic hazard and the other areas showed deep background seismic sources with a depth of more than 100 km dominate to seismic hazard respectively.

  8. Investigation on afterslip and steady state and transient rheology based on postseismic deformation and geoid change caused by the Sumatra 2004 earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoechner, Andreas; Sobolev, Stephan V.; Einarsson, Indriði


    or postseismic relaxation, leads to difficulties in finding a consistent interpretation of obtained viscosities. Using standard Maxwell viscosity of 1e19 Pa s to analyze postseismic near-field GPS time series from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake requires large time-dependent afterslip with a relaxation time...... Maxwell model with afterslip is not compatible with observations, since even large afterslip has a more localized effect than transient relaxation due to the main earthquake, which in turn is in agreement with observations. Thus, a combination of ground-and space-based geodetic observations is very useful...

  9. Horizontal Displacement Vector Analysis in Ujong Muloh GPS Station (UMLH) Sumatra Island on March 27 – April 25, 2012 (United States)

    Pamungkas, S. S.; Koesuma, S.; Legowo, Budi


    Sumatra Island is an area that has high tectonic activities. This is because the island of Sumatra is located in two major plates of the world, the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasia plate. The subduction zone causes Sumatra to deform from time to time. The deformation of Sumatra Island can be observed by continuous recording coordinates using the GPS Station. Continous-GPS (C-GPS) in Sumatra Island is named Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), one of them named UMLH. The UMLH GPS station used to observe the displacement in the Aceh City of Sumatra Island, is located in Ujung Muloh. The changes of GPS coordinate recording data can represent the deformation pattern that occurred in Sumatra. On April 11, 2012, according to USGS data, there had been an earthquake in the city of Aceh about 8.6 at coordinates of 2.433°N, 93.072°E. The purpose of this research is to analyze the horizontal displacement due to the occurrence of the earthquake. Data processing is carried out using software GAMIT/GLOBK. The magnitude of the displacement of Sumatra Island before the earthquake, during the earthquake, and after the quake on component X were respectively: 0.04 mm/day, 56.63 mm/day, and 8.28 mm/day; while on component Y were respectively: 0.03 mm/day, 23.78 mm/day, and 1.22 mm/day. The direction of displacement was 253.8° towards Southwest with the assumption that 0° was in the North.

  10. The dynamic nature of relative sea level in Southeast Asia: tectonic effects and human impacts (Invited) (United States)

    Hill, E.; Qiu, Q.; Feng, L.; Lubis, A.; Meltzner, A. J.; Tsang, L. L.; Daly, P.; McCaughey, J.; Banerjee, P.; Rubin, C. M.; Sieh, K.


    Tectonic changes can have significant effects on crustal deformation, the geoid, and relative sea level (RSL). Indeed, the tectonic impacts on RSL in some regions can be greater than those predicted as a result of climate change. In the case of earthquakes, these changes can occur suddenly, as coastlines uplift or subside by up to many meters. The changes can also occur over many decades as a result of interseismic or postseismic processes, or periodically in the form of transient slow-slip events. Although these effects are (mostly) recovered elastically over the course of the earthquake cycle, they are occurring in the context of ever-increasing populations living along affected coastlines, particularly the case in areas such as SE Asia. The societal effects of these tectonic-induced sea-level changes are therefore becoming increasingly significant, and important to consider in future projections for sea-level change. Additionally, tide-gauge and gravity measurements made in tectonically active areas cannot be interpreted without consideration and modeling of the tectonic setting. These facts highlight the need for accurate geodetic measurements of land-height change. Along the Sumatra subduction zone, a series of great earthquakes have occurred over the last decade, along with numerous moderate and smaller earthquakes. These, and their ensuing postseismic deformation, have reshaped regional coastlines. We will show visualization of land height changes using a decade of Sumatra GPS Array (SuGAr) data, and related tectonic models, that demonstrate dramatically the ups and downs of land elevation close to the earthquake sources. Vertical coseismic displacements as large as ~2.9 m have been recorded by the SuGAr (an uplift at Nias, during the 2005 Mw 8.6 earthquake), and vertical postseismic rates on the order of tens of mm/yr or greater (e.g., in northern Aceh, one station has been uplifting at a rate of ~34 mm/yr since the 2004 Mw 9.2 earthquake, while in southern

  11. An Investigation of Seismicity for the West Sumatra Region Indonesia (United States)

    Syafriani, S.


    The purpose of this research was to investigate the seismicity of the West Sumatra region in the coordinates area of 94° E – 104° E and 2° N - 4° S. Guttenberg-Richer magnitude-frequency relation and seismic risk have been computed. Historical data of earthquakes used from year of 1970 to 2017 with magnitude higher than 4. The study area was divided into 8 sub-regions based on seismotectonic characteristics, plate tectonic and geological models. The determination of seismotectonic characteristics was based on the level of seismic activity in a region (a value) and rock stress condition (b value). High a value was associated with high seismic activity, whereas high b values were associated with low stress rock conditions, and vice versa. Based on the calculation results, a and b values were obtained in the interval of 5.5-11.3 and 0.7-2. The highest b value was obtained in the sub region 5 (Nias islands), while the lowest b value was obtained in sub region 7 (the Mentawai islands). The sub region 7, Mentawai Islands was indicated as the seismic risk potential areas.

  12. Dynamic rupture scenarios from Sumatra to Iceland - High-resolution earthquake source physics on natural fault systems (United States)

    Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Wollherr, Stephanie


    Capturing the observed complexity of earthquake sources in dynamic rupture simulations may require: non-linear fault friction, thermal and fluid effects, heterogeneous fault stress and fault strength initial conditions, fault curvature and roughness, on- and off-fault non-elastic failure. All of these factors have been independently shown to alter dynamic rupture behavior and thus possibly influence the degree of realism attainable via simulated ground motions. In this presentation we will show examples of high-resolution earthquake scenarios, e.g. based on the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake, the 1994 Northridge earthquake and a potential rupture of the Husavik-Flatey fault system in Northern Iceland. The simulations combine a multitude of representations of source complexity at the necessary spatio-temporal resolution enabled by excellent scalability on modern HPC systems. Such simulations allow an analysis of the dominant factors impacting earthquake source physics and ground motions given distinct tectonic settings or distinct focuses of seismic hazard assessment. Across all simulations, we find that fault geometry concurrently with the regional background stress state provide a first order influence on source dynamics and the emanated seismic wave field. The dynamic rupture models are performed with SeisSol, a software package based on an ADER-Discontinuous Galerkin scheme for solving the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time. Use of unstructured tetrahedral meshes allows for a realistic representation of the non-planar fault geometry, subsurface structure and bathymetry. The results presented highlight the fact that modern numerical methods are essential to further our understanding of earthquake source physics and complement both physic-based ground motion research and empirical approaches in seismic hazard analysis.

  13. Performance of Buildings in the 2009 Western Sumatra Earthquake (United States)

    Deierlein, G.; Hart, T.; Alexander, N.; Hausler, E.; Henderson, S.; Wood, K.; Cedillos, V.; Wijanto, S.; Cabrera, C.; Rudianto, S.


    The M7.6 earthquake of 30 September 2009 in Western Sumatra, Indonesia caused significant damage and collapse to hundreds of buildings and the deaths of 1,117 people. In Padang City, with a population of about 900,000 people, building collapse was the primary cause of deaths and serious injuries (313 deaths and 431 serious injuries). The predominant building construction types in Padang are concrete moment frames with brick infill and masonry bearing wall systems. Concrete frames are common in multistory commercial retail buildings, offices, schools, and hotels; and masonry bearing wall systems are primarily used in low-rise (usually single story) residential and school buildings. In general, buildings that collapsed did not conform to modern seismic engineering practices that are required by the current Indonesian building code and would be expected in regions of moderate to high seismicity. While collapse of multi-story concrete buildings was more prevalent in older buildings (more than 10 years old), there were several newer buildings that collapsed. Primary deficiencies identified in collapsed or severely damaged buildings included: (a) soft or weak stories that failed in either by sidesway mechanisms or shear failures followed by loss of axial capacity of columns, (b) lack of ductile reinforcing bar detailing in concrete beams, columns, and beam-column joints, (c) poor quality concrete and mortar materials and workmanship, (d) vulnerable building configurations and designs with incomplete or deficient load paths, and (e) out-of-plane wall failures in unreinforced (or marginally reinforced) masonry. While these deficiencies may be expected in older buildings, damage and collapse to some modern (or recently rennovated buildings) indicates a lack of enforcement of building code provisions for design and construction quality assurance. Many new buildings whose structural systems were undamaged were closed due to extensive earthquake damage to brick infill walls

  14. The drug sensitivity and transmission dynamics of human malaria on Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia. (United States)

    Fryauff, D J; Leksana, B; Masbar, S; Wiady, I; Sismadi, P; Susanti, A I; Nagesha, H S; Syafruddin; Atmosoedjono, S; Bangs, M J; Baird, J K


    Nias Island, off the north-western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, was one of the first locations in which chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria was reported. This resistance is of particular concern because its ancient megalithic culture and the outstanding surfing conditions make the island a popular tourist destination. International travel to and from the island could rapidly spread chloroquine-resistant strains of P. vivax across the planet. The threat posed by such strains, locally and internationally, has led to the routine and periodic re-assessment of the efficacy of antimalarial drugs and transmission potential on the island. Active case detection identified malaria in 124 (17%) of 710 local residents whereas passive case detection, at the central health clinic, confirmed malaria in 77 (44%) of 173 cases of presumed 'clinical malaria'. Informed consenting volunteers who had malarial parasitaemias were treated, according to the Indonesian Ministry of Health's recommendations, with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) on day 0 (for P. falciparum) or with chloroquine (CQ) on days 0, 1 and 2 (for P. vivax). Each volunteer was then monitored for clinical and parasite response until day 28. Recurrent parasitaemia by day 28 treatment was seen in 29 (83%) of the 35 P. falciparum cases given SP (14, 11 and four cases showing RI, RII and RIII resistance, respectively). Recurrent parasitaemia was also observed, between day 11 and day 21, in six (21%) of the 28 P. vivax cases given CQ. Although the results of quantitative analysis confirmed only low prevalences of CQ-resistant P. vivax malaria, the prevalence of SP resistance among the P. falciparum cases was among the highest seen in Indonesia. When the parasites present in the volunteers with P. falciparum infections were genotyped, mutations associated with pyrimethamine resistance were found at high frequency in the dhfr gene but there was no evidence of selection for sulfadoxine resistance in the dhps gene

  15. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11th 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data (United States)

    Maulida, Putra; Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A.; Susilo


    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.

  16. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11{sup th} 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maulida, Putra, E-mail: [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A. [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Geodesy Research Group, geodesy and geomatic Engineering, ITB (Indonesia); Susilo [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) (Indonesia)


    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhamad Nur Cahyadi


    Full Text Available Using Total Electron Content (TEC measurements with Global Positioning System we studied ionospheric responses to three large earthquakes with difference focal mechanism that occurred in the Sumatra Andaman 26 December 2004, North off Sumatra 11 April 2012, and North Japan 7 December 2012. These earthquakes have different focal mechanisms, i.e. high-angle reverse, strike-slip, and normal faulting, respectively. TEC responses to the Sumatra Andaman 2004 and north Japan 2012 events initiated with positive changes. On the other hand, the initial TEC changes in the Sumatra 2012 earthquake showed both positive and negative polarities depending on the azimuth around the focal area. Such a variety may reflect differences in coseismic vertical crustal displacements, which are dominated by uplift and subsidence in the Sumatra 2012 event. This phenomena has same characteristic with 1994 Kuril Arch earthquake. There are three different propagation velocity in the Sumatra 2012 earthquake, within the first 300 km until 430 km, the CID propagation velocity was ~3 km/s, which is equal to the secod sound speed at the height of the ionospheric F-layer. Starting from 380 km until 750 km out from the epicenter, the disturbance seems to divide into two separate perturbations, with each propagating at a different velocity, about 1 km/s for the one and about 0.4 m/s for the other. The apparent velocity in the Sumatra Andaman 2004 and Japan 2012 propagated ~ 1 km/s and ~ 0.3 km/s, consistent with the sound speed at the ionospheric F layer height and internal gravity wave respectively. Resonant oscillation of TEC with a frequency of ~ 3.7 mHZ and ~4.4 mHz have been found in the Sumatra 2012 and Sumatra Andaman 2004 events. Those earthquakes, which occurred during a period of quiet geomagnetic activity, also showed clear preseismic TEC anomalies similar to those before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki and 2007 Bengkulu earthquake.   The positive anomalies started 30-60 minutes

  18. High tsunami risk at northern tip of Sumatra as a result of the activity of the Sumatra Fault Zone (SFZ) combined with coastal landslides (United States)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Huang, B. S.; Wen, K. L.; Mirza, A.; Rizal, S.; Purnawan, S.; Fajri, I.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Liu, C. S.; Lee, C. S.; Wilson, C. R.


    The lesson learned from the 12 January 2010, Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake has shown that an earthquake with strike-slip faulting can produce a significant tsunami. This occasion is rare since in the fact of the fault consist predominantly of lateral motion, which is rarely associated with significant uplift or tsunami generation. Yet, another hint from this event, that this earthquake was accompanied by a coastal landslide. Again, there were only few records of a submarine slides as a primary source that generate a tsunami. Hence, the Haiti Mw 7.0 earthquake was generated by these combined mechanisms, i.e. strike-slip faulting earthquake and coastal landslide. In reflecting this event, the Sumatra region exhibit almost identical situation, where the right lateral strike-slip faulting of Sumatra Fault Zone (SFZ) is located. In this study, we are focusing at the northern tip of SFZ at Aceh Province. The reason we focused our study at its northern tip is that, since the Sumatra-Andaman mega earthquake and tsunami on 26 December 2004, which occurred at the subduction zone, there were no records of significant earthquake along the SFZ, where at this location the SFZ is divided into two faults, i.e. Aceh and Seulimeum faults. This study aimed as a mitigation effort, if an earthquake happened at these faults, do we observe a similar result as that happened at Haiti or not. To do so, we access the high-resolution shallow bathymetry data that acquired through a Community-Based Bathymetric Survey (CBBS), examines five scanned Single Channel Seismic (SCS) reflections data, perform the slope stability analysis and that simulate the tsunami using Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) model with a combined source of fault activity and submarine landslide. The result shows that, by these combined mechanisms, if the earthquake as large as 7 Mw or larger, it could produce a tsunami as high as 6 meters along the coast. The detailed shallow bathymetric and the slope stability

  19. Extreme scale multi-physics simulations of the tsunamigenic 2004 Sumatra megathrust earthquake (United States)

    Ulrich, T.; Gabriel, A. A.; Madden, E. H.; Wollherr, S.; Uphoff, C.; Rettenberger, S.; Bader, M.


    SeisSol ( is an open-source software package based on an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin method (ADER-DG). It solves spontaneous dynamic rupture propagation on pre-existing fault interfaces according to non-linear friction laws, coupled to seismic wave propagation with high-order accuracy in space and time (minimal dispersion errors). SeisSol exploits unstructured meshes to account for complex geometries, e.g. high resolution topography and bathymetry, 3D subsurface structure, and fault networks. We present the up-to-date largest (1500 km of faults) and longest (500 s) dynamic rupture simulation modeling the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. We demonstrate the need for end-to-end-optimization and petascale performance of scientific software to realize realistic simulations on the extreme scales of subduction zone earthquakes: Considering the full complexity of subduction zone geometries leads inevitably to huge differences in element sizes. The main code improvements include a cache-aware wave propagation scheme and optimizations of the dynamic rupture kernels using code generation. In addition, a novel clustered local-time-stepping scheme for dynamic rupture has been established. Finally, asynchronous output has been implemented to overlap I/O and compute time. We resolve the frictional sliding process on the curved mega-thrust and a system of splay faults, as well as the seismic wave field and seafloor displacement with frequency content up to 2.2 Hz. We validate the scenario by geodetic, seismological and tsunami observations. The resulting rupture dynamics shed new light on the activation and importance of splay faults.

  20. The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake Mw 9.3: Seismological and Geophysical Investigations in the Andaman-Nicobar Islands (United States)

    Mooney, W. D.; Kayal, J.


    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (MW 9.3) is the fourth largest event (M>9.0) in the world during the last 100 years. It occurred by thrust faulting on the interplate thrust zone of the subducting India plate and overriding Burma platelet. The main shock rupture, ~1300 km long and ~200 km wide, propagated from north of Sumatra to Andaman - Nicobar Islands; the slow rupture generated Tsunami which killed about 300,000 people. The epicenter of the earthquake is located at 3.90N and 94.260E with a focal depth at 28 km (USGS). This mega seismic event triggered giant tsunamis that devastated the coastal regions of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Maldives and even the east coast of Africa. The impact of the tsunami was quite severe in India, in the coasts of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Air-base in the Car- Nicobar island was totally devastated by the tsunami and killed about 200 people. Macroseismic survey was carried out by different teams of GSI in North Andaman, Middle Andaman, South Andaman, Havelock Hut Bay and also in the Nicobar Islands. A maximum intensity VIII was recorded in the Andaman Islands. The mega thrust event was followed by an intense aftershock activity spreading over an area extending between 30-140N along the Andaman - Nicobar - Sumatra Island arc region. The aftershocks are distributed northwards from the epicenter of the main shock suggesting a unilateral rupture propagation. The aftershock (M >4.5) area covers a length of about 1300 km and a width of about 200 km, in a 'banana' shape. The national network (IMD) recorded almost all aftershocks M >5.0; about 350 were recorded till 31.01.2005. The Geological Survey of India (GSI) deployed six temporary seismograph stations in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and also in Havelok and Narkunda (volcanic) islands. About 20,000 aftershocks (M >3.0) were recorded until end of March, 2005. About 1000 aftershocks (M >3.0) located by the GSI network until January 31, 2005

  1. 2004 Sumatra Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongvisessomjai, S.


    Full Text Available A catastrophic tsunami on December 26, 2004 caused devastation in the coastal region of six southern provinces of Thailand on the Andaman Sea coast. This paper summaries the characteristics of tsunami with the aim of informing and warning the public and reducing future casualties and damage.The first part is a review of the records of past catastrophic tsunamis, namely those in Chile in 1960, Alaska in 1964, and Flores, Java, Indonesia, in 1992, and the lessons drawn from these tsunamis. An analysis and the impact of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami is then presented and remedial measures recommended.Results of this study are as follows:Firstly, the 2004 Sumatra tsunami ranked fourth in terms of earthquake magnitude (9.0 M after those in 1960 in Chile (9.5 M, 1899 in Alaska (9.2 M and 1964 in Alaska (9.1 M and ranked first in terms of damage and casualties. It was most destructive when breaking in shallow water nearshore.Secondly, the best alleviation measures are 1 to set up a reliable system for providing warning at the time of an earthquake in order to save lives and reduce damage and 2 to establish a hazard map and implement land-use zoning in the devastated areas, according to the following principles:- Large hotels located at an elevation of not less than 10 m above mean sea level (MSL- Medium hotels located at an elevation of not less than 6 m above MSL- Small hotel located at elevation below 6 m MSL, but with the first floor elevated on poles to allow passage of a tsunami wave- Set-back distances from shoreline established for various developments- Provision of shelters and evacuation directionsFinally, public education is an essential part of preparedness.

  2. Is Interseismic Deformation along the Sumatra Subduction Zone Ever 'Stable'? (United States)

    Hill, E.; Meltzner, A. J.; Moore, J. D. P.; Philibosian, B.; Feng, L.; Lindsey, E. O.; Bradley, K. E.; Qiu, Q.


    Estimates of megathrust coupling ratios are regularly calculated using geodetic data then used to forecast seismic and tsunami hazard. Given that the geodetic data capture only a small snapshot in time, an important question is the extent to which these accurately reflect long-term strain build up. We analyze this question using the Sumatra subduction zone as a case study. Here we have 15 years of continuous GPS data, with some collected before the recent great earthquake sequence started in 2004, and most collected afterwards. We also have paleogeodetic data from coral microatolls dating back over many earthquake supercycles (sequences of great earthquakes that are clustered in time). The coral data indicate significant changes in interseismic deformation rates over time for the Sunda megathrust; these could result from spontaneous changes in the spatial distribution of megathrust locking, from coseismically induced changes in locking, or from long-term viscoelastic processes. One question we ask is whether in Sumatra a transient rheology with high steady-state viscoelastic relaxation times, coupled with a relatively short recurrence interval for the supercycles (as little as 200 years), results in a situation where interseismic rates evolve throughout the entire earthquake cycle. To illustrate, a GPS station in northern Sumatra has been rapidly uplifting since 2004 at rates of 3 cm/yr; we do not know when this will slow down, but if this is a small piece of a viscoelastic decay curve it seems likely that the relaxation time is very long, and a geodetic snapshot at any point in many decades to come will not be representative of long-term average rates. We also consider whether there is a fundamental difference between viscoelastic behavior for megathrusts and strike-slip faults, with the former driving much longer, broader-scale deformation patterns that have more influence over the interseismic period. Indeed, the nearby strike-slip Sumatran Fault does appear to

  3. Ionospheric GPS TEC Anomalies and M >= 5.9 Earthquakes in Indonesia during 1993 - 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmoko Saroso


    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the most seismically active regions in the world, containing numerous active volcanoes and subject to frequent earthquakes with epicenters distributed along the same regions as volcanoes. In this paper, a case study is carried out to investigate pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies in total electron content (TEC during the Sulawesi earthquakes of 1993 - 2002, and the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004, the largest earthquake in the world since 1964. It is found that the ionospheric TECs remarkably decrease within 2 - 7 days before the earthquakes, and for the very powerful Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the anomalies extend up to about 1600 km from the epicenter.

  4. Impact of The N - S Fracture Zone Along The Indo-Australia Plate Analyzed from Local Seismic Data In The Western Offshore of Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Huang, B. S.; Lee, C. S.


    Large subduction earthquake have repeatedly occurred along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones where the Indo-Australia plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. We have analyzed earthquake data from local seismic network along the Sumatra region that provided by the Meteorology Climatology Geophysical Agencies of Indonesia (MCGAI), giving a reliable P-wave velocity model by using joint inversion of picked P-wave travel time using VELEST and a re-scanned single channel seismic reflection of Sumatra cruise I and II. As much as 1,503 events are being analyzed, that is from two years and three months of data recording (2009/04 - 2011/07). The VELEST and DD technique are used to relocate all events by forcing the obtained velocity model. It is found that the surface deformation and earthquake cluster are strongly influenced by the impact of an N - S subparalel fracture zone along the Indo-Australia plate. This also explains the seismic gaps along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones. So far, the intriguing seismogenic behaviour and forearc structure are not well explained by the existing models. Therefore, the planned IODP Expedition 362 is trying to ground truth the scientific questions. The aftershock earthquake data are huge, but they will provide a gateway to help the understanding of this shallow megathrust slip and reduce its devastated harzards.

  5. The 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami recorded on the coast of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of sea-level data obtained from the Atlantic Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) sea-level station at Takoradi, Ghana, West Africa, clearly reveals a tsunami signal associated with the Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 in the Indian Ocean. The tsunami arrived at this location on 27 ...

  6. A review of tsunami simulation activities for NPPs safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.


    The tsunami generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for tsunamigenic earthquakes. The tsunamis originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced tsunami the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of the seabed. There are three phases of tsunami: generation, propagation, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of tsunami source generation, its propagation and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the coastal regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early warning system for coastal region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of tsunami waves based on finite difference numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The present paper evaluate the results of various simulation i.e. Single fault Sumatra model, four and five fault Sumatra Model, Nias insignificant tsunami and also some parametric studies results for tsunami waring system scenario generation. A study is carried for the tsunami due to Sumatra earthquake in 2004 with TUNAMI-N2 software. Bathymetry data available from the National Geophysical Data Center was used for this study. The single fault and detailed four and five fault data were used to calculate sea surface deformations which were subsequently used as initial conditions for

  7. Coherent Seismic Arrivals in the P Wave Coda of the 2012 Mw 7.2 Sumatra Earthquake: Water Reverberations or an Early Aftershock? (United States)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.


    Teleseismic records of the 2012 Mw 7.2 Sumatra earthquake contain prominent phases in the P wave train, arriving about 50 to 100 s after the direct P arrival. Azimuthal variations in these arrivals, together with back-projection analysis, led Fan and Shearer ( to conclude that they originated from early aftershock(s), located ˜150 km northeast of the mainshock and landward of the trench. However, recently, Yue et al. ( argued that the anomalous arrivals are more likely water reverberations from the mainshock, based mostly on empirical Green's function analysis of a M6 earthquake near the mainshock and a water phase synthetic test. Here we present detailed back-projection and waveform analyses of three M6 earthquakes within 100 km of the Mw 7.2 earthquake, including the empirical Green's function event analyzed in Yue et al. ( In addition, we examine the waveforms of three M5.5 reverse-faulting earthquakes close to the inferred early aftershock location in Fan and Shearer ( These results suggest that the reverberatory character of the anomalous arrivals in the mainshock coda is consistent with water reverberations, but the origin of this energy is more likely an early aftershock rather than delayed and displaced water reverberations from the mainshock.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. W. Aris


    Full Text Available The Mw 8.5 Bengkulu earthquake of 30 September 2007 and the Mw8.6 28 March 2005 are considered amongst large earthquake ever recorded in Southeast Asia. The impact into tectonic deformation was recorded by a network of Global Positioning System (GPS Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS within southern of Sumatra and west-coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The GPS data from the GPS CORS network has been deployed to investigate the characteristic of postseismic deformation due to the earthquakes. Analytical logarithmic and exponential function was applied to investigate the deformation decay period of postseismic deformation. This investigation provides a preliminary insight into postseismic cycle along the Sumatra subduction zone in particular and on the dynamics Peninsular Malaysia in general.

  9. The 12 September 2007, Mw=7.9 Pagai-Sipora Earthquake, an Impulsive Rupture on the Central Sumatra Megathrust. (United States)

    Sladena, A.; Konca, A.; Avouac, J.; Sieh, K.; Galtezka, J.; Fang, P.; Genrich, J.; Ji, C.; Natawidjaja, D.; Bock, Y.


    On 12 September 2007, at 23:40 UT, a large Mw=7.9 earthquake occurred offshore central Sumatra, 12 hours after a Mw=8.4 rupture that initiated about 200 km to the southeast. We analyze this event using teleseismic P and SH waveforms, together with GPS co-seismic displacements measured at cGPS stations from the the SuGAr network. The SuGAr network includes 5 receivers on the outer arc islands of Pagai and Sipora, in addition to stations on Sumatra mainland therefore providing an excellent coverage of the rupture area. Moreover, the high sampling rate of the stations (1 to 15 s sampling for most stations), allows to properly identify the respective contributions of the Mw=8.4 and major nearby aftershocks. Both seismic waveforms and the geodetic data indicate a moment release of about 1.1e21 N.m due to the rupture of two distinct asperities about 130 km apart along the subduction interface. The seismic waveforms require the first subevent to be extremely impulsive, with a short rise time of a few seconds at most, and a highly peaked slip distribution close to the epicenter. The geodetic and seismic data were inverted jointly to derive some kinematic model of the source that is found to reconcile well the two datasets. The first subevent is located near the eastern border of South Pagai Island with a maximum slip of 5.5 m released in less than a few seconds. The slip distribution due to that event abuts with the slip distribution due to the Mw=8.4 event. The second patch is located 130 km to the northwest, along the north- eastern coast of Sipora Island, with a maximum slip of 3.5 m. The rupture velocity is estimated to be about 2 km/s. Both the 2007 Mw=8.4 and Mw=7.9 events occurred within the estimated rupture area of the Mw>8.6 historical earthquake of 1833, a well defined patch that had remained locked during the interseismic period. A same portion of the megathrust can rupture in different ways.

  10. Landward vergence in accretionary prism, evidence for frontal propagation of earthquakes? (United States)

    cubas, Nadaya; Souloumiac, Pauline


    Landward vergence in accretionary wedges is rare and have been described at very few places: along the Cascadia subduction zone and more recently along Sumatra where the 2004 Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman event and the 2011 tsunami earthquake occurred. Recent studies have suggested a relation between landward thrust faults and frontal propagation of earthquakes for the Sumatra subduction zone. The Cascadia subduction zone is also known to have produced in 1700 a Mw9 earthquake with a large tsunami across the Pacific. Based on mechanical analysis, we propose to investigate if specific frictional properties could lead to a landward sequence of thrusting. We show that landward thrust requires very low effective friction along the megathrust with a rather high internal effective friction. We also show that landward thrust appears close to the extensional critical limit. Along Cascadia and Sumatra, we show that to get landward vergence, the effective basal friction has to be lower than 0.08. This very low effective friction is most likely due to high pore pressure. This high pore pressure could either be a long-term property or due to dynamic effects such as thermal pressurization. The fact that landward vergence appears far from the compressional critical limit favors a dynamic effect. Landward vergence would then highlight thermal pressurization due to occasional or systematic propagation of earthquakes to the trench. As a consequence, the vergence of thrusts in accretionary prism could be used to improve seismic and tsunamigenic risk assessment.

  11. Understanding Earthquakes (United States)

    Davis, Amanda; Gray, Ron


    December 26, 2004 was one of the deadliest days in modern history, when a 9.3 magnitude earthquake--the third largest ever recorded--struck off the coast of Sumatra in Indonesia (National Centers for Environmental Information 2014). The massive quake lasted at least 10 minutes and devastated the Indian Ocean. The quake displaced an estimated…

  12. Marked point process for modelling seismic activity (case study in Sumatra and Java) (United States)

    Pratiwi, Hasih; Sulistya Rini, Lia; Wayan Mangku, I.


    Earthquake is a natural phenomenon that is random, irregular in space and time. Until now the forecast of earthquake occurrence at a location is still difficult to be estimated so that the development of earthquake forecast methodology is still carried out both from seismology aspect and stochastic aspect. To explain the random nature phenomena, both in space and time, a point process approach can be used. There are two types of point processes: temporal point process and spatial point process. The temporal point process relates to events observed over time as a sequence of time, whereas the spatial point process describes the location of objects in two or three dimensional spaces. The points on the point process can be labelled with additional information called marks. A marked point process can be considered as a pair (x, m) where x is the point of location and m is the mark attached to the point of that location. This study aims to model marked point process indexed by time on earthquake data in Sumatra Island and Java Island. This model can be used to analyse seismic activity through its intensity function by considering the history process up to time before t. Based on data obtained from U.S. Geological Survey from 1973 to 2017 with magnitude threshold 5, we obtained maximum likelihood estimate for parameters of the intensity function. The estimation of model parameters shows that the seismic activity in Sumatra Island is greater than Java Island.

  13. Seismology on drifting icebergs: Catching earthquakes, tsunamis, swell, and iceberg music (United States)

    Okal, E. A.; Macayeal, D. R.


    For the past 3 years, we have operated seismometers on large icebergs either parked or drifting in the Ross Sea, with an additional station at Nascent, where the next section of the Ross Ice Shelf is expected to calf. Apart from their primary goal of studying in situ tremor generated inside the ice, presumed to arise during collisions and fragmentation, our stations have functioned as teleseismic observatories, despite a noisy environment in the 20-100 mHz frequency band, corresponding to the free bobbing and rolling of the icebergs. As expected, both P and Rayleigh waves from distant earthquakes are recorded on the vertical channels as unperturbed ground motion, with acceptable values of energy flux (P) or magnitude (Rayleigh); however, due to noise level at mantle periods, only Rayleigh waves from the largest events (Sumatra 2004; Nias 2005) could be quantified meaningfully. T waves from distant earthquakes along the EPR can be recorded, but the acoustic-to-seismic transition at the ice boundary is less effcient than at typical island stations. The 2004 Sumatra tsunami was recorded on all 3 components at the 3 stations; the inferred amplitudes (about 15 cm vertical and 1.3 m horizontal, peak-to-peak) are in general agreement with global simulations, and suggest that the bergs rode the tsunami without intrinsic deformation; a small tsunami is also detected for the Macquarie earthquake of 23 Dec. 2004. Our stations regularly recorded long wavetrains in the 40-60 mHz range, dispersed under the deep-water approximation, and corresponding to sea swell propagating across the entire ocean from major storms in the Northern and Equatorial Pacific. In the case of a major depression in the Gulf of Alaska in Late October 2005, recorded on the ice 6 days later, Iceberg B-15A underwent at the same time a severe fragmentation, leading to legitimate speculation on the role of storm waves in triggering its break-up. Finally, our stations recorded a large number of local signals

  14. Perbandingan Energi Gempa Bumi Utama dan Susulan (Studi Kasus : Gempa Subduksi Pulau Sumatera dan Jawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrean V.H Simanjuntak


    Full Text Available Indonesia is located on the third meeting of the active tectonic world plates which are Eurasian Indian - Australia and the Pacific Plate. This condition makes Indonesia as a tectonically active area with seismicity level or pattern of high seismicity. Occurrence of devastating earthquake followed by aftershocks of earthquakes, often increase the level of social unrest. The purpose of this study is calculate the energy of devastating earthquakes and followed by aftershocks, so it can be compared to the amount of energy released by both of them. By obtaining these comparisons, the study is based on scientific studies can be used as a reference in providing information on the possible impact of an occurrence of the earthquake and its aftershocks. Empirical formula of Guttenberg- Richter was used to calculate the energy value, historical data with aftershock earthquakes was obtained from ISC (International Seismological Center for five major earthquakes are Bengkulu, Pangandaran, Simeulue, West Sumatra, and Tasikmalaya earthquake. Earthquake aftershocks taken within three months after a major earthquake. From analysis and energy calculations of earthquake aftershocks of a major earthquake with a magnitude of five large, energy-earthquake aftershocks ranging from 0.1% to 33%, with a random pattern. By comparing the energy aftershocks of earthquakes, the results are generally 10%, it is estimated that the earthquake with strike-slip mechanism having earthquake aftershocks with a total energy is less than 10%. While earthquakes with earthquake aftershocks have thrust mechanism with a total energy of more than 10%.

  15. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestari, Titik, E-mail: [Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jalan Angkasa I No.2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)


    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  16. Global correlations between maximum magnitudes of subduction zone interface thrust earthquakes and physical parameters of subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.


    The maximum earthquake magnitude recorded for subduction zone plate boundaries varies considerably on Earth, with some subduction zone segments producing giant subduction zone thrust earthquakes (e.g. Chile, Alaska, Sumatra-Andaman, Japan) and others producing relatively small earthquakes (e.g.

  17. Language Disorder In Schizophrenia Patient: A Case Study Of Five Schizophrenia Paranoid Patients In Simeulue District Hospital


    Kurnia, Beby Febri


    Language disorder in schizophrenia patients is an acquired language disorder due to thought disorder. This analysis analyzed language disorder in schizophrenia paranoid patients in Simeulue District Hospital. The objective of this analysis were: (1) to find out the types of schizophrenic speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, (2) to find out the most dominant type of schizophrenia speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, and (3) to find out which patient has most severe lang...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kuchay


    Full Text Available The inversion seismic tomography algorithm (ITS was used to calculate 3D seismic anomalies models for velocities of P- and S-waves in the zone of the Sunda arc, Indonesia. In the area under study, strong earthquakes (M>4.8 are clustered in the zone of high P-wave velocities. Earthquake hypocenters are located in zones of both high and low velocity anomalies of S-waves. The giant Sumatra earthquake (December 26, 2004, Mw=9.0 ruptured the greatest fault length of any recorded earthquake, and the rupture started in the area wherein the sign of P-wave velo­city anomalies is abruptly changed. We calculated seismotectonic deformations (STD from data on mechanisms of 2227 earthquakes recorded from 1977 to 2013, and our calculations show that the STD component, that controls vertical extension of rocks, is most stable through all the depth levels. In the marginal regions at the western and eastern sides of the Sunda arc, the crustal areas (depths from 0 to 35 km are subject to deformations which sign is opposite to that of deformations in the central part. Besides, at depths from 70 to 150 km beneath the Sumatra earthquake epicentre area, the zone is subject to deformations which sign is opposite to that of deformations in the studied part of the Sunda arc. For earthquakes that may occur in the crust in the Sunda arc in the contact zone of the plates, maximum magnitudes depend on the direction of pressure imposed by the actively subducting plate, which is an additional criteria for determining the limit magnitude for the region under study. 

  19. Retrospective analysis of the Spitak earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Tovmassian


    Full Text Available Based on the retrospective analysis of numerous data and studies of the Spitak earthquake the present work at- tempts to shed light on different aspects of that catastrophic seismic event which occurred in Northern Arme- nia on December 7, 1988. The authors follow a chronological order of presentation, namely: changes in geo- sphere, atmosphere, biosphere during the preparation of the Spitak earthquake, foreshocks, main shock, after- shocks, focal mechanisms, historical seismicity; seismotectonic position of the source, strong motion records, site effects; the macroseismic effect, collapse of buildings and structures; rescue activities; earthquake conse- quences; and the lessons of the Spitak earthquake.

  20. Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda


    On December 26, 2004, a magnitude 9.0 undersea earthquake off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, unleashed a tsunami that affected more than 12 countries throughout south and southeast Asia and stretched as far...

  1. ANALISA PERUBAHAN IONOSFER AKIBAT GEMPA MENTAWAI TAHUN 2010 (Studi Kasus : Kepulauan Mentawai, Sumatra Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Septiningrum


    Full Text Available Gempa merupakan fenomena alam akibat aktifitas tektonik yang sering terjadi di Indonesia. Sepanjang pulau Sumatra merupakan pertumbukan antara lempeng Indo-Australia dan lempeng Eurasia menjadikan Sumatra sebagai daerah paling aktif dengan aktifitas tektoniknya. Pada tahun 2010 tercatat tiga gempa besar yang terjadi, yaitu gempa berkekuatan 6,8 SR pada 5 Maret, disusul 6,5 SR pada 5 Mei dan terakhir 7,8 SR pada 25 Oktober 2010. Post-earthquake anomali merupakan fluktuasi TEC yang terjadi sesaat setelah terjadinya gempa, fenomena ini terjadi 3 menit hingga 1 jam setelah gempa terjadi. Post-earthquake anomali dapat digunakan sebagai early warning sebelum tsunami datang. Pengamatan TEC (Total Electron Content dilakukan dengan menggunakan GPS. Satelit GPS akan secara kontinyu memancarkan sinyal gelombang double frequency pada L band. Pada saat terjadi gempa, sinyal yang dipancarkan oleh satelit GPS akan mengalami delay ketika melewati lapisan ionosfer kira-kira 300 km dari permukaan bumi. Variasi ionosfer diamati pada saat terjadi time-delay ini, sehingga didapat nilai TEC dimana I TECU sama dengan 1016 elektron/m2. Nilai tersebut yang akan menggambarkan besaran gangguan akibat adanya gempa. Pada gempa Mentawai 2010 dengan menggunakan stasiun pengamat GPS pada ketiga kejadian gempa tidak menunjukkan adanya gangguan pada ionosfer, hanya terjadi fluktuasi pada beberapa stasiun pengamat.

  2. Late Quaternary eruption of the Ranau Caldera and new geological slip rates of the Sumatran Fault Zone in Southern Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    Natawidjaja, Danny Hilman; Bradley, Kyle; Daryono, Mudrik R.; Aribowo, Sonny; Herrin, Jason


    Over the last decade, studies of natural hazards in Sumatra have focused primarily on great earthquakes and associated tsunamis produced by rupture of the Sunda megathrust. However, the Sumatran Fault and the active volcanic arc present proximal hazards to populations on mainland Sumatra. At present, there is little reliable information on the maximum magnitudes and recurrence intervals of Sumatran Fault earthquakes, or the frequency of paroxysmal caldera-forming (VEI 7-8) eruptions. Here, we present new radiocarbon dates of paleosols buried under the voluminous Ranau Tuff that constrain the large caldera-forming eruption to around 33,830-33,450 calender year BP (95% probability). We use the lateral displacement of river channels incised into the Ranau Tuff to constrain the long-term slip rate of two segments of the Sumatran Fault. South of Ranau Lake, the Kumering segment preserves isochronous right-lateral channel offsets of approximately 350 ± 50 m, yielding a minimum slip rate of 10.4 ± 1.5 mm/year for the primary active fault trace. South of Suoh pull-apart depression, the West Semangko segment offsets the Semangko River by 230 ± 60 m, yielding an inferred slip rate of 6.8 ± 1.8 mm/year. Compared with previous studies, these results indicate more recent high-volume volcanism in South Sumatra and increased seismic potency of the southernmost segments of the Sumatran Fault Zone.

  3. Knowledge transfer to builders in post-disaster housing reconstruction in West-Sumatra of Indonesia (United States)

    Hidayat, Benny; Afif, Zal


    Housing is the most affected sector by disasters as can be observed after the 2009 earthquake in West Sumatra province in Indonesia. As in Indonesian construction industry, the housing post-disaster reconstruction is influenced by knowledge and skills of builders or laborers, or locally known as `tukang'. After the earthquake there were trainings to transfer knowledge about earthquake-safe house structure for the builders in the post-disaster reconstruction. This study examined the effectiveness of the training in term of understanding of the builders and application of the new knowledge. Ten semi-structured interviews with the builders were conducted in this study. The results indicate that the builders with prior housing construction experience can absorb and understand the new knowledge about earthquake-safe house structure. Combination of lecturing and practice sessions also help the builders to understand the knowledge. However, findings of this research also suggest there is a problem in implementation of the new knowledge. Utilization of earthquake-safe house structure may leads to a rise in house cost. As a result, some house owners prefer to save money than to adopt the new knowledge.

  4. How fault geometry controls earthquake magnitude (United States)

    Bletery, Q.; Thomas, A.; Karlstrom, L.; Rempel, A. W.; Sladen, A.; De Barros, L.


    Recent large megathrust earthquakes, such as the Mw9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in 2004 and the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011, astonished the scientific community. The first event occurred in a relatively low-convergence-rate subduction zone where events of its size were unexpected. The second event involved 60 m of shallow slip in a region thought to be aseismicaly creeping and hence incapable of hosting very large magnitude earthquakes. These earthquakes highlight gaps in our understanding of mega-earthquake rupture processes and the factors controlling their global distribution. Here we show that gradients in dip angle exert a primary control on mega-earthquake occurrence. We calculate the curvature along the major subduction zones of the world and show that past mega-earthquakes occurred on flat (low-curvature) interfaces. A simplified analytic model demonstrates that shear strength heterogeneity increases with curvature. Stress loading on flat megathrusts is more homogeneous and hence more likely to be released simultaneously over large areas than on highly-curved faults. Therefore, the absence of asperities on large faults might counter-intuitively be a source of higher hazard.

  5. VLF/LF Radio Sounding of Ionospheric Perturbations Associated with Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Hayakawa


    Full Text Available It is recently recognized that the ionosphere is very sensitive to seismic effects,and the detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with earthquakes, seems to bevery promising for short-term earthquake prediction. We have proposed a possible use ofVLF/LF (very low frequency (3-30 kHz /low frequency (30-300 kHz radio sounding ofthe seismo-ionospheric perturbations. A brief history of the use of subionospheric VLF/LFpropagation for the short-term earthquake prediction is given, followed by a significantfinding of ionospheric perturbation for the Kobe earthquake in 1995. After showingprevious VLF/LF results, we present the latest VLF/LF findings; One is the statisticalcorrelation of the ionospheric perturbation with earthquakes and the second is a case studyfor the Sumatra earthquake in December, 2004, indicating the spatical scale and dynamicsof ionospheric perturbation for this earthquake.

  6. Social dimensions of science-humanitarian collaboration: lessons from Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. (United States)

    Shannon, Rachel; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; Crowley, Dominic; Crichton, Peter


    This paper contains a critical exploration of the social dimensions of the science-humanitarian relationship. Drawing on literature on the social role of science and on the social dimensions of humanitarian practice, it analyses a science-humanitarian partnership for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area threatened by tsunamigenic earthquakes. The paper draws on findings from case study research that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The case study illustrates the social processes that enabled and hindered collaboration between the two spheres, including the informal partnership of local people and scientists that led to the co-production of earthquake and tsunami DRR and limited organisational capacity and support in relation to knowledge exchange. The paper reflects on the implications of these findings for science-humanitarian partnering in general, and it assesses the value of using a social dimensions approach to understand scientific and humanitarian dialogue. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the type, the distribution and the incidence of banana leaf diseases in several production centers in West Sumatra, Bengkulu, North Sumatra and West Java. Direct observations on banana orchards were conducted in some districts in Simalungun, Deli Serdang and Medan (North Sumatra, Tanah Datar, Limapuluh Kota, Agam, Pariaman and Pasaman (West Sumatra, Rejang Lebong and Kepahyang (Bengkulu, Sukabumi, Purwakarta and Subang (West Java from November to December 2006. Two banana orchards were randomly selected in each district. Plant population at the selected orchard was at least 100 plants. From each sampled orchard, if banana population consisted of similar or only one variety, 10 plants were randomly chosen according to wind direction. Meanwhile, when the banana varieties were varied, five plants were randomly selected. The result showed that Black Sigatoka and Eumusae leaf spot were found in West Sumatra, Bengkulu and North Sumatra at severity level of between 15 % to 62.31%, whilst speckle disease was mainly found in North Sumatra and in parts of West Sumatra at severity level of between 72,72% to 100% and 15 to 30%, respectively. Banana varieties that were primarily attacked by leaf diseases were Cavendish, Telor, Barangan and Emas.

  8. Parallel Earthquake Simulations on Large-Scale Multicore Supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu


    Earthquakes are one of the most destructive natural hazards on our planet Earth. Hugh earthquakes striking offshore may cause devastating tsunamis, as evidenced by the 11 March 2011 Japan (moment magnitude Mw9.0) and the 26 December 2004 Sumatra (Mw9.1) earthquakes. Earthquake prediction (in terms of the precise time, place, and magnitude of a coming earthquake) is arguably unfeasible in the foreseeable future. To mitigate seismic hazards from future earthquakes in earthquake-prone areas, such as California and Japan, scientists have been using numerical simulations to study earthquake rupture propagation along faults and seismic wave propagation in the surrounding media on ever-advancing modern computers over past several decades. In particular, ground motion simulations for past and future (possible) significant earthquakes have been performed to understand factors that affect ground shaking in populated areas, and to provide ground shaking characteristics and synthetic seismograms for emergency preparation and design of earthquake-resistant structures. These simulation results can guide the development of more rational seismic provisions for leading to safer, more efficient, and economical50pt]Please provide V. Taylor author e-mail ID. structures in earthquake-prone regions.

  9. Social Motivation And Peoples Participation In Development Of Rural Development In District Of West Of Nias Province North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Poverty is the problem of social related to the development. Some of the province in Indonesia which is North Sumatera consisting of 8 cities and 25 districts. Most of the populated shows a number poverty are still relatively high. According to the Susenas in North Sumatera Province particulary West of Nias is the county that classified as having a number of high poverty and decrease in the number of poverty was only 1 each year. To that local governments West of Nias make the implementation of the building area shaped participative which stems from the social motivation sociated in the West of Nias. In this study formulated to the problem is the social motivation and community participation is a factor objectify the construction of underdevelopment area.This research using a combination of a quantitative approach and qualitative approach by the combined method. This method can be done in together turns even combined with starting from the framework exploration then inditifity and classifying data with sourched from the questionnaires development and depth interviews. In this research also used technique of population and research sample. Management of the data could be done by 3 statistics techniques 1 Product Moment Correlation 2 Partial Correlation 3 Analysis of the line.The result of research suggests that through the work of social motivation and community participation can positive affect towards underdeveloped area. The level of community participation appears through an increase participation degrees towards the development of underdeveloped area. The working of community participation could a achieved development in its area with shows a sense of empathy from members of society So it can be concluded that the high participation facilitate the realization of the development of underdeveloped area.

  10. Long-term seismic observations along Myanmar-Sunda subduction margin: insights for 2004 M w > 9.0 earthquake (United States)

    Khan, Prosanta Kumar; Banerjee, Jayashree; Shamim, Sk; Mohanty, Manoranjan


    The present study investigates the temporal variation of few seismic parameters between the Myanmar (Zone I), Andaman-Nicobar-Northwest Sumatra (Zone II), Southeast Sumatra-West Indonesia (Zone III) and East Indonesia (Zone IV) converging boundaries in reference to the generation of 26 December 2004 M w > 9.0 off-Sumatra mega-earthquake event. The four segments are distinguished based on tectonics parameters, distinct geological locations, great earthquake occurrences, and the Wadati-Benioff zone characteristics. Two important seismic parameters such as seismic energy and b values are computed over a time-window of 6-month period during the entire 1976-2013 period for these segments. The b values show a constant decrease in Zones II, III, and IV, whereas the Zone I does not show any such pattern prior to the 2004 mega-event. The release of seismic energy was also gradually decreasing in Zones II and III till the 2004 event, and little similar pattern was also noted in Zone IV. This distinct observation might be indicating that the stress accumulation was dominant near the Sumatra-Java area located towards southeast of Zone II and northwest of Zone III. The released strain energy during the 2004 event was subsequently migrated towards north, rupturing 1300 km of the boundary between the Northwest Sumatra and the North Andaman. The occurrence of 2004 mega-event was apparently concealed behind the long-term seismic quiescence existing near the Sumatra and Nicobar margin. A systematic study of the patterns of seismic energy release and b values, and the long-term observation of collective behaviour of the margin tectonics might have had given clues to the possibility of the 2004 mega-event.

  11. Real-time forecasting of the April 11, 2012 Sumatra tsunami (United States)

    Wang, Dailin; Becker, Nathan C.; Walsh, David; Fryer, Gerard J.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; McCreery, Charles S.; ,


    The April 11, 2012, magnitude 8.6 earthquake off the northern coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that was recorded at sea-level stations as far as 4800 km from the epicenter and at four ocean bottom pressure sensors (DARTs) in the Indian Ocean. The governments of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Maldives issued tsunami warnings for their coastlines. The United States' Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) issued an Indian Ocean-wide Tsunami Watch Bulletin in its role as an Interim Service Provider for the region. Using an experimental real-time tsunami forecast model (RIFT), PTWC produced a series of tsunami forecasts during the event that were based on rapidly derived earthquake parameters, including initial location and Mwp magnitude estimates and the W-phase centroid moment tensor solutions (W-phase CMTs) obtained at PTWC and at the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). We discuss the real-time forecast methodology and how successive, real-time tsunami forecasts using the latest W-phase CMT solutions improved the accuracy of the forecast.

  12. Earthquake Signal Visible in GRACE Data (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure1 This figure shows the effect of the December 2004 great Sumatra earthquake on the Earth's gravity field as observed by GRACE. The signal is expressed in terms of the relative acceleration of the two GRACE satellites, in this case a few nanometers per second squared, or about 1 billionth of the acceleration we experience everyday at the Earth's surface.GRACE observations show comparable signals in the region of the earthquake. Other natural variations are also apparent in the expected places, whereas no other significant change would be expected in the region of the earthquake GRACE, twin satellites launched in March 2002, are making detailed measurements of Earth's gravity field which will lead to discoveries about gravity and Earth's natural systems. These discoveries could have far-reaching benefits to society and the world's population.

  13. Enhanced Abscisic Acid-Mediated Responses in nia1nia2noa1-2 Triple Mutant Impaired in NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-Dependent Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis1[W (United States)

    Lozano-Juste, Jorge; León, José


    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates a wide range of plant processes from development to environmental adaptation. Despite its reported regulatory functions, it remains unclear how NO is synthesized in plants. We have generated a triple nia1nia2noa1-2 mutant that is impaired in nitrate reductase (NIA/NR)- and Nitric Oxide-Associated1 (AtNOA1)-mediated NO biosynthetic pathways. NO content in roots of nia1nia2 and noa1-2 plants was lower than in wild-type plants and below the detection limit in nia1nia2noa1-2 plants. NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-mediated biosynthesis of NO were thus active and responsible for most of the NO production in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The nia1nia2noa1-2 plants displayed reduced size, fertility, and seed germination potential but increased dormancy and resistance to water deficit. The increasing deficiency in NO of nia1nia2, noa1-2, and nia1nia2noa1-2 plants correlated with increased seed dormancy, hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) in seed germination and establishment, as well as dehydration resistance. In nia1nia2noa1-2 plants, enhanced drought tolerance was due to a very efficient stomata closure and inhibition of opening by ABA, thus uncoupling NO from ABA-triggered responses in NO-deficient guard cells. The NO-deficient mutants in NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-mediated pathways in combination with the triple mutant will be useful tools to functionally characterize the role of NO and the contribution of both biosynthetic pathways in regulating plant development and defense. PMID:20007448

  14. Loss of nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 impairs stomatal closure by altering genes of core ABA signaling components in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Zhao, Chenchen; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Yizhou; Chen, Zhong-Hua


    Nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 determine NO production in plants and are critical to abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. However, the role for NIA1 and NIA2 in ABA signaling has not been paid much attention in nitrate reductase loss-of-function mutant nia1nia2. Recently, we have demonstrated that ABA-inhibited K(+)in current and ABA-enhanced slow anion current were absent in nia1nia2. Exogenous NO restored regulation of these channels for stomatal closure in nia1nia2. In this study, we found that mutating NIA1 and NIA2 impaired nearly all the key components of guard cell ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. We also propose a simplified model for ABA signaling in the nia1nia2 mutant.

  15. NIA Aging Cell Repository (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  16. Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Coastal South Africa Based on Mega-Earthquakes of Remote Subduction Zones (United States)

    Kijko, Andrzej; Smit, Ansie; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatyana


    After the mega-earthquakes and concomitant devastating tsunamis in Sumatra (2004) and Japan (2011), we launched an investigation into the potential risk of tsunami hazard to the coastal cities of South Africa. This paper presents the analysis of the seismic hazard of seismogenic sources that could potentially generate tsunamis, as well as the analysis of the tsunami hazard to coastal areas of South Africa. The subduction zones of Makran, South Sandwich Island, Sumatra, and the Andaman Islands were identified as possible sources of mega-earthquakes and tsunamis that could affect the African coast. Numerical tsunami simulations were used to investigate the realistic and worst-case scenarios that could be generated by these subduction zones. The simulated tsunami amplitudes and run-up heights calculated for the coastal cities of Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth are relatively small and therefore pose no real risk to the South African coast. However, only distant tsunamigenic sources were considered and the results should therefore be viewed as preliminary.

  17. Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Coastal South Africa Based on Mega-Earthquakes of Remote Subduction Zones (United States)

    Kijko, Andrzej; Smit, Ansie; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatyana


    After the mega-earthquakes and concomitant devastating tsunamis in Sumatra (2004) and Japan (2011), we launched an investigation into the potential risk of tsunami hazard to the coastal cities of South Africa. This paper presents the analysis of the seismic hazard of seismogenic sources that could potentially generate tsunamis, as well as the analysis of the tsunami hazard to coastal areas of South Africa. The subduction zones of Makran, South Sandwich Island, Sumatra, and the Andaman Islands were identified as possible sources of mega-earthquakes and tsunamis that could affect the African coast. Numerical tsunami simulations were used to investigate the realistic and worst-case scenarios that could be generated by these subduction zones. The simulated tsunami amplitudes and run-up heights calculated for the coastal cities of Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth are relatively small and therefore pose no real risk to the South African coast. However, only distant tsunamigenic sources were considered and the results should therefore be viewed as preliminary.

  18. Weak Tectono-Magmatic Relationships along an Obliquely Convergent Plate Boundary: Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Acocella


    , as supported by the 2004 mega-earthquake measurements. Overall, the strike-slip arc of Sumatra has intermediate features between those of extensional and contractional arcs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal


    Full Text Available Javan Munia (Lonchura leucogastroides is recently common bird species in southern Sumatra, but no breeding record reported in Sumatra. On 11 October 2015, an active nest of Javan Munia and few juveniles were seen among bunches of Banana (Musa sp fruits in Sukarejo village, Musi Rawas district, South Sumatra province. This observation is constitute first record of Javan Munia in Sumatra.

  20. Satellite Infrared Radiation Measurements Prior to the Major Earthquakes (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulintes, S.; Bryant, N.; Taylor, Patrick; Freund, F.


    This work describes our search for a relationship between tectonic stresses and increases in mid-infrared (IR) flux as part of a possible ensemble of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that may be related to earthquake activity. We present and &scuss observed variations in thermal transients and radiation fields prior to the earthquakes of Jan 22, 2003 Colima (M6.7) Mexico, Sept. 28 .2004 near Parkfield (M6.0) in California and Northern Sumatra (M8.5) Dec. 26,2004. Previous analysis of earthquake events has indicated the presence of an IR anomaly, where temperatures increased or did not return to its usual nighttime value. Our procedures analyze nighttime satellite data that records the general condtion of the ground after sunset. We have found from the MODIS instrument data that five days before the Colima earthquake the IR land surface nighttime temperature rose up to +4 degrees C in a 100 km radius around the epicenter. The IR transient field recorded by MODIS in the vicinity of Parkfield, also with a cloud free environment, was around +1 degree C and is significantly smaller than the IR anomaly around the Colima epicenter. Ground surface temperatures near the Parkfield epicenter four days prior to the earthquake show steady increase. However, on the night preceding the quake, a significant drop in relative humidity was indicated, process similar to those register prior to the Colima event. Recent analyses of continuous ongoing long- wavelength Earth radiation (OLR) indicate significant and anomalous variability prior to some earthquakes. The cause of these anomalies is not well understood but could be the result of a triggering by an interaction between the lithosphere-hydrosphere and atmospheric related to changes in the near surface electrical field and/or gas composition prior to the earthquake. The OLR anomaly usually covers large areas surrounding the main epicenter. We have found strong anomalies signal (two sigma) along the epicentral area signals on Dec 21

  1. Monitoring the Sumatra volcanic arc with InSAR (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Hong, S.; Amelung, F.


