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Sample records for ni-ta-al ternary alloys

  1. Microstructural Investigations On Ni-Ta-Al Ternary Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negache, M.; Taibi, K.; Lounis, Z.; Souami, N.

    2010-01-01

    The Ni-Al-Ta ternary alloys in the Ni-rich part present complex microstructures. They are composed of multiple phases that are formed according to the nominal composition of the alloy, primary Ni(γ), Ni 3 Al(γ'), Ni 6 AlTa(τ 3 ), Ni 3 Ta(δ) or in equilibrium: two solid phases (γ'-τ 3 ), (τ 3 -δ), (τ 3 -γ), (γ-δ) or three solid phases (γ'-τ 3 -δ). The nature and the volume fraction of these phases give these alloys very interesting properties at high temperature, and this makes them attractive for specific applications. We have developed a series of ternary alloys in electric arc furnace, determining their solidification sequences using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), characterized by SEM-EDS, X-ray diffraction and by a microhardness tests. The follow-up results made it possible to make a correlation between the nature of the formed phases and their solidifying way into the Ni 75 Al x Ta y (x+y = 25at.%) system, which are varied and complex. In addition to the solid solution Ni (γ), the formed intermetallics compounds (γ', τ 3 and δ) has been identified and correlated with a complex balance between phases.We noticed that the hardness increases with the tantalum which has a hardening effect and though the compound Ni 3 Ta(δ) is the hardest. The below results provide a better understanding of the complex microstructure of these alloys.

  2. TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F.G.

    1960-08-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

  3. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 2. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for ... It is to be noted that synthesis of nanocrystallineternary alloys with precise composition is a big challenge which can be overcome by choosing an appropriate microemulsion system. High electrocatalytic activity towards ...

  4. Synthesis of ternary nitrides by mechanochemical alloying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Zhu, J.J.; Lindelov, H.

    2002-01-01

    Ternary metal nitrides ( of general formula MxM'N-y(z)) attract considerable interest because of their special mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and catalytic properties. Usually they are prepared by ammonolysis of ternary oxides (MxM'O-y(m)) at elevated temperatures. We show that ternary...... nitrides by mechanochemical alloying of a binary transition metal nitride (MxN) with an elemental transition metal. In this way, we have been able to prepare Fe3Mo3N and Co3Mo3N by ball-milling of Mo2N with Fe and Co, respectively. The transformation sequence from the starting materials ( the binary...

  5. A study of phase separation in ternary alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. Abstract. We have studied the evolution of microstructure when a disordered ternary alloy is quenched into a ternary miscibility gap. We have used computer simulations based on multicomponent Cahn–Hilliard (CH) equations for cA and cB, the ...

  6. Collective and tracer diffusion kinetics in the ternary random alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.; Allnatt, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, collective and tracer diffusion kinetics is addressed for the ternary random alloy. A formal solution from the self-consistent theory of Moleko et al (Moleko L K, Allnatt A R and Allnatt E L 1989 Phil. Mag. A 59 141) is derived for collective diffusion and compared with the corresponding solution for the binary random alloy. Tracer diffusion in the ternary alloy is treated from the perspective of a special case of the quaternary random alloy. Results from Monte Carlo calculations for tracer and collective correlation factors (for the bcc ternary random alloy) are found to be in excellent agreement with this self-consistent theory but in only semi-quantitative agreement with the earlier theory of Manning (Manning J R 1971 Phys. Rev. B 4 1111). (author)

  7. Segregation in ternary alloys: an interplay of driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, J.; Helfensteyn, S.; Creemers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations combined with the constant bond energy (CBE) model are set up to explore and understand the general segregation behaviour in ternary alloys as a function of composition and more in particular the segregation to Cu-Ni-Al (1 0 0) surfaces. Besides its simplicity, allowing swift simulations, which are necessary for a first general survey over all possible compositions, one of the advantages of the CBE model lies in the possibility to clearly identify the different driving forces for segregation. All simulations are performed in the Grand Canonical Ensemble, using a new algorithm to determine the chemical potential of the components. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the CBE model, one extra feature is evidenced: depending on the values of the interatomic interaction parameters, in some regions of the ternary diagram, a single solid solution becomes thermodynamically unstable, leading to demixing into two conjugate phases. The simulations are first done for three hypothetical systems that are however representative for real alloy systems. The three systems are characterised by different sets of interatomic interaction parameters. These extensive simulations over the entire composition range of the ternary alloy yield a 'topographical' segregation map, showing distinct regions where different species segregate. These distinct domains originate from a variable interplay between the driving forces for segregation and attractive/repulsive interactions in the bulk of the alloy. The results on these hypothetical systems are very helpful for a better understanding of the segregation behaviour in Cu-Ni-Al and other ternary alloys

  8. Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described

  9. Electrical resistivity of liquid binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornat, M.; Paja, A.

    2011-01-01

    New method of calculation of the electrical resistivity of liquid and amorphous alloys is presented. The method is based on the Morgan-Howson-Saub (MHS) model but the pseudopotentials are replaced by the scattering matrix operators. The Fermi energy is properly determined by the accurate values of the phase shifts. The model depends on a very small number of universal parameters and gives stable results. The calculated values of the resistivity agree well with available experimental data for a substantial number of binary alloys. Moreover, the results for some ternary alloys were also obtained. (orig.)

  10. Corrosion and wear protective composition modulated alloy coatings based on ternary Ni-P-X alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, P.; Benzon, M. E.; Christoffersen, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    Scattered reporting in the litterature describes a number of ternary Ni-P-X alloyes (where X can be Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pd, Re or W) with promising corrosin and wear protective performance. Based on a systematic study of Ni-P-X alloys it is the intention to produce coatings with improved corrosion...

  11. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  12. Kinetics of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.Q.; Kumar, A.; Wiedersich, H.

    1982-01-01

    Model calculations of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys have been performed, using a simple theory. The theoretical model describes the coupling between the fluxes of radiation-induced defects and alloying elements in an alloy A-B-C by partitioning the defect fluxes into those occurring via A-, B-, and C-atoms, and the atom fluxes into those taking place via vacancies and interstitials. The defect and atom fluxes can be expressed in terms of concentrations and concentration gradients of all the species present. With reasonable simplifications, the radiation-induced segregation problem can be cast into a system of four coupled partial-differential equations, which can be solved numerically for appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Model calculations have been performed for ternary solid solutions intended to be representative of Fe-Cr-Ni and Ni-Al-Si alloys under various irradiation conditions. The dependence of segregation on both the alloy properties and the irradiation variables, e.g., temperature and displacement rate, was calculated. The sample calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the general trends of radiation-induced segregation observed experimentally

  13. Development of binary and ternary titanium alloys for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Jairo M; Beline, Thamara; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia R; Rangel, Elidiane C; da Cruz, Nilson C; Landers, Richard; Faverani, Leonardo P; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Fais, Laiza M G; Vicente, Fabio B; Grandini, Carlos R; Mathew, Mathew T; Sukotjo, Cortino; Barão, Valentim A R

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop binary and ternary titanium (Ti) alloys containing zirconium (Zr) and niobium (Nb) and to characterize them in terms of microstructural, mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, and biological properties. The experimental alloys - (in wt%) Ti-5Zr, Ti-10Zr, Ti-35Nb-5Zr, and Ti-35Nb-10Zr - were fabricated from pure metals. Commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and Ti-6Al-4V were used as controls. Microstructural analysis was performed by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Vickers microhardness, elastic modulus, dispersive energy spectroscopy, X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, surface roughness, and surface free energy were evaluated. The electrochemical behavior analysis was conducted in a body fluid solution (pH 7.4). The albumin adsorption was measured by the bicinchoninic acid method. Data were evaluated through one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (α=0.05). The alloying elements proved to modify the alloy microstructure and to enhance the mechanical properties, improving the hardness and decreasing the elastic modulus of the binary and ternary alloys, respectively. Ti-Zr alloys displayed greater electrochemical stability relative to that of controls, presenting higher polarization resistance and lower capacitance. The experimental alloys were not detrimental to albumin adsorption. The experimental alloys are suitable options for dental implant manufacturing, particularly the binary system, which showed a better combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties without the presence of toxic elements. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of ternary nitrides by mechanochemical alloying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Zhu, J.J.; Lindelov, H.

    2002-01-01

    nitrides by mechanochemical alloying of a binary transition metal nitride (MxN) with an elemental transition metal. In this way, we have been able to prepare Fe3Mo3N and Co3Mo3N by ball-milling of Mo2N with Fe and Co, respectively. The transformation sequence from the starting materials ( the binary...

  15. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CuFeNi (A1), CuFe2Ni (A2) and CuFeNi2 (A3) were successfully synthesized using microemulsion. It is to be noted that synthesis of nanocrystallineternary alloys with precise composition is a big challenge which can be overcome by choosing an appropriate microemulsion system. High electrocatalytic activity towards HER ...

  16. Effect of ternary alloying elements on microstructure and superelastictity of Ti-Nb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.C.; Mao, Y.F.; Li, Y.L.; Li, J.J.; Yuan, M. [Key Laboratory of Low Di-mensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Faculty of Material and Optical-Electronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Lin, J.G., E-mail: lin_j_g@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low Di-mensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Faculty of Material and Optical-Electronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2013-01-01

    The effect of ternary alloying elements (X=Ta, Fe, Zr, Mo, Sn and Si) on the microstructure, the mechanical properties and the superelasticity of Ti--22Nb-X alloys were investigated. The 1% addition of a ternary alloying element (X=Ta, Fe, Zr, Mo, Sn and Si) has a slight influence on the microstructure of the Ti-22Nb alloy. All the alloys after solution-treatment at 1073 K for 1.8 ks contain {beta} and {alpha} Double-Prime phases. The elements of Sn, Si, Fe and Ta with a high number of valence electrons or a small atomic size have a strong solid-solution strengthening effect to the {beta} phases in the alloys and the alloys with high Md{sup Macron} and low Bo{sup Macron} exhibit low elastic moduli. All the alloying elements improve the superelasticity of Ti-22Nb-X alloys. The elements, Fe, Mo, Sn and Si, which are with a high number of valence electrons and a small atomic size, strongly increase {sigma}{sub SIM} of the Ti-22Nb alloy.

  17. Electronic structure and phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traiber, A.J.S.; Allen, S.M.; Waterstrat, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A reliable, consistent scheme to study phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys based on the tight-binding approximation is presented. With electronic parameters from linear muffin-tin orbital calculations, the computed density of states and band structures compare well with those from more accurate abinitio calculations. Disordered alloys are studied within the tight-binding coherent-potential approximation extended to alloys; energetics of ordered systems are obtained through effective pair interactions computed with the general perturbation method; and partially ordered alloys are studied with a novel simplification of the molecular coherent-potential approximation combined with the general perturbation method. The formalism is applied to bcc-based Zr-Ru-Pd alloys which are promising candidates for medical implant devices. Using energetics obtained from the above scheme, we apply the cluster- variation method to study phase equilibria for particular pseudo- binary alloys and show that results are consistent with observed behavior of electronic specific heat coefficient with composition for Zr 0.5 (Ru, Pd) 0.5

  18. Radiation-induced segregation in binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of our current knowledge of radiation-induced segregation of major and minor elements in simple binary and ternary alloys as derived from experimental techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, ion-backscattering, infrared emissivity measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Measurements of the temperature, dose and dose-rate dependences as well as of the effects of such materials variables as solute solubility, solute misfit and initial solute concentration has proved particularly valuable in understanding the mechanisms of segregation. The interpretation of these data in terms of current theoretical models which link solute segregation behavior to defect-solute binding interactions and/or to the relative diffusion rates of solute and solvent atoms the interstitial and vacancy migration mechanisms has, in general, been fairly successful and has provided considerable insight into the highly interrelated phenomena of solute-defect trapping, solute segregation, phase stability and void swelling. Specific examples in selected fcc, bcc and hcp alloy systems are discussed with particular emphasis given to the effects of radiation-induced segregation on the phase stability of single-phase and two-phase binary alloys and simple Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. (Auth.)

  19. Model for the Prediction of the Hydriding Thermodynamics of Pd-Rh-Co Ternary Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, D.F.; Thoma, D.J.

    1999-03-01

    A dilute solution model (with respect to the substitutional alloying elements) has been developed, which accurately predicts the hydride formation and decomposition thermodynamics and the storage capacities of dilute ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The effect of varying the rhodium and cobalt compositions on the thermodynamics of hydride formation and decomposition and hydrogen capacity of several palladium-rhodium-cobalt ternary alloys has been investigated using pressure-composition (PC) isotherms. Alloying in the dilute regime (<10 at.%) causes the enthalpy for hydride formation to linearly decrease with increasing alloying content. Cobalt has a stronger effect on the reduction in enthalpy than rhodium for equivalent alloying amounts. Also, cobalt reduces the hydrogen storage capacity with increasing alloying content. The plateau thermodynamics are strongly linked to the lattice parameters of the alloys. A near-linear dependence of the enthalpy of hydride formation on the lattice parameter was observed for both the binary Pd-Rh and Pd-Co alloys, as well as for the ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The Pd-5Rh-3Co (at. %) alloy was found to have similar plateau thermodynamics as a Pd-10Rh alloy, however, this ternary alloy had a diminished hydrogen storage capacity relative to Pd-10Rh.

  20. Atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC ternary, and quaternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Artur; Aabloo, Alvo; Klintenberg, Mattias; Stocks, Malcolm; Caro, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize some atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC multicomponent alloys. For this purpose, we use Monte Carlo method combined with density functional theory calculations to study short-range order (SRO), atomic displacements, electronic density of states, and magnetic moments in equimolar ternary NiCrCo, and quaternary NiCrCoFe alloys. According to our study, the salient features for the ternary alloy are a negative SRO parameter between Ni–Cr and a positive between Cr–Cr pairs as well as a weakly magnetic state. For the quaternary alloy we predict negative SRO parameter for Ni–Cr and Ni–Fe pairs and positive for Cr–Cr and Fe–Fe pairs. Atomic displacements for both ternary and quaternary alloys are negligible. In contrast to the ternary, the quaternary alloy shows a complex magnetic structure. The electronic structure of the ternary and quaternary alloys shows differences near the Fermi energy between a random solid solution and the predicted structure with SRO. Despite that, the calculated EXAFS spectra does not show enough contrast to discriminate between random and ordered structures. The predicted SRO has an impact on point-defect energetics, electron–phonon coupling and thermodynamic functions and thus, SRO should not be neglected when studying properties of these two alloys

  1. Effect of ternary alloying elements on microstructure and mechanical property of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.Y.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, S.K.; Ra, T.Y.; Kim, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical property at room temperature and at 1773 K of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloys were investigated in terms of compression and fracture toughness test. Mo and V were chosen as ternary alloying elements because of their high melting points, atomic sizes smaller than Nb. Both ternary alloying elements were found to have a significant role in modifying the microstructure from dispersed structure to eutectic-like structure in Nb solid solution/Nb 5 Si 3 intermetallic composites. The 0.2% offset yield strength at room temperature increased with increasing content of ternary elements in Nb solid solution and volume fraction of Nb 5 Si 3 . At 1773 K, Mo addition has a positive role in increasing the yield strength. On the other hand, V addition has a role in decreasing the yield strength. The fracture toughness of ternary alloys was superior to binary alloys. Details will be discussed in correlation with ternary alloying, volume fraction of constituent phase, and the microstructure. (orig.)

  2. Review of Reactivity Experiments for Lithium Ternary Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolind, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers high tritium breeding, excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium related hazards are of primary concern. Reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, and it is therefore important to come up with proper ways to conduct experiments that can physically study this phenomenon. This paper will start to explore this area by outlining relevant past experiments conducted with lithium/air reactions and lithium/water reactions. Looking at what was done in the past will then give us a general idea of how we can setup our own experiments to test a variety of lithium alloys.

  3. Properties of ternary NiFeW alloy coating by jet electrodeposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jet electrodeposition; NiFeW alloy coating; current efficiency; microstructure; microhardness. Abstract. In this paper, ternary NiFeW alloy coatings were prepared by jet electrodeposition, and the effects of lord salt concentration, jet speed, current density and temperature on the properties of the coatings, including the ...

  4. New method for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems under ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrtens, A.; Moske, M.; Samwer, K.

    1988-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum apparatus is described for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems. Three singly controlled electron beam evaporation sources provide a constant evaporation rate of the different elements. A specially designed rotating mask guarantees a concentration gradient on the substrate according to a ternary phase diagram. The conversion of the actual concentration profile into a standard ternary phase diagram is done by simple computer calculations. They involve corrections for the beam characteristics of the evaporation sources and for the rotating mask. As an example, measurements for the Zr--Cu--Co system are given. The concentration range for the amorphous phase is compared with thermodynamic predictions using Miedema's parameter

  5. Deviations from Vegard’s law in ternary III-V alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, S. T.

    2010-08-03

    Vegard’s law states that, at a constant temperature, the volume of an alloy can be determined from a linear interpolation of its constituent’s volumes. Deviations from this description occur such that volumes are both greater and smaller than the linear relationship would predict. Here we use special quasirandom structures and density functional theory to investigate such deviations for MxN1−xAs ternary alloys, where M and N are group III species (B, Al, Ga, and In). Our simulations predict a tendency, with the exception of AlxGa1−xAs, for the volume of the ternary alloys to be smaller than that determined from the linear interpolation of the volumes of the MAs and BAs binary alloys. Importantly, we establish a simple relationship linking the relative size of the group III atoms in the alloy and the predicted magnitude of the deviation from Vegard’s law.

  6. Effect on strength of ternary alloying additions in L12 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanpang.

    1991-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of {111} antiphase boundaries (APBs) as well as the site preference of ternary additions in an A 3 B intermetallic with L1 2 structure are studied, using a thermodynamic model. A survey of the results from a variety of ternary alloying additions to Ni 3 Al has shown that there is a conflict in the actual role which solid solution strengthening plays in the athermal increment of yield strength. For instance, a good quantitative agreement with linear concentration law is observed only in alloys with stoichiometric compositions but not in the general case of non-stoichiometric alloys. In the light of the possibility that micro-segregation could explain the experimental discrepancy, the author extends the binary solid solution strengthening theory to the ternary system in an L1 2 structure for the four real systems of Ni-Al-Si, Ni-Al-Ti, Ni-Al-Hf, and Ni-Al-V. It is found that ternary site preference plays an important role in the ternary solid solution strengthening theory with L1 2 structure. Good quantitative agreement was found between the calculated and experimentally measured strength for both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric alloys

  7. First-principles study of ternary bcc alloys using special quasi-random structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao

    2009-01-01

    Using a combination of exhaustive enumeration and Monte Carlo simulated annealing, we have developed special quasi-random structures (SQSs) for ternary body-centered cubic (bcc) alloys with compositions of A 1 B 1 C 1 , A 2 B 1 C 1 , A 6 B 1 C 1 and A 2 B 3 C 3 , respectively. The structures possess local pair and multisite correlation functions that closely mimic those of the random bcc alloy. We employed the SQSs to predict the mixing enthalpies, nearest neighbor bond length distributions and electronic density of states of bcc Mo-Nb-Ta and Mo-Nb-V solid solutions. Our convergence tests indicate that even small-sized SQSs can give reliable results. Based on the SQS energetics, the predicting powers of the existing empirical ternary extrapolation models were assessed. The present results suggest that it is important to take into account the ternary interaction parameter in order to accurately describe the thermodynamic behaviors of ternary alloys. The proposed SQSs are quite general and can be applied to other ternary bcc alloys.

  8. The novel eutectic microstructures of Si-Mn-P ternary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yaping; Liu Xiangfa

    2010-01-01

    The microstructures of Si-Mn-P alloy manufactured by the technique of combining phosphorus transportation and alloy melting were investigated using electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). The phase compositions were determined by energy spectrum and the varieties of eutectic morphologies were discussed. It is found that there is no ternary compound but Si, MnP and MnSi 1.75-x could appear when the Si-Mn-P alloy's composition is proper. Microstructure is greatly refined by rapid solidification technique and the amount of eutectic phases change with faster cooling rates. Moreover, primary Si or MnP are surrounded firstly by the binary eutectic (Si + MnP) and then the ternary eutectic (Si + MnSi 1.75-x + MnP) which also exhibit binary structures due to divorced eutectic determined by the particularity of some Si-Mn-P alloys.

  9. Corrosion Characteristics of Ti-29Nb-xHf Ternary Alloy for Biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Sun Young; Choi, Han Chul [Chosun Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The Cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were widely used for dental materials due to their mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. However, Cp-Ti was known as bio-inert materials, Ti-6Al-4V alloy has a problem such as high Young modulus, potential loss of the surrounding bone, and to the release of potentially toxic ions from the alloy. To overcome this problem, Ti alloys containing Nb and Hf elements have been used for biomaterials due to low toxicity and high corrosion resistance. Especially, alloying element of Nb was known as β phase stabilizer. The β phase alloy was widely used to replace currently used implant materials. The corrosion resistances of Ti-29Nb-xHf ternary alloys were dependent on Hf content in oral environment solution.

  10. Liesegang bands in internally oxidized AgCd-based ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooijen, V.A.; Van Royen, E.W.; Vrijen, J.; Radelaar, S.

    1975-01-01

    The origin of the occurrence of Liesegang band formation (periodic precipitation) during internal oxidation of AgCd alloys containing concentrations of Be, Mg, Al, or Y were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. A simple model of internal oxidation of ternary alloys is presented. The theory predicts band spacing as a function of temperature, Cd concentration, and concentration of the third element in good agreement with experimental results. (U.S.)

  11. Properties of ternary NiFeW alloy coating by jet electrodeposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-23

    Mar 23, 2018 ... Abstract. In this paper, ternary NiFeW alloy coatings were prepared by jet electrodeposition, and the effects of lord salt concentration, jet speed, current density and temperature on the properties of the coatings, including the composition, microhardness, surface morphology, structure and corrosion ...