    The Sumatra volcanic arc is the result of the subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Sunda plate. The arc consists of 35 known volcanic centers, subaerials on the west coast of the Sumatra and Andaman Islands and submarines between these islands. Six active centers are known in the Sumatra volcanic arc. Surface deformation in volcanic areas usually indicates movement of magma or hydrothermal fluids at depth. Here we present a satellite-based Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) survey of the Sumatra volcanic arc using ALOS data. Spanning the years 2007 to beginning of 2009, our survey reveals the background level of activity of the 35 volcanoes. We processed data from 40 tracks (24 in descending orbit and 16 in ascending orbit) to cover the whole Sumatra arc. In the first results five of these six known active centers show no sign of activity: Dempo, Kaba, Marapi, Talang and Peuet. The remaining active volcano, Mount Kerinci, has an ambiguous signal. We used pair-wise logic and InSAR time series of the available ALOS data to determine if the observed InSAR signal is caused by ground deformation or by atmospheric delays.

  2. Defeating Earthquakes (United States)

    Stein, R. S.


    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  3. From Multi-Sensors Observations Towards Cross-Disciplinary Study of Pre-Earthquake Signals. What have We Learned from the Tohoku Earthquake? (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Papadopoulos, G.; Kunitsyn, V.; Nesterov, I.; Hayakawa, M.; Mogi, K.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.


    The lessons we have learned from the Great Tohoku EQ (Japan, 2011) how this knowledge will affect our future observation and analysis is the main focus of this presentation.We present multi-sensors observations and multidisciplinary research in our investigation of phenomena preceding major earthquakes. These observations revealed the existence of atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena occurring prior to theM9.0 Tohoku earthquake of March 11, 2011, which indicates s new evidence of a distinct coupling between the lithosphere and atmosphere/ionosphere, as related to underlying tectonic activity. Similar results have been reported before the catastrophic events in Chile (M8.8, 2010), Italy (M6.3, 2009) and Sumatra (M9.3, 2004). For the Tohoku earthquake, our analysis shows a synergy between several independent observations characterizing the state of the lithosphere /atmosphere coupling several days before the onset of the earthquakes, namely: (i) Foreshock sequence change (rate, space and time); (ii) Outgoing Long wave Radiation (OLR) measured at the top of the atmosphere; and (iii) Anomalous variations of ionospheric parameters revealed by multi-sensors observations. We are presenting a cross-disciplinary analysis of the observed pre-earthquake anomalies and will discuss current research in the detection of these signals in Japan. We expect that our analysis will shed light on the underlying physics of pre-earthquake signals associated with some of the largest earthquake events

  4. Mitigation of landslide area around railway tunnel, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia (United States)

    Toha, M. Taufik; Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Komar, Syamsul; Bochori, Ghadafi, Moamar A.; Adiwarman, Mirza; Rahim, S. E.


    Adequate and safe railway line infrastructures as well as facilities are required to support the rail transport system in South Sumatra. The slope stability along railway line of Lahat-Lubuk Linggau South Sumatra were studied during landslide that occured on January 23th, 2016. The landslide occurred on the mouth of railway tunnel in Gunung Gajah Village, Lahat District that causing the railway transportation system had to be stopped for a few days. A comprehensive research was conducted to analyze the causes of the landslide and to identify other landslide risky areas along the railway line Lahat-Lubuk Linggau. The research activities included surveying, sampling, laboratory testing, investigating condition of geology, geotechnics, hydrogeology/hydrology, morphology and land use. The factors that cause landslide in the past studies were found to be morphology, structural geology, physical and mechanical characteristics, hydrogeology, hydrology, external forces (train vibration, earthquake). Results back analysis of slope stability when the landslide occurred showed that the value Safety Factor (SF) = 1, angle of friction = 0°, and cohesion = 0.49 kg/cm2 (49 kPa). Based on the observation and analysis of the condition of the morphology and orientation of the structure of the rock layers, there was a location prone to landslide (labile) in the surrounding area of the landslide. Mitigations to potential landslide in adjacent area were building a retaining wall, draining channels, and shortcrete at the rock wall after landslides and maintaining the land use around the slopes.

  5. New tick records in Rondônia, Western Brazilian Amazon Novos relatos de carrapatos em Rondônia, Amazônia ocidental brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bahia Labruna


    Full Text Available In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female, and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva. Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius (16 nymphs and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph. Ticks collected from a yellow-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 females, 2 nymphs, and Amblyomma sp. (2 larvae. The present record of A. romitii is the first in the State of Rondônia, and represents the southernmost record for this tick species, indicating that its distribution area is much larger than currently recognized. Although both A. cajennense and H. juxtakochi have been reported parasitizing various bird species, we provide the first tick records on a harpy eagle. A. rotundatum is widespread in the State of Rondônia, and has been previously reported on the yellow-footed tortoise. The present records increase the tick fauna of Rondônia to 26 species.O presente estudo relata novos achados de carrapatos provenientes do Município de Vilhena, Sudeste do Estado de Rondônia, na região Norte do Brasil. Carrapatos colhidos de uma capivara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 fêmea e Amblyomma sp. (1 larva. Carrapatos colhidos de uma águia harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius (16 ninfas e Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 ninfa. Carrapatos colhidos de um jabuti, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 fêmeas, 2 ninfas e Amblyomma sp. (2 larvas. O presente achado de A. romitii é o primeiro no Estado de Rondônia, representando o achado mais

  6. Towards the Implementation of Semi-Dynamic Datum for Malaysia (United States)

    Shariff, N. S.; Gill, J.; Amin, Z. M.; Omar, K. M.


    A semi-dynamic datum provides positions with respect to time while taking into account the secular and non-secular deformations, making it the best approach to adapt with the dynamic processes of the earth. Malaysia, as yet, employs a static datum, i.e., GDM2000, at epoch 2000; though Malaysia has evidently been affected by seismic activity for the past decade. Therefore, this paper seeks to propose a design for implementing a semi-dynamic datum for Malaysia. Methodologically, GPS time series analyses are carried out to investigate the seismic activity of Malaysia, which essentially contributes to the proposed design of the semi-dynamic datum for Malaysia. The implications of implementing a semi-dynamic datum for Malaysia are discussed as well. The results indicate that Malaysia undergoes a complex deformation; whereby the earthquakes - primarily the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman, 2005 Nias and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes - have affected the underlying secular velocities of Malaysia. Consequently, from this information, the proposed design, particularly the secular and non-secular deformation models, is described in detail. The proposed semi-dynamic datum comprises a transformation, temporal, and spatial module, and utilizes a bilinear interpolation method. Overall, this paper aims to contribute to the feasibility of a semi-dynamic datum approach for Malaysia.

  7. Superstructure of NiAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozue, Tatsuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisao; Kamimura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo


    The structural transition in NiAs was studied by neutron diffraction on the single crystalline sample. The crystal structure of NiAs has been reported to be bottom-centered orthorhombic with Cmc2 1 symmetry (niccolite-type). The measurement of temperature dependence of the powder X-ray diffraction revealed that NiAs undergoes a structural transition to the NiAs-type at T t =335 K. In present neutron diffraction experiment at room temperature, we observed the reflections indexed on the basis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The intensities of these reflections are qualitatively explained in terms of the niccolite-type structure with taking account of three domain structures, except for the weak reflections indexed as (001), (003) and (012). Then, the intensities of (001), (002) and (004) reflections were measured in temperature range of 20 to 420 K. The temperature dependences of (002) and (004) reflections qualitatively agree with those of the calculated intensities using the atomic positions of niccolite-type structure. However, the temperature dependence of (001) reflection shows the anomaly around T t , which suggests the symmetry of crystal structure of NiAs is not the Cmc2 1 symmetry. (author)

  8. Qualitative analysis of ionospheric disorders in Solok earthquake (March 6, 2007) viewed from anomalous critical frequency of layer F (f0F2) and genesis spread F (United States)

    Pujiastuti, D.; Daniati, S.; Taufiqurrahman, E.; Mustafa, B.; Ednofri


    A qualitative analysis has been conducted by comparing the critical frequency anomalies of layer F (f0F2) and Spread F events to see the correlation with seismic activity before the Solok earthquake (March 6, 2007) in West Sumatra. The ionospherics data used was taken using the FMCW ionosonde at LAPAN SPD Kototabang, Palupuah, West Sumatra. The process of ionogramme scaling is done first to get the daily value of f0F2. The value of f0F2 is then compared with its monthly median to see the daily variations that appear. Anomalies of f0F2 and Spread F events were observed from February 20, 2007 to March 6, 2007. The presence of f0F2 anomalies was the negative deviation and the presence of Spread F before earthquake events were recommended as Solok earthquake precursors as they occurred when geomagneticsics and solar activities were normal.

  9. The Gutenberg-Richter b value: Precursors to the M9-class 2011 Tohoku and 2004 Sumatra quakes (United States)

    Nanjo, K.; Hirata, N.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.


    The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude law of earthquakes is long established in seismology. This law states that the cumulative number (N) of earthquakes with magnitudes larger than or equal to M is well approximated by the relation: logN=A-bM, where the constant A is a measure of the fertility of earthquakes and the other constant b characterizes their size distribution. The b value is typically close to 1, but spatial and temporal changes in b are also known to reflect the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to be associated with asperities and frictional properties. Laboratory experiments predicted systematic decrease in b toward the end of a seismic cycle. In this context, we investigated b values over an extensive range of space and time for the 11 March 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake and 26 December 2004 Mw9.1 Sumatra earthquake. In this presentation, we show that significant decade-scale decrease in b is a common precursor to both mega-quakes around their hypocenters. This is the first time to confirm predicted change in b from laboratory experiment for M9-class quakes. We propose that b value can be an important indicator to infer a next great earthquake, showing the great potential for a future large quake off the Pacific coast of Hokkaido district. The results demonstrate that the use of b helps to improve probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Along this line, we present a progress report on b value analysis conducted for greater Tokyo and discuss future directions of this research toward moving to a new generation of the capital's earthquake hazards. This is supported by the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area.

  10. Sedimentary Signatures of Submarine Earthquakes: Deciphering the Extent of Sediment Remobilization from the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami and 2010 Haiti Earthquake (United States)

    McHugh, C. M.; Seeber, L.; Moernaut, J.; Strasser, M.; Kanamatsu, T.; Ikehara, K.; Bopp, R.; Mustaque, S.; Usami, K.; Schwestermann, T.; Kioka, A.; Moore, L. M.


    The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Mw9.3 and the 2011 Tohoku (Japan) Mw9.0 earthquakes and tsunamis were huge geological events with major societal consequences. Both were along subduction boundaries and ruptured portions of these boundaries that had been deemed incapable of such events. Submarine strike-slip earthquakes, such as the 2010 Mw7.0 in Haiti, are smaller but may be closer to population centers and can be similarly catastrophic. Both classes of earthquakes remobilize sediment and leave distinct signatures in the geologic record by a wide range of processes that depends on both environment and earthquake characteristics. Understanding them has the potential of greatly expanding the record of past earthquakes, which is critical for geohazard analysis. Recent events offer precious ground truth about the earthquakes and short-lived radioisotopes offer invaluable tools to identify sediments they remobilized. In the 2011 Mw9 Japan earthquake they document the spatial extent of remobilized sediment from water depths of 626m in the forearc slope to trench depths of 8000m. Subbottom profiles, multibeam bathymetry and 40 piston cores collected by the R/V Natsushima and R/V Sonne expeditions to the Japan Trench document multiple turbidites and high-density flows. Core tops enriched in xs210Pb,137Cs and 134Cs reveal sediment deposited by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. The thickest deposits (2m) were documented on a mid-slope terrace and trench (4000-8000m). Sediment was deposited on some terraces (600-3000m), but shed from the steep forearc slope (3000-4000m). The 2010 Haiti mainshock ruptured along the southern flank of Canal du Sud and triggered multiple nearshore sediment failures, generated turbidity currents and stirred fine sediment into suspension throughout this basin. A tsunami was modeled to stem from both sediment failures and tectonics. Remobilized sediment was tracked with short-lived radioisotopes from the nearshore, slope, in fault basins including the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dransfield


    Full Text Available In July and August 1972, I spent five weeks on an expedition to study rattans and other palms in the provinces of Jambi and West Sumatra. This central area of Sumatra was chosen because expeditions have already been made to South Sumatra in February 1971 and March 1972 and to North Sumatra and Aceh with the Kyoto University Expedition in August 1971, and therefore collections made in this central area would link up collections from the south and north and would hence add considerably to our knowledge of the palm flora of this rich island. After advice from the Department of Nature Conservation in Jambi and from Dr. M. Jacobs in Rijksherbarium (Leiden had been considered, it was decided to work westwards from Berbak Nature Reserve on the east coast near Nipah Panjang, to the Bukit Barisan, the main range of Sumatra, to Gunung Kerinci Nature Reserve and G. Tujuh near Sungai Penuh and from there, across the western part of the Bukit Barisan to Padang and Bukittinggi. From Bukittinggi it was planned to visit the Kafflesia arnoldii Nature Reserve at Batang Palupuh, and then return to Jambi by way of Muara Tebo and Muara Tembesi, where reputedly there still exists lowland forest. By more or less confining our collecting activities to the normally neglected Palmae it was hoped that within the time available a large area could be covered reasonably, and a palm transect for central Sumatra made. Two assistants from Bogor accompanied me to help in the difficult task of collecting rattans: Dedy Darnaedi (Herbarium Bogoriense and Abdul Hanan (Kebun Raya. These assistants were also given individual collecting assignments as part of a scheme for training assistants in field botany. Dedy was to collect Pteridophyta and Hanan to collect material for growing in the Kebun Raya. Soetrisno Soewoko, head of Nature Conservation in Jambi accompanied us throughout tha expedition.

  12. Proposed seismic hazard maps of Sumatra and Java islands and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3-D) seismic source models (fault source model) using the latest research works regarding the tec- tonic setting of Sumatra and ... is selected because this city is the main business ... and Sumatra, the improvements of the method in seismic ...

  13. Global variations of large megathrust earthquake rupture characteristics (United States)

    Kanamori, Hiroo


    Despite the surge of great earthquakes along subduction zones over the last decade and advances in observations and analysis techniques, it remains unclear whether earthquake complexity is primarily controlled by persistent fault properties or by dynamics of the failure process. We introduce the radiated energy enhancement factor (REEF), given by the ratio of an event’s directly measured radiated energy to the calculated minimum radiated energy for a source with the same seismic moment and duration, to quantify the rupture complexity. The REEF measurements for 119 large [moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 to 9.2] megathrust earthquakes distributed globally show marked systematic regional patterns, suggesting that the rupture complexity is strongly influenced by persistent geological factors. We characterize this as the existence of smooth and rough rupture patches with varying interpatch separation, along with failure dynamics producing triggering interactions that augment the regional influences on large events. We present an improved asperity scenario incorporating both effects and categorize global subduction zones and great earthquakes based on their REEF values and slip patterns. Giant earthquakes rupturing over several hundred kilometers can occur in regions with low-REEF patches and small interpatch spacing, such as for the 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, or in regions with high-REEF patches and large interpatch spacing as in the case for the 2004 Sumatra and 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquakes. Thus, combining seismic magnitude Mw and REEF, we provide a quantitative framework to better represent the span of rupture characteristics of great earthquakes and to understand global seismicity. PMID:29750186

  14. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake (United States)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul


    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  15. Why and Where do Large Shallow Slab Earthquakes Occur? (United States)

    Seno, T.; Yoshida, M.


    Within a shallow portion (20-60 km depth) of subducting slabs, it has been believed that large earthquakes seldom occur because the differential stress is generally expected to be low between bending at the trench-outer rise and unbending at the intermediate-depth. However, there are several regions in which large ( M>=7.0 ) earthquakes, including three events early in this year, have occurred in this portion. Searching such events from published individual studies and Harvard University centroid moment tensor catalogue, we find nineteen events in eastern Hokkaido, Kyushu-SW Japan, Mariana, Manila, Sumatra, Vanuatu, Chile, Peru, El Salvador, Mexico, and Cascadia. Slab stresses revealed from the mechanism solutions of those large events and smaller events are tensional in a slab dip direction. However, ages of the subducting oceanic plates are generally young, which denies a possibility that the slab pull works as a cause. Except for Manila and Sumatra, the stresses in the overriding plates are characterized by the change in {σ }Hmax direction from arc-parallel in the back-arc to arc-perpendicular in the fore-arc, which implies that a horizontal stress gradient exists in the across-arc direction. Peru and Chile, where the back-arc is compressional, can be categorized into this type, because a horizontal stress gradient exists over the continent from tension in east to compression in the west. In these regions, it is expected that mantle drag forces are operating beneath the upper plates, which drive the upper plates to the trenchward overriding the subducting oceanic plates. Assuming that the mantle drag forces beneath the upper plates originate from the mantle convection currents or upwelling plumes, we infer that the upper plates driven by the convection suck the oceanic plates, making the shallow portion of the slabs in extra-tension, thus resulting in the large shallow slab earthquakes in this tectonic regime.

  16. A review on earthquake and tsunami hazards of the Sumatran plate boundary: Observing expected and unexpected events after the Aceh-Andaman Mw 9.15 event (United States)

    Natawidjaja, D.


    The 600-km Mentawai megathrust had produced two giant historical earthquakes generating big tsunamies in 1797 and 1833. The SuGAr (Sumatran GPS continuous Array) network, first deployed in 2002, shows that the subduction interface underlying Mentawai Islands and the neighboring Nias section in the north are fully locked, thus confirming their potential hazards. Outreach activities to warn people about earthquake and tsunamies had been started since 4 months prior to the 26 December 2004 in Aceh-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.15). Later in March 2005, the expected megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.7) hit Nias-Simelue area and killed about 2000 people, releasing the accumulated strain since the previous 1861 event (~Mw 8.5). After then many Mw 7s and smaller events occured in Sumatra, filling areas between and around two giant ruptures and heighten seismicities in neighboring areas. In March 2007, the twin earthquake disaster (Mw 6.3 and Mw 6.4) broke two consecutive segments of the transcurrent Sumatran fault in the Singkarak lake area. Only six month later, in September 2007, the rapid-fire-failures of three consecutive megathrust patches (Mw 8.5, Mw 7.9 and Mw 7.0) ruptured a 250-km-section of the southern part of the Mentawai. It was a big surprise since this particular section is predicted as a very-low coupled section from modelling the SuGAr data, and hence, bypassing the more potential fully coupled section of the Mentawai in between the 2005 and 2007 ruptures. In September 2009, a rare unexpected event (Mw 7.6) suddenly ruptured an intracrustal fault in the subducted slab down under Padang City and killed about 500 people. Padang had been in preparation for the next tsunami but not for strong shakes from near by major earthquake. This event seems to have remotely triggered another Mw 6.7 on the Sumatran fault near kerinci Lake, a few hundred kilometers south of Padang, in less than a day. Just a year later, in November 2010, again an unexpected large slow-slip event of

  17. Where and why do large shallow intraslab earthquakes occur? (United States)

    Seno, Tetsuzo; Yoshida, Masaki


    We try to find how often, and in what regions large earthquakes ( M≥7.0) occur within the shallow portion (20-60 km depth) of a subducting slab. Searching for events in published individual studies and the Harvard University centroid moment tensor catalogue, we find twenty such events in E. Hokkaido, Kyushu-SW, Japan, S. Mariana, Manila, Sumatra, Vanuatu, N. Chile, C. Peru, El Salvador, Mexico, N. Cascadia and Alaska. Slab stresses revealed from the mechanism solutions of these large intraslab events and nearby smaller events are almost always down-dip tensional. Except for E. Hokkaido, Manila, and Sumatra, the upper plate shows horizontal stress gradient in the arc-perpendicular direction. We infer that shear tractions are operating at the base of the upper plate in this direction to produce the observed gradient and compression in the outer fore-arc, balancing the down-dip tensional stress of the slab. This tectonic situation in the subduction zone might be realized as part of the convection system with some conditions, as shown by previous numerical simulations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study discusses the traces proto-languages of Austronesian in modern languages in Sumatra. Modern languages in Sumatra are the languages of the subgroups of Sumatra as part of a group which is an Austronesian Southwestern which is Western Austronesian group. The purpose of this study is to find and assess reflex etimon mother language of Austronesian present in some modern languages in the language of Sumatra namely Aceh, Batak Toba, Mandailaing language, language Kerinci, Minangkabau and Mentawai language. To find reflex (reflection mother language of Austronesian in several languages in Sumatra used comparative methods are qualitative. The use of the method is to reconstruct antarabahasa relationship based on the legacy of rank higher language that PAN into several languages with the lower rank (top-down reconstruction namely the Acehnese language, language Batak Toba, Mandailing language, language Kerinci, Minangkabau and Mentawai language. Research findings indicate that there are reflex (reflection etimon mother language of Austronesian in some modern languages in the language of Sumatra, Aceh, Batak Toba, Mandailaing language, language Kerinci, Minangkabau and Mentawai language. This indicates that all six of these languages is a derivative of the PAN.

  19. Ionospheric detection of tsunami earthquakes: observation, modeling and ideas for future early warning (United States)

    Occhipinti, G.; Manta, F.; Rolland, L.; Watada, S.; Makela, J. J.; Hill, E.; Astafieva, E.; Lognonne, P. H.


    Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra and Tohoku earthquakes (e.g., Occhipinti 2015) demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to earthquake and tsunami propagation: ground and oceanic vertical displacement induces acoustic-gravity waves propagating within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Observations supported by modelling proved that ionospheric anomalies related to tsunamis are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the ocean/neutral-atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism (Occhipinti et al., 2008). To prove that the tsunami signature in the ionosphere is routinely detected we show here perturbations of total electron content (TEC) measured by GPS and following tsunamigenic earthquakes from 2004 to 2011 (Rolland et al. 2010, Occhipinti et al., 2013), nominally, Sumatra (26 December, 2004 and 12 September, 2007), Chile (14 November, 2007), Samoa (29 September, 2009) and the recent Tohoku-Oki (11 Mars, 2011). Based on the observations close to the epicenter, mainly performed by GPS networks located in Sumatra, Chile and Japan, we highlight the TEC perturbation observed within the first 8 min after the seismic rupture. This perturbation contains information about the ground displacement, as well as the consequent sea surface displacement resulting in the tsunami. In addition to GNSS-TEC observations close to the epicenter, new exciting measurements in the far-field were performed by airglow measurement in Hawaii show the propagation of the internal gravity waves induced by the Tohoku tsunami (Occhipinti et al., 2011). This revolutionary imaging technique is today supported by two new observations of moderate tsunamis: Queen Charlotte (M: 7.7, 27 October, 2013) and Chile (M: 8.2, 16 September 2015). We finally detail here our recent work (Manta et al., 2017) on the case of tsunami alert failure following the Mw7.8 Mentawai event (25 October, 2010), and its twin tsunami alert response following the Mw7

  20. Translating Developing Science into Public Awareness and Social Organisation in W. Sumatra. (United States)

    Shannon, R.; McDowell, S.; McCloskey, J.


    Social idiosyncrasies confounding cross-cultural scientific interventions on an intra-regional and international scale continue to blight the positive benefits robust science offers to vulnerable communities inhabiting areas prone to natural hazards. The sustained malice inflicted by these phenomena upon socioeconomic systems epitomises the perilous task facing mitigation bodies attempting to communicate scientific forecasts and interweave technical knowledge into social policy internationally. This quandary continues to confront disaster officials and scientists in Sumatra. Palaeoseismological studies, coupled with a developing understanding of stress transference between earthquakes, reveal that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran forearc is the most plausible candidate for future rupture. Simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation illustrate that the coastal regions of western Sumatran, inhabited by approximately 2 million people, lie in immediate mortal threat. Many Sumatrans' live with stark memories of the 1600 km megathrust rupture in December 2004, which spawned one of the worst global natural atrocities of recent time. The earthquake accelerated collaboration between seismologists, geophysicists and geologists and has produced unrivalled advances in understanding fault locations, geometries and potential rupture characteristics of the Sumatran forearc. Nowhere else on earth are scientists more aware of the impending threat of another magnitude 8+ megathrust earthquake. However with the twenty-first century being tainted by natural disasters which have typified the blatantly ambiguous linkages which exist between science and society, assessing to what extent this notion is exemplified in the Sumatran context is imperative. Here we begin to present the results from a social survey, conducted in the Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu between May and September 2008. The campaign sought to dissect the broader societal complexities and moral values

  1. Far-Field and Middle-Field Vertical Velocities Associated with Megathrust Earthquakes (United States)

    Fleitout, L.; Trubienko, O.; Klein, E.; Vigny, C.; Garaud, J.; Shestakov, N.; Satirapod, C.; Simons, W. J.


    The recent megathrust earthquakes (Sumatra, Chili and Japan) have induced far-field postseismic subsidence with velocities from a few mm/yr to more than 1cm/yr at distances from 500 to 1500km from the earthquake epicentre, for several years following the earthquake. This subsidence is observed in Argentina, China, Korea, far-East Russia and in Malaysia and Thailand as reported by Satirapod et al. ( ASR, 2013). In the middle-field a very pronounced uplift is localized on the flank of the volcanic arc facing the trench. This is observed both over Honshu, in Chile and on the South-West coast of Sumatra. In Japan, the deformations prior to Tohoku earthquake are well measured by the GSI GPS network: While the East coast was slightly subsiding, the West coast was raising. A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to understand the deformations through the seismic cycle in the areas surrounding the last three large subduction earthquakes. The meshes designed for each region feature a broad spherical shell portion with a viscoelastic asthenosphere. They are refined close to the subduction zones. Using these finite element models, we find that the pattern of the predicted far-field vertical postseismic displacements depends upon the thicknesses of the elastic plate and of the low viscosity asthenosphere. A low viscosity asthenosphere at shallow depth, just below the lithosphere is required to explain the subsidence at distances from 500 to 1500km. A thick (for example 600km) asthenosphere with a uniform viscosity predicts subsidence too far away from the trench. Slip on the subduction interface is unable tot induce the observed far-field subsidence. However, a combination of relaxation in a low viscosity wedge and slip or relaxation on the bottom part of the subduction interface is necessary to explain the observed postseismic uplift in the middle-field (volcanic arc area). The creep laws of the various zones used to explain the postseismic data can be injected in

  2. Earthquakes and trauma: review of triage and injury-specific, immediate care. (United States)

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Cadosch, Dieter; Rajan, Gunesh; Zellweger, René


    Earthquakes present a major threat to mankind. Increasing knowledge about geophysical interactions, progressing architectural technology, and improved disaster management algorithms have rendered modern populations less susceptible to earthquakes. Nevertheless, the mass casualties resulting from earthquakes in Great Kanto (Japan), Ancash (Peru), Tangshan (China), Guatemala, Armenia, and Izmit (Turkey) or the recent earthquakes in Bhuj (India), Bam (Iran), Sumatra (Indonesia) and Kashmir (Pakistan) indicate the devastating effect earthquakes can have on both individual and population health. Appropriate preparation and implementation of crisis management algorithms are of utmost importance to ensure a large-scale medical-aid response is readily available following a devastating event. In particular, efficient triage is vital to optimize the use of limited medical resources and to effectively mobilize these resources so as to maximize patient salvage. However, the main priorities of disaster rescue teams are the rescue and provision of emergency care for physical trauma. Furthermore, the establishment of transport evacuation corridors, a feature often neglected, is essential in order to provide the casualties with a chance for survival. The optimal management of victims under such settings is discussed, addressing injuries of the body and psyche by means of simple diagnostic and therapeutic procedures globally applicable and available.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliton Pereira


    Full Text Available This research perform a mapping of teaching spaces of music and dance in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia in the years 2013 and 2014. This project seeks to build a mapping of the professionals schools spaces of music and dance in the metropolitan area of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. The research methodology, initially quantitative has been expanded in the pursuit of socio-cultural realities and professional schools of music and dance, where teachers work in this areas.

  4. Size and duration of the high-frequency radiator in the source of the December 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, A A [Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii (Russian Federation); [Kamchatka Branch, Geophysical Survey, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Guseva, E M [Kamchatka Branch, Geophysical Survey, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii (Russian Federation); Panza, G F [University of Trieste, Department of Earth Sciences, Trieste (Italy); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, SAND Group, Trieste (Italy)


    We recover the gross space-time characteristics of high-frequency (HF) radiator of the great Sumatra-Andaman islands earthquake of Dec. 26, 2004, (M{sub w}=9.0-9.3) using the inversion of parameters describing the time histories of the power of radiated HF P waves. To determine these time histories we process teleseismic P waves at 37 BB stations, using, in sequence: (1) band filtering in the bands 0.4-1.2, 1.2-2, 2-3 and 3-4 Hz; (2) calculation of squared attenuation-corrected acceleration wave amplitudes, making 'power signal'; (3) elimination of distortion related to scattering and expressed as P coda. In step (3) we employ, as an empirical Green function, the power signal determined from an aftershock, from which we construct an inverse filter, and apply it to the recorded power signal. We thus recover the source time function for HF power, with a definite end and no coda. Three parameters are extracted from such signals: full ('100%') duration, temporal centroid, and 99% duration. Through linear inversion, station full durations deliver estimates of the rupture stopping point and stopping time. Similarly, signal temporal centroids and 99% durations can be inverted to obtain the position of the space-time centroid of HF energy radiator and of the point corresponding to the discharge of 99% of the energy. Inversion was successful for the three lower-frequency bands and resulted in the following joint estimates: source length of 1100{+-}220 km (100%) and 800{+-}200 km (99%), source duration of 690 s (100%) and 550 s (99%). The stopping point differs insignificantly from the northern extremity of the aftershock zone. Spatial HF radiation centroid is located at the distance of about 400 km at the azimuth N327W from the epicenter. Rupture propagation velocity estimates are 1.4-1.7 km/s for the entire rupture and 2.3 km/s for its southern, more powerful part. An interesting detail of the source is that the northernmost 300 km of the rupture radiated only 1% of the

  5. Size and duration of the high-frequency radiator in the source of the December 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.; Guseva, E.M.; Panza, G.F.


    We recover the gross space-time characteristics of high-frequency (HF) radiator of the great Sumatra-Andaman islands earthquake of Dec. 26, 2004, (M w =9.0-9.3) using the inversion of parameters describing the time histories of the power of radiated HF P waves. To determine these time histories we process teleseismic P waves at 37 BB stations, using, in sequence: (1) band filtering in the bands 0.4-1.2, 1.2-2, 2-3 and 3-4 Hz; (2) calculation of squared attenuation-corrected acceleration wave amplitudes, making 'power signal'; (3) elimination of distortion related to scattering and expressed as P coda. In step (3) we employ, as an empirical Green function, the power signal determined from an aftershock, from which we construct an inverse filter, and apply it to the recorded power signal. We thus recover the source time function for HF power, with a definite end and no coda. Three parameters are extracted from such signals: full ('100%') duration, temporal centroid, and 99% duration. Through linear inversion, station full durations deliver estimates of the rupture stopping point and stopping time. Similarly, signal temporal centroids and 99% durations can be inverted to obtain the position of the space-time centroid of HF energy radiator and of the point corresponding to the discharge of 99% of the energy. Inversion was successful for the three lower-frequency bands and resulted in the following joint estimates: source length of 1100±220 km (100%) and 800±200 km (99%), source duration of 690 s (100%) and 550 s (99%). The stopping point differs insignificantly from the northern extremity of the aftershock zone. Spatial HF radiation centroid is located at the distance of about 400 km at the azimuth N327W from the epicenter. Rupture propagation velocity estimates are 1.4-1.7 km/s for the entire rupture and 2.3 km/s for its southern, more powerful part. An interesting detail of the source is that the northernmost 300 km of the rupture radiated only 1% of the total HF

  6. Constructivist learning at the science-policy interface: tsunami science informing disaster policy in West Sumatra (United States)

    McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.


    Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.

  7. Transient postseismic mantle relaxation following 2004 Sumatra earthquake: implications of seismic vulnerability in the Andaman-Nicobar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Reddy


    Full Text Available Throughout the world, the tsunami generation potential of some large under-sea earthquakes significantly contributes to regional seismic hazard, which gives rise to significant risk in the near-shore provinces where human settlements are in sizeable population, often referred to as coastal seismic risk. In this context, we show from the pertinent GPS data that the transient stresses generated by the viscoelastic relaxation process taking place in the mantle is capable of rupturing major faults by stress transfer from the mantle through the lower crust including triggering additional rupture on the other major faults. We also infer that postseismic relaxation at relatively large depths can push some of the fault segments to reactivation causing failure sequences. As an illustration to these effects, we consider in detail the earthquake sequence comprising six events, starting from the main event of Mw = 7.5, on 10 August 2009 and tapering off to a small earthquake of Mw = 4.5 on 2 February 2011 over a period of eighteen months in the intensely seismic Andaman Islands between India and Myanmar. The persisting transient stresses, spatio-temporal seismic pattern, modeled Coulomb stress changes, and the southward migration of earthquake activity has increased the probability of moderate earthquakes recurring in the northern Andaman region, particularly closer to or somewhat south of Diglipur.

  8. Research mapping in North Sumatra based on Scopus (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Sitepu, R.; Rosmayati; Bakti, D.; Hardi, S. M.


    Research is needed to improve the capacity of human resources to manage natural resources for human well-being. Research is done by institutions such as universities or research institutions, but the research picture related to human welfare interests is not easy to obtain. If research can be proven through scientific publications, scientific research publication databases can be used to view research behaviour. Research mapping in North Sumatra needs to be done to see the suitability of research conducted with development needs in North Sumatra, and as a presentation is the Universitas Sumatera Utara which shows that research conducted has 60% strength, especially in the exact sciences.

  9. Navigating Earthquake Physics with High-Resolution Array Back-Projection (United States)

    Meng, Lingsen

    Understanding earthquake source dynamics is a fundamental goal of geophysics. Progress toward this goal has been slow due to the gap between state-of-art earthquake simulations and the limited source imaging techniques based on conventional low-frequency finite fault inversions. Seismic array processing is an alternative source imaging technique that employs the higher frequency content of the earthquakes and provides finer detail of the source process with few prior assumptions. While the back-projection provides key observations of previous large earthquakes, the standard beamforming back-projection suffers from low resolution and severe artifacts. This thesis introduces the MUSIC technique, a high-resolution array processing method that aims to narrow the gap between the seismic observations and earthquake simulations. The MUSIC is a high-resolution method taking advantage of the higher order signal statistics. The method has not been widely used in seismology yet because of the nonstationary and incoherent nature of the seismic signal. We adapt MUSIC to transient seismic signal by incorporating the Multitaper cross-spectrum estimates. We also adopt a "reference window" strategy that mitigates the "swimming artifact," a systematic drift effect in back projection. The improved MUSIC back projections allow the imaging of recent large earthquakes in finer details which give rise to new perspectives on dynamic simulations. In the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we observe frequency-dependent rupture behaviors which relate to the material variation along the dip of the subduction interface. In the 2012 off-Sumatra earthquake, we image the complicated ruptures involving orthogonal fault system and an usual branching direction. This result along with our complementary dynamic simulations probes the pressure-insensitive strength of the deep oceanic lithosphere. In another example, back projection is applied to the 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake recorded at regional distance. The

  10. 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Japan's Nuclear Disaster - Implications for Indian Ocean Rim countries (United States)

    Chadha, R. K.


    along the coasts. There are a few countries where nuclear installations are planned and hence, a critical analysis is required to know the realistic hazard due to earthquakes and tsunami in these countries. The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami generated due to Sumatra earthquake of M9.3 claimed more than 250,000 lives but did not caused a situation like in Japan. We studied the tsunami run-up heights and inundation along the east coast of India. The maximum run-up height of 5.2 meters was observed at Nagapattinam with lateral inundation up to 800 meters and the minimum was at Devanaampatnam with a lateral inundation up to 340 meters. At Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, the tsunami run-up height was 4.1 meters and water entered up to 360 meters inside the campus. Using the observed data we modeled several scenarios for Indian coast line for different earthquakes along the subduction zone of Andaman-Sumatra in the east and Makran in south Pakistan in the western side using N2 Tsunami Model. The results obtained for few critical structures will be presented with an overview of scenarios for other countries.

  11. Sado, la cerimònia del te japonesa


    Lluch Garcia, Lídia


    La cerimònia del te japonesa, o Sado, és el ritual de la preparació i el servei del te verd japonès, matcha. Influenciada pel budisme zen, és una doctrina que requereix anys d'estudi i pràctica, ja que l'ensenyança d'aquesta cerimònia inclou l'estudi d'altres arts japoneses tals com la cal•ligrafia, o shodo, l'arranjament floral, o ikebana, i l'art del quimono, entre d'altres. Aquest treball explora la història de la cerimònia del te, des dels seus orígens fins a la seva situació actual; així...

  12. Epidemiologia da insônia


    Souza,José Carlos; Reimão,Rubens


    Os autores fizeram uma ampla revisão da literatura científica mundial sobre a epidemiologia da insônia, o mais prevalente dos distúrbios do sono. Foi feito um levantamento bibliográfico, no período de janeiro de 2002 a novembro de 2003, das publicações dos últimos 30 anos, nos bancos de dados MEDLINE e LILACS, sobre a definição e prevalência da insônia, além de suas conseqüências socioeconômicas. As palavras-chaves pesquisadas foram: distúrbio de iniciar o sono, distúrbio de manutenção do son...

  13. Epidemiologia da insônia Epidemiology of the insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Souza


    Full Text Available Os autores fizeram uma ampla revisão da literatura científica mundial sobre a epidemiologia da insônia, o mais prevalente dos distúrbios do sono. Foi feito um levantamento bibliográfico, no período de janeiro de 2002 a novembro de 2003, das publicações dos últimos 30 anos, nos bancos de dados MEDLINE e LILACS, sobre a definição e prevalência da insônia, além de suas conseqüências socioeconômicas. As palavras-chaves pesquisadas foram: distúrbio de iniciar o sono, distúrbio de manutenção do sono, distúrbio do despertar precoce, insônia, distúrbios do sono, prevalência da insônia, conseqüências da insônia. Observou-se uma grande variação dos critérios de definição da insônia, dos desenhos metodológicos e dos resultados dos estudos epidemiológicos, o que prejudicou as comparações dos dados das várias pesquisas. As futuras linhas de pesquisa sobre a epidemiologia da insônia devem se embasar em um consenso sobre sua definição e critérios metodológicos mais bem-definidos.A vast literature review on the insomnia epidemiology, the most common sleep disorder, using MEDLINE and LILACS last 30 years of data, was performed from January 2002 to November 2003. The key-words were: sleep initiation disorders, sleep maintenance disorders, early awakening disorder, insomnia, sleep disorders, insomnia prevalence, insomnia consequences. Several insomnia definition criteria and epidemiology researches methods, with data comparison difficulties, were noticed. In the future it will be necessary similar insomnia definition and epidemiology studies criteria.

  14. Retrospective stress-forecasting of earthquakes (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Crampin, Stuart


    retrospectively stress-forecasting ~17 earthquakes ranging in magnitude from a M1.7 swarm event in N Iceland, to the 1999 M7.7 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan, and the 2004 Mw9.2 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake (SAE). Before SAE, the changes in SWS were observed at seismic stations in Iceland at a distance of ~10,500km the width of the Eurasian Plate, from Indonesia demonstrating the 'butterfly wings' sensitivity of the New Geophysics of a critically microcracked Earth. At that time, the sensitivity of the phenomena had not been recognised, and the SAE was not stress-forecast. These results have been published at various times in various formats in various journals. This presentation displays all the results in a normalised format that allows the similarities to be recognised, confirming that observations of SWS time-delays can stress-forecast the times, magnitudes, and in some circumstances fault-breaks, of impending earthquakes. Papers referring to these developments can be found in Also see abstracts in EGU2015 Sessions: Crampin & Gao (SM1.1), Liu & Crampin (NH2.5), and Crampin & Gao (GD.1).

  15. Long Period Source Characteristics of Great Earthquakes: diagnosing complexity (United States)

    Rivera, L. A.; Kanamori, H.


    With the commonly used centroid moment tensor inversions, just one number represents the long period size of the event, the seismic moment Mo (or corresponding Mw). However, several recent studies have clearly demonstrated that this is not satisfactory, at least for some earthquakes. For example, for the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Is. Earthquake, the amplitudes of long-period normal modes indicated that the effective seismic moment increases from 4.0x1022 to 7.1x1022 N-m as the period increases from 300 to 1000 sec. For the 2009 Samoa Is. earthquake (Mw=8.1), the moment tensor was found to be strongly dependent on frequency because the source of this earthquake consists of at least 2 distinct events with very different mechanisms. It is possible that other large and great earthquakes may have similar complex characteristics, but with the standard moment tensor inversion with a single frequency band, we may not notice this easily. Here we investigate the possible frequency dependence of the moment tensor of large earthquakes by performing W phase inversions using teleseismic data and equally spaced narrow overlapping frequency bands. We investigate frequencies from 2.6 to 3.8 mHz. We focus on the variation with frequency of the scalar moment, the amount of non double couple and the focal mechanism. We apply this technique to 30 major events in the period 1994-2013 and use the results to detect source complexity. We class them in three groups according to the variability of the source parameters with frequency: Simple, Complex and Intermediate events and we discuss the correlation of the result of this approach with independent observations of source complexity.

  16. The 2005 volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm in the Andaman Sea: Triggered by the 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kundu, B.; Legrand, D.; Gahalaut, K.; Gahalaut, V.K.; Mahesh, P.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Catherine, J.K.; Ambikapthy, A.; Chadha, R.K.

    Raju3, J.K. Catherine1, A. Ambikapthy1, R.K.Chadha1 1. National Geophysical Research Institute (CSIR), Hyderabad-500007, India 2. UNAM, Instituto de Geofísica, Av. Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Del. Coyoacán, C.P. 04510. México D....F. México. 3. National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR), Dona Paula, Goa-403004, India *Corresponding Author (Email: Abstract: A 6-days duration earthquakes swarm occurred in the Andaman Sea, 31 days after the giant 2004...

  17. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: A quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses (United States)

    Marano, K.D.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.


    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER's overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  18. A global outer-rise/outer-trench-slope (OR/OTS) earthquake study (United States)

    Wartman, J. M.; Kita, S.; Kirby, S. H.; Choy, G. L.


    Using improved seismic, bathymetric, satellite gravity and other geophysical data, we investigated the seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in oceanic lithosphere off the trenches of the world that are large enough to be well recorded at teleseismic distances. A number of prominent trends are apparent, some of which have been previously recognized based on more limited data [1], and some of which are largely new [2-5]: (1) The largest events and the highest seismicity rates tend to occur where Mesozoic incoming plates are subducting at high rates (e.g., those in the western Pacific and the Banda segment of Indonesia). The largest events are predominantly shallow normal faulting (SNF) earthquakes. Less common are reverse-faulting (RF) events that tend to be deeper and to be present along with SNF events where nearby seamounts, seamount chains and other volcanic features are subducting [Seno and Yamanaka, 1996]. Blooms of SNF OR/OTS events usually occur just after and seaward of great interplate thrust (IPT) earthquakes but are far less common after smaller IPT events. (2) Plates subducting at slow rates (Chile, the Ninety East Ridge in Sumatra, and the D’Entrecastaux Ridge in Vanuatu).

  19. Directives for Mangrove Forest and Coastal Forest Rehabilitation in Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Area in the Provinces of Manggroe Aceh Darussalam and Sumatera Utara (Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmara


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Peristiwa gempa bumi dan tsunami yang melanda Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD dan Pulau Nias Sumatera Utara pada bulan Desember 2004 telah mengakibatkan rusaknya sebagian besar hutan mangrove dan hutan pantai di kedua wilayah tersebut. Berhubung kedua tipe hutan tersebut sangat penting untuk menopang kelangsungan hidup penduduk pantai, maka penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan arahan rehabilitasi hutan mangrove dan pantai yang rusak akibat tsunami di NAD dan Pulau Nias. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa wilayah pantai yang tanahnya berupa tanah mineral yang bukan lumpur dengan salinitas yang tinggi (di atas 10 0/00 seyogyanya ditanami oleh jenis mangrove eklusif (Rhizophora stylosa, R. apiculata, Sonneratia alba, Ceriops tagal dan Aegeciros floridum dan mangrove asosiat (Osbornea octodonta dan Scyphiphora sp., tanah bukan lumpur dengan salinitas rendah oleh berbagai jenis pohon hutan pantai (Casuarina equisetifolia, dan lain-lain, tanah lumpur bersalinitas tinggi oleh Avicenia spp. dan R. Mucronata; dan tanah gambut seyogyanya ditanami oleh Bruguiera gymnorrizha. Adapun lebar  jalur hijau vegetasi yang disarankan adalah minimal 225 m untuk wilayah NAD dan 211 m untuk wilayah pulau Nias. Untuk merealisasikan kegiatan rehabilitasi vegetasi pantai yang bersifat multitahun di NAD dan Nias maka kegiatan rehabilitasi tersebut harus ditempatkan dalam rangka pembangunan daerah Kata kunci: hutan mangrove, hutan pantai, jalur hijau, mangrove asosiat, mangrove eksklusif

  20. Insônia em pacientes com câncer de mama


    Rafihi-Ferreira,Renatha El; Soares,Maria Rita Zoéga


    A insônia é uma queixa frequente em pacientes com câncer de mama, e suas consequências podem causar impacto na qualidade de vida e no curso da doença. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar a literatura especializada sobre a relação entre insônia e câncer de mama, abordando definição, prevalência, fatores etiológicos e as consequências da insônia no contexto da neoplasia mamária, bem como os tratamentos para insônia nessa população. A busca da literatura ocorreu nos bancos de dados Scopus, Web o...

  1. A new species of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae from Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitra Akhriadi


    Full Text Available AKHRIADI, PITRA, HERNAWATI & TAMIN, RUSJDI. 2004. A new species of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae from Sumatra. Reinwardtia 12 (2: 141 – 144. ─ A New Species of Nepenthes rigidifolia is described.

  2. A report from YMC Sumatra field campaign (United States)

    Yoneyama, K.; Yokoi, S.; Mori, S.; Nasuno, T.; Yamanaka, M. D.; Yasunaga, K.; Haryoko, U.; Nurhayati, N.; Syamsudin, F.


    Years of the Maritime Continent (YMC) is a two-year international field campaign from July 2017 through the early 2020. It aims at enhancing our knowledge of weather-climate systems over the Maritime Continent and its relation to higher latitudes through observations and numerical modeling. YMC field observations consist of several Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) and routine basis long-term observations done by local agencies. One of IOPs is a joint effort done by Japanese and Indonesian research groups and we call it YMC-Sumatra, which studies precipitation mechanism along the west coast of Sumatra Island (Bengkulu city) especially focusing on a relationship between diurnal cycle convection and large-scale disturbances such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Observations will be carried out from November 16, 2017 through January 15, 2018. Since it is known that diurnally developed convection over the coast propagates offshore in the night time, we will deploy a ship off the coast in addition to the land-based site in Bengkulu meteorological station. From both sides, we conduct scanning weather radars, 3-hourly radiosonde soundings, and continuous surface meteorological measurements. Ocean surface is also intensively measured by 3-hourly CTD, ADCP, turbulent sensor, and so on from the ship. In addition, two types of forecast run (global 7-/14-km mesh for 14-/30-day forecast) using NICAM will be performed. Since this campaign in Sumatra is being done during the AGU meeting, a preliminary live report will be provided, so that scientific results as well as logistics information can be used for further IOPs.

  3. The effects of core-reflected waves on finite fault inversions with teleseismic body wave data (United States)

    Qian, Yunyi; Ni, Sidao; Wei, Shengji; Almeida, Rafael; Zhang, Han


    Teleseismic body waves are essential for imaging rupture processes of large earthquakes. Earthquake source parameters are usually characterized by waveform analyses such as finite fault inversions using only turning (direct) P and SH waves without considering the reflected phases from the core-mantle boundary (CMB). However, core-reflected waves such as ScS usually have amplitudes comparable to direct S waves due to the total reflection from the CMB and might interfere with the S waves used for inversion, especially at large epicentral distances for long duration earthquakes. In order to understand how core-reflected waves affect teleseismic body wave inversion results, we develop a procedure named Multitel3 to compute Green's functions that contain turning waves (direct P, pP, sP, direct S, sS and reverberations in the crust) and core-reflected waves (PcP, pPcP, sPcP, ScS, sScS and associated reflected phases from the CMB). This ray-based method can efficiently generate synthetic seismograms for turning and core-reflected waves independently, with the flexibility to take into account the 3-D Earth structure effect on the timing between these phases. The performance of this approach is assessed through a series of numerical inversion tests on synthetic waveforms of the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal earthquake. We also compare this improved method with the turning-wave only inversions and explore the stability of the new procedure when there are uncertainties in a priori information (such as fault geometry and epicentre location) or arrival time of core-reflected phases. Finally, a finite fault inversion of the 2005 Mw8.7 Nias-Simeulue earthquake is carried out using the improved Green's functions. Using enhanced Green's functions yields better inversion results as expected. While the finite source inversion with conventional P and SH waves is able to recover large-scale characteristics of the earthquake source, by adding PcP and ScS phases

  4. A "new" Nitidulid Beetle from Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de C.


    Some time ago I was asked to identify a fossil coleopteron which had been found in the drill cuttings of an oil well in the Southern part of Sumatra. As the fossil is only a few millimetres long it may be mentioned as an amazing fact that so small an object has been found during rather rough work

  5. Indigenous knowledge management to enhance community resilience to tsunami risk: lessons learned from Smong traditions in Simeulue island, Indonesia (United States)

    Rahman, A.; Sakurai, A.; Munadi, K.


    Knowledge accumulation and production embedded in communities through social interactions meant that the Smong tradition of indigenous knowledge of tsunami risk successfully alerted people to the 2004 tsunami, on the island of Simeulue, in Aceh, Indonesia. Based on this practical example, an indigenous management model was developed for Smong information. This knowledge management method involves the transformation of indigenous knowledge into applicable ways to increase community resilience, including making appropriate decisions and taking action in three disaster phases. First, in the pre-disaster stage, the community needs to be willing to mainstream and integrate indigenous knowledge of disaster risk reduction issues into related activities. Second, during disasters, the Smong tradition should make the community able to think clearly, act based on informed decisions, and protect themselves and others by using their indigenous knowledge. Last, in the post-disaster phase, the community needs to be strong enough to face challenges and support each other and “building back better” efforts, using local resources. The findings for the Smong tradition provide valuable knowledge about community resilience. Primary community resilience to disasters is strongly related to existing knowledge that triggers appropriate decisions and actions during pre-disaster, disaster, and post-disaster phases.

  6. Paleomagnetic tests for tectonic reconstructions of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Woyla Group, Sumatra (United States)

    Advokaat, Eldert; Bongers, Mayke; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Rudyawan, Alfend; Marshal, Edo


    SE Asia consists of multiple continental blocks, volcanic arcs and suture zones representing remnants of closing ocean basins. The core of this mainland is called Sundaland, and was formed by accretion of continental and arc fragments during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The former positions of these blocks are still uncertain but reconstructions based on tectonostratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic, geological and palaeomagnetic studies indicate the continental terranes separated from the eastern margin of Gondwana. During the mid-Cretaceous, more continental and arc fragments accreted to Sundaland, including the intra-oceanic Woyla Arc now exposed on Sumatra. These continental fragments were derived from Australia, but the former position of the Woyla Arc is unconstrained. Interpretations on the former position of the Woyla Arc fall in two end-member groups. The first group interprets the Woyla Arc to be separated from West Sumatra by a small back-arc basin. This back arc basin opened in the Late Jurassic, and closed mid-Cretaceous, when the Woyla Arc collided with West Sumatra. The other group interprets the Woyla Arc to be derived from Gondwana, at a position close to the northern margin of Greater India in the Late Jurassic. Subsequently the Woyla Arc moved northwards and collided with West Sumatra in the mid-Cretaceous. Since these scenarios predict very different plate kinematic evolutions for the Neotethyan realm, we here aim to place paleomagnetic constraints on paleolatitudinal evolution of the Woyla Arc. The Woyla Arc consists mainly of basaltic to andesitic volcanics and dykes, and volcaniclastic shales and sandstones. Associated limestones with volcanic debris are interpreted as fringing reefs. This assemblage is interpreted as remnants of an Early Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc. West Sumatra exposes granites, surrounded by quartz sandstones, shales and volcanic tuffs. These sediments are in part metamorphosed. This assemblage is interpreted as a Jurassic

  7. Introduction to thematic collection "Historical and geological studies of earthquakes" (United States)

    Satake, Kenji; Wang, Jian; Hammerl, Christa; Malik, Javed N.


    This thematic collection contains eight papers mostly presented at the 2016 AOGS meeting in Beijing. Four papers describe historical earthquake studies in Europe, Japan, and China; one paper uses modern instrumental data to examine the effect of giant earthquakes on the seismicity rate; and three papers describe paleoseismological studies using tsunami deposit in Japan, marine terraces in Philippines, and active faults in Himalayas. Hammerl (Geosci Lett 4:7, 2017) introduced historical seismological studies in Austria, starting from methodology which is state of the art in most European countries, followed by a case study for an earthquake of July 17, 1670 in Tyrol. Albini and Rovida (Geosci Lett 3:30, 2016) examined 114 historical records for the earthquake on April 6, 1667 on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, compiled 37 Macroseismic Data Points, and estimated the epicenter and the size of the earthquake. Matsu'ura (Geosci Lett 4:3, 2017) summarized historical earthquake studies in Japan which resulted in about 8700 Intensity Data Points, assigned epicenters for 214 earthquakes between AD 599 and 1872, and estimated focal depth and magnitudes for 134 events. Wang et al. (Geosci Lett 4:4, 2017) introduced historical seismology in China, where historical earthquake archives include about 15,000 sources, and parametric catalogs include about 1000 historical earthquakes between 2300 BC and AD 1911. Ishibe et al. (Geosci Lett 4:5, 2017) tested the Coulomb stress triggering hypothesis for three giant (M 9) earthquakes that occurred in recent years, and found that at least the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes caused the seismicity rate change. Ishimura (2017) re-estimated the ages of 11 tsunami deposits in the last 4000 years along the Sanriku coast of northern Japan and found that the average recurrence interval of those tsunamis as 350-390 years. Ramos et al. (2017) studied 1000-year-old marine terraces on the west coast of Luzon Island, Philippines

  8. Uplift and Subsidence Associated with the Great Aceh-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 (United States)


    The magnitude 9.2 Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26, 2004, produced broad regions of uplift and subsidence. In order to define the lateral extent and the downdip limit of rupture, scientists from Caltech, Pasadena, Calif.; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; the U.S. Geological Survey, Pasadena, Calif.; and the Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung, Indonesia; first needed to define the pivot line separating those regions. Interpretation of satellite imagery and a tidal model were one of the key tools used to do this. These pre-Sumatra earthquake (a) and post-Sumatra earthquake (b) images of North Sentinel Island in the Indian Ocean, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, show emergence of the coral reef surrounding the island following the earthquake. The tide was 30 plus or minus 14 centimeters lower in the pre-earthquake image (acquired November 21, 2000) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 20, 2005), requiring a minimum of 30 centimeters of uplift at this locality. Observations from an Indian Coast Guard helicopter on the northwest coast of the island suggest that the actual uplift is on the order of 1 to 2 meters at this site. In figures (c) and (d), pre-earthquake and post-earthquake ASTER images of a small island off the northwest coast of Rutland Island, 38 kilometers east of North Sentinel Island, show submergence of the coral reef surrounding the island. The tide was higher in the pre-earthquake image (acquired January 1, 2004) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 4, 2005), requiring subsidence at this locality. The pivot line must run between North Sentinel and Rutland islands. Note that the scale for the North Sentinel Island images differs from that for the Rutland Island images. The tidal model used for this study was



    Muhammad Yusuf


    One of the main functions of the government of North Sumatra Province is how to reduce the gap between the district / city in the province of North Sumatra. A regional disparity is the ratio of real per capita income among regions with per capita real income of the province. This study aims to analyze the development gap among districts / cities in North Sumatra. In addition, this study also analyzes the Klasen typology at each district / city in North Sumatra. The data’s that used in this st...

  10. The Need for More Earthquake Science in Southeast Asia (United States)

    Sieh, K.


    Many regions within SE Asia have as great a density of active seismic structures as does the western US - Sumatra, Myanmar, Bangladesh, New Guinea and the Philippines come first to mind. Much of Earth's release of seismic energy in the current millennium has, in fact, come from these regions, with great losses of life and livelihoods. Unfortunately, the scientific progress upon which seismic-risk reduction in SE Asia ultimately depends has been and continues to be slow. Last year at AGU, for example, I counted 57 talks about the M6 Napa earthquake. In contrast, I can't recall hearing any talk on a SE Asian M6 earthquake at any venue in the past many years. In fact, even M7+ earthquakes often go unstudied. Not uncommonly, the region's earthquake scientists face high financial and political impediments to conducting earthquake research. Their slow speed in the development of scientific knowledge doesn't bode well for speedy progress in the science of seismic hazards, the sine qua non for substantially reducing seismic risk. There are two basic necessities for the region to evolve significantly from the current state of affairs. Both involve the development of regional infrastructure: 1) Data: Robust and accessible geophysical monitoring systems would need to be installed, maintained and utilized by the region's earth scientists and their results shared internationally. Concomitantly, geological mapping (sensu lato) would need to be undertaken. 2) People: The training, employment, and enduring support of a new, young, international corps of earth scientists would need to accelerate markedly. The United States could play an important role in achieving the goal of significant seismic risk reduction in the most seismically active countries of SE Asia by taking the lead in establishing a coalition to robustly fund a multi-decadal program that supports scientists and their research institutions to work alongside local expertise.

  11. Monitoring the UPS and Downs of Sumatra and Java with D-Insar Time-Series (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.


    We performed, for the first time, a global D-InSAR survey of the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java to define locations where deformation is occurring. The goals of this study are 1) to create an inventory of actively deforming volcanic centers and 2) monitor all types of ground motion. This work provides ground deformation data for previously unmonitored areas and can assist the Indonesian authorities to improve hazards assessment. The D-InSAR survey covers an area of about 500 000 km2 and 3000 km long on the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. We used ALOS data from 45 tracks and more than 1500 granules obtained from the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) through the US Government Research Consortium (USGRC). We completed more than 1000 interferograms spanning a period from the end of 2006 to the beginning of 2009. L-band SAR images enable deformation mapping at global scales even in highly vegetated areas where C-band signal experiences loss of coherence. To identify locations where ground deformations are occurring, we used multiple SAR acquisitions of the same area and performed time series analysis using the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) method. Interferograms with a maximum spatial baseline of 3000 m were phase-unwrapped and subsequently inverted for the phase with respect to the first acquisition. Temporal coherence of each pixel is computed on the set of interferograms in order to select only pixels with high temporal coherence. The compiled InSAR velocity map reveals the background level of activity of the 84 volcanic centers constituting the Sumatra, Java and Bali volcanic arcs. We identified possible uplift at 6 volcanic centers: Agung (Bali), Lamongan (Java), Lawu (Java), Slamet (Java), Kerinci (Sumatra) and Sinabung (Sumatra). Moreover, we identified subsidence in 5 major cities and 1 coastal area. Subsidence rates range from 6 cm/yr in Medan, the largest city of Sumatra, to more than 15 cm/yr in Jakarta. These major subsidence areas are probably due

  12. Insónia e hipertensão


    Santos, Pedro Duarte Lourenço dos


    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz A insónia e hipertensão são duas patologias prevalentes na sociedade atual, sendo que ambas são problemas crescentes no âmbito da saúde pública. O efeito isolado de ambas as doenças tem interesse social, laboral e económico. No entanto o interesse científico destas patologias é acrescido com o fenómeno de causalidade entre insónia e hipertensão. Apesar de serem patologias distintas entre si, a...

  13. On a new Flying Squirrel from Deli, Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.


    Sciuropterus setosus, collected by Horner in the neighborhood of Padang (Sumatra) and described by Temminck in the »Fauna japonica”, seems to be such an extremely rare animal, that the type-specimen — an adult female — is the only individual hitherto observed by collectors and naturalists. Mr.

  14. Prevention of strong earthquakes: Goal or utopia? (United States)

    Mukhamediev, Sh. A.


    In the present paper, we consider ideas suggesting various kinds of industrial impact on the close-to-failure block of the Earth’s crust in order to break a pending strong earthquake (PSE) into a number of smaller quakes or aseismic slips. Among the published proposals on the prevention of a forthcoming strong earthquake, methods based on water injection and vibro influence merit greater attention as they are based on field observations and the results of laboratory tests. In spite of this, the cited proofs are, for various reasons, insufficient to acknowledge the proposed techniques as highly substantiated; in addition, the physical essence of these methods has still not been fully understood. First, the key concept of the methods, namely, the release of the accumulated stresses (or excessive elastic energy) in the source region of a forthcoming strong earthquake, is open to objection. If we treat an earthquake as a phenomenon of a loss in stability, then, the heterogeneities of the physicomechanical properties and stresses along the existing fault or its future trajectory, rather than the absolute values of stresses, play the most important role. In the present paper, this statement is illustrated by the classical examples of stable and unstable fractures and by the examples of the calculated stress fields, which were realized in the source regions of the tsunamigenic earthquakes of December 26, 2004 near the Sumatra Island and of September 29, 2009 near the Samoa Island. Here, just before the earthquakes, there were no excessive stresses in the source regions. Quite the opposite, the maximum shear stresses τmax were close to their minimum value, compared to τmax in the adjacent territory. In the present paper, we provide quantitative examples that falsify the theory of the prevention of PSE in its current form. It is shown that the measures for the prevention of PSE, even when successful for an already existing fault, can trigger or accelerate a catastrophic

  15. Millora en el tractament contra la miastènia gravis


    Ponseti, J.M.


    La miastènia gravis és una malaltia autoimmune i crónica, caracteritzada per una gran debilitat muscular. Un assaig clínic realitzat per la Unitat de Miastènia de l'Hospital General Universitari Vall d'Hebron durant cinc anys acaba de demostrar els beneficis d'incloure un fàrmac, el tacrolimus, per guarir aquesta malaltia.

  16. Two new spiders from Sumatra (Araneae, Telemidae and Ochyroceratidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brignoli, P.M.


    Apneumonella jacobsoni n. sp. is described (♀, ♂ unknown; typ. loc.: Fort de Kock, Sumatra, Indonesia); this species, which can be distinguished from all other known Telemids by general morphology, genitalia, chelicerae, etc., is provisionally included in Apneumonella; the differential characters

  17. A produção do espaço intra-urbano de aparecida de Goiânia e a dinâmica metropolitana de Goiânia: de 1960 aos anos 2000


    SANTOS, Lucas Maia dos


    Aparecida de Goiânia é uma cidade que se desenvolve numa relação inextricável com Goiânia. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi justamente compreender a papel desta relação no processo de estruturação do espaço intra-urbano aparecidense. A questão central que norteou nossas análises foi: como se formou Aparecida de Goiânia? A esta pergunta seminal, somam-se outras: a) quais os processos, os atores e as etapas do processo de produção do espaço intra-urbano de Aparecida de Goiânia? c) quais as implica...

  18. Amazônia: a vision that emerges from the waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Nogueira


    Full Text Available O objetivo do texto é fazer emergir do pesado manto do discurso acadêmico uma outra visáo da Amazonia, não a dos holofotes dos grandes eventos que incandescem o observador, impedindo-o de ver além de sua luz, mas de urna Amazonia de acontecimentos quase imperceptíveis que lhe dão vida. Uma Amazônia que acontece nos vales fluviais, a Amazônia das várzeas, e ainda preserva um modo de vida peculiar, extremamente dinâmico e com rede própria de relações. Uma Amazônia que permanece na sombra. Ou na água, esquecida ou negada com a máscara do atraso para ser superada. Que contudo teima em existir, e não se constitui, para o discurso hegemônico, como foco ou vítima da ação dos atores dominantes. É dessa Amazônia que o texto fala, dando-lhe uma visáo de dentro, do seu âmago. Uma visão que emerge das águas...

  19. New tick records in Rondônia, Western Brazilian Amazon. (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Barbieri, Fábio Silva; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Brito, Luciana Gatto; Ribeiro, Francisco Dimas Sales


    In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female), and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva). Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) (16 nymphs) and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph). Ticks collected from a yellow-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 females, 2 nymphs), and Amblyomma sp. (2 larvae). The present record of A. romitii is the first in the State of Rondônia, and represents the southernmost record for this tick species, indicating that its distribution area is much larger than currently recognized. Although both A. cajennense and H. juxtakochi have been reported parasitizing various bird species, we provide the first tick records on a harpy eagle. A. rotundatum is widespread in the State of Rondônia, and has been previously reported on the yellow-footed tortoise. The present records increase the tick fauna of Rondônia to 26 species.

  20. Mental Health in Sumatra After the Tsunami (United States)

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Friedman, Jed; Gillespie, Thomas; Ingwersen, Nicholas; Pynoos, Robert; Rifai, Iip Umar; Sikoki, Bondan; Steinberg, Alan; Sumantri, Cecep; Suriastini, Wayan; Thomas, Duncan


    Objectives. We assessed the levels and correlates of posttraumatic stress reactivity (PTSR) of more than 20000 adult tsunami survivors by analyzing survey data from coastal Aceh and North Sumatra, Indonesia. Methods. A population-representative sample of individuals interviewed before the tsunami was traced in 2005 to 2006. We constructed 2 scales measuring PTSR by using 7 symptom items from the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist–Civilian Version. One scale measured PTSR at the time of interview, and the other measured PTSR at the point of maximum intensity since the disaster. Results. PTSR scores were highest for respondents from heavily damaged areas. In all areas, scores declined over time. Gender and age were significant predictors of PTSR; markers of socioeconomic status before the tsunami were not. Exposure to traumatic events, loss of kin, and property damage were significantly associated with higher PTSR scores. Conclusions. The tsunami produced posttraumatic stress reactions across a wide region of Aceh and North Sumatra. Public health will be enhanced by the provision of counseling services that reach not only people directly affected by the tsunami but also those living beyond the area of immediate impact. PMID:18633091

  1. Cost estimation of sumatra electricity expansion planning with nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun


    The objective of the study is to obtain the cost analysis on optimum solution of Sumatra electricity system using WASP-IV Program. Considering the economic aspect, nuclear power plant (NPP) is feasible in the future. From the geographical aspect Sumatra is prospecting for NPP site, especially the east coastal area due to the absence of hydro power potential and geothermal field. The use of petroleum as fuel in large scale power plants is not feasible. Beside causing high cost for electricity sector, it is also an important fuel for any other sectors such as transportation, electrification of isolated areas. Gas fuelled power plants is still feasible for next several decades in limited capacity. The study presents three scenarios, i.e. Low Scenario, Base Scenario and High Scenario applying discount rate of 8%, 10% and 12% respectively. Cost estimation for Sumatra System Expansion Planning is 57 465 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 8%, 59 349 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 10%, and 57 796 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 12%. The objective function is 15 172 US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 8%, 12 663 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 10%, and 11 017 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 12%. (author)

  2. Disaster mitigation science for Earthquakes and Tsunamis -For resilience society against natural disasters- (United States)

    Kaneda, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Hori, T.; Kawaguchi, K.; Isouchi, C.; Fujisawa, K.


    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For instance, 2004 Sumatra Earthquake in Indonesia, 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China, 2010 Chile Earthquake and 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan etc., these earthquakes generated very severe damages. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software developments/preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important. In Japan, DONET as the real time monitoring system on the ocean floor is developed and deployed around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone southwestern Japan. So, the early detection of earthquakes and tsunamis around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone will be expected by DONET. The integration of the real time data and advanced simulation researches will lead to reduce damages, however, in the resilience society, the resilience methods will be required after disasters. Actually, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. This means the resilience society. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, geography and psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. Finally, to realize and progress disaster mitigation science, human resource cultivation is indispensable. We already carried out disaster mitigation science under `new disaster mitigation research project on Mega

  3. Morfologi dan kekerabatan antara Leopoldamys siporanus (Thomas, 1985 dan L. sabanus (Thomas, 1987 (Muridae asal Kepulauan Mentawai, Sumatra, Kalimantan dan Jawa

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    Ibnu Maryanto


    Full Text Available Jawa, Anamba, and Leopoldamys siporanus from Siberut and Pagai-Mentawai Islands was analyzed using discriminant analysis. The analysis showed that the morphological shape of Sumatran L. sabanus was an intermediate between Jawa and Kalimantan populations. The population of L. sabanus from Anamba Island was predicted to be closed to the intermediate from between Kalimantan and Sumatra. Specimens of L. siporanus from Siberut and Pagai indicated that their morphology was closer to that of L. sabarus from Kalimantan than it was from Sumatra or Jawa. In Sumatra L. sabarus has three subspecies which are distributed in northern side of West Sumatra (L.s. tapanulius, southern side of West Sumatra (L.s. ululans and Mount Kerinci at Sumatra (L.s. vociferans. Furthermore, specimens examined in this study were collected from Leuser and Bengkulu where they are located at the corner of tapanulius and ululans type locality, and they were predicted as one population. This finding raises the possibility that the Sumatrans has one shape of L. sabanus, but this argument should be confirmed from prototype specimens of ululans, vociferans, and tapanulius.

  4. Neural network based tomographic approach to detect earthquake-related ionospheric anomalies

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    S. Hirooka


    Full Text Available A tomographic approach is used to investigate the fine structure of electron density in the ionosphere. In the present paper, the Residual Minimization Training Neural Network (RMTNN method is selected as the ionospheric tomography with which to investigate the detailed structure that may be associated with earthquakes. The 2007 Southern Sumatra earthquake (M = 8.5 was selected because significant decreases in the Total Electron Content (TEC have been confirmed by GPS and global ionosphere map (GIM analyses. The results of the RMTNN approach are consistent with those of TEC approaches. With respect to the analyzed earthquake, we observed significant decreases at heights of 250–400 km, especially at 330 km. However, the height that yields the maximum electron density does not change. In the obtained structures, the regions of decrease are located on the southwest and southeast sides of the Integrated Electron Content (IEC (altitudes in the range of 400–550 km and on the southern side of the IEC (altitudes in the range of 250–400 km. The global tendency is that the decreased region expands to the east with increasing altitude and concentrates in the Southern hemisphere over the epicenter. These results indicate that the RMTNN method is applicable to the estimation of ionospheric electron density.

  5. Indische bergcultuurondernemingen voornamelijk in Zuid-Sumatra : gegevens en beschouwingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedt, T.G.E.


    Highland crops was here used of tropical perennial crops (cinchona, coffee, rubber, tea), cultivated mainly in mountain districts. These crops were grown on estates, owned by western companies and managed by European staff. The organization of the highland plantation industry in Java and Sumatra,

  6. Permian to recent volcanism in northern sumatra, indonesia: a preliminary study of its distribution, chemistry, and peculiarities (United States)

    Rock, N. M. S.; Syah, H. H.; Davis, A. E.; Hutchison, D.; Styles, M. T.; Lena, Rahayu


    Sumatra has been a ‘volcanic arc’, above an NE-dipping subduction zone, since at least the Late Permian. The principal volcanic episodes in Sumatra N of the Equator have been in the Late Permian, Late Mesozoic, Palaeogene, Miocene and Quaternary. Late Permian volcanic rocks, of limited extent, are altered porphyritic basic lavas interstratified with limestones and phyllites. Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks, widely distributed along and W of the major transcurrent. Sumatra Fault System (SFS), which axially bisects Sumatra, include ophiolite-related spilites, andesites and basalts. Possible Palaeogene volcanic rocks include an altered basalt pile with associated dyke-swarm in the extreme NW, intruded by an Early Miocene (19 my) dioritic stock; and variable pyroxene rich basic lavas and agglomerates ranging from alkali basaltic to absarokitic in the extreme SW. Miocene volcanic rocks, widely distributed (especially W of the SFS), and cropping out extensively along the W coast, include calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline basalts, andesites and dacites. Quaternary volcanoes (3 active, 14 dormant or extinct) are irregularly distributed both along and across the arc; thus they lie fore-arc of the SFS near the Equator but well back-arc farther north. The largest concentration of centres, around Lake Toba, includes the >2000 km3 Pleistocene rhyolitic Toba Tuffs. Quaternary volcanics are mainly calc-alkaline andesites, dacites and rhyolites with few basalts; they seem less variable, but on the whole more acid, than the Tertiary. The Quaternary volcanism is anomalous in relation to both southern Sumatra and adjacent Java/Bali: in southern Sumatra, volcanoes are regularly spaced along and successively less active away from the SFS, but neither rule holds in northern Sumatra. Depths to the subduction zone below major calc-alkaline volcanoes in Java/Bali are 160-210 km, but little over 100 km in northern Sumatra, which also lacks the regular K2O-depth correlations seen in

  7. Nutritional Potential of Selected Insect Species Reared on the Island of Sumatra. (United States)

    Adámková, Anna; Mlček, Jiří; Kouřimská, Lenka; Borkovcová, Marie; Bušina, Tomáš; Adámek, Martin; Bednářová, Martina; Krajsa, Jan


    Inhabitants of the Indonesian island of Sumatra are faced with the problem of insufficient food supplies and the consequent risk of undernourishment and health issues. Edible insects as a traditional and readily available food source could be part of the solution. The nutritional value of insects depends on many factors, e.g., species, developmental stage, sex, diet, and climatic conditions. However, edible insects bred in Sumatra for human consumption have never before been assessed with regard to their nutritional value. Our study involved analyses of crude protein, chitin, fat and selected fatty acid contents of giant mealworm larvae ( Zophobas morio ), larvae of the common mealworm ( Tenebrio molitor) and nymphs of the field cricket ( Gryllus assimilis ). Crude protein content in the samples ranged from 46% to 56%. Highest (35%) and lowest (31%) amounts of fat were recorded in giant mealworm larvae and larvae of the common mealworm, respectively. Chitin amounts ranged from 6% to 13%. Based on these values, which are comparable to those known from other food insects reared in different regions of the world, the edible species bred in Sumatra could become food sources with a potential to help stave off hunger and undernourishment.

  8. Phylogeny of kemenyan (Styrax sp.) from North Sumatra based on morphological characters (United States)

    Susilowati, A.; Kholibrina, C. R.; Rachmat, H. H.; Munthe, M. A.


    Kemenyan is the most famous local tree species from North Sumatra. Kemenyan is known as rosin producer that very valuable for pharmacheutical, cosmetic, food preservatives and vernis. Based on its history, there were only two species of kemenyan those were kemenyan durame and toba, but in its the natural distribution we also found others species showing different characteristics with previously known ones. The objectives of this research were:The objectives of this research were: (1). To determine the morphological diversity of kemenyan in North Sumatra and (2). To determine phylogeny clustering based on the morphological characters. Data was collected from direct observation and morphological characterization, based on purposive sampling technique to those samples trees atPakpak Bharat, North Sumatra. Morphological characters were examined using descriptive analysis, phenotypic variability using standard deviation, and cluster analysis. The result showed that there was a difference between 4 species kemenyen (batak, minyak, durame and toba) according to 75 observed characters including flower, fruits, leaf, stem, bark, crown type, wood and the resin. Analysis and both quantitative and qualitative characters kemenyan clustered into two groups. In which, kemenyan toba separated with other clusters.

  9. Analisis Kejadian Gempa Bumi Tektonik di Wilayah Pulau Sumatera

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    Jose Rizal


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to get an overview of the earthquakes in Sumatra. The method used is descriptive statistics and models Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA. The result from analysis data yielded a mathematical model to predict the amount of tectonic earthquakes that occur every month in Sumatra is ARFIMA (4,0.350,3 with a value of RMSE is 0,040??. While the best model for the average magnitude of the many tectonic earthquakes that occur every month in Sumatra is ARFIMA (1,0.310,3 with a value of RMSE is 0.013. Based on the model results obtained forecast frequency earthquake and the average magnitude for the three periods ahead, namely the first period 21 times with an average magnitude is 4,91 SR , the second period will occur 14 times with an average magnitude is 4.94 SR and the third period will occur 20 times with an average magnitude is 4,96 SR.

  10. The nuclear inclusion a (NIa protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV cleaves amyloid-β.

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    Hye-Eun Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nuclear inclusion a (NIa protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. NIa was previously shown to possess a relatively strict substrate specificity with a preference for Val-Xaa-His-Gln↓, with the scissile bond located after Gln. The presence of the same consensus sequence, Val(12-His-His-Gln(15, near the presumptive α-secretase cleavage site of the amyloid-β (Aβ peptide led us to hypothesize that NIa could possess activity against Aβ. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Western blotting results showed that oligomeric as well as monomeric forms of Aβ can be degraded by NIa in vitro. The specific cleavage of Aβ was further confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. NIa was shown to exist predominantly in the cytoplasm as observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The overexpression of NIa in B103 neuroblastoma cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell death caused by both intracellularly generated and exogenously added Aβ. Moreover, lentiviral-mediated expression of NIa in APP(sw/PS1 transgenic mice significantly reduced the levels of Aβ and plaques in the brain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the degradation of Aβ in the cytoplasm could be a novel strategy to control the levels of Aβ, plaque formation, and the associated cell death.

  11. The Identity and the Dilemma of the Malay Music-Culture of the Urang Pulo Islanders of the Banyak Archipelago, Sumatra: An Ethnographic, Socio-Historical and Music-Analytical Study


    Palawi, Ari


    This thesis investigates the music-cultural identity and conservational dilemma of the hitherto un-researched music-culture of the Islanders (Urang Pulo) of the Banyak Archipelago in Aceh-Singkil Regency off the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia. The Islanders’ dominant concept of identity is coloured by their dominant sikambang music, dance and legend, history of cultural contact with west-coastal Sumatran Malay and offshore island area, Niasan and Simeulue immigration to th...

  12. Aragón, Luis E. (2013), Amazônia: conhecer para desenvolver e conservar. Cinco temas para um debate


    Corbin, Hisakhana Pahoona


    Neste livro discutem-se cinco questões, cada uma num capítulo, com o propósito de incitar debates sobre os grandes desafios ambientais, sociais e econômicos que envolvem o desenvolvimento da Amazônia: 1. Amazônia, conceito polissêmico?; 2. Amazônia vazio demográfico?; 3. Amazônia, terra incógnita?; 4. Migração internacional, nova descoberta da Amazônia?; 5. Há futuro para o desenvolvimento sustentável na Amazônia? Esses questionamentos, argumenta o autor, “alicerçam-se na premissa de que o co...

  13. Richtlijnen voor een ontwikkelingsplan voor de Oostkust van Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, van de R.


    Suggestions were made to improve the agricultural situation resulting from the Second World war. The former estate agriculture on the East Coast of Sumatra, established in 1865 by westerners in a sparsely populated and isolated area, occupied 1,000,000 ha in 1940 mainly under tobacco, rubber, oil

  14. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.


    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a


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    Haryadi Permana


    Full Text Available The new bathymetry and seismic data were acquired during the PreTI-Gap marine survey (February 15 to March 6, 2008. The survey was carried out along the NE margin of Mentawai Island using multi-beam swath bathymetry equipment, and 28-channels seismic streamer and four-airgun source. The first target was the Mega Island region near the epicenter of the 2007 great earthquake. The shallow bathymetry is characterized as a flat coral platform suggesting that 200 km elongated plateau is slowly subsiding without any active faults. Further north, from South Pagai to North of Siberut Islands, the seafloor morphology changes significantly. The deep and wide canyons or valleys produce very rough seafloor morphology between 50 and 1100 m water. In general, the submarine topography shows two break slopes at different depths. Between slope breaks, the undulating, hilly and circular features dominate, possibly caused by landslides. A push-up ridge is observed that dams the sediments eroded within a steep slope northeastward side. The seismic reflection data acquired along 14 dip seismic lines at the NE flank of Mentawai Islands, from Siberut to the South of Pagai Islands. We observed a set of southwestward dipping back thrust bounding the NE margin of the Mentawai Island. Keywords: submarine landslide, tsunami, Mentawai basin, Sumatra. Data batimetri dan seismik baru telah dihasilkan selama survey kelautan PreTi-Gap (15 Februari hingga 6 Maret 2008. Survei dilaksanakan sepanjang tepian timurlaut P. Mentawai menggunakan peralatan multibeam, seismic saluran ganda 28 kanal dengan sumber energi airgun. Sasaran pertama adalah memetakan kawasan pulau dekat pusat gempa tahun 2007. Kenampakan batimetri dangkal dicirikan dengan adanya dataran terumbu karang yang secara perlahan mengalami penurunan tanpa aktifitas sesar. Lebih jauh ke Utar, dari Pagai Selatan ke utara P. Siberut, morfologi dasar laut memperlihatkan perubahan secara signifikan, dimana lembah dasar laut

  16. Source parameters of the Bay of Bengal earthquake of 21 May 2014 and related seismotectonics of 85°E and 90°E ridges (United States)

    Prakash, Rajesh; Prajapati, Sanjay Kumar; Srivastava, Hari Narain


    Source parameters of the Bay of Bengal earthquake of 21 May 2014 have been studied using full waveform inversion. Its source mechanism thus determined the orientation of the strike slip faulting as NW-SE/NE-SW. The occurrence of past earthquakes along the NE-SW nodal plane suggested its preference as the main fault which could result from the transmission of stresses from the Indian plate boundary. High stress drop of this earthquake (216 bar) is attributed to its location in the intraplate region, strike slip faulting and focus in the colder upper mantle. Comparison of the stress drop of deeper focus Hindukush earthquakes with that of the Bay of Bengal earthquake showed a smaller felt radius due to fractured lithosphere in the Himalayas vis-a-vis more efficient propagation of seismic waves in the peninsular region from the source region of this recent earthquake. The seismological evidence presented for the 85°E and 90°E ridges shows the predominance of strike slip faulting with thrusting on both the ridges. Integrating their source mechanism with that of the May 2014 earthquake, it could be inferred that the Bay of Bengal region (excluding Andaman Sumatra subduction zone) is characterised predominantly by strike slip faulting in the region north of latitude 20°N and strike slip with thrusting in the remaining portion.

  17. Amb M. Antònia Canals al Nepal de Viki Sherpa


    Siqués, Carina


    Relació del viatge fet per la Maria Antònia Canals a Nepal amb motiu de l’acte de celebració de la signatura del conveni de col·laboració entre la Universitat de Tribhuvan a Katmandu i la Universitat de Vic per crear el centre de formació del professorat d’infantil i de primària M. Antònia Canals

  18. Novos relatos de carrapatos em Rondônia, Amazônia ocidental brasileira


    LABRUNA, Marcelo Bahia; BARBIERI, Fábio Silva; MARTINS, Thiago Fernandes; BRITO, Luciana Gatto; RIBEIRO, Francisco Dimas Sales


    In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female), and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva). Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) (16 nymphs) and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph). Ticks collected from...

  19. Deforestation trend in North Sumatra over 1990-2015 (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Sulistiyono, N.; Wati, R.; Hayati, R.


    Deforestation and forest degradation have been previously reported to contributing greenhouse gas emission, the primary driver of global warming. The present paper studies deforestation and reforestation trend in North Sumatra, Indonesia using land-use/land-cover change from 1990-2015. The land-use consists of three classes derived from forest land (primary and secondary dry land forest, primary and secondary swamp forest, primary and secondary mangrove forest). Non-Forest (shrub, oil palm plantation, forest plantation, settlement, barren land, swamp shrub, dry land farming, mixed dry land farming, paddy field, aquaculture, airport, transmigration, and mining), and water body (water and swamp). Results showed that from 33 regencies/city in North Sumatra, among them, 25 districts deforested, which was the highest deforestation rate in Labuhanbatu and South Labuhanbatu (2,238.08 and 1,652.55 ha/year, respectively), only one area reforested, and seven districts showed no deforestation or reforestation. During 25 years observed, the forest has been deforested 22.92%, while nonforest has been increased 11.33% of land-use. The significant increasing loss of North Sumatran forest implies conservation efforts and developing sustainable forest management.

  20. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.


    an earthquake- and tsunami-resistant structure in Sumatra to house a tsunami museum, a community training center, and offices of a local NGO that is preparing Padang for the next tsunami. This facility would be designed and built by a team of US and Indonesian academics, architects, engineers and students. Another initiative would launch a collaborative research program on school earthquake safety with the scientists and engineers from the US and the ten Islamic countries that comprise the Economic Cooperation Organization. Finally, GHI hopes to develop internet and satellite communication techniques that will allow earthquake risk managers in the US to interact with masons, government officials, engineers and architects in remote communities of vulnerable developing countries, closing the science and engineering divide.

  1. Insônia primária: diagnóstico diferencial e tratamento


    Monti,Jaime M


    A insônia primária é uma dissonia caracterizada pela dificuldade em iniciar e/ou manter o sono e pela sensação de não ter um sono reparador durante um período não inferior a 1 mês. Do ponto de vista polissonográfico, é acompanhada de alterações na indução, na continuidade e na estrutura do sono. Geralmente aparece no adulto jovem, é mais freqüente na mulher e tem um desenvolvimento crônico. A insônia primária é observada de 12,5% a 22,2% dos pacientes portadores de insônia crônica, sendo prec...


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    B. K. Rastogi


    Full Text Available Based on an assessment of the repeat periods of great earthquakes from past seismicity, convergence rates and paleoseismological results, possible future source zones of tsunami generating earthquakes in the Indian Ocean (possible seismic gap areas are identified along subduction zones and zones of compression. Central Sumatra, Java, Makran coast, Indus Delta, Kutch-Saurashtra, Bangladesh and southern Myanmar are identified as possible source zones of earthquakes in near future which might cause tsunamis in the Indian Ocean, and in particular, that could affect India. The Sunda Arc (covering Sumatra and Java subduction zone, situated on the eastern side of the Indian Ocean, is one of the most active plate margins in the world that generates frequent great earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. The Andaman- Nicobar group of islands is also a seismically active zone that generates frequent earthquakes. However, northern Sumatra and Andaman-Nicobar regions are assessed to be probably free from great earthquakes (M!8.0 for a few decades due to occurrence of 2004 Mw 9.3 and 2005 Mw 8.7 earthquakes. The Krakatau volcanic eruptions have caused large tsunamis in the past. This volcano and a few others situated on the ocean bed can cause large tsunamis in the future. List of past tsunamis generated due to earthquakes/volcanic eruptions that affected the Indian region and vicinity in the Indian Ocean are also presented.

  3. Principais políticas de fomento do turismo na Amazônia: análise dos primeiros planos de turismo da Amazônia (PTA I e II e do PROECOTUR

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    Kassia Suelen da Silva Farias


    Full Text Available Verifica-se que o turismo tem passado por inúmeras transformações no que concerne ao planejamento e gestão da atividade. Observa-se que desde a década de 1970 tem-se pensado em diferentes modelos de desenvolvimento de turismo para a Amazônia, almejando o progresso econômico e social. Neste processo, na década de 1970, a Superintendência de Desenvolvimento da Amazônia (SUDAM, deu inicio a discursão de criação do primeiro Plano de Turismo da Amazônia (PTA que deu inicio na década de 1980 até 1985. A partir da década de 1990 as estratégias de turismo para a região foram desenvolvidas em conformidade com a preocupação mundial em torno da natureza e do homem. Produto deste contexto, o II PTA foi lançado com o objetivo principal de desenvolver medidas que conciliassem o desenvolvimento econômico às questões ambientais e sociais. Outra ação também importante para esse período foi a promoção do desenvolvimento regional por meio de polos de turismo integrados, conforme determinava o PROECOTUR. O objetivo deste artigo, portanto, consiste em destacar as primeiras políticas públicas de turismo para o desenvolvimento dos estados e municípios da Amazônia que deram inicio a partir de 1970. Para isso, a estruturação conceitual do trabalho fundamentou-se em políticas públicas e planejamento de turismo na Amazônia. Utiliza-se como metodologia a pesquisa documental, por meio de diagnóstico que enfatiza os principais resultados obtidos pelos I e II Planos de Turismo da Amazônia, a partir da interpretação e análise documental; O artigo também adota a pesquisa bibliográfica, pois analisa as principais estratégias de desenvolvimento do turismo na Amazônia. A partir de tal análise, conclui-se que as mudanças políticas de turismo ocorridas na Amazônia entre a década de 1970 e 1990 - apesar de estarem acompanhadas por ações de planejamento do governo nacional e até mesmo pelas tendências mundiais - n

  4. Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Bali and North Sumatra, Indonesia. (United States)

    Wandra, Toni; Depary, A A; Sutisna, Putu; Margono, Sri S; Suroso, Thomas; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira


    It has been reported that three human Taenia species are distributed in Indonesia: Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. T. asiatica is well known in North Sumatra, especially on Samosir island in Lake Toba. T. solium and T. saginata are known from Bali. T. solium is most serious public health issue in Papua (former Irian Jaya). In this report, we briefly review the present situation of these three human Taenia species mainly in Bali and North Sumatra. For community based epidemiological survey, we have adopted and applied questionnaire, microscopic observation of eggs, coproantigen tests, coproDNA tests, mitochondrial DNA analysis and morphology for isolated specimens, serology for cysticercosis and taeniasis. For detection of taeniasis cases of both T. saginata and T. asiatica, questionnaire by expert doctors is perfect to detect worm carriers. Corpoantigen test developed for detection of taeniasis of T. solium is also highly reliable to detect taeniasis carriers in the community. Epidemiological data from these two islands 2002-2005 are reviewed with backgrounds of historical culture, religions and customs.

  5. Upper-mantle water stratification inferred from observations of the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake. (United States)

    Masuti, Sagar; Barbot, Sylvain D; Karato, Shun-Ichiro; Feng, Lujia; Banerjee, Paramesh


    Water, the most abundant volatile in Earth's interior, preserves the young surface of our planet by catalysing mantle convection, lubricating plate tectonics and feeding arc volcanism. Since planetary accretion, water has been exchanged between the hydrosphere and the geosphere, but its depth distribution in the mantle remains elusive. Water drastically reduces the strength of olivine and this effect can be exploited to estimate the water content of olivine from the mechanical response of the asthenosphere to stress perturbations such as the ones following large earthquakes. Here, we exploit the sensitivity to water of the strength of olivine, the weakest and most abundant mineral in the upper mantle, and observations of the exceptionally large (moment magnitude 8.6) 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake to constrain the stratification of water content in the upper mantle. Taking into account a wide range of temperature conditions and the transient creep of olivine, we explain the transient deformation in the aftermath of the earthquake that was recorded by continuous geodetic stations along Sumatra as the result of water- and stress-activated creep of olivine. This implies a minimum water content of about 0.01 per cent by weight-or 1,600 H atoms per million Si atoms-in the asthenosphere (the part of the upper mantle below the lithosphere). The earthquake ruptured conjugate faults down to great depths, compatible with dry olivine in the oceanic lithosphere. We attribute the steep rheological contrast to dehydration across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, presumably by buoyant melt migration to form the oceanic crust.

  6. Earthquake source imaging by high-resolution array analysis at regional distances: the 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake as seen by the Venezuela National Seismic Network (United States)

    Meng, L.; Ampuero, J. P.; Rendon, H.


    Back projection of teleseismic waves based on array processing has become a popular technique for earthquake source imaging,in particular to track the areas of the source that generate the strongest high frequency radiation. The technique has been previously applied to study the rupture process of the Sumatra earthquake and the supershear rupture of the Kunlun earthquakes. Here we attempt to image the Haiti earthquake using the data recorded by Venezuela National Seismic Network (VNSN). The network is composed of 22 broad-band stations with an East-West oriented geometry, and is located approximately 10 degrees away from Haiti in the perpendicular direction to the Enriquillo fault strike. This is the first opportunity to exploit the privileged position of the VNSN to study large earthquake ruptures in the Caribbean region. This is also a great opportunity to explore the back projection scheme of the crustal Pn phase at regional distances,which provides unique complementary insights to the teleseismic source inversions. The challenge in the analysis of the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake is its very compact source region, possibly shorter than 30km, which is below the resolution limit of standard back projection techniques based on beamforming. Results of back projection analysis using the teleseismic USarray data reveal little details of the rupture process. To overcome the classical resolution limit we explored the Multiple Signal Classification method (MUSIC), a high-resolution array processing technique based on the signal-noise orthognality in the eigen space of the data covariance, which achieves both enhanced resolution and better ability to resolve closely spaced sources. We experiment with various synthetic earthquake scenarios to test the resolution. We find that MUSIC provides at least 3 times higher resolution than beamforming. We also study the inherent bias due to the interferences of coherent Green’s functions, which leads to a potential quantification

  7. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius NIAS840, Isolated from Chicken Intestine (United States)

    Ham, Jun-Sang; Kim, Hyoun-Wook; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Jang, Aera; Jeong, Seok-Geun; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Dong-Hun; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Kim, Geun-Bae; Cha, Chang-Jun


    Lactobacillus salivarius is a well-known lactic acid bacterium to which increasing attention has been paid recently for use as probiotics for humans and animals. L. salivarius NIAS840 was first isolated from broiler chicken feces, displaying antimicrobial activities against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. salivarius NIAS840 (2,046,557 bp) including a small plasmid and two megaplasmids. PMID:21914873

  8. Status of peatland degradation and development in Sumatra and Kalimantan. (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin


    Peatlands cover around 13 Mha in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Human activities have rapidly increased in the peatland ecosystems during the last two decades, invariably degrading them and making them vulnerable to fires. This causes high carbon emissions that contribute to global climate change. For this article, we used 94 high resolution (10-20 m) satellite images to map the status of peatland degradation and development in Sumatra and Kalimantan using visual image interpretation. The results reveal that less than 4% of the peatland areas remain covered by pristine peatswamp forests (PSFs), while 37% are covered by PSFs with varying degree of degradation. Furthermore, over 20% is considered to be unmanaged degraded landscape, occupied by ferns, shrubs and secondary growth. This alarming extent of degradation makes peatlands vulnerable to accelerated peat decomposition and catastrophic fire episodes that will have global consequences. With on-going degradation and development the existence of the entire tropical peatland ecosystem in this region is in great danger.

  9. Changing of Sumatra backswamp peat properties by seawater and zeolite application (United States)

    Sarifuddin; Nasution, Z.; Rauf, A.; Mulyanto, B.


    This research attempts to improve the properties of backswamp peatsoil originated from Asahan District, North Sumatra Indonesia by adding sea water and zeolite using factorial randomized block design with volume of sea water as first factor, consisting of without seawater, 500 ml, 1000 ml and 1500 ml and second factor are dosages of zeolite consisting of without zeolite, 100 g, 200 g each 10 kgs of wet peat soil. at green house in faculty of agriculture University of Sumatra Utara (USU) Medan, Indonesia. The result showed that the application of seawater decreased pH, C/N and Cation Exchange Capacity and increased of base saturation of peat soil. Adding of zeolite minerals can buffered the increasing of acidity and Electric Conductivity caused by sea water application. Interaction seawater + zeolite decreased of C/N and increased of percent of base saturation.

  10. Multi-Sensors Observations of Pre-Earthquake Signals. What We Learned from the Great Tohoku Earthquake? (United States)

    Ouzonounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Papadopoulos, G.; Kunitsyn, V.; Nesterov, I.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.


    perturbations, and to distinguish ionospheric responses to processes of EQ preparation against the effects of other factors. The 2-D snapshots of the electron density over Japan showed abnormal increase over the maximum stress during the night, a few hours before the main shock. Our results from recording atmospheric and ionospheric conditions during the earthquake indicate the presence of anomalies in the atmosphere and ionospheres occurring consistently over regions of maximum stress near the epicenter. Due to their long duration (hours and days) and spatial appearance (only over the Sendai region) these results do not appear to be caused by meteorological or magnetic activity. They reveal the existence of atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena occurring prior to the earthquake, which indicates new evidence of a distinct coupling between the lithosphere and atmosphere/ionosphere. Similar results have been reported before the catastrophic events in Chile (M8.8, 2010), Italy (M6.3, 2009) and Sumatra (M9.3, 2004).

  11. Basal erosion: barrier to earthquake propagation? Insight from the northern chilean forearc (United States)

    Cubas, N.


    Subducted topographic features have often been suspected as barriers to large earthquake propagation. These features would induce basal erosion, leading to a large network of fractures impeding large nucleation or shear localization. Looking for correlation between basal erosion and megathrust ruptures is thus critical nowadays to understand earthquake mechanics and infer rupture scenarios. In this study, we propose to seek possible location of basal erosion from the forearc morphology by applying the critical taper theory. We focus on the North Chile subduction zone that has experienced four major earthquakes during the last two decades and where basal erosion and seamount subduction have already been suspected. Basal erosion should occur when the basal friction approaches the internal friction. We thus seek what part of the forearc is at critical state and select areas for which the two frictions are almost equal. We find a large band, located at 25km depth, from the Mejillones peninsula to the Iquique region at critical state with very high basal friction. The critical areas seem to surround the Tocopilla 2007 Mw 7.7 and the Iquique 2014 Mw 8.1 ruptures. When compared with the interseismic coupling, except for the Tocopilla segment, the critical areas are located in low-coupled zones. More interestingly, the reported normal faults of the forearc do not appear above the erosional areas but rather between them. These normal faults are systematically located above locked patches and seismic asperities. These areas are actually at extensional critical state and characterized by a very low effective friction. We thus suspect the extensional features to be related to earthquakes rather than basal erosion. We then look for similar relationships along the Sumatra subduction zone to see if basal erosion is a common process. The Tocopilla and Iquique earthquakes ruptured only part of the northern Chile seismic gap although the full segment was ready for a new large

  12. Epidemiologia da insônia Epidemiology of the insomnia


    José Carlos Souza; Rubens Reimão


    Os autores fizeram uma ampla revisão da literatura científica mundial sobre a epidemiologia da insônia, o mais prevalente dos distúrbios do sono. Foi feito um levantamento bibliográfico, no período de janeiro de 2002 a novembro de 2003, das publicações dos últimos 30 anos, nos bancos de dados MEDLINE e LILACS, sobre a definição e prevalência da insônia, além de suas conseqüências socioeconômicas. As palavras-chaves pesquisadas foram: distúrbio de iniciar o sono, distúrbio de manutenção do son...

  13. Diferença no tamanho de cascas de ovos de colônias de Panstrongylus megistus

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    Rosa João A da


    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as mensurações de cascas de ovos de duas colônias laboratoriais e uma silvestre de P. megistus. De cada uma das colônias, 50 cascas de ovos foram mensuradas por meio de microscópio estereoscópico e sistema de análise de imagem QWin. A análise estatística foi efetuada utilizando o teste t-Student, não pareado no programa INSTAT. A largura, o comprimento e o diâmetro da abertura opercular das cascas de ovos de uma colônia silvestre foram maiores que de duas colônias laboratoriais de P. megistus.

  14. Probable Maximum Earthquake Magnitudes for the Cascadia Subduction (United States)

    Rong, Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Magistrale, H.; Goldfinger, C.


    The concept of maximum earthquake magnitude (mx) is widely used in seismic hazard and risk analysis. However, absolute mx lacks a precise definition and cannot be determined from a finite earthquake history. The surprising magnitudes of the 2004 Sumatra and the 2011 Tohoku earthquakes showed that most methods for estimating mx underestimate the true maximum if it exists. Thus, we introduced the alternate concept of mp(T), probable maximum magnitude within a time interval T. The mp(T) can be solved using theoretical magnitude-frequency distributions such as Tapered Gutenberg-Richter (TGR) distribution. The two TGR parameters, β-value (which equals 2/3 b-value in the GR distribution) and corner magnitude (mc), can be obtained by applying maximum likelihood method to earthquake catalogs with additional constraint from tectonic moment rate. Here, we integrate the paleoseismic data in the Cascadia subduction zone to estimate mp. The Cascadia subduction zone has been seismically quiescent since at least 1900. Fortunately, turbidite studies have unearthed a 10,000 year record of great earthquakes along the subduction zone. We thoroughly investigate the earthquake magnitude-frequency distribution of the region by combining instrumental and paleoseismic data, and using the tectonic moment rate information. To use the paleoseismic data, we first estimate event magnitudes, which we achieve by using the time interval between events, rupture extent of the events, and turbidite thickness. We estimate three sets of TGR parameters: for the first two sets, we consider a geographically large Cascadia region that includes the subduction zone, and the Explorer, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda plates; for the third set, we consider a narrow geographic region straddling the subduction zone. In the first set, the β-value is derived using the GCMT catalog. In the second and third sets, the β-value is derived using both the GCMT and paleoseismic data. Next, we calculate the corresponding mc

  15. Recent Mega-Thrust Tsunamigenic Earthquakes and PTHA (United States)

    Lorito, S.


    The occurrence of several mega-thrust tsunamigenic earthquakes in the last decade, including but not limited to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman, the 2010 Maule, and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, has been a dramatic reminder of the limitations in our capability of assessing earthquake and tsunami hazard and risk. However, the increasingly high-quality geophysical observational networks allowed the retrieval of most accurate than ever models of the rupture process of mega-thrust earthquakes, thus paving the way for future improved hazard assessments. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) methodology, in particular, is less mature than its seismic counterpart, PSHA. Worldwide recent research efforts of the tsunami science community allowed to start filling this gap, and to define some best practices that are being progressively employed in PTHA for different regions and coasts at threat. In the first part of my talk, I will briefly review some rupture models of recent mega-thrust earthquakes, and highlight some of their surprising features that likely result in bigger error bars associated to PTHA results. More specifically, recent events of unexpected size at a given location, and with unexpected rupture process features, posed first-order open questions which prevent the definition of an heterogeneous rupture probability along a subduction zone, despite of several recent promising results on the subduction zone seismic cycle. In the second part of the talk, I will dig a bit more into a specific ongoing effort for improving PTHA methods, in particular as regards epistemic and aleatory uncertainties determination, and the computational PTHA feasibility when considering the full assumed source variability. Only logic trees are usually explicated in PTHA studies, accounting for different possible assumptions on the source zone properties and behavior. The selection of the earthquakes to be actually modelled is then in general made on a qualitative basis or remains implicit


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    E. Ristin Pujiindiyati


    Full Text Available There are at least 30 high temperature systems; eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano controlled by Sumatra Fault Zone over a length of 1700 km. To understand this geothermal field system, some information about geochemistry including isotope composition in its fluid is needed. Sulphur-34 and oxygen-18 isotopes in dissolved sulphate pair have been used to determine the origin of acidic fluid of sulphate and to evaluate the process involved. The fluids from eight hot springs, two fumaroles, four deep wells and crater have been collected in along Sumatra geothermal fields. Sulphur-34 (d 34S (SO4, 0/00 CDT and oxygen-18 (d 18O (SO4, 0/00 SMOW in sulphate is analyzed according to Robinson-Kusakabe and Rafter method, respectively. The d 34S (SO4 values from Sibayak wells are more enriched of 16.8 0/00 to 18.2 0/0 that may indicate the dissolution of anhydrite minerals or isotope partitioning in hydration of SO2. The d 34S (SO4 values from two fumaroles (Pusuk Bukit - North Sumatra and Rantau Dadap - South Sumatra are at depleted value of -0.150/00 and 1.80/00, those are close to d 34S from magmatic sulphur.  In general, the d 34S (SO4 of springs spread in a wide range of 5.250/00 to14.20/00 and show a mixing process between atmospheric sulphate and sulphate from deep wells. The d 18O (SO4 from wells exhibits depleted value around -3.60/00 suggesting that 87.5% of sulphate oxygen is derived from groundwater oxygen and 12.5% is derived from atmospheric molecular oxygen in sulphide oxidation reaction. In the other hand, hot springs (except Semurup, crater and fumaroles have enriched value of d 18O (SO4. These enriched values suggest that a higher percentage of atmospherically derived oxygen compared to those from the depth.   Keywords: isotope, geothermal, Sumatra

  17. Pengaruh Budaya Patriarki Terhadap Partisipasi Politik Perempuan Di Dprd Kabupaten Nias Pada Pemilihan Legislatif Tahun 2014


    Halawa, Nota Patrit Karsa


    This research review the facts about the influence of patriarchal culture to women's participation in Nias regency on the legislative elections in 2014. The background of this research because seeinga very strong patriarchal culture in Nias district looks of social and cultural life of society as the system of patrilineal, traditional feast and the inheritance that prefers men, This is a great impact on the development of women's quality of Nias, especially in politics. The theory used i...

  18. Source Parameter Inversion for Recent Great Earthquakes from a Decade-long Observation of Global Gravity Fields (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Riva, Ricccardo; Sauber, Jeanne; Okal, Emile


    We quantify gravity changes after great earthquakes present within the 10 year long time series of monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity fields. Using spherical harmonic normal-mode formulation, the respective source parameters of moment tensor and double-couple were estimated. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the gravity data indicate a composite moment of 1.2x10(exp 23)Nm with a dip of 10deg, in agreement with the estimate obtained at ultralong seismic periods. For the 2010 Maule earthquake, the GRACE solutions range from 2.0 to 2.7x10(exp 22)Nm for dips of 12deg-24deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the estimated scalar moments range from 4.1 to 6.1x10(exp 22)Nm, with dips of 9deg-19deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2012 Indian Ocean strike-slip earthquakes, the gravity data delineate a composite moment of 1.9x10(exp 22)Nm regardless of the centroid depth, comparing favorably with the total moment of the main ruptures and aftershocks. The smallest event we successfully analyzed with GRACE was the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake with M(sub 0) approx. 5.0x10(exp 21)Nm. We found that the gravity data constrain the focal mechanism with the centroid only within the upper and lower crustal layers for thrust events. Deeper sources (i.e., in the upper mantle) could not reproduce the gravity observation as the larger rigidity and bulk modulus at mantle depths inhibit the interior from changing its volume, thus reducing the negative gravity component. Focal mechanisms and seismic moments obtained in this study represent the behavior of the sources on temporal and spatial scales exceeding the seismic and geodetic spectrum.

  19. Development of rupture process analysis method for great earthquakes using Direct Solution Method (United States)

    Yoshimoto, M.; Yamanaka, Y.; Takeuchi, N.


    Conventional rupture process analysis methods using teleseismic body waves were based on ray theory. Therefore, these methods have the following problems in applying to great earthquakes such as 2004 Sumatra earthquake: (1) difficulty in computing all later phases such as the PP reflection phase, (2) impossibility of computing called “W phase”, the long period phase arriving before S wave, (3) implausibility of hypothesis that the distance is far enough from the observation points to the hypocenter compared to the fault length. To solve above mentioned problems, we have developed a new method which uses the synthetic seismograms computed by the Direct Solution Method (DSM, e.g. Kawai et al. 2006) as Green’s functions. We used the DSM software ( for computing the Green’s functions up to 1 Hz for the IASP91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) model, and determined the final slip distributions using the waveform inversion method (Kikuchi et al. 2003). First we confirmed whether the Green’s functions computed by DSM were accurate in higher frequencies up to 1 Hz. Next we performed the rupture process analysis of this new method for Mw8.0 (GCMT) large Solomon Islands earthquake on April 1, 2007. We found that this earthquake consisted of two asperities and the rupture propagated across the subducting Sinbo ridge. The obtained slip distribution better correlates to the aftershock distributions than existing method. Furthermore, this new method keep same accuracy of existing method (which has the advantage of calculating) with respect to direct P-wave and reflection phases near the source, and also accurately calculate the later phases such a PP-wave.

  20. Sedative antidepressants and insomnia Antidepressivos sedativos e insônia

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    Walter André dos Santos Moraes


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present review addresses the relationship between sleep and depression and how serotonergic transmission is implicated in both conditions. METHOD: Literature searches were performed in the PubMed and MedLine databases up to March 2010. The terms searched were "insomnia", "depression", "sedative antidepressants" and "serotonin". In order to pinpoint the sedative antidepressants most used to treat insomnia, 34 ISI articles, mainly reviews and placebo-controlled clinical trials, were selected from 317 articles found in our primary search. RESULTS: Sleep problems may appear months before the diagnosis of clinical depression and persist after the resolution of depression. Treatment of insomnia symptoms may improve this comorbid disease. Some antidepressant drugs can also result in insomnia or daytime sleepiness. Serotonin (5-HT demonstrates a complex pattern with respect to sleep and wakefulness that is related to the array of 5-HT receptor subtypes involved in different physiological functions. It is now believed that 5HT2 receptor stimulation is subjacent to insomnia and changes in sleep organization related to the use of some antidepressants. CONCLUSION: Some drugs commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression may worsen insomnia and impair full recovery from depression. 5-HT2 receptor antagonists are promising drugs for treatment strategies since they can improve comorbid insomnia and depression.OBJETIVO: Esta atualização aborda a relação entre sono e depressão e como a transmissão serotoninérgica está envolvida em ambas condições. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma busca na literatura no PubMed e MedLine até março de 2010 com os termos "insônia", "depressão", "antidepressivos sedativos" e "serotonina". A fim de contemplar os antidepressivos sedativos mais utilizados no tratamento da insônia, 34 artigos ISI, principalmente revisões e estudos clínicos placebo-controlados, foram selecionados entre 317 artigos

  1. Epidemiologic characterization of bovine tuberculosis in the State of Rondônia, Brazil

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    Fabiano Benitez Vendrame


    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was performed between June 2009 and March 2010 to determine the situation of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Rondônia. The state was divided into three regions and, in each of them, 300 farms with reproductive activity were randomly chosen and considered as primary sample units. In the selected farms, an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied. A fixed number of bovine females older than two years of age was randomly selected and tested through comparative cervical tuberculin test. Considering the State of Rondônia, the apparent prevalence of bTB positive farms was 2.3% (95% CI = 1.5–3.5%. The prevalence in the regions varied from 1.7% (95% CI = 0.7 – 4% to 3% (95% CI = 1.6–5.7%. The apparent prevalence of bTB positive animals in the State of Rondônia was 0.12% (95% CI = 0.06–0.25% and varied from 0.08% (95% CI = 0.04–0.18% to 0.15% (95% CI = 0.07–0.33% in the regions. The risk factor associated to tuberculosis in the State of Rondônia was the acquisition of animals (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.6–31.1. The State of Rondônia should implement a surveillance system to detect bTB-infected herds to certify them as bTB-free. Moreover, an efficient health education program to inform farmers to test replacement animals for bTB prior to introduction in their herds should also be implemented.

  2. Variasi Genetik Trenggiling Sitaan di Sumatra, Jawa, dan Kalimantan Berdasarkan Control Region DNA Mitokndria (GENETIC VARIATION ON CONFISCATED PANGOLIN OF SUMATRA, JAWA, AND KALIMANTAN BASED ON CONTROL REGION MITOCHONDRIAL DNA

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    Wirdateti Wirdateti


    Full Text Available High levels of illegal trading on Java pangolin (Manis javanica, Desmarest. 1822 for the basic ingredient of Traditional Chinese Medicine have caused sharp decline in its wild population. The purposes of this study were to assess the level of quality and genetic diversity, and to identify the origin of the confiscated individuals by molecular analysis. The original species used as a control were obtained from known areas in Java, Kalimantan, and Sumatera. Molecular analysis was carried out using non-coding region control region (D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. The results of phylogenic tree analysis showed that 44 confiscated pangolins were from Kalimantan (24 individuals, from Sumatra (seven individuals, and from Java (13 individuals. As many as 19 haplotypes were found on the basis of their base substitutions consisting of nine from Kalimantan, seven from Java and three from Sumatra. Average genetic distance (d between those from Kalimantan-Java was d = 0.0121 ± 0.0031; those from Borneo-Sumatra was d =0.0123 ± 0.0038 and those from Sumatra-Java was d = 0.0075 ± 0.038, respectively. Overall genetic distance between populations was d = 0.0148 ± 0.0035, with the nucleotide diversity (ð of 0.0146. These results indicate that over 50% of pangolins seized came from Kaimantan, and Kalimantan populations show a separate group with Java and Sumatra with boostrap 98%. ABSTRAK Tingginya tingkat perburuan trenggiling (Manis javanica; Desmarest 1822 Indonesia untuk diperdagangkan secara illegal sebagai bahan dasar obat terutama di China, menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan populasi di alam. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat tingkat kualitas dan keragaman genetik trenggiling serta mengetahui asal usul satwa sitaan berdasarkan analisis molekuler. Sebagai kontrol asal usul trenggiling sitaan digunakan sampel alam berdasarkan sebaran populasi yang diketahui pasti yang berasal dari Jawa, Kalimantan, dan Sumatera. Analisis molekuler menggunakan

  3. Widespread seismicity excitation throughout central Japan following the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku earthquake and its interpretation by Coulomb stress transfer (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R.S.; Lin, J.


    We report on a broad and unprecedented increase in seismicity rate following the M=9.0 Tohoku mainshock for M ≥ 2 earthquakes over inland Japan, parts of the Japan Sea and Izu islands, at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high (≥15 m) seismic slip on the megathrust. Such an increase was not seen for the 2004 M=9.1 Sumatra or 2010 M=8.8 Chile earthquakes, but they lacked the seismic networks necessary to detect such small events. Here we explore the possibility that the rate changes are the product of static Coulomb stress transfer to small faults. We use the nodal planes of M ≥ 3.5 earthquakes as proxies for such small active faults, and find that of fifteen regions averaging ~80 by 80 km in size, 11 show a positive association between calculated stress changes and the observed seismicity rate change, 3 show a negative correlation, and for one the changes are too small to assess. This work demonstrates that seismicity can turn on in the nominal stress shadow of a mainshock as long as small geometrically diverse active faults exist there, which is likely quite common.

  4. Mapping interpersonal violence against women in the District of Nias, 2009-2016

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    Mita Yesyca


    each sub-district and is highly dependent on regional geographic-economic conditions. Therefore, the approach to the resolution of violence in each sub-district may vary. As a conclusion, the practice of violence against women in the Nias District is like an iceberg phenomenon that still needs to be followed up. The research also shows the potential of related institutions partnership, especially encouraged by churches, to end practices of interpersonal violence against women in the Nias District.

  5. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  6. Building Capacity for Earthquake Monitoring: Linking Regional Networks with the Global Community (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.