  12. Superconductivity and specific heat measurements in V--Nb--Ta ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.Y.P.

    1977-01-01

    The correlation between the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ with electronic specific heat coefficient γ and Debye temperature theta/sub D/ in some isoelectronic ternary V--Nb--Ta alloys is investigated. It has been known that the variation of theta/sub D/ with concentration in both V--Nb and V--Ta systems is clearly of the same curvature as that of T/sub c/ and γ. In Ta--Nb alloys, however, over most of the concentration range theta/sub D/ seems to have a slight negative curvature while T/sub c/ and γ curve upwards. (But beyond approx. 80 at. % Nb theta/sub D/ rises rapidly to the pure Nb value.) By choosing alloys along a line connecting Ta and V 25 --Nb 75 which is close to the Nb--Ta side of the Gibb's triangle the extent to which the Nb--Ta type of behavior persists in this ternary system can be estimated. A model proposed by Miedema that takes into account the variation of properties caused by possible charge transfer among constituent atoms in an alloy has been found to apply almost quantitatively for nearly all binary alloy systems whose experimental data are available, including those for which Hopfield's method fails. A previous test of the extension of Miedema's empirical model into ternary alloys shows qualitatively correct behavior for intra-row Zr/sub x/Nb/sub 1-2x/Mo/sub x/ alloys. The good agreement between the predicted values of γ and T/sub c/ and the experimental values in the inter-row ternary V--Nb--Ta system studied here gives another and better test of the application of Miedema's model

  13. Ternary diffusion in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong; Xu, Honghui; Jin, Zhanpeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Interdiffusivities in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined. •The present results were compared with experimental data in boundary binary systems. •The present results were validated by thermodynamic constraints and Fick’s law. •The sign of ternary cross diffusivities was predicted in terms of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Utilizing six groups of bulk diffusion couples and with electron probe microanalysis technique, the composition dependence of ternary interdiffusion coefficients in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined by the Matano-Kirkaldy method. Using a three-dimensional representation, the obtained main ternary diffusion coefficients were found to be consistent with the experimental data in boundary binaries available in the literature. The reliability of the obtained interdiffusivities was further validated by thermodynamic constraints as well as by Fick’s second law applied to numerical simulation. The sign of the ternary cross diffusivities in fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys, which shows a noticeable effect on microstructure, was also successfully predicted in terms of thermodynamics

  14. Molecular dynamics investigation of the thermal conductivity of ternary silicon–germanium–tin alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongjin; Hwang, Gyeong S.

    2017-12-01

    A further reduction of the thermal conductivity (κ) of silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys is indispensable for their use as thermoelectric materials. Thus far, heteroatom-doped and nanostructured SiGe systems have been mainly synthesized and tested. This work presents a possibility of reducing the κ of SiGe by alloying with tin (Sn). Our molecular dynamics simulations predict that the κ of ternary SiGeSn alloys can be 40% lower than those of binary SiGe and GeSn alloys due mainly to increased mass disorder scattering of phonons. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of κ suppression in multielement alloys and guidance on how to design them for thermoelectric applications.

  15. Metastable Phase Separation and Concomitant Solute Redistribution of Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn Ternary Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Mei, Zhang; Wei-Li, Wang; Ying, Ruan; Bing-Bo, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn ternary alloys with lower Sn contents are usually assumed to display a peritectic-type solidification process under equilibrium condition. Here we show that liquid Fe 47.5 Cu 47.5 Sn 5 ternary alloy exhibits a metastable immiscibility gap in the undercooling range of 51–329 K (0.19T L ). Macroscopic phase separation occurs once undercooling exceeds 196 K and causes the formation of a floating Fe-rich zone and a descending Cu-rich zone. Solute redistribution induces the depletion of Sn concentration in the Fe-rich zone and its enrichment in the Cu-rich zone. The primary Fe phase grows dendritically and its growth velocity increases with undercooling until the appearance of notable macrosegregation, but will decrease if undercooling further increases beyond 236 K. The microsegregation degrees of both solutes in Fe and Cu phases vary only slightly with undercooling. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  16. A first-principles model for anomalous segregation in dilute ternary tungsten-rhenium-vacancy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, J. S.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Kurzydłowski, K. J.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of segregation in dilute alloys under irradiation is a highly unusual phenomenon that has recently attracted attention, stimulated by the interest in the fundamental properties of alloys as well as by their applications. The fact that solute atoms segregate in alloys that, according to equilibrium thermodynamics, should exhibit full solubility, has significant practical implications, as the formation of precipitates strongly affects physical and mechanical properties of alloys. A lattice Hamiltonian, generalizing the so-called ‘ABV’ Ising model and including collective many-body inter-atomic interactions, has been developed to treat rhenium solute atoms and vacancies in tungsten as components of a ternary alloy. The phase stability of W-Re-vacancy alloys is assessed using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and cluster expansion (CE) simulations. The accuracy of CE parametrization is evaluated against the DFT data, and the cross-validation error is found to be less than 4.2 meV/atom. The free energy of W-Re-vacancy ternary alloys is computed as a function of temperature using quasi-canonical Monte Carlo simulations, using effective two, three and four-body interactions. In the low rhenium concentration range (chemical Re-W and Re-vacancy interactions and short-range order parameters. DFT calculations show that rhenium-vacancy binding energies can be as high as 1.5 eV if the rhenium/vacancy ratio is in the range from 2.4 to 6.6. The predicted Re clustering agrees with experimental observations of precipitation in self-ion irradiated W-2 % Re alloys and neutron-irradiated alloys containing 1.4 at. % Re.

  17. Investigation of biodegradable ternary Mg-Zn-La magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özarslan, Selma; Şevik, Hüseyin; Sorar, Idris

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the effect of Lanthanum (1, 2 and 4 wt.%) addition to biodegradable Mg-4Zn alloy and its influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated. The alloys were produced under protective atmosphere by a cold chamber high pressure-die casting process. Microstructure analysis of the samples were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray difractometry revealed that the main phases are α-Mg and MgZn in the whole alloys. Also, the Mg17La2 phase was observed with addition of La. Hardness and tensile properties were examined to investigate the mechanical properties. Results showed that the yield strength and nanohardness of main alloy were improved from 40 % (100 MPa to 140 MPa), 24 % (from 1.04 GPa to 1.29 GPa) with addition of 4 wt.% La, respectively. However, elongation was decreased with increasing of La content.

  18. E centers in ternary Si1−x−yGexSny random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander

    2009-09-14

    Density functional theory calculations are used to study the association of arsenic (As) atoms to lattice vacancies and the formation of As-vacancy pairs, known as E centers, in the random Si0.375Ge0.5Sn0.125 alloy. The local environments are described by 32-atom special quasirandom structures that represent random Si1−x−yGexSny alloys. It is predicted that the nearest-neighbor environment will exert a strong influence on the stability of E centers in ternary Si0.375Ge0.5Sn0.125.

  19. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-06-01

    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a computationally efficient way to describe the random nature. We systematically study the efficacy of the methodology and generate a number of special quasirandom cells for future use. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the technique, the electronic structures of E centers in Si1-xGex and Si1-x -yGexSny alloys are discussed for a range of nearest neighbor environments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High Permeability Ternary Palladium Alloy Membranes with Improved Sulfur and Halide Tolerances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coulter

    2010-12-31

    The project team consisting of Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), TDA Research, and IdaTech LLC was focused on developing a robust, poison-tolerant, hydrogen selective free standing membrane to produce clean hydrogen. The project completed on schedule and on budget with SwRI, GT, CSM, TDA and IdaTech all operating independently and concurrently. GT has developed a robust platform for performing extensive DFT calculations for H in bulk palladium (Pd), binary alloys, and ternary alloys of Pd. Binary alloys investigated included Pd96M4 where M = Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu. They have also performed a series of calculations on Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ag{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Au{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ni{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Pt{sub 4}, and Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Y{sub 4}. SwRI deposited and released over 160 foils of binary and ternary Pd alloys. There was considerable work on characterizing and improving the durability of the deposited foils using new alloy compositions, post annealing and ion bombardment. The 10 and 25 {micro}m thick films were sent to CSM, TDA and IdaTech for characterization and permeation testing. CSM conducted over 60 pure gas permeation tests with SwRI binary and ternary alloy membranes. To date the PdAu and PdAuPt membranes have exhibited the best performance at temperatures in the range of 423-773 C and their performance correlates well with the predictions from GT. TDA completed testing under the Department of Energy (DOE) WGS conditions on over 16 membranes. Of particular interest are the PdAuPt alloys that exhibited only a 20% drop in flux when sulfur was added to the gas mixture and the flux was completely recovered when the sulfur flow was stopped. IdaTech tested binary

  1. Development of ternary alloy cathode catalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalan, V.; Kosek, J.; Giner, J.; Taylor, E. J.; Anderson, E.; Bianchi, V.; Brooks, C.; Cahill, K.; Cropley, C.; Desai, M.; Frost, D.; Morriseau, B.; Paul, B.; Poirier, J.; Rousseau, M.; Swette, L.; Waterhouse, R.

    1988-11-01

    The overall objective of the program was the identification development and incorporation of high activity platinum ternary alloys on corrosion resistant supports, for use in advanced phosphoric acid fuel cells. Two high activity ternary alloys, Pr-Cr-Ce and Pt-Ni-Co, both supported on Vulcan XC-72, were identified during the course of the program. The Pr-Ni-Co system was selected for optimization, including preparation and evaluation on corrosion resistant supports such as 2700/degree/C heat-treated Vulcan XC-72 and 2700/degree/ heat-treated Black Pearls 2000. A series of tests identified optimum metal ratios, heat-treatment temperatures and heat-treatment atmospheres for the Pr-Ni-Co system. During characterization testing, it was discovered that approximately 50% of the nickel and cobalt present in the starting material could be removed, subsequent to alloy formation, without degrading performance. Extremely stable full cell performance was observed for the Pt-Ni-Co system during a 10,000 hour atmosphere pressure life test. Several theories are proposed to explain the enhancement in activity due to alloy formation. Recommendations are made for future research in this area. 62 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Development of aluminum (Al5083)-clad ternary Ag-In-Cd alloy for JSNS decoupled moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Saito, S.; Oikawa, K.; Maekawa, F.; Futakawa, M.; Kikuchi, K.; Kato, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Naoe, T.; Koyama, T.; Ooi, T.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kawai, M.; Kurishita, H.; Konashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    To develop Ag (silver)-In (indium)-Cd (cadmium) alloy decoupler, a method is needed to bond the decoupler between Al alloy (Al5083) and the ternary Ag-In-Cd alloy. We found that a better HIP condition was temperature, pressure and holding time at 803 K, 100 MPa and 10 min. for small test pieces (φ22 mm in dia. x 6 mm in height). Hardened layer due to the formation of AlAg 2 was found in the bonding layer, however, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 30 MPa, the calculated design stress. Bonding tests of a large size piece (200 x 200 x 30 mm 3 ), which simulated the real scale, were also performed according to the results of small size tests. The result also gave good bonding and enough required-mechanical-strength

  3. Investigations of binary and ternary phase change alloys for future memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of phase change materials is of great importance because it enables us to predict properties and tailor alloys which might be even better suitable to tackle challenges of future memory applications. Within this thesis two topics have been approached: on the one hand the understanding of the alloy In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 and on the other hand the so called resistivity drift of amorphous Ge-Sn-Te phase change materials. The main topic covers an in depth discussion of the ternary alloy In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 . At first glance, this alloy does not fit into the established concepts of phase alloys: e.g. the existence of resonant bonding in the crystalline phase is not obvious and the number of p-electrons is very low compared to other phase change alloys. Furthermore amorphous phase change alloys with high indium content are usually not discussed in literature, an exception being the recent work by Spreafico et al. on InGeTe 2 . For the first time a complete description of In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 alloy is given in this work for the crystalline phase, amorphous phase and crystallization process. In addition comparisons are drawn to typical phase change materials like Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 /GeTe or prototype systems like AgInTe 2 and InTe. The second topic of this thesis deals with the issue of resistivity drift, i.e. the increase of resistivity of amorphous phase change alloys with aging. This drift effect greatly hampers the introduction of multilevel phase change memory devices into the market. Recently a systematic decrease of drift coefficient with stoichiometry has been observed in our group going from GeTe over Ge 3 Sn 1 Te 4 to Ge 2 Sn 2 Te 4 . These alloys are investigated with respect to constraint theory.

  4. Robust tribo-mechanical and hot corrosion resistance of ultra-refractory Ta-Hf-C ternary alloy films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yate, Luis; Coy, L Emerson; Aperador, Willian

    2017-06-08

    In this work we report the hot corrosion properties of binary and ternary films of the Ta-Hf-C system in V 2 O 5 -Na 2 SO 4 (50%wt.-50%wt.) molten salts at 700 °C deposited on AISI D3 steel substrates. Additionally, the mechanical and nanowear properties of the films were studied. The results show that the ternary alloys consist of solid solutions of the TaC and HfC binary carbides. The ternary alloy films have higher hardness and elastic recoveries, reaching 26.2 GPa and 87%, respectively, and lower nanowear when compared to the binary films. The corrosion rates of the ternary alloys have a superior behavior compared to the binary films, with corrosion rates as low as 0.058 μm/year. The combination and tunability of high hardness, elastic recovery, low nanowear and an excellent resistance to high temperature corrosion demonstrates the potential of the ternary Ta-Hf-C alloy films for applications in extreme conditions.

  5. Dispersion of nonresonant third-order nonlinearities in GeSiSn ternary alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Troia, Benedetto; Soref, Richard A; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2016-09-13

    Silicon (Si), tin (Sn), and germanium (Ge) alloys have attracted research attention as direct band gap semiconductors with applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In particular, GeSn field effect transistors can exhibit very high performance in terms of power reduction and operating speed because of the high electron drift mobility, while the SiGeSn system can be constructed using CMOS-compatible techniques to realize lasers, LED, and photodetectors. The wide Si, Ge and Sn transparencies allow the use of binary and ternary alloys extended to mid-IR wavelengths, where nonlinearities can also be employed. However, neither theoretical or experimental predictions of nonlinear features in SiGeSn alloys are reported in the literature. For the first time, a rigorous and detailed physical investigation is presented to estimate the two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient and the Kerr refractive index for the SiGeSn alloy up to 12 μm. The TPA spectrum, the effective TPA wavelength cut-off, and the Kerr nonlinear refractive index have been determined as a function of alloy compositions. The promising results achieved can pave the way to the demonstration of on-chip nonlinear-based applications, including mid-IR spectrometer-on-a-chip, all-optical wavelength down/up-conversion, frequency comb generation, quantum-correlated photon-pair source generation and supercontinuum source creation, as well as Raman lasing.

  6. Modeling of anodic dissolution of U Pu Zr ternary alloy in the molten LiCl KCl electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Masatoshi; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Koyama, Tadafumi

    2005-02-01

    The metallic fuel anode in the molten salt electrorefining step for the pyrometallurgical reprocessing was modeled based on the findings from the anodic dissolution tests using a U Pu Zr ternary alloy. This anode model simulates selective dissolution of uranium and plutonium at lower anode potential, growth of a diffusion controlling layer consisting of a mixture of the molten salt electrolyte and the remaining zirconium metal, and simultaneous dissolution of all the constituents at higher anode potential. The calculation with this model reproduced well the actual anodic behavior of the U Pu Zr ternary alloy such as two-step rapid rise in the anode potential.

  7. Phase diagrams of the ternary alloy with a single-ion anisotropy in the mean-field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, J.; Bobak, A.

    2006-01-01

    The phase diagram of the AB p C 1-p ternary alloy consisting of Ising spins S A =32, S B =2, and S C =52 is investigated by the use of a mean-field theory based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The effect of the single-ion anisotropy on the phase diagrams is discussed by changing values of the parameters in the model Hamiltonian and comparison is made with the recently reported finite-temperature phase diagrams for the ternary alloy having spin S B =1

  8. Swelling of austenitic iron-nickelchromium ternary alloys during fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Brager, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Swelling data are now available for 15 iron-nickel-chromium ternary alloys irradiated to exposures as high as 110 displacements per atom (dpa) in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) between 400 and 650 0 C. These data confirm trends observed at lower exposure levels and extend the generality of earlier conclusions to cover a broader range of composition and temperature. It appears that all austenitic iron-nickel-chromium ternary alloys eventually approach an intrinsic swelling rate of about1%/dpa over a range of temperature even wider than studied in this experiment. The duration of the transient regime that precedes the attainment of this rate is quite sensitive to nickel and chromium content, however. At nickel and chromium levels typical of 300 series steels, swelling does not saturate at engineering-relevant levels. However, there appears to be a tendency toward saturation that increases with declining temperature, increasing nickel and decreasing chromium levels. Comparisons of these results are made with those of similar studies conducted with charged particles. Conclusions are then drawn concerning the validity of charged particle simulation studies to determine the compositional and temperature dependence of swelling

  9. The band gap of II-Vi ternary alloys in a tight-binding description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, Daniel; Blanquero, Rafael [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); De Coss, Romeo [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    We present tight-binding calculations for the band gap of II-Vi pseudobinary ternary alloys. We use an sp{sup 3} s* tight-binding Hamiltonian which include spin-orbit coupling. The band gap composition dependence is calculated using a extended version of the virtual crystal approximation, which introduce an empirical correction factor that takes into account the non-linear dependence of the band gap with the composition. The results compare quite well with the experimental data, both for the ternary alloys with wide band gap and for the narrow band gap ones. [Spanish] Presentamos el calculo de la banda de energia prohibida de aleaciones ternarias de compuestos II-VI. El calculo, que incluye interaccion espin-orbita, se hace con el metodo de enlace fuerte, utilizando una base ortogonal de cinco orbitales atomicos por atomo (sp{sup 3} s*), en conjunto con la aproximacion del cristal virtual. En la aproximacion del cristal virtual, incluimos un factor de correccion que toma en cuenta la no linealidad de la banda de energia prohibida como funcion de la concentracion. Con esta correccion nuestros resultados reproducen aceptablemente los datos experimentales hallados en la literatura.

  10. The thermodynamic stability induced by solute co-segregation in nanocrystalline ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Tao; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Jinyong; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    The grain growth and thermodynamic stability induced by solute co-segregation in ternary alloys are presented. Grain growth behavior of the single-phase supersaturated grains prepared in Ni-Fe-Pb alloy melt at different undercoolings was investigated by performing isothermal annealings at T = 400 C-800 C. Combining the multicomponent Gibbs adsorption equation and Guttmann's grain boundary segregation model, an empirical relation for isothermal grain growth was derived. By application of the model to grain growth in Ni-Fe-Pb, Fe-Cr-Zr and Fe-Ni-Zr alloys, it was predicted that driving grain boundary energy to zero is possible in alloys due to the co-segregation induced by the interactive effect between the solutes Fe/Pb, Zr/Ni and Zr/Cr. A non-linear relationship rather than a simple linear relation between 1/D* (D* the metastable equilibrium grain size) and ln(T) was predicted due to the interactive effect.

  11. The thermodynamic stability induced by solute co-segregation in nanocrystalline ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Tao; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Jinyong; Zhang, Ping [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mateial Science and Engineering; Yang, Xiaoqin [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2017-06-15

    The grain growth and thermodynamic stability induced by solute co-segregation in ternary alloys are presented. Grain growth behavior of the single-phase supersaturated grains prepared in Ni-Fe-Pb alloy melt at different undercoolings was investigated by performing isothermal annealings at T = 400 C-800 C. Combining the multicomponent Gibbs adsorption equation and Guttmann's grain boundary segregation model, an empirical relation for isothermal grain growth was derived. By application of the model to grain growth in Ni-Fe-Pb, Fe-Cr-Zr and Fe-Ni-Zr alloys, it was predicted that driving grain boundary energy to zero is possible in alloys due to the co-segregation induced by the interactive effect between the solutes Fe/Pb, Zr/Ni and Zr/Cr. A non-linear relationship rather than a simple linear relation between 1/D* (D* the metastable equilibrium grain size) and ln(T) was predicted due to the interactive effect.

  12. Microstructural characterization and phase transformation of ternary alloys near at Al3Ti compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles Ch, C.

    1999-01-01

    This research work is related with the structural characteristic and compositional values of the crystalline phases, which are found in ternary alloys of Ti-Al-Fe and TI-Al-Cu. These types of alloys were obtained using a rapid solidification technique (10 3 -10 4 K/s) and pure elements such as Al, Ti, Fe and Cu (99.99%). These cooling velocities allow the formation of stable phases and small grain sizes (approximately in range of a few micras). The obtained results indicate the presence of Al 3 Ti and others phases of L1 2 type. These phases are commonly found in a matrix rich in A1. The microalloyed elements (Cu and Fe) substitute the aluminum in both kinds of phases. Alloys with low content of Cu show transition states from the tetragonal structure DO 22 to the cubic phases L1 2 . The structural characteristics of the alloys are related with some microhardness measurement. The results show that the presence of the L1 2 phase tends to increase to hardness depending of the content of this phase

  13. Investigations of binary and ternary phase change alloys for future memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Pascal

    2012-09-13

    The understanding of phase change materials is of great importance because it enables us to predict properties and tailor alloys which might be even better suitable to tackle challenges of future memory applications. Within this thesis two topics have been approached: on the one hand the understanding of the alloy In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2} and on the other hand the so called resistivity drift of amorphous Ge-Sn-Te phase change materials. The main topic covers an in depth discussion of the ternary alloy In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2}. At first glance, this alloy does not fit into the established concepts of phase alloys: e.g. the existence of resonant bonding in the crystalline phase is not obvious and the number of p-electrons is very low compared to other phase change alloys. Furthermore amorphous phase change alloys with high indium content are usually not discussed in literature, an exception being the recent work by Spreafico et al. on InGeTe{sub 2}. For the first time a complete description of In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2} alloy is given in this work for the crystalline phase, amorphous phase and crystallization process. In addition comparisons are drawn to typical phase change materials like Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}/GeTe or prototype systems like AgInTe{sub 2} and InTe. The second topic of this thesis deals with the issue of resistivity drift, i.e. the increase of resistivity of amorphous phase change alloys with aging. This drift effect greatly hampers the introduction of multilevel phase change memory devices into the market. Recently a systematic decrease of drift coefficient with stoichiometry has been observed in our group going from GeTe over Ge{sub 3}Sn{sub 1}Te{sub 4} to Ge{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. These alloys are investigated with respect to constraint theory.

  14. Composition Optimization of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloy Blankets for Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra

    The goal of this dissertation is to examine the neutronic properties of a novel type of fusion reactor blanket material in the form of lithium-based ternary alloys. Pure liquid lithium, first proposed as a blanket for fusion reactors, is utilized as both a tritium breeder and a coolant. It has many attractive features such as high heat transfer and low corrosion properties, but most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns including degradation of the concrete containment structure. The work of this thesis began as a collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that can maintain the beneficial properties of lithium while reducing the reactivity concerns. The first studies down-selected alloys based on the analysis and performance of both neutronic and activation characteristics. First, 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and energy multiplication factor (EMF). Alloys with adequate results based on TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). The straightforward approach to obtain Monte Carlo TBR and EMF results required 231 simulations per alloy and became computationally expensive, time consuming, and inefficient. Consequently, alternate methods were pursued. A collision history-based methodology recently developed for the Monte Carlo code Serpent, calculates perturbation effects on practically

  15. L1{sub 0} phase formation in ternary FePdNi alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes-Arango, A.M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Bordeaux, N.C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Liu, J.; Barmak, K. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lewis, L.H., E-mail: lhlewis@neu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Metallurgical routes to highly metastable phases are required to access new materials with new functionalities. To this end, the stability of the tetragonal chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase in the ternary Fe–Pd–Ni system is quantified to provide enabling information concerning synthesis of L1{sub 0}-type FeNi, a highly attractive yet highly elusive advanced permanent magnet candidate. Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0–7 at%) samples were arc-melted and annealed at 773 K (500 °C) for 100 h to induce formation of the chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase. Coupled calorimetry, structural and magnetic investigations allow determination of an isothermal section of the ternary Fe–Pd–Ni phase diagram featuring a single phase L1{sub 0} region near the FePd boundary for x < 6 at%. It is demonstrated that increased Ni content in Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} alloys systematically decreases the order-disorder transition temperature, resulting in a lower thermodynamic driving force for the ordering phase transformation. The Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} L1{sub 0} → fcc disordering transformation is determined to occur via a two-step process, with compositionally-dependent enthalpies and transition temperatures. These results highlight the need to investigate ternary alloys with higher Ni content to determine the stability range of the L1{sub 0} phase near the FeNi boundary, thereby facilitating kinetic access to the important L1{sub 0} FeNi ferromagnetic phase. - Highlights: • Chemical ordering in FePdNi enhances intrinsic and extrinsic magnetic properties. • 773 K annealed FePdNi alloys studied show a stable L1{sub 0} phase for Ni ≤ 5.2 at%. • Chemical disordering in FePdNi occurs by a previously unreported two-step process. • Ni additions to FePd dramatically decrease the chemical order-disorder temperature. • The chemical-ordering transformation kinetics are greatly affected by Ni content.

  16. Sn-Sb-Se based binary and ternary alloys for phase change memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyung-Min

    2008-10-28

    In this work, the effect of replacing Ge by Sn and Te by Se was studied for a systematic understanding and prediction of new potential candidates for phase change random access memories applications. The temperature dependence of the electrical/structural properties and crystallization kinetics of the Sn-Se based binary and Sn-Sb-Se based ternary alloys were determined and compared with those of the GeTe and Ge-Sb-Te system. The temperature dependence of electrical and structural properties were investigated by van der Pauw measurements, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry. By varying the heating rate, the Kissinger analysis has been used to determine the combined activation barrier for crystallization. To screen the kinetics of crystallization, a static laser tester was employed. In case of binary alloys of the type Sn{sub x}Se{sub 1-x}, the most interesting candidate is SnSe{sub 2} since it crystallizes into a single crystalline phase and has high electrical contrast and reasonably high activation energy for crystallization. In addition, the SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloy system also might be sufficient for data retention due to their higher transition temperature and activation energy for crystallization in comparison to GeTe-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system. Furthermore, SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloys have a higher crystalline resistivity. The desired rapid crystallization speed can be obtained for Sn{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 5} and Sn{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 7} alloys. (orig.)

  17. Mechanical properties of some binary, ternary and quaternary III-V compound semiconductor alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navamathavan, R.; Arivuoli, D.; Attolini, G.; Pelosi, C.; Choi, Chi Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Vicker's microindentation tests have been carried out on InP/InP, GaAs/InP, InGaAs/InP and InGaAsP/InP III-V compound semiconductor alloys. The detailed mechanical properties of these binary, ternary and quaternary epilayers were determined from the indentation experiments. Microindentation studies of (1 1 1) GaAs/InP both A and B faces show that the hardness value increases with load and attains a constant for further increase in load and the microhardness values were found to lie between 3.5 and 4.0 GPa. The microhardness values of InGaAs/InP epilayers with different thickness were found to lie between 3.93 and 4.312 GPa. The microhardness values of InGaAsP/InP with different elemental composition were found to lie between 5.08 and 5.73 GPa. The results show that the hardness of the quaternary alloy drastically increases, the reason may be that the increase in As concentration hardens the lattice when phosphorous concentration is less and hardness decreases when phosphorous is increased. It was interestingly observed that the hardness value increases as we proceed from binary to quaternary III-V compound semiconductor alloys

  18. Cooling thermal parameters and microstructure features of directionally solidified ternary Sn–Bi–(Cu,Ag) solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Bismarck L., E-mail: bismarck_luiz@yahoo.com.br [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Amauri [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Spinelli, José E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    Low temperature soldering technology encompasses Sn–Bi based alloys as reference materials for joints since such alloys may be molten at temperatures less than 180 °C. Despite the relatively high strength of these alloys, segregation problems and low ductility are recognized as potential disadvantages. Thus, for low-temperature applications, Bi–Sn eutectic or near-eutectic compositions with or without additions of alloying elements are considered interesting possibilities. In this context, additions of third elements such as Cu and Ag may be an alternative in order to reach sounder solder joints. The length scale of the phases and their proportions are known to be the most important factors affecting the final wear, mechanical and corrosions properties of ternary Sn–Bi–(Cu,Ag) alloys. In spite of this promising outlook, studies emphasizing interrelations of microstructure features and solidification thermal parameters regarding these multicomponent alloys are rare in the literature. In the present investigation Sn–Bi–(Cu,Ag) alloys were directionally solidified (DS) under transient heat flow conditions. A complete characterization is performed including experimental cooling thermal parameters, segregation (XRF), optical and scanning electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and length scale of the microstructural phases. Experimental growth laws relating dendritic spacings to solidification thermal parameters have been proposed with emphasis on the effects of Ag and Cu. The theoretical predictions of the Rappaz-Boettinger model are shown to be slightly above the experimental scatter of secondary dendritic arm spacings for both ternary Sn–Bi–Cu and Sn–Bi–Ag alloys examined. - Highlights: • Dendritic growth prevailed for the ternary Sn–Bi–Cu and Sn–Bi–Ag solder alloys. • Bi precipitates within Sn-rich dendrites were shown to be unevenly distributed. • Morphology and preferential region for the Ag{sub 3}Sn growth depend on Ag

  19. The ternary alloy with a structure of Prussian blue analogs in a transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, J.; Bobak, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of applied transverse field on transition and compensation temperatures of the AB p C 1-p ternary alloy consisting of spins S A =3/2 , S B =2, and S C =5/2 are investigated by the use of a mean-field theory. The structure and the spin values of the model correspond to the Prussian blue analog of the type (Fe p II Mn 1-p II ) 1.5 [Cr III (CN) 6 ].nH 2 O. We find that two or even three compensation points may be induced by a transverse field for the system with appropriate values of the parameters in the model Hamiltonian. In particular, the influence of a transverse field on the compensation point in the ground state is examined

  20. Ternary Bi-Cu-Ni alloys – thermodynamics, characterization, mechanical and electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radomir Marković

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bi–Cu–Ni ternary system belongs to the group of potential Cu-Ni-based advanced lead-free solder materials for high temperature application. The paper shows results of the thermodynamic calculations using general solution model along the line with the molar ratio of Cu: Ni = 1:1. The experimental part shows thermal, structural, electrical and mechanical properties based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS, electroconductivity and hardness measurements of the alloys selected in the section from bismuth corner with molar ratio Cu: Ni = 1:1, Cu: Ni = 3:1, and Cu: Ni = 1:3.

  1. The single-ion anisotropy effects in the mixed-spin ternary-alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Erhan

    2018-04-01

    The effect of single-ion anisotropy on the thermal properties of the ternary-alloy in the form of ABpC1-p is investigated on the Bethe lattice (BL) in terms of exact recursion relations. The simulation on the BL consists of placing A atoms (spin-1/2) on the odd shells and randomly placing B (spin-3/2) or C (spin-5/2) atoms with concentrations p and 1 - p, respectively, on the even shells. The phase diagrams are calculated in possible planes spanned by the system parameters: temperature, single-ion anisotropy, concentration and ratio of the bilinear interaction parameters for z = 3 corresponding to the honeycomb lattice. It is found that the crystal field drives the system to the lowest possible state therefore reducing the temperatures of the critical lines in agreement with the literature.

  2. A comparative study of critical phenomena and magnetocaloric properties of ferromagnetic ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Yusuf; Akinci, Ümit

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties, as well as the phase diagrams of a ferromagnetic ternary alloy system have been studied. A detailed comparison of two different methods, namely the effective field theory (EFT), and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations has been provided. Our numerical data show that the general qualitative picture presented by two methods are in a good agreement with each other. In terms of the magnetocaloric properties, our results yield that it is possible to design magnetic materials with a variety of working temperatures and magnetocaloric properties (such as large ΔSM and q values) by manipulating the magnetic phase transition via tuning the compositional factor (i.e. the mixing ratio of sublattice ions). The observed magnetocaloric effect has been found to be a direct one with ΔSM < 0 associated with a second order phase transition.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of the ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 bulk glass forming alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celtek M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and thermodynamic properties of a ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 metallic glass forming alloy in solid-liquid to glass phases were studied using molecular dynamics (MD method based on tight-binding (TB potentials. An atomic description of the melting, glass formation and crystallization process has been analyzed using different heating and cooling rates. The computed Glass Forming Ability (GFA parameters are in good agreement with experimental data. The structure analysis of the Cu50Ti25Zr25 based on molecular dynamics simulation will be also presented and compared with available MD results. We have also discussed the crystallization transition with two different interatomic potentials used in this work

  4. Equiaxed and columnar dendrite growth simulation in Al-7Si- Mg ternary alloys using cellular automaton method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rui; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) model allowing for the prediction of dendrite growth of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloys in two and three dimensions is presented. The growth kinetic of S/L interface is calculated based on the solute equilibrium approach. In order to describe the dendrite growth with arbitrarily crystallographic orientations, this model introduces a modified decentered octahedron algorithm for neighborhood tracking to eliminate the effect of mesh dependency on dendrite growth. The thermody namic and kinetic data needed for dendrite growth is obtained through coupling with Pandat software package in combination with thermodynamic/kinetic/equilibrium phase diagram calculation databases. The effect of interactions between various alloying elements on solute diffusion coefficient is considered in the model. This model has first been used to simulate Al-7Si (weight percent) binary dendrite growth followed by a validation using theoretical predictions. For ternary alloy, Al-7Si-0.5Mg dendrite simulation has been carried out and the effects of solute interactions on diffusion matrix as well as the differences of Si and Mg in solute distribution have been analyzed. For actual application, this model has been applied to simulate the equiaxed dendrite growth with various crystallographic orientations of Al-7Si-0.36Mg ternary alloy, and the predicted secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the columnar dendrite growth in directional solidification has also been simulated and the predicted primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) is in good agreement with experiments. The simulated results effectively demonstrate the abilities of the model in prediction of dendritic microstructure of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloy. (paper)

  5. Equiaxed and columnar dendrite growth simulation in Al-7Si- Mg ternary alloys using cellular automaton method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) model allowing for the prediction of dendrite growth of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloys in two and three dimensions is presented. The growth kinetic of S/L interface is calculated based on the solute equilibrium approach. In order to describe the dendrite growth with arbitrarily crystallographic orientations, this model introduces a modified decentered octahedron algorithm for neighborhood tracking to eliminate the effect of mesh dependency on dendrite growth. The thermody namic and kinetic data needed for dendrite growth is obtained through coupling with Pandat software package in combination with thermodynamic/kinetic/equilibrium phase diagram calculation databases. The effect of interactions between various alloying elements on solute diffusion coefficient is considered in the model. This model has first been used to simulate Al-7Si (weight percent) binary dendrite growth followed by a validation using theoretical predictions. For ternary alloy, Al-7Si-0.5Mg dendrite simulation has been carried out and the effects of solute interactions on diffusion matrix as well as the differences of Si and Mg in solute distribution have been analyzed. For actual application, this model has been applied to simulate the equiaxed dendrite growth with various crystallographic orientations of Al-7Si-0.36Mg ternary alloy, and the predicted secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the columnar dendrite growth in directional solidification has also been simulated and the predicted primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) is in good agreement with experiments. The simulated results effectively demonstrate the abilities of the model in prediction of dendritic microstructure of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloy.

  6. Aluminum nitride, Scandium nitride, and Aluminum-Scandium-Nitride ternary alloys : Structural, optical, and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ruopeng

    Al and Sc are iso-electric, both of which have three valence electrons. Their nitrides AlN and ScN both have high melting points, high hardness, and good chemical inertness. And their distinct properties find applications in different areas: AlN in piezoelectric acoustic-wave devices, and ScN as candidate for high-temperature thermoelectricity. While there are unsettled problems to solve for AlN and ScN alone, which are to obtain tilted c-axis texture in AlN for shear mode acoustic-wave devices to maximize performance, and to determine electronic band structure of ScN that has been long debated due to free carrier effect, the alloying between AlN and ScN is also intriguing in that the ternary alloy Al-Sc-N connects their similarity and opens even wider possibility and greater potential. The significantly enhanced piezoelectric coefficient in the alloy compared to pure AlN is one of the best examples that is little understood, and alternate bandgap engineering in LED fabrication would probably be another contribution from the alloy. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of AlN, ScN, and Al-Sc-N ternary alloys are thus studied in order to answer these questions, and to explore more fundamental physics characteristics within these nitride materials. For the purpose of achieving tilted c-axis texture in AlN, off-axis deposition is conducted with a variable deposition angle α = 0-84° in 5 mTorr pure N2 at room temperature. XRD pole figure analysis show that layers deposited from a normal angle (α = 0°) exhibit fiber texture, with the c-axis tilted by 42+/-2° off the substrate normal. However, as α is increased to 45°, two preferred in-plane grain orientations emerge, with populations I and II having the c-axis tilted towards and away from the deposition flux, by 53+/-2° and 47+/-1° off the substrate normal, respectively. Increasing alpha further to 65 and 84°, results in the development of a single population II with a 43+/-1° tilt. The observed tilt

  7. Structural, mechanical and electrical properties of alloys in ternary Ag-Bi-Zn system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minic, Duško M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural, mechanical and electrical properties of selected alloys in ternary Ag-Bi-Zn system are presented in this paper. Chosen alloys were investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, light optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS, as well as by electrical conductivity and Brinell hardness measurements. Isolines of electrical conductivity and hardness for the entire Ag-Bi-Zn system were calculated using regression models.Este trabajo estudia las propiedades estructurales, mecánicas y eléctricas de aleaciones seleccionadas del sistema ternario Ag-Bi-Zn. Las aleaciones elegidas se han caracterizado por medio de difracción de rayos X, microscopía óptica, microscopía electrónica de barrido combinada con espectrometría de dispersión de energía, así como por medio de medidas de conductividad eléctrica y dureza Brinell. Por medio de modelos de regresión se han calculado las líneas de isoconductividad eléctrica y dureza para todo el sistema Ag-Bi-Zn.

  8. Multifunctional properties related to magnetostructural transitions in ternary and quaternary Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubenko, Igor, E-mail: igor_doubenko@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Quetz, Abdiel; Pandey, Sudip; Aryal, Anil; Eubank, Michael [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Rodionov, Igor; Prudnikov, Valerii; Granovsky, Alexander [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorob' evy Gory, 11999I Moscow (Russian Federation); Lahderanta, Erkki [Lappeenranta University of Technology, 53851 (Finland); Samanta, Tapas; Saleheen, Ahmad; Stadler, Shane [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Ali, Naushad [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this report, the results of a study on the effects of compositional variations induced by the small changes in concentrations of the parent components and/or by the substitution of Ni, Mn, or In by an extra element Z, on the phase transitions, and phenomena related to the magnetostructural transitions in off-stoichiometric Ni–Mn–In based Heusler alloys are summarized. The crystal structures, phase transitions temperatures, and magnetic and magnetocaloric properties were analyzed for representative samples of the following systems (all near 15 at% indium concentration): Ni–Mn–In, Ni–Mn–In–Si, Ni–Mn–In–B, Ni–Mn–In–Cu, Ni–Mn–In–Cu–B, Ni–Mn–In–Fe, Ni–Mn–In–Ag, and Ni–Mn–In–Al. - Highlights: • The experimental results on phase transitions temperatures, adiabatic temperature changes, magnetoresistance and heat flow for the ternary and quaternary Heusler alloys based on Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} demonstrate high sensitivity of magnetic properties to the small changes in concentrations of the parent components and/or by the substitution of Ni, Mn, or In by an additional element Z. • The phenomena related to the magnetostructural transitions strongly depend on the weighted average radius of constituent ions.

  9. Determination of thermodynamic properties of aluminum based binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altıntas, Yemliha [Abdullah Gül University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Aksöz, Sezen [Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Physics, 50300, Nevşehir (Turkey); Keşlioğlu, Kâzım, E-mail: kesli@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Maraşlı, Necmettin [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 34210, Davutpaşa, İstanbul (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    In the present work, the Gibbs–Thomson coefficient, solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies and grain boundary energy of a solid Al solution in the Al–Cu–Si eutectic system were determined from the observed grain boundary groove shapes by measuring the thermal conductivity of the solid and liquid phases and temperature gradient. Some thermodynamic properties such as the enthalpy of fusion, entropy of fusion, the change of specific heat from liquid to solid and the electrical conductivity of solid phases at their melting temperature were also evaluated by using the measured values of relevant data for Al–Cu, Al–Si, Al–Mg, Al–Ni, Al–Ti, Al–Cu–Ag, Al–Cu–Si binary and ternary alloys. - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Al–Cu–Si eutectic alloy was observed through SEM. • The three eutectic phases (α-Al, Si, CuAl{sub 2}) have been determined by EDX analysis. • Solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies of α-Al solution were determined. • ΔS{sub f},ΔH{sub M}, ΔC{sub P}, electrical conductivity of solid phases for solid Al solutions were determined. • G–T coefficient and grain boundary energy of solid Al solution were determined.

  10. Phase transformation and microstructure study of the as-cast Cu-rich Cu-Al-Mn ternary alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holjevac-Grgurić T.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Four Cu-rich alloys from the ternary Cu-Al-Mn system were prepared in the electric-arc furnace and casted in cylindrical moulds with dimensions: f=8 mm and length 12 mm. Microstructural investigations of the prepared samples were performed by using optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscopy, equipped by energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS. Assignation of crystalline phases was confirmed by XRD analysis. Phase transition temperatures were determined using simultaneous thermal analyzer STA DSC/TG. Phase equilibria calculation of the ternary Cu-Al-Mn system was performed using optimized thermodynamic parameters from literature. Microstructure and phase transitions of the prepared as-cast alloys were investigated and experimental results were compared with the results of thermodynamic calculations.

  11. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S.; Zupanic, F.

    2001-01-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation (α Al , β Si , Al 3 Sm, Al 2 Si 2 Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L → α Al + β Si + Al 2 Si 2 Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al 3 Sm → α Al + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm → α Al + Al 2 Si 2 Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  12. Contribution to the Study of the Relation between Microstructure and Electrochemical Behavior of Iron-Based FeCoC Ternary Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Benhalla-Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the relation between microstructure and electrochemical behavior of four iron-based FeCoC ternary alloys. First, the arc-melted studied alloys were characterized using differential thermal analyses and scanning electron microscopy. The established solidification sequences of these alloys show the presence of two primary crystallization phases (δ(Fe and graphite as well as two univariante lines : peritectic L+(Fe↔(Fe and eutectic L↔(Fe+Cgraphite. The ternary alloys were thereafter studied in nondeaerated solution of 10−3 M NaHCO3 + 10−3 M Na2SO4, at 25°C, by means of the potentiodynamic technique. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the FeCoC alloys depends on the carbon amount and the morphology of the phases present in the studied alloys.

  13. Fullerene alloy formation and the benefits for efficient printing of ternary blend organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2015-01-01

    with a third polymer component, the system exhibits pseudo-binary phase behaviour instead of the expected ternary phase behaviour. Our results experimentally confirm the earlier hypothesis that the unexpected composition average dependent IV-behaviour for these supposed ternary mixtures are indeed due to them...