    Installing or upgrading a seismic monitoring network is often among the mitigation efforts after earthquake disasters, and this is happening in response to the events both in Sumatra during December 2004 and in Pakistan during October 2005. These networks can yield improved hazard assessment, more resilient buildings where they are most needed, and emergency relief directed more quickly to the worst hit areas after the next large earthquake. Several commercial organizations are well prepared for the fleeting opportunity to provide the instruments that comprise a seismic network, including sensors, data loggers, telemetry stations, and the computers and software required for the network center. But seismic monitoring requires more than hardware and software, no matter how advanced. A well-trained staff is required to select appropriate and mutually compatible components, install and maintain telemetered stations, manage and archive data, and perform the analyses that actually yield the intended benefits. Monitoring is more effective when network operators cooperate with a larger community through free and open exchange of data, sharing information about working practices, and international collaboration in research. As an academic consortium, a facility operator and a founding member of the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks, IRIS has access to a broad range of expertise with the skills that are required to help design, install, and operate a seismic network and earthquake analysis center, and stimulate the core training for the professional teams required to establish and maintain these facilities. But delivering expertise quickly when and where it is unexpectedly in demand requires advance planning and coordination in order to respond to the needs of organizations that are building a seismic network, either with tight time constraints imposed by the budget cycles of aid agencies following a disastrous earthquake, or as part of more informed

  7. Processes of inclusion and adverse incorporation: oil palm and agrarian change in Sumatra, Indonesia. (United States)

    McCarthy, John


    Changes in globalised agriculture raise critical questions as rapid agricultural development leads to widespread social and environmental transformation. With increased global demand for vegetable oils and biofuel, in Indonesia the area under oil palm has doubled over the last decade. This paper presents a case study of how micro-processes that are linked to wider dynamics shape oil palm related agrarian change in villages in Sumatra, Indonesia. It pursues related questions regarding the impact of agribusiness-driven agriculture, the fate of smallholders experiencing contemporary agrarian transition, and the impact of increased demand for vegetable oils and biofuels on agrarian structures in Sumatra. It argues that the paths of agrarian change are highly uneven and depend on how changing livelihood strategies are enabled or constrained by economic, social and political relations that vary over time and space. In contrast to simplifying narratives of inclusion/exclusion, it argues that outcomes depend on the terms under which smallholders engage with oil palm. Distinguishing between exogenous processes of agribusiness expansion and endogenous commodity market expansion, it finds each is associated with characteristic processes of change. It concludes that the way successive policy interventions have worked with the specific characteristics of oil palm have cumulatively shaped the space where agrarian change occurs in Sumatra.

  8. Prevalência de olho seco em portadores de hanseníase de um hospital-colônia em Goiânia Prevalence of dry eye in Hansen's disease patients from a colony hospital in Goiânia, Brazil

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    Karys Carvalho Frazão


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de olho seco em hansenianos do Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia. MÉTODOS: A amostra do presente estudo incluiu 70 hansenianos, do Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia, e 30 controles, da Fundação Banco de Olhos de Goiás, ambos localizados em Goiânia-GO. Foram realizados exame oftalmológico e testes de Schirmer I, "break-up time" (BUT e rosa bengala em todos estes indivíduos em uma única avaliação. Para o diagnóstico de olho seco foi considerado o teste de Schirmer I menor ou igual a 5 mm e o rosa bengala grau II ou III, em pelo menos um olho. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e quatro (63,0% hansenianos eram do sexo masculino e 22 (73,3% controles, do sexo feminino (p=0,001. A idade média dos hansenianos foi de 61,1±12,5 anos e no grupo controle, 55,7±9,6 anos. Quinze (21,4% hansenianos e quatro (13,3% controles apresentaram diagnóstico de olho seco (p=0,429. A forma virchowiana (HV (74,2% da hanseníase foi a mais prevalente e o olho seco (66,7% foi mais freqüente nesta forma clínica da doença. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de olho seco foi maior no grupo de hansenianos, apesar de não ter havido diferença significativa.PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of dry eye in Hansen's disease patients from the "Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia". METHODS: The sample of the present study included 70 patients with Hansen's disease, from the "Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia", and 30 controls, from the "Fundação Banco de Olhos de Goiás", both located in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Ophthalmologic examination and Schirmer I, break-up time (BUT and rose Bengal staining tests were carried out for all patients in a single evaluation. For the diagnosis of dry eye the Schirmer I equal or less than 5 mm and rose Bengal grade II or III, in at least one eye were considered. RESULTS: Forty-four (63.0% patients with Hansen's disease were male and 22 (73.3% controls were female


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    Olivar José da S. M. Lobato


    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi realizado para informar as pessoas interessadas na estimativa da disponibilidade hídrica no solo do município de Goiânia a municípios limítrofes, pelo Método de C.W. Thornthwaite & Mather (1955, baseado em dados termopluviométricos no período de 1961 a 1971. Apresenta, ainda, a posição geográfíca do município, em relação ao Estado de Goiás. Finalmente, caracteriza o clima do Município de Goiânia, utilizando a classificação de C.W. Thornthwaite 1948, apoiado em duas grandezas que são funções diretas da evapotranspiração potencial: o índice efetivo de umidade e o índice de eficiência térmica. A fórmula climática é a seguinte: B2 W B’4 a’.

    The present work was undertaken to inform interested persons of the estimate of hydric availability in the soil of Goiânia county and surrounding counties. The method used was C.W. Thornthwaite and Mather (1955, based on thermo-pluviometrics within the period 1961—1971. The geographic position of the county, in relation to the State of Goiás, is also presented. Finally the climate of Goiânia County, is described using Thornthwaite's 1948 classification.

  10. Governing Civil Service Pay in China, by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014. xvi+236 pp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik


    Book review of: Governing Civil Service Pay in China by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014.......Book review of: Governing Civil Service Pay in China by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014....

  11. FDI in Tourism Sector and Economic Growth in Sumatra Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parhimpunan Simatupang


    Full Text Available Globalization and neo liberal policies such as liberalization and privatization have generated a significant growth for FDI and considered an important source for capital and foreign currency, capable of spurring economic growth in developing countries. One sector that received particular attention, due to its significant contributions towards economic development, especially in Indonesia, is tourism. Tourism investments in Indonesia are mainly focused on the development of fully-integrated resort sites that help boost the construction of tourist facilities such as hotels and the development of the surrounding environment through social and cultural aspects. The total contribution of travel and tourism to GDP was IDR736.3 billion or 8.9% of GDP in 2012. Foreign direct tourism investments grew by 210% between 2011 and 2012, or at an annual compound average growth rate of 38% between 2006 and 2012. While the implications are at national level, not much could be gathered on the local perspectives. This paper intends to explore the implication of FDI in tourism sector towards economic growth in one of tourism attraction provinces in Indonesia—Sumatra Utara. Specifically, which economic factors contributed towards FDI inflows and their impacts on economic growth in Sumatra Utara.

  12. Las ni??as, las ??ltimas. Un estudio sobre el abandono escolar femenino en Kibosho Central (Tanzania)


    John, Felisa; Francisco, Andrea; Moliner Miravet, Lid??n


    Uno de los Objetivos del Milenio para 2015 era lograr el acceso a la ense??anza primaria universal para todos y todas pero a??n hay 58 millones de ni??os y ni??as de entre 6 y 11 a??os sin escolarizar, una situaci??n que afecta sobre todo a las ni??as. Las tasas m??s bajas de escolarizaci??n primaria corresponden a ??frica subsahariana, donde s??lo el 65% de los ni??os y ni??as en edad de estudiar acuden a la escuela (UNESCO, 2014). A estas cifras, adem??s, hay que a??adir que una...

  13. Increasing potential of biomass burning over Sumatra, Indonesia induced by anthropogenic tropical warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestari, R Kartika; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Imada, Yukiko; Shiogama, Hideo; Field, Robert D; Takemura, Toshihiko


    Uncontrolled biomass burning in Indonesia during drought periods damages the landscape, degrades regional air quality, and acts as a disproportionately large source of greenhouse gas emissions. The expansion of forest fires is mostly observed in October in Sumatra favored by persistent droughts during the dry season from June to November. The contribution of anthropogenic warming to the probability of severe droughts is not yet clear. Here, we show evidence that past events in Sumatra were exacerbated by anthropogenic warming and that they will become more frequent under a future emissions scenario. By conducting two sets of atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments driven by observed sea surface temperature for 1960–2011, one with and one without an anthropogenic warming component, we found that a recent weakening of the Walker circulation associated with tropical ocean warming increased the probability of severe droughts in Sumatra, despite increasing tropical-mean precipitation. A future increase in the frequency of droughts is then suggested from our analyses of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model ensembles. Increasing precipitation to the north of the equator accompanies drier conditions over Indonesia, amplified by enhanced ocean surface warming in the central equatorial Pacific. The resultant precipitation decrease leads to a ∼25% increase in severe drought events from 1951–2000 to 2001–2050. Our results therefore indicate the global warming impact to a potential of wide-spreading forest fires over Indonesia, which requires mitigation policy for disaster prevention. (letter)

  14. Coseismic gravity and displacement changes of Japan Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlin Zhang


    Full Text Available The greatest earthquake in the modern history of Japan and probably the fourth greatest in the last 100 years in the world occurred on March 11, 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku. Large tsunami and ground motions caused severe damage in wide areas, particularly many towns along the Pacific coast. So far, gravity change caused by such a great earthquake has been reported for the 1964 Alaska and the 2010 Maule events. However, the spatial-temporal resolution of the gravity data for these cases is insufficient to depict a co-seismic gravity field variation in a spatial scale of a plate subduction zone. Here, we report an unequivocal co-seismic gravity change over the Japanese Island, obtained from a hybrid gravity observation (combined absolute and relative gravity measurements. The time interval of the observation before and after the earthquake is within 1 year at almost all the observed sites, including 13 absolute and 16 relative measurement sites, which deduced tectonic and environmental contributions to the gravity change. The observed gravity agrees well with the result calculated by a dislocation theory based on a self-gravitating and layered spherical earth model. In this computation, a co-seismic slip distribution is determined by an inversion of Global Positioning System (GPS data. Of particular interest is that the observed gravity change in some area is negative where a remarkable subsidence is observed by GPS, which can not be explained by simple vertical movement of the crust. This indicated that the mass redistribution in the underground affects the gravity change. This result supports the result that Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites detected a crustal dilatation due to the 2004 Sumatra earthquake by the terrestrial observation with a higher spatial and temporal resolution.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Habitat Use of an Asian Elephant in Sumatra

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    Todd K. Fuller


    Full Text Available Increasingly, habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural and human development has forced Sumatran elephants into relatively small areas, but there is little information on how elephants use these areas and thus, how habitats can be managed to sustain elephants in the future. Using a Global Positioning System (GPS collar and a land cover map developed from TM imagery, we identified the habitats used by a wild adult female elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus in the Seblat Elephant Conservation Center, Bengkulu Province, Sumatra during 2007–2008. The marked elephant (and presumably her 40–60 herd mates used a home range that contained more than expected medium canopy and open canopy land cover. Further, within the home range, closed canopy forests were used more during the day than at night. When elephants were in closed canopy forests they were most often near the forest edge vs. in the forest interior. Effective elephant conservation strategies in Sumatra need to focus on forest restoration of cleared areas and providing a forest matrix that includes various canopy types.

  16. Challenges in developing e-government for good governance in North Sumatra (United States)

    Siahaan, AY


    E-government as one form of public administration reform in Indonesia is increasingly related to the pursuance of good governance. This paper examines the relationship between of e-government and good governance by utilizing the case study design on the implementation of e-procurement in North Sumatra. It reveals centrality of local politics and business culture in understanding resistances of both local government officials and local business which creates loopholes’ for the practice of ‘bad governance’ in all phases of e-procurement in North Sumatra province. Data transparency does not equate and guarantee the realization of good governance. Public knowledge and understanding on government decision making processes and accountability (process and policy transparency) are central to achieve good governance through e-procurement. E-procurement system does not automatically change organizational and working culture of the implementers and suppliers. This paper provides insight to the attitude and the perception of private sector engage in e-procurement towards government in implementing e-government. Resistance, digital divide and local politics interrelatedly obstruct the realization of pursuing good governance through e-procurement.

  17. Jambak Jambu Kalko: Nature conservation management of the Serampas of Jambi, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Hariyadi B. 2012. Jambak Jambu Kalko: Nature conservation management of the Serampas of Jambi, Sumatra. Biodiversitas 13: 40-45. Serampas is an indigenous group that still inhabits forested areas around the Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP in the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The group has occupied the area since several centuries ago, long before the KSNP was officially proclaimed as a national park. The blending of local natural conditions, socio-cultural setting and cosmology has gradually produced a number of local wisdoms and practices to manage the local natural resources. The Serampas traditional resource management practices were not only friendly to the environment, but also encourage the more equitable distribution of natural resources among the members of the Serampas community. Jambak jambu kalko is literally means a list of locally important perennial fruit tree species protected by the Serampas customary system. Beyond the jambak jambu kalko the Serampas also recognize customs, traditions, and values that have important role in managing the local natural resources.


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    Sudarto Sudarto


    Full Text Available Research on genetic differentiation among populations of Chromobotia macracanthus Bleeker from Sumatra, based on sequencing gene of mtDNA Cytochrome b and nucleus DNA RAG2 has been done. The objectives of the study were to obtain the representation of genetic differentiation among population of clown loach fishes or botia (Chromobotia macracanthus from Sumatra and Kalimantan and to estimate the time divergence of both population group of botia. Samples of botia population were taken from 3 rivers in Sumatra namely Batanghari, Musi, and Tulang Bawang and one river from Kalimantan namely Kapuas. The genetic analysis was based on the sequencing of mtDNA Cytochrome b and nucleus DNA RAG2. The statistical analysis was done by using APE package on R language. The parameters observed were: nucleotide diversity, genetic distance, and neighbor-joining tree. The result showed that the highest nucleotide diversity was fish population of Musi, while the other two populations, Tulang Bawang (Sumatra and Kapuas (Kalimantan, were considered as the lowest genetic diversity especially based on nucleus DNA RAG2 sequencing. Based on mtDNA Cytochrome-b sequencing, the most distinct population among those populations based on genetic distance were fish populations of Musi and Kapuas. According to the result of neighbor-joining tree analysis, the populations of botia were classified into two groups namely group of Sumatra and group of Kalimantan. The estimation of time divergence among group of population of Sumatra and Kalimantan based on mtDNA Cytochrome b was about 9.25—9.46 million years (Miocene era. The high genetic differences between groups of Sumatra and Kalimantan suggested that the effort of restocking botia from Sumatra into Kalimantan has to be done carefully, because it may disturb the gene originality of both botia populations.

  19. Diversity of the land resources in the Amazonian State of Rondônia, Brazil Diversidade dos terrenos e solos do estado de Rondônia, Brasil

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    T.T. Cochrane


    Full Text Available Conflicting opinions are recorded in the literature concerning the suitability of Amazon lands for sustainable agriculture following deforestation. This article has been written to shed light on this question by summarizing climate, landform, soil and vegetation features from the findings of a land resource study of the Brazilian state of Rondônia in south-west Amazonia. The work, which followed the World Soils and Terrain Digital Database (SOTER methodology, was financed by the World Bank. During the course of the survey special emphasis was given to studying soils; 2914 profiles were analyzed and recorded. The study identified a complex pattern of land units with clear differences in climate, landform, soils and native vegetation. Forested areas mosaic with lesser areas of natural savannas. The latter occur on both poorly-drained and well-drained, albeit nutrient deficient sandy soils. The tallest and most vigorous forests or their remnants were seen growing on well-drained soils formed from nutrient-rich parent materials. Many of these soils could, or are being used for productive agriculture. Soils developed on nutrient-poor parent materials support forests that are significantly lower in height, and would require large lime and fertilizer inputs for agriculture. Low forests with high palm populations and minor areas of wet land savannas cover the poorly drained soils. It is evident that forest clearing in the past was indiscriminant; this cannot be condoned. The diversity of land conditions found throughout Rondônia would suggest that many past studies in the Amazon have simply been too broad to identify significant soil differences.Opiniões divergentes são encontradas na literatura com respeito ao uso de terras da Amazônia para agricultura sustentável apos desmatamento. Este artigo busca clarificar a questão com um resumo dos resultados de um estudo dos recursos naturais (clima, atributos de solos e terrenos, e vegetação do estado

  20. Mediterranean megaturbidite triggered by the AD 365 Crete earthquake and tsunami (United States)

    Polonia, Alina; Bonatti, Enrico; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Lucchi, Renata Giulia; Panieri, Giuliana; Gasperini, Luca


    Historian Ammianus Marcellinus documented the devastating effects of a tsunami hitting Alexandria, Egypt, on July 21, AD 365. "The solidity of the earth was made to shake … and the sea was driven away. The waters returning when least expected killed many thousands by drowning. Huge ships… perched on the roofs of houses… hurled miles from the shore….”. Other settlements around the Mediterranean were hit at roughly the same time. This scenario is similar to that of the recent Sumatra and Tohoku tsunamis. Based on geophysical surveys and sediment cores from the Ionian Sea we show that the 20–25 m thick megaturbidite known in the literature as Homogenite/Augias was triggered not by the Santorini caldera collapse but by the 365 AD Cretan earthquake/tsunami. An older similar megaturbidite was deposited after 14.590 ± 80 yr BP, implying a large recurrence time of such extreme sedimentary events in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:23412517

  1. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes. (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro


    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Remote triggering of fault-strength changes on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield. (United States)

    Taira, Taka'aki; Silver, Paul G; Niu, Fenglin; Nadeau, Robert M


    Fault strength is a fundamental property of seismogenic zones, and its temporal changes can increase or decrease the likelihood of failure and the ultimate triggering of seismic events. Although changes in fault strength have been suggested to explain various phenomena, such as the remote triggering of seismicity, there has been no means of actually monitoring this important property in situ. Here we argue that approximately 20 years of observation (1987-2008) of the Parkfield area at the San Andreas fault have revealed a means of monitoring fault strength. We have identified two occasions where long-term changes in fault strength have been most probably induced remotely by large seismic events, namely the 2004 magnitude (M) 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the earlier 1992 M = 7.3 Landers earthquake. In both cases, the change possessed two manifestations: temporal variations in the properties of seismic scatterers-probably reflecting the stress-induced migration of fluids-and systematic temporal variations in the characteristics of repeating-earthquake sequences that are most consistent with changes in fault strength. In the case of the 1992 Landers earthquake, a period of reduced strength probably triggered the 1993 Parkfield aseismic transient as well as the accompanying cluster of four M > 4 earthquakes at Parkfield. The fault-strength changes produced by the distant 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake are especially important, as they suggest that the very largest earthquakes may have a global influence on the strength of the Earth's fault systems. As such a perturbation would bring many fault zones closer to failure, it should lead to temporal clustering of global seismicity. This hypothesis seems to be supported by the unusually high number of M >or= 8 earthquakes occurring in the few years following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.

  3. Paleoenvironmental conditions in the late Paleogene, Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    O'shea, Natalie; Arthur Bettis, E.; Zaim, Yahdi; Rizal, Yan; Aswan, Aswan; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Zonneveld, John-Paul; Ciochon, Russell L.


    A stratified paleosol sequence exposed in an open pit mine in central Sumatra provides a record of the paleoenvironmental conditions in the lower reaches of a large river system in the late Paleogene (latest Eocene or Oligocene). Morphological, geochemical, and stable isotope data suggest that the sequence represents a mosaic of local environmental conditions changing from estuarine to riverine up section. Weakly expressed soils formed on low-lying estuary surfaces, while more well expressed soils formed on higher, better drained surfaces. Peatlands (coal) with clayey subsoils were along the estuary margins. Well-expressed soils with evidence of clay translocation and chemical weathering become more common higher in the section where alluvial deposits associated with a meandering river are dominant. Stable carbon isotope ratios support a paleolandscape dominated by C3 plants with input by C4 vegetation limited to a few intervals. Finally, whole-rock geochemistry suggests moderate chemical weathering consistent with a tropical locality. This multi-proxy paleoenvironmental reconstruction suggests a highly productive lowland forest environment at this locality in the late Paleogene and provides the first direct examination of the terrestrial environment in Sumatra at this time. The limited fossil record in Island Southeast Asia during this time period is likely a result of poor bone and shell preservation in tropical forest environments combined with a general lack of systematic prospecting. However, our continuing work in this area has produced a relatively diverse assemblage of fossil vertebrates, now including fishes, amphibians, turtles, crocodiles, and mammals, as well as a growing diversity of fossil plants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis


    Full Text Available The great Tohoku earthquake of March 11, 2011 generated a very destructive and anomalously high tsunami. To understand its source mechanism, an examination was undertaken of the seismotectonics of the region and of the earthquake’ focal mechanism, energy release, rupture patterns and spatial and temporal sequencing and clustering of major aftershocks. It was determined that the great tsunami resulted from a combination of crustal deformations of the ocean floor due to up-thrust tectonic motions, augmented by additional uplift due to the quake’s slow and long rupturing process, as well as to large coseismic lateral movements which compressed and deformed the compacted sediments along the accretionary prism of the overriding plane. The deformation occurred randomly and non-uniformly along parallel normal faults and along oblique, en-echelon faults to the earthquake’s overall rupture direction – the latter failing in a sequential bookshelf manner with variable slip angles. As the 1992 Nicaragua and the 2004 Sumatra earthquakes demonstrated, such bookshelf failures of sedimentary layers could contribute to anomalously high tsunamis. As with the 1896 tsunami, additional ocean floor deformation and uplift of the sediments was responsible for the higher waves generated by the 2011 earthquake. The efficiency of tsunami generation was greater along the shallow eastern segment of the fault off the Miyagi Prefecture where most of the energy release of the earthquake and the deformations occurred, while the segment off the Ibaraki Prefecture – where the rupture process was rapid – released less seismic energy, resulted in less compaction and deformation of sedimentary layers and thus to a tsunami of lesser offshore height. The greater tsunamigenic efficiency of the 2011 earthquake and high degree of the tsunami’s destructiveness along Honshu’s coastlines resulted from vertical crustal displacements of more than 10 meters due to up

  5. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes


    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro


    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  6. Fire intensity and phosphorus availability in Sumatra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterings, Q.M.; Bigham, J.M.; Noordwijk, M. van


    Fire is still widely used as a tool for land clearing in Indonesia. The environmental problems caused by these became an international issue in the fall of 1997 when smoke originating from land clearing activities in Sumatra and West Kalimantan blanketed not only large parts of Indonesia but also the neighboring countries of Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines and Thailand. Alternatives must be found. For alternatives to slash-and-burn to be acceptable, they should address both the problems and the benefits of burning as a land clearing method for small rubber and oil palm farmers. A social/economic/agronomic survey conducted in Sepunggur, Jambi Province, Sumatra, indicated that burning: 1) was the cheapest and easiest way to create space to plant and walk in the field; 2) added free fertilizer in the form of ash; 3) improved soil structure allowing faster establishment of seedlings; 4) reduced weed/tree competition; and 5) reduced problems with pest/diseases. Farmers also indicated that harveys delays and yield reductions would lead to an increase in poverty, mainly due to a loss in ash (fertilizer) addition if fire was no longer used. Slash-sell wood-and-burn is a alternative that has the advantage of maintaining at least part of the benefits of burning while reducing air pollution. The sale of wood (if permitted) could supply the farmer with an extra source of income. Before this alternative can be promoted, it should be known what a reduction in fuel load and fire intensity will mean for soil fertility and plant growth and thus for the economic situation of farmers that depend on it. Two questions need to be answered: 1) how is fir intensity related to nutrient availability; and 2) how important are short-term fertilizer (ash) additions versus longer lasting, heat induced changes in soil mineralogical properties? Refs. 11 (author)

  7. Impact of earthquake-induced tsunamis on public health (United States)

    Mavroulis, Spyridon; Mavrouli, Maria; Lekkas, Efthymios; Tsakris, Athanassios


    Tsunamis are caused by rapid sea floor displacement during earthquakes, landslides and large explosive eruptions in marine environment setting. Massive amounts of sea water in the form of devastating surface waves travelling hundreds of kilometers per hour have the potential to cause extensive damage to coastal infrastructures, considerable loss of life and injury and emergence of infectious diseases (ID). This study involved an extensive and systematic literature review of 50 research publications related to public health impact of the three most devastating tsunamis of the last 12 years induced by great earthquakes, namely the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (moment magnitude Mw 9.2), the 2009 Samoa earthquake (Mw 8.1) and the 2011 Tōhoku (Japan) earthquake (Mw 9.0) in the Indian, Western Pacific and South Pacific Oceans respectively. The inclusion criteria were literature type comprising journal articles and official reports, natural disaster type including tsunamis induced only by earthquakes, population type including humans, and outcome measure characterized by disease incidence increase. The potential post-tsunami ID are classified into 11 groups including respiratory, pulmonary, wound-related, water-borne, skin, vector-borne, eye, fecal-oral, food-borne, fungal and mite-borne ID. Respiratory infections were detected after all the above mentioned tsunamis. Wound-related, skin and water-borne ID were observed after the 2004 and 2011 tsunamis, while vector-borne, fecal-oral and eye ID were observed only after the 2004 tsunami and pulmonary, food-borne and mite-borne ID were diagnosed only after the 2011 tsunami. Based on available age and genre data, it is concluded that the most vulnerable population groups are males, children (age ≤ 15 years) and adults (age ≥ 65 years). Tetanus and pneumonia are the deadliest post-tsunami ID. The detected risk factors include (1) lowest socioeconomic conditions, poorly constructed buildings and lack of prevention

  8. The west Andaman fault and its influence on the aftershock pattern of the recent megathrust earthquakes in the Andaman-Sumatra region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.; Murty, G.P.S.; Amarnath, D.; MohanKumar, M.L.

    lithospheric scale boundary and together with other tectonic elements modulates the occurrence of large earthquakes and their rupture pattern. The active strike-slip motion along the WAF, presence of backarc spreading coupled with increased obliquity...

  9. Orangutans, enamel defects, and developmental health: A comparison of Borneo and Sumatra. (United States)

    Skinner, Mark F; Skinner, Matthew M


    Orangutans (Pongo sp.) show among the highest occurrence of three types of developmental enamel defect. Two are attributed to nutritional factors that reduce bone growth in the infant's face early in development. Their timing and prevalence indicate that Sumatra provides a better habitat than does Borneo. The third type, repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) is very common but its etiology is not understood. Our objective is to draw attention to this enigmatic, episodic stressor in the lives of orangutans. We are concerned that neglect of this possible marker of ill health may be contributing, through inaction, to their alarming decline in numbers. Width and depth of an LEH are considered proxies for duration and intensity of stress. The hypothesis that Bornean orangutans would exhibit relatively wider and deeper LEH was tested on 163 independent episodes of LEH from 9 Sumatran and 26 Bornean orangutans measured with a NanoFocus AG "µsurf Mobile Plus" scanner. Non-normally distributed data (depths) were converted to natural logs. No difference was found in width of LEH among the two island taxa; nor are their differences in width or depth between the sexes. After controlling for significant differences in LEH depths between incisors and canines, defects are, contrary to prediction, significantly deeper in Sumatran than Bornean animals (median = 28, 18 µm, respectively). It is concluded that repetitive LEH records an unknown but significant stressor present in both Sumatra and Borneo, with an average periodicity of 6 months (or multiples thereof) that lasts about 6-8 weeks. It is worse in Sumatra. Given this patterning, shared with apes from a wide range of ecological and temporal sources, rLEH is more likely attributable to disease than to malnutrition. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ainda a Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario B. Aragão


    Full Text Available No momento há grande preocupação com tentativas de internacionalizar a Amazônia. Entretanto, um exame rápido da história da região mostra que a reação, provocada por tentativas semelhantes, sempre deu resultados benéficos. O problema mais sério que o desmatamento da Amazônia provocará, é a mudança no total e, possivelmente, no regime das chuvas, tanto na região como nas áreas vizinhas. Os 6,5 trilhões de metros cúbicos de água que são evaporados, anualmente, pela floresta, em sua quase totalidade deixarão de entrar na circulação atmosférica. Essa quantidade de vapor d'água é que fornece 50% da chuva que cai na bacia. A questão do "pulmão do mundo" já foi suficientemente explicada, pois, uma floresta em estado "climax" não pode ter saldo de oxigênio. Além disso, o grande lançador de gás carbônico na atmosfera é o consumismo dos países ricos. Entretanto, resultados recentes parecem mostrar que esse gás carbônico não está provocando efeito estufa e aumentando a tempertura da terra. A experiência internacional e também a nacional têm mostrado que a melhor maneira de proteger uma floresta é dar a ela uma utilidade, logicamente, do ponto de vista do homem. A melhor proposta surgida até hoje foi a da criação das florestas regionais de rendimento, onde empresas madeireiras receberiam concessão para explorá-las, sem se tornarem proprietárias nem da terra nem da vegetação. Não é de hoje a vinculação entre floresta amazônica e dívida externa. Desde os projetos pecuários até os grandes empreendimentos industriais e de mineração, todos têm sido incentivados na ilusão de obter divisas para o pagamento da dívida externa. O problema das represas precisa ser repensado; está sendo inutilizada muita terra para a produção de pouca energia que, além do mais, pouco beneficiará a população brasileira. Os garimpos, tradicionalmente, têm sustentado o contrabando, principalmente de ouro e as


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kamal


    Full Text Available Earthquake that occurred in the area of West Sumatera, especially the earthquake that occurred repeatedly since 2004 to 2009 has greatly impacted to the progress and development of fishing effort in seven districts that have sea area in West Sumatera. This study aims to assess the marine business conditions after the earthquake in West Sumatra for can be considered to make policy in the management of fishing effort further. Marine fisheries statistics data indicate that there has been a decline in the number of fishermen postearthquake from 2005 to 2009 as 22.49 percent, the decline in capture fisheries production to 16.12 percent and a decrease in the fishing fleet to 23.89 percent. In resource management and development strategies in the field of maritime affairs and fisheries, it is important to make a comprehensive policy after the earthquake in West Sumatra.

  12. Two boilers from Kvaerner to Sumatra, Indonesia; Sumatralle kaksi kattilaa Kvaernerilta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salja, A. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)


    Kvaerner Pulping Oy has won a contract to supply soda and power boilers to the new Musi Pulp plant under construction in southern Sumatra in Indonesia. The boiler will be built in Tampere. The plant is scheduled for completion in December 1999 and it will produce 450 000 t/a. The contract is an important step forward for Kvaerner Pulping in promoting its fluidized bed technology


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edithe Pereira


    Full Text Available RESUMO: O artigo apresenta os problemas decorrentes da prática do turismo sem controle que vem acontecendo em sítios arqueológicos na Amazônia. Apresenta-se a situação atual de alguns sítios localizados em três regiões distintas no Pará e propõem-se recomendações básicas para uso turístico de sítios arqueológicos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Patrimônio arqueológico; turismo; Amazônia.ABSTRACT:This article discusses the main problems that have affected Amazonian archaeological sites as a consequence of unsupervised tourist practices. The current state of sites located in three different regions of Pará are examined, while some basic procedures for the touristic access to archaeological sites are recommended.KEY-WORKS: Archaeological heritage; tourism; Amazon Region.

  14. Os fatores genéticos da insônia - Uma revisão de literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sousa Ferreira


    Full Text Available A insônia é um dos distúrbios do sono caracterizado pela dificuldade em iniciar ou manter o sono. Isso se reflete em um sono de baixa qualidade que pode causar problemas ao longo do dia, como cansaço e falta de energia. Sob essa condição, estão associados alguns fatores genéticos, entre eles os genes ABCC9, 5-HTT e Clock. A presente revisão de literatura tem por objetivo a explanação acerca dos fatores genéticos relacionados com o distúrbio da insônia. Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura de forma sistemática, realizada por meio de um levantamento bibliográfico que procura reunir os conhecimentos sobre as características da insônia e sua herança gênica. Encontrou-se uma relevância de achados autorais valiosos para a síntese dessa pesquisa. Portanto, a partir do estudo abordado nessa revisão, torna-se evidente a importância do conhecimento das causas genéticas do distúrbio da insônia para a melhor abordagem clínica, haja vista a relevância desse mecanismo biológico.

  15. An Analysis Of Manufacturing Market Structure In North Sumatra Province


    Rasidin Karo-Karo Sitepu; Muhammad Asaad


    This study aims to analyze market structure and manufacturing industry performance on the economy of North Sumatra. The analysis uses two approaches, namely SCP analysis and econometric model. The data used is the Survey of Large Medium 2005-2009. The result shows that the structure of the industry is more dominant, including tight oligopoly, only small parts which belong to loose oligopoly and oligopoly markets. Some industries which have important roles for the economy are the palm oil indu...

  16. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's Response to the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami (United States)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Becker, N. C.; Shiro, B.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Sardina, V.; Walsh, D.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C. S.; Fryer, G. J.; Cessaro, R. K.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Hsu, V.


    The largest Pacific basin earthquake in 47 years, and also the largest magnitude earthquake since the Sumatra 2004 earthquake, struck off of the east coast of the Tohoku region of Honshu, Japan at 5:46 UTC on 11 March 2011. The Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a massive tsunami with runups of up to 40m along the Tohoku coast. The tsunami waves crossed the Pacific Ocean causing significant damage as far away as Hawaii, California, and Chile, thereby becoming the largest, most destructive tsunami in the Pacific Basin since 1960. Triggers on the seismic stations at Erimo, Hokkaido (ERM) and Matsushiro, Honshu (MAJO), alerted Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists 90 seconds after the earthquake began. Four minutes after its origin, and about one minute after the earthquake's rupture ended, PTWC issued an observatory message reporting a preliminary magnitude of 7.5. Eight minutes after origin time, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued its first international tsunami message in its capacity as the Northwest Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center. In accordance with international tsunami warning system protocols, PTWC then followed with its first international tsunami warning message using JMA's earthquake parameters, including an Mw of 7.8. Additional Mwp, mantle wave, and W-phase magnitude estimations based on the analysis of later-arriving seismic data at PTWC revealed that the earthquake magnitude reached at least 8.8, and that a destructive tsunami would likely be crossing the Pacific Ocean. The earthquake damaged the nearest coastal sea-level station located 90 km from the epicenter in Ofunato, Japan. The NOAA DART sensor situated 600 km off the coast of Sendai, Japan, at a depth of 5.6 km recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly two meters, making it by far the largest tsunami wave ever recorded by a DART sensor. Thirty minutes later, a coastal sea-level station at Hanasaki, Japan, 600 km from the epicenter, recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of

  17. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.


    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  18. Estabelecimento de leguminosas arbóreas em pastos de capim-marandu e tanzânia Establishment of leguminous trees in marandu and tanzânia pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Francisco Dias


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de mudas sem proteção (de cercas ou estacas de quatro espécies de leguminosas arbóreas e uma mistura eqüitativa dessas espécies, introduzidas em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, na presença de gado. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, duas gramíneas (marandu e tanzânia e quatro espécies de leguminosas (Mimosa artemisiana, Pseudosamanea guachapele, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Acacia farnesiana e uma mistura dessas espécies, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se: altura da muda, diâmetro do caule, diâmetro da copa, sobrevivência da muda, freqüência de pastejo e ocorrência de formigas. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de três agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos M. artemisiana e mistura de leguminosas, nos dois pastos, mais E. contortisiliquum e A. farnesiana, nos pastos dos capins marandu e tanzânia, respectivamente. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos relativas a cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que mudas de M. artemisiana apresentaram maior altura e sobrevivência em pasto de capim-marandu. Mudas dessa leguminosa, sem proteção, são indicadas para ser introduzidas, nas pastagens de capim-marandu da região, na presença do gado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of nonprotected (by fences or pickets seedlings of leguminous tree species and an equitable mix of these species, introduced in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, in the presence of cattle. The experimental design was a completely randomized one, in a 2x5 factorial arrangement, with two grasses (marandu and tanzânia and four leguminous species (Mimosa artemisiana

  19. O experimento de grande escala da biosfera-atmosfera na Amazônia (LBA); plano experimental conciso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LBAScience Planning Group (Cachoeira Paulista),


    O experimento de grande escala da biosfera atmosfera na Amazónia (LBA) tem como objectivo aperfeiçoar o conhecimento do funcionamento climatológico, ecológico, biogeoquímico e hidrológico da Amazónia. Isto chamará a atençao para os efeitos das alteraçoes da ocupaçao do solo e clima, nestas funçoes,

  20. Pessoa em Bethânia: os versos do desassossego na voz do encantamento


    Barros, Andre Luiz Calsone


    Pessoa em Bethânia tem por tema a recriação dos versos de Caeiro no espetáculo Rosa dos Ventos O Show Encantado, tendo por intérprete Maria Bethânia. O corpus é o Poema VIII de Alberto Caeiro, heterônimo de Fernando Pessoa, da obra O Guardador de Rebanhos (1911 1912), transformado em roteiro dramáticomusical e tornado performance no espetáculo Rosa dos Ventos. Reinterpretado por meio da voz, do corpo, da música e dos mais variados recursos cênicos, o poema de Fernando ...

  1. Avaliação clínica e manejo da insônia em pacientes pediátricos


    Nunes,Magda Lahorgue; Cavalcante,Verônica


    OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste artigo é revisar as características clínicas, a investigação e o tratamento da insônia na faixa etária pediátrica. FONTE DOS DADOS: Foi realizada pesquisa na MEDLINE, nos últimos 5 anos (1999-2004), utilizando os unitermos distúrbios do sono, insônia e infância. Foram incluídos artigos e livros textos clássicos sobre o tema, sendo elaborado um roteiro crítico para avaliação e manejo da insônia em pacientes pediátricos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O artigo foi estruturado em...

  2. Implementation of Biplot Analysis for Mapping Elementary and Junior High Schools in West Sumatra Based on National Examination Results 2016 (United States)

    Amalita, N.; Fitria, D.; Distian, V.


    National examination is an assessment of learning outcomes that aims to assess the achievement of graduate competence nationally. The result of the national examination is used as a mapping of educational issues in order to arrange the national education policy. Therefore the results of National Examination are used, also, as a reference for the admission of new students to continue their education to a higher level. The results of National Examination in West Sumatra in 2016 decreased from the previous year, both elementary schools (SD) and Junior High School level (SMP). This paper aims to determine the characteristics of the National Examination results in each regency / city in West Sumatra for elementary and junior levels by using Bi-plot analysis. The result of Bi-plot Analysis provides the information that the results of the National Examination of Regency / City in West Sumatra Province are quite diverse. At Junior High School level there are 9 of Regencies / Cities which have similar characteristics. English subjects are the greatest diversity among all of subjects. The calculation results of the correlation of each variable in junior high school level are positively correlated. The variables with positive correlation are mathematics that correlates with English. Based on the mark of National Examination for elementary school level in West Sumatra, there are 8 Regencies / Cities have similar characteristics. The correlations of each variable at the elementary level are positively correlated. The variables that have positive correlation are Sciences (IPA) with Language.

  3. Insônia na menopausa e perimenopausa: características clínicas e opções terapêuticas


    Soares,Claudio N.


    Transtornos do sono e insônia são mais freqüentemente observados entre as mulheres do que entre os homens durante a vida adulta. Entre outros fatores, especula-se que alta comorbidade psiquiátrica para transtornos afetivos e ansiosos entre as mulheres contribua para maior ocorrência de insônia. Além disso, períodos de intensa variabilidade hormonal (por exemplo, gestação e puerpério, perimenopausa) parecem estar relacionados com maior incidência de insônia e de transtornos respiratórios do so...

  4. Data- and Tool-rich Curriculum on Natural Catastrophes: Case Study of M9+ Earthquakes and Mega-tsunamis in Cascadia (United States)

    Mayhew, M.; Hall, M.; Walker, C. S.; Butler, R. F.


    We report on one of four undergraduate curriculum units on natural catastrophes that make use of a wide range of geologic and geophysical data sets and data visualization and analysis tools. All units use My World GIS tools, Google Earth, Excel, animations, and video. In the Cascadia case study, students conduct a series of investigations concerning evidence of M9+ earthquakes in the past and evidence of present-day deformation consistent with the likelihood of another such earthquake some time in the future. The unit begins with Native oral traditions that predate European settlement of the region in the mid-18th century that tell of a huge earthquake and accompanying tsunami. The scene shifts to the great M9+ Sumatra earthquake of 2004 as a possible analog. Students analyze GPS and other data related to horizontal and vertical motions accompanying the earthquake. Comparisons of deformation patterns and rupture zone extent among the 2004 M9+ Sumatran, 1960 M9+ Chilean and the 1964 M9+ Alaskan earthquakes are made with a possible Cascadian analog. Students analyze Cascadia GPS data from the Plate Boundary Observatory and investigate strain accumulation patterns consistent with a locked zone at the shallow part of the subduction zone. They then use geologic evidence to evaluate the possibility of great earthquakes in the past. They do this much in the same way that geologists have, noting the distinctive stratigraphic evidence of catastrophic subsidence and tsunami inundation, directly analogous to the effects accompanying the other great earthquakes they have studied. They determine the year, date, and time of the last great earthquake that occurred here, by linking to the Japanese historical record of an "Orphan Tsunami" that devastated Japan in 1700. They note evidence from coastal estuarian stratigraphy and from deep sea cores in the Cascadia Basin of multiple great earthquakes over the last 10,000 years and compute recurrence intervals. They then conduct a

  5. The Coat Protein and NIa Protease of Two Potyviridae Family Members Independently Confer Superinfection Exclusion (United States)

    French, Roy


    ABSTRACT Superinfection exclusion (SIE) is an antagonistic virus-virus interaction whereby initial infection by one virus prevents subsequent infection by closely related viruses. Although SIE has been described in diverse viruses infecting plants, humans, and animals, its mechanisms, including involvement of specific viral determinants, are just beginning to be elucidated. In this study, SIE determinants encoded by two economically important wheat viruses, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV; genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae), were identified in gain-of-function experiments that used heterologous viruses to express individual virus-encoded proteins in wheat. Wheat plants infected with TriMV expressing WSMV P1, HC-Pro, P3, 6K1, CI, 6K2, NIa-VPg, or NIb cistrons permitted efficient superinfection by WSMV expressing green fluorescent protein (WSMV-GFP). In contrast, wheat infected with TriMV expressing WSMV NIa-Pro or coat protein (CP) substantially excluded superinfection by WSMV-GFP, suggesting that both of these cistrons are SIE effectors encoded by WSMV. Importantly, SIE is due to functional WSMV NIa-Pro or CP rather than their encoding RNAs, as altering the coded protein products by minimally changing RNA sequences led to abolishment of SIE. Deletion mutagenesis further revealed that elicitation of SIE by NIa-Pro requires the entire protein while CP requires only a 200-amino-acid (aa) middle fragment (aa 101 to 300) of the 349 aa. Strikingly, reciprocal experiments with WSMV-mediated expression of TriMV proteins showed that TriMV CP, and TriMV NIa-Pro to a lesser extent, likewise excluded superinfection by TriMV-GFP. Collectively, these data demonstrate that WSMV- and TriMV-encoded CP and NIa-Pro proteins are effectors of SIE and that these two proteins trigger SIE independently of each other. IMPORTANCE Superinfection exclusion (SIE) is an antagonistic virus-virus interaction that

  6. Receptores do factor estimulante de colónias de macrófagos do robalo


    Oliveira, Márcio Adriano Guiomar de


    O receptor do factor estimulante de colónias de macrófagos, também conhecido como receptor do factor estimulante de colónias-1 (CSF1R), é um receptor de um factor de crescimento hematopoiético que é especificamente expresso em células do sistema fagocítico-mononuclear e desempenha um papel essencial no desenvolvimento e regulação destas células. O CSF1R já foi descrito em vários mamíferos e a sua biologia tem sido exaustivamente caracterizada nestes vertebrados mas o conheci...

  7. Academia Sinica, TW E-science to Assistant Seismic Observations for Earthquake Research, Monitor and Hazard Reduction Surrounding the South China Sea (United States)

    Huang, Bor-Shouh; Liu, Chun-Chi; Yen, Eric; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Lin, Simon C.; Huang, Win-Gee; Lee, Shiann-Jong; Chen, Hsin-Yen

    Experience from the 1994 giant Sumatra earthquake, seismic and tsunami hazard have been considered as important issues in the South China Sea and its surrounding region, and attracted many seismologist's interesting. Currently, more than 25 broadband seismic instruments are currently operated by Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica in northern Vietnam to study the geodynamic evolution of the Red river fracture zone and rearranged to distribute to southern Vietnam recently to study the geodynamic evolution and its deep structures of the South China Sea. Similar stations are planned to deploy in Philippines in near future. In planning, some high quality stations may be as permanent stations and added continuous GPS observations, and instruments to be maintained and operated by several cooperation institutes, for instance, Institute of Geophysics, Vietnamese Acadamy of Sciences and Technology in Vietnam and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Philippines. Finally, those stations will be planed to upgrade as real time transmission stations for earthquake monitoring and tsunami warning. However, high speed data transfer within different agencies is always a critical issue for successful network operation. By taking advantage of both EGEE and EUAsiaGrid e-Infrastructure, Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre coordinates researchers from various Asian countries to construct a platform to high performance data transfer for huge parallel computation. Efforts from this data service and a newly build earthquake data centre for data management may greatly improve seismic network performance. Implementation of Grid infrastructure and e-science issues in this region may assistant development of earthquake research, monitor and natural hazard reduction. In the near future, we will search for new cooperation continually from the surrounding countries of the South China Sea to install new seismic stations to construct a complete seismic network of the

  8. Insônia primária: diagnóstico diferencial e tratamento Primary insomnia: differential diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime M Monti


    Full Text Available A insônia primária é uma dissonia caracterizada pela dificuldade em iniciar e/ou manter o sono e pela sensação de não ter um sono reparador durante um período não inferior a 1 mês. Do ponto de vista polissonográfico, é acompanhada de alterações na indução, na continuidade e na estrutura do sono. Geralmente aparece no adulto jovem, é mais freqüente na mulher e tem um desenvolvimento crônico. A insônia primária é observada de 12,5% a 22,2% dos pacientes portadores de insônia crônica, sendo precedida em freqüência somente na insônia de depressão maior. A insônia primária crônica deve se diferenciar da insônia vinculada a uma higiene inadequada do sono, uma síndrome depressiva ou um transtorno de ansiedade generalizado. O tratamento da insônia primária inclui: higiene adequada do sono, terapia cognitiva e de conduta e uso de fármacos hipnóticos. Entre esses últimos, se destacam o zolpidem e a zopiclona, que melhoram significativamente o sono sem alterar sua estrutura ou induzir a uma reincidência da insônia logo após uma interrupção brusca. Além disso, o desenvolvimento de fármaco-dependência e de vício é muito pouco freqüente.Primary insomnia is a dyssomnia characterized by a complaint of difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep and the absence of restorative sleep that lasts for at least 1 month. The polysomnographic test shows alterations in the induction, continuity and structure of sleep. Primary insomnia typically begins in young adulthood, has a chronic course, and it is more prevalent among women. Its prevalence among patients with chronic insomnia ranges from 12.5% to 22.2%. Primary insomnia must be distinguished from insomnia related to inadequate sleep hygiene or another mental disorder, such as generalized anxiety disorder or a mood disorder. The treatment of primary insomnia consists of nonpharmacological strategies (sleep hygiene, behavior-cognitive therapy and sleep


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan N. Tikhonov


    Full Text Available The publication presents a review of the structure and seismotectonic features of the Pacific margin of the NorthEastern Honshu Island on the basis of data from seismic reflection and CDP, drilling and detailed seismic studies in view of the megaearthquake (Mw=9.0 which occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011. The megaearthquake is discussed in terms of its position in the succession of the strongest events (M≥7.6 in the area under study within the historical period and in the recent timeline. It is suggested that the period of recurrence is about 40 years for great events and about 1000+ years for megaearthquakes. A number of facts suggesting a probability of a planetaryscale earthquake in the Honshu Island region are revealed. Specifically, a seismic gap with a total length of about 800 km is determined in the study area. It is located southward of 39° north latitude has already manifested aftershocks of the megaearthquake of March 11, 2011. It is probable that the megaearthquake was related to the deep thrust along the Benioff zone and the Oyashio nappe being its structural cap rock in the middle Pacific slope. The sequence of its aftershocks is compared with those of the SumatraAndaman (Mw=9.3, 2004 and Simushir (Mw=8.3, 2006 earthquakes. It is established that development of the aftershock sequences of the first and second events was very similar in time, and development of the areas of aftershock epicentres of the first and third earthquakes is similar in space. The above similarities give grounds to suggest that an aftershock (M~8.0 is possible with a relative shifting from the main shock towards the deep trench.

  10. Learning from Local Wisdom: Friction Damper in Traditional Building

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    Pudjisuryadi P.


    Full Text Available Indonesia is situated in the so called “Ring of Fire” where earthquake are very frequent. Despite of all the engineering effort, due to the March 28, 2005 strong earthquake (8.7 on Richter scale a lot of modern buildings in Nias collapsed, while the traditional Northern Nias house (omohada survived without any damage. Undoubtedly many other traditional buildings in other area in Indonesia have survived similar earthquake. Something in common of the traditional building are the columns which usually are not fixed on the ground, but rest on top of flat stones. In this paper some traditional building are subjected to non linear time history analysis to artificial earthquake equivalent to 500 years return period earthquake. This study shows that apparently the columns which rest on top of flat stone acts as friction damper or base isolation. The presence of sliding at the friction type support significantly reduces the internal forces in the structure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajat Jatnika


    of Sumatra. The high seismicity in the northern Sumatra region is not only caused by the subduction alone but there are fault active and volcanoes. Then the precise determination of the earthquake source in accordance with the actual conditions needs to be done. One factor that affects the determination of earthquakes is velocity model. By using Simulps12 program that simultaneously calculates velocity models3-D and earthquake relocation, it was expected to determine the source of the earthquake in accordance with the actual conditions. The data used is the P wave arrival time and the parameters of the earthquake in catalog of BMKG 2009-2012 and catalog of PASSCAL February-May 1995. Ray tracing in this studies was using pseudo-bending method, while the damped LSQR method was using inverse techniques. The results showed that the earthquake relocation results change positions either horizontally or vertically. Some earthquake showed large changes in horizontal distance of about 40-70 km vertically while almost half of data changes to 60 km depth. After the relocation, the distribution of shallow earthquakes inland coincides with the Sumatra fault zone. It also shows that Sumatra fault zone is highly active where the depth of the earthquake occurred not exceeding 50 km.

  12. An ongoing earthquake sequence near Dhaka, Bangladesh, from regional recordings (United States)

    Howe, M.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.


    Earthquakes in and around the syntaxial region between the continent-continent collision of the Himalayan arc and oceanic subduction of the Sunda arc result primarily from the convergence of India and Eurasia-Sunda plates along two fronts. The northern front, the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates, has produced the Himalayas. The eastern front, the convergence of the Indian and Sunda plates, ranges from ocean-continent subduction at the Andaman Arc and Burma Arc, and transitions to continent-continent collision to the north at the Assam Syntaxis in northeast India. The India-Sunda convergence at the Burma Arc is extremely oblique. The boundary-normal convergence rate is ~17 mm/yr while the boundary-parallel rate is ~45 mm/yr including the well-known Sagaing strike-slip fault, which accommodates about half the shear component. This heterogeneous tectonic setting produces multiple earthquake sources that need to be considered when assessing seismic hazard and risk in this region. The largest earthquakes, just as in other subduction systems, are expected to be interplate events that occur on the low-angle megathrusts, such as the Mw 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 1762 earthquake along the Arakan margin. These earthquakes are known to produce large damage over vast areas, but since they account for large fault motions they are relatively rare. The majority of current seismicity in the study area is intraplate. Most of the seismicity associated with the Burma Arc subduction system is in the down-going slab, including the shallow-dipping part below the megathrust flooring the accretionary wedge. The strike of the wedge is ~N-S and Dhaka lies at its outer limit. One particular source relevant to seismic risk in Dhaka is illuminated by a multi-year sequence of earthquakes in Bangladesh less than 100 km southeast of Dhaka. The population in Dhaka (now at least 15 million) has been increasing dramatically due to rapid urbanization. The vulnerability

  13. Variations in sea surface roughness induced by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami

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    O. A. Godin


    Full Text Available Observations of tsunamis away from shore are critically important for improving early warning systems and understanding of tsunami generation and propagation. Tsunamis are difficult to detect and measure in the open ocean because the wave amplitude there is much smaller than it is close to shore. Currently, tsunami observations in deep water rely on measurements of variations in the sea surface height or bottom pressure. Here we demonstrate that there exists a different observable, specifically, ocean surface roughness, which can be used to reveal tsunamis away from shore. The first detailed measurements of the tsunami effect on sea surface height and radar backscattering strength in the open ocean were obtained from satellite altimeters during passage of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami. Through statistical analyses of satellite altimeter observations, we show that the Sumatra-Andaman tsunami effected distinct, detectable changes in sea surface roughness. The magnitude and spatial structure of the observed variations in radar backscattering strength are consistent with hydrodynamic models predicting variations in the near-surface wind across the tsunami wave front. Tsunami-induced changes in sea surface roughness can be potentially used for early tsunami detection by orbiting microwave radars and radiometers, which have broad surface coverage across the satellite ground track.

  14. The Influence of ENSO to the Rainfall Variability in North Sumatra Province (United States)

    Irwandi, H.; Pusparini, N.; Ariantono, J. Y.; Kurniawan, R.; Tari, C. A.; Sudrajat, A.


    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global phenomenon that affects the variability of rainfall in North Sumatra. The influence of ENSO will be different for each region. This review will analyse the influence of ENSO activity on seasonal and annual rainfall variability. In this research, North Sumatra Province will be divided into 4 (four) regions based on topographical conditions, such as: East Coast (EC), East Slope (ES), Mountains (MT), and West Coast (WC). The method used was statistical and descriptive analysis. Data used in this research were rainfall data from 15 stations / climate observation posts which spread in North Sumatera region and also anomaly data of Nino 3.4 region from period 1981-2016. The results showed that the active El Niño had an effect on the decreasing the rainfall during the period of DJF, JJA and SON in East Coast, East Slope, and Mountains with the decreasing of average percentage of annual rainfall up to 7%. On the contrary, the active La Nina had an effect on the addition of rainfall during the period DJF and JJA in the East Coast and Mountains with the increasing of average percentage of annual rainfall up to 6%.


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    Rachmalina Soerachman


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSeveral behaviour health risks such as lack of physical activity, smoking and violence have contributed tothe health status among adolescents. Those behaviour health risks can be associated with familyrelationship, school environment and other related social cultural and economy determinants.Consequently, those behaviour risk factors may lead to certain non-communicable disease. To describe thebehaviour risk factors among adolescents and their determinant factors. This study employed a two-stagecluster sample design to produce a representative sample of students in 7th-9th grade, aged 13 — 15 years.In this study 3,116 questionnaires were completed in 49 schools in Java and Sumatra islands. Data wasanalyzed descriptively to provide proportion of certain behavior risk factors. Data analysis was done usingEpi-info. Study showed 10.9%-21.6% of boys students in Java and Sumatra smoked a day or over in theperiod of one month. Among the smoking students about 71.1% of adolescents started smoking at aged 13years or younger. Approximately 37%- 41% adolescents experienced having physical fighting at least onceor more during the last one year. The prevalence of physical fighting was higher among boys than girls.The behavior health risks are alarming and need further specific intervention based on issues priority toimprove the health behavior among adolescents in order to prevent certain non-communicable disease inthe older age.Keywords: Health behaviour, Factors, Students ABSTRAKKurangnya aktifitas fisik, merokok dan kekerasan adalah beberapa perilaku yang diidentifikasi sangatberpengaruh pada kesehatan pelajar khususnya anak remaja. Perilaku-perilaku berisiko tersebut disebabkanoleh beberapa faktor diantaranya adalah lingkungan keluarga, sekolah dan lainnya yang akibatnya dapatmenjurus ke masalah penyakit tidak menular. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan perilaku-perilakuberisiko pada pelajar dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya

  16. Age-specific incidence rates for dementia and Alzheimer disease in NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA families: National Institute on Aging Genetics Initiative for Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease (NIA-LOAD/NCRAD) and Estudio Familiar de Influencia Genetica en Alzheimer (EFIGA). (United States)

    Vardarajan, Badri N; Faber, Kelley M; Bird, Thomas D; Bennett, David A; Rosenberg, Roger; Boeve, Bradley F; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Goate, Alison M; Farlow, Martin; Sweet, Robert A; Lantigua, Rafael; Medrano, Martin Z; Ottman, Ruth; Schaid, Daniel J; Foroud, Tatiana M; Mayeux, Richard


    Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), defined as onset of symptoms after age 65 years, is the most common form of dementia. Few reports investigate incidence rates in large family-based studies in which the participants were selected for family history of LOAD. To determine the incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in unaffected members in the National Institute on Aging Genetics Initiative for Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease (NIA-LOAD/NCRAD) and Estudio Familiar de Influencia Genetica en Alzheimer (EFIGA) family studies. Families with 2 or more affected siblings who had a clinical or pathological diagnosis of LOAD were recruited as a part of the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD Family Study. A cohort of Caribbean Hispanics with familial LOAD was recruited in a different study at the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain in New York and from clinics in the Dominican Republic as part of the EFIGA study. Age-specific incidence rates of LOAD were estimated in the unaffected family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA data sets. We restricted analyses to families with follow-up and complete phenotype information, including 396 NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and 242 EFIGA families. Among the 943 at-risk family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families, 126 (13.4%) developed dementia, of whom 109 (86.5%) met criteria for LOAD. Among 683 at-risk family members in the EFIGA families, 174 (25.5%) developed dementia during the study period, of whom 145 (83.3%) had LOAD. The annual incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families per person-year were 0.03 and 0.03, respectively, in participants aged 65 to 74 years; 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, in those aged 75 to 84 years; and 0.08 and 0.07, respectively, in those 85 years or older. Incidence rates in the EFIGA families were slightly higher, at 0.03 and 0.02, 0.06 and 0.05, 0.10 and 0.08, and 0.10 and 0.07, respectively, in the same age groups. Contrasting these

  17. Earthquakes (United States)

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberval Rodrigues da Costa


    Full Text Available

    This investigation was carried on in six counties of milk region around Goiânia city, state of Goiás. Seven hundred and one (701 cows in lactation were examined, from which 87 (12.41% showed c1inica1 and subclinical mastitis. The tests CMT/ Whiteside were dome on 2,717 samples of milk and from those 393 (41.46% were positive. The rnicroorganisms isolated from 701 lactocultures were: Staphilococcus aureus 172 (67.70%; Streptococcus spp. 38 (l4.96%; Corynebacterium spp. 42 (16.53%; Staphylococcu.s epidermides 38 (14.96%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21 (8.26%; Eschericheir coli 18 (7.08%; Serratia marceceus 12 (4.72%; Klebsiella spp 5 (1.96%; Proteus vulgaris 4 (1.57%; Candida spp 5 (1.96%; Candida spp 5 (1.96% and in 23 (9.05% there was no growing.