  14. One-step synthesis of PtPdAu ternary alloy nanoparticles on graphene with superior methanol electrooxidation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuzhen; Gu Yonge; Lin Shaoxiong; Wei Jinping; Wang Zaihua [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du Yongling; Ye Weichun [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > PtPdAu nanoparticles were synthesized on graphene sheets via chemical reduction method. > The prepared PtPdAu nanoparticles were ternary alloy with fcc structure. > The catalyst exhibited superior catalytic activity and stability for MOR in alkaline. - Abstract: Well-dispersed PtPdAu ternary alloy nanoparticles were synthesized on graphene sheets via a simple one-step chemical reduction method in ethylene glycol (EG) and water system, in which EG served as both reductive and dispersing agent. The electrocatalytic activity of PtPdAu/G was tested by methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The catalyst was further characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which indicated that the as-synthesized PtPdAu nanoparticles with alloy structures were successfully dispersed on the graphene sheets. Electrocatalytic properties of the catalyst for MOR in alkaline have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and Tafel curves. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of PtPdAu/G were superior to PtPd/G, PtAu/G and Pt/G. In addition, the anodic peak current on PtPdAu/G catalyst was proportional to the concentration of methanol in the range of 0.05-1.00 M. This study implies that the prepared catalyst have great potential applications in fuel cells.

  15. Compositional trends and magnetic excitations in binary and ternary Fe–Pd–X magnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, Markus Ernst; Hamann, Sven; Brunken, Hayo; Ludwig, Alfred; Entel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We discuss compositional trends in Fe–Pd–Cu and Fe–Pd–Mn magnetic shape memory alloys. ► We combine density functional theory and combinatorial thin film experiments. ► Magnetic excitations contribute decisively to the structural transformation behavior. -- Abstract: High throughput thin film experiments and first-principles calculations are combined in order to get insight into the relation between finite temperature transformation behavior and structural ground state properties of ternary Fe–Pd–X alloys. In particular, we consider the binding surface, i.e., the energy of the disordered alloy calculated along the Bain path between bcc and fcc which we model by a 108 atom supercell. We compare stoichiometric Fe 75 Pd 25 with ternary systems, where 4.6% of the Fe atoms were substituted by Cu and Mn, respectively. The computational trends are related to combinatorial experiments on thin film libraries for the systems Fe–Pd–Mn and Fe–Pd–Cu which reveal a systematic evolution of the martensitic start temperature with composition within the relevant concentration range for magnetic shape memory (MSM) applications. Our calculations include atomic relaxations, which were shown to be relevant for a correct description of the structural properties. Furthermore, we find that magnetic excitations can substantially alter the binding surface. The comparison of experimental and theoretical trends indicates that, both, compositional changes and magnetic excitations contribute significantly to the structural stability which may thus be tailored by specifically adding antiferromagnetic components

  16. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-22

    , low electrical conductivity and therefore low MHD pressure drop, low chemical reactivity, and extremely low tritium inventory; the addition of sodium (FLiNaBe) has been considered because it retains the properties of FliBe but also lowers the melting point. Although many of these blanket concepts are promising, challenges still remain. The limited amount of beryllium available poses a problem for ceramic breeders such as the HCPB. FLiBe and FLiNaBe are highly viscous and have a low thermal conductivity. Lithium lead possesses a poor thermal conductivity which can cause problems in both DCLL and LiPb blankets. Additionally, the tritium permeation from these two blankets into plant components can be a problem and must be reduced. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium-related hazards are of primary concern. Although reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, the successful candidates will have to guarantee acceptable performance in all their functions. The scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of a large number of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of the IFE engine and assess their properties upon activation. This manuscript is organized as follows: Section 12 presents the models and methodologies used for the analysis; Section

  17. Energy gaps, effective masses and ionicity of AlxGa1-xSb ternary semiconductor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarissa, N.; Boucenna, M.; Saib, S.; Siddiqui, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    A pseudopotential calculation of the electronic structure of AlxGa1-xSb ternary alloys in the zinc-blende structure has been performed. The compositional dependence of energy gaps, electron and heavy hole effective masses and ionicity of the material system of interest have been examined and discussed. Special attention has been given to the effect of the alloy disorder on the direct (Γ-Γ) bandgap energy. It is found that all features of interest vary monotonically with increasing the Al concentration x. Besides, bandgap bowing parameters and extent of the direct-to-indirect bandgap transition have been determined. Our findings agree generally well with the data reported in the literature. Trends in ionicity are found to be consistent with the Phillips ionicity scale.

  18. Phase-field modeling of the microstructure evolution and heterogeneous nucleation in solidifying ternary Al–Cu–Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundin, Julia; Pogorelov, Evgeny; Emmerich, Heike

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the microstructure evolution during the isothermal and non-isothermal solidification of ternary Al–Cu–Ni alloys by means of a general multi-phase-field model for an arbitrary number of phases. The stability requirements for the model functions on every dual interface guarantee the absence of “ghost” phases. The aim was to generate a realistic microstructure by coupling the thermodynamic parameters of the phases and the thermodynamically consistent phase-field evolution equations. It is shown that the specially constructed thermal noise terms disturb the stability on the dual interfaces and can produce heterogeneous nucleation of product phases at energetically favorable points. Similar behavior can be observed in triple junctions where the heterogeneous nucleation of a fourth phase is more favorable. Finally, the model predicts the growth of a combined eutectic-like and peritectic-like structure that is comparable to the observed experimental microstructure in various alloys

  19. Theoretical investigation of the structural stabilities, optoelectronic properties and thermodynamic characteristics of GaPxSb1-x ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumelaz, F.; Nemiri, O.; Boumaza, A.; Ghemid, S.; Meradji, H.; Bin Omran, S.; El Haj Hassan, F.; Rai, D. P.; Khenata, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this theoretical study, we have investigated the structural, phase transition, electronic, thermodynamic and optical properties of GaPxSb1-x ternary alloys. Our calculations are performed with the WIEN2k code based on density functional theory using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. For the electron exchange-correlation potential, a generalized gradient approximation within Wu-Cohen scheme is considered. The recently developed Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential has also been used to improve the underestimated band gap. The structural properties, including the lattice constants, the bulk moduli and their pressure derivatives are in very good agreement with the available experimental data and theoretical results. Several structural phase transitions were studied here to establish the stable structure and to predict the phase transition under hydrostatic pressure. The computed transition pressure (Pt) of the material of our interest from the zinc blende (B3) to the rock salt (B1) phase has been determined and found to agree well with the experimental and theoretical data. The calculated band structure shows that GaSb binary compound and the ternary alloys are direct band gap semiconductors. Optical parameters such as the dielectric constants and the refractive indices are calculated and analyzed. The thermodynamic results are also interpreted and analyzed.

  20. Thermodynamic mixing effects of liquid ternary Au–Fe–Pd alloys by computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiska, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic mixing behavior of liquid Au–Fe–Pd alloys over the whole range of composition. ► Experimental investigations by means of the computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry. ► Algebraic representation of the molar excess properties by TAP series concept. ► The corresponding TAP parameters are presented. ► The values of all molar excess functions, and thermodynamic activities at 1850 K are given. - Abstract: Thermodynamic investigations on liquid ternary Au–Fe–Pd alloys have been performed by means of the computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry. The “Digital Intensity-Ratio” (DIR) – method has been applied for the determination of the thermodynamic mixing behaviour. The ternary thermodynamically adapted power (TAP) series concept is used for the algebraic representation of the molar excess properties. The corresponding TAP parameters, and the values of the molar excess quantities Z E (Z = Gibbs energy G, heat of mixing H, and entropy S) as well as the thermodynamic activities of all three constituents at 1850 K are presented.

  1. Growth and properties of Al-rich InxAl1-xN ternary alloy grown on GaN template by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tae Su; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jong Ock; Jeong, Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Nagarajan, S; Lim, Kee Young; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2008-01-01

    An Al-rich In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy was grown on a GaN template by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The GaN template was fabricated on a c-plane sapphire with a low temperature GaN nucleation layer. The growth of the 300 nm thick In x Al 1-x N layer was carried out under various growth temperatures and pressures. The surface morphology and the InN molar fraction of the In x Al 1-x N layer were assessed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution x-ray diffraction, respectively. The AFM surface images of the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy exhibited quantum dot-like grains caused by the 3D island growth mode. The grains, however, disappeared rapidly by increasing diffusion length and mobility of the Al adatoms with increasing growth temperature and the full width at half maximum value of ternary peaks in HR-XRD decreased with decreasing growth pressure. The MOCVD growth condition with the increased growth temperature and decreased growth pressure would be effective to grow the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy with a smooth surface and improved quality. The optical band edge of In x Al 1-x N ternary alloys was estimated by optical absorbance and, based on the results of HR-XRD and optical absorbance measurements, we obtained the bowing parameter of the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy at b = 5.3 eV, which was slightly larger than that of previous reports

  2. First-principles study on half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of Zn1- x V x Se ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatta, Swati; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya

    2017-09-01

    The spin-polarised density functional theory along with self-consistent plane-wave pseudopotential is used to investigate the half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of ternary alloys Zn1- x V x Se. The generalized gradient approximation is used for exchange-correlation potential. The equilibrium lattice constants, bulk modulus, and its derivatives are calculated. The calculated spin-polarised energy-band structures reveal that these alloys are half-metallic for x = 0.375 and 0.50 and nearly half-metallic for other values of x. The estimated direct and indirect bandgaps may be useful for the magneto-optical absorption experiments. It is found that there is strong Zn 4s, Se 4p, and V 3d orbital hybridization in the conduction bands of both the spins, while Se 4p and V 3d orbital hybridization predominates in the valence bands of both the spins. The s, p-d, and p-d orbital hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment of V atoms and small local magnetic moments are produced on Zn and Se atoms which get coupled with V atoms in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases, respectively. The conduction and valence-band-edge splittings and exchange constants predict the ferromagnetism in these alloys. The conduction band-impurity (s and p-d) exchange interaction is more significant for ferromagnetism in these alloys than the valence band-impurity (p-d) exchange interaction.

  3. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  4. Study on the Mg-Li-Zn ternary alloy system with improved mechanical properties, good degradation performance and different responses to cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Yuanhao; Bian, Dong; Gao, Shuang; Leeflang, M.A.; Guo, Hui; Zheng, Yufeng; Zhou, J.

    2017-01-01

    Novel Mg-(3.5, 6.5wt%)Li-(0.5, 2, 4wt%)Zn ternary alloys were developed as new kinds of biodegradable metallic materials with potential for stent application. Their mechanical properties, degradation behavior, cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility were studied. These potential biomaterials

  5. Influence of Surface Energy on Organic Alloy Formation in Ternary Blend Solar Cells Based on Two Donor Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobalasingham, Nemal S; Noh, Sangtaik; Howard, Jenna B; Thompson, Barry C

    2016-10-05

    The compositional dependence of the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) in ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is correlated with the miscibility of polymers, which may be influenced by a number of attributes, including crystallinity, the random copolymer effect, or surface energy. Four ternary blend systems featuring poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene) (P3HT 75 -co-EHT 25 ), poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-(hexyl-3-carboxylate)), herein referred to as poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-hexylesterthiophene) (P3HT 50 -co-3HET 50 ), poly(3-hexylthiophene-thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole) (P3HTT-DPP-10%), and an analog of P3HTT-DPP-10% with 40% of 3-hexylthiophene exchanged for 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethylthiophen-2-yl (3MEO-T) (featuring an electronically decoupled oligoether side-chain), referred to as P3HTTDPP-MEO40%, are explored in this work. All four polymers are semicrystalline and rich in rr-P3HT content and perform well in binary devices with PC 61 BM. Except for P3HTTDPP-MEO40%, all polymers exhibit similar surface energies (∼21-22 mN/m). P3HTTDPP-MEO40% exhibits an elevated surface energy of around 26 mN/m. As a result, despite the similar optoelectronic properties and binary solar cell performance of P3HTTDPP-MEO40% compared to P3HTT-DPP-10%, the former exhibits a pinned V oc in two different sets of ternary blend devices. This is a stark contrast to previous rr-P3HT-based systems and demonstrates that surface energy, and its influence on miscibility, plays a critical role in the formation of organic alloys and can supersede the influence of crystallinity, the random copolymer effect, similar backbone structures, and HOMO/LUMO considerations. Therefore, we confirm surface energy compatibility as a figure-of-merit for predicting the compositional dependence of the V oc in ternary blend solar cells and highlight the importance of polymer miscibility in organic alloy formation.

  6. Fe-Cr-V ternary alloy-based ferritic steels for high- and low-temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieth, M.; Materna-Morris, E.; Dudarev, S.L.; Boutard, J.-L.; Keppler, H.; Mayor, J.

    2009-01-01

    The phase stability of alloys and steels developed for application in nuclear fission and fusion technology is one of the decisive factors determining the potential range of operating temperatures and radiation conditions that the core elements of a power plant can tolerate. In the case of ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels, the choice of the chemical composition is dictated by the phase diagram for binary FeCr alloys where in the 0-9% range of Cr composition the alloy remains in the solid solution phase at and below the room temperature. For Cr concentrations exceeding 9% the steels operating at relatively low temperatures are therefore expected to exhibit the formation of α' Cr-rich precipitates. These precipitates form obstacles for the propagation of dislocations, impeding plastic deformation and embrittling the material. This sets the low temperature limit for the use of of high (14% to 20%) Cr steels, which for the 20% Cr steels is at approximately 600 deg. C. On the other hand, steels containing 12% or less Cr cannot be used at temperatures exceeding ∼600 deg. C due to the occurrence of the α-γ transition (912 deg. C in pure iron and 830 deg. C in 7% Cr alloy), which weakens the steel in the high temperature limit. In this study, we investigate the physical properties of a concentrated ternary alloy system that attracted relatively little attention so far. The phase diagram of ternary Fe-Cr-V alloy shows no phase boundaries within a certain broad range of Cr and V concentrations. This makes the alloy sufficiently resistant to corrosion and suggests that steels and dispersion strengthened materials based on this alloy composition may have better strength and stability at high temperatures. Experimental heats were produced on a laboratory scale by arc melting the material components to pellets, then by melting the pellets in an induction furnace and casting the melt into copper moulds. The compositions in weight percent (iron base) are 10Cr5V, 10Cr

  7. Hydrogen induced dis-proportionation studies on Zr-Co-M (M=Ni, Fe, Ti) ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, Ram Avtar; Pati, Subhasis; Parida, S.C.; Agarwal, Renu; Mukerjee, S.K.; Sastry, P.U.; Jayakrishnan, V.B.

    2016-01-01

    The intermetallic compound ZrCo is considered as a suitable material for storage, supply and recovery of hydrogen isotopes in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). However, upon repeated hydriding-dehydriding cycles, the hydrogen storage capacity of ZrCo decreases, which is attributed to the disproportionate reaction ZrCo + H 2 ↔ ZrH 2 + ZrCo 2 . The reduction of hydrogen storage capacity of ZrCo is not desirable for its use in tritium facilities. In our previous studies, attempts were made to improve the durability of ZrCo against dis-proportionation by including a third element. The present study is aimed to investigate the hydrogen induced dis-proportionation of Zr-Co-M (M=Ni, Fe and Ti) ternary alloys under hydrogen delivery conditions

  8. Density Functional Theory Modeling of Low-Loss Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in Wurtzite III-Nitride Ternary Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljarrat, Alberto; Sastre, Xavier; Peiró, Francesca; Estradé, Sónia

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the dielectric response of III-nitride semiconductors is studied using density functional theory (DFT) band structure calculations. The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the features in the low-loss electron energy-loss spectra of ternary alloys, but the results are also relevant to optical and UV spectroscopy results. In addition, the dependence of the most remarkable features with composition is tested, i.e. applying Vegard's law to band gap and plasmon energy. For this purpose, three wurtzite ternary alloys, from the combination of binaries AlN, GaN, and InN, were simulated through a wide compositional range (i.e., Al x Ga1-x N, In x Al1-x N, and In x Ga1-x N, with x=[0,1]). For this DFT calculations, the standard tools found in Wien2k software were used. In order to improve the band structure description of these semiconductor compounds, the modified Becke-Johnson exchange-correlation potential was also used. Results from these calculations are presented, including band structure, density of states, and complex dielectric function for the whole compositional range. Larger, closer to experimental values, band gap energies are predicted using the novel potential, when compared with standard generalized gradient approximation. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the collective excitation features in the dielectric response reveals their compositional dependence, which sometimes departs from a linear behavior (bowing). Finally, an advantageous method for measuring the plasmon energy dependence from these calculations is explained.

  9. Effect of Ternary Addition of Iron on Shape Memory Characteristics of Cu-Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, T. N.; Sampath, V.

    2011-07-01

    The effect of alloying Cu-Al alloys with Fe on their transformation temperatures and shape memory properties was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and bend test. It was found that the minor additions of iron resulted in change of transformation temperatures and led to excellent shape memory properties of the alloys. Since the transformation temperatures are high, they are an ideal choice for high-temperature applications.

  10. Microstructure and magnetic behavior of Cu–Co–Si ternary alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying and isothermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabri, Sumit, E-mail: sumitchabri2006@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Bera, S. [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713209 (India); Mondal, B.N. [Department of Central Scientific Services, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Basumallick, A.; Chattopadhyay, P.P. [Department of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Microstructure and magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline 50Cu–40Co–10Si (at%) alloy prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequent isothermal annealing in the temperature range of 450–650 °C have been studied. Phase evolution during mechanical alloying and isothermal annealing is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analyzer (DTA), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and magnetic measurement. Addition of Si has been found to facilitate the metastable alloying of Co in Cu resulting into the formation of single phase solid solution having average grain size of 9 nm after ball milling for 50 h duration. Annealing of the ball milled alloy improves the magnetic properties significantly and best combination of magnetic properties has been obtained after annealing at 550 °C for 1 h duration.

  11. Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Amanda [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States); Zhao, Hongbin [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States); Hopkins, Scott [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the work completed under the U.S. Department of Energy Project Award No.: DE-FE0001181 titled “Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods.” The project started in October 1, 2009 and was finished September 30, 2014. Pall Corporation worked with Cornell University to sputter and test palladium-based ternary alloys onto silicon wafers to examine many alloys at once. With the specialized equipment at Georgia Institute of Technology that analyzed the wafers for adsorbed carbon and sulfur species six compositions were identified to have resistance to carbon and sulfur species. These compositions were deposited on Pall AccuSep® supports by Colorado School of Mines and then tested in simulated synthetic coal gas at the Pall Corporation. Two of the six alloys were chosen for further investigations based on their performance. Alloy reproducibility and long-term testing of PdAuAg and PdZrAu provided insight to the ability to manufacture these compositions for testing. PdAuAg is the most promising alloy found in this work based on the fabrication reproducibility and resistance to carbon and sulfur. Although PdZrAu had great initial resistance to carbon and sulfur species, the alloy composition has a very narrow range that hindered testing reproducibility.

  12. Electronic and phononic origins of martensitic behavior in nickel titanium-based binary and ternary shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Nicholas B.

    Due to the importance of NiTi as a shape memory material and the uncertainty regarding its atomisitic martensitic transformation path, a thorough investigation to understand the structural stability governing this displacive phase transformation is warranted. We investigate elastic and shear stabilities of NiTi binary and ternary (with additions of Pd and Pt) alloys using first-principles calculations with the highly-precise full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method. Ambiguities of the B2, R, B19, B19', and proposed B33 structures are resolved, and the phase stability of each structure is established by examining calculated formation energies. All single crystal elastic constants, Young's, bulk, and shear moduli, Poisson's ratio, and the Zener anisotropy of the B2, R, B19, B19', and B33 phases are calculated and presented. To investigate the susceptibility to shearing, generalized stacking fault energetics and cleavage energies are calculated for the {001}, {011}, and {111} slip planes of the B2 phase. Burgers vectors and shear resistance are established. By investigating various deformation mechanisms related to these stacking faults, we find an instability to h100i{011} slip in the B2 phase. Using this and reviewing previously proposed atomistic transformation paths, the mechanisms governing the direct martensitic transformation of NiTi between the austenite and the martensite are identified. Barrierless transformation paths from the B2 phase to the B19' phase and from the B2 phase to the B33 phase are proposed, and the ternary transformation path is investigated. Differences between binary and ternary alloys, which are known to raise transformation temperatures, are illustrated. To provide a theoretical foundation for this diffusionless structural phase transformation, we illustrate the changes in electronic structures which explain its martensitic behavior. Electronic structure evolution is illustrated throughout the proposed atomistic

  13. Numerical Prediction of the Thermodynamic Properties of Ternary Al-Ni-Pd Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagula-Yavorska, Maryana; Romanowska, Jolanta; Kotowski, Sławomir; Sieniawski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of ternary Al-Ni-Pd system, such as exGAlNPd, µAl(AlNiPd), µNi(AlNiPd) and µPd(AlNiPd) at 1,373 K, were predicted on the basis of thermodynamic properties of binary systems included in the investigated ternary system. The idea of predicting exGAlNiPd values was regarded as calculation of values of the exG function inside a certain area (a Gibbs triangle) unless all boundary conditions, that is values of exG on all legs of the triangle are known (exGAlNi, exGAlPd, exGNiPd). This approach is contrary to finding a function value outside a certain area, if the function value inside this area is known. exG and LAl,Ni,Pd ternary interaction parameters in the Muggianu extension of the Redlich-Kister formalism were calculated numerically using the Excel program and Solver. The accepted values of the third component xx differed from 0.01 to 0.1 mole fraction. Values of LAlNiPd parameters in the Redlich-Kister formula are different for different xx values, but values of thermodynamic functions: exGAlNiPd, µAl(AlNiPd), µNi(AlNiPd) and µPd(AlNiPd) do not differ significantly for different xx values. The choice of xx value does not influence the accuracy of calculations.

  14. Structural and magnetic study of mechanically deformed Fe rich FeAlSi ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarra, E.; Apiñaniz, E.; Plazaola, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Addition of Si to binary Fe–Al alloys makes the disordering more difficult. ► Si addition opposes the large volume increase found in FeAl alloys with deformation. ► Disordering induces a redistribution of non-ferrous atoms around Fe atoms in Fe 75 Al 25−x Si x and Fe 70 Al 30−x Si x . ► Addition of Si to binary Fe 75 Al 25 and Fe 70 Al 30 alloys opposes the magnetic behavior induced by Al in the magnetism of Fe. ► Si inhibits the para-ferro transition found in Fe 60 Al 40 alloy with disordering. - Abstract: In this work we study systematically the influence of different Al/Si ratios on the magnetic and structural properties of mechanically disordered powder Fe 75 Al 25−x Si x , Fe 70 Al 30−x Si x and Fe 60 Al 40−x Si x alloys by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. In order to obtain different stages of disorder the alloys were deformed by different methods: crushing induction melted alloys and ball milling annealed (ordered) alloys using different number of balls and speed. X-ray and Mössbauer data show that mechanical deformation induces the disordered A2 structure in these alloys. The results indicate that addition of Si to binary Fe–Al alloys makes the disordering more difficult. In addition, X-ray diffraction patterns show that the normalized lattice parameter variation of the disordered alloys of each composition decreases monotonically with Si content, indicating clearly that Si addition opposes the large volume increase found in FeAl alloys with deformation. The study of the hyperfine fields indicates that there is a redistribution of non-ferrous atoms around Fe atoms with the disordering; indeed, there is an inversion of the behavior of the hyperfine field of the Fe atoms. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate that addition of Si to binary Fe 75 Al 25 and Fe 70 Al 30 alloys opposes the magnetic behavior induced by Al in the magnetism of Fe.

  15. The A1 to L10 transformation in FePt films with ternary alloying additions of Mg, V, Mn, and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Barmak, K.; Klemmer, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of ternary additions of Mg, V, Mn, and B on the A1 [face centered cubic (fcc)] to L1 0 phase transformation has been studied. The films were cosputter deposited from elemental targets at room temperature and annealed after deposition. The films had Mg additions in the range ∼0-2.6 at.%, V additions in the range 0.7-12.2 at.%, Mn additions in the range 2.2-16.3 at.%, and B additions in the range 1.2-12.9 at.%. For all four ternary alloy systems, annealing resulted in the formation of no other phases than the L1 0 phase. Ternary additions of C than the binary FePt films with the same Pt content.

  16. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadef, Fatma, E-mail: hadef77@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria)

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe–Al–X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe–Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems. - Highlights: • A review of state of the art on binary Fe–Al alloys was presented. • Structural and microstructural properties of MA ternary Fe–Al–X alloys were summerized. • MA process is a powerful tool for producing metallic alloys at the nanometer scale.

  17. Study on the Mg-Li-Zn ternary alloy system with improved mechanical properties, good degradation performance and different responses to cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Yuanhao; Bian, Dong; Gao, Shuang; Leeflang, Sander; Guo, Hui; Zheng, Yufeng; Zhou, Jie

    2017-10-15

    Novel Mg-(3.5, 6.5wt%)Li-(0.5, 2, 4wt%)Zn ternary alloys were developed as new kinds of biodegradable metallic materials with potential for stent application. Their mechanical properties, degradation behavior, cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility were studied. These potential biomaterials showed higher ultimate tensile strength than previously reported binary Mg-Li alloys and ternary Mg-Li-X (X=Al, Y, Ce, Sc, Mn and Ag) alloys. Among the alloys studied, the Mg-3.5Li-2Zn and Mg-6.5Li-2Zn alloys exhibited comparable corrosion resistance in Hank's solution to pure magnesium and better corrosion resistance in a cell culture medium than pure magnesium. Corrosion products observed on the corroded surface were composed of Mg(OH) 2 , MgCO 3 and Ca-free Mg/P inorganics and Ca/P inorganics. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed different behaviors of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) and Human Aorta Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs) to material extracts. HUVECs showed increasing nitric oxide (NO) release and tolerable toxicity, whereas VSMCs exhibited limited decreasing viability with time. Platelet adhesion, hemolysis and coagulation tests of these Mg-Li-Zn alloys showed different degrees of activation behavior, in which the hemolysis of the Mg-3.5Li-2Zn alloy was lower than 5%. These results indicated the potential of the Mg-Li-Zn alloys as good candidate materials for cardiovascular stent applications. Mg-Li alloys are promising as absorbable metallic biomaterials, which however have not received significant attention since the low strength, controversial corrosion performance and the doubts in Li toxicity. The Mg-Li-Zn alloy in the present study revealed much improved mechanical properties higher than most reported binary Mg-Li and ternary Mg-Li-X alloys, with superior corrosion resistance in cell culture media. Surprisingly, the addition of Li and Zn showed increased nitric oxide release. The present study indicates good potential of Mg-Li-Zn alloy as

  18. Effects of Ni content on nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni ternary alloys synthesized by a chemical reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chokprasombat, Komkrich, E-mail: komkrich28@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Phatthalung 93210 Thailand (Thailand); Pinitsoontorn, Supree [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand (Thailand); Maensiri, Santi [School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 Thailand (Thailand)

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of Fe–Co–Ni ternary alloys could be altered by changing of the particle size, elemental compositions, and crystalline structures. In this work, Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} nanoparticles (x=10, 20, 40, and 50) were prepared by the novel chemical reduction process. Hydrazine monohydrate was used as a reducing agent under the concentrated basic condition with the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone). We found that the nanoparticles were composed of Fe, Co and Ni with compositions according to the molar ratio of the metal sources. Interestingly, the particles were well-crystalline at the as-prepared state without post-annealing at high temperature. Increasing Ni content resulted in phase transformation from body centered cubic (bcc) to face centered cubic (fcc). For the fcc phase, the average particle size decreased when increased the Ni content; the Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} nanoparticles had the smallest average size with the narrowest size distribution. In additions, the particles exhibited ferromagnetic properties at room temperature with the coercivities higher than 300 Oe, and the saturation magnetiation decreased with increasing Ni content. These results suggest that the structural and magnetic properties of Fe–Co–Ni alloys could be adjusted by varying the Ni content. - Highlights: • We prepared nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni alloys by a novel chemical reduction process. • Elemental compositions could be well controlled by the molar ratio of metal sources. • Particle size and magnetic properties clearly depended on the Ni contents. • Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 10}Ni{sub 40} exhibited high saturation magnetization of 126.3 emu/g.

  19. Development of interatomic potential of Ge(1- x - y )Si x Sn y ternary alloy semiconductors for classical lattice dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Motohiro; Ogasawara, Masataka; Terada, Takuya; Watanabe, Takanobu

    2018-04-01

    We provide the parameters of Stillinger-Weber potentials for GeSiSn ternary mixed systems. These parameters can be used in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce phonon properties and thermal conductivities. The phonon dispersion relation is derived from the dynamical structure factor, which is calculated by the space-time Fourier transform of atomic trajectories in an MD simulation. The phonon properties and thermal conductivities of GeSiSn ternary crystals calculated using these parameters mostly reproduced both the findings of previous experiments and earlier calculations made using MD simulations. The atomic composition dependence of these properties in GeSiSn ternary crystals obtained by previous studies (both experimental and theoretical) and the calculated data were almost exactly reproduced by our proposed parameters. Moreover, the results of the MD simulation agree with the previous calculations made using a time-independent phonon Boltzmann transport equation with complicated scattering mechanisms. These scattering mechanisms are very important in complicated nanostructures, as they allow the heat-transfer properties to be more accurately calculated by MD simulations. This work enables us to predict the phonon- and heat-related properties of bulk group IV alloys, especially ternary alloys.

  20. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Pre-conceptual fusion blanket designs require research and development to reflect important proposed changes in the design of essential systems, and the new challenges they impose on related fuel cycle systems. One attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. If the chemical reactivity of lithium could be overcome, the result would have a profound impact on fusion energy and associated safety basis. The overriding goal of this project is to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns. To minimize the number of alloy combinations that must be explored, only those alloys that meet certain nuclear performance metrics will be considered for subsequent thermodynamic study. The specific scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) engine. The results of this study will inform the development of lithium alloys that would guarantee acceptable neutronics performance while mitigating the chemical reactivity issues of pure lithium.

  1. Microstructures of neutron-irradiated Fe-12Cr-XMn (X=15-30) ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, K.; Hosoi, Y.; Garner, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to determine the factors which control the stability of irradiated alloys proposed for reduced activation applications. The Fe-Cr-Mn alloy system is being studied as an alternative to the Fe-Cr-Ni system because of the need to reduce long-term radioactivation in fusion-power devices. In this study, four Fe-12Cr-XMn (X =15, 20, 25, 30 wt%) alloys were irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility to 20 dpa at 643K and 40 dpa at 679, 793, and 873K to investigate the influence of manganese content on void swelling and phase stability. The results confirm and expand the results of earlier studies that indicate that the Fe-Cr-Mn system is relatively unstable compared to that of the Fe-Cr-Ni system, with alpha and sigma phases forming as a consequence of thermal aging or high temperature irradiation

  2. Magnetic transition induced by mechanical deformation in Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40−x}Si{sub x} ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarra, E., E-mail: estibaliz.legarra@ehu.es [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Apiñaniz, E. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Plazaola, F. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jimenez, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), Avda. Gregorio del amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40−x}Si{sub x} alloys were disordered by means of planetary ball milling technique. • Paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition is observed with disordering. • Si addition hinders the disordering process and the increase of the lattice parameter. • Si addition promotes the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition. -- Abstract: We have used Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to study the influence of different Al/Si ratios on the structural and magnetic properties of the mechanically deformed Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40−x}Si{sub x} alloys. The results indicate that ternary alloys also present the magnetic transition with disordering observed in binary Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40} alloys. Besides, Si introduction has two opposite contributions. From a structural point of view, hinders the disordering process, but, from a magnetic point of view promotes the magnetic transition.

  3. Oxidation of high-chromium binary Ni--Cr alloys and ternary alloys containing Ce, Zr, and Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecer, G.M.; Meier, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    The oxidation of binary Ni--Cr alloys containing 44 and 50 wt percent Cr and Ni--50 Cr alloys with small additions of Ce, Zr, or Ti has been studied over a range of oxygen partial pressures at temperatures between 800 and 1100 0 C. The effects of cold work, surface preparation, and distribution of the Cr-rich second phase have been studied. Small additions of Ce were found to markedly reduce the rate of oxidation and improve the scale adherence. An explanation of the Ce effects is offered in terms of the stabilization of a free oxide grain size by Ce ions and/or CeO 2 particles and blocking of grain boundary short circuit diffusion paths by Ce ions. The effects of dilute additions of Ti and Zr are compared with the Ce effects

  4. Determining the Presence of Ordering in Ternary Semiconductor Alloys Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    as a simple measurement of film quality. 2. Motivation and Army Interest One common example of ordering seen in many semiconductor alloys is copper ...ARL U.S. Army Research Laboratory CuPt copper platinum Ga gallium GaInP gallium indium phosphide GaSb gallium antimonide HgCdTe mercury...RECORDS MGMT ATTN RDRL CIO LL TECHL LIB ATTN RDRL SEE I W SARNEY ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 TOTAL: 7 (1 ELEC, 6 HCS)

  5. Properties of ternary NiFeW alloy coating by jet electrodeposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    17

    [2] Zelenovic L R, Cirovic N, Spasojevic M, Mitrovic N, Maricic A and Pavlovic V 2012 Mater. Chem. Phys. 135 212. [3] Oliveira A L M, Costa J D, Sousa M B D, Alves J J N, Campos A R N, Santana R A C and Prasad. S 2015 J. Alloys Compd. 619 697. [4] Donten M, Cesiulis H and Stojek Z 2000 Electrochim. Acta 45 3389.

  6. Investigation of solidification behavior of the Sn-rich ternary Sn–Bi–Zn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mladenović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solidification properties and microstructure of six as-cast Sn–Bi–Zn alloys with 80 at.% of Sn and variable contents of Bi and Zn were experimentally investigated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The experimentally obtained results were compared with predicted phase equilibria according to the calculation of phase diagram (CALPHAD method and by the Scheil solidification simulation.

  7. Dispersion of nonresonant third-order nonlinearities in GeSiSn ternary alloys

    OpenAIRE

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Troia, Benedetto; Soref, Richard A.; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si), tin (Sn), and germanium (Ge) alloys have attracted research attention as direct band gap semiconductors with applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In particular, GeSn field effect transistors can exhibit very high performance in terms of power reduction and operating speed because of the high electron drift mobility, while the SiGeSn system can be constructed using CMOS-compatible techniques to realize lasers, LED, and photodetectors. The wide Si, Ge and Sn transparen...

  8. Structural, Electronic and Elastic Properties of Ternary Alloy CoxNi1-xSi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchene, S.; Kadri, M. T.; Baaouague, K.; Belkhir, H.

    2013-09-01

    First-principles calculations, by means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), were carried out for the structural, electronic and elastic properties of transition metals disilicides alloy CoxNi1-xSi2 in the fluorite structure. The composition effect on lattice constants and bulk modulus has been analyzed. The deviations of the lattice constants from Vegard's law and the bulk modulus from linear concentration dependence (LCD) were observed for CoxNi1-xSi2. We also calculated the densities of states for the distorted CoxNi1-xSi2 alloys as well as for the ordered phases CoSi2 and NiSi2. Theoretical values of Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature are estimated from the computed elastic constants. The analysis of the ratio of shear modulus to bulk modulus shows that the alloy is more brittle than the binary compounds. The calculated results are compared with other reported values.

  9. Atomistic modeling of ternary additions to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt and Ni-Ti-Hf shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, H.O., E-mail: hmosca@cnea.gov.ar [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Bozzolo, G. [Loyola University Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Grosso, M.F. del [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The behavior of ternary and quaternary additions to NiTi shape memory alloys is investigated using a quantum approximate method for the energetics. Ternary additions X to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt, and Ni-Ti-Hf alloys, for X=Au, Pt, Ir, Os, Re, W, Ta,Ag, Pd, Rh, Ru, Tc, Mo, Nb, Zr, Zn, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, V, Sc, Si, Al and Mg are considered. Bulk properties such as lattice parameter, energy of formation, and bulk modulus of the B2 alloys are studied for variations due to the presence of one or two simultaneous additives.

  10. Modeling diffusion-governed solidification of ternary alloys - Part 2: Macroscopic transport phenomena and macrosegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M; Li, J; Ludwig, A; Kharicha, A

    2014-09-01

    Part 1 of this two-part investigation presented a multiphase solidification model incorporating the finite diffusion kinetics and ternary phase diagram with the macroscopic transport phenomena (Wu et al., 2013). In Part 2, the importance of proper treatment of the finite diffusion kinetics in the calculation of macrosegregation is addressed. Calculations for a two-dimensional (2D) square casting (50 × 50 mm 2 ) of Fe-0.45 wt.%C-1.06 wt.%Mn considering thermo-solutal convection and crystal sedimentation are performed. The modeling result indicates that the infinite liquid mixing kinetics as assumed by classical models (e.g., the Gulliver-Scheil or lever rule), which cannot properly consider the solute enrichment of the interdendritic or inter-granular melt at the early stage of solidification, might lead to an erroneous estimation of the macrosegregation. To confirm this statement, further theoretical and experimental evaluations are desired. The pattern and intensity of the flow and crystal sedimentation are dependent on the crystal morphologies (columnar or equiaxed); hence, the potential error of the calculated macrosegregation caused by the assumed growth kinetics depends on the crystal morphology. Finally, an illustrative simulation of an engineering 2.45-ton steel ingot is performed, and the results are compared with experimental results. This example demonstrates the model applicability for engineering castings regarding both the calculation efficiency and functionality.

  11. Band gap characterization of ternary BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) alloys using modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Battal G.

    2015-04-01

    The semi-local Becke-Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators (e.g., sp semiconductors, noble-gas solids, and transition-metal oxides). The structural and electronic properties of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) in zinc-blende phase have been reported in this study. The results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and ternary alloys BBi1-xNx structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional of Wu and Cohen (WC) which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). For electronic properties the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential, which is more accurate than standard semi-local LDA and PBE calculations, has been chosen. Geometric optimization has been implemented before the volume optimization calculations for all the studied alloys structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works. And, the variation of the lattice parameter of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx almost perfectly matches with Vegard's law. The spin-orbit interaction (SOI) has been also considered for structural and electronic calculations and the results are compared to those of non-SOI calculations.

  12. Band gap characterization of ternary BBi1−xNx (0≤x≤1) alloys using modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, Battal G.

    2015-01-01

    The semi-local Becke–Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators (e.g., sp semiconductors, noble-gas solids, and transition-metal oxides). The structural and electronic properties of ternary alloys BBi 1−x N x (0≤x≤1) in zinc-blende phase have been reported in this study. The results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and ternary alloys BBi 1−x N x structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional of Wu and Cohen (WC) which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE). For electronic properties the modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) potential, which is more accurate than standard semi-local LDA and PBE calculations, has been chosen. Geometric optimization has been implemented before the volume optimization calculations for all the studied alloys structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works. And, the variation of the lattice parameter of ternary alloys BBi 1−x N x almost perfectly matches with Vegard's law. The spin–orbit interaction (SOI) has been also considered for structural and electronic calculations and the results are compared to those of non-SOI calculations

  13. Kinetic properties of ternary alloys Ni3Mn x Al1 - x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, N. V.; Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Kinetic properties of Ni3Mn x Al1 - x alloys have been studied at temperatures of 4.2 to 800 K in magnetic fields up to 12 MA/m. Separate contributions to the electrical resistance have been determined: the residual resistance, phonon component, and magnetic component. The behavior of the kinetic properties typical of the ferromagnets is observed, including the positive temperature coefficient of resistance and features in the form of a bend in the curves of the temperature dependence of resistance at the Curie temperature. It is shown that the parameters of the investigated kinetic properties change substantially upon the isomorphic concentration transition L12 → L12 from the ordinary superstructure of Ni3Mn type to the Ni3Al intermetallic compound. It has been revealed that the concentration dependence of the resistance can be described in terms of the percolation theory in the model of effective medium.

  14. Structural and optoelectronic properties of BxAl1-xSb ternary alloys: first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchehima, Miloud; Abid, Hamza; Chaouche, Abdallah Chabane; Resfa, Abbes

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) formalism based on density functional theory (DFT) has been performed. To study the structural properties of BxAl1-xSb at different boron concentrations x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), we have used the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation of Wu and Cohen (GGA-WC). The phase stability of AlSb and BSb binary compounds in zinc-blend and rock salt phases has been investigated. The equilibrium lattice constant (a), bulk modulus (B) and pressure derivative of bulk modulus B' have been evaluated in both phases. We observe a small deviation from the linear concentration dependence (LCD) of the lattice constant parameter, while an important deviation of bulk modulus from "LCD" has been remarked. We have compared the results obtained to the available theoretical and experimental data for the binaries. The optoelectronic properties of BxAl1-xSb are studied in the most stable determined phase. In addition to the "GGA-WC", the GGA of Engel and Vosko, and the recent developed Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) schemes were used to study the electronic properties of BxAl1-xSb ternary alloys. It is found that the band gap of BxAl1-xSb vary non-linearly with the boron concentrations, giving a negative deviation from Vegard's law. In addition, the optical properties such as the dielectric function, complex refractive index, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity and absorption coefficient are discussed in detail.

  15. InN/GaN short-period superlattices as ordered InGaN ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Imai, Daichi; Wang, Ke; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Coherent (InN) 1 /(GaN) n short-period superlattices (SPSs) were successfully grown through dynamic atomic layer epitaxy (D-ALEp) mode by RF-plasma molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where GaN layer thicknesses n were thinned down to 4 monolayer (ML). After this achievement, we demonstrated quasi-ternary InGaN behavior in their photoluminescence (PL) spectra for the first time. It was found interestingly that GaN layer thickness of n = 4 ML was the criterion both for structural control and continuum-band formation. Although highly lattice-mismatched InN/GaN interfaces easily introduce relaxation in (InN) 1 /(GaN) 4 SPSs during growth depending on the dynamic surface stoichiometry condition, this problem was overcome by precise control/removal of fluid-like residual In/Ga metals on the growth front with in-situ monitoring method. The (InN) 1 /(GaN) n SPSs with n ≥ 7 ML showed a constant PL peak energy around 3.2 eV at 12 K, reflecting discrete electron/hole wavefunctions. On the other hand, the (InN) 1 /(GaN) 4 SPSs indicated the red-shifted PL peak at 2.93 eV at 12 K, which was attributed to the continuum-band state with increasing in the overlap of electrons/hole wavefunctions. This result is concluded that the (InN) 1 /(GaN) 4 SPSs can be considered as ordered InGaN alloys. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Macrosegregation in horizontal direct chill casting of ternary Al alloys: Investigation of solid motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vušanović, I; Krane, M J M

    2012-01-01

    Macrosegregation in direct chill casting processes is controlled by fluid flow due to the thermosolutal natural and forced convection, shrinkage, and transport of unattached solid grains. Because grain refinement is usually used in aluminum direct chill casting, some effort must be made to model free-floating solid grains, and their attachment to a rigid mushy zone. Criteria for attachment vary, but many are based on using a critical solid packing fraction, which is treated as uniform and constant throughout the domain. In the case of horizontal casting (HDC), gravity acts perpendicularly to the casting direction, and the assumption of a uniform packing fraction cannot be applied because the solid particles attach to some surfaces by settling and others by being swept into the rigid solid from below. In this simulation of HDC casting of an Al-Cu-Mg alloy, the rigid and unattached solid is tracked separately, and a rule set is developed to determine the attachment of free-floating solid. Comparison between cases with and without unattached solid movement shows qualitatively different results, particularly in bottom part of slab. Non-uniform packing fractions cause very different segregation patterns in the lower half of the ingot compared to the cases with no solid movement, less segregation near centerline compared to uniform packing fraction cases, and positive segregation near the place where inlet jet impinges on the mushy zone.