    Esta pesquisa foi realizada em seis municípios da bacia leiteira de Goiânia tendo sido examinadas 701 vacas lactantes, das quais 87 (12,41% apresentaram mastite clínica e subclínica. Os testes CMT/Whiteside foram realizados em 2.717 amostras de leite, sendo que 393 (14,46% resultaram positivas. Os microrganismos isolados das 701 lactoculturas foram: Staphilococcus aureus 172 (67,70%; Streptococcus spp. 38 (l4,96%; Corynebacterium spp. 42 (16 ,53%; Staphylococcu.s epidermides 38 (14 ,96%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21 (8,26%; Eschericheir coli 18 (7,08%; Serratia marceceus 12 (4,72%; Klebsiella spp 5 (1,96%; Proteus vulgaris 4 (1,57%; Candida spp 5 (1,96%; Candida spp 5 (1,96% e em 23 (9,05% não houve crescimento.

  19. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo


    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand

  20. O desmatamento na Amazônia e a importância das áreas protegidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Valle Ferreira


    Full Text Available O MODELO da ocupação demográfica da Amazônia legalnos últimos cinqueta anos tem levado a níveis significativos de desmatamento, resultante de múltiplos fatores, tais como a abertura de estradas pioneiras, o crescimento das cidades, a ampliação de pecuária extensiva, a acelerada exploração madeireira e a crescente agricultura intensiva de monoculturas. A área cumulativa desmatada na Amazônia legal brasileira chegou a cerca de 653.000 km² em 2003, correspondendo a 16,3% da região. Este estudo visou a determinar o desmatamento dentro e fora dos atuais Unidades de Conservação (UC e Terras Indígenas (TI na Amazônia legal, nos estados de Mato Grosso, Rondônia e Pará, que, juntos, corresponderam por mais de 90% do desmatamento observado entre 2001 e 2003. Os resultados mostraram que o desmatamento foi cerca de dez a vinte vezes menor dentro das Unidades de Conservação e Terras Indígenas do que em áreas contíguas fora delas. Isto demonstra a importância dessas áreas protegidas para diminuir o processo do desmatamento nos três estados. Isto refuta a hipótese generalizada de que estas áreas não cumprissem a sua função principal na conservação e uso racional dos recursos na Amazônia legal.DEMOGRAPHIC occupation of the Brazilian Legal Amazon within the past 50 years has lead to significant levels of deforestation as the result of several factors such as new road construction, urban growth, expansion of extensive cattle ranching, increasing timber extraction, and rising intensive agriculture of monocultures. The cumulative deforested area in Brazil's Legal Amazonia was approximately 653,000 km² in 2003, correspondingto 16,3% of the region. This study sought to assess deforestation within or near to protected areas (conservation units and indigenous reserves in Legal Amazonia in the states of Mato Grosso, Rondônia, and Pará that jointly were responsible for more than 90% of regional deforestation from 2001 to 2003

  1. Status of coastal forests of the Northern Sumatra in 2005 (after 2004’s tsunami catastrophe

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    Full Text Available Abstract. Onrizal, Mansor M. 2015. Status of coastal forests of the Northern Sumatra in 2005 (after 2004’s tsunami catastrophe. Biodiversitas 17: 44-54. The first intensive ecological study of coastal vegetation including mangrove, littoral and peat swamp forests after the 2004 tsunami catastrophe in Northern Sumatra was conducted from January to December 2005 where 16 sampling sites along 2960km coastline in Northern Sumatra were selected. In each site, one quadrat of 100 m x 100 m was established and divided into 10 m x 10 m subplots where all standing trees of ≥ 2 cm diameter at breast height (DBH were identified to species level and measured. Overall 54,871 standing trees were recorded in 16 sites comprising 84 species in 65 genera and 37 families. Mangrove trees Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata were widely distributed and are dominant in most of the sampling sites. This indicated that these species have stronger resilient compared to other species. The highest value of Shannon-Wiener index of species and Evenness index of species was 3.03 and 0.85, respectively. It means that some sites were rich in biodiversity which harbors various species of plants. Subsequently, undisturbed coastal forests including mangroves, littoral forests and peat swamp forests characterized by dense stands, mixed species and structures play an important role in coastal protection against tsunami. Therefore, the coastal vegetation is needed to conserve the biodiversity and to maintain the production capacity as part of sustainable and longlasting vegetation bioshield.

  2. Jornada sobre Riscos Penals de la Banca en Línia

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    Rosa Fernández


    Full Text Available

    Ressenya de la jornada organitzada el desembre del 2005 sobre els nous riscos a què la banca en línia i el comerç electrònic estan sotmesos a causa de l'augment d'atacs de tipus pesca electrònica o phishing i altres defraudacions semblants.

  3. Perubahan Dan Keberlanjutan Tari Balanse Madam Di Lingkungan Masyarakat Nias Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novina Yeni Fatrina


    Full Text Available Tulisan berjudul “Perubahan dan Keberlanjutan Tari Balanse Madam di Lingkungan Masyarakat Nias Padang“ bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan perubahan  tari Balanse Madam serta menganalisis keberlanjutannya. Tari Balanse Madam merupakan tarian kelompok yang terdiri dari pasangan penari laki-laki dan perempuan yang sudah menikah. Penampilannya diiringi secara live dengan alat musik barat seperti biola, gitar, tamburin, akordeon, dan set drum. Namun setelah banyak para pelaku seninya yang meninggal dunia, sehingga tari Balanse Madam mengalami perubahan. Perubahan terjadi pada penarinya, tidak harus orang yang sudah berumahtangga lagi, sedangkan musik iringannya no use life music. Analisa perubahan tari Balanse Madam diamati dari  tahun 1995 sampai tahun 2017.   Metode penelitian deskripsi kualitatif dengan pendekatan interaksi dan interpretasi analisis digunakan untuk mengungkapkan permasalahan tersebut. Pelacakan dilakukan dengan melihat dan menganalisa perubahan tari Balanse Madam pada perkembangan elemen pembentuk komposisi tarinya dari tahun 1995 sampai tahun 2017. Penelitian perubahan dan keberlanjutan tari Balanse Madam di lingkungan masyarakat Nias Padang dianalisis dengan menggunakan teori ketahanan budaya yang dikemukakan oleh Edi Sedyawati dan teori elemen pembentuk komposisi yang digunakan oleh R.M. Soedarsono. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa seiring dengan berjalannya waktu, berbagai hal mempengaruhi kondisi tari Balanse Madam, sehingga terjadi perubahan pada beberapa elemen pembentuk tari Balanse Madam. Adapun perubahan tersebut adalah (1 penari terdiri orang-orang yang masih remaja; (2 musik iringan mengalami perubahan irama dan terkadang diiringi musik rekaman. Pemakaian penari remaja dan musik rekaman merupakan salah satu bentuk keberlanjutan tari Balanse Madam. Inilah yang membuat tari Balanse Madam masih tetap bertahan dalam kehidupan masyarakat Nias Padang. The article entitled "The Change and Sustainability of Balanse Madam

  4. Geotecnologias aplicadas ao estudo de precipita??o e desmatamento na por??o Sul da Amaz?nia


    Seixas, Ian Marins


    Na Amaz?nia, os impactos das diversas atividades (extra??o de madeira, minera??o e agropecu?ria) sobre a floresta geram a destrui??o da biodiversidade, a degrada??o dos solos e poss?veis altera??es clim?ticas. A floresta possui uma intensa intera??o com a atmosfera ao fornecer uma grande quantidade de calor e vapor d ?gua contribuindo para a umidade local. Considerando o atual cen?rio de desmatamento no sul da Amaz?nia (Arco do Desmatamento), tem-se como hip?tese que a transforma??o do uso da...

  5. Paleogene Sediment Character of Mountain Front Central Sumatra Basin

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    P. A. Suandhi


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.164The SE-NW trending Mountain Front of Central Sumatra Basin is located in the southern part of the basin. The Mountain Front is elongated parallel to the Bukit Barisan Mountain, extending from the Regencies of North Padang Lawas (Gunung Tua in the northwest, Rokan Hulu, Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, and Inderagiri Hulu Regency in the southeast. The Palaeogene sediments also represent potential exploration objectives in Central Sumatra Basin, especially in the mountain front area. Limited detailed Palaeogene sedimentology information cause difficulties in hydrocarbon exploration in this area. Latest age information and attractive sediment characters based on recent geological fieldwork (by chaining method infer Palaeogene sediment potential of the area. The Palaeogene sedimentary rock of the mountain front is elongated from northwest to southeast. Thickness of the sedimentary unit varies between 240 - 900 m. Palynology samples collected recently indicate that the oldest sedimentary unit is Middle Eocene and the youngest one is Late Oligocene. This latest age information will certainly cause significant changes to the existing surface geological map of the mountain front area. Generally, the Palaeogene sediments of the mountain front area are syn-rift sediments. The lower part of the Palaeogene deposit consists of fluvial facies of alluvial fan and braided river facies sediments. The middle part consists of fluvial meandering facies, lacustrine delta facies, and turbidity lacustrine facies sediments. The upper part consists of fluvial braided facies and transitional marine facies sediments. Volcanism in the area is detected from the occurrence of volcanic material as lithic material and spotted bentonite layers in the middle part of the mountain front area. Late rifting phase is indicated by the presence of transitional marine facies in the upper part of the Palaeogene sediments.

  6. Characterization of active-site residues of the NIa protease from tobacco vein mottling virus. (United States)

    Hwang, D C; Kim, D H; Lee, J S; Kang, B H; Han, J; Kim, W; Song, B D; Choi, K Y


    Nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protease of tobacco vein mottling virus is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. In order to identify the active-site residues of the TVMV NIa protease, the putative active-site residues, His-46, Asp-81 and Cys-151, were mutated individually to generate H46R, H46A, D81E, D81N, C151S, and C151A, and their mutational effects on the proteolytic activities were examined. Proteolytic activity was completely abolished by the mutations of H46R, H46A, D81N, and C151A, suggesting that the three residues are crucial for catalysis. The mutation of D81E decreased kcat marginally by about 4.7-fold and increased Km by about 8-fold, suggesting that the aspartic acid at position 81 is important for substrate binding but can be substituted by glutamate without any significant decrease in catalysis. The replacement of Cys-151 by Ser to mimic the catalytic triad of chymotrypsin-like serine protease resulted in the drastic decrease in kcat by about 1,260-fold. This result might be due to the difference of the active-site geometry between the NIa protease and chymotrypsin. The protease exhibited a bell-shaped pH-dependent profile with a maximum activity approximately at pH 8.3 and with the abrupt changes at the respective pKa values of approximately 6.6 and 9.2, implying the involvement of a histidine residue in catalysis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the three residues, His-46, Asp-81, and Cys-151, play a crucial role in catalysis of the TVMV NIa protease.

  7. Earthquake prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.L.


    The state of the art of earthquake prediction is summarized, the possible responses to such prediction are examined, and some needs in the present prediction program and in research related to use of this new technology are reviewed. Three basic aspects of earthquake prediction are discussed: location of the areas where large earthquakes are most likely to occur, observation within these areas of measurable changes (earthquake precursors) and determination of the area and time over which the earthquake will occur, and development of models of the earthquake source in order to interpret the precursors reliably. 6 figures

  8. O "abrasileiramento" das associações esportivas de Teutônia/Estrela no Rio Grande do Sul The "abrasileiramento" of the sports associations from Teutônia/Estrela in Rio Grande do Sul

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    Cecília Elisa Kilpp


    Full Text Available As associações esportivas teuto-brasileiras de Teutônia/Estrela no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul sofreram o processo de abrasileiramento no período da Primeira Guerra Mundial (1914-1918 e da Segunda Grande Guerra (1939-1945. Este artigo objetivou identificar os conflitos de identidades culturais nas associações esportivas de Teutônia/Estrela desencadeados pelas ações nacionalizadoras conduzidas pelos interventores do Estado Rio Grande do Sul no período das grandes guerras mundiais. As fontes históricas consultadas revelaram que a prática de esportes tradicionais nas associações teuto-brasileiras enfraqueceu, como no caso do bolão, ao mesmo tempo que outros esportes foram incorporados, principalmente o futebol. A adesão a esta nova prática esportiva significa um movimento na direção do processo de integração às ações nacionalizadoras.The German-Brazilian sport associations of Teutônia/Estrela in the State of Rio Grande do Sul suffered the process of abrasileiramento in the period of the World War I (1914-1918 and of the World War II (1939-1945. This article aimed to identify the conflicts of cultural identities in the sport associations of Teutônia/Estrela developed by the nationalization actions leaded by the intervenors of the Rio Grande do Sul State in the period of the great world wars. Historical sources revealed that the practice of traditional sports in the German-Brazilian sport associations weakened, asthe bolão, while other sports were incorporated, mainly the soccer. The adhesion to this new sport means a movement in the direction of the process of integration in the nationalization actions.

  9. Waves of Hope: The U.S. Navy's Response to the Tsunami in Northern Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elleman, Bruce A


    The powerful underwater earthquake that occurred off the coast of Sumatra on 26 December 2004 generated the most destructive tsunami ever recorded, drowning more than 150,000 people without warning...

  10. Texto, textualidades e jornalismo: a legitimação de práticas culturais nos editoriais do Diário Folha de Rondônia

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    Colferai, Sandro Adalberto


    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a tomada de sentidos preferenciais em textos jornalísticos produzidos e em circulação na região amazônica. O recorte é feito a partir de textos de editoriais publicados pelo jornal diário Folha de Rondônia, editado no interior de Rondônia. A análise dos textos é feita a partir da perspectiva dos Estudos Culturais, como apresentada por Stuart Hall, Richard Johnson e Nick Couldry. São tomados os conceitos de Cultura, Identidade Cultural e Texto, além de se recuperar parte da história social da Amazônia e, em especial, de Rondônia, esta imersa no choque entre diferentes práticas simbólicas de populações tradicionais da Amazônia e colonizadores que passaram a ocupá-la a partir da década de 1970

  11. Toerbeurtrijstbouw : individuele en collectieve rechten in de landbouw van Kerinci in Sumatra, Indonesië

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de J.W.


    In Kerinci, on theislandofSumatrainIndonesia, different categories of collective property co-exist with different types of individual

  12. Evaluation of mangrove management through community-based silvofishery in North Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Yani, P.; Hartini, K. S.


    Aquaculture expansion has been reported as the primary driver of mangrove loss and a significant cause of mangrove deforestation in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Development of silvofishery based on creating balance condition between conserving mangrove forest and offering better livelihood for local communities surrounding mangrove. The present study evaluates of mangrove management through community-based silvofishery in three villages, namely Paluh Manan, Paluh Kurau, and Lama, Hamparan Perak of Deli Serdang Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Three communities used the same ecological type-silvofishery, characterized by planted mangrove surrounded aquaculture. Results showed that in the Paluh Manan village, planted mangrove and aquaculture in the ratio of 75:25 with planting distance of mangrove 50x50 cm, containing 2,500 trees/ha, resulted in US 36.2/month/ha of fish and shrimp farming. In the Paluh Kurau village, a mixture mangrove and aquaculture in an 84:16 ratio, planting distance of 1x1 m, consists of 1,600 trees/ha, US 23.8 of generating revenue from crab farming. Furthermore, in the third village, Lama village, consists of mangrove and aquaculture in the proportions 90:10, with planting spacing 2x2 m, composing 1,000 trees/ha, led to US 45.8/month/ha from fish, shrimp and crab farming. The present study suggested the mangrove management through community-based mangrove-friendly aquaculture.

  13. The effects of local culture on hospital administration in West Sumatra, Indonesia. (United States)

    Semiarty, Rima; Fanany, Rebecca


    Purpose Problems in health-care leadership are serious in West Sumatra, Indonesia, especially in hospitals, which are controlled locally. The purpose of this paper is to present the experience of three hospitals in balancing the conflicting demands of the national health-care system and the traditional model of leadership in the local community. Design/methodology/approach Three case studies of the hospital leadership dynamic in West Sumatra were developed from in-depth interviews with directors, senior administrators and a representative selection of employees in various professional categories. Findings An analysis of findings shows that traditional views about leadership remain strong in the community and color the expectations of hospital staff. Hospital directors, however, are bound by the modern management practices of the national system. This conflict has intensified since regional autonomy which emphasizes the local culture much more than in the past. Research limitations/implications The research was carried out in one Indonesian province and was limited to three hospitals of different types. Practical implications The findings elucidate a potential underlying cause of problems in hospital management in Indonesia and may inform culturally appropriate ways of addressing them. Originality/value The social and cultural contexts of management have not been rigorously studied in Indonesia. The relationship between local and national culture reported here likely has a similar effect in other parts of the country.

  14. Earthquake and Tsunami: a movie and a book for seismic and tsunami risk reduction in Italy. (United States)

    Nostro, C.; Baroux, E.; Maramai, A.; Graziani, L.; Tertulliani, A.; Castellano, C.; Arcoraci, L.; Casale, P.; Ciaccio, M. G.; Frepoli, A.


    Italy is a country well known for the seismic and volcanic hazard. However, a similarly great hazard, although not well recognized, is posed by the occurrence of tsunami waves along the Italian coastline. This is testified by a rich catalogue and by field evidence of deposits left over by pre- and historical tsunamis, even in places today considered safe. This observation is of great importance since many of the areas affected by tsunamis in the past are today touristic places. The Italian tsunamis can be caused by different sources: 1- off-shore or near coast in-land earthquakes; 2- very large earthquakes on distant sources in the Mediterranean; 3- submarine volcanic explosion in the Tyrrhenian sea; 4- submarine landslides triggered by earthquakes and volcanic activity. The consequence of such a wide spectrum of sources is that an important part of the more than 7000 km long Italian coast line is exposed to the tsunami risk, and thousands of inhabitants (with numbers increasing during summer) live near hazardous coasts. The main historical tsunamis are the 1783 and 1908 events that hit Calabrian and Sicilian coasts. The recent tsunami is that caused by the 2002 Stromboli landslide. In order to reduce this risk and following the emotional impact of the December 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami, we developed an outreach program consisting in talks given by scientists and in a movie and a book, both exploring the causes of the tsunami waves, how do they propagate in deep and shallow waters, and what are the effects on the coasts. Hints are also given on the most dangerous Italian coasts (as deduced by scientific studies), and how to behave in the case of a tsunami approaching the coast. These seminars are open to the general public, but special programs are developed with schools of all grades. In this talk we want to present the book and the movie used during the seminars and scientific expositions, that was realized from a previous 3D version originally

  15. Stress Transfer Processes during Great Plate Boundary Thrusting Events: A Study from the Andaman and Nicobar Segments (United States)

    Andrade, V.; Rajendran, K.


    The response of subduction zones to large earthquakes varies along their strike, both during the interseismic and post-seismic periods. The December 26, 2004 earthquake nucleated at 3° N latitude and its rupture propagated northward, along the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone, terminating at 15°N. Rupture speed was estimated at about 2.0 km per second in the northern part under the Andaman region and 2.5 - 2.7 km per second under southern Nicobar and North Sumatra. We have examined the pre and post-2004 seismicity to understand the stress transfer processes within the subducting plate, in the Andaman (10° - 15° N ) and Nicobar (5° - 10° N) segments. The seismicity pattern in these segments shows distinctive characteristics associated with the outer rise, accretionary prism and the spreading ridge, all of which are relatively better developed in the Andaman segment. The Ninety East ridge and the Sumatra Fault System are significant tectonic features in the Nicobar segment. The pre-2004 seismicity in both these segments conform to the steady-state conditions wherein large earthquakes are fewer and compressive stresses dominate along the plate interface. Among the pre-2004 great earthquakes are the 1881 Nicobar and 1941 Andaman events. The former is considered to be a shallow thrust event that generated a small tsunami. Studies in other subduction zones suggest that large outer-rise tensional events follow great plate boundary breaking earthquakes due to the the up-dip transfer of stresses within the subducting plate. The seismicity of the Andaman segment (1977-2004) concurs with the steady-state stress conditions where earthquakes occur dominantly by thrust faulting. The post-2004 seismicity shows up-dip migration along the plate interface, with dominance of shallow normal faulting, including a few outer rise events and some deeper (> 100 km) strike-slip faulting events within the subducting plate. The September 13, 2002, Mw 6.5 thrust faulting earthquake at


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ferreira da Costa STREGLIO


    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, o crescente movimento de proteção ambiental vem interferindo na configuração das cidades, conjuntura em que se destaca a criação de parques urbanos. As funções ecológicas e sociais atribuídas a essas áreas verdes as tornam objetos de estudo de grande relevância para compreender a dinâmica urbana atual, contexto em que se insere o município de Goiânia. Considerando esses atributos, bem como o caráter distintivo que os parques estabelecem na paisagem urbana, o que permite relacioná-los também ao turismo, este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o desempenho dos parques urbanos na dinâmica de Goiânia, para, com base nessa análise, verificar o seu potencial turístico.

  17. Swamp land optimization in supporting food security and enhancing farmers welfare in South Sumatra Indonesia (United States)

    Herwenita; Hutapea, Y.


    Swamp land in Indonesia spread in Sumatra, Kalimantan and West Papua. In Sumatra the largest swamp land area is located in South Sumatera Province. Unfortunately only few of the areas have been utilized due to its fragility, in which farmers could only cultivate rice on it once a year. The purpose of this paper is to develop a feasible farming pattern in swamp land to help farmers and practitioners in optimizing it by managing its water level. Shallow and mid swamp land can be cultivated using rotation model of crops (rice, corn, cassava), horticulture (cucumber, long beans, watermelon etc), fish farming (catfish, snake head fish, tilapia), and duck farming, whereas submergence tolerant rice varieties can be cultivated alternating with fish farming in deep swamp land. This study shows that such swamp land management is financially feasible showing by its positive NPV value, BCR value is above 1.00, and IRR value is greater than the interest rate. Therefore, implementation of this farming pattern is expected to increase farmers’ income and household food supply as well as village food supply.

  18. Parameters Affecting Household Income Diversity of Farmer’s Tribes in South Sumatra Tidal Wetland

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    Elisa Wildayana


    Full Text Available The research aimed to determine parameters affecting household income diversity of farmer’s tribes in South Sumatra tidal wetland, especially studied from the aspect of land acreage, education level, age of farmers and tribes of farmers. The research was using survey method and carried out from June-August 2016 in the Delta Telang I Banyuasin, South Sumatra. The data were recorded by questionnaire for 145 respondents of farmers. Data was processed, described and correlated to see the relevance of the parameters with other parameters. The research concluded that the character of household economy of farmers explaining the relation between production decisions to increase rice production is land acreage, education, age, experience of farmers, number of household members, and labor allocation. Multi commodities farming (rice and plantation was very favorable compared to monoculture rice fields? But this is a little bit contradictive with government policy that the research area is pointed out as the center of rice production. Therefore, government policy needs to motivate farmers that they can manage their farming from upstream to downstream and they work full in their own farming. The government policy should be site-specific and appropriated with the tribes of farmers

  19. Maturity analysis of the innovation system in the livestock industries of West Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    Suresti, A.; Dinata, U. G. S.; Wati, R.


    The main objective of this study was to analyse the ANIS of Livestock industry in West Sumatera according to its main determinants. This research aims to know and understand the maturity level of the regional innovationsystem of West Sumatra livestock industries, including recommendation for improvements. The maturity level of the regional innovation system was analyzed with the ANIS method by using an opinion survey to some experts from businessmen, government and universities. This expert opinion survey was conducted to measure expert perceptions on the implementations of determinants of west Sumatera regional innovations systems on livestock industries on macro level (innovations policy), mezzo level (innovation institutions and programs) and micro level (innovation capacity). By using Likert method, the result showed maturity level for the West Sumatra livestock industries innovation system was still develop. This is caused by low maturity in the macro and meso determinants which are at the central and regional government side. This research result may be useful as recommendations for the government for improving the maturity level and may be a basic for incoming researches to identify regional innovation system determinants with low maturity to improve.

  20. Earthquakes Sources Parameter Estimation of 20080917 and 20081114 Near Semangko Fault, Sumatra Using Three Components of Local Waveform Recorded by IA Network Station

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    Full Text Available The 17/09/2008 22:04:80 UTC and 14/11/2008 00:27:31.70 earthquakes near Semangko fault were analyzed to identify the fault planes. The two events were relocated to assess physical insight against the hypocenter uncertainty. The datas used to determine source parameters of both earthquakes were three components of local waveform recorded by Geofon broadband IA network stations, (MDSI, LWLI, BLSI and RBSI for the event of 17/09/2008 and (MDSI, LWLI, BLSI and KSI for the event of 14/11/2008. Distance from the epicenter to all station was less than 5°. Moment tensor solution of two events was simultaneously analyzed by determination of the centroid position. Simultaneous analysis covered hypocenter position, centroid position and nodal planes of two events indicated Semangko fault planes. Considering that the Semangko fault zone is a high seismicity area, the identification of the seismic fault is important for the seismic hazard investigation in the region.

  1. Influência da salinidade da água no crescimento de seis genótipos de helicônias

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    Helder M. M. Barros


    Full Text Available No Nordeste brasileiro a qualidade das águas utilizadas em irrigação é muito variável tanto em termos geográficos como ao longo do ano, principalmente em pequenos açudes. Com a utilização de águas com altos níveis de salinidade aliada às condições climáticas, comumente encontradas no final do período de estiagem, há riscos de salinização dos solos irrigados com prejuízos, também, para as culturas. Para helicônias, não existem quaisquer indicativos relacionados ao efeito da salinidade da água no desenvolvimento. Propôs-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o crescimento na altura de planta mediante altura, número de folhas, teor de água na planta e fitomassa seca de seis genótipos de helicônias irrigados com águas salinas. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação pertencente à UFCG/Campina Grande, PB, compondo um esquema fatorial 6 x 6 em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, cada um com dois vasos. O crescimento das helicônias foi afetado significativamente pelos níveis de salinidade. A H. latispatha cv. Red-Yellow Gyro e a H. psittacorum cv. Red Opal foram as helicônias menos afetadas pela salinidade. O teor de água na planta diminuiu com o aumento da CE da água de irrigação. Com o aumento da salinidade, ocorreu decréscimo na fitomassa seca. A H. x nickeriensis apresentou os menores índices em comparação com as demais helicônias, sendo mais sensível à salinidade.

  2. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil (United States)

    Costa, J. J. L.; do Nascimento, E. O.; de Oliveira, L. N.; Caldas, L. V. E.


    In this work, 25 points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiânia, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institute, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiânia for all points.

  3. Forest culicinae mosquitoes in the environs of samuel hydroeletric plant, state of Rondônia, Brazil

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    SLB Luz


    Full Text Available Data on frequency and seasonal distribution of culicinae were recorded in the forest near a recently constructed hydroelectric plant - Samuel, in the State of Rondônia, Brazilian Amazon. Collections were performed almost daily from August 1990 to July 1991, between 6 and 9 p.m., using human bait. A total of 3,769 mosquitoes was collected, representing 21 species, including seven new records for the State of Rondônia. The most frequently collected species were Aedes fulvus (25% and Ae. pennai (12.3%. The highest density for the majority of mosquito species coincided with the rainy season.

  4. Shallow shear-wave reflection seismics in the tsunami struck Krueng Aceh River Basin, Sumatra

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    U. Polom


    Full Text Available As part of the project "Management of Georisk" (MANGEONAD of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR, Hanover, high resolution shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in the Indonesian province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, North Sumatra in cooperation with the Government of Indonesia, local counterparts, and the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences, Hanover. The investigations were expected to support classification of earthquake site effects for the reconstruction of buildings and infrastructure as well as for groundwater exploration. The study focussed on the city of Banda Aceh and the surroundings of Aceh Besar. The shear-wave seismic surveys were done parallel to standard geoengineering investigations like cone penetrometer tests to support subsequent site specific statistical calibration. They were also partly supplemented by shallow p-wave seismics for the identification of (a elastic subsurface parameters and (b zones with abundance of groundwater. Evaluation of seismic site effects based on shallow reflection seismics has in fact been found to be a highly useful method in Aceh province. In particular, use of a vibratory seismic source was essential for successful application of shear-wave seismics in the city of Banda Aceh and in areas with compacted ground like on farm tracks in the surroundings, presenting mostly agricultural land use areas. We thus were able to explore the mechanical stiffness of the subsurface down to 100 m depth, occasionally even deeper, with remarkably high resolution. The results were transferred into geotechnical site classification in terms of the International Building Code (IBC, 2003. The seismic images give also insights into the history of the basin sedimentation processes of the Krueng Aceh River delta, which is relevant for the exploration of new areas for construction of safe foundations of buildings and for identification of fresh water aquifers in the tsunami

  5. Provenance of sediments from Sumatra, Indonesia - Insights from detrital U-Pb zircon geochronology, heavy mineral analyses and Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Liebermann, C.; Hall, R.; Gough, A.


    The island of Sumatra is situated at the southwestern margin of the Indonesian archipelago. Although it is the sixth largest island in the world, the geology of the Sumatra sedimentary basins and their underlying basement is relatively poorly understood in terms of their provenance. This work is a multi-proxy provenance study utilizing U-Pb detrital zircon dating by LA-ICP-MS combined with optical and Raman spectroscopy-based heavy mineral analysis. It will help to unravel the stratigraphy of Sumatra, contribute to paleogeographic reconstruction of western SE Asia, and aid a wider understanding of Sumatran petroleum plays. Thin section analyses, heavy mineral assemblages, and >3500 concordant U-Pb zircon ages, from samples acquired during two fieldwork seasons indicate a mixed provenance for Cenozoic sedimentary formations, including both local igneous sources and mature basement rocks. Characteristic Precambrian zircon age spectra are found in all analysed Cenozoic sedimentary strata. These can be correlated with zircon age populations found in Sumatran basement rocks; Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic age groups are dominant (c. 500-600 Ma, c. 850-1000 Ma, c. 1050-1200 Ma). Paleoproterozoic to Archaean zircons occur as minor populations. The Phanerozoic age spectra of the Cenozoic formations are characterised by distinct Carboniferous, Permo-Triassic, and Jurassic-Cretaceous zircon populations. Permo-Triassic zircons are interpreted to come from granitoids in the Malay peninsula or Sumatra itself. Eocene to Lower Miocene strata are characterised by ultrastable heavy minerals such as zircon, tourmaline, and rutile, which together with garnet, suggest the principal sources were igneous and metamorphic basement rocks. Cenozoic zircons appear only from the Middle Miocene onwards. This change is interpreted to indicate a new contribution from a local volcanic arc, and is supported by the occurrence of unstable heavy minerals such as apatite and clinopyroxene, and the


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    Saint-Clair Cordeiro da Trindade Júnior


    Full Text Available Uma fase de rápida ocupação do território foi inaugurada a partir da década de 1960 na Amazônia. A presença de empresários, especuladores e migrantes, mediados por ações intencionais do Estado, definiu uma nova forma de ocupação territorial para a região. As estratégias de ação se basearam em pelo menos três tipos principais de ordenamento do território. Não obstante a continuidade existente entre eles, expressam-se em diferentes geometrias do desenvolvimento: os pontos (polos de crescimento, as linhas (eixos de integração e as zonas (zoneamento ecológico-ecomico. Considerando esses diferentes arranjos territoriais, o artigo busca considerar o papel assumido pelas cidades em cada uma dessas estratégias de desenvolvimento regional, de forma a mostrar mudanças e continuidades que se fazem presentes na história regional recentente da Amazônia

  7. Tsunamis from strike-slip earthquakes in the Wharton Basin, northeast Indian Ocean: March 2016 Mw7.8 event and its relationship with the April 2012 Mw 8.6 event (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Ishibe, Takeo; Takagawa, Tomohiro


    The Wharton Basin, off southwest Sumatra, ruptured to a large intraplate left-lateral strike-slip Mw 7.8 earthquake on 2016 March 2. The epicentre was located ∼800 km to the south of another similar-mechanism intraplate Mw 8.6 earthquake in the same basin on 2012 April 11. Small tsunamis from these strike-slip earthquakes were registered with maximum amplitudes of 0.5-1.5 cm on DARTs and 1-19 cm on tide gauges for the 2016 event, and the respective values of 0.5-6 and 6-40 cm for the 2012 event. By using both teleseismic body waves and tsunami observations of the 2016 event, we obtained optimum slip models with rupture velocity (Vr) in the range of 2.8-3.6 km s-1 belonging to both EW and NS faults. While the EW fault plane cannot be fully ruled out, we chose the best model as the NS fault plane with a Vr of 3.6 km s-1, a maximum slip of 7.7 m and source duration of 33 s. The tsunami energy period bands were 4-15 and 7-24 min for the 2016 and 2012 tsunamis, respectively, reflecting the difference in source sizes. Seismicity in the Wharton Basin is dominated by large strike-slip events including the 2012 (Mw 8.6 and 8.2) and 2016 (Mw 7.8) events, indicating that these events are possible tsunami sources in the Wharton Basin. Cumulative number and cumulative seismic-moment curves revealed that most earthquakes are of strike-slip mechanisms and the largest seismic-moment is provided by the strike-slip earthquakes in this basin.

  8. Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System: a case study of the 2010 Kepulaunan Mentawai Earthquake and Tsunami

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    E. Ulutas


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the response of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS in relation to a case study: the Kepulaunan Mentawai earthquake and related tsunami, which occurred on 25 October 2010. The GDACS, developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center, combines existing web-based disaster information management systems with the aim to alert the international community in case of major disasters. The tsunami simulation system is an integral part of the GDACS. In more detail, the study aims to assess the tsunami hazard on the Mentawai and Sumatra coasts: the tsunami heights and arrival times have been estimated employing three propagation models based on the long wave theory. The analysis was performed in three stages: (1 pre-calculated simulations by using the tsunami scenario database for that region, used by the GDACS system to estimate the alert level; (2 near-real-time simulated tsunami forecasts, automatically performed by the GDACS system whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismological data providers; and (3 post-event tsunami calculations using GCMT (Global Centroid Moment Tensor fault mechanism solutions proposed by US Geological Survey (USGS for this event. The GDACS system estimates the alert level based on the first type of calculations and on that basis sends alert messages to its users; the second type of calculations is available within 30–40 min after the notification of the event but does not change the estimated alert level. The third type of calculations is performed to improve the initial estimations and to have a better understanding of the extent of the possible damage. The automatic alert level for the earthquake was given between Green and Orange Alert, which, in the logic of GDACS, means no need or moderate need of international humanitarian assistance; however, the earthquake generated 3 to 9 m tsunami run-up along southwestern coasts of the Pagai Islands where 431 people died

  9. Psicologia Escolar em Rondônia: formação e práticas

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    Iracema Neno Cecilio Tada

    Full Text Available Estudiosos da Psicologia Escolar têm criticado o modelo clínico na formação e atuação dos psicólogos por dificultar a compreensão sobre o funcionamento escolar, sugerindo uma prática pautada na teoria histórico-crítica. Nesta pesquisa, buscou-se conhecer a formação e a atuação dos psicólogos da rede de ensino público de Rondônia. Desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa quantitativa e qualitativa utilizando, como instrumentos para coleta dos dados, questionário, análise documental e diário de campo, com a participação de 38 psicólogos. Os dados mostram que a inserção deste profissional nas escolas é recente em Rondônia. A maioria é ex-aluno da Universidade Federal de Rondônia (UNIR, que, até 2005, possuía enfoque clínico nas disciplinas de Psicologia Escolar, o que parece ter contribuído para a atuação clínica nas escolas. Dado preocupante é a não participação em cursos de formação continuada, contribuindo para uma prática que desconsidera a complexidade do cotidiano escolar e as relações sociais ali constituídas.


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    Felipe Ferreira Vander Velden


    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a introdução de animais domesticados de origem européia em aldeias indígenas na Amazônia, com particular atenção aos grupos em Rondônia, em especial os Karitiana, povo de língua Tupi-Arikém que habita o norte daquele estado. Tendo em vista a história da ocupação do território brasileiro, marcada pela grande narrativa das ‘frentes pastoris’, e a recente expansão – material e ideológica – da pecuária pela floresta amazônica, o texto aponta para várias questões referentes à posição desses animais – sobretudo bois – nos universos simbólicos e materiais das populações indígenas, e sugere possibilidades investigativas que interroguem não apenas sobre as experiências já realizadas com a criação animal em aldeias, mas também os desejos e projetos desenhados para que esta seja implantada.

  11. A experiência com arte na Colônia Juliano Moreira na década de 1950

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    João Henrique Queiroz de Araújo

    Full Text Available Resumo Os trabalhos de Osório César e de Nise da Silveira costumam se destacar quando se investiga a relação entre expressão artística e saberes psi no Brasil em torno da década de 1950. Porém, outras experiências ocorreram no mesmo período, como as atividades de pintura realizadas na Seção de Praxiterapia da Colônia Juliano Moreira, em Jacarepaguá, no município do Rio de Janeiro. A ausência de pesquisas sobre essa experiência suscitou uma busca por documentos que culminou na análise dos números do Boletim da Colônia Juliano Moreira e demais fontes. Os resultados apontam características peculiares da experiência artística na colônia, como o incentivo à cópia e reprodução de fotografias como método terapêutico, o que a diferencia das outras experiências mencionadas.

  12. Earthquake Culture: A Significant Element in Earthquake Disaster Risk Assessment and Earthquake Disaster Risk Management


    Ibrion, Mihaela


    This book chapter brings to attention the dramatic impact of large earthquake disasters on local communities and society and highlights the necessity of building and enhancing the earthquake culture. Iran was considered as a research case study and fifteen large earthquake disasters in Iran were investigated and analyzed over more than a century-time period. It was found that the earthquake culture in Iran was and is still conditioned by many factors or parameters which are not integrated and...

  13. Desmatamento e a contribuição econômica da floresta na Amazônia

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    Terciane Sabadini Carvalho


    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa, do ponto de vista econômico, a contribuição da floresta desmatada para a economia da Amazônia Legal entre 2006 e 2011, assim como os efeitos de uma política de controle do desmatamento entre 2012 e 2020. Para isso, utilizou-se um modelo de equilíbrio geral computável (EGC inter-regional, construído para capturar as especificidades e heterogeneidade de 103 microrregiões da Amazônia Legal. As simulações da contribuição econômica do desmatamento para essas regiões permitiriam avaliar o custo relativo de políticas de controle, estimando o valor implícito do desmatamento na dinâmica econômica. Os resultados apontam uma contribuição positiva, embora pequena, do desmatamento para o crescimento econômico da Amazônia de 2006 a 2011. Este resultado é reforçado pelos impactos econômicos de uma política hipotética de controle do desmatamento, que sugerem uma perda apenas marginal sobre o crescimento econômico dessas regiões.

  14. Appointments on rubber economy and the exploitation of indigenous labor in Rondônia

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    Carlos Alexandre Barros Trubiliano


    Full Text Available The turn of the nineteenth to the twentieth century was marked by the expansion of economic activities in the Amazon region, causing deep socio-spatial impacts. Driven by international rubber demands, sheds, ports and roads were erected. Under the aegis of the progress discourse, thousands of workers were co-opted to labor in the extraction of latex. In the rubber plantations, relations were marked by violence. This essay presents notes on the exploitation of indigenous labor in the formation of rubber plantations in Rondônia. We deal with worker's coping strategies, working conditions and interethnic contact. Our objective was to contribute to the debate about the expansion of capitalist relations in the Amazon region and the impacts of this process on the indigenous populations of Rondônia.

  15. Provocarea Facebook pentru bibliotecile publice din România

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    Octavia-Luciana Madge


    Full Text Available Reţelele sociale şi-au câştigat rapid un loc în viaţa noastră şi în activitatea multor organizaţii şi instituţii publice şi private. La nivelul bibliotecilor, reţelele sociale şi-au demonstrat utilitatea şi rolul în calitate de instrumente de marketing pentru o mai bună comunicare cu utilizatorii. Bibliotecile publice din România au cunoscut în ultimul timp transformări mari în ceea ce priveşte modul de abordare a relaţiei cu utilizatorii şi îmbunătăţirea activităţii lor. Au lansat, de asemenea, o serie de noi servicii pentru a răspunde nevoilor comunităţii pe care o servesc şi pentru a atrage noi utilizatori. Implementarea şi utilizarea de noi aplicaţii precum reţelele de socializare online, mai exact Facebook, a fost una dintre aceste dezvoltări recente. Această lucrare analizează modul în care reţelele sociale sunt utilizate la nivelul bibliotecilor publice din România prin exemplul a trei biblioteci publice mari şi a modului în care aceste biblioteci îşi promovează serviciile prin intermediul reţelei Facebook.

  16. Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering. LC Science Tracer Bullet. (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    An earthquake is a shaking of the ground resulting from a disturbance in the earth's interior. Seismology is the (1) study of earthquakes; (2) origin, propagation, and energy of seismic phenomena; (3) prediction of these phenomena; and (4) investigation of the structure of the earth. Earthquake engineering or engineering seismology includes the…

  17. Integrated Program of Multidisciplinary Education and Research in Mechanics and Physics of Earthquakes (United States)

    Lapusta, N.


    Studying earthquake source processes is a multidisciplinary endeavor involving a number of subjects, from geophysics to engineering. As a solid mechanician interested in understanding earthquakes through physics-based computational modeling and comparison with observations, I need to educate and attract students from diverse areas. My CAREER award has provided the crucial support for the initiation of this effort. Applying for the award made me to go through careful initial planning in consultation with my colleagues and administration from two divisions, an important component of the eventual success of my path to tenure. Then, the long-term support directed at my program as a whole - and not a specific year-long task or subject area - allowed for the flexibility required for a start-up of a multidisciplinary undertaking. My research is directed towards formulating realistic fault models that incorporate state-of-the-art experimental studies, field observations, and analytical models. The goal is to compare the model response - in terms of long-term fault behavior that includes both sequences of simulated earthquakes and aseismic phenomena - with observations, to identify appropriate constitutive laws and parameter ranges. CAREER funding has enabled my group to develop a sophisticated 3D modeling approach that we have used to understand patterns of seismic and aseismic fault slip on the Sunda megathrust in Sumatra, investigate the effect of variable hydraulic properties on fault behavior, with application to Chi-Chi and Tohoku earthquake, create a model of the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas fault that reproduces both long-term and short-term features of the M6 earthquake sequence there, and design experiments with laboratory earthquakes, among several other studies. A critical ingredient in this research program has been the fully integrated educational component that allowed me, on the one hand, to expose students from different backgrounds to the

  18. Morphological characterization of several strains of the rice-pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia glumae in North Sumatra (United States)

    Hasibuan, M.; Safni, I.; Lisnawita; Lubis, K.


    Burkholderia glumae is a quarantine seed-borne bacterial pathogen causing panicle blight disease on rice. This pathogen has been detected in some locations in Java, and recently, farmers in North Sumatra have reported rice yield loss with symptoms similar with those on rice infeced by the rice-pathogenic bacterium B. glumae. This research was aimed to isolate several bacterial strains from several rice varieties in various locations in North Sumatra and characterize the morphology of the strains to detect and identify the unknown bacterial strains presumably B. glumae. Several rice seed varieties were collected from Medan and Deli Serdang Districts. The seed samples were extracted, isolated and purified, then grown in semi-selective media PPGA. The morphological characteristics of the bacterial strains were determined including Gram staining, bacterial colony’s and bacterial cell’s morphology. The results showed that of eleven strains isolated, two strains were Gram negative and nine strains were Gram positive. On the basis of colony morphology, all strains had circular form, flat elevation and cream colour while the colony margin varied, i.e. entire and undulate. Most strains had bacillus/rod shape (8 strains) and only 3 strains were coccus.

  19. Analog earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.B.


    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository

  20. Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Hower, James C.; Stucker, J.D.; O'Keefe, J.M.K.


    Indonesia has become the world's largest exporter of thermal coal and is a major supplier to the Asian coal market, particularly as the People's Republic of China is now (2007) and perhaps may remain a net importer of coal. Indonesia has had a long history of coal production, mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, but only in the last two decades have government and commercial forces resulted in a remarkable coal boom. A recent assessment of Indonesian coal-bed methane (CBM) potential has motivated active CBM exploration. Most of the coal is Paleogene and Neogene, low to moderate rank and has low ash yield and sulfur (generally < 10 and < 1 wt.%, respectively). Active tectonic and igneous activity has resulted in significant rank increase in some coal basins. Eight coal samples are described that represent the major export and/or resource potential of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua. Detailed geochemistry, including proximate and ultimate analysis, sulfur forms, and major, minor, and trace element determinations are presented. Organic petrology and vitrinite reflectance data reflect various precursor flora assemblages and rank variations, including sample composites from active igneous and tectonic areas. A comparison of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) elements abundance with world and US averages show that the Indonesian coals have low combustion pollution potential. (author)

  1. Cultural meanings of tuberculosis in Aceh Province, Sumatra. (United States)

    Caprara, A; Abdulkadir, N; Idawani, C; Asmara, H; Lever, P; De Virgilio, G


    This paper shows how disease transmission and particularly what biomedicine calls tuberculosis are interpreted in the non-Western context of Aceh Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. It tries also to focus on factors influencing perceptions and health-seeking behaviors. Results show that what biomedicine calls TB is represented by a semantic network of illnesses. Parts of this network are clearly identified as transmissible while others are related to specific phenomena affecting the individual, such as terbuk (poisoning) or trouk (fatigue produced by hard work), and are not considered contagious. Forms of transmission are interpreted mostly through empirical and analogic categories. TB is attributed to four different aspects: (a) biomedical categories such as germ theory; (b) socio-economic conditions; (c) transgression of social rules; and (d) poisoning and the influences of supernatural powers. Health-seeking behaviors are related to the perceived causes of the disease, economic factors, and the accessibility of health services.

  2. Great Earthquakes, Gigantic Landslides, and the Continuing Enigma of the April Fool's Tsunami of 1946 (United States)

    Fryer, G. J.; Tryon, M. D.


    also destroyed an unmanned light on the rocky promontary of Cape Pankof, the eastern tip of Unimak Island. From photographs and pre-1946 charts, we have determined that the 1946 runup at Cape Pankof must have exceeded 25 m, a value that is incompatible with Okal et al's field measurements. We cannot avoid the conclusion that both near-field and far-field tsunamis had the same source. If the source was a great M8.5 earthquake, then the geodetic measurements from one earthquake cycle cannot be applied to another. In light of the Indian Ocean Tsunami, however, the huge runup at Scotch Cap can no longer be regarded as a problem for an earthquake source, since runups in Sumatra last December were also far larger than expected. If, on the other hand, the source was a debris avalanche, it can only have occurred in the unsurveyed region. To satisfy the timing constraints, the tsunami had to be so large that the leading bore crossed the shelf with a Froude number of at least 2. The only way to make such a large tsunami is with an immense debris avalanche of over 200 km3. Such an avalanche is quite capable of explaining the far-field observations. To solve the enigma we shall have to complete the mapping of the upper Aleutian forearc, resurvey the near-field runup knowing that the area was also affected by the 1957 tsunami, and run push-core transects across the lowlands of Unimak Bight.

  3. Microbiological Quality and Safety of Meatball Sold in Payakumbuh City, West Sumatra, Indonesia


    Ferawati; H. Purwanto; Y. F. Kurnia; E. Purwati


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of meatball obtained from five different manufacturers around Payakumbuh City, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Microbiological analysis of meatball sample resulted in aerobic plate count range from 7 log CFU/gr to 8.623 log CFU/gr, respectively. Total coliform ranges from 1.041 log Most Probable Number (MPN)/gr to 3.380 log MPN/gr, respectively. Chemical analysis of meatball sample consisted of borax and formalin content. T...

  4. Widespread seismicity excitation following the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and its implications for seismic hazard (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.; Lin, J.


    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-chiho Taiheiyo-oki earthquake (Tohoku earthquake) was followed by massive offshore aftershocks including 6 M≧7 and 94 M≧6 shocks during the 4.5 months (until July 26). It is also unprecedented that a broad increase in seismicity was observed over inland Japan at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high seismic slip on the megathrust. Such an increase was not seen for the 2004 M=9.1 Sumatra or 2010 M=8.8 Chile earthquakes, but they lacked the seismic networks necessary to detect such small events. Here we explore the possibility that the rate changes are the product of static Coulomb stress transfer to small faults. We use the nodal planes of M≧3.5 earthquakes as proxies for such small active faults, and find that of fifteen regions averaging ˜80 by 80 km in size, 11 show a positive association between calculated stress changes and the observed seismicity rate change, 3 show a negative correlation, and for one the changes are too small to assess. This work demonstrates that seismicity can turn on in the nominal stress shadow of a mainshock as long as small geometrically diverse active faults exist there, which is likely quite common in areas having complex geologic background like Tohoku. In Central Japan, however, there are several regions where the usual tectonic stress has been enhanced by the Tohoku earthquake, and the moderate and large faults have been brought closer to failure, producing M˜5 to 6 shocks, including Nagano, near Mt. Fuji, Tokyo metropolitan area and its offshore. We confirmed that at least 5 of the seven large, exotic, or remote aftershocks were brought ≧0.3 bars closer to failure. Validated by such correlations, we evaluate the effects of the Tohoku event on the other subduction zones nearby and major active faults inland. The majorities of thrust faults inland Tohoku are brought farther from failure by the M9 event. However, we found that the large sections of the Japan trench megathrust, the outer

  5. New tick records in Rondônia, Western Brazilian Amazon


    Labruna,Marcelo Bahia; Barbieri,Fábio Silva; Martins,Thiago Fernandes; Brito,Luciana Gatto; Ribeiro,Francisco Dimas Sales


    In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female), and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva). Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) (16 nymphs) and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph). Ticks collected from...

  6. Prototype Packages for Managing and Animating Longitudinal Network Data: dynamicnetwork and rSoNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skye Bender-deMoll


    Full Text Available Work with longitudinal network survey data and the dynamic network outputs of the statnet ERGMs has demonstrated the need for consistent frameworks and data structures for expressing, storing, and manipulating information about networks that change in time. Motivated by our requirements for exchanging data among researchers and various analysis and visualization processes, we have created an R package dynamicnetwork that builds upon previous work in the network, statnet and sna packages and provides a limited functional implementation. This paper discusses design issues and considerations, describes classes and forms of dynamic data, and works through several examples to demonstrate the utility of the package. The functionality of the rSoNIA package that uses dynamicnetwork to exchange data with the Social Network Image Animator (SoNIA software to create animated movies of changing networks from within R is also demonstrated.

  7. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and "Istanbul Earthquake (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.


    The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing

  8. Earthquake potential revealed by tidal influence on earthquake size-frequency statistics (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi; Yabe, Suguru; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki


    The possibility that tidal stress can trigger earthquakes is long debated. In particular, a clear causal relationship between small earthquakes and the phase of tidal stress is elusive. However, tectonic tremors deep within subduction zones are highly sensitive to tidal stress levels, with tremor rate increasing at an exponential rate with rising tidal stress. Thus, slow deformation and the possibility of earthquakes at subduction plate boundaries may be enhanced during periods of large tidal stress. Here we calculate the tidal stress history, and specifically the amplitude of tidal stress, on a fault plane in the two weeks before large earthquakes globally, based on data from the global, Japanese, and Californian earthquake catalogues. We find that very large earthquakes, including the 2004 Sumatran, 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan, tend to occur near the time of maximum tidal stress amplitude. This tendency is not obvious for small earthquakes. However, we also find that the fraction of large earthquakes increases (the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation decreases) as the amplitude of tidal shear stress increases. The relationship is also reasonable, considering the well-known relationship between stress and the b-value. This suggests that the probability of a tiny rock failure expanding to a gigantic rupture increases with increasing tidal stress levels. We conclude that large earthquakes are more probable during periods of high tidal stress.

  9. A remote sensing assessment of the impact of the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8) on the volcanoes of the southern Andes (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Welch, M.; Jay, J.; Button, N.


    del Maule and Cordón Caulle (which began a major eruption in June, 2011). The deformation rate at Laguna del Maule continues through 2011 at a similar high rate, accumulating more than 60 cm of vertical deformation since 2007 -- making it one of the largest deformation signals without recent eruption yet observed. The rate of uplift at Laguna del Maule seems to be unchanged before and after the 2010 Maule earthquake. The spatial and temporal deformation at Cordón Caulle is complex as noted by Fournier et al., 2010, but does not appear to have been changed by the Maule earthquake either. The reasons that the 2010 Maule earthquake did not strongly affect the closest volcanic arc in the southern Andes remains a mystery. Comparison with the 2004 Sumatra (Mw 9.2) and the 2011 Japan (Mw 9.0) earthquakes and their closest volcanic arcs could provide clues to the elusive links between large earthquakes and volcanic unrest.

  10. Recent observations on the sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae fauna of the State of Rondônia, Western Amazônia, Brazil: the importance of Psychdopygus davisi as a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Luis HS


    Full Text Available Sand flies were collected in the central region of the state of Rondônia (W 64º30' to 63º00' and S 10º00'to 11º00' using Shannon and CDC light traps from October 1997 to August 2000. A total of 85,850 specimens representing 78 named species were captured. Of these 14 were new records for Rondônia. The proportion of males/females was 1/1.131. Trypanosomatids, that are presently being identified, were detected in 11 species. Leishmania (Viannia naiffi was recorded from Psychodopygus davisi and P. hirsutus. In the present study the dominant species was P. davisi (39.6% followed by Lutzomyia whitmani (13.1%, P. carrerai (11.6%, and P. hirsutus (10.2%. The importance of P. davisi as a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis is discussed.

  11. Use of "Crowd-Sourcing" and other collaborations to solve the short-term, earthquake forecasting problem (United States)

    Bleier, T.; Heraud, J. A.; Dunson, J. C.


    QuakeFinder (QF) and its international collaborators have installed and currently maintain 165 three-axis induction magnetometer instrument sites in California, Peru, Taiwan, Greece, Chile and Sumatra. The data from these instruments are being analyzed for pre-quake signatures. This analysis consists of both private research by QuakeFinder, and institutional collaborators (PUCP in Peru, NCU in Taiwan, PUCC in Chile, NOA in Greece, Syiah Kuala University in Indonesia, LASP at U of Colo., Stanford, and USGS). Recently, NASA Hq and QuakeFinder tried a new approach to help with the analysis of this huge (50+TB) data archive. A collaboration with Apirio/TopCoder, Harvard University, Amazon, QuakeFinder, and NASA Hq. resulted in an open algorithm development contest called "Quest for Quakes" in which contestants (freelance algorithm developers) attempted to identify quakes from a subset of the QuakeFinder data (3TB). The contest included a $25K prize pool, and contained 100 cases where earthquakes (and null sets) included data from up to 5 remote sites, near and far from quakes greater than M4. These data sets were made available through to hundreds of contestants over a two week contest period. In a more traditional approach, several new algorithms were tried by actively sharing the QF data with universities over a longer period. These algorithms included Principal Component Analysis-PCA and deep neural networks in an effort to automatically identify earthquake signals within typical, noise-filled environments. This presentation examines the pros and cons of employing these two approaches, from both logistical and scientific perspectives.

  12. Aplicação do método da carga máxima total diária (CMTD para a amônia no Rio Atibaia, região de Campinas/Paulínia - SP Application of ammonia total maximum daily load (TMDL to Atibaia River, Campinas/Paulínia region - São Paulo state

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    Gilberto Silvério da Silva


    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliadas a capacidade de suporte e o estado de degradação do Rio Atibaia, considerando a ameaça para a vida aquática pela presença da Amônia, a qual representa um dos principais riscos às comunidades aquáticas no Rio Atibaia. Com este objetivo foi aplicado o método da Carga Máxima Total Diária (CMTD, da Agência de Proteção Ambiental dos Estados Unidos (EPA. Os resultados revelaram que as cargas de Amônia aumentavam progressivamente ao longo do Rio Atibaia, principalmente devido às fontes pontuais. As cargas de Amônia diárias assumiram valores de 30 a 5000 kg NH3. A capacidade de suporte das águas Rio Atibaia, para proteger a vida aquática contra os efeitos tóxicos da Amônia, tem sido violadas em trechos próximos à sua foz. A degradação dessas águas foi mais intensa na estação seca. Este trabalho mostrou que o esgoto doméstico não-tratado de uma população aproximada de 250 mil habitantes da cidade de Campinas, via Ribeirão Anhumas, é a principal fonte de Amônia na bacia do Rio Atibaia, apesar do grande número de indústrias ali presentes.This study evaluated the tolerance capacity and the impairment state of the Atibaia River, considering the threat to aquatic life by the presence of Ammonia, which represents one of the main risks to the aquatic communities in the Atibaia River. With this aim, the method Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL, from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, was applied. The results revealed that the Ammonia loads increased progressively through the Atibaia River, especially due to the point sources. The daily Ammonia loads assumed values that ranged from 30 to 5000 kg NH3. The tolerance capacity of the waters of the Atibaia River, to protect aquatic life against the toxic effects of the Ammonia, has been violated in reaches near its mouth. The impairment of these waters was more intense during the dry season. This study showed that the domestic sewer

  13. Análise da adequação de eventos de precipitação extrema na Amazônia Ocidental em modelos estáticos: Rondônia

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    Vinicius Alexandre Sikora de Souza


    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou estimar a função Intensidade-Duração-Frequência (IDF de eventos pluviométricos extremos a partir dos dados de precipitação das estações pluviométricas instaladas no estado de Rondônia, de modo que posteriormente tais informações possam ser utilizadas no dimensionamento de obras hidráulicas. Utilizou-se 41 estações pluviométricas com séries históricas acima de 10 anos, disponibilizadas pela Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA. Essas séries passaram inicialmente pelo teste de aderência Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS, a fim de verificar o ajuste das mesmas as distribuições: Normal, Log-Normal, Exponencial, Gama, Gumbel, Weibull e Logística. O trabalho denotou que o teste de aderência Kolmogorov-Smirnov de forma geral forneceu uma expressiva aceitação na maioria das distribuições estatística testadas. Analysis of fitness for extreme rainfall events in western amazon in static models: state Rondônia ABSTRACT: This study aimed to estimate the Intensity - Duration - Frequency (IDF function extreme rainfall events from the data of precipitation of rainfall stations located in the State of Rondônia, so that such information can be later used in hydraulic structures. We used 41 rainfall stations with historical series over 10 years, provided by the National Water Agency (ANA. These series originally started by adherence Kolmogorov -Smirnov (KS in order to check the fit of the same distributions: Normal, Log- Normal, Exponential, Gamma, Gumbel, Weibull and Logistics. Work denoted that the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test of adherence generally provided a significant acceptance in most of the tested statistical distributions.