  17. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  18. Topological phase transition in the ternary half-Heusler alloy ZrIrBi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, C. K.; Alam, Aftab

    2018-02-01

    Half-Heusler alloys provide a new platform for deriving a host of topologically exotic compounds through the inherent flexibility of tuning their hybridization strength (via lattice parameters), spin-orbit strength, substitution/doping, etc. Using the first-principles calculation within the density functional theory, we explore the possibility of realizing a topological insulating phase in a new half-Heusler material ZrIrBi. We discovered three routes through which ZrIrBi can be transformed to exhibit a topological nontrivial phase. They are (i) a hydrostatic expansion by 1% causing a band inversion with zero gap, (ii) a uniaxial strain along (001) direction which opens a band gap while preserving the inverted band order, and (iii) substitution of 50% Bi by As and 50% Zr by Hf forming the compounds ZrIr (As0.5Bi0.5 ) and (Zr0.5Hf0.5 )IrBi again showing a topologically nontrivial band inversion. A definitive proof of the surface conduction in all three cases are done by simulating surface band structures. We report the formation energies and the phonon dispersion for the three cases to confirm the chemical and mechanical stability of the compounds.

  19. First-Principles Calculations of Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of Ternary Semiconductor Alloys ZAs x Sb1- x ( Z = B, Al, Ga, In)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounab, S.; Bentabet, A.; Bouhadda, Y.; Belgoumri, Gh.; Fenineche, N.

    2017-08-01

    We have investigated the structural and electronic properties of the BAs x Sb 1- x , AlAs x Sb 1- x , GaAs x Sb 1- x and InAs x Sb 1- x semiconductor alloys using first-principles calculations under the virtual crystal approximation within both the density functional perturbation theory and the pseudopotential approach. In addition the optical properties have been calculated by using empirical methods. The ground state properties such as lattice constants, both bulk modulus and derivative of bulk modulus, energy gap, refractive index and optical dielectric constant have been calculated and discussed. The obtained results are in reasonable agreement with numerous experimental and theoretical data. The compositional dependence of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, energy gap and effective mass of electrons for ternary alloys show deviations from Vegard's law where our results are in agreement with the available data in the literature.

  20. Ab-initio study of structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of BaxSr1−xS ternary alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelli S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of BaxSr1−xS ternary alloys have been investigated using the full-potential (linearized augmented plane wave method. The ground state properties, such as lattice constant, bulk modulus and elastic constants, are in good agreement with numerous experimental and theoretical data. The dependence of the lattice parameters, bulk modulus and band gap on the composition x was analyzed. Deviation of the lattice constant from Vegard’s law and the bulk modulus from linear concentration dependence (LCD was observed. The microscopic origins of the gap bowing were explained by using the approach of Zunger et al. The thermodynamic stability of BaxSr1−xS alloy was investigated by calculating the excess enthalpy of mixing, ΔHm and the calculated phase diagram showed a broad miscibility gap with a critical temperature.

  1. Heat capacities, magnetic properties, and resistivities of ternary RPdBi alloys where R = La, Nd, Gd, Dy, Er, and Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedemann, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past four and a half decades research on the rare earths, their compounds, and their alloys has yielded significant insights into the nature of materials. The rare earths can be used to systematically study a series of alloys or compounds. Magnetic ordering, crystalline fields, spin fluctuations, the magnetocaloric effect, and magnetostriction are a small sample of phenomena studied that are exhibited by the rare earth family. A significant portion of research has been conducted on the abundant RM 2 and RM phases, where R is the rare earth and M is a transition metal. The natural progression of science has led to the study of related RMX ternary phases, where X is either another transition metal or semimetal. There are now over 1,000 known RMX phases. The focus of this study is on RPdBi where R = La, Nd, Gd, Dy, Er, and Lu. Their heat capacities, magnetic properties, and resistivities are studied

  2. A Platinum Monolayer Core-Shell Catalyst with a Ternary Alloy Nanoparticle Core and Enhanced Stability for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiong Nan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize a platinum monolayer core-shell catalyst with a ternary alloy nanoparticle core of Pd, Ir, and Ni. A Pt monolayer is deposited on carbon-supported PdIrNi nanoparticles using an underpotential deposition method, in which a copper monolayer is applied to the ternary nanoparticles; this is followed by the galvanic displacement of Cu with Pt to generate a Pt monolayer on the surface of the core. The core-shell Pd1Ir1Ni2@Pt/C catalyst exhibits excellent oxygen reduction reaction activity, yielding a mass activity significantly higher than that of Pt monolayer catalysts containing PdIr or PdNi nanoparticles as cores and four times higher than that of a commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst. In 0.1 M HClO4, the half-wave potential reaches 0.91 V, about 30 mV higher than that of Pt/C. We verify the structure and composition of the carbon-supported PdIrNi nanoparticles using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and we perform a stability test that confirms the excellent stability of our core-shell catalyst. We suggest that the porous structure resulting from the dissolution of Ni in the alloy nanoparticles may be the main reason for the catalyst’s enhanced performance.

  3. First-principle study of the electronic band structure and the effective mass of the ternary alloy GaxIn1-xP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; Song, T. L.; Liang, X. X.; Zhao, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the electronic band structure and the effective mass of the ternary alloy GaxIn1-xP are studied by the first principle calculations. The software QUANTUM ESPRESSO and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange correlations have been used in the calculations. We calculate the lattice parameter, band gap and effective mass of the ternary alloy GaxIn1-xP for the Ga composition x varying from 0.0 to 1.0 by the step of 0.125. The effect of the Ga composition on the lattice parameter and the electronic density of states are discussed. The results show that the lattice parameter varies with the composition almost linearly following the Vegard's law. A direct-to-indirect band-gap crossover is found to occur close to x = 0.7. The effective masses are also calculated at Γ(000) high symmetry point along the [100] direction. The results show that the band gap and the electron effective mass vary nonlinearly with composition x.

  4. Analysis of antiphase domain growth in ternary FeCo alloys after different cooling rates and annealing treatments using neutron diffraction and positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, Ralph; Hofmann, Michael; Johnson, Francis; Gao Yan; Mukherji, Debashis; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Pikart, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In-situ observation at high temperatures of atomic position change Fe and Co with neutron diffraction. → Determination of antiphase domain growth with neutron diffraction. → Determination of vacacny defects at antiphase domain boundaries with positron annihilation. → Combination of neutron diffraction and positron annihilation to correlate ordering/disordering process and the defect density of ternary FeCo alloys. - Abstract: FeCo alloys are industrially important engineering materials which play an outstanding role in applications requiring soft magnetic materials. The challenge is to include ternary elements to improve the mechanical properties. Here noble elements as Pt or Pd were used for these experiments. With neutron diffraction and positron annihilation technique Fe 67 Co 30 Pt 3 and Fe 67 Co 30 Pd 3 (at. pct.) samples were measured to study the influence of different cooling rates on ordering and disordering. The ordering and disordering process is responsible for the mechanical properties in dependence of temperature. The correlation of ordering and defect density is described.

  5. Effects of varying indium composition on the thermoelectric properties of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirmal Kumar, V.; Hayakawa, Y. [Shizuoka University, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hamamatsu (Japan); Shizuoka University, Research Institute of Electronics, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan); Arivanandan, M. [Anna University, Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Chennai (India); Koyoma, T. [Shizuoka University, Research Institute of Electronics, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan); Udono, H. [Ibaraki University, Faculty of Engineering, Hitachi (Japan); Inatomi, Y. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), School of Physical Sciences, Sagamihara (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb (x = 0-1), a III-V ternary alloy, was grown by melt solidification process. The effects of varying indium composition on the thermoelectric properties of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb polycrystals were studied for the first time. The segregations of indium and gallium elements were observed in the grown crystals, and the defects present in crystals were revealed by etching process. Room-temperature Raman measurement revealed that the dominant optical modes of phonon vibrations in InSb and GaSb binaries were suppressed in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb ternaries. The in-phase vibrations of acoustic mode phonons were scattered more effectively in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb by the present defects, and the relative value of lattice thermal conductivity was reduced. Thus, the thermal conductivity of InSb and GaSb binaries was drastically reduced in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb by alloy scattering. InSb indicated the highest ZT 0.51 because of its higher power factor 70 μW/cm K{sup 2}. Next to InSb, In{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}Sb had higher ZT value of 0.29 at 600 K among the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb ternaries. The ZT of In{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}Sb was increased about 30 times than that of GaSb by the increase of power factor as well as the decrease of thermal conductivity. (orig.)

  6. First-principles study on half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of Zn{sub 1-x}V{sub x}Se ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatta, Swati; Tripathi, S.K.; Prakash, Satya [Panjab University, Central of Advanced Study in Physics, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2017-09-15

    The spin-polarised density functional theory along with self-consistent plane-wave pseudopotential is used to investigate the half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of ternary alloys Zn{sub 1-x}V{sub x}Se. The generalized gradient approximation is used for exchange-correlation potential. The equilibrium lattice constants, bulk modulus, and its derivatives are calculated. The calculated spin-polarised energy-band structures reveal that these alloys are half-metallic for x = 0.375 and 0.50 and nearly half-metallic for other values of x. The estimated direct and indirect bandgaps may be useful for the magneto-optical absorption experiments. It is found that there is strong Zn 4s, Se 4p, and V 3d orbital hybridization in the conduction bands of both the spins, while Se 4p and V 3d orbital hybridization predominates in the valence bands of both the spins. The s, p-d, and p-d orbital hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment of V atoms and small local magnetic moments are produced on Zn and Se atoms which get coupled with V atoms in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases, respectively. The conduction and valence-band-edge splittings and exchange constants predict the ferromagnetism in these alloys. The conduction band-impurity (s and p-d) exchange interaction is more significant for ferromagnetism in these alloys than the valence band-impurity (p-d) exchange interaction. (orig.)

  7. Indirect-to-direct band gap transition in relaxed and strained Ge{sub 1−x−y}Si{sub x}Sn{sub y} ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attiaoui, Anis; Moutanabbir, Oussama [Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, C.P. 6079, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2014-08-14

    Sn-containing group IV semiconductors create the possibility to independently control strain and band gap thus providing a wealth of opportunities to develop an entirely new class of low dimensional systems, heterostructures, and silicon-compatible electronic and optoelectronic devices. With this perspective, this work presents a detailed investigation of the band structure of strained and relaxed Ge{sub 1−x−y}Si{sub x}Sn{sub y} ternary alloys using a semi-empirical second nearest neighbors tight binding method. This method is based on an accurate evaluation of the deformation potential constants of Ge, Si, and α-Sn using a stochastic Monte-Carlo approach as well as a gradient based optimization method. Moreover, a new and efficient differential evolution approach is also developed to accurately reproduce the experimental effective masses and band gaps. Based on this, we elucidated the influence of lattice disorder, strain, and composition on Ge{sub 1−x−y}Si{sub x}Sn{sub y} band gap energy and directness. For 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2, we found that tensile strain lowers the critical content of Sn needed to achieve a direct band gap semiconductor with the corresponding band gap energies below 0.76 eV. This upper limit decreases to 0.43 eV for direct gap, fully relaxed ternary alloys. The obtained transition to direct band gap is given by y > 0.605 × x + 0.077 and y > 1.364 × x + 0.107 for epitaxially strained and fully relaxed alloys, respectively. The effects of strain, at a fixed composition, on band gap directness were also investigated and discussed.

  8. Investigation of strain effects on phase diagrams in the ternary nitride alloys (InAlN, AlGaN, InGaN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, Ranim; Chen, Jun; Ruterana, Pierre [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CNRS-ENSICAEN-CEA-UNICAEN, Caen (France); Bere, Antoine [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l' Environnement, Universite Ouaga I Pr Joseph KI-ZERBO, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    2017-09-15

    In this work, we used a modified Stillinger-Weber potential and a methodology of free energy calculation based on numerical computation of the configuration partition function of an alloy, to make a comprehensive study of the properties of group-III nitride ternary compounds (In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N; In{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N; Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N). The wurtzite structure was used; and the critical temperatures for the random ternary alloys are determined as 2717 K for In{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N, 1718 K for In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, and 177 K for Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, respectively. Therefore, Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N has no unstable mixing region at typical growth temperatures around 1100 C. In contrast, In{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N exhibit a wide unstable region, which means that being thick layers, their stability as homogeneous alloys is probably limited. In agreement with other reports, it is also pointed out that the critical temperature T{sub c} may be decreased when the layers are grown under strain. Although the compression and extension have the same effect below 1.5% strain, it is shown, for the first time, that when the compressive strain goes beyond, T{sub c} abruptly increases in contrast to the case of tensile strain where it continues to decrease. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ternary superconductors constitute a class of superconducting compounds with exceptional properties such as high transition temperatures (≅ 15.2 K), extremely high critical fields (H c2 >60 Tesla), and the coexistence of superconductivity and long-range magnetic order. This has generated great interest in the scientific community and resulted in a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations in which many new ternary compounds have been discovered. A review of some of the properties of these ternary compounds is presented with particular emphasis on the ternary molybdenum chalcogenides and the ternary rare earth transition metal tetraborides. The effect of partial substitution of a second metal atom to form pseudoternary compounds is examined as well as some of the proposed correlations between the superconducting transition temperature and the structural and electronic properties of the ternary superconductors

  10. Trace element control in binary Ni-25Cr and ternary Ni-30Co-30Cr master alloy castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrois, Martin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jablonski, Paul D. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States);

    2017-10-23

    Electro-slag remelting (ESR) is used for control of unwanted elements in commercial alloys. This study focuses on master alloys of Ni-25Cr and Ni-30Co-30Cr, processed through a combination of vacuum induction melting (VIM) and electro-slag remelting (ESR). Minor additions were made to control tramp element levels and modify the melting characteristics. Nitrogen and sulfur levels below 10 ppm and oxygen levels below 100 ppm were obtained in the final products. The role of the alloy additions in lowering the tramp element content, the resulting residual inclusions and the melting characteristics were determined computationally and confirmed experimentally. Additions of titanium were beneficial to the control of oxygen levels during VIM and nitrogen levels during ESR. Aluminum additions helped to control oxygen levels during remelting, however, aluminum pickup occurred when excess titanium was present during ESR. The usefulness of these master alloys for use as experimental remelt stock will also be discussed.

  11. Study of the ternary alloy systems Al-Ni-Fe and Al-Cu-Ru with special regard to quasicrystalline phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmerz, U.

    1996-07-01

    Two ternary alloy-systems, the Al-Ni-Fe system and the Al-Cu-Ru system were studied with special regard to quasicrystalline phases. Isothermal sections were established in both systems in the stoichiometric area of the quasicrystalline phase. In the Al-Ni-Fe system a new stable decagonal phase was found. Its stoichiometric range is very small around Al 71.6 Ni 23.0 Fe 5.4 . The temperature range in which it is stable lies between 847 and 930 C. The decagonal phase undergoes a eutectoid reaction to the three crystalline phases Al 3 Ni 2 , Al 3 Ni and Al 13 Fe 4 at 847 C. It melts peritectically at 930 C forming Al 13 Fe 4 , Al 3 Ni 2 and a liquid. The investigations in the Al-Cu-Ru system concentrated on the phase equilibria between the icosahedral phase and its neighbouring phases in a temperature range between 600 and 1000 C. The icosahedral phase was observed in the whole temperature range. The investigated stoichiometric area extends down to Al contents of 45%, which allows the fields of existence to be determined for the ternary phases α-AlCuRu, the icosahedral phase and Al 7 Cu 2 Ru. Binary phases were determined down to the upper (high Al content) border of AlRu. No hitherto unknown phase was observed in the investigated area. Rietveld analyses were carried out on α-AlCuRu and Al 7 Cu 2 Ru showing some discrepancies from the α-AlMnSi structure taken as a base for α-AlCuRu and confirming the Al 7 Cu 2 Fe structure for Al 7 Cu 2 Ru. (orig.)

  12. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-08-05

    Aug 5, 2015 ... We present the ternary fission of 252Cf and 236U within a three-cluster model as well as in a level density approach. The competition between collinear and equatorial geometry is studied by calculating the ternary fragmentation potential as a function of the angle between the lines joining the stationary ...

  13. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    respectively, which are expressed in MeV and taken from [12]. The ternary fragmentation potential between the three (spherical) fragments (referred to as PES), within the TCM [1–6], is defined as the sum of the total Coulomb potential, total nuclear potential, ℓ-dependent potential and the sum of the mass excesses of ternary.

  14. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the energy minimization of all possible ternary breakups of a heavy radioactive nucleus. Further, within the TCM we have analysed the competition between different geometries as well as different positioning of the fragments. Also, an attempt was made to calculate the mass distribution of ternary fission process within the ...

  15. Influence of aging at 180C on the corrosion behaviour of a ternary Al-Li-Zr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Prasad, R.K.; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of aging at 180 °C on the corrosion behaviour of an Al-1.5%Li-0.1%Zr alloy has been studied using weight loss, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution. Corrosion rates obtained from weight loss and Icorr values...

  16. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline FexNi80-xCo20 ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Theerthagiri, J.; Raja, M. Manivel; Panda, R. N.

    2013-10-01

    Fe-Ni-Co alloys of various compositions (FexNi80-xCo20,x=20-50) were synthesized by using a sodium borohydride reduction route. The phase purity and crystallite size was ascertained by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The alloys crystallize in the face centered cubic (fcc) structure with lattice parameters, a=3.546-3.558 Å. The XRD line broadening indicates the fine particle nature of the materials. The estimated crystallite sizes were found to be 27.5, 27, 24, and 22.8 nm for x=20, 30, 40, and 50; alloys respectively. Scanning electron micrograph studies indicates particle sizes to be in the range of 83-60 nm for Fe-Ni-Co alloys. The values of saturation magnetization for FexNi80-xCo20 are found to be in the range of 54.3-41.2 emu/g and are significantly lower than the bulk values (175-180 emu/g). The coercivity decreases from 170 to 122 Oe with decrease in Fe content. The observed magnetic behavior has been explained on the basis of size, surface effects, spin canting and the presence of superparamagnetic fractions in the ultrafine materials.

  17. Establishment of technological basis for fabrication of U-Pu-Zr ternary alloy fuel pins for irradiation tests in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Hironobu; Iwai, Takashi; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Arai, Yasuo; Nakamura, Kinya; Ogata, Takanari

    2011-01-01

    A high-purity Ar gas atmosphere glove box accommodating injection casting and sodium-bonding apparatuses was newly installed in the Plutonium Fuel Research Facility of Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in which several nitride and carbide fuel pins were fabricated for irradiation tests. The experiences led to the establishment of the technological basis of the fabrication of U-Pu-Zr alloy fuel pins for the first time in Japan. After the injection casting of the U-Pu-Zr alloy, the metallic fuel pins were fabricated by welding upper and lower end plugs with cladding tubes of ferritic-martensitic steel. Subsequent to the sodium bonding for filling the annular gap region between the U-Pu-Zr alloy and the cladding tube with the melted sodium, the fuel pins for irradiation tests are inspected. This paper shows the apparatuses and the technological basis for the fabrication of U-Pu-Zr alloy fuel pins for the irradiation test planned at the experimental fast test reactor Joyo. (author)

  18. First-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of cubic InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} ternary alloys under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattabi, I. [Ibn Khaldoun Univ. de Tiaret (Algeria). Lab. Synthese et Catalyse; Abdiche, A.; Riane, R. [Sidi-bel-Abbes Univ. (Algeria). Applied Materials Lab.; Moussa, R. [Sidi-bel-Abbes Univ. (Algeria). Physic Dept.; Hadji, K. [Ibn Khaldoun Univ. de Tiaret (Algeria). Science and Technology Dept.; Soyalp, F. [Yuezuencue Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Varshney, Dinesh [Devi Ahilya Univ., Indore (India). Materials Science Lab.; Syrotyuk, S.V. [National Univ. ' Lviv Polytechnic' , Lviv (Ukraine). Semiconductor Electronics Dept.; Khenata, R. [Mascara Univ. (Algeria). Lab. de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M)

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present results of the first-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the InN, InP binary compounds and their related ternary alloy InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} in the zinc-blend (ZB) phase within a nonrelativistic full potential linearised augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method using Wien2k code based on the density functional theory (DFT). Different approximations of exchange-correlation energy were used for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Whereas the lattice constant decreases with increasing nitride composition x. Our results present a good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. The electronic band structures calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) approach present a direct band gap semiconductor character for InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} compounds at different x values. The electronic properties were also calculated under hydrostatic pressure for (P=0.00, 5.00, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 GPa) where it is found that the InP compound change from direct to indirect band gap at the pressure P≥7.80 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure effect on the dielectric function and the refractive index was carried out. Results obtained in our calculations present a good agreement with available theoretical reports and experimental data.

  19. First-Principle Study of the Structural, Electronic, and Optical Properties of Cubic InNxP1-x Ternary Alloys under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattabi, I.; Abdiche, A.; Moussa, R.; Riane, R.; Hadji, K.; Soyalp, F.; Varshney, Dinesh; Syrotyuk, S. V.; Khenata, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we present results of the first-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the InN, InP binary compounds and their related ternary alloy InNxP1-x in the zinc-blend (ZB) phase within a nonrelativistic full potential linearised augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method using Wien2k code based on the density functional theory (DFT). Different approximations of exchange-correlation energy were used for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Whereas the lattice constant decreases with increasing nitride composition x. Our results present a good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. The electronic band structures calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) approach present a direct band gap semiconductor character for InNxP1-x compounds at different x values. The electronic properties were also calculated under hydrostatic pressure for (P=0.00, 5.00, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 GPa) where it is found that the InP compound change from direct to indirect band gap at the pressure P≥7.80 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure effect on the dielectric function and the refractive index was carried out. Results obtained in our calculations present a good agreement with available theoretical reports and experimental data.