  14. Quelques espèces nouvelles d’hispides de Sumatra appartenant au Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestro, R.


    Sur le point d’entreprendre l’étude des Hispides recueillies à Sumatra par M. le Doct. E. Modigliani, j’ai demandé à M. Ritsema, le savant conservateur de la collection d’insectes du Musée de Leyde, la communication de quelques espèces dans le but de faciliter mon travail. Mon aimable collègue a

  15. Earthquake, GIS and multimedia. The 1883 Casamicciola earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rebuffat


    Full Text Available A series of multimedia monographs concerning the main seismic events that have affected the Italian territory are in the process of being produced for the Documental Integrated Multimedia Project (DIMP started by the Italian National Seismic Survey (NSS. The purpose of the project is to reconstruct the historical record of earthquakes and promote an earthquake public education. Producing the monographs. developed in ARC INFO and working in UNIX. involved designing a special filing and management methodology to integrate heterogeneous information (images, papers, cartographies, etc.. This paper describes the possibilities of a GIS (Geographic Information System in the filing and management of documental information. As an example we present the first monograph on the 1883 Casamicciola earthquake. on the island of Ischia (Campania, Italy. This earthquake is particularly interesting for the following reasons: I historical-cultural context (first destructive seismic event after the unification of Italy; 2 its features (volcanic earthquake; 3 the socioeconomic consequences caused at such an important seaside resort.

  16. Genesis of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Deposits within Permian Carboniferous-Carbonate Rocks in Madina Regency, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti Hamonangan Harahap


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.167-184Strong mineralized carbonate rock-bearing Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-(Au ores are well exposed on the Latong River area, Madina Regency, North Sumatra Province. The ore deposit is hosted within the carbonate rocks of the Permian to Carboniferous Tapanuli Group. It is mainly accumulated in hollows replacing limestone in the forms of lensoidal, colloform, veins, veinlets, cavity filling, breccia, and dissemination. The ores dominantly consist of galena (126 000 ppm Pb and sphalerite (2347 ppm Zn. The other minerals are silver, azurite, covellite, pyrite, marcasite, and chalcopyrite. This deposit was formed by at least three phases of mineralization, i.e. pyrite and then galena replaced pyrite, sphalerite replaced galena, and pyrite. The last phase is the deposition of chalcopyrite that replaced sphalerite. The Latong sulfide ore deposits posses Pb isotope ratio of 206Pb/204Pb = 19.16 - 20.72, 207Pb/204Pb = 16.16 - 17.29, and 208Pb/204Pb = 42.92 - 40.78. The characteristic feature of the deposit indicates that it is formed by a sedimentary process rather than an igneous activity in origin. This leads to an interpretation that the Latong deposit belongs to the Sedimentary Hosted Massive Sulfide (SHMS of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT. The presence of SHMS in the island arc such as Sumatra has become controversial. For a long time, ore deposits in the Indonesian Island Arc are always identical with the porphyry and hydrothermal processes related to arc magmatism. This paper is dealing with the geology of Latong and its base metal deposits. This work is also to interpret their genesis as well as general relationship to the regional geology and tectonic setting of Sumatra.

  17. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response? (United States)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asaad


    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze market structure and manufacturing industry performance on the economy of North Sumatra. The analysis uses two approaches, namely SCP analysis and econometric model. The data used is the Survey of Large Medium 2005-2009. The result shows that the structure of the industry is more dominant, including tight oligopoly, only small parts which belong to loose oligopoly and oligopoly markets. Some industries which have important roles for the economy are the palm oil industry, food and beverage industry, rubber industry and rubber products, and iron and steel basic industries, and basic non-ferrous metals.Keywords: market structure, industry performance, manufacturing industry, local economyJEL classification numbers: L10, L20, L60

  19. Earthquake Early Warning Systems


    Pei-Yang Lin


    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  20. Carbon dioxide emissions from forestry and peat land using land-use/land-cover changes in North Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Sulistyono, N.; Slamet, B.; Wati, R.


    Forestry and peat land including land-based is one of the critical sectors in the inventory of CO2 emissions and mitigation efforts of climate change. The present study analyzed the land-use and land-cover changes between 2006 and 2012 in North Sumatra, Indonesia with emphasis to CO2 emissions. The land-use/land-cover consists of twenty-one classes. Redd Abacus software version 1.1.7 was used to measure carbon emission source as well as the predicted 2carbon dioxide emissions from 2006-2024. Results showed that historical emission (2006-2012) in this province, significant increases in the intensive land use namely dry land agriculture (109.65%), paddy field (16.23%) and estate plantation (15.11%). On the other hand, land-cover for forest decreased significantly: secondary dry land forest (7.60%), secondary mangrove forest (9.03%), secondary swamp forest (33.98%), and the largest one in the mixed dry land agriculture (79.96%). The results indicated that North Sumatra province is still a CO2 emitter, and the most important driver of emissions mostly derived from agricultural lands that contributed 2carbon dioxide emissions by 48.8%, changing from forest areas into degraded lands (classified as barren land and shrub) shared 30.6% and estate plantation of 22.4%. Mitigation actions to reduce carbon emissions was proposed such as strengthening the forest land, rehabilitation of degraded area, development and plantation forest, forest protection and forest fire control, and reforestation and conservation activity. These mitigation actions have been simulated to reduce 15% for forestry and 18% for peat land, respectively. This data is likely to contribute to the low emission development in North Sumatra.

  1. Tropical Indo-Pacific hydroclimate response to North Atlantic forcing during the last deglaciation as recorded by a speleothem from Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)

    Wurtzel, Jennifer B.; Abram, Nerilie J.; Lewis, Sophie C.; Bajo, Petra; Hellstrom, John C.; Troitzsch, Ulrike; Heslop, David


    Abrupt changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation are known to have affected the strength of the Indian and Asian Monsoons during glacial and deglacial climate states. However, there is still much uncertainty around the hydroclimate response of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) region to abrupt climate changes in the North Atlantic. Many studies suggest a mean southward shift in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the IPWP region during phases of reduced Atlantic meridional overturning, however, existing proxies have seasonal biases and conflicting responses, making it difficult to determine the true extent of North Atlantic forcing in this climatically important region. Here we present a precisely-dated, high-resolution record of eastern Indian Ocean hydroclimate variability spanning the last 16 ky (thousand years) from δ18O measurements in an aragonite-calcite speleothem from central Sumatra. This represents the western-most speleothem record from the IPWP region. Precipitation arrives year-round at this site, with the majority sourced from the local tropical eastern Indian Ocean and two additional long-range seasonal sources associated with the boreal and austral summer monsoons. The Sumatran speleothem demonstrates a clear deglacial structure that includes 18O enrichment during the Younger Dryas and 18O depletion during the Bølling-Allerød, similar to the pattern seen in speleothems of the Asian and Indian monsoon realms. The speleothem δ18O changes at this site are best explained by changes in rainfall amount and changes in the contributions from different moisture pathways. Reduced rainfall in Sumatra during the Younger Dryas is most likely driven by reductions in moisture transport along the northern or southern monsoon transport pathways to Sumatra. Considered with other regional proxies, the record from Sumatra suggests the response of the IPWP to North Atlantic freshwater forcing is not solely driven by southward shifts of the

  2. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  3. Seismotectonics of the Indian subcontinent and the Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    The great Sumatra earthquake of 26th December, 2004 (0629 hrs IST) followed by the unique Indian ocean tsunami have added a new dimension to the natural hazard scenario of the country. Hitherto, the coastal region is associated mainly...

  4. Mekanisme Gempa Vulkanik Gunung Talang Pasca Gempa Tektonik Mentawai Tahun 2007-2009, Sumatra Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estu Kriswati


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.104The Mentawai tectonic earthquake (magnitude 6.8 on the Richter Scale on April 10, 2005 is assumed to trigger Talang volcanic activity that caused an eruption on April 12, 2005. Information on the source mechanism of volcanic earthquakes after the tectonic earthquake is expected to answer question of “Do tectonic earthquakes around the Talang Volcano trigger its volcanic activities?” Epicenter distribution of the volcanic earthquakes between 2007 and 2009 shows a southeast – northwest pattern with dextral strike-slip fault and normal fault mechanisms. The data show that earthquake activities at the Talang Volcano were dominated by local structure movements influenced by regional tectonic movements. Between 2007 and 2009, there were three process stages related to magnitude 6 or larger tectonic earthquakes around the Talang Volcano. First stage was a period before August 16, 2009. In this stage, volcanic fluids rose to the shallower chamber beneath the Talang Volcano. Second stage was a compressional stage and formation of a reverse fault influenced by Mentawai tectonic earthquake on August 16, 2009 and activation of a fault that intersects the Volcano. The third stage was a compresional stage and formation of a reverse fault influenced by Padang tectonic earthquake on September 30, 2009. In this stage, area fracturing was intensified, thereby the fracturing became more intensive. As the result, the accumulated volume and pressure of several tectonic earthquakes were released that caused an increase of eruption column soon after the tectonic earthquake.

  5. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H


    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  6. Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)]|[University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, J.M.K. [Morehead State University, Department of Physical Science, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States)


    Indonesia has become the world's largest exporter of thermal coal and is a major supplier to the Asian coal market, particularly as the People's Republic of China is now (2007) and perhaps may remain a net importer of coal. Indonesia has had a long history of coal production, mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, but only in the last two decades have government and commercial forces resulted in a remarkable coal boom. A recent assessment of Indonesian coal-bed methane (CBM) potential has motivated active CBM exploration. Most of the coal is Paleogene and Neogene, low to moderate rank and has low ash yield and sulfur (generally < 10 and < 1 wt.%, respectively). Active tectonic and igneous activity has resulted in significant rank increase in some coal basins. Eight coal samples are described that represent the major export and/or resource potential of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua. Detailed geochemistry, including proximate and ultimate analysis, sulfur forms, and major, minor, and trace element determinations are presented. Organic petrology and vitrinite reflectance data reflect various precursor flora assemblages and rank variations, including sample composites from active igneous and tectonic areas. A comparison of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) elements abundance with world and US averages show that the Indonesian coals have low combustion pollution potential. (author)

  7. Isolation and identification of indigenous lactic acid bacteria from North Sumatra river buffalo milk


    Heni Rizqiati; Cece Sumantr; Ronny Rachman Noor; E. Damayanthi; E. I. Rianti


    Buffalo milk is a source of various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which is potential as culture starter as well as the probiotic. This study was conducted to isolate and identify LAB from indigenous North Sumatra river buffalo milk. Lactic acid bacteria was isolated and grown in medium De Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar (MRSA). The isolation was conducted to obtain pure isolate. The identification of LAB was studied in terms of morphology, physiology, biochemistry and survival on low pH. Morphology test...

  8. Constitutive non-inducible expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana Nia 2 gene in two nitrate reductase mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. (United States)

    Kaye, C; Crawford, N M; Malmberg, R L


    We have isolated a haploid cell line of N. plumbaginifolia, hNP 588, that is constitutive and not inducible for nitrate reductase. Nitrate reductase mutants were isolated from hNP 588 protoplasts upon UV irradiation. Two of these nitrate reductase-deficient cell lines, nia 3 and nia 25, neither of which contained any detectable nitrate reductase activity, were selected for complementation studies. A cloned Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate reductase gene Nia 2 was introduced into each of the two mutants resulting in 56 independent kanamycin-resistant cell lines. Thirty of the 56 kanamycin-resistant cell lines were able to grow on nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Eight of these were further analyzed for nitrate reductase enzyme activity and nitrate reductase mRNA production. All eight lines had detectable nitrate reductase activity ranging from 7% to 150% of wild-type hNP 588 callus. The enzyme activity levels were not influenced by the nitrogen source in the medium. The eight lines examined expressed a constitutive, non-inducible 3.2 kb mRNA species that was not present in untransformed controls.

  9. Socioeconomic and Ecological Dimension of Certified and Conventional Arabica Coffee Production in North Sumatra, Indonesia


    Saragih, Jef Rudiantho


    The study was conducted in six subdistricts of Simalungun district, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The research objective is knowing the influence of socioeconomic and ecological factors on production of specialty Arabica coffee. Determination of the households sample was using Probability Proportional to Size and Simple Random Sampling for 79 units certified coffee farms and 210 units conventional coffee farms. Farmer’s data was analyzed with multiple linear regression model. Benefit of coffee ce...

  10. O Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos Na Amazônia Legal Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Antônio Cavallari


    Full Text Available A presente revisão bibliográfica possibilita uma análise da evolução do Programa Aquisição de Alimentos nos primeiros sete anos de sua instituição na região da Amazônia legal brasileira, a partir da quantidade de municípios atendidos por Unidade Federativa que compõe essa região, através de dados obtidos pela CONAB. No primeiro ano de implantação do programa, apenas os estados do Acre, Rondônia, Amazonas e Maranhão possuíam municípios atendidos por essa política de incentivo a agricultura familiar. Com o decorrer dos anos, algumas mudanças foram constatadas, principalmente com a adesão de novos municípios ao programa, aumentando a abrangência de atendimento do PAA na região. No ano de 2009 foi verificada uma situação atípica, onde foi observada a redução na quantidade de municípios vinculados ao programa, a partir de então houve um crescimento generalizado no atendimento em todos os Estados que compõe a Amazônia legal brasileira.O programa se encontra em fase de consolidação, o que possibilita o crescimento e abrangência no atendimento a agricultura familiar da região Amazônica.

  11. Foreshocks, aftershocks, and earthquake probabilities: Accounting for the landers earthquake (United States)

    Jones, Lucile M.


    The equation to determine the probability that an earthquake occurring near a major fault will be a foreshock to a mainshock on that fault is modified to include the case of aftershocks to a previous earthquake occurring near the fault. The addition of aftershocks to the background seismicity makes its less probable that an earthquake will be a foreshock, because nonforeshocks have become more common. As the aftershocks decay with time, the probability that an earthquake will be a foreshock increases. However, fault interactions between the first mainshock and the major fault can increase the long-term probability of a characteristic earthquake on that fault, which will, in turn, increase the probability that an event is a foreshock, compensating for the decrease caused by the aftershocks.

  12. Effect of 3-D heterogeneous-earth on rheology inference of postseismic model following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake (United States)

    Pratama, C.; Ito, T.; Sasajima, R.; Tabei, T.; Kimata, F.; Gunawan, E.; Ohta, Y.; Yamashina, T.; Ismail, N.; Muksin, U.; Maulida, P.; Meilano, I.; Nurdin, I.; Sugiyanto, D.; Efendi, J.


    Postseismic deformation following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake has been modeled by several studies (Han et al. 2015, Hu et al. 2016, Masuti et al. 2016). Although each study used different method and dataset, the previous studies constructed a significant difference of earth structure. Han et al. (2015) ignored subducting slab beneath Sumatra while Masuti et al. (2016) neglect sphericity of the earth. Hu et al. (2016) incorporated elastic slab and spherical earth but used uniform rigidity in each layer of the model. As a result, Han et al. (2015) model estimated one order higher Maxwell viscosity than the Hu et al. (2016) and half order lower Kelvin viscosity than the Masuti et al. (2016) model predicted. In the present study, we conduct a quantitative analysis of each heterogeneous geometry and parameter effect on rheology inference. We develop heterogeneous three-dimensional spherical-earth finite element models. We investigate the effect of subducting slab, spherical earth, and three-dimensional earth rigidity on estimated lithosphere-asthenosphere rheology beneath the Indian Ocean. A wide range of viscosity structure from time constant rheology to time dependent rheology was chosen as previous studies have been modeled. In order to evaluate actual displacement, we compared the model to the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observation. We incorporate the GNSS data from previous studies and introduce new GNSS site as a part of the Indonesian Continuously Operating Reference Stations (InaCORS) located in Sumatra that has not been used in the last analysis. As a preliminary result, we obtained the effect of the spherical earth and elastic slab when we assumed burgers rheology. The model that incorporates the sphericity of the earth needs a one third order lower viscosity than the model that neglects earth curvature. The model that includes elastic slab needs half order lower viscosity than the model that excluding the elastic slab.

  13. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rikitake, T.


    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  14. Associação entre sintomas de insônia e artrite reumatóide em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cuoghi de Carvalho Verissimo Freitas


    Full Text Available Esse estudo objetivou avaliar sintomas de insônia em idosos residentes na comunidade e sua associação com a artrite reumatóide. Estudo descritivo, de corte transversal, recorte do projeto multicêntrico Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros . Foram avaliados 689 idosos (68,9% mulheres, média de idade 72,2 anos utilizando-se questionário sociodemográfico e sobre condições clínicas, questões sobre sintomas de insônia (Perfil de Saúde de Nottingham e teste de rastreio para alterações cognitivas (Mini-exame do Estado Mental. Utilizou-se análise descritiva e análise de regressão logística múltipla, com nível de significância de 5%. A associação entre sintomas de insônia e artrite reumatóide manteve-se significativa na análise multivariada; outros fatores associados foram avaliação subjetiva da saúde muito ruim, não ser aposentado e apresentar depressão. Os profissionais da área da saúde devem investigar cuidadosamente a qualidade do sono noturno dos idosos acometidos por artrite reumatóide, dada sua elevada prevalência nessa população.

  15. Damages caused by Bipolaris maydis in Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia Dano causado por Bipolaris maydis em Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia

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    Gilmar Franzener


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the damage caused by Bipolaris maydis in the quantity and quality of the Tanzania grass production. Tanzania grass plants were cultivated in pots of PVC tubes (50 cm of height x 15 cm of diameter containing a mixture of soil and sand (3:1. The plants were inoculated with spore pathogen suspension containing 102, 104 and 106 conidia/mL to obtain different levels of disease. Severity and number of tillers were evaluated weekly. After four weeks, it were evaluated the weight of the fresh matter of leaves (FM, percentage of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The disease reduced significantly the plant tillering and FM after the second evaluation (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o dano causado por Bipolaris maydis (helmintosporiose na quantidade e qualidade da produção do capim Tanzânia. Plantas de capim Tanzânia foram cultivadas em vasos de tubos de PVC (50 cm de altura x 15 cm de diâmetro contendo mistura solo/areia (3:1. As plantas foram inoculadas com suspensões de esporos do patógeno com diferentes concentrações (102, 104 e 106 conídios/mL, visando obter gradiente de severidade de manchas foliares. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais da severidade e do número de perfilhos. Após quatro semanas avaliou-se o peso da matéria fresca de folhas (MF, porcentagem de matéria seca (PMS, de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. A doença reduziu significativamente o perfilhamento e MF a partir da segunda avaliação (P < 0,05. Não houve correlação significativa entre as variáveis PMS, FDA e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. No entanto, houve correlação positiva (P < 0,01 e negativa (P < 0 ,05 entre PB e FDN, respectivamente, com a AACPD, como possível resultado da atividade do patógeno. Estes resultados indicam que B. maydis inibe o desenvolvimento do


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    Vinícius Machado Rocha


    Full Text Available Este artigo traz uma perspectiva histórica da evolução do conhecimento sobre a reciclagem de precipitação e fornece uma visão crítica do estado da arte atual. São retratadas as principais fontes de umidade para a precipitação na Amazônia e o transporte de vapor d'água sobre a América do Sul. A quantificação do mecanismo de reciclagem é um indicador da importância dos processos de superfície e do clima no ciclo hidrológico, assim como da sensibilidade climática relacionada às alterações nesses processos. Os aspectos climatológicos da reciclagem na América do Sul mostram que a contribuição advectiva é mais importante para a precipitação sobre a Amazônia e o Nordeste do Brasil, ao passo que na região Centro-Sul a contribuição local tem importante papel na precipitação. Estima-se que a reciclagem de precipitação na Amazônia é da ordem de 20-35%. A advecção de umidade domina o fornecimento de vapor d'água em grande parte da região amazônica, entretanto, o papel da evapotranspiração local na reciclagem é mais importante no setor sul da bacia. Embora os estudos sobre reciclagem tenham produzido novos conhecimentos acerca da interação entre os processos de superfície e o ciclo hidrológico, os efeitos das mudanças climáticas globais nesse mecanismo ainda não estão completamente compreendidos.

  17. Ionospheric earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulachenko, A.L.; Oraevskij, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.; Sorokin, V.N.; Strakhov, V.N.; Chmyrev, V.M.


    Results of experimental study on ionospheric earthquake precursors, program development on processes in the earthquake focus and physical mechanisms of formation of various type precursors are considered. Composition of experimental cosmic system for earthquake precursors monitoring is determined. 36 refs., 5 figs

  18. Evaluation of earthquake vibration on aseismic design of nuclear power plant judging from recent earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Kazuo


    The Regulatory Guide for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Reactor Facilities was revised on 19 th September, 2006. Six factors for evaluation of earthquake vibration are considered on the basis of the recent earthquakes. They are 1) evaluation of earthquake vibration by method using fault model, 2) investigation and approval of active fault, 3) direct hit earthquake, 4) assumption of the short active fault as the hypocentral fault, 5) locality of the earthquake and the earthquake vibration and 6) remaining risk. A guiding principle of revision required new evaluation method of earthquake vibration using fault model, and evaluation of probability of earthquake vibration. The remaining risk means the facilities and people get into danger when stronger earthquake than the design occurred, accordingly, the scattering has to be considered at evaluation of earthquake vibration. The earthquake belt of Hyogo-Nanbu earthquake and strong vibration pulse in 1995, relation between length of surface earthquake fault and hypocentral fault, and distribution of seismic intensity of off Kushiro in 1993 are shown. (S.Y.)

  19. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake. (United States)

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi


    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide.

  20. Teleseismically-induced tremor near Parkfield, CA - a cacophony or a symphony? (United States)

    Vidale, J. E.; Peng, Z.; Creager, K. C.; Bodin, P.


    The tremor triggered near Parkfield, CA by the 2002 Denali and 2004 Sumatra earthquakes was strong and well recorded by the dense regional CISN and the borehole HRSN networks. Peng et al. (this meeting) survey tremors triggered by a larger set of 12 regional and teleseismic events, providing a broader context. In the case of both the 2002 M7.9 Denali and 2004 M9.1 Sumatra earthquakes, the tremor emanates from at least two source regions deep within the SAF. The first source region is 40 km NW of the SAFOD in the creeping section of the SAF, and the second region is 40 km SE of the SAFOD near Cholame, close to the location where most of the non-triggered tremor has been found previously (Nadeau and Dolenc, Science, 2005). The Denali earthquake triggered tremor is in phase with the surface waves for about 400s. The northern region started tremoring first by about 100s, and both regions quieted before the end of the surface waves. The wavetrain for the 2004 M9.1 Sumatra earthquake was long enough that tremors were also excited by the weak diffracted P waves, and tremor turned up the volume for an hour upon the arrival of the surface waves, underwent a sudden and curious hiatus for 500s before the end of the surface waves, then re-started and continued for at least an hour after the passage of the surface waves. It is easy to suggest that the tremor was accompanied by deep slip on the SAF, but creep and strain data indicate any slip was too small to generate a detectable surface deformation. These observations suggest a component of driven, instantaneous, perhaps Coulomb-friction response with an added dose of self-sustaining, dribbling activity more suggestive of the oozing of fluids.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Aparecida Nunes


    Full Text Available

    Its was analised 53 chicken carcasses and commercial cuts acquired in supermarkets of Goiânia-GO aiming to isolate Salmonella. The contamination rate was 13.2% and serotypes S. brandenburg, S. typhimurium, S. agona, S. derby and S. hador were identified.

    KEY-WORDS: Salmonella; chicken; chicken carcasses; commercial cuts.

    No presente estudo foram analisadas, com vistas ao isolamento de Salmonella, 53 amostras de carcaças e cortes comerciais de frangos colhidas em supermercados e casas de carnes de Goiânia - GO. Observou-se freqüência média do patógeno de 13,2%, sendo identificados os sorotipos E. brandenburg, S. typhimurium, S. agona, S. derby e S. Hadar.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Salmonella; frango de corte; carcaça; cortes comerciais.

  2. La medicina Xinesa a la Xina contemporània


    Ruiz Morilla, Maria Dolors


    La medicina occidental és la imperant a tot el planeta. Malgrat tot, a la Xina la medicina tradicional hi té un pes important. La convivència entre totes dues visions de la salut i la malaltia -l'occidental i l'oriental- no és senzilla. En aquest treball es fa un recorregut pel sistema de salut xinès per a fer una aproximació a la situació de la medicina xinesa a la Xina contemporània. La medicina occidental es la imperante en todo el planeta. A pesar de todo, en China la medicina tradicio...

  3. Injury, disability and quality of life after the 2009 earthquake in Padang, Indonesia: a prospective cohort study of adult survivors

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    Mondastri K. Sudaryo


    Full Text Available Background: On 30 September 2009, a 7.6 magnitude earthquake severely hit the coast of Padang city in West Sumatra, Indonesia leaving about 1,117 people dead and injuring another 3,515. Health consequences such as physical injury, co-morbidity, disability and quality of life over time are seldom reported among survivors after earthquakes. Objectives: To investigate the associations between injury, disability and quality of life amongst adult survivors in Padang city after the 2009 earthquake.Design/Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted to compare adult injured (184 and adult non-injured (93 subjects over a 6-month period. Data on physical injury, co-morbidities, disability and quality of life were collected through interviews and measured quantitatively in three phases, i.e. at baseline, end of 3 and 6 months. Results: Disability scores were consistently and significantly higher among injured subjects compared to non-injured, even when adjusted for co-morbidities (i.e. acute symptoms and chronic diseases. The highest disability score amongst injured subjects was attributed to ‘feeling discomfort/pain’. Quality of life attribute (QLA scores, were significantly lower amongst injured people as compared to those non-injured even when adjusted for co-morbidities. The lowest QLA item score amongst the injured was ‘pain, depression and anxiety’. Significant and consistent negative correlations were found between disability and QLA scores in both the injured and non-injured groups. Conclusion: Physical injury is significantly correlated with both higher disability and lower quality of life, while disability has significant negative correlation with quality of life. The findings suggest that, through disability, injury may contribute to decreased quality of life. It is therefore recommended to promptly and adequately treat injuries after disasters to prevent any potential for disability and hence restore quality of life.

  4. Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Bowden


    Full Text Available The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word “earthquake” clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  5. Results of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) test of earthquake forecasts in California. (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ting; Turcotte, Donald L; Holliday, James R; Sachs, Michael K; Rundle, John B; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tiampo, Kristy F


    The Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) test of earthquake forecasts in California was the first competitive evaluation of forecasts of future earthquake occurrence. Participants submitted expected probabilities of occurrence of M ≥ 4.95 earthquakes in 0.1° × 0.1° cells for the period 1 January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. Probabilities were submitted for 7,682 cells in California and adjacent regions. During this period, 31 M ≥ 4.95 earthquakes occurred in the test region. These earthquakes occurred in 22 test cells. This seismic activity was dominated by earthquakes associated with the M = 7.2, April 4, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in northern Mexico. This earthquake occurred in the test region, and 16 of the other 30 earthquakes in the test region could be associated with it. Nine complete forecasts were submitted by six participants. In this paper, we present the forecasts in a way that allows the reader to evaluate which forecast is the most "successful" in terms of the locations of future earthquakes. We conclude that the RELM test was a success and suggest ways in which the results can be used to improve future forecasts.

  6. List of Orchidaceae collected in 1937 by Dr C. G. G. J. van Steenis in Atjeh (North Sumatra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.


    Platanthera angustata (Bl.) Lndl., Gen. et sp. Orch. (1835), 290; etc. Sumatra: Atjeh, Gajolanden, Poetjoek Angasan, bivouac 1 to 2, 2700 m, blang ground, marshy heath, common (C. G. G. J. van Steenis n. 8350, 28 Jan. 1937). G. Leuser, bivouac 4—5, watershed, 2700—2800 m (C. G. G. J. van Steenis n.

  7. Earthquakes, September-October 1986 (United States)

    Person, W.J.


    There was one great earthquake (8.0 and above) during this reporting period in the South Pacific in the Kermadec Islands. There were no major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) but earthquake-related deaths were reported in Greece and in El Salvador. There were no destrcutive earthquakes in the United States.


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    Savaş TOPAL


    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  9. Método simples e acessível para determinar amônia liberada pela cama aviária

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    Hernandes Renata


    Full Text Available A amônia é um gás altamente irritante e causador de estresse às aves confinadas, o que leva à perda de peso, podendo até causar a morte. Por esse motivo, existe grande interesse em se determinar a quantidade de amônia liberada por diferentes camas aviárias e de diferentes condições, bem como os fatores que influenciam a produção desta substância. Assim, idealizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de desenvolver e padronizar uma metodologia simples, acessível, exeqüível para avaliar camas de frangos submetidas a diferentes condições (diferentes tratamentos, tempos de confinamento e temperatura e capaz de determinar a potencialidade da liberação de amônia pela cama de frangos nos galpões. A metodologia baseou-se na adaptação do método da microdifusão, que consta da incubação da cama em um frasco de vidro com capacidade de 500 mL. Sobre a superfície do material incubado coloca-se um béquer de 50 mL contendo 10 mL de solução de ácido bórico 2% (m/v para fixar a amônia exalada pela cama aviária. Esse sistema é fechado e incubado por 15 horas a 30°C e, após, a solução fixadora é retirada e titulada com ácido sulfúrico 0,05 N, usando como indicador uma mistura de verde de bromocresol e alaranjado de metila. O método proposto apresenta precisão para ser usado em experimentos e utiliza material barato e reagentes facilmente encontrados nos laboratórios.

  10. Megathrust earthquakes in Central Chile: What is next after the Maule 2010 earthquake? (United States)

    Madariaga, R.


    The 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake occurred in a well identified gap in the Chilean subduction zone. The event has now been studied in detail using both far-field, near field seismic and geodetic data, we will review this information gathered so far. The event broke a region that was much longer along strike than the gap left over from the 1835 Concepcion earthquake, sometimes called the Darwin earthquake because he was in the area when the earthquake occurred and made many observations. Recent studies of contemporary documents by Udias et al indicate that the area broken by the Maule earthquake in 2010 had previously broken by a similar earthquake in 1751, but several events in the magnitude 8 range occurred in the area principally in 1835 already mentioned and, more recently on 1 December 1928 to the North and on 21 May 1960 (1 1/2 days before the big Chilean earthquake of 1960). Currently the area of the 2010 earthquake and the region immediately to the North is undergoing a very large increase in seismicity with numerous clusters of seismicity that move along the plate interface. Examination of the seismicity of Chile of the 18th and 19th century show that the region immediately to the North of the 2010 earthquake broke in a very large megathrust event in July 1730. this is the largest known earthquake in central Chile. The region where this event occurred has broken in many occasions with M 8 range earthquakes in 1822, 1880, 1906, 1971 and 1985. Is it preparing for a new very large megathrust event? The 1906 earthquake of Mw 8.3 filled the central part of the gap but it has broken again on several occasions in 1971, 1973 and 1985. The main question is whether the 1906 earthquake relieved enough stresses from the 1730 rupture zone. Geodetic data shows that most of the region that broke in 1730 is currently almost fully locked from the northern end of the Maule earthquake at 34.5°S to 30°S, near the southern end of the of the Mw 8.5 Atacama earthquake of 11


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    Alberto Augusto Eichman Jakob

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo principal deste artigo é analisar a migração na Amazônia brasileira. São analisados os migrantes provenientes de outros países, em especial os transfronteiriços, assim como os migrantes brasileiros. A ideia é observar também qual o impacto destes migrantes na localidade de destino na Amazônia e o papel das cidades fronteiriças neste processo. Serão estas cidades apenas de passagem para a entrada no país ou possuem atrativos suficientes para que uma parte dos migrantes fique nelas? Estariam elas prontas para receber um volume substancial de migrantes? Estes migrantes vêm diretamente de seus países ou possuem experiência prévia em outras Unidades da Federação brasileiras? Para tentar esclarecer isto, são utilizados dados do Censo Demográfico de 2010 e da Contagem Populacional de 2007 para se analisar as características dos migrantes segundo sua origem, assim como seu local escolhido de destino. A partir das análises deste trabalho, percebe-se que o perfil da migração segundo a origem é diferente, e também a escolha do local de destino, possivelmente em função das redes sociais, que têm um papel importante neste processo de atração de migrantes em determinadas áreas.

  12. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de soja em cinco épocas de plantio no cerrado de Rondônia

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    Prado Eloi Elias do


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho, a estabilidade e a adaptabilidade de 21 cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill, em cinco épocas de plantio no cerrado de Rondônia. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Os ensaios foram conduzidos no ano de 1996/97 pelo Centro de Pesquisa Agroflorestal de Rondônia, no Campo Experimental de Vilhena em Rondônia, RO. Os métodos utilizados apresentaram concordância entre os resultados alcançados, sendo que o comportamento das cultivares nas diferentes épocas de semeadura pode ser representado por um modelo linear. O coeficiente de resposta linear beta1i não apresentou diferença significativa (P<0,05 da unidade pelo teste t (beta1i = 1 em todas as cultivares testadas. As cultivares que apresentaram desvios de regressão sigma²(d i significativos (P<0,05 foram MT/BR50 e EMBRAPA 31, com R² = 58,56% e 74,43%, respectivamente. As demais cultivares não apresentaram desvios de regressão significativos.

  13. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes. Large earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavenda, B. [Camerino Univ., Camerino, MC (Italy); Cipollone, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). National Centre for Research on Thermodynamics


    A compound Poisson process is used to derive a new shape parameter which can be used to discriminate between large earthquakes and aftershocks sequences. Sample exceedance distributions of large earthquakes are fitted to the Pareto tail and the actual distribution of the maximum to the Frechet distribution, while the sample distribution of aftershocks are fitted to a Beta distribution and the distribution of the minimum to the Weibull distribution for the smallest value. The transition between initial sample distributions and asymptotic extreme value distributions show that self-similar power laws are transformed into non scaling exponential distributions so that neither self-similarity nor the Gutenberg-Richter law can be considered universal. The energy-magnitude transformation converts the Frechet distribution into the Gumbel distribution, originally proposed by Epstein and Lomnitz, and not the Gompertz distribution as in the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz generalization of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Numerical comparison is made with the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz analysis using the same catalogue of Chinese earthquakes. An analogy is drawn between large earthquakes and high energy particle physics. A generalized equation of state is used to transform the Gamma density into the order-statistic Frechet distribution. Earthquake temperature and volume are determined as functions of the energy. Large insurance claims based on the Pareto distribution, which does not have a right endpoint, show why there cannot be a maximum earthquake energy.

  14. Economia na produção de helicônias no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Economy in helicônias production in Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza da Silva Machado Neto


    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar, mediante o cálculo do valor presente líquido (VPL, da taxa interna de retorno (TIR e do Payback Econômico (PBE, a viabilidade da produção de helicônias no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, bem como identificar e verificar, por meio da análise de sensibilidade, em que medida alguns fatores do sistema produtivo exercem impacto sobre a rentabilidade das regiões produtoras. Os resultados mostraram que a produção de helicônias é uma atividade lucrativa, segundo o método da TIR e considerando taxas mínimas de atratividade (TMA de 6% e 12% para o cálculo do VPL. Porém, ocorrem limitações no setor de escoamento da produção, retardando a consolidação desse mercado. O percentual de perdas e o preço de venda do produto apresentaram-se como fatores determinantes sobre o tempo de retorno do investimento (PBE. Além disso, o preço de venda do produto foi a variável com maior efeito sobre a rentabilidade, seguida do valor da terra e do custo das mudas.The purpose of the research was to determine, through the calculation of net present value (VPL, internal return rate (TIR and Economic Payback (PBE, the viability of Heliconias production in the Rio de Janeiro State, as well as identify and verify, by means of sensitivity analysis in which extent some factors of the production system exercise impact on the profitability of the producing regions. The results showed that helicônia production is a profitable activity, according to the method of TIR and considering minimal attractiveness rates (TMA of 6% and 12% for calculating the net present value (VPL. However, there are limitations in the sector of produce flow, delaying the consolidation of this market. The percentage of losses and the selling price of the product presented determinant factors on the time of return on investment (PBE. In addition, the selling price of the product was the variable with greater effect on profitability, followed by the

  15. The GIS and analysis of earthquake damage distribution of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake (United States)

    Gao, Meng-Tan; Jin, Xue-Shen; An, Wei-Ping; Lü, Xiao-Jian


    The geography information system of the 1303 Hongton M=8 earthquake has been established. Using the spatial analysis function of GIS, the spatial distribution characteristics of damage and isoseismal of the earthquake are studies. By comparing with the standard earthquake intensity attenuation relationship, the abnormal damage distribution of the earthquake is found, so the relationship of the abnormal distribution with tectonics, site condition and basin are analyzed. In this paper, the influence on the ground motion generated by earthquake source and the underground structures near source also are studied. The influence on seismic zonation, anti-earthquake design, earthquake prediction and earthquake emergency responding produced by the abnormal density distribution are discussed.

  16. Earthquakes, November-December 1977 (United States)

    Person, W.J.


    Two major earthquakes occurred in the last 2 months of the year. A magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck San Juan Province, Argentina, on November 23, causing fatalities and damage. The second major earthquake was a magnitude 7.0 in the Bonin Islands region, an unpopulated area. On December 19, Iran experienced a destructive earthquake, which killed over 500.

  17. A sexualidade para o adolescente em situação de rua em Goiânia La sexualidad para el adolescente callejero de Goiânia The meaning of sexuality for adolescents living on the street in Goiânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Medeiros


    Full Text Available Este estudo buscou uma reflexão sobre a sexualidade do adolescente em situação de rua partindo da ótica destes. Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa objetivando identificar aspectos gerais sobre a sexualidade de jovens que vivem nas ruas na cidade de Goiânia. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semi-estruturada e observação participante. Os resultados mostraram que para os meninos e meninas a sexualidade está reduzida ao ato sexual e que não se privam deste na rua sendo, a prevenção uma atitude praticamente inexistente no seu cotidiano. Apontamos para a importância do enfermeiro comprometer-se com esse grupo através de trabalhos de educação e promoção da saúde.Este estudio buscó una reflexión sobre la sexualidad de los adolescentes que viven en la calle. Investigación de abordaje cualitativo con el objetivo de identificar los aspectos generales sobre la sexualidad de los jóvenes que viven en las calles de la ciudad de Goiânia. Los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de una entrevista semi-estructurada y por observación participante. Los resultados mostraron que tanto para los hombres como para las mujeres, la sexualidad se reduce al acto sexual y que ellos no se privan de este en la calle; la prevención es una actitud prácticamente inexistente en el cotidiano de ellos. Así, nosotros señalamos lo importante que es el hecho del enfermero comprometerse con ese grupo realizando actividades de educación y promoción de la salud.This study aimed at reflecting on the sexuality for adolescents living on the street, based on their point of view. Authors used a qualitative approach in order to identify general aspects related to the sexuality of adolescents living on the street in Goiânia. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Results showed that these adolescents consider the sexuality reduced to the sexual act, and that even on the streets they are not deprived of it. Also

  18. Protecting your family from earthquakes: The seven steps to earthquake safety (United States)

    Developed by American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund


    This book is provided here because of the importance of preparing for earthquakes before they happen. Experts say it is very likely there will be a damaging San Francisco Bay Area earthquake in the next 30 years and that it will strike without warning. It may be hard to find the supplies and services we need after this earthquake. For example, hospitals may have more patients than they can treat, and grocery stores may be closed for weeks. You will need to provide for your family until help arrives. To keep our loved ones and our community safe, we must prepare now. Some of us come from places where earthquakes are also common. However, the dangers of earthquakes in our homelands may be very different than in the Bay Area. For example, many people in Asian countries die in major earthquakes when buildings collapse or from big sea waves called tsunami. In the Bay Area, the main danger is from objects inside buildings falling on people. Take action now to make sure your family will be safe in an earthquake. The first step is to read this book carefully and follow its advice. By making your home safer, you help make our community safer. Preparing for earthquakes is important, and together we can make sure our families and community are ready. English version p. 3-13 Chinese version p. 14-24 Vietnamese version p. 25-36 Korean version p. 37-48

  19. Núcleos coloniais e agricultura na Amazônia Imperial: uso e ocupação da terra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francivaldo Alves Nunes


    Full Text Available Fomento a produção, reforma das técnicas agrícolas, intensificação dos sistemas produtivos e aumento da produtividade são algumas diretrizes recorrentes nos projetos de reformulação da agricultura desenvolvidos no Brasil no período Imperial. Na Amazônia a criação dos Núcleos Coloniais, na segunda metade do século XIX, constituem ações governamentais que buscam atender essas demandas. Analisar os elementos que estimulam a formação das Colônias Agrícolas e que nos ajuda a pensar a constituição de paisagens agrárias e os processos de apropriação da terra é a tarefa que nos ocupamos nesta comunicação; entendendo que, além de uma questão de consumo e produção, os Núcleos Coloniais na Amazônia se evidenciaram como espaços de experimentação de novas técnicas produtivas, melhor aproveitamento da terra, do exercício de domínio das matas, promoção do povoamento e disciplinarização dos sujeitos sociais envolvidos na construção deste espaço.

  20. Earthquake Triggering in the September 2017 Mexican Earthquake Sequence (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Gombert, B.; Duputel, Z.; Huang, M. H.; Liang, C.; Bekaert, D. P.; Moore, A. W.; Liu, Z.; Ampuero, J. P.


    Southern Mexico was struck by four earthquakes with Mw > 6 and numerous smaller earthquakes in September 2017, starting with the 8 September Mw 8.2 Tehuantepec earthquake beneath the Gulf of Tehuantepec offshore Chiapas and Oaxaca. We study whether this M8.2 earthquake triggered the three subsequent large M>6 quakes in southern Mexico to improve understanding of earthquake interactions and time-dependent risk. All four large earthquakes were extensional despite the the subduction of the Cocos plate. The traditional definition of aftershocks: likely an aftershock if it occurs within two rupture lengths of the main shock soon afterwards. Two Mw 6.1 earthquakes, one half an hour after the M8.2 beneath the Tehuantepec gulf and one on 23 September near Ixtepec in Oaxaca, both fit as traditional aftershocks, within 200 km of the main rupture. The 19 September Mw 7.1 Puebla earthquake was 600 km away from the M8.2 shock, outside the standard aftershock zone. Geodetic measurements from interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and time-series analysis of GPS station data constrain finite fault total slip models for the M8.2, M7.1, and M6.1 Ixtepec earthquakes. The early M6.1 aftershock was too close in time and space to the M8.2 to measure with InSAR or GPS. We analyzed InSAR data from Copernicus Sentinel-1A and -1B satellites and JAXA ALOS-2 satellite. Our preliminary geodetic slip model for the M8.2 quake shows significant slip extended > 150 km NW from the hypocenter, longer than slip in the v1 finite-fault model (FFM) from teleseismic waveforms posted by G. Hayes at USGS NEIC. Our slip model for the M7.1 earthquake is similar to the v2 NEIC FFM. Interferograms for the M6.1 Ixtepec quake confirm the shallow depth in the upper-plate crust and show centroid is about 30 km SW of the NEIC epicenter, a significant NEIC location bias, but consistent with cluster relocations (E. Bergman, pers. comm.) and with Mexican SSN location. Coulomb static stress

  1. Invention et interprétation : chants de boisson et chants chamaniques chez les Suruí du Rondônia


    Yvinec, Cédric


    Invention et interprétation : chants de boisson et chants chamaniques chez les Suruí du Rondônia. Cet article examine les techniques rhétoriques mises en œuvre par deux genres de chants rituels des Suruí du Rondônia, chants de fête de boisson et chants chamaniques, notamment les écarts par lesquels la langue et l’énonciation rituelles se distinguent du discours ordinaire. Ces procédés rhétoriques trouvent un écho au niveau sociologique, à travers le statut du chamane et celui du grand homme d...

  2. Numerical modeling of the deformations associated with large subduction earthquakes through the seismic cycle (United States)

    Fleitout, L.; Trubienko, O.; Garaud, J.; Vigny, C.; Cailletaud, G.; Simons, W. J.; Satirapod, C.; Shestakov, N.


    A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to model deformations through the seismic cycle in the areas surrounding the last three large subduction earthquakes: Sumatra, Japan and Chile. The mesh featuring a broad spherical shell portion with a viscoelastic asthenosphere is refined close to the subduction zones. The model is constrained by 6 years of postseismic data in Sumatra area and over a year of data for Japan and Chile plus preseismic data in the three areas. The coseismic displacements on the subduction plane are inverted from the coseismic displacements using the finite element program and provide the initial stresses. The predicted horizontal postseismic displacements depend upon the thicknesses of the elastic plate and of the low viscosity asthenosphere. Non-dimensionalized by the coseismic displacements, they present an almost uniform value between 500km and 1500km from the trench for elastic plates 80km thick. The time evolution of the velocities is function of the creep law (Maxwell, Burger or power-law creep). Moreover, the forward models predict a sizable far-field subsidence, also with a spatial distribution which varies with the geometry of the asthenosphere and lithosphere. Slip on the subduction interface does not induce such a subsidence. The observed horizontal velocities, divided by the coseismic displacement, present a similar pattern as function of time and distance from trench for the three areas, indicative of similar lithospheric and asthenospheric thicknesses and asthenospheric viscosity. This pattern cannot be fitted with power-law creep in the asthenosphere but indicates a lithosphere 60 to 90km thick and an asthenosphere of thickness of the order of 100km with a burger rheology represented by a Kelvin-Voigt element with a viscosity of 3.1018Pas and μKelvin=μelastic/3. A second Kelvin-Voigt element with very limited amplitude may explain some characteristics of the short time-scale signal. The postseismic subsidence is

  3. Evidence for strong Holocene earthquake(s) in the Wabash Valley seismic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, S.


    Many small and slightly damaging earthquakes have taken place in the region of the lower Wabash River Valley of Indiana and Illinois during the 200 years of historic record. Seismologists have long suspected the Wabash Valley seismic zone to be capable of producing earthquakes much stronger than the largest of record (m b 5.8). The seismic zone contains the poorly defined Wabash Valley fault zone and also appears to contain other vaguely defined faults at depths from which the strongest earthquakes presently originate. Faults near the surface are generally covered with thick alluvium in lowlands and a veneer of loess in uplands, which make direct observations of faults difficult. Partly because of this difficulty, a search for paleoliquefaction features was begun in 1990. Conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) an earthquake much stronger than any historic earthquake struck the lower Wabash Valley between 1,500 and 7,500 years ago; (2) the epicentral region of the prehistoric strong earthquake was the Wabash Valley seismic zone; (3) apparent sites have been located where 1811-12 earthquake accelerations can be bracketed

  4. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.


    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  5. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth S; Kim, Patrick S; Koplitz, Shannon N; Jacob, Daniel J; Gaveau, David L A; Mickley, Loretta J; Margono, Belinda A; Myers, Samuel S


    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010–2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations

  6. Ocorrência de Herminodes sp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em pupunheira nos estados do Acre e Rondônia, Brasil Occurrence of Herminodes sp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in peach palm in the States of Acre and Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio José Thomazini


    Full Text Available É relatado a ocorrência de Herminodes sp. em plantas de pupunha na área experimental da Embrapa Acre, Rio Branco, AC e no Projeto Reca, Vila Nova Califórnia, RO, Brasil. São descritas as principais características deste inseto e os danos por ele causados. Este é o primeiro registro de lagartas do gênero Herminodes causando dano em pupunheiras nos estados do Acre e Rondônia.Related herein is the occurrence of Herminodes sp. in peach palm plants at experimental area of Embrapa Acre, Rio Branco, AC and at Projeto Reca, Vila Nova California, RO, Brazil. The main characteristics of this insect and the damage it causes are described. This is the first record of Herminodes caterpillars damaging peach palm in the states of Acre and Rondônia.

  7. The 1985 central chile earthquake: a repeat of previous great earthquakes in the region? (United States)

    Comte, D; Eisenberg, A; Lorca, E; Pardo, M; Ponce, L; Saragoni, R; Singh, S K; Suárez, G


    A great earthquake (surface-wave magnitude, 7.8) occurred along the coast of central Chile on 3 March 1985, causing heavy damage to coastal towns. Intense foreshock activity near the epicenter of the main shock occurred for 11 days before the earthquake. The aftershocks of the 1985 earthquake define a rupture area of 170 by 110 square kilometers. The earthquake was forecast on the basis of the nearly constant repeat time (83 +/- 9 years) of great earthquakes in this region. An analysis of previous earthquakes suggests that the rupture lengths of great shocks in the region vary by a factor of about 3. The nearly constant repeat time and variable rupture lengths cannot be reconciled with time- or slip-predictable models of earthquake recurrence. The great earthquakes in the region seem to involve a variable rupture mode and yet, for unknown reasons, remain periodic. Historical data suggest that the region south of the 1985 rupture zone should now be considered a gap of high seismic potential that may rupture in a great earthquake in the next few tens of years.

  8. The relationship between earthquake exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in 2013 Lushan earthquake (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Lu, Yi


    The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between earthquake exposure and the incidence of PTSD. A stratification random sample survey was conducted to collect data in the Longmenshan thrust fault after Lushan earthquake three years. We used the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13) and the Earthquake Experience Scale. Subjects in this study included 3944 school student survivors in local eleven schools. The prevalence of probable PTSD is relatively higher, when the people was trapped in the earthquake, was injured in the earthquake or have relatives who died in the earthquake. It concluded that researchers need to pay more attention to the children and adolescents. The government should pay more attention to these people and provide more economic support.

  9. Modelo de desenvolvimento local na Amazônia Pré-Colonial: complexidade cultural e modernidade em sociedades pré-coloniais da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinaldo Pinheiro Nunes Filho


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este artigo retrata a cultura material das sociedades complexas pré-coloniais que existiram nos estados do Pará e Amapá e destaca a importância do trabalho interdisciplinar como meio para que as evidências arqueológicas colaborem a se repensar a relação entre as populações humanas e o meio ambiente na Amazônia pré-colonial.  Assim, o artigo trabalha a complexidade cultural como conseqüência de desenvolvimento sustentável.

  10. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.


    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.



    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Rosa, Bruna Nichele da; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes


    to investigate the prevalence of back pain during a prior three-month period; to identify postural and behavioral habits; to assess whether a relationship exists between back pain and the postural and behavioral habits of elementary school students in the municipal school network in the city of Teutônia, Rio Grande do Sul (RS). METHODS: this was an epidemiological population study in which 833 5th to 8th grade students from schools in the municipal school network in Teutônia participated. The...

  12. Retratos próprios e desconhecidos: experiências de fronteiras (? E diálogos artísticos nas Amazônias Ocidental e Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fletcher


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta uma interpretação crí- tica e social de dois projetos artísticos apresentados na cidade de Popayán, Colômbia, localizada na Amazônia Ocidental, em diálogo com outro projeto visual realizado na cidade de Belém, Pará, Brasil, território pertencente à Amazônia Oriental. Em termos conceituais, o mesmo será amparado por alguns eixos de pensamentos críticos como os de Clifford Geertz, Raymond Williams, Pierre Bordieu, Chantal Mouffe, Ernesto Laclau, Mikhail Bakhtin e Nestor García Canclini, bem como buscará destacar uma metodologia polifônica, em muito articulada com alguns dos pressupostos da participação de distintos sujeitos para um agenciamento liminar do pensamento Latino Americano. É sob estes marcadores contextuais, portanto, que a pesquisa se alia a uma operação interpretativa para se rascunhar e debater aproximações e distanciamentos alocados no interior destas Amazônias, cujas visibilidades dão sustentação para horizontes dinâmicos, talvez mais inclusivos e menos autoritários. Palavras-chave: Arte Contemporânea, Interpretação, Amazônia, Colômbia.

  13. Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis; Patelli, Edoardo; Au, Siu-Kui


    The Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering is designed to be the authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science of earthquake engineering, specifically focusing on the interaction between earthquakes and infrastructure. The encyclopedia comprises approximately 265 contributions. Since earthquake engineering deals with the interaction between earthquake disturbances and the built infrastructure, the emphasis is on basic design processes important to both non-specialists and engineers so that readers become suitably well-informed without needing to deal with the details of specialist understanding. The content of this encyclopedia provides technically inclined and informed readers about the ways in which earthquakes can affect our infrastructure and how engineers would go about designing against, mitigating and remediating these effects. The coverage ranges from buildings, foundations, underground construction, lifelines and bridges, roads, embankments and slopes. The encycl...

  14. Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruettener, E.


    Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra (United States)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  16. Earthquake Clusters and Spatio-temporal Migration of earthquakes in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau: a Finite Element Modeling (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Luo, G.


    Seismicity in a region is usually characterized by earthquake clusters and earthquake migration along its major fault zones. However, we do not fully understand why and how earthquake clusters and spatio-temporal migration of earthquakes occur. The northeastern Tibetan Plateau is a good example for us to investigate these problems. In this study, we construct and use a three-dimensional viscoelastoplastic finite-element model to simulate earthquake cycles and spatio-temporal migration of earthquakes along major fault zones in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. We calculate stress evolution and fault interactions, and explore effects of topographic loading and viscosity of middle-lower crust and upper mantle on model results. Model results show that earthquakes and fault interactions increase Coulomb stress on the neighboring faults or segments, accelerating the future earthquakes in this region. Thus, earthquakes occur sequentially in a short time, leading to regional earthquake clusters. Through long-term evolution, stresses on some seismogenic faults, which are far apart, may almost simultaneously reach the critical state of fault failure, probably also leading to regional earthquake clusters and earthquake migration. Based on our model synthetic seismic catalog and paleoseismic data, we analyze probability of earthquake migration between major faults in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. We find that following the 1920 M 8.5 Haiyuan earthquake and the 1927 M 8.0 Gulang earthquake, the next big event (M≥7) in northeastern Tibetan Plateau would be most likely to occur on the Haiyuan fault.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present paper we investigated the insect gall distribution along savanna and forest sites in the Floresta Nacional de Silvânia, Goiás, Brazil. The insect gall fauna was surveyed bi-monthly between December 2009 and June 2010. In total we found 186 insect gall morphotypes, distributed on 35 botanical families and 61 plant species. Ninety-nine insect gall morphotypes were recorded in the forest and 87 in the savanna. Gall-inducing insects belonged to Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera and Thysanoptera, with highlight to Cecidomyiidae (Diptera that induced 34.1% of the gall morphotypes. Parasitoids and/or inquilines were recorded in 38 morphotypes, mainly from the families Eulophidae, Eurytomidae and Torymidae (Hymenoptera. Fabaceae was the botanical family with the greatest richness of galls, followed by Asteraceae and Sapindaceae, being Protium (Burseraceae, Siparuna (Siparunaceae and Serjania (Sapindaceae the main host genera. This is the first systematic survey of insect galls realized in the Flona-Silvânia, which result in six plant species are recorded for the first time in Brazil as host of insect galls.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos Hospodar Felippe Valverde


    Full Text Available This article intends to evaluate the spatial consequences of the ambitious cultural policy developed by the city of Paulínia (SP in 2006 and the dilemmas of its growth after 2012. More precisely, I chose to analyze the challenges of creating a film industry in Paulínia. In order to do so, I used the concept of cultural industry as seen in Scott & Power (2004, which could be synthesize as a strategy promoted by public and private agents to create at the same time an economy capable of carrying culture values as much as a culture that gains economic value. A cultural industry could promote an economic ativity capable of benefit itself from social life and use of unending resources. Besides, a cultural industry counts on fast growing consumer markets. As a result, I hope to contribute to the Brazilian Cultural Geography as I present a discussion that promote the convergence of arguments found in economics and cultural theories, in opposition to what Geography traditionally did.

  19. The Continuity and the Culture Change of Pesantren in South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Munir


    Full Text Available This article entitled culture of pesantren (madrasah boarding schools in South Sumatra. This article is the result of research in Pesantren Nurul Islam Ogan Ilir South Sumatra. It is based on the fact that many pesantren graduation create academicians from the Kiayi or Ulama. Therefore, this paper describe the characteristics of the culture of madrasah schools from anthropology-sociology aspects of education, with a phenomenological approach to research subjects are madrasah chairman, board of teachers, students and community supporters. The data collection techniques used documentation study, observation and in-depth interviews, and analysis of data using qualitative descriptive, with triangulation and contrasting techniques. Applying local knowledge systems in boarding school curriculum and integrated with Madrasah boarding school curriculum. Orientation discipline tends towards positive law than the laws of Personality Syara’. Clothing the students follow a uniform generally used in madrasah. For students wear clothes instead of the veil of windings. Artistic activities undertaken include: litany, muhad Barzanji, Tilawah al-Qur’an, calligraphy, and drum band.   Artikel berjudul budaya pesantren (sekolah berasrama madrasah di Sumatera Selatan. Artikel ini merupakan hasil penelitian di Pesantren Nurul Islam Ogan Ilir Sumatera Selatan. Hal ini didasarkan pada kenyataan bahwa banyak lulusan pesantren melahirkan akademisi dari kiayi atau Ulama. Oleh karena itu, makalah ini menggambarkan karakteristik budaya dari sekolah madrasah dari aspek antropologi-sosiologi pendidikan, dengan pendekatan fenomenologis dengan subyek penelitian kepala madrasah, dewan guru, siswa dan masyarakat sekitar. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan studi dokumentasi, observasi dan wawancara mendalam, dan analisis data menggunakan deskriptif kualitatif, dengan triangulasi dan teknik kontras. Menerapkan sistem pengetahuan lokal dalam kurikulum pesantren dan


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Guimarães da Mota


    Full Text Available O presente artigo é resultado parcial das investigações doprojeto “Turismo e Desenvolvimento Socioespacial” queestá sendo desenvolvido desde abril de 2006 no CentroFederal de Educação Tecnológica de Goiás – CEFET/GO.As discussões ora apresentadas visam compreender adinâmica da Feira Hippie de Goiânia e o seu impacto geradono setor turístico-hoteleiro da cidade de Goiânia. Nosúltimos anos, esse empreendimento passou por grandestransformações de ordem social, econômica e espacialque resultaram em alterações nos equipamentos turísticos(sistema de hospedagem e restaurantes, de transportese agências de viagens e nos produtos oferecidos. Apertinência desse estudo se dá pelo papel que esta feirarepresenta na configuração do chamado “turismo de compras”.Essa problemática serviu de suporte para uma abordagemque resultou na construção de um banco de dadose informações que ajudam na compreensão da dinâmicade parte dos processos turísticos do Estado de Goiás.

  1. Perception of earthquake risk in Taiwan: effects of gender and past earthquake experience. (United States)

    Kung, Yi-Wen; Chen, Sue-Huei


    This study explored how individuals in Taiwan perceive the risk of earthquake and the relationship of past earthquake experience and gender to risk perception. Participants (n= 1,405), including earthquake survivors and those in the general population without prior direct earthquake exposure, were selected and interviewed through a computer-assisted telephone interviewing procedure using a random sampling and stratification method covering all 24 regions of Taiwan. A factor analysis of the interview data yielded a two-factor structure of risk perception in regard to earthquake. The first factor, "personal impact," encompassed perception of threat and fear related to earthquakes. The second factor, "controllability," encompassed a sense of efficacy of self-protection in regard to earthquakes. The findings indicated prior earthquake survivors and females reported higher scores on the personal impact factor than males and those with no prior direct earthquake experience, although there were no group differences on the controllability factor. The findings support that risk perception has multiple components, and suggest that past experience (survivor status) and gender (female) affect the perception of risk. Exploration of potential contributions of other demographic factors such as age, education, and marital status to personal impact, especially for females and survivors, is discussed. Future research on and intervention program with regard to risk perception are suggested accordingly. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Analysis of P and Pdiff Coda Arrivals for Water Reverberations to Evaluate Shallow Slip Extent in Large Megathrust Earthquakes (United States)

    Rhode, A.; Lay, T.


    Determining the up-dip rupture extent of large megathrust ruptures is important for understanding their tsunami excitation, frictional properties of the shallow megathrust, and potential for separate tsunami earthquake occurrence. On land geodetic data have almost no resolution of the up-dip extent of faulting and teleseismic observations have limited resolution that is strongly influenced by typically poorly known shallow seismic velocity structure near the toe of the accretionary prism. The increase in ocean depth as slip on the megathrust approaches the trench has significant influence on the strength and azimuthal distribution of water reverberations in the far-field P wave coda. For broadband P waves from large earthquakes with dominant signal periods of about 10 s, water reverberations generated by shallow fault slip under deep water may persist for over a minute after the direct P phases have passed, giving a clear signal of slip near the trench. As the coda waves can be quickly evaluated following the P signal, recognition of slip extending to the trench and associated enhanced tsunamigenic potential could be achieved within a few minutes after the P arrival, potentially contributing to rapid tsunami hazard assessment. We examine the broadband P wave coda at distances from 80 to 120° for a large number of recent major and great earthquakes with independently determined slip distributions and known tsunami excitation to evaluate the prospect for rapidly constraining up-dip rupture extent of large megathrust earthquakes. Events known to have significant shallow slip, at least locally extending to the trench (e.g., 2016 Illapel, Chile; 2010 Maule, 2010 Mentawai) do have relatively enhanced coda levels at all azimuths, whereas events that do not rupture the shallow megathrust (e.g., 2007 Sumatra, 2014 Iquique, 2003 Hokkaido) do not. Some events with slip models lacking shallow slip show strong coda generation, raising questions about the up-dip resolution of

  3. Remote Triggering of Microearthquakes in the Piton de la Fournaise and Changbaishan Volcanoes (United States)

    Li, C.; Liu, G.; Peng, Z.; Brenguier, F.; Dufek, J.


    Large earthquakes are capable of triggering seismic, aseismic and hydrological responses at long-range distances. In particular, recent studies have shown that microearthquakes are mostly triggered in volcanic/geothermal regions. However, it is still not clear how widespread the phenomenon is, and whether there are any causal links between large earthquakes and subsequent volcanic unrest/eruptions. In this study we conduct a systematic search for remotely triggered activity at the Piton de la Fournaise (PdlF) and Changbaishan (CBS) volcanoes. The PdlF is a shield volcano located on the east-southern part of the Reunion Island in Indian Ocean. It is one of the most active volcanoes around the world. The CBS volcano is an intraplate stratovolcano on the border between China and North Korea, and it was active with a major eruption around 1100 years ago and has been since dormant from AD 1903, however, it showed signals of unrest recently. We choose these regions because they are well instrumented and spatially close to recent large earthquakes, such as the 2004/12/26 Mw9.1 Sumatra, 2011/03/11 Mw9.0 Tohoku, and the 2012/04/11 Mw8.6 Indian Ocean Earthquakes. By examining continuous waveforms a few hours before and after many earthquakes since 2000, we find many cases of remote triggering around the CBS volcano. In comparison, we only identify a few cases of remotely triggered seismicity around the PdlF volcano, including the 2004 Sumatra earthquake. Notably, the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake and its M8.2 aftershock did not trigger any clear increase of seismicity, at least during their surface waves. Our next step is to apply a waveform matching method to automatically detect volcano-seismicity in both regions, and then use them to better understand potential interactions between large earthquakes and volcanic activities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Gióia


    Full Text Available

    Thirty-nine samples of honey produced in Goiânia-GO and vicinities were analysed in relation to solid solubles, moisture, acidity in formic acid reducing sugars on glucose. The search for falsification was based on LUND’s reaction, the FIEHE test, Lugol test and the determination of the diastasics ferments. Only 30.77% of the samples analyzed were within the established by the legislation.

    Foram analisadas 39 amostras de mel de abelha produzido na região de Goiânia – GO, com o objetivo de se avaliar sua qualidade. Determinou-se: sólidos solúveis, umidade, acidez em ácido fórmico e glicídios redutores em glicose. As pesquisas de fraudes basearam-se nas provas de FIEHE, de LUND, teste do lugol e determinação de fermentos diastásicos. Somente 30,77% das amostras analisadas apresentaram-se conforme os padrões estabelecidos pela legislação vigente em todas as provas realizadas.

  5. The earthquake problem in engineering design: generating earthquake design basis information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.D.


    Designing earthquake resistant structures requires certain design inputs specific to the seismotectonic status of the region, in which a critical facility is to be located. Generating these inputs requires collection of earthquake related information using present day techniques in seismology and geology, and processing the collected information to integrate it to arrive at a consolidated picture of the seismotectonics of the region. The earthquake problem in engineering design has been outlined in the context of a seismic design of nuclear power plants vis a vis current state of the art techniques. The extent to which the accepted procedures of assessing seismic risk in the region and generating the design inputs have been adherred to determine to a great extent the safety of the structures against future earthquakes. The document is a step towards developing an aproach for generating these inputs, which form the earthquake design basis. (author)

  6. Estratégias para evitar a perda de biodiversidade na Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Célia Guimarães Vieira


    Full Text Available A SOCIEDADE brasileira recebe, anualmente, a estimativa de perda de floresta na Amazônia por meio da taxa de desflorestamento divulgada pelo Inpe, a qual, em 2004, foi de aproximadamente 26.130 km² . O que não se conhece é o quanto de recursos naturais se perde a cada quilômetro quadrado de floresta destruída. Neste trabalho, apresentamos números concretos desta perda, baseados em estudos recentes sobre a densidade de plantas e de alguns grupos de animais na Amazônia. Com base nisso, defendemos a idéia de que não há necessidade de se ampliar o desflorestamento na região e que, portanto, qualquer licença de desmatamento deveria ser proibida na Amazônia. Sugerimos também que o sistema de ciência e tecnologia regional deve ser descentralizado através do desenvolvimento de programas de pesquisa integrados, focalizados no desenho e no teste de modelos de territórios sustentáveis para os diferentes setores da região.BRAZILIAN society receives yearly an estimate of the Amazonian rainforest loss by means of a deforestation rate announced by Inpe, which in 2004 was of approximatly 26,130 km². What we do not know is how much of the natural resources is lost in each square kilometer of forest destruction. In this work, we present concrete numbers of forest loss, based on recent studies of plant densities and some animal species in the Amazon region. Our findings support the idea that it is not necessary to extend further deforestation in the region and, therefore, that deforestation licenses should be forbidden. Moreover, we propose that regional science and technology system must be gradually descentralized and enhanced through the integration and development of research programs focused in drawing and testing models of sustainable territories for the different social segments of the region.

  7. As redes para além dos rios: urbanização e desequilíbrios na Amazônia brasileira


    Sathler, Douglas; Monte-Mór, Roberto L.; Carvalho, José Alberto Magno de


    Nas últimas décadas, as redes urbanas que se estendem sobre a Amazônia Legal têm evoluído com o surgimento de cidades médias e com a multiplicação de pequenas aglomerações urbanas, que seguem os traçados das principais rodovias e rios da região. Apesar disso, as redes da Amazônia Legal apresentam diversos aspectos que devem ser estudados sem "euforia", diante de uma série de peculiaridades que merecem ser exploradas com maior profundidade. Mesmo que tenha sido estruturada uma hierarquia urban...

  8. Volatilização de Amônia Proveniente de Ureia Compactada com Enxofre e Bentonita, em Ambiente Controlado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, novas tecnologias têm sido desenvolvidas para reduzir as perdas de N quando se utiliza ureia como fonte desse macronutriente. A utilização de fertilizantes de características ácidas pode reduzir as perdas de amônia por volatilização, quando combinados com a ureia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perdas de amônia provenientes de fontes de N revestidas e, ou, incorporadas com ou sem enxofre e bentonita. Esses foram aplicados na superfície de um Planossolo Háplico contido em bandejas (0,1 m2 de área e 10 cm de profundidade, em dose equivalente a 200 kg ha-1 de N. Foram avaliadas as perdas de N-NH3 por volatilização durante 21 dias, com auxílio de um coletor semiaberto. A adição de diferentes fontes de enxofre e de bentonita no processo de compactação da ureia reduziu as perdas de amônia em até 29 %, quando comparadas com a ureia granulada comercial, comprovando serem alternativas promissoras para aumentar a eficiência da adubação nitrogenada.

  9. O Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família em Goiânia (GO: percepções dos profissionais e gestores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Félix Nicácio Martinez

    Full Text Available RESUMO O Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família (Nasf foi criado em 2008 para fortalecer a Atenção Básica no Brasil. Em Goiânia (GO, foi implantado cinco equipes em uma região do município. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o processo de implantação do Nasf em Goiânia a partir das percepções dos seus profissionais e gestores. Realizaram-se entrevistas, e os dados foram analisados a partir da técnica de análise temática. Conclui-se que o apoio matricial, a contratação de profissionais efetivos e a realização do processo formativo trouxeram avanços para o Nasf em Goiânia, embora com desafios frente às condições de trabalho e às resistências das Equipes de Saúde da Família.

  10. Tinjauan Kritis Simbol-simbol Budaya Nias dalam Iklan Produk Minuman Berenergi Studi Kasus Iklan Bermuatan Nilai Lokal Produk Kuku Bima Ener-G Versi “Ayo Wisata ke Sumatera” PT. Sido Muncul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Sarototonafo


    Full Text Available Symbols of local culture especially Nias on TVC (Television Commercial Kuku Bima Ener-G, version of “Let’s Travel to North Sumatra” from PT. Sidomuncul. Authors conducted a case study of the culture that campaigned Sidomuncul advertising through television media. The study was conducted using a critical research paradigm, which aim uncover Nias cultural symbols in the TVC of products Kuku Bima Ener-G PT Sidomuncul. The results suggested that the symbols used for Nias cultural values embodied in these symbols siding with the values espoused by Sidomuncul.

  11. Limitation of the Predominant-Period Estimator for Earthquake Early Warning and the Initial Rupture of Earthquakes (United States)

    Yamada, T.; Ide, S.


    Earthquake early warning is an important and challenging issue for the reduction of the seismic damage, especially for the mitigation of human suffering. One of the most important problems in earthquake early warning systems is how immediately we can estimate the final size of an earthquake after we observe the ground motion. It is relevant to the problem whether the initial rupture of an earthquake has some information associated with its final size. Nakamura (1988) developed the Urgent Earthquake Detection and Alarm System (UrEDAS). It calculates the predominant period of the P wave (τp) and estimates the magnitude of an earthquake immediately after the P wave arrival from the value of τpmax, or the maximum value of τp. The similar approach has been adapted by other earthquake alarm systems (e.g., Allen and Kanamori (2003)). To investigate the characteristic of the parameter τp and the effect of the length of the time window (TW) in the τpmax calculation, we analyze the high-frequency recordings of earthquakes at very close distances in the Mponeng mine in South Africa. We find that values of τpmax have upper and lower limits. For larger earthquakes whose source durations are longer than TW, the values of τpmax have an upper limit which depends on TW. On the other hand, the values for smaller earthquakes have a lower limit which is proportional to the sampling interval. For intermediate earthquakes, the values of τpmax are close to their typical source durations. These two limits and the slope for intermediate earthquakes yield an artificial final size dependence of τpmax in a wide size range. The parameter τpmax is useful for detecting large earthquakes and broadcasting earthquake early warnings. However, its dependence on the final size of earthquakes does not suggest that the earthquake rupture is deterministic. This is because τpmax does not always have a direct relation to the physical quantities of an earthquake.

  12. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes (United States)

    Kolvankar, V. G.


    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  13. Earthquake engineering development before and after the March 4, 1977, Vrancea, Romania earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, E.-S.


    At 25 years since the of the Vrancea earthquake of March, 4th 1977, we can analyze in an open and critical way its impact on the evolution of earthquake engineering codes and protection policies in Romania. The earthquake (M G-R = 7.2; M w = 7.5), produced 1,570 casualties and more than 11,300 injured persons (90% of the victims in Bucharest), seismic losses were estimated at more then USD 2 billions. The 1977 earthquake represented a significant episode of XXth century in seismic zones of Romania and neighboring countries. The INCERC seismic record of March 4, 1977 put, for the first time, in evidence the spectral content of long period seismic motions of Vrancea earthquakes, the duration, the number of cycles and values of actual accelerations, with important effects of overloading upon flexible structures. The seismic coefficients k s , the spectral curve (the dynamic coefficient β r ) and the seismic zonation map, the requirements in the antiseismic design norms were drastically, changed while the microzonation maps of the time ceased to be used, and the specific Vrancea earthquake recurrence was reconsidered based on hazard studies Thus, the paper emphasises: - the existing engineering knowledge, earthquake code and zoning maps requirements until 1977 as well as seismology and structural lessons since 1977; - recent aspects of implementing of the Earthquake Code P.100/1992 and harmonization with Eurocodes, in conjunction with the specific of urban and rural seismic risk and enforcing policies on strengthening of existing buildings; - a strategic view of disaster prevention, using earthquake scenarios and loss assessments, insurance, earthquake education and training; - the need of a closer transfer of knowledge between seismologists, engineers and officials in charge with disaster prevention public policies. (author)

  14. Introdução ao estudo da migração internacional na Amazônia Introduction to the study of international migration in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Aragón


    Full Text Available Apesar da importância que a migração internacional alcançou na mídia e na academia no mundo inteiro, existem somente uns poucos estudos esparsos sobre a migração internacional na Amazônia. Como se apresenta o processo de migração internacional na Amazônia e qual é a sua importância nos destinos da região? Este artigo busca se aproximar da resposta a essa pergunta. O texto sintetiza resultados de investigações recentes realizadas pelo Grupo de Pesquisa Meio Ambiente, População e Desenvolvimento da Amazônia (MAPAZ, do Núcleo de Altos Estudos Amazônicos (NAEA da Universidade Federal do Pará. Primeiramente, destaca-se a dificuldade de se definir a Amazônia; posteriormente, são apresentadas algumas considerações sobre a migração internacional em nível da Grande Região, agregando os migrantes acumulados nas respectivas Amazônias nacionais, conforme os censos de população de cada país; e, finalmente, trata-se essa problemática no caso da Amazônia brasileira, destacando os países de nascimento e a distribuição espacial dos migrantes na Amazônia Legal. Na Amazônia, os padrões e as tendências discutidas aqui se tornarão mais dinâmicos e complexos em função do andamento de políticas de desenvolvimento na busca da integração regional e econômica.Despite the importance that international migration has attained in the media and academia worldwide, there are only a few scattered studies on international migration in the Amazon. How is the process of international migration presented in the Amazon and what is its importance in the destiny of the region? This article is an initial approach to that question. The text summarizes results of recent research conducted by the Research Group on Environment, Population and Development in the Amazon (MAPAZ of the Center for Advanced Amazonian Studies (NAEA of the Federal University of Pará. First, it discusses the difficulty of defining the Amazon, then some

  15. The music of earthquakes and Earthquake Quartet #1 (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.


    Earthquake Quartet #1, my composition for voice, trombone, cello, and seismograms, is the intersection of listening to earthquakes as a seismologist and performing music as a trombonist. Along the way, I realized there is a close relationship between what I do as a scientist and what I do as a musician. A musician controls the source of the sound and the path it travels through their instrument in order to make sound waves that we hear as music. An earthquake is the source of waves that travel along a path through the earth until reaching us as shaking. It is almost as if the earth is a musician and people, including seismologists, are metaphorically listening and trying to understand what the music means.

  16. Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation of Taiwan earthquakes (United States)

    Lee, S.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.


    We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 minutes for a 70 sec ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica ( Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

  17. Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.


    Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require

  18. Historical earthquake research in Austria (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa


    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  19. A novel safety assessment strategy for non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) in carton food contact materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.; Rennen, M.; Leeman, W.; Houben, G.; Muilwijk, B.; Acker, F. van; Krul, L.


    One of the main challenges in food contact materials research is to prove that the presence of non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) is not a safety issue. Migration extracts may contain many unknown substances present at low concentrations. It is difficult and time-consuming to identify all

  20. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil Pesquisa sobre uso de drogas psicotrópicas em 12 unidades da Polícia Militar nos municípios de Goiânia e Aparecida de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Nascente Costa


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. METHOD: Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n = 221 were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. RESULTS: The frequency of use was divided into: 1 lifetime use: tobacco - 39.9%, alcohol - 87.8%, cannabis - 8.1%, cocaine - 1.8%, stimulants - 7.2%, solvents - 10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 6.8%, LSD - 0.5%, Bentyl® - 0.5%, anabolic steroids - 5.4%; 2 use in the previous year: tobacco - 15.4%, alcohol - 72.9%, stimulants - 6.3%, solvents - 0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 3.7%; 3 use in the previous 30 days: tobacco - 14.5%, alcohol - 57.5%, stimulants - 5.0%, solvents - 0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 3.7%. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência do uso de drogas psicotrópicas por membros da Polícia Militar no Estado de Goiás, Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudo realizado de março a outubro de 2008 em 12 unidades da Polícia Militar dos municípios de Goiânia e Aparecida de Goiânia. Participantes voluntários (n = 221 foram entrevistados sobre uso de drogas utilizando-se questionário desenvolvido pelo Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID. A estatística descritiva foi usada para determinar a prevalência de uso de drogas lícitas e ilícitas na amostra estudada. RESULTADOS: A frequência de

  1. Where was the 1898 Mare Island Earthquake? Insights from the 2014 South Napa Earthquake (United States)

    Hough, S. E.


    The 2014 South Napa earthquake provides an opportunity to reconsider the Mare Island earthquake of 31 March 1898, which caused severe damage to buildings at a Navy yard on the island. Revising archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, I estimate a lower intensity magnitude, 5.8, than the value in the current Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) catalog (6.4). However, I note that intensity magnitude can differ from Mw by upwards of half a unit depending on stress drop, which for a historical earthquake is unknowable. In the aftermath of the 2014 earthquake, there has been speculation that apparently severe effects on Mare Island in 1898 were due to the vulnerability of local structures. No surface rupture has ever been identified from the 1898 event, which is commonly associated with the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system, some 10 km west of Mare Island (e.g., Parsons et al., 2003). Reconsideration of detailed archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, together with a comparison of the intensity distributions for the two earthquakes, points to genuinely severe, likely near-field ground motions on Mare Island. The 2014 earthquake did cause significant damage to older brick buildings on Mare Island, but the level of damage does not match the severity of documented damage in 1898. The high intensity files for the two earthquakes are more over spatially shifted, with the centroid of the 2014 distribution near the town of Napa and that of the 1898 distribution near Mare Island, east of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek system. I conclude that the 1898 Mare Island earthquake was centered on or near Mare Island, possibly involving rupture of one or both strands of the Franklin fault, a low-slip-rate fault sub-parallel to the Rodgers Creek fault to the west and the West Napa fault to the east. I estimate Mw5.8 assuming an average stress drop; data are also consistent with Mw6.4 if stress drop was a factor of ≈3 lower than average for California earthquakes. I

  2. Peasant women and access to land : customary law, state law and gender-based ideology : the case of the Toba-Batak (North Sumatra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simbolon, I.J.


    This study is about opportunities, constraints and strategies regarding access to land of peasant women who live in the changing Toba-Batak patrilineal community of North Sumatra. Their access to land is seen in the wider context of the ongoing pressure of land scarcity due to

  3. Earthquakes, May-June 1991 (United States)

    Person, W.J.


    One major earthquake occurred during this reporting period. This was a magntidue 7.1 in Indonesia (Minahassa Peninsula) on June 20. Earthquake-related deaths were reported in the Western Caucasus (Georgia, USSR) on May 3 and June 15. One earthquake-related death was also reported El Salvador on June 21. 

  4. Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating Extreme Earthquakes (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.


    Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting extreme events. Extreme earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the extreme events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of extreme seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying extreme events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).

  5. Reflexões sobre hidrelétricas na Amazônia: água, energia e desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Koiffmann Becker

    Full Text Available O ensaio discute a implantação de hidrelétricas na Amazônia a partir das relações entre consumo de água e hidroeletricidade em diferentes escalas de análise, pois, se todos os lugares do planeta são afetados por processos globais, eles não o são de modo homogêneo. À escala global, domina o discurso apocalíptico de escassez crescente da água e do aquecimento global, exigindo a redução de emissões de gases de efeito estufa mediante o uso de energias renováveis e novas tecnologias. Na escala nacional, os problemas do Brasil são, pelo contrário, como gerir a abundância de água com justiça social e territorial, e como sustar a perda de 20% da energia elétrica produzida. Finalmente, é na escala regional - na Amazônia - que emergem os maiores problemas: i o maior paradoxo entre abundância de água e inacessibilidade social ao recurso; ii grande parte das hidrelétricas planejadas para o país será ali construída, com risco dos graves impactos conhecidos; iii a cogitada obrigatoriedade da construção de eclusas em todas as hidrelétricas, proposta pelo setor industrial em benefício da navegabilidade dos rios, deverá propiciar, na verdade, o escoamento de commodities produzidas na região Centro-Oeste. Coloca-se, assim, para a sociedade e para o governo, a questão ética se realmente são necessárias tantas hidrelétricas na Amazônia.

  6. Earthquake Catalogue of the Caucasus (United States)

    Godoladze, T.; Gok, R.; Tvaradze, N.; Tumanova, N.; Gunia, I.; Onur, T.


    The Caucasus has a documented historical catalog stretching back to the beginning of the Christian era. Most of the largest historical earthquakes prior to the 19th century are assumed to have occurred on active faults of the Greater Caucasus. Important earthquakes include the Samtskhe earthquake of 1283 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); Lechkhumi-Svaneti earthquake of 1350 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); and the Alaverdi earthquake of 1742 (Ms˜6.8, Io=9). Two significant historical earthquakes that may have occurred within the Javakheti plateau in the Lesser Caucasus are the Tmogvi earthquake of 1088 (Ms˜6.5, Io=9) and the Akhalkalaki earthquake of 1899 (Ms˜6.3, Io =8-9). Large earthquakes that occurred in the Caucasus within the period of instrumental observation are: Gori 1920; Tabatskuri 1940; Chkhalta 1963; Racha earthquake of 1991 (Ms=7.0), is the largest event ever recorded in the region; Barisakho earthquake of 1992 (M=6.5); Spitak earthquake of 1988 (Ms=6.9, 100 km south of Tbilisi), which killed over 50,000 people in Armenia. Recently, permanent broadband stations have been deployed across the region as part of the various national networks (Georgia (˜25 stations), Azerbaijan (˜35 stations), Armenia (˜14 stations)). The data from the last 10 years of observation provides an opportunity to perform modern, fundamental scientific investigations. In order to improve seismic data quality a catalog of all instrumentally recorded earthquakes has been compiled by the IES (Institute of Earth Sciences/NSMC, Ilia State University) in the framework of regional joint project (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, USA) "Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) in the Caucasus. The catalogue consists of more then 80,000 events. First arrivals of each earthquake of Mw>=4.0 have been carefully examined. To reduce calculation errors, we corrected arrivals from the seismic records. We improved locations of the events and recalculate Moment magnitudes in order to obtain unified magnitude

  7. As redes para além dos rios: urbanização e desequilíbrios na Amazônia Brasileira


    Douglas Sathler dos Reis


    Nas últimas décadas, as redes urbanas que se estendem sobre a Amazônia Legal têm evoluído com o surgimento de cidades de médio porte e com a multiplicação de pequenas aglomerações urbanas, que seguem os traçados das principais rodovias e rios da região. Em um contexto de transformações globais, com aparecimento das Redes Móveis em meio às novas formas de flexibilidade e interatividade, as redes da Amazônia Legal apresentam diversos aspectos que devem ser estudados sem euforia, diante de uma s...

  8. Phytoplankton blooms induced/sustained by cyclonic eddies during the Indian Ocean Dipole event of 1997 along the southern coasts of Java and Sumatra (United States)

    Reddy, P. Rahul Chand; Salvekar, P. S.


    The Indonesian archipelago is the gateway in the tropics connecting two oceans (Pacific and the Indian Ocean) and two continents (Asia and Australia). During the Indian Ocean Dipole 1997, record anomalous and unanticipated upwelling had occurred along the southern coasts of Java and Sumatra causing massive phytoplankton blooms. But the method/mode/process for such anomalous upwelling was not known. Using monthly SeaWifs chlorophyll-a anomalies, TOPEX Sea Surface Height (SSH) anomalies, Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) and currents from a state-of-the-art OGCM, we report the presence of a series of cyclonic eddies along southern coasts of Sumatra and Java during November, December 1997 and January 1998. Upwelling caused by these cyclonic eddies, as also supported by the SSH and SST anomalies, has been responsible for the phytoplankton blooms to persist and dissipate during the 3 months (November, December 1997 and January 1998).

  9. Natural Time and Nowcasting Earthquakes: Are Large Global Earthquakes Temporally Clustered? (United States)

    Luginbuhl, Molly; Rundle, John B.; Turcotte, Donald L.


    The objective of this paper is to analyze the temporal clustering of large global earthquakes with respect to natural time, or interevent count, as opposed to regular clock time. To do this, we use two techniques: (1) nowcasting, a new method of statistically classifying seismicity and seismic risk, and (2) time series analysis of interevent counts. We chose the sequences of M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 and M_{λ } ≥ 8.0 earthquakes from the global centroid moment tensor (CMT) catalog from 2004 to 2016 for analysis. A significant number of these earthquakes will be aftershocks of the largest events, but no satisfactory method of declustering the aftershocks in clock time is available. A major advantage of using natural time is that it eliminates the need for declustering aftershocks. The event count we utilize is the number of small earthquakes that occur between large earthquakes. The small earthquake magnitude is chosen to be as small as possible, such that the catalog is still complete based on the Gutenberg-Richter statistics. For the CMT catalog, starting in 2004, we found the completeness magnitude to be M_{σ } ≥ 5.1. For the nowcasting method, the cumulative probability distribution of these interevent counts is obtained. We quantify the distribution using the exponent, β, of the best fitting Weibull distribution; β = 1 for a random (exponential) distribution. We considered 197 earthquakes with M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 and found β = 0.83 ± 0.08. We considered 15 earthquakes with M_{λ } ≥ 8.0, but this number was considered too small to generate a meaningful distribution. For comparison, we generated synthetic catalogs of earthquakes that occur randomly with the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude statistics. We considered a synthetic catalog of 1.97 × 10^5 M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 earthquakes and found β = 0.99 ± 0.01. The random catalog converted to natural time was also random. We then generated 1.5 × 10^4 synthetic catalogs with 197 M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 in each catalog and

  10. Earthquake hazard assessment and small earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, L.


    The significance of small earthquakes and their treatment in nuclear power plant seismic hazard assessment is an issue which has received increased attention over the past few years. In probabilistic studies, sensitivity studies showed that the choice of the lower bound magnitude used in hazard calculations can have a larger than expected effect on the calculated hazard. Of particular interest is the fact that some of the difference in seismic hazard calculations between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies can be attributed to this choice. The LLNL study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 3.75 while the EPRI study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 5.0. The magnitudes used were assumed to be body wave magnitudes or their equivalents. In deterministic studies recent ground motion recordings of small to moderate earthquakes at or near nuclear power plants have shown that the high frequencies of design response spectra may be exceeded. These exceedances became important issues in the licensing of the Summer and Perry nuclear power plants. At various times in the past particular concerns have been raised with respect to the hazard and damage potential of small to moderate earthquakes occurring at very shallow depths. In this paper a closer look is taken at these issues. Emphasis is given to the impact of lower bound magnitude on probabilistic hazard calculations and the historical record of damage from small to moderate earthquakes. Limited recommendations are made as to how these issues should be viewed

  11. Intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equídeos na região central de Rondônia Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in central region of Rondônia state, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Vargas Schons


    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento em 12 municípios da região central de Rondônia sobre a presença de plantas tóxicas e ocorrência de surtos de intoxicação em ruminantes e equídeos. O trabalho foi desenvolvido mediante a utilização de um questionário aplicado a médicos veterinários, agrônomos, zootecnistas e produtores rurais, com o objetivo de identificar as principais plantas tóxicas que ocorrem na região. Trinta e quatro entrevistados relataram casos de intoxicação por uma ou mais plantas comprovadamente tóxicas como: Palicourea marcgravii (12 surtos, Palicourea grandiflora e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (sete surtos cada e Palicourea juruana, Brachiaria radicans, Brachiaria brizantha e Manihot esculenta (dois surtos cada. Em ovinos, foram relatados dois surtos de fotossensiblização por Brachiaria decumbens e um surto de mortalidade por Palicourea grandiflora. Dos 34 surtos relatados em bovinos pelos entrevistados, 374 (8,9% animais foram afetados e 311 (7,4% morreram, de um total de 4.192 de ambos os sexos sob risco. De um total de 250 ovinos sob risco, três surtos de intoxicação por plantas foram relatados e afetaram 28 animais, dos quais 20 morreram. Amorimia sp., previamente desconhecida como tóxica, foi identificada como causa de morte súbita em 32% das propriedades. Quinze surtos de cólica em equídeos que pastavam cultivares de Panicum maximum ('Massai', 'Tanzânia' e 'Mombaça' durante o período das chuvas foram, também, observados. Os resultados do presente trabalho demonstram a importância significativa das intoxicações por plantas como causa de perdas econômicas para a pecuária da região central do Estado de Rondônia. Com a realização deste trabalho, o número de plantas tóxicas para ruminantes com a confirmação de ocorrência de surtos com mortalidade na região passou de um para nove, o que confirma que um trabalho sistemático de investigação é necessário para o conhecimento da import

  12. Extreme value distribution of earthquake magnitude (United States)

    Zi, Jun Gan; Tung, C. C.


    Probability distribution of maximum earthquake magnitude is first derived for an unspecified probability distribution of earthquake magnitude. A model for energy release of large earthquakes, similar to that of Adler-Lomnitz and Lomnitz, is introduced from which the probability distribution of earthquake magnitude is obtained. An extensive set of world data for shallow earthquakes, covering the period from 1904 to 1980, is used to determine the parameters of the probability distribution of maximum earthquake magnitude. Because of the special form of probability distribution of earthquake magnitude, a simple iterative scheme is devised to facilitate the estimation of these parameters by the method of least-squares. The agreement between the empirical and derived probability distributions of maximum earthquake magnitude is excellent.

  13. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.; Atchinson, R.J.


    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  14. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael


    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  15. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin


    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  16. Excel, Earthquakes, and Moneyball: exploring Cascadia earthquake probabilities using spreadsheets and baseball analogies (United States)

    Campbell, M. R.; Salditch, L.; Brooks, E. M.; Stein, S.; Spencer, B. D.


    Much recent media attention focuses on Cascadia's earthquake hazard. A widely cited magazine article starts "An earthquake will destroy a sizable portion of the coastal Northwest. The question is when." Stories include statements like "a massive earthquake is overdue", "in the next 50 years, there is a 1-in-10 chance a "really big one" will erupt," or "the odds of the big Cascadia earthquake happening in the next fifty years are roughly one in three." These lead students to ask where the quoted probabilities come from and what they mean. These probability estimates involve two primary choices: what data are used to describe when past earthquakes happened and what models are used to forecast when future earthquakes will happen. The data come from a 10,000-year record of large paleoearthquakes compiled from subsidence data on land and turbidites, offshore deposits recording submarine slope failure. Earthquakes seem to have happened in clusters of four or five events, separated by gaps. Earthquakes within a cluster occur more frequently and regularly than in the full record. Hence the next earthquake is more likely if we assume that we are in the recent cluster that started about 1700 years ago, than if we assume the cluster is over. Students can explore how changing assumptions drastically changes probability estimates using easy-to-write and display spreadsheets, like those shown below. Insight can also come from baseball analogies. The cluster issue is like deciding whether to assume that a hitter's performance in the next game is better described by his lifetime record, or by the past few games, since he may be hitting unusually well or in a slump. The other big choice is whether to assume that the probability of an earthquake is constant with time, or is small immediately after one occurs and then grows with time. This is like whether to assume that a player's performance is the same from year to year, or changes over their career. Thus saying "the chance of

  17. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets? (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna


    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan.

  18. Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation II: Real-time Online earthquake Simulation (ROS) of Taiwan earthquakes (United States)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong; Liu, Qinya; Tromp, Jeroen; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Huang, Bor-Shouh


    We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 min after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). A new island-wide, high resolution SEM mesh model is developed for the whole Taiwan in this study. We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 min for a 70 s ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica ( Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

  19. Analysis of pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies before the global M = 7.0+ earthquakes in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Peng


    Full Text Available The pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies that occurred before the global M = 7.0+ earthquakes in 2010 are investigated using the total electron content (TEC from the global ionosphere map (GIM. We analyze the possible causes of the ionospheric anomalies based on the space environment and magnetic field status. Results show that some anomalies are related to the earthquakes. By analyzing the time of occurrence, duration, and spatial distribution of these ionospheric anomalies, a number of new conclusions are drawn, as follows: earthquake-related ionospheric anomalies are not bound to appear; both positive and negative anomalies are likely to occur; and the earthquake-related ionospheric anomalies discussed in the current study occurred 0–2 days before the associated earthquakes and in the afternoon to sunset (i.e. between 12:00 and 20:00 local time. Pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies occur mainly in areas near the epicenter. However, the maximum affected area in the ionosphere does not coincide with the vertical projection of the epicenter of the subsequent earthquake. The directions deviating from the epicenters do not follow a fixed rule. The corresponding ionospheric effects can also be observed in the magnetically conjugated region. However, the probability of the anomalies appearance and extent of the anomalies in the magnetically conjugated region are smaller than the anomalies near the epicenter. Deep-focus earthquakes may also exhibit very significant pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies.

  20. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and the Rise and Fall of Earthquake Prediction in China (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Wang, K.


    Regardless of the future potential of earthquake prediction, it is presently impractical to rely on it to mitigate earthquake disasters. The practical approach is to strengthen the resilience of our built environment to earthquakes based on hazard assessment. But this was not common understanding in China when the M 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck the Sichuan Province on 12 May 2008, claiming over 80,000 lives. In China, earthquake prediction is a government-sanctioned and law-regulated measure of disaster prevention. A sudden boom of the earthquake prediction program in 1966-1976 coincided with a succession of nine M > 7 damaging earthquakes in the densely populated region of the country and the political chaos of the Cultural Revolution. It climaxed with the prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, which was due mainly to an unusually pronounced foreshock sequence and the extraordinary readiness of some local officials to issue imminent warning and evacuation order. The Haicheng prediction was a success in practice and yielded useful lessons, but the experience cannot be applied to most other earthquakes and cultural environments. Since the disastrous Tangshan earthquake in 1976 that killed over 240,000 people, there have been two opposite trends in China: decreasing confidence in prediction and increasing emphasis on regulating construction design for earthquake resilience. In 1976, most of the seismic intensity XI areas of Tangshan were literally razed to the ground, but in 2008, many buildings in the intensity XI areas of Wenchuan did not collapse. Prediction did not save life in either of these events; the difference was made by construction standards. For regular buildings, there was no seismic design in Tangshan to resist any earthquake shaking in 1976, but limited seismic design was required for the Wenchuan area in 2008. Although the construction standards were later recognized to be too low, those buildings that met the standards suffered much less

  1. 1/f and the Earthquake Problem: Scaling constraints that facilitate operational earthquake forecasting (United States)

    yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.


    The difficulty of forecasting earthquakes can fundamentally be attributed to the self-similar, or "1/f", nature of seismic sequences. Specifically, the rate of occurrence of earthquakes is inversely proportional to their magnitude m, or more accurately to their scalar moment M. With respect to this "1/f problem," it can be argued that catalog selection (or equivalently, determining catalog constraints) constitutes the most significant challenge to seismicity based earthquake forecasting. Here, we address and introduce a potential solution to this most daunting problem. Specifically, we introduce a framework to constrain, or partition, an earthquake catalog (a study region) in order to resolve local seismicity. In particular, we combine Gutenberg-Richter (GR), rupture length, and Omori scaling with various empirical measurements to relate the size (spatial and temporal extents) of a study area (or bins within a study area) to the local earthquake magnitude potential - the magnitude of earthquake the region is expected to experience. From this, we introduce a new type of time dependent hazard map for which the tuning parameter space is nearly fully constrained. In a similar fashion, by combining various scaling relations and also by incorporating finite extents (rupture length, area, and duration) as constraints, we develop a method to estimate the Omori (temporal) and spatial aftershock decay parameters as a function of the parent earthquake's magnitude m. From this formulation, we develop an ETAS type model that overcomes many point-source limitations of contemporary ETAS. These models demonstrate promise with respect to earthquake forecasting applications. Moreover, the methods employed suggest a general framework whereby earthquake and other complex-system, 1/f type, problems can be constrained from scaling relations and finite extents.; Record-breaking hazard map of southern California, 2012-08-06. "Warm" colors indicate local acceleration (elevated hazard

  2. Post-earthquake building safety inspection: Lessons from the Canterbury, New Zealand, earthquakes (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Gould, N.; Turner, F.; Lizundia, B.; Barnes, J.


    The authors discuss some of the unique aspects and lessons of the New Zealand post-earthquake building safety inspection program that was implemented following the Canterbury earthquake sequence of 2010–2011. The post-event safety assessment program was one of the largest and longest programs undertaken in recent times anywhere in the world. The effort engaged hundreds of engineering professionals throughout the country, and also sought expertise from outside, to perform post-earthquake structural safety inspections of more than 100,000 buildings in the city of Christchurch and the surrounding suburbs. While the building safety inspection procedure implemented was analogous to the ATC 20 program in the United States, many modifications were proposed and implemented in order to assess the large number of buildings that were subjected to strong and variable shaking during a period of two years. This note discusses some of the key aspects of the post-earthquake building safety inspection program and summarizes important lessons that can improve future earthquake response.

  3. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes: large earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Lavenda


    Full Text Available A compound Poisson process is used to derive a new shape parameter which can be used to discriminate between large earthquakes and aftershock sequences. Sample exceedance distributions of large earthquakes are fitted to the Pareto tail and the actual distribution of the maximum to the Fréchet distribution, while the sample distribution of aftershocks are fitted to a Beta distribution and the distribution of the minimum to the Weibull distribution for the smallest value. The transition between initial sample distributions and asymptotic extreme value distributions shows that self-similar power laws are transformed into nonscaling exponential distributions so that neither self-similarity nor the Gutenberg-Richter law can be considered universal. The energy-magnitude transformation converts the Fréchet distribution into the Gumbel distribution, originally proposed by Epstein and Lomnitz, and not the Gompertz distribution as in the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz generalization of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Numerical comparison is made with the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz analysis using the same Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes. An analogy is drawn between large earthquakes and high energy particle physics. A generalized equation of state is used to transform the Gamma density into the order-statistic Fréchet distribution. Earthquaketemperature and volume are determined as functions of the energy. Large insurance claims based on the Pareto distribution, which does not have a right endpoint, show why there cannot be a maximum earthquake energy.

  4. Fire Distribution in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 with Special Emphasis on Peatland Fires. (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Shi, Chenghua; Liew, Soo Chin


    In this paper, we analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of vegetation fires in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo in the severe El Niño year of 2015, concentrating on the distribution of fires between mineral soils and peatland areas, and between land cover types in peatland areas. The results reveal that 53% of all Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire detections were recorded in peatlands that cover only 12% of the study area. However, fire occurrence in the peatland areas was highly dependent on land cover type. Pristine peat swamp forests (PSF) experienced only marginal fire activity (30 fire detections per 1000 km 2 ) compared to deforested undeveloped peatlands (831-915 fire detections per 1000 km 2 ). Our results also highlight the extreme fire vulnerability of the southern Sumatran and Bornean peatlands under strong El Niño conditions: 71% of all peatland hotspots were detected in the provinces of South Sumatra and Central Kalimantan, which contain 29% of peatlands in the study area. Degraded PSF and all deforested peatland land cover types, including managed areas, in the two provinces were severely affected, demonstrating how difficult it is to protect even managed drained agricultural areas from unwanted fires during dry periods. Our results thereby advocate rewetting and rehabilitation as the primary management option for highly fire prone degraded undeveloped peatland areas, whenever feasible, as a means to reduce fire risk during future dry episodes.

  5. Crescimento e estado nutricional de helicônia irrigada com água residuária tratada em casa de vegetação Growth and nutritional status of helicônia irrigated with treated wastewater in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia S. N. Santos


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se estudaram o desenvolvimento e o estado nutricional de helicônias irrigadas com água residuária tratada de origem doméstica associada a fertilizantes químicos (NPK. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na qual se utilizaram plantas de helicônia Golden Adrian. O experimento foi instalado no esquema fatorial 5 x 3 + 1 constituídos de cinco níveis de lâmina de água aplicada (equivalente a 60, 80, 100, 120 e 140% da evaporação do tanque classe A ECA, três tipos de água (água residuária (AR, água pluvial (AP e mistura de 50% de AR + 50% de AP e testemunha (solo sem adubação e recebendo 100% da ECA de água pluvial. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. A utilização de AR e as lâminas maiores proporcionaram acréscimo nos parâmetros de crescimento avaliados. Os teores de macronutrientes presentes nas folhas das plantas irrigadas com AR se comportaram de forma semelhante às plantas que receberam AP. O uso de AR e AP resultou em acréscimo de teores de micronutrientes nas folhas, principalmente Fe e Mn, acima dos teores recomendados para a cultura.In this study the growth and nutritional status of helicônias irrigated with treated wastewater of domestic origin associated with chemical fertilizers (NPK was studied. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse utilizing plants of helicônia Golden Adrian. The experiment was installed in 5 x 3 + 1 factorial scheme consisting of five depths of irrigation water (equivalent to 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140% of class A pan evaporation - ECA, three types of water (wastewater (AR, rainwater (AP and a mixture of 50% AR + 50% AP and control (soil without fertilizer and receiving rainwater corresponding to 100% ECA. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with five repetitions. The use of AR and larger depths of irrigation provided increases in evaluated parameters of growth. The levels of macronutrients in the

  6. Twin predecessor of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Implications for rebuilt coastal communities (United States)

    Sieh, K.; Daly, P.; McKinnon, E.; Chiang, H.; Pilarczyk, J.; Daryono, M. R.; Horton, B.; Shen, C.; Rubin, C. M.; Ismail, N.; Kelsey, H. M.


    We present stratigraphic, historical and archeological evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 tsunami on the northern coast of Aceh, northern Sumatra. Beachcliff exposures reveal two beds of tsunamigenic coral rubble within a small alluvial fan. Stratigraphical consistent radiocarbon and Uranium-Thorium disequilibrium dates indicate the the two beds were emplaced in the mid- to late 14th century, correlative with paleoseismic evidence of sudden uplifts of coral reefs on nearby Simeulue island in AD 1394 and, again in AD 1450. A nearby seacliff exposure contains evidence of nearly continuous settlement from ~AD 1240 to 1367, followed by tsunami destruction. Evidence of continuous settlement included South Asian ceramic and stoneware fragments, as well as a single Chinese coin dating to AD 1111-1118. Our data may solve the mysterious 15th century discontinuity in cultures along the northern Sumatran coast of the maritime silk route. This history of a doublet tsunami has implications for communities around the Indian Ocean that were rebuilt after the devastation of 2004, since reconstruction occurred with the tacit belief that such an event would not happen in the foreseeable future. History, geology and archeology hint that such a view may prove tragically incorrect.

  7. Countermeasures to earthquakes in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuhide


    The contribution of atomic energy to mankind is unmeasured, but the danger of radioactivity is a special thing. Therefore in the design of nuclear power plants, the safety has been regarded as important, and in Japan where earthquakes occur frequently, the countermeasures to earthquakes have been incorporated in the examination of safety naturally. The radioactive substances handled in nuclear power stations and spent fuel reprocessing plants are briefly explained. The occurrence of earthquakes cannot be predicted effectively, and the disaster due to earthquakes is apt to be remarkably large. In nuclear plants, the prevention of damage in the facilities and the maintenance of the functions are required at the time of earthquakes. Regarding the location of nuclear plants, the history of earthquakes, the possible magnitude of earthquakes, the properties of ground and the position of nuclear plants should be examined. After the place of installation has been decided, the earthquake used for design is selected, evaluating live faults and determining the standard earthquakes. As the fundamentals of aseismatic design, the classification according to importance, the earthquakes for design corresponding to the classes of importance, the combination of loads and allowable stress are explained. (Kako, I.)

  8. Geochemistry of Selected Coal Samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia (United States)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.


    Introduction Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,000 islands that stretches astride the equator for about 5,200 km in southeast Asia (figure 1) and includes major Cenozoic volcano-plutonic arcs, active volcanoes, and various related onshore and offshore basins. These magmatic arcs have extensive Cu and Au mineralization that has generated much exploration and mining in the last 50 years. Although Au and Ag have been mined in Indonesia for over 1000 years (van Leeuwen, 1994), it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the Dutch explored and developed major Sn and minor Au, Ag, Ni, bauxite, and coal resources. The metallogeny of Indonesia includes Au-rich porphyry Cu, porphyry Mo, skarn Cu-Au, sedimentary-rock hosted Au, epithermal Au, laterite Ni, and diamond deposits. For example, the Grasberg deposit in Papua has the world's largest gold reserves and the third-largest copper reserves (Sillitoe, 1994). Coal mining in Indonesia also has had a long history beginning with the initial production in 1849 in the Mahakam coal field near Pengaron, East Kalimantan; in 1891 in the Ombilin area, Sumatra, (van Leeuwen, 1994); and in South Sumatra in 1919 at the Bukit Asam mine (Soehandojo, 1989). Total production from deposits in Sumatra and Kalimantan, from the 19thth century to World War II, amounted to 40 million metric tons (Mt). After World War II, production declined due to various factors including politics and a boom in the world-wide oil economy. Active exploration and increased mining began again in the 1980's mainly through a change in Indonesian government policy of collaboration with foreign companies and the global oil crises (Prijono, 1989). This recent coal revival (van Leeuwen, 1994) has lead Indonesia to become the largest exporter of thermal (steam) coal and the second largest combined thermal and metallurgical (coking) coal exporter in the world market (Fairhead and others, 2006). The exported coal is desirable as it is low sulfur

  9. Do earthquakes exhibit self-organized criticality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaosong; Ma Jin; Du Shuming


    If earthquakes are phenomena of self-organized criticality (SOC), statistical characteristics of the earthquake time series should be invariant after the sequence of events in an earthquake catalog are randomly rearranged. In this Letter we argue that earthquakes are unlikely phenomena of SOC because our analysis of the Southern California Earthquake Catalog shows that the first-return-time probability P M (T) is apparently changed after the time series is rearranged. This suggests that the SOC theory should not be used to oppose the efforts of earthquake prediction

  10. Earthquake precursors: spatial-temporal gravity changes before the great earthquakes in the Sichuan-Yunnan area (United States)

    Zhu, Yi-Qing; Liang, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Song


    Using multiple-scale mobile gravity data in the Sichuan-Yunnan area, we systematically analyzed the relationships between spatial-temporal gravity changes and the 2014 Ludian, Yunnan Province Ms6.5 earthquake and the 2014 Kangding Ms6.3, 2013 Lushan Ms7.0, and 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquakes in Sichuan Province. Our main results are as follows. (1) Before the occurrence of large earthquakes, gravity anomalies occur in a large area around the epicenters. The directions of gravity change gradient belts usually agree roughly with the directions of the main fault zones of the study area. Such gravity changes might reflect the increase of crustal stress, as well as the significant active tectonic movements and surface deformations along fault zones, during the period of gestation of great earthquakes. (2) Continuous significant changes of the multiple-scale gravity fields, as well as greater gravity changes with larger time scales, can be regarded as medium-range precursors of large earthquakes. The subsequent large earthquakes always occur in the area where the gravity changes greatly. (3) The spatial-temporal gravity changes are very useful in determining the epicenter of coming large earthquakes. The large gravity networks are useful to determine the general areas of coming large earthquakes. However, the local gravity networks with high spatial-temporal resolution are suitable for determining the location of epicenters. Therefore, denser gravity observation networks are necessary for better forecasts of the epicenters of large earthquakes. (4) Using gravity changes from mobile observation data, we made medium-range forecasts of the Kangding, Ludian, Lushan, and Wenchuan earthquakes, with especially successful forecasts of the location of their epicenters. Based on the above discussions, we emphasize that medium-/long-term potential for large earthquakes might exist nowadays in some areas with significant gravity anomalies in the study region. Thus, the monitoring

  11. Chernobyl and Goiânia lessons for responding to radiological terrorism. (United States)

    Steinhausler, Friedrich


    The deployment of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is likely to result in relatively low radiation exposure of the targeted population, insufficient to cause a severe radiation detriment. Nevertheless, due to atmospheric dispersion of the radioactive material, an urban area equaling several city blocks could be affected. The current knowledge base concerning the response to radiological terrorism, focusing mainly on environmental cleanup and site recovery (CSR) of areas with radioactive contamination due to the deployment of an RDD, is largely derived from military scientific tests or exercises assembled over the past 50 y with only limited applicability to the consequences of an RDD detonating in a city. This paper focuses on the extensive experience in CSR gained in the management of the radiological accident contaminating the Brazilian city of Goiânia in 1987, and managing the aftermath of the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986. The incident in Goiânia demonstrated the numerous practical difficulties of implementing a sound CSR, based on a balanced judgment of all relevant factors, such as radiation safety, environmental issues, economic consequences, and public fear. A review of the different stages of the intervention policy in the former Soviet Union reveals that risk-benefit cost analysis was not used for the decision-making process during the later stages of the post-accident situation. Instead, a CSR policy was adopted that resulted in continuously escalating costs. The results of this analysis are used to develop an Integrated Cleanup and Site Restoration Concept and recommend practically applicable solutions from Lessons Learned.

  12. Telejornalismo na Amaz?nia: o FTP como instrumento de integra??o regional


    Batista, Lu?s Augusto Pires


    Esta disserta??o investiga o efeito do sistema FTP (File Transfer Protocol ou Protocolo de Transfer?ncia de Arquivo) no processo de produ??o do telejornalismo das emissoras da Rede Amaz?nica (TV Amazonas, TV Rond?nia, TV Acre, TV Roraima e TV Amap?), a partir da Central de Jornalismo sediada na capital do estado no Amazonas e seus efeitos no cotidiano da comunidade do munic?pio de Manacapuru, que passou a ser n?o apenas consumidora de informa??o, mas tamb?m produtora dela. C...

  13. Overestimation of the earthquake hazard along the Himalaya: constraints in bracketing of medieval earthquakes from paleoseismic studies (United States)

    Arora, Shreya; Malik, Javed N.


    The Himalaya is one of the most seismically active regions of the world. The occurrence of several large magnitude earthquakes viz. 1905 Kangra earthquake (Mw 7.8), 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake (Mw 8.2), 1950 Assam earthquake (Mw 8.4), 2005 Kashmir (Mw 7.6), and 2015 Gorkha (Mw 7.8) are the testimony to ongoing tectonic activity. In the last few decades, tremendous efforts have been made along the Himalayan arc to understand the patterns of earthquake occurrences, size, extent, and return periods. Some of the large magnitude earthquakes produced surface rupture, while some remained blind. Furthermore, due to the incompleteness of the earthquake catalogue, a very few events can be correlated with medieval earthquakes. Based on the existing paleoseismic data certainly, there exists a complexity to precisely determine the extent of surface rupture of these earthquakes and also for those events, which occurred during historic times. In this paper, we have compiled the paleo-seismological data and recalibrated the radiocarbon ages from the trenches excavated by previous workers along the entire Himalaya and compared earthquake scenario with the past. Our studies suggest that there were multiple earthquake events with overlapping surface ruptures in small patches with an average rupture length of 300 km limiting Mw 7.8-8.0 for the Himalayan arc, rather than two or three giant earthquakes rupturing the whole front. It has been identified that the large magnitude Himalayan earthquakes, such as 1905 Kangra, 1934 Bihar-Nepal, and 1950 Assam, that have occurred within a time frame of 45 years. Now, if these events are dated, there is a high possibility that within the range of ±50 years, they may be considered as the remnant of one giant earthquake rupturing the entire Himalayan arc. Therefore, leading to an overestimation of seismic hazard scenario in Himalaya.

  14. Cenários de desmatamento para a Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britaldo Silveira Soares-Filho


    Full Text Available A AMAZÔNIA está entrando em uma era de rápidas mudanças impulsionadas pela previsão de asfaltamento de rodovias que estimularão a expansão da fronteira agrícola e de exploração madeireira. O declínio do custo de transporte tem importantes implicações para a biodiversidade, emissão de gases que contribuem para o efeito estufa e prosperidade da sociedade da Amazônia a longo prazo. Para analisar esse contexto, foi desenvolvido um modelo de simulação de desmatamento na bacia Amazônica, sensível a diferentes cenários de políticas públicas frente à expansão da infra-estrutura de transporte pela região. Resultados do modelo indicam que, dentro de um cenário pessimista, o desmatamento projetado pode eliminar, até meados deste século, 40% dos atuais 5,4 milhões de km² de florestas da Amazônia, liberando o equivalente a 32 Pg (10(9 toneladas de carbono para atmosfera. A modelagem de cenários alternativos aponta que a expansão de uma rede de áreas protegidas, efetivamente implementadas, poderia reduzir em até 1/3 as perdas florestais projetadas. Contudo, outras medidas de conservação são ainda necessárias para se manter a integridade funcional das paisagens e bacias hidrográficas amazônicas. Atuais experimentos em conservação florestal em propriedades privadas, mercados de serviços ambientais e zoneamento agro-ecológico devem ser refinados e multiplicados a fim de se buscar uma conservação extensiva.THE AMAZON is entering an era of rapid changes as new transportation corridors traverse the region, stimulating the expansion of logging and agricultural frontiers. The declining cost of transportation has important implications for biodiversity, greenhouse gas emissions, and the long-term prosperity of the Amazon society. To analyze this context, we have developed an empirically based, policy-sensitive model of deforestation for the Amazon basin. Model output for the worst-case scenario shows that, by 2050

  15. Assessment of flexural analysis applied to the Sumatra–Java ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Ocean subduction zone is one of the most active plate margins of the globe as evident from its vast record of great magnitude earthquake and tsunami events.We use Bouguer admittance (Morlet isostatic response function)in Sumatra –Java subduction zones comprising both the subduction and over-riding plates to ...