  20. Characterization of Ternary NiTiPd High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys under Load-Biased Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Glen S.; Padula, Santo A.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Garg, Anita; Gaydosh, Darrell

    2010-01-01

    While NiTiPd alloys have been extensively studied for proposed use in high-temperature shape-memory applications, little is known about the shape-memory response of these materials under stress. Consequently, the isobaric thermal cyclic responses of five (Ni,Pd)49.5Ti50.5 alloys with constant stoichiometry and Pd contents ranging from 15 to 46 at. pct were investigated. From these tests, transformation temperatures, transformation strain (which is proportional to work output), and unrecovered strain per cycle (a measure of dimensional instability) were determined as a function of stress for each alloy. It was found that increasing the Pd content over this range resulted in a linear increase in transformation temperature, as expected. At a given stress level, work output decreased while the amount of unrecovered strain produced during each load-biased thermal cycle increased with increasing Pd content, during the initial thermal cycles. However, continued thermal cycling at constant stress resulted in a saturation of the work output and nearly eliminated further unrecovered strain under certain conditions, resulting in stable behavior amenable to many actuator applications.

  1. A comparative evaluation between new ternary zirconium alloys as alternative metals for orthopedic and dental prosthetic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyti, Genti; Rosalbino, Francesco; Macciò, Daniele; Scarabelli, Linda; Quarto, Rodolfo; Giannoni, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    We assessed in vitro the corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of four Zr-based alloys (Zr97.5 Nb1.5VM1.0  ; VM, valve metal: Ti, Mo, W, Ta; at%) to be used as implant materials, comparing the results with grade-2 titanium, a biocompatible metal standard. Corrosion resistance was investigated by open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements as a function of exposure time to an artificial physiological environment (Ringer's solution). Human bone marrow stromal cells were used to evaluate biocompatibility of the alloys and their influence on growth kinetics and cell osteogenic differentiation through histochemical and gene expression analyses. Open circuit potential values indicated that Zr-based alloys and grade-2 Ti undergo spontaneous passivation in the simulated aggressive environment. High impedance values for all samples demonstrated improved corrosion resistance of the oxide film, with the best protection characteristics displayed by Zr97.5  Nb1.5Ta1.0. Cells seeded on all surfaces showed the same growth kinetics, although matrix mineralization and alkaline phosphatase activity were maximal on Zr97.5  Nb1.5Mo1.0 and Zr97.5   Nb1.5Ta1.0. Markers of ongoing proliferation, however, such as podocalyxin and CD49f, were still overexpressed on Zr97.5   Nb1.5   Mo1.0 even upon osteoinduction. No relevant effects were noted for the CD146-expressing population of bone progenitors. Nonetheless, the presence of a more differentiated cell population on Zr97.5Nb1.5Ta1.0 samples was inferable by comparing mineralization data and transcript levels of osteogenic markers (osteocalcin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and RUNX2). The combination of passivation, corrosion resistance and satisfactory biotolerance to bone progenitors make the Zr-based alloys promising implant materials. Among those we tested, Zr97.5Nb1.5Ta1.0 seems to be the most appealing.

  2. Ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.

    1991-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1946, light (charged) particle accompanied fission (ternary fission) has been extensively studied, for spontaneous as well as for induced fission reactions. The reason for this interest was twofold: the ternary particles being emitted in space and time close to the scission point were expected to supply information on the scission point configuration and the ternary fission process was an important source of helium, tritium, and hydrogen production in nuclear reactors, for which data were requested by the nuclear industry. Significant experimental progress has been realized with the advent of high-resolution detectors, powerful multiparameter data acquisition systems, and intense neutron and photon beams. As far as theory is concerned, the trajectory calculations (in which scission point parameters are deduced from the experimental observations) have been very much improved. An attempt was made to explain ternary particle emission in terms of a Plateau-Rayleigh hydrodynamical instability of a relatively long cylindrical neck or cylindrical nucleus. New results have also been obtained on the so-called open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission (fission in three about-equal fragments). The spontaneous emission of charged particles has also clearly been demonstrated in recent years. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of ternary fission, theoretical models, light particle emission probabilities, the dependence of the emission probabilities on experimental variables, light particle energy distributions, light particle angular distributions, correlations between light particle accompanied fission observables, open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission, and spontaneous emission of heavy ions. 143 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs

  3. First-principles study of the nucleation and stability of ordered precipitates in ternary Al-Sc-Li alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Z.; Chen, W.; Seidman, D.N.; Wolverton, C.

    2011-01-01

    First-principles density functional calculations are used to study the nucleation and stability of L1 2 -ordered precipitates in Al-Sc-Li alloys. For dilute Al alloys, there are three possible ordered L1 2 precipitates: Al 3 Sc, Al 3 Li and an Al 3 Sc/Al 3 Li core/shell structure. To calculate the nucleation behavior, information about bulk thermodynamics (both static total energies and vibrational free energies), interfacial energetics and coherency strain is required. The study finds the following: (1) the coherency strain energies for forming coherent interfaces between Al/Al 3 Sc, Al/Al 3 Li and Al 3 Sc/Al 3 Li are relatively small, owing to the small atomic size mismatches in these systems; (2) the sublattice site preferences of Sc and Li are calculated, and it is demonstrated that Sc and Li share the same sublattice sites in both Al 3 Sc(L1 2 ) and Al 3 Li(L1 2 ), in agreement with recent experimental results; (3) the calculated solubilities of Sc and Li in α-Al alloys are in good agreement with experimental values and, for Sc, agree well with prior first-principles results; (4) the interfacial energies for Al/Al 3 Sc, Al/Al 3 Li and Al 3 Sc/Al 3 Li for (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) interfaces are calculated: the values of the Al/Al 3 Sc interfacial energies are significantly larger than those of the Al/Al 3 Li and Al 3 Sc/Al 3 Li interfaces; (5) combining the bulk and interfacial energies yields the nucleation barriers and critical radii for Al 3 Sc and Al 3 Li precipitates; and (6) the energetic stability of the Al 3 Sc/Al 3 Li core/shell structure is compared with individual Al 3 Sc and Al 3 Li nuclei, and the range of precipitate sizes for which the core/shell structure is energetically favored is determined quantitatively.

  4. Investigations into the corrosion resistance of copper aluminium alloys. Effect of phosphorus as corrosion resistant third alloying element in the ternary system CuAl20P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwardt, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of phosphorus on the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes is studied in detail in this work. A literature review showed that there are a lot of things known about the microstructure and the mechanical properties of Al-bronzes. In spite of their corrosion resistance the corrosion properties and the structure of the protective oxide films of Al-bronzes were seldom a matter of interest. Systematic studies of the influence of different alloying elements on the oxide film and the corrosion properties are rare. Therefore, it is not possible to predict the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes, made by alloying particular elements. The high corrosion resistance of the new alloy CuAl 20 P 1 was the reason to investigate the influence of phosphorus on the corrosion properties of Al-bronzes in more detail. A systematic study of the microstructure and the corrosion properties of Cu, CuP x , CuAl 20 and CuAl 20 P x offers an insight into the effect of aluminium and phosphorus on the formation of the oxide film on Al-bronzes. It was found that there exists a critical amount of 1 at.-% of phosphorus. Above and below this amount the corrosion resistance becomes worse. This behaviour could be explained by XPS-and electrochemical measurements. Although there are still some questions about the influence of phosphorus on the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes, this work has produced some important results, which in the future may be helpful to develop new high corrosion resistant Al-bronzes more efficiently: - on clean surface Al-bronze, the oxidation of Al and Cu takes place simultaneously, - Al promotes the formation of Cu 2 O but impedes the formation of Cu(II)-oxide/-hydride in neutral solutions, - P impedes the formation of Cu 2 O and as a consequence promotes the formation of aluminium oxide. This results in a higher amount of Al in the oxide film on the surface of the alloy, which leads to a better corrosion resistance. (author) figs., tabs., 106 refs

  5. Study of the interactions between irradiation and chemical order effects in ternary alloys Ni-Cr-Fe; Etude des interactions entre effets d`irradiation et effets d`ordre chimique dans les alliages ternaires Ni-Cr-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frely, E

    1997-12-31

    Because of its resistance to corrosion even under stress, the alloy 69 (nickel-based alloy with a chemically disordered F.c.c. structure) is a promising material for application in some of the inner parts of nuclear reactor. However, the eventual formation of an ordered NI{sub 2}Cr superstructure under irradiation or thermal ageing might diminish its performances. We have studied the binary model alloy Ni-Cr33at.% as well as the ternary alloys Ni-Cr3at.%-Fe5cat.% and Ni-Cr32at.%-Fe10at.%, the last one having a chemical composition similar to that of the industrial alloy. After irradiation experiments with 2.5 MeV electrons in the 300-500 deg C temperature range, all the model alloys show the Ni{sub 2}Cr superstructure. The samples irradiated at fluences between 2 and 8. 10 d.p.a. have been characterized by X-ray and neutron diffraction. The superlattice reflexions and the ordered domains have been observed by electron microscopy. The critical temperature of the order-disorder transformation, measured under 1 MeV electron irradiation, decreases linearly with iron content. The evolution of the chemical corder has been traced by means of in situ resistivity measurements. We have used the pair exchange based Dienes model of ordering kinetics for studying the long range order S (S between 0.5 and 0.8 after irradiation). The iron seems to remain in disorder in the sublattices. The similarity of the results under thermal ageing and under irradiation shows that the main effect of the electronic irradiation is to accelerate ordering. Under both treatments increasing the iron content or the dislocation density reduce the ordering kinetics. However, this effect is not sufficient to explain the lack of order in alloy 690 after a fluence of 1 d.p.a. (author). 95 refs.

  6. First principle calculations of structural, electronic, thermodynamic and optical properties of Pb(1-x)Ca(x)S,Pb(1-x)Ca(x)Se and Pb(1-x)Ca(x)Te ternary alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifi, C; Meradji, H; Slimani, M; Labidi, S; Ghemid, S; Hanneche, E B; El Haj Hassan, F

    2009-05-13

    Using first principles total energy calculations within the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, we have investigated the structural, electronic, thermodynamic and optical properties of Pb(1-x)Ca(x)S, Pb(1-x)Ca(x)Se and Pb(1-x)Ca(x)Te ternary alloys. The effect of composition on lattice parameter, bulk modulus, band gap, refractive index and dielectric function was investigated. Deviations of the lattice constants from Vegard's law and the bulk modulus from linear concentration dependence were observed for the three alloys. Using the approach of Zunger and co-workers, the microscopic origins of band gap bowing have been detailed and explained. The disorder parameter (gap bowing) was found to be mainly caused by the chemical charge transfer effect. On the other hand, the thermodynamic stability of these alloys was investigated by calculating the excess enthalpy of mixing, ΔH(m), as well as the phase diagram. It was shown that all of these alloys are stable at low temperature. The calculated refractive indices and optical dielectric constants were found to vary nonlinearly with Ca composition.

  7. Microstructural characterization and phase transformation of ternary alloys near at Al{sub 3}Ti compound; Caracterizacion microestructural y transformaciones de fase de aleaciones ternareas cercanas al compuesto Al{sub 3}Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles Ch, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares. Depto.de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales. Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5 C.P. 52045, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This research work is related with the structural characteristic and compositional values of the crystalline phases, which are found in ternary alloys of Ti-Al-Fe and TI-Al-Cu. These types of alloys were obtained using a rapid solidification technique (10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} K/s) and pure elements such as Al, Ti, Fe and Cu (99.99%). These cooling velocities allow the formation of stable phases and small grain sizes (approximately in range of a few micras). The obtained results indicate the presence of Al{sub 3}Ti and others phases of L1{sub 2} type. These phases are commonly found in a matrix rich in A1. The microalloyed elements (Cu and Fe) substitute the aluminum in both kinds of phases. Alloys with low content of Cu show transition states from the tetragonal structure DO{sub 22} to the cubic phases L1{sub 2}. The structural characteristics of the alloys are related with some microhardness measurement. The results show that the presence of the L1{sub 2} phase tends to increase to hardness depending of the content of this phase.

  8. Calculation of ternary interdiffusion coefficients using a single diffusion couple

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Rothová, Věra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2016), s. 305-314 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : diffusion * interdiffusion * ternary alloys * ternary diffusion coefficients Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamic s Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2016

  9. A comparison of the merits of isotopic substitution in neutron small-angle scattering and anomalous X-ray scattering for the evaluation of partial structure functions in a ternary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.P.; Grenoble-1 Univ., 38; Lyon, O.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay; Fontaine, D. de

    1985-01-01

    Solute partitioning during decomposition of a ternary alloy may be evaluated through the inversion of a system of linear equations, obtained by performing at least three independent small-angle scattering experiments. The merits of neutron scattering (with isotopic contrast) and of anomalous X-ray scattering (near the absorption edges) are compared. It appears that neutron scattering, although having good contrast, is not suited to these studies since slight structural differences between the three samples may lead to erroneous results. On the other hand, the use of the same sample in anomalous scattering avoids this problem, but with the drawback of a more ill-conditioned system. Nevertheless, the possibility of performing more than three anomalous experiments may improve the results and a new analysis of data is proposed. (orig.)

  10. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quadratic T C equations have been proposed and found successful. Also, the present findings are found to be in qualitative agreement with other such earlier reported data, which confirms the superconducting phase in the ternary superconductors. The pseudo-alloy-atom (PAA) model was applied for the first time instead of ...

  11. Informatics Aided Design for Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    alloying discoveries/ predictions of new ternary cobalt based alloys that can have improved properties from conventional nickel based superalloys ...Using this approach we have proposed new ternary alloy additions for binary cobalt based intermetallics. Through comparison with some recent...that are even better than nickel base superalloys . This strategy has also been extended to the development of new type of design maps that identify

  12. Ternary Silver Halide Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyweera, Sasitha C; Rasamani, Kowsalya D; Sun, Yugang

    2017-07-18

    Nanocrystalline silver halides (AgX) such as AgCl, AgBr, and AgI, a class of semiconductor materials with characteristics of both direct and indirect band gaps, represent the most crucial components in traditional photographic processing. The nanocrystal surfaces provide sensitivity specks that can turn into metallic silver, forming an invisible latent image, upon exposure to light. The photographic processing implies that the AgX nanoparticles possess unique properties. First, pristine AgX nanoparticles absorb light only at low efficiency to convert surface AgX into tiny clusters of silver atoms. Second, AgX nanoparticles represent an excellent class of materials to capture electrons efficiently. Third, small metallic silver clusters can catalyze the reduction of AgX nanoparticles to Ag nanoparticles in the presence of mild reducing reagents, known as self-catalytic reduction. These properties indicate that AgX nanoparticles can be partially converted to metallic silver with high precision, leading to the formation of hybrid AgX/Ag nanoparticles. The nanosized metallic Ag usually exhibit intense absorption bands in the visible spectral region due to their strong surface plasmon resonances, which make the AgX/Ag nanoparticles a class of promising visible-light-driven photocatalysts for environmental remediation and CO 2 reduction. Despite the less attention paid to their ability of capturing electrons, AgX nanoparticles might be a class of ideal electron shuttle materials to bridge light absorbers and catalysts on which electrons can drive chemical transformations. In this Account, we focus on ternary silver halide alloy (TSHA) nanoparticles, containing two types of halide ions, which increase the composition complexity of the silver halide nanoparticles. Interdiffusion of halide ions between two types of AgX at elevated temperatures has been developed for fabricating ternary silver halide alloy crystals, such as silver chlorobromide optical fibers for infrared

  13. Magnetization of ternary alloys based on Fe0.65Ni0.35 invar with 3d transition metal additions: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Masatoshi; Trimarchi, Giancarlo; Freeman, Arthur J.; Popescu, Voicu; Matsen, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Smart susceptors are being developed for use as tooling surfaces in molding machines that use apply electro-magnetic induction heating to mold and form plastics or metal powders into structural parts, e.g., on aerospace and automotive manufacturing lines. The optimal magnetic materials for the induction heating process should have large magnetization, high magnetic permeability, but also small thermal expansion coefficient. The Fe0.65Ni0.35 invar alloy with its negligible thermal expansion coefficient is thus a natural choice for this application. Here, we use density functional theory as implemented through the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method within the coherent-potential approximation, to design new alloys with the large magnetization desired for smart susceptor applications. We consider the Fe0.65-xNi0.35-yMx+y alloys derived from Fe0.65Ni0.35 invar adding a third element M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, or Co with concentration (x + y) reaching up to 5 at. %. We find that the total magnetization depends linearly on the concentration of M. Specifically, the early 3d transition metals from Sc to Cr decrease the magnetization with respect to that of the invar alloy whereas Mn and Co increase it.

  14. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  15. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe{sub x}Ni{sub 80−x}Co{sub 20} ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalavi, Shankar B.; Theerthagiri, J. [Department of Chemistry, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, K.K.Birla, Goa Campus, Zuari Nagar, Goa-403726 (India); Raja, M.Manivel [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad-500058 (India); Panda, R.N., E-mail: rnp@goa.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, K.K.Birla, Goa Campus, Zuari Nagar, Goa-403726 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Fe–Ni–Co alloys of various compositions (Fe{sub x}Ni{sub 80−x}Co{sub 20,}x=20–50) were synthesized by using a sodium borohydride reduction route. The phase purity and crystallite size was ascertained by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The alloys crystallize in the face centered cubic (fcc) structure with lattice parameters, a=3.546–3.558 Å. The XRD line broadening indicates the fine particle nature of the materials. The estimated crystallite sizes were found to be 27.5, 27, 24, and 22.8 nm for x=20, 30, 40, and 50; alloys respectively. Scanning electron micrograph studies indicates particle sizes to be in the range of 83–60 nm for Fe–Ni–Co alloys. The values of saturation magnetization for Fe{sub x}Ni{sub 80−x}Co{sub 20} are found to be in the range of 54.3–41.2 emu/g and are significantly lower than the bulk values (175–180 emu/g). The coercivity decreases from 170 to 122 Oe with decrease in Fe content. The observed magnetic behavior has been explained on the basis of size, surface effects, spin canting and the presence of superparamagnetic fractions in the ultrafine materials. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Fe{sub x}Ni{sub 80−x}Co{sub 20}, x=20, 30, 40 and 50, were successfully synthesized. • Fe{sub x}Ni{sub 80−x}Co{sub 20}, x=20, 30, 40 and 50, crystallizes in fcc cubic structure. • The XRD and SEM study indicates nanocrystalline nature of the materials. • The magnetic properties have been explained on the basis of fine particle magnetism.

  16. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  17. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Leyi; Qiu Aitao; Liu Lanjie; Jiang Ming; Lu Xionggang; Li Chonghe

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The full experimental results of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system and its sub-binary systems are reviewed and analysed in detail. → Based on the latest thermodynamic assessments of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the thermodynamic parameters of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system are fully assessed by the Calphad method. → The transformation of disorder to order (bcc a 2 to B2) and the new ternary compound L 12T i 25 Cr 8 Al 67 are considered in this work. - Abstract: The Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is one of the most important systems to studying the titanium alloys. Some experimental data of this ternary system are available and a few partial thermodynamic assessments are reported. However, no full thermodynamic descriptions were published. In this study, the previous work on the Ti-Al-Cr system and its related binary systems are reviewed. Based on the thermodynamic descriptions of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is assessed by means of the Calphad method. Several isothermal sections from 1073 K to 1573 K and some invariant reactions are calculated, which are in good agreement with the most of the experimental results.

  18. Structural, elastic and electronic properties of transition metal carbides ZnC, NbC and their ternary alloys ZnxNb1-xC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidi, Y.; Méçabih, S.; Abbar, B.; Amari, S.

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated the structural, electronic and elastic properties of transition-metal carbides ZnxNb1-xC alloys in the range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 using the density functional theory (DFT). The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within a framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA + U (where U is the Hubbard correlation terms) approach is used to perform the calculations presented here. The lattice parameters, the bulk modulus, its pressure derivative and the elastic constants were determined. We have obtained Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, anisotropy factor by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. We discuss the total and partial densities of states and charge densities.

  19. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingjun; Zhu Yihong; Yu Yan; Wang Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined. → No ternary compound was found in the Co-W-V ternary system. → A stable liquid miscibility gap is newly discovered in the Co-W-V ternary system. → This work is of great essence to establish the thermodynamic database for the Co-based alloys. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system were experimentally investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) on the equilibrated alloys. Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined, and no ternary compound was found in this system. In addition, a novel phenomena induced by the liquid phase separation in the Co-W-V alloys was firstly discovered, suggesting that a stable liquid miscibility gap exists in the Co-W-V ternary system. The newly determined phase equilibria and firstly discovered phase separation phenomena in the Co-W-V system will provide important information for the development of Co-W based alloys.

  20. Surface monitoring for pitting evolution into uniform corrosion on Cu-Ni-Zn ternary alloy in alkaline chloride solution: ex-situ LCM and in-situ SECM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Decheng; Dong, Chaofang; Zheng, Zhaoran; Mao, Feixiong; Xu, Aoni; Ni, Xiaoqing; Man, Cheng; Yao, Jizheng; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of the corrosion process on Cu-Ni-Zn alloy in alkaline chloride solution was investigated by in-situ scanning electrochemical microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ex-situ laser confocal microscopy, and the effects of ambient temperature and polarization time were also discussed. The results demonstrated a higher pitting nucleation rate and lower pit growth rate at low temperature. The ratio of pit depth to mouth diameter decreased with increasing pit volume and temperature, indicating that pits preferentially propagate in the horizontal direction rather than the vertical direction owing to the presence of corrosion products and deposited copper. The surface current was uniform and stabilized at approximately 2.2 nA during the passive stage, whereas the current increased after the pits were formed with the maximum approaching 3 nA. Increasing the temperature led to an increase in porous corrosion products (CuO, Zn(OH)2, and Ni(OH)2) and significantly increased the rate of transition from pitting to uniform corrosion. Dezincification corrosion was detected by energy dispersive spectrometry, and a mechanism for pitting transition into uniform corrosion induced by dezincification at the grain boundaries is proposed.