  16. Stress triggering of the Lushan M7. 0 earthquake by the Wenchuan Ms8. 0 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jianchao


    Full Text Available The Wenchuan Ms8. 0 earthquake and the Lushan M7. 0 earthquake occurred in the north and south segments of the Longmenshan nappe tectonic belt, respectively. Based on the focal mechanism and finite fault model of the Wenchuan Ms8. 0 earthquake, we calculated the coulomb failure stress change. The inverted coulomb stress changes based on the Nishimura and Chenji models both show that the Lushan M7. 0 earthquake occurred in the increased area of coulomb failure stress induced by the Wenchuan Ms8. 0 earthquake. The coulomb failure stress increased by approximately 0. 135 – 0. 152 bar in the source of the Lushan M7. 0 earthquake, which is far more than the stress triggering threshold. Therefore, the Lushan M7. 0 earthquake was most likely triggered by the coulomb failure stress change.

  17. Estratégia analítica para determinação de nitrito e amônia empregando spot test e análise de imagem digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. O. Santos


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é proposta uma estratégia simples para determinação simultânea de nitrito e amônia empregando spot test e imagem digital. O método é baseado na reação do nitrito com a sulfanilamida, formando um cátion de diazônio que posteriormente é acoplado ao dicloreto de N-(1-nafitil etilenodiamina formando uma diazo composto de coloração rósea. A determinação da amônia foi realizada empregando a reação de berthelot modificada, onde o íon amônio em presença de salicilato, nitroprussiato e hipoclorito reage formando um composto de coloração verde. Os sinais analíticos foram obtidos a partir das intensidades de coloração por imagem digital no spot test do produto da reação. Após otimizações do sistema de análise e detecção, as seguintes figuras de mérito foram obtidas: concentração linear entre 0,2 a 10,0 mg L-1 para nitrito e 1,0 a 10,0 mg L-1 para a amônia. Os limites de detecção para o nitrito e amônia foram 0,05 mg L-1 e 0,27 mg L-1, respectivamente. A estratégia proposta foi aplicada com sucesso na determinação de nitrito e amônia em amostras de água subterrânea da zona urbana da cidade de Barreiras-Ba.

  18. Earthquake engineering for nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kuno, Michiya


    This book is a comprehensive compilation of earthquake- and tsunami-related technologies and knowledge for the design and construction of nuclear facilities. As such, it covers a wide range of fields including civil engineering, architecture, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, and nuclear engineering, for the development of new technologies providing greater resistance against earthquakes and tsunamis. It is crucial both for students of nuclear energy courses and for young engineers in nuclear power generation industries to understand the basics and principles of earthquake- and tsunami-resistant design of nuclear facilities. In Part I, "Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants", the design of nuclear power plants to withstand earthquakes and tsunamis is explained, focusing on buildings, equipment's, and civil engineering structures. In Part II, "Basics of Earthquake Engineering", fundamental knowledge of earthquakes and tsunamis as well as the dynamic response of structures and foundation ground...

  19. Epidemiological features of rotavirus infection in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, from 1986 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divina das Dôres de Paula Cardoso


    Full Text Available A total of 2,605 faecal specimens from children up to 10 years old with or without diarrhoea were collected. Samples were obtained from 1986 to 2000 in hospitals, outpatient clinics and day-care centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Two methodologies for viral detection were utilized: a combined enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus and adenovirus and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed 374 (14.4% faecal specimens positive for Rotavirus A, most of them collected from hospitalized children. A significant detection rate of rotavirus during the period from April to August, dry season in Goiânia, and different frequencies of viral detection throughout the years of study were also observed. Rotavirus was significantly related to hospitalization and to diarrhoeal illness in children up to 24 months old. This study reinforces the importance of rotavirus as a cause of diarrhoea in children and may be important in regards to the implementation of rotavirus vaccination strategies in our country.

  20. Perdas de colônias de Apis mellifera L. no inverno suplementadas com alimentação artificial com pólen e favos de mel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhemar Pegoraro


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tipo de suplementação, nas áreas de cria, alimento e infestação por Varroa destructor nas colônias perdidas. Foram analisadas18 colônias de Apis mellifera L. alojadas em colméias modelo Langstroth e submetidas a dois tipos de suplementação alimentar: 1- cremosa (açúcar cristal moído, mel e pólen; 2- favos de mel. As áreas de ovo-larva e pupa, néctar, mel e pólen das 18 colônias foram fotografadas e analisadas com o auxílio do software AutoCAD. As colônias perdidas suplementadas com alimento artificial e pólen possuíam áreas de: ovo-larva (87,79 ± 70,38cm2, pupa (228,46 ± 192,94cm2, néctar (1.219 ± 149,58cm2, mel (563,47 ± 807,93cm2, pólen (139,09 ± 80,30cm2 e percentagem de infestação por V. destructor (10,50 ± 4,30%. As colônias perdidas suplementadas com favos de mel possuíam áreas de ovo-larva (7,92 ± 9,35cm2, pupas (60,71 ± 63,94 cm2, néctar (658,22 ± 1.040,94cm2, mel (122,62 ± 49,45cm2, pólen (53,58 ± 72,39cm2 e percentagem de infestação por V. destructor (14,40 ± 1,56%. As causas das perdas em parte podem ser atribuídas à infestação por V. destructor.

  1. Relacionamento, cooperação e governança em arranjos produtivos locais: o caso do APL de madeira e móveis do estado de Rondônia Relations, cooperation and governance in local production arrangements: the case of APL wooden furniture and state Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Teixeira


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo identificar os agentes econômicos e institucionais do arranjo produtivo local APL de madeira e móveis do Estado de Rondônia e analisar suas formas de relacionamento, cooperação e governança. Foram utilizados os procedimentos metodológicos relativos ao estudo de caso, com a adoção de uma perspectiva de análise transversal. O nível de análise considerado foi o APL e a unidade de análise foram os gestores tanto das empresas quando das instituições envolvidas. A população abrangida na pesquisa somou trinta e cinco organizações integrantes do arranjo produtivo local de madeira e móveis de Rondônia, das quais vinte e quatro foram visitadas e seus dirigentes, entrevistados. Para a realização da pesquisa, foram utilizados dados primários, coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação direta não-participante do pesquisador, além de dados secundários. Os resultados levam a concluir que o APL de madeira e móveis do Estado de Rondônia ainda não existe como um arranjo propriamente dito, mas sim como três subgrupos com estágios diferentes em seus laços de cooperação. A colaboração foi percebida dentro de um dos subgrupos, tornando as empresas participantes mais bem preparadas e capacitadas. Portanto, o desafio é entender esse APL com necessidades e capacidades diferentes, onde as empresas se encontram em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento.This research had as objective to identify economic and institutional agents of Rondônia wood and furniture cluster and analyze its relationship, cooperation and governance. The methodological approach were the case study, with the adoption of a perspective of transversal analysis. The analysis level was the cluster and the analysis unit were the cluster and institutional management. The population was of thirty-five participant organizations of the wood and furniture cluster of Rondônia and, from those, twenty-four were visited

  2. The existence of Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929 and their prey in different forest habitat types in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A study on the relationships between prey animals and the occurence of sumatran tiger was conducted in Kerinci Seblat National Park, western Sumatra from May up to September 2001. The data have been collected from eight study sites based on the forest habitat types and its threats. The results showed that frequency of encounters with prey animals in different forest habitats were no difference. This might indicates that the prey animals were distributed fairly in all types of forest habitat. The frequency encounters of the sumatran tiger signs, however, have shown differently between locations. The encounters of tiger signs were more frequent in the forest habitats that close to the streams; in forest habitats with few animal huntings; and in forest habitats with no logging activities. This findings support the hypotheses that the existence of sumatran tiger as a predator is determined by the dense vegetations surrounding streams as hiding place used in an ambush; availability of prey animals as food, and habitat disturbances as shown by logging.

  3. Sensing the earthquake (United States)

    Bichisao, Marta; Stallone, Angela


    Making science visual plays a crucial role in the process of building knowledge. In this view, art can considerably facilitate the representation of the scientific content, by offering a different perspective on how a specific problem could be approached. Here we explore the possibility of presenting the earthquake process through visual dance. From a choreographer's point of view, the focus is always on the dynamic relationships between moving objects. The observed spatial patterns (coincidences, repetitions, double and rhythmic configurations) suggest how objects organize themselves in the environment and what are the principles underlying that organization. The identified set of rules is then implemented as a basis for the creation of a complex rhythmic and visual dance system. Recently, scientists have turned seismic waves into sound and animations, introducing the possibility of "feeling" the earthquakes. We try to implement these results into a choreographic model with the aim to convert earthquake sound to a visual dance system, which could return a transmedia representation of the earthquake process. In particular, we focus on a possible method to translate and transfer the metric language of seismic sound and animations into body language. The objective is to involve the audience into a multisensory exploration of the earthquake phenomenon, through the stimulation of the hearing, eyesight and perception of the movements (neuromotor system). In essence, the main goal of this work is to develop a method for a simultaneous visual and auditory representation of a seismic event by means of a structured choreographic model. This artistic representation could provide an original entryway into the physics of earthquakes.

  4. Thoracic Injuries in earthquake-related versus non-earthquake-related trauma patients: differentiation via Multi-detector Computed Tomography (United States)

    Dong, Zhi-hui; Yang, Zhi-gang; Chen, Tian-wu; Chu, Zhi-gang; Deng, Wen; Shao, Heng


    PURPOSE: Massive earthquakes are harmful to humankind. This study of a historical cohort aimed to investigate the difference between earthquake-related crush thoracic traumas and thoracic traumas unrelated to earthquakes using a multi-detector Computed Tomography (CT). METHODS: We retrospectively compared an earthquake-exposed cohort of 215 thoracic trauma crush victims of the Sichuan earthquake to a cohort of 215 non-earthquake-related thoracic trauma patients, focusing on the lesions and coexisting injuries to the thoracic cage and the pulmonary parenchyma and pleura using a multi-detector CT. RESULTS: The incidence of rib fracture was elevated in the earthquake-exposed cohort (143 vs. 66 patients in the non-earthquake-exposed cohort, Risk Ratio (RR) = 2.2; pchest (45/143 vs. 11/66 patients, RR = 1.9; ptraumas resulting from the earthquake were life threatening with a high incidence of bony thoracic fractures. The ribs were frequently involved in bilateral and severe types of fractures, which were accompanied by non-rib fractures, pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries. PMID:21789386

  5. Consideration for standard earthquake vibration (1). The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Katsuhiko


    Outline of new guideline of quakeproof design standard of nuclear power plant and the standard earthquake vibration are explained. The improvement points of new guideline are discussed on the basis of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant incidents. The fundamental limits of new guideline are pointed. Placement of the quakeproof design standard of nuclear power plant, JEAG4601 of Japan Electric Association, new guideline, standard earthquake vibration of new guideline, the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and damage of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant are discussed. The safety criteria of safety review system, organization, standard and guideline should be improved on the basis of this earthquake and nuclear plant accident. The general knowledge, 'a nuclear power plant is not constructed in the area expected large earthquake', has to be realized. Preconditions of all nuclear power plants should not cause damage to anything. (S.Y.)

  6. Earthquake Emergency Education in Dushanbe, Tajikistan (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Bendick, Rebecca; Halvorson, Sarah J.; Saydullaev, Umed; Hojiboev, Orifjon; Stickler, Christine; Adam, Zachary R.


    We developed a middle school earthquake science and hazards curriculum to promote earthquake awareness to students in the Central Asian country of Tajikistan. These materials include pre- and post-assessment activities, six science activities describing physical processes related to earthquakes, five activities on earthquake hazards and mitigation…

  7. Intensity earthquake scenario (scenario event - a damaging earthquake with higher probability of occurrence) for the city of Sofia (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Irena; Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Popova, Maria


    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic risk to earthquakes are increasing steadily as urbanization and development occupy more areas that a prone to effects of strong earthquakes. Additionally, the uncontrolled growth of mega cities in highly seismic areas around the world is often associated with the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, and undertaken with an insufficient knowledge of the regional seismicity peculiarities and seismic hazard. The assessment of seismic hazard and generation of earthquake scenarios is the first link in the prevention chain and the first step in the evaluation of the seismic risk. The earthquake scenarios are intended as a basic input for developing detailed earthquake damage scenarios for the cities and can be used in earthquake-safe town and infrastructure planning. The city of Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria. It is situated in the centre of the Sofia area that is the most populated (the population is of more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria that faces considerable earthquake risk. The available historical documents prove the occurrence of destructive earthquakes during the 15th-18th centuries in the Sofia zone. In 19th century the city of Sofia has experienced two strong earthquakes: the 1818 earthquake with epicentral intensity I0=8-9 MSK and the 1858 earthquake with I0=9-10 MSK. During the 20th century the strongest event occurred in the vicinity of the city of Sofia is the 1917 earthquake with MS=5.3 (I0=7-8 MSK). Almost a century later (95 years) an earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 (I0=7-8 MSK) hit the city of Sofia, on May 22nd, 2012. In the present study as a deterministic scenario event is considered a damaging earthquake with higher probability of occurrence that could affect the city with intensity less than or equal to VIII

  8. Hospitalitermes krishnai, a new nasute termite (Nasutitermitinae, Termitidae, Isoptera, from southern Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaukani Syaukani


    Full Text Available A new species of nasute termite, Hospitalitermes krishnai sp. n., is described from soldiers and workers discovered in Lampung Province, Sumatra. This species can be distinguished from other related Hospitalitermes species from Southeast Asia by the anterior part of head capsule that is much smaller than the posterior part, head capsule that is moderately constricted behind the antennal sockets, and relatively deep depression between the head and nasus and, finally, the short and robust nasus measuring less than half as long as head capsule. Moreover, in profile the nasus is slightly up-curved but slightly decurved at the apical tip. We name this new species after Professor Kumar Krishna in recognition of his life-long contributions to termite taxonomy, systematics and biology.

  9. Earthquake recurrence models fail when earthquakes fail to reset the stress field (United States)

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.


    Parkfield's regularly occurring M6 mainshocks, about every 25 years, have over two decades stoked seismologists' hopes to successfully predict an earthquake of significant size. However, with the longest known inter-event time of 38 years, the latest M6 in the series (28 Sep 2004) did not conform to any of the applied forecast models, questioning once more the predictability of earthquakes in general. Our study investigates the spatial pattern of b-values along the Parkfield segment through the seismic cycle and documents a stably stressed structure. The forecasted rate of M6 earthquakes based on Parkfield's microseismicity b-values corresponds well to observed rates. We interpret the observed b-value stability in terms of the evolution of the stress field in that area: the M6 Parkfield earthquakes do not fully unload the stress on the fault, explaining why time recurrent models fail. We present the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake as counter example, which did release a significant portion of the stress along its fault segment and yields a substantial change in b-values.

  10. Baixo peso ao nascer em coorte de recém-nascidos em Goiânia-Brasil no ano de 2000 Low birth weight in a cohort of newborns in Goiânia-Brazil in 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Rocha Peixoto Giglio


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o peso ao nascer da coorte de recém-nascidos do ano 2000, em Goiânia, pela determinação do coeficiente de mortalidade e probabilidade de sobrevivência neonatal, estratificados por categorias de peso ao nascer e, ainda, pela identificação dos fatores associados ao baixo peso ao nascer (BPN. MÉTODOS: estudo de coorte retrospectivo, constituído por linkage dos arquivos do SIM (Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade e do SINASC (Sistema de Informações de Nascimentos. Foram calculados coeficientes de mortalidade neonatal para as categorias de peso ao nascer e construído um gráfico de probabilidades de sobrevivência neonatal por meio de análise de regressão linear. Foram identificados fatores de risco para o BPN mediante análise univariada (RR e regressão logística, considerando-se nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: a incidência de BPN foi de 6,9%, sendo que 140 (66,8% óbitos neonatais ocorreram nesse grupo. Trinta por cento dos óbitos se deram na categoria de peso entre 1.500-2.500 g. Os fatores identificados como de risco para o BPN foram: prematuridade, presença de malformações congênitas, mães com idade em extremos reprodutivos, residência na região noroeste do município, baixo número de consultas no pré-natal, parto em hospital público e sexo feminino. CONCLUSÃO: a incidência de BPN foi semelhante aos países desenvolvidos e os coeficientes de mortalidade neonatal, por categoria de peso, aquém dos encontrados naqueles países. Os resultados encontrados orientam atenção para: prematuridade, hospitais públicos e região noroeste de Goiânia.PURPOSE: to analyze birth weight in a cohort of newborns for the year 2000, in Goiânia, by determining the coefficient of mortality and neonatal survival probability, stratified by categories of birth weight, and also, through the identification of factors associated with low birth weight (LBW. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study, made

  11. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake (United States)

    Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel


    In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

  12. Rupture, waves and earthquakes. (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji


    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  13. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.


    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  14. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Daniell


    Full Text Available The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes.

    Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon.

    Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected, and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured.

    Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto ($214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>$300 billion USD at time of writing, 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product, exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index, and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons.

    This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global

  15. Tendência secular de crescimento em escolares de Paulínia, São Paulo-Brasil (1979/80 - 1993/94 Secular trends of growth of schoolchildren from Paulínia, São Paulo - Brazil (1979/80 - 1993/94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Barbieri Marmo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a tendência secular de altura, peso e da relação peso/altura em escolares de Paulínia, São Paulo, Brasil, entre 1979/80 e 1993/94. MÉTODOS: Medidas antropométricas de peso (P e altura (A e da relação P/A de 1.903 crianças de 6,5 a 12,5 anos (51,5% M e 48,5% F de escolas públicas de Paulínia foram comparadas com dados de estudo anterior realizado na mesma cidade, com intervalo de 15 anos. Calculou-se o incremento por década e alisou-se os dados pela técnica de médias e medianas móveis (3H3H3. RESULTADOS: As médias de altura e peso foram sempre superiores às do estudo anterior, com incrementos positivos. Os incrementos para a altura variaram de 1,13 a 5 cm no sexo masculino e 1,2 a 4,33 cm nas meninas, já para o peso a variação foi de 0,53 a 4,13 kg nos meninos e 0,87 a 3,0 kg nas meninas. Para a relação P/A, as médias dos dois estudos foram muito semelhantes em ambos os sexos. CONCLUSÕES: A tendência secular positiva da estatura e do peso neste período deve-se principalmente ao desenvolvimento econômico, de saneamento básico, de habitação, de educação e na área de saúde ocorrido na cidade de Paulínia. A tendência secular positiva encontrada foi semelhante à observada em países desenvolvidos após a II Guerra Mundial e de outros trabalhos brasileiros.BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the secular trends in height, weight and weight/height of schoolchildren from the city of Paulínia, São Paulo, Brazil between 1979/80 and 1993/94. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and weight/height of 1,903 children (6.5-12.5y; 51.5% M: 48.5% F, from Paulínia public schools were compared with data from a previous study carried out in the same city 15 years earlier. Decade increments were calculated and data was smoothed by the technique of means and medians (3H3H3. RESULTS: Height and weight mean values were always greater than those of the previous study, with positive

  16. Comparison of aftershock sequences between 1975 Haicheng earthquake and 1976 Tangshan earthquake (United States)

    Liu, B.


    The 1975 ML 7.3 Haicheng earthquake and the 1976 ML 7.8 Tangshan earthquake occurred in the same tectonic unit. There are significant differences in spatial-temporal distribution, number of aftershocks and time duration for the aftershock sequence followed by these two main shocks. As we all know, aftershocks could be triggered by the regional seismicity change derived from the main shock, which was caused by the Coulomb stress perturbation. Based on the rate- and state- dependent friction law, we quantitative estimated the possible aftershock time duration with a combination of seismicity data, and compared the results from different approaches. The results indicate that, aftershock time durations from the Tangshan main shock is several times of that form the Haicheng main shock. This can be explained by the significant relationship between aftershock time duration and earthquake nucleation history, normal stressand shear stress loading rateon the fault. In fact the obvious difference of earthquake nucleation history from these two main shocks is the foreshocks. 1975 Haicheng earthquake has clear and long foreshocks, while 1976 Tangshan earthquake did not have clear foreshocks. In that case, abundant foreshocks may mean a long and active nucleation process that may have changed (weakened) the rocks in the source regions, so they should have a shorter aftershock sequences for the reason that stress in weak rocks decay faster.

  17. Ionospheric phenomena before strong earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Silina


    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of several ionospheric parameters before earthquakes with magnitude M > 5.5 located less than 500 km from an ionospheric vertical sounding station is performed. Ionospheric effects preceding "deep" (depth h > 33 km and "crust" (h 33 km earthquakes were analysed separately. Data of nighttime measurements of the critical frequencies foF2 and foEs, the frequency fbEs and Es-spread at the middle latitude station Dushanbe were used. The frequencies foF2 and fbEs are proportional to the square root of the ionization density at heights of 300 km and 100 km, respectively. It is shown that two days before the earthquakes the values of foF2 averaged over the morning hours (00:00 LT–06:00 LT and of fbEs averaged over the nighttime hours (18:00 LT–06:00 LT decrease; the effect is stronger for the "deep" earthquakes. Analysing the coefficient of semitransparency which characterizes the degree of small-scale turbulence, it was shown that this value increases 1–4 days before "crust" earthquakes, and it does not change before "deep" earthquakes. Studying Es-spread which manifests itself as diffuse Es track on ionograms and characterizes the degree of large-scale turbulence, it was found that the number of Es-spread observations increases 1–3 days before the earthquakes; for "deep" earthquakes the effect is more intensive. Thus it may be concluded that different mechanisms of energy transfer from the region of earthquake preparation to the ionosphere occur for "deep" and "crust" events.

  18. Tradable Earthquake Certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Dulleman, Minne


    This article presents a market-based idea to compensate for earthquake damage caused by the extraction of natural gas and applies it to the case of Groningen in the Netherlands. Earthquake certificates give homeowners a right to yearly compensation for both property damage and degradation of living

  19. Paleoproductivity and Nutrient Cycling on the Sumatra Margin during the Past Half Million Years (United States)

    Gibson, K.; Mitt Schwamborn, T.; Thunell, R.; Tuten, E. C.; Swink, C.; Tappa, E.


    In the IndoPacific, changes in paleoproductivity on orbital timescales are often linked to changes in precession, particularly in areas of coastal upwelling. These changes are in turn related to variations in zonal wind patterns and thermocline tilt associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and commensurate changes in Asian, Indian, and Australian monsoon precipitation and wind-driven upwelling. Previous studies have revealed varying phase relationships amongst monsoon precipitation, upwelling variability and precession minima in the Indo-Pacific region. Regional records have additionally displayed power in the 41-kyr band, attributed to changes in deepwater ventilation and preservation, and the 100-kyr band, related to the influence of sea level on the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). To provide further insight into the regional and distal forcing on paleoproductivity and nutrient cycling in this clearly complex region, we present %TOC, %CaCO3, and sedimentary δ15N data from core MD98-2152, off the Sumatra margin in a region influenced by both ITF variability and wind-driven upwelling. By comparing our paleoproductivity and paleonutrient data with planktonic δ18O (tuned to composite Chinese cave speleothem records) and benthic δ18O (tuned to the Lisiecki-Raymo Stack), we compare timing of local productivity changes to high latitude ice-volume changes and local hydrographic changes. A strong 23-kyr signal in the %TOC record supports the strong influence of precession on paleoproductivity in this region. In contrast, strong power in the 100 and 41-kyr bands is observed in %CaCO3 and δ15N with a relatively minor contribution from precession, indicating a complex relationship between nutrient cycling, upwelling, production, and preservation on the Sumatra coast.

  20. What Can Sounds Tell Us About Earthquake Interactions? (United States)

    Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.


    It is important not only for seismologists but also for educators to effectively convey information about earthquakes and the influences earthquakes can have on each other. Recent studies using auditory display [e.g. Kilb et al., 2012; Peng et al. 2012] have depicted catastrophic earthquakes and the effects large earthquakes can have on other parts of the world. Auditory display of earthquakes, which combines static images with time-compressed sound of recorded seismic data, is a new approach to disseminating information to a general audience about earthquakes and earthquake interactions. Earthquake interactions are influential to understanding the underlying physics of earthquakes and other seismic phenomena such as tremors in addition to their source characteristics (e.g. frequency contents, amplitudes). Earthquake interactions can include, for example, a large, shallow earthquake followed by increased seismicity around the mainshock rupture (i.e. aftershocks) or even a large earthquake triggering earthquakes or tremors several hundreds to thousands of kilometers away [Hill and Prejean, 2007; Peng and Gomberg, 2010]. We use standard tools like MATLAB, QuickTime Pro, and Python to produce animations that illustrate earthquake interactions. Our efforts are focused on producing animations that depict cross-section (side) views of tremors triggered along the San Andreas Fault by distant earthquakes, as well as map (bird's eye) views of mainshock-aftershock sequences such as the 2011/08/23 Mw5.8 Virginia earthquake sequence. These examples of earthquake interactions include sonifying earthquake and tremor catalogs as musical notes (e.g. piano keys) as well as audifying seismic data using time-compression. Our overall goal is to use auditory display to invigorate a general interest in earthquake seismology that leads to the understanding of how earthquakes occur, how earthquakes influence one another as well as tremors, and what the musical properties of these



    Duque-Estrada, Megan


    Este trabalho investiga o uso dos marcadores pragmáticos né e sabe em narrativas orais acerca do imaginário da Amazônia, tendo como objeto a identificação da ideia de relevância em histórias de encantamento e assombração. É uma pesquisa de cunho empírico-indutivo, com suporte teórico básico da Análise da Conversação, complementado por conceitos oriundos da Pragmática, do Princípio da Pertinência e das Estruturas de Expectativa, além de estudos sobre a narrativa oral, na linha da Sociolinguíst...

  2. A smartphone application for earthquakes that matter! (United States)

    Bossu, Rémy; Etivant, Caroline; Roussel, Fréderic; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Steed, Robert


    Smartphone applications have swiftly become one of the most popular tools for rapid reception of earthquake information for the public, some of them having been downloaded more than 1 million times! The advantages are obvious: wherever someone's own location is, they can be automatically informed when an earthquake has struck. Just by setting a magnitude threshold and an area of interest, there is no longer the need to browse the internet as the information reaches you automatically and instantaneously! One question remains: are the provided earthquake notifications always relevant for the public? What are the earthquakes that really matters to laypeople? One clue may be derived from some newspaper reports that show that a while after damaging earthquakes many eyewitnesses scrap the application they installed just after the mainshock. Why? Because either the magnitude threshold is set too high and many felt earthquakes are missed, or it is set too low and the majority of the notifications are related to unfelt earthquakes thereby only increasing anxiety among the population at each new update. Felt and damaging earthquakes are the ones that matter the most for the public (and authorities). They are the ones of societal importance even when of small magnitude. A smartphone application developed by EMSC (Euro-Med Seismological Centre) with the financial support of the Fondation MAIF aims at providing suitable notifications for earthquakes by collating different information threads covering tsunamigenic, potentially damaging and felt earthquakes. Tsunamigenic earthquakes are considered here to be those ones that are the subject of alert or information messages from the PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre). While potentially damaging earthquakes are identified through an automated system called EQIA (Earthquake Qualitative Impact Assessment) developed and operated at EMSC. This rapidly assesses earthquake impact by comparing the population exposed to each expected

  3. DURAMAZ, um Sistema de Indicadores de Desenvolvimento Sustentável na Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Droulers


    Full Text Available A análise do processo de sustentabilidade representa um grande desafio científico enquanto a Amazônia constitui um verdadeiro laboratório onde estão sendo testadas inúmeras concepções desse conceito. Haveria pontos ou mecanismos comuns entre estas? Esse é o ponto que pesquisou o programa DURAMAZ, que teve como objetivo de desvendar fatores chaves, ou “determinantes” do desenvolvimento sustentável (DS na Amazônia brasileira através da identificação dos impactos geográficos, demográficos e socioeconômicos de 13 projetos de DS. Apresentamos os pontos-chaves da metodologia, assim como algumas visões de síntese sobre a aplicação do conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável. Entender as dinâmicas internas de cada uma dessas experiências foi a meta principal, assim como entender as razões de um bom desempenho. O resultado final do programa de pesquisa reside na construção de um sistema de indicadores a partir de bancos de dados sistematizados (socioeconômico, demográfico/biográfico e geográfico e na análise de seus resultados.

  4. Nowcasting Earthquakes and Tsunamis (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.


    The term "nowcasting" refers to the estimation of the current uncertain state of a dynamical system, whereas "forecasting" is a calculation of probabilities of future state(s). Nowcasting is a term that originated in economics and finance, referring to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or market indicators such as GDP at the current time by indirect means. We have applied this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of a system of faults, and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle ( Advantages of our nowcasting method over forecasting models include: 1) Nowcasting is simply data analysis and does not involve a model having parameters that must be fit to data; 2) We use only earthquake catalog data which generally has known errors and characteristics; and 3) We use area-based analysis rather than fault-based analysis, meaning that the methods work equally well on land and in subduction zones. To use the nowcast method to estimate how far the fault system has progressed through the "cycle" of large recurring earthquakes, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. We select a "small" region in which the nowcast is to be made, and compute the statistics of a much larger region around the small region. The statistics of the large region are then applied to the small region. For an application, we can define a small region around major global cities, for example a "small" circle of radius 150 km and a depth of 100 km, as well as a "large" earthquake magnitude, for example M6.0. The region of influence of such earthquakes is roughly 150 km radius x 100 km depth, which is the reason these values were selected. We can then compute and rank the seismic risk of the world's major cities in terms of their relative seismic risk

  5. co-seismic grace gravity based 11-layered 3-d thrust fault model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    It honours co-seismic deformation of ocean surface, ocean ... has caused great damage (Sumatra earthquake 2004 Wikipedia) when the Indian Plate ..... Gokula, A P, Sastry R G (2015a) Gravitational attraction of a vertical pyramid model of flat ... Journal. 14, 1-21. Lay T, Kanamori H, Ammon CJ, Nettles M, Ward SN, Aster ...

  6. Seismicity map tools for earthquake studies (United States)

    Boucouvalas, Anthony; Kaskebes, Athanasios; Tselikas, Nikos


    We report on the development of new and online set of tools for use within Google Maps, for earthquake research. We demonstrate this server based and online platform (developped with PHP, Javascript, MySQL) with the new tools using a database system with earthquake data. The platform allows us to carry out statistical and deterministic analysis on earthquake data use of Google Maps and plot various seismicity graphs. The tool box has been extended to draw on the map line segments, multiple straight lines horizontally and vertically as well as multiple circles, including geodesic lines. The application is demonstrated using localized seismic data from the geographic region of Greece as well as other global earthquake data. The application also offers regional segmentation (NxN) which allows the studying earthquake clustering, and earthquake cluster shift within the segments in space. The platform offers many filters such for plotting selected magnitude ranges or time periods. The plotting facility allows statistically based plots such as cumulative earthquake magnitude plots and earthquake magnitude histograms, calculation of 'b' etc. What is novel for the platform is the additional deterministic tools. Using the newly developed horizontal and vertical line and circle tools we have studied the spatial distribution trends of many earthquakes and we here show for the first time the link between Fibonacci Numbers and spatiotemporal location of some earthquakes. The new tools are valuable for examining visualizing trends in earthquake research as it allows calculation of statistics as well as deterministic precursors. We plan to show many new results based on our newly developed platform.

  7. Earthquake at 40 feet (United States)

    Miller, G. J.


    The earthquake that struck the island of Guam on November 1, 1975, at 11:17 a.m had many unique aspects-not the least of which was the experience of an earthquake of 6.25 Richter magnitude while at 40 feet. My wife Bonnie, a fellow diver, Greg Guzman, and I were diving at Gabgab Beach in teh outer harbor of Apra Harbor, engaged in underwater phoyography when the earthquake struck. 

  8. Earthquakes and economic growth


    Fisker, Peter Simonsen


    This study explores the economic consequences of earthquakes. In particular, it is investigated how exposure to earthquakes affects economic growth both across and within countries. The key result of the empirical analysis is that while there are no observable effects at the country level, earthquake exposure significantly decreases 5-year economic growth at the local level. Areas at lower stages of economic development suffer harder in terms of economic growth than richer areas. In addition,...

  9. Desenvolvimento de colônias de abelhas com diferentes alimentos protéicos Development of honeybee colonies under protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia de Mello Pereira


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de produtos regionais do Nordeste na alimentação de colônias de abelhas (Apis mellifera, em um período de escassez de floradas. Foram fornecidas dietas às abelhas, contendo 20% de proteína bruta, à base de feno de mandioca (Manihot esculenta e farinha de vagem de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, feno de mandioca e farelo de babaçu (Orbygnia martiana, farelo de babaçu e Purilac (sucedâneo para bezerros da marca Purina e pólen apícola de Palmae. As colônias foram analisadas quanto ao peso e às áreas de alimento e cria. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em relação às áreas de cria. Apesar de a pasta com pólen ser a mais consumida, este alimento mostrou conversão alimentar menor do que as demais dietas fornecidas. As colônias que receberam pasta de feno de mandioca com farelo de babaçu tiveram maior peso final. Todos os alimentos mostraram-se eficientes na manutenção das colônias.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of some regional products of Brazil Northeast to feed Apis mellifera colonies. Diets with 20% of crude protein made of cassava hay (Manihot esculenta and mesquite pod meal (Prosopis juliflora, cassava hay and babassu bran (Orbygnia martiana, babassu bran and Purilac (succedaneous for calfskin from Purina and Palmae pollen were offered to the honeybees. Colonies were evaluated for weight gain, store area and brood area. There was no significant difference among the treatments in relation to the brood areas. Pollen treatment showed the highest intake but also showed the lowest food conversion. Beehives that received diet with cassava hay and babassu flour showed greater final weight gain. All diets were efficient in the maintenance of the colonies.

  10. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil. (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da; Yonamine, Maurício; Pucci, Liuba Laxor; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Souza, Camila Gabriela de; Mesquita, Guilherme Alves; Vieira, Ana Paula de Toledo; Vinhal, Ludmilla Barros; Dalastra, Janayna; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues


    To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n=221) were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. The frequency of use was divided into: 1) lifetime use: tobacco-39.9%, alcohol-87.8%, cannabis-8.1%, cocaine-1.8%, stimulants-7.2%, solvents-10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-6.8%, LSD-0.5%, Bentyl®-0.5%, anabolic steroids-5.4%; 2) use in the previous year: tobacco-15.4%, alcohol-72.9%, stimulants-6.3%, solvents-0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%; 3) use in the previous 30 days: tobacco-14.5%, alcohol-57.5%, stimulants-5.0%, solvents-0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%. The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.

  11. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (2). Atmospheric radon anomaly observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke


    Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, various geochemical precursors were observed in the aftershock area: chloride ion concentration, groundwater discharge rate, groundwater radon concentration and so on. Kobe Pharmaceutical University (KPU) is located about 25 km northeast from the epicenter and within the aftershock area. Atmospheric radon concentration had been continuously measured from 1984 at KPU, using a flow-type ionization chamber. The radon concentration data were analyzed using the smoothed residual values which represent the daily minimum of radon concentration with the exclusion of normalized seasonal variation. The radon concentration (smoothed residual values) demonstrated an upward trend about two months before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. The trend can be well fitted to a log-periodic model related to earthquake fault dynamics. As a result of model fitting, a critical point was calculated to be between 13 and 27 January 1995, which was in good agreement with the occurrence date of earthquake (17 January 1995). The mechanism of radon anomaly before earthquakes is not fully understood. However, it might be possible to detect atmospheric radon anomaly as a precursor before a large earthquake, if (1) the measurement is conducted near the earthquake fault, (2) the monitoring station is located on granite (radon-rich) areas, and (3) the measurement is conducted for more than several years before the earthquake to obtain background data. (author)

  12. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil


    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  13. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes (United States)

    Gordon, David W.


    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  14. Earthquake effect on the geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Makoto


    Acceleration caused by the earthquake, changes in the water pressure, and the rock-mass strain were monitored for a series of 344 earthquakes from 1990 to 1998 at Kamaishi In Situ Test Site. The largest acceleration was registered to be 57.14 gal with the earthquake named 'North coast of Iwate Earthquake' (M4.4) occurred in June, 1996. Changes of the water pressure were recorded with 27 earthquakes; the largest change was -0.35 Kgt/cm 2 . The water-pressure change by earthquake was, however, usually smaller than that caused by rainfall in this area. No change in the electric conductivity or pH of ground water was detected before and after the earthquake throughout the entire period of monitoring. The rock-mass strain was measured with a extensometer whose detection limit was of the order of 10 -8 to 10 -9 degrees and the remaining strain of about 2.5x10 -9 degrees was detected following the 'Offshore Miyagi Earthquake' (M5.1) in October, 1997. (H. Baba)

  15. Evaluation of mangrove reforestation and the impact to socioeconomic-cultural of community in Lubuk Kertang village, North Sumatra (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Harahap, MA; Wati, R.; Slmaet, B.; Thoha, AS; Nuryawan, A.; Putri, LAP; Yusriani, E.


    Mangrove forests in North Sumatera existed in the east coast of Sumatera Island and are rapidly threatened due to anthropogenic activities such as conversion for aquaculture, oil palm plantation, filling and use of mangrove for urban development. The present study describes the current and first-year evaluation on mangrove restoration and its impact to socio economic-cultural of community in Lubuk Kertang village, Langkat, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The rehabilitation was carried on December 2015 using direct planting of 6,000 Rhizophora apiculata propagules and May 2016 using 5,000 R. apiculata seedlings. The evaluation parameters of mangrove reforestation consist of seedling diameter and height, leaf thickness and number, and seedling growth rate. Ninety-two of 1,124 households were surveyed using Slovin formula to obtain community perspective on the socio-economic-cultural impact of reforestation. Results show that the growth rate for current and first-year evaluation was 93 and 86 %, respectively. By contrast, the height, diameter, and some leaves seedlings planting were shown better than the performance of propagules planting. No change in the green foliage plant thickness between both farming methods. The reforestation affected 71.74, 55.43 and 39.13% of economic, social, and cultural of Lubuk Kertang community, respectively. The data is likely to provide valuable information for mangrove reforestation in North Sumatra.

  16. Earthquake predictions using seismic velocity ratios (United States)

    Sherburne, R. W.


    Since the beginning of modern seismology, seismologists have contemplated predicting earthquakes. The usefulness of earthquake predictions to the reduction of human and economic losses and the value of long-range earthquake prediction to planning is obvious. Not as clear are the long-range economic and social impacts of earthquake prediction to a speicifc area. The general consensus of opinion among scientists and government officials, however, is that the quest of earthquake prediction is a worthwhile goal and should be prusued with a sense of urgency. 

  17. Memória e resistência na migraçao para a Amazônia : O caso de Nova Londrina em Ji-Paraná, estado de Rondônia, Brasil


    Felzke, Lediane Fani; Oliveira, Dalva Felipe de; Paula, Jania Maria de


    The occupation of Rondônia, from the 1970s, occurred in a disorganized way, since it attracted an amount of migrants which was much bigger than the settling projects could sustain. The aim of this research was to analyze the circumstances in which the district of Nova Londrina was settled, utilizing for this reason a bibliographic survey, as well as the Oral History method. The arrival in Nova Londrina, Ji-Paraná, was highlighted by conflicts between the settlers and the settling company Cala...

  18. Earthquakes and Schools (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008


    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  19. A pesca comercial na bacia do rio Madeira no estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira The Commercial fisheries of the Madeira river basin in the Rondônia state, brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria


    Full Text Available Este estudo caracteriza quali e quantitativamente a atividade pesqueira comercial na bacia do rio Madeira, afluente do rio Amazonas, no trecho entre Guajará-Mirim e Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia. No período de janeiro a dezembro/2004, foram registrados 460 t, correspondendo 935 viagens. A análise dos dados oriundos do monitoramento dos desembarques demonstrou que a pesca na região tem caráter artesanal de pequena escala, destacando a maior participação das canoas motorizadas (131 unidades do que barcos pesqueiros (45 unidades; capacidade média: 3.000kg na frota pesqueira. Os peixes migradores jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans e filhote (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum se destacaram na composição das espécies desembarcadas. As informações técnicas geradas são importantes para subsidiar ações de ordenamento pesqueiro, bem como para avaliar futuras variações que possam ocorrer na atividade frente aos impactos dos empreendimentos hidrelétricos em construção na região.This study presents qualitative and quantitative information about commercial fishery in the basin of the Madeira River, tributary of the Amazon River, describing the fishing activity in the segment between Guajará-Mirim and Porto Velho, in Rondônia State. From January to December/2004, 219 fishermen and 935 trips were registered, corresponding to the capture of 460 t of fish. Data from fish landings demonstrate that fisheries in the region are small-scaled and point to a higher participation of small motorized canoes (130 units than of fishing boats (45 units; average capacity: 3000 kg in the fishing fleet. Migratory species like jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans

  20. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes. (United States)

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz


    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  1. Cyclic migration of weak earthquakes between Lunigiana earthquake of October 10, 1995 and Reggio Emilia earthquake of October 15, 1996 (Northern Italy) (United States)

    di Giovambattista, R.; Tyupkin, Yu

    The cyclic migration of weak earthquakes (M 2.2) which occurred during the yearprior to the October 15, 1996 (M = 4.9) Reggio Emilia earthquake isdiscussed in this paper. The onset of this migration was associated with theoccurrence of the October 10, 1995 (M = 4.8) Lunigiana earthquakeabout 90 km southwest from the epicenter of the Reggio Emiliaearthquake. At least three series of earthquakes migrating from theepicentral area of the Lunigiana earthquake in the northeast direction wereobserved. The migration of earthquakes of the first series terminated at adistance of about 30 km from the epicenter of the Reggio Emiliaearthquake. The earthquake migration of the other two series halted atabout 10 km from the Reggio Emilia epicenter. The average rate ofearthquake migration was about 200-300 km/year, while the time ofrecurrence of the observed cycles varied from 68 to 178 days. Weakearthquakes migrated along the transversal fault zones and sometimesjumped from one fault to another. A correlation between the migratingearthquakes and tidal variations is analysed. We discuss the hypothesis thatthe analyzed area is in a state of stress approaching the limit of thelong-term durability of crustal rocks and that the observed cyclic migrationis a result of a combination of a more or less regular evolution of tectonicand tidal variations.

  2. Aspects of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in fish preservation by irradiation 1. The presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in coastal areas of Sumatra and Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.


    A study was carried out on the presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples of sediment and seafoods originating from the eastern coast of Sumatra and the north coastal areas of Java. In a total of 2.434 samples of sediment and seafoods, 79 (3,3%) were found to contain vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among the 467 sediment samples, 1.650 fish, 133 shellfish, 123 shrimps, and 61 crab samples, 22 (4.7%), 41 (2.5%), 12 (9.0%), 2 (1,6%) and 2 (3.3%) were positive for vibrio parahaemolyticus, respectively. Based on the sampling areas, the high incidence of vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in samples collected from Riau (5.4%), while the samples from East Java was only about 0.4%. The contamination level of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples collected from coastal areas of Sumatra and Java is relatively lower compared with the data obtained from some other coastal areas in the United States and Japan. (author)

  3. The 2012 Mw5.6 earthquake in Sofia seismogenic zone - is it a slow earthquake (United States)

    Raykova, Plamena; Solakov, Dimcho; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena


    Recently our understanding of tectonic faulting has been shaken by the discoveries of seismic tremor, low frequency earthquakes, slow slip events, and other models of fault slip. These phenomenas represent models of failure that were thought to be non-existent and theoretically impossible only a few years ago. Slow earthquakes are seismic phenomena in which the rupture of geological faults in the earth's crust occurs gradually without creating strong tremors. Despite the growing number of observations of slow earthquakes their origin remains unresolved. Studies show that the duration of slow earthquakes ranges from a few seconds to a few hundred seconds. The regular earthquakes with which most people are familiar release a burst of built-up stress in seconds, slow earthquakes release energy in ways that do little damage. This study focus on the characteristics of the Mw5.6 earthquake occurred in Sofia seismic zone on May 22nd, 2012. The Sofia area is the most populated, industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria that faces considerable earthquake risk. The Sofia seismic zone is located in South-western Bulgaria - the area with pronounce tectonic activity and proved crustal movement. In 19th century the city of Sofia (situated in the centre of the Sofia seismic zone) has experienced two strong earthquakes with epicentral intensity of 10 MSK. During the 20th century the strongest event occurred in the vicinity of the city of Sofia is the 1917 earthquake with MS=5.3 (I0=7-8 MSK64).The 2012 quake occurs in an area characterized by a long quiescence (of 95 years) for moderate events. Moreover, a reduced number of small earthquakes have also been registered in the recent past. The Mw5.6 earthquake is largely felt on the territory of Bulgaria and neighbouring countries. No casualties and severe injuries have been reported. Mostly moderate damages were observed in the cities of Pernik and Sofia and their surroundings. These observations could be assumed indicative for a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Chagas


    Full Text Available A Amazônia abriga 25 milhões de habitantes vivendo em meio a uma floresta preservada pela política ambiental hegemônica que incide sobre a região. A urbanização da Amazônia é um fenômeno das últimas três décadas, com casos de estados que atingem 99,3% da população concentrada em núcleos urbanos, como o Amapá. Tal fenômeno tem impactado a condição de vida nas cidades, sobretudo na capital do estado, Macapá, onde praticamente não existe cobertura de rede de esgotamento sanitário, além de apresentar baixos percentuais de acesso à água tratada e de manejo de resíduos sólidos. Macapá é a porta de entrada de um dos maiores maciços florestais preservados do planeta. A conexão entre a política ambiental e a politica urbana é um tema que tem pautado debates na busca de elementos teóricos que possam instruir a formulação de política ambiental integrada às questões urbanas. O presente artigo traz contribuições a esse debate, sustentando que a política urbana foi negligenciada pelos governos, deixando um campo de dúvidas e incertezas sobre a relação de integração e de benefício mútuo entre a condição de vida urbana e a preservação da floresta

  5. Morbidade por acidentes de transporte entre jovens de Goiânia, Goiás Traffic injuries among youth in Goiânia, Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Caixeta


    Full Text Available Acidentes de transporte constituem problema mundial de saúde pública, especialmente nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo foi descrever o perfil das vítimas e circunstâncias dos acidentes de transportes com residentes de Goiânia (GO, na faixa etária de 15 a 24 anos e atendidos no Hospital de Urgências. Estudo transversal prospectivo, realizado de agosto de 2005 a agosto de 2006, por amostragem sistemática de 301 vítimas de acidentes de transporte. Os dados primários foram tratados por meio de estatística descritiva. A maioria era do sexo masculino, com idade média de 19,88 ± 2,7 anos e condutor dos veículos. O meio de transporte mais utilizado foi motocicleta (67,33%, seguido da bicicleta (16,67%. Os acidentes ocorreram predominantemente em torno das 18 horas, sextas-feiras e domingos. As vítimas estavam principalmente no trajeto para atividades físicas, esportivas, escolares, lazer e entretenimento. A suspeita do uso de álcool foi relatada por 15,16% dos entrevistados. Comparados aos ciclistas, mais motociclistas julgaram que houve imprudência/negligência no acidente. Equipamentos de segurança não foram usados por 8,58% dos motociclistas e 95,45% dos ciclistas. São necessá­rias medidas de educação dirigida aos motociclistas e fiscalização que priorizem o período noturno e os finais de semana.Traffic injuries are currently one of the world's main public health issues in both developed and developing countries. This study aimed to describe the circumstances involved in the traffic accidents and the profile of the victims attended at the Emergency Hospital of Goiânia, aged 15 to 24 years and residents in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil. It's a prospective cross-sectional study carried out from August 2005 to August 2006 by systematic sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Most of the 301 victims were male, mean age of 19.94 ± 2.73 years, and drivers. Motorcycles (67.33% and bicycles (16.67% were

  6. Morbidade por acidentes de transporte entre jovens de Goiânia, Goiás Traffic injuries among youth in Goiânia, Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Caixeta


    Full Text Available Acidentes de transporte constituem problema mundial de saúde pública, especialmente nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo foi descrever o perfil das vítimas e circunstâncias dos acidentes de transportes com residentes de Goiânia (GO, na faixa etária de 15 a 24 anos e atendidos no Hospital de Urgências. Estudo transversal prospectivo, realizado de agosto de 2005 a agosto de 2006, por amostragem sistemática de 301 vítimas de acidentes de transporte. Os dados primários foram tratados por meio de estatística descritiva. A maioria era do sexo masculino, com idade média de 19,88 + 2,7 anos e condutor dos veículos. O meio de transporte mais utilizado foi motocicleta (67,33%, seguido da bicicleta (16,67%. Os acidentes ocorreram predominantemente em torno das 18h, sextas-feiras e domingos. As vítimas estavam principalmente no trajeto para atividades físicas, esportivas, escolares, lazer e entretenimento. A suspeita do uso de álcool foi relatada por 15,16% dos entrevistados. Comparados aos ciclistas, mais motociclistas julgaram que houve imprudência/negligência no acidente. Equipamentos de segurança não foram usados por 8,58% dos motociclistas e 95,45% dos ciclistas. São necessárias medidas de educação dirigida aos motociclistas e fiscalização que priorizem o período noturno e os finais de semana.Traffic injuries are currently one of the world's main public health issues in both developed and developing countries. This study aimed to describe the circumstances involved in traffic accidents and the profile of the victims attended at Hospital de Urgências de Goiânia, age group of 15 to 24 years and residents in Goiânia - Brazil. It is a prospective cross-sectional study carried out from August 2005 to August 2006 by systematic sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Most of the 301 victims were male; with average age of 19.94 + 2.73 years, and drivers. Motorcycles (67.33% and bicycles (16.67% were the most

  7. The severity of an earthquake (United States)



    The severity of an earthquake can be expressed in terms of both intensity and magnitude. However, the two terms are quite different, and they are often confused. Intensity is based on the observed effects of ground shaking on people, buildings, and natural features. It varies from place to place within the disturbed region depending on the location of the observer with respect to the earthquake epicenter. Magnitude is related to the amount of seismic energy released at the hypocenter of the earthquake. It is based on the amplitude of the earthquake waves recorded on instruments

  8. Thoracic Injuries in earthquake-related versus non-earthquake-related trauma patients: differentiation via Multi-detector Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hui Dong


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Massive earthquakes are harmful to humankind. This study of a historical cohort aimed to investigate the difference between earthquake-related crush thoracic traumas and thoracic traumas unrelated to earthquakes using a multi-detector Computed Tomography (CT. METHODS: We retrospectively compared an earthquake-exposed cohort of 215 thoracic trauma crush victims of the Sichuan earthquake to a cohort of 215 non-earthquake-related thoracic trauma patients, focusing on the lesions and coexisting injuries to the thoracic cage and the pulmonary parenchyma and pleura using a multi-detector CT. RESULTS: The incidence of rib fracture was elevated in the earthquake-exposed cohort (143 vs. 66 patients in the non-earthquake-exposed cohort, Risk Ratio (RR = 2.2; p<0.001. Among these patients, those with more than 3 fractured ribs (106/143 vs. 41/66 patients, RR=1.2; p<0.05 or flail chest (45/143 vs. 11/66 patients, RR=1.9; p<0.05 were more frequently seen in the earthquake cohort. Earthquake-related crush injuries more frequently resulted in bilateral rib fractures (66/143 vs. 18/66 patients, RR= 1.7; p<0.01. Additionally, the incidence of non-rib fracture was higher in the earthquake cohort (85 vs. 60 patients, RR= 1.4; p<0.01. Pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries were more frequently seen in earthquake-related crush injuries (117 vs. 80 patients, RR=1.5 for parenchymal and 146 vs. 74 patients, RR = 2.0 for pleural injuries; p<0.001. Non-rib fractures, pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries had significant positive correlation with rib fractures in these two cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic crush traumas resulting from the earthquake were life threatening with a high incidence of bony thoracic fractures. The ribs were frequently involved in bilateral and severe types of fractures, which were accompanied by non-rib fractures, pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries.

  9. Earthquake prediction by Kina Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kianoosh, H.; Keypour, H.; Naderzadeh, A.; Motlagh, H.F.


    Earthquake prediction has been one of the earliest desires of the man. Scientists have worked hard to predict earthquakes for a long time. The results of these efforts can generally be divided into two methods of prediction: 1) Statistical Method, and 2) Empirical Method. In the first method, earthquakes are predicted using statistics and probabilities, while the second method utilizes variety of precursors for earthquake prediction. The latter method is time consuming and more costly. However, the result of neither method has fully satisfied the man up to now. In this paper a new method entitled 'Kiana Method' is introduced for earthquake prediction. This method offers more accurate results yet lower cost comparing to other conventional methods. In Kiana method the electrical and magnetic precursors are measured in an area. Then, the time and the magnitude of an earthquake in the future is calculated using electrical, and in particular, electrical capacitors formulas. In this method, by daily measurement of electrical resistance in an area we make clear that the area is capable of earthquake occurrence in the future or not. If the result shows a positive sign, then the occurrence time and the magnitude can be estimated by the measured quantities. This paper explains the procedure and details of this prediction method. (authors)

  10. Sense of Community and Depressive Symptoms among Older Earthquake Survivors Following the 2008 Earthquake in Chengdu China (United States)

    Li, Yawen; Sun, Fei; He, Xusong; Chan, Kin Sun


    This study examined the impact of an earthquake as well as the role of sense of community as a protective factor against depressive symptoms among older Chinese adults who survived an 8.0 magnitude earthquake in 2008. A household survey of a random sample was conducted 3 months after the earthquake and 298 older earthquake survivors participated…

  11. Precisely locating the Klamath Falls, Oregon, earthquakes (United States)

    Qamar, A.; Meagher, K.L.


    The Klamath Falls earthquakes on September 20, 1993, were the largest earthquakes centered in Oregon in more than 50 yrs. Only the magnitude 5.75 Milton-Freewater earthquake in 1936, which was centered near the Oregon-Washington border and felt in an area of about 190,000 sq km, compares in size with the recent Klamath Falls earthquakes. Although the 1993 earthquakes surprised many local residents, geologists have long recognized that strong earthquakes may occur along potentially active faults that pass through the Klamath Falls area. These faults are geologically related to similar faults in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada that occasionally spawn strong earthquakes

  12. Dangers, delights, and destiny on the sea: fishers along the East coast of north sumatra, indonesia. (United States)

    Markkanen, Pia


    This article describes a collaborative project between the International Labour Organization's International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) and the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, in identifying work hazards of fishers along the east coast of North Sumatra, Indonesia, in July 2004. The study employed qualitative investigation techniques: participant observations at fishing villages and harbors; and interviews with local fishers and skippers. Fishers work long hours in life-threatening conditions, often with low pay. It would be synergistic to incorporate fishing safety and health policies and advocacy efforts into reconstruction undertakings of fisheries devastated by the 2004 tsunami.

  13. The mechanism of earthquake (United States)

    Lu, Kunquan; Cao, Zexian; Hou, Meiying; Jiang, Zehui; Shen, Rong; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Gang; Liu, Jixing


    The physical mechanism of earthquake remains a challenging issue to be clarified. Seismologists used to attribute shallow earthquake to the elastic rebound of crustal rocks. The seismic energy calculated following the elastic rebound theory and with the data of experimental results upon rocks, however, shows a large discrepancy with measurement — a fact that has been dubbed as “the heat flow paradox”. For the intermediate-focus and deep-focus earthquakes, both occurring in the region of the mantle, there is not reasonable explanation either. This paper will discuss the physical mechanism of earthquake from a new perspective, starting from the fact that both the crust and the mantle are discrete collective system of matters with slow dynamics, as well as from the basic principles of physics, especially some new concepts of condensed matter physics emerged in the recent years. (1) Stress distribution in earth’s crust: Without taking the tectonic force into account, according to the rheological principle of “everything flows”, the normal stress and transverse stress must be balanced due to the effect of gravitational pressure over a long period of time, thus no differential stress in the original crustal rocks is to be expected. The tectonic force is successively transferred and accumulated via stick-slip motions of rock blocks to squeeze the fault gouge and then exerted upon other rock blocks. The superposition of such additional lateral tectonic force and the original stress gives rise to the real-time stress in crustal rocks. The mechanical characteristics of fault gouge are different from rocks as it consists of granular matters. The elastic moduli of the fault gouges are much less than those of rocks, and they become larger with increasing pressure. This peculiarity of the fault gouge leads to a tectonic force increasing with depth in a nonlinear fashion. The distribution and variation of the tectonic stress in the crust are specified. (2) The

  14. Turkish Children's Ideas about Earthquakes (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin


    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  15. Large earthquakes and creeping faults (United States)

    Harris, Ruth A.


    Faults are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's crust. The majority are silent for decades to centuries, until they suddenly rupture and produce earthquakes. With a focus on shallow continental active-tectonic regions, this paper reviews a subset of faults that have a different behavior. These unusual faults slowly creep for long periods of time and produce many small earthquakes. The presence of fault creep and the related microseismicity helps illuminate faults that might not otherwise be located in fine detail, but there is also the question of how creeping faults contribute to seismic hazard. It appears that well-recorded creeping fault earthquakes of up to magnitude 6.6 that have occurred in shallow continental regions produce similar fault-surface rupture areas and similar peak ground shaking as their locked fault counterparts of the same earthquake magnitude. The behavior of much larger earthquakes on shallow creeping continental faults is less well known, because there is a dearth of comprehensive observations. Computational simulations provide an opportunity to fill the gaps in our understanding, particularly of the dynamic processes that occur during large earthquake rupture and arrest.

  16. Global earthquake fatalities and population (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.


    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  17. Instruction system upon occurrence of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Masakatsu; Morikawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Satoshi; Fukushi, Naomi.


    Purpose: To enable rapid re-starting of a nuclear reactor after earthquakes by informing various properties of encountered earthquake to operators and properly displaying the state of damages in comparison with designed standard values of facilities. Constitution: Even in a case where the maximum accelerations due to the movements of earthquakes encountered exceed designed standard values, it may be considered such a case