  1. Carbon/Ternary Alloy/Carbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an Optical Data Storage Medium to Potentially Replace Magnetic Tape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Lunt, Barry M.; Gates, Richard J.; Asplund, Matthew C.; Shutthanandan, V.; Davis, Robert C.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-11

    A novel write-once-read-many (WORM) optical stack on Mylar tape is proposed as a replacement for magnetic tape for archival data storage. This optical tape contains a cosputtered bismuth–tellurium–selenium (BTS) alloy as the write layer sandwiched between thin, protective films of reactively sputtered carbon. The composition and thickness of the BTS layer were confirmed by Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The C/BTS/C stack on Mylar was written to/marked by 532 nm laser pulses. Under the same conditions, control Mylar films without the optical stack were unaffected. Marks, which showed craters/movement of the write material, were characterized by optical microscopy and AFM. The threshold laser powers for making marks on C/BTS/C stacks with different thicknesses were explored. Higher quality marks were made with a 60× objective compared to a 40× objective in our marking apparatus. Finally, the laser writing process was simulated with COMSOL.

  2. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  3. Kinetic study of lithium-cadmium ternary amalgam decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, M.H.; Andrade, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of metals, which form stable lithium phase in binary alloys, on the formation of intermetallic species in ternary amalgams and their effect on thermal decomposition in contact with water is analyzed. Cd is selected as ternary metal, based on general experimental selection criteria. Cd (Hg) binary amalgams are prepared by direct contact Cd-Hg, whereas Li is formed by electrolysis of Li OH aq using a liquid Cd (Hg) cathodic well. The decomposition kinetic of Li C(Hg) in contact with 0.6 M Li OH is studied in function of ageing and temperature, and these results are compared with the binary amalgam Li (Hg) decomposition. The decomposition rate is constant during one hour for binary and ternary systems. Ageing does not affect the binary systems but increases the decomposition activation energy of ternary systems. A reaction mechanism that considers an intermetallic specie participating in the activated complex is proposed and a kinetic law is suggested. (author)

  4. Wurtzite-derived ternary I?III?O2 semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Omata, Takahisa; Nagatani, Hiraku; Suzuki, Issei; Kita, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Ternary zincblende-derived I?III?VI2 chalcogenide and II?IV?V2 pnictide semiconductors have been widely studied and some have been put to practical use. In contrast to the extensive research on these semiconductors, previous studies into ternary I?III?O2 oxide semiconductors with a wurtzite-derived ?-NaFeO2 structure are limited. Wurtzite-derived ?-LiGaO2 and ?-AgGaO2 form alloys with ZnO and the band gap of ZnO can be controlled to include the visible and ultraviolet regions. ?-CuGaO2, which...

  5. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ni use in acidic media is restricted due to corrosion, it can be used in the alkaline medium as the process of corrosion is insignificant. It has been well established that water split- ting in the alkaline medium for the production of pure hydro- gen has an advantage due to being environmentally benign, having low cost and ...

  6. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figueiredo J L 2013 Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 38 3137. [4] Lubitz B and Tumas W 2007 Chem. Rev. 107 3900. [5] Barbaro C B P 2009 Catalysis for Sustainable Energy Pro- duction (Wiley-VCH: Weinheim). [6] Vielstich G W, Lamm A, Vielstich H W, Lamm A and. Gasteiger H 2003 Handbook of Fuel Cells: Fundamentals,.

  7. Short range order in FeCo-X alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, B.

    1988-01-01

    Moessbauer spectrometry was used to study the kinetics of chemical ordering in FeCo and in FeCo alloyed with ternary solutes. With respect to the binary FeCo alloy, the kinetics of B2 ordering were slowed when 2% of 4d- or 5d-series ternary solute atoms were present, but 3p- and 3d-series ternary solutes had little effect on ordering kinetics. The relaxation of order around the ternary solute atoms could be discerned in Moessbauer spectra, and it seems that the development of B2 short range order is influenced by structural relaxations around the ternary solute atoms. Different thermal treatments were shown to cause different relaxations of and correlations, suggesting that Moessbauer spectrometry can be used to identify different kinetic paths of ordering in ternary alloys. (orig.)

  8. Constitutional studies of the molybdenum-ruthenium-palladium ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, L.A.; Pratt, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental and computational study has been made of phase equilibria in the Mo-Ru-Pd ternary system. The constitution of annealed binary and ternary alloys was investigated using optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and SEM phase analysis techniques. Limited thermodynamic measurements were made using the ZrO 2 solid electrolyte e.m.f. method. The data obtained from the various techniques were used to construct a ternary isothermal section at 1473 K. The experimentally determined section is compared with a calculated section for the same temperature, computed using thermodynamic coefficients derived solely from binary system information. Lattice parameters are reported for the b.c.c., f.c.c. and c.p.h. solid solutions and for the σ phase. (orig.)

  9. New Theoretical Technique for Alloy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, John

    2005-01-01

    During the last 2 years, there has been a breakthrough in alloy design at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A new semi-empirical theoretical technique for alloys, the BFS Theory (Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith), has been used to design alloys on a computer. BFS was used, along with Monte Carlo techniques, to predict the phases of ternary alloys of NiAl with Ti or Cr additions. High concentrations of each additive were used to demonstrate the resulting structures.

  10. Phase Equilibria of the Fe-Ni-Sn Ternary System at 270°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Ting; Lin, Shih-Wei; Chen, Chih-Ming; Chen, Pei Yu; Yen, Yee-Wen

    2016-12-01

    The Fe-42 wt.% Ni alloy, also known as a 42 invar alloy (Alloy 42), is used as a lead-frame material because its thermal expansion coefficient is much closer to Si substrate than Cu or Ni substrates. In order to enhance the wettability between the substrate and solder, the Sn layer was commonly electroplated onto the Alloy 42 surface. A clear understanding of the phase equilibria of the Fe-Ni-Sn ternary system is necessary to ensure solder-joint reliability between Sn and Fe-Ni alloys. To determine the isothermal section of the Fe-Ni-Sn ternary system at 270°C, 26 Fe-Ni-Sn alloys with different compositions were prepared. The experimental results confirmed the presence of the Fe3Ni and FeNi phases at 270°C. Meanwhile, it observed that the isothermal section of the Fe-Ni-Sn ternary system was composed of 11 single-phase regions, 19 two-phase regions and nine tie-triangles. Moreover, no ternary compounds were found in the Fe-Ni-Sn system at 270°C.

  11. Using Ternary Alloy Additions to Engineer Nitinol Shape Memory Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improving travel capabilities is essential in order to further investigative space exploration. For aerospace applications, weight savings is essential. Shape memory...

  12. Nanostructured Platinum Alloys for Use as Catalyst Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor); Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A series of binary and ternary Pt-alloys, that promote the important reactions for catalysis at an alloy surface; oxygen reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and hydrogen and oxygen evolution. The first two of these reactions are essential when applying the alloy for use in a PEMFC.

  13. Iron binary and ternary coatings with molybdenum and tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira, E-mail: gulmira-alma-ata@mail.ru [Institute Experimental and Theoretical Physics Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050038, Al-Farabi av., 71, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ved, Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Karakurkchi, Anna; Yermolenko, Iryna [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • High quality coatings of double Fe-Mo and ternary Fe-Mo-W electrolytic alloys can be produced both in a dc and a pulsed mode. • Application of unipolar pulsed current allows receiving an increased content of the alloying components and their more uniform distribution over the surface. • It is established that Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W coatings have an amorphous structure and exhibit improved corrosion resistance and microhardness as compared with the steel substrate due to the inclusion molybdenum and tungsten. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of Fe-Mo-W and Fe-Mo layers from a citrate solution containing iron(III) on steel and iron substrates is compared. The utilization of iron(III) compounds significantly improved the electrolyte stability eliminating side anodic redox reactions. The influence of concentration ratios and electrodeposition mode on quality, chemical composition, and functional properties of the alloys is determined. It has been found that alloys deposited in pulse mode have more uniform surface morphology and chemical composition and contain less impurities. Improvement in physical and mechanical properties as well as corrosion resistance of Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W deposits when compared with main alloy forming metals is driven by alloying components chemical passivity as well as by alloys amorphous structure. Indicated deposits can be considered promising materials in surface hardening technologies and repair of worn out items.

  14. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun

    2017-01-01

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr 7 Ni 10 , ZrNi, ZrNi 5 , Zr 14 Cu 51 , and Zr 2 Cu 9 , show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ 3 (Zr 31.1-30.7 . Cu 28.5-40.3 Ni 40.4-29.0 ) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  15. Experimental investigation of the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadieva, Leyla F.; Aliev, Ziya S.; Shevelkov, Andrei V.; Babanly, Mahammad B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The self-consistent phase diagram of the Ag–Bi–I system is constructed. ► Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are the only ternary phases of the system. ► Standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are calculated. - Abstract: The phase equilibriums in the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases were experimentally determined by using DTA and XRD techniques and EMF measurements with the Ag 4 RbI 5 solid electrolyte. According to the obtained experimental results, the polythermal sections of the ternary phase diagram, its isothermal section at 300 K as well as the projection of the liquids surface have been revised. The fields of the primary crystallization and types and coordinates of nonvariant and monovariant equilibriums were determined. The partial molar functions of silver iodide and silver in the alloys as well as the standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 were calculated based on EMF measurements.

  16. An investigation of the ternary system Nb-Ti-Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbach, K.; Gama, S.

    1984-01-01

    The binary systems Nb-Ti, Nb-Al and Al-Ti as well the ternary system Nb-Ti-Al were studied by the aid of arc-beam melted alloys. The as-cast alloys and samples heat treated at 1200 0 C were examined and the liquidus surface projection, an isothermal section at 1200 0 C and the reaction scheme of the system Nb-Ti-Al were constructed. The phase relations of the binary systems Nb-Ti and Nb-Al were confirmed, in the system Al-Ti still some examinations are necessary to resolve the existing uncertainties. The melting process of Nb-Ti alloys in the electron-beam furnace has been studied. (Author) [pt

  17. The ternary system: Silicon-tantalum-uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogl, Peter, E-mail: peter.franz.rogl@univie.ac.a [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Waehringerstrasse 42 (Austria); Noel, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes I, Avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes, Cedex (France)

    2010-09-01

    Phase equilibria in the ternary system Si-Ta-U have been established in an isothermal section at 1000 {sup o}C by optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. Two novel ternary compounds were observed and were characterised by X-ray powder Rietveld refinement: stoichiometric {tau}{sub 1}-U{sub 2}Ta{sub 3}Si{sub 4} (U{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}Si{sub 4}-type, P2{sub 1}/c; a = 0.70011(1), b = 0.70046(1), c = 0.68584(1) nm, ss = 109.38(1); R{sub F} = 0.073, X-ray powder Rietveld refinement) and {tau}{sub 2}-U{sub 2-x}Ta{sub 3+x}Si{sub 4} at x {approx} 0.30 (Sc{sub 2}Re{sub 3}Si{sub 4}-type = partially ordered Zr{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type, P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2; a = b = 0.69717(3)(1), c = 1.28709(4) nm; R{sub F} = 0.056; X-ray single crystal data). Mutual solubility of U-silicides and Ta-silicides are found to be very small i.e. below about 1 at.%. Due to the equilibrium tie-line Ta{sub 2}Si-U(Ta), no compatibility exists between the U-rich silicides U{sub 3}Si or U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and tantalum metal. Single crystals obtained from alloys slowly cooled from liquid (2000 {sup o}C), yielded a fully ordered compound U{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}Si{sub 3}C (unique structure type; Pmna, a = 0.68860(1); b = 2.17837(4); c = 0.69707(1) nm; R{sub F2} = 0.048).

  18. Ternary Weighted Function and Beurling Ternary Banach Algebra l1ω(S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a ternary semigroup. In this paper, we introduce our notation and prove some elementary properties of a ternary weight function ω on S. Also, we make ternary weighted algebra l1ω(S and show that l1ω(S is a ternary Banach algebra.

  19. Amorphous phase formation in the Cu{sub 36}Zr{sub 59}A{sub l5} and Cu{sub 48}Zr{sub 43}A{sub l9} ternary alloys studied by molecular dynamics; Estudo da formacao de fase amorfa nas ligas ternarias Cu{sub 36}Zr{sub 59}A{sub l5} e Cu{sub 48}Zr{sub 43}A{sub l9} por dinamica molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Schimidt, C.S.; Lima, L.V.; Domingues, G.M.B.; Bastos, I.N., E-mail: aliaga@iprj.uer.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    Amorphous alloys presents better mechanical and physical properties than its crystalline counterparts. However, there is a scarce understanding on structure - properties relationship in this class of materials. This paper presents the results of the molecular dynamics application to obtain an atomistic description of melting, solidification and the glass forming ability in the ternary Cu{sub 36}Zr{sub 59}A{sub l5} and Cu{sub 48}Zr{sub 43}A{sub l9} alloys. In the study we used the EAM potential and different cooling rates, β = 0.1, 1 and 100 K/ps to form the amorphous phase in a system consisting of 32,000 atoms by using the free code LAMMPS. The solidus and liquidus temperatures, on a heating rate of the 5 K/ps, were obtained. Also, on the cooling down step, it was observed that the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) decreases as cooling rate increases. The structural evolution was analyzed through the radial distribution functions and Voronoi polyhedra. Furthermore, it was determined the evolution of viscosity upper T{sub g}, as well as the fragility (m) parameter for each amorphous alloy. The thermal parameters of the simulation obtained are compared with those of the experiments. (author)

  20. Phase diagram of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, D.; Gonzalez Camus, M.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that Ti stabilizes the high temperature cubic phase of Zr and that Sn stabilizes the low temperature hexagonal phase of Zr. The effect of Sn on the Zr-Ti diagram has been studied in the present paper. Using high purity metals, nine different alloys have been prepared, with 4-32 at % Ti, 0.7-2.2 at % Sn and Zr till 100%. Resistivity and optical and SEM metallography techniques have been employed. Effect of some impurities have been analyzed. The results are discussed and different isothermic sections of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn diagram are presented. (Author) [es

  1. Bandgap and Structure Engineering via Cation Exchange: From Binary Ag2S to Ternary AgInS2, Quaternary AgZnInS alloy and AgZnInS/ZnS Core/Shell Fluorescent Nanocrystals for Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiangluqi; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Wenzhe; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenting; Wu, Rongbo; Cheng, Xiangcan; Ali, Asad; Yang, Mingya; Zhu, Lixin; Xia, Ruixiang; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2016-09-21

    Attention on semiconductor nanocrystals have been largely focused because of their unique optical and electrical properties, which can be applied as light absorber and luminophore. However, the band gap and structure engineering of nanomaterials is not so easy because of their finite size. Here we demonstrate an approach for preparing ternary AgInS2 (AIS), quaternary AgZnInS (AZIS), AgInS2/ZnS and AgZnInS/ZnS nanocompounds based on cation exchange. First, pristine Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were synthesized in one-pot, followed by the partial cation exchange between In(3+) and Ag(+). Changing the initial ratio of In(3+) to Ag(+), reaction time and temperature can control the components of the obtained AIS QDs. Under the optimized conditions, AIS QDs were obtained for the first time with a cation disordered cubic phase and high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) up to 32% in aqueous solution, demonstrating the great potential of cation exchange in the synthesis for nanocrystals with excellent optical properties. Sequentially, Zn(2+) ions were incorporated in situ through a second exchange of Zn(2+) to Ag(+)/In(3+), leading to distinct results under different reaction temperature. Addition of Zn(2+) precursor at room temperature produced AIS/ZnS core/shell NCs with successively enhancement of QY, while subsequent heating could obtain AZIS homogeneous alloy QDs with a successively blue-shift of PL emission. This allow us to tune the PL emission of the products from 483 to 675 nm and fabricate the chemically stable QDs core/ZnS shell structure. Based on the above results, a mechanism about the cation exchange for the ternary nanocrystals of different structures was proposed that the balance between cation exchange and diffusion is the key factor of controlling the band gap and structure of the final products. Furthermore, photostability and in vitro experiment demonstrated quite low cytotoxicity and remarkably promising applications in the

  2. Optical Characterization of AlAsSb Digital Alloy and Random Alloy on GaSb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Chau Juang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available III-(As, Sb alloys are building blocks for various advanced optoelectronic devices, but the growth of their ternary or quaternary materials are commonly limited by spontaneous formation of clusters and phase separations during alloying. Recently, digital alloy growth by molecular beam epitaxy has been widely adopted in preference to conventional random alloy growth because of the extra degree of control offered by the ordered alloying. In this article, we provide a comparative study of the optical characteristics of AlAsSb alloys grown lattice-matched to GaSb using both techniques. The sample grown by digital alloy technique showed stronger photoluminescence intensity, narrower peak linewidth, and larger carrier activation energy than the random alloy technique, indicating an improved optical quality with lower density of non-radiative recombination centers. In addition, a relatively long carrier lifetime was observed from the digital alloy sample, consistent with the results obtained from the photoluminescence study.

  3. Experimental determination of the phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.P.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, H.H.; Hu, H.F.; Liu, X.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We determined four isothermal sections of the Co-Fe-Zr system from 1000 o C to 1300 o C. → No ternary compound was found in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system. → The solubility of Fe in the liquid phase at 1300 o C is extremely large. → The (Co, Fe) 2 Zr phase form the continuous solution from Co-Zr side to Fe-Zr side. → The solubility of Zr in the fcc (Co, Fe) phase is extremely small. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on equilibrated ternary alloys. Four isothermal sections of the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system at 1300 o C, 1200 o C, 1100 o C and 1000 o C were experimentally established. The experimental results indicate that (1) no ternary compound was found in this system; (2) the solubility of Fe in the liquid phase of the Co-rich corner at 1300 o C is extremely large; (3) the liquid phase in the Zr-rich corner and the (Co,Fe) 2 Zr phase form the continuous solid solutions from the Co-Zr side to the Fe-Zr side; (4) the solubility of Zr in the fcc (Co, Fe) phase is extremely small.

  4. Modelling radiation-induced phase changes in binary FeCu and ternary FeCuNi alloys using an artificial intelligence-based atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castin, N.; Malerba, L.; Bonny, G.; Pascuet, M. I.; Hou, M.

    2009-09-01

    We apply a novel atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo model, which includes local chemistry and relaxation effects when assessing the migration energy barriers of point defects, to the study of the microchemical evolution driven by vacancy diffusion in FeCu and FeCuNi alloys. These alloys are of importance for nuclear applications because Cu precipitation, enhanced by the presence of Ni, is one of the main causes of hardening and embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel steels used in existing nuclear power plants. Local chemistry and relaxation effects are introduced using artificial intelligence techniques, namely a conveniently trained artificial neural network, to calculate the migration energy barriers of vacancies as functions of the local atomic configuration. We prove, through a number of results, that the use of the neural network is fully equivalent to calculating the migration energy barriers on-the-fly, using computationally expensive methods such as nudged elastic bands with an interatomic potential. The use of the neural network makes the computational cost affordable, so that simulations of the same type as those hitherto carried out using heuristic formulas for the assessment of the energy barriers can now be performed, at the same computational cost, using more rigorously calculated barriers. This method opens the way to properly treating more complex problems, such as the case of self-interstitial cluster formation, in an atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo framework.

  5. Modelling radiation-induced phase changes in binary FeCu and ternary FeCuNi alloys using an artificial intelligence-based atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castin, N.; Malerba, L.; Bonny, G.; Pascuet, M.I.; Hou, M.

    2009-01-01

    We apply a novel atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo model, which includes local chemistry and relaxation effects when assessing the migration energy barriers of point defects, to the study of the microchemical evolution driven by vacancy diffusion in FeCu and FeCuNi alloys. These alloys are of importance for nuclear applications because Cu precipitation, enhanced by the presence of Ni, is one of the main causes of hardening and embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel steels used in existing nuclear power plants. Local chemistry and relaxation effects are introduced using artificial intelligence techniques, namely a conveniently trained artificial neural network, to calculate the migration energy barriers of vacancies as functions of the local atomic configuration. We prove, through a number of results, that the use of the neural network is fully equivalent to calculating the migration energy barriers on-the-fly, using computationally expensive methods such as nudged elastic bands with an interatomic potential. The use of the neural network makes the computational cost affordable, so that simulations of the same type as those hitherto carried out using heuristic formulas for the assessment of the energy barriers can now be performed, at the same computational cost, using more rigorously calculated barriers. This method opens the way to properly treating more complex problems, such as the case of self-interstitial cluster formation, in an atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo framework.

  6. Modelling radiation-induced phase changes in binary FeCu and ternary FeCuNi alloys using an artificial intelligence-based atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castin, N. [Structural Materials Group, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Kernenergie Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK CEN), Studiecentrum voor, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Physique des Solides Irradies et des Nanostructures (PSIN), Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Boulevard du Triomphe CP234, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Malerba, L. [Structural Materials Group, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Kernenergie Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK CEN), Studiecentrum voor, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: lmalerba@sckcen.be; Bonny, G. [Structural Materials Group, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Kernenergie Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK CEN), Studiecentrum voor, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Gent, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Pascuet, M.I. [Structural Materials Group, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Kernenergie Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK CEN), Studiecentrum voor, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); CAC-CNEA, Departamento de Materiales, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Pcia. Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Hou, M. [Physique des Solides Irradies et des Nanostructures (PSIN), Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Boulevard du Triomphe CP234, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-09-15

    We apply a novel atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo model, which includes local chemistry and relaxation effects when assessing the migration energy barriers of point defects, to the study of the microchemical evolution driven by vacancy diffusion in FeCu and FeCuNi alloys. These alloys are of importance for nuclear applications because Cu precipitation, enhanced by the presence of Ni, is one of the main causes of hardening and embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel steels used in existing nuclear power plants. Local chemistry and relaxation effects are introduced using artificial intelligence techniques, namely a conveniently trained artificial neural network, to calculate the migration energy barriers of vacancies as functions of the local atomic configuration. We prove, through a number of results, that the use of the neural network is fully equivalent to calculating the migration energy barriers on-the-fly, using computationally expensive methods such as nudged elastic bands with an interatomic potential. The use of the neural network makes the computational cost affordable, so that simulations of the same type as those hitherto carried out using heuristic formulas for the assessment of the energy barriers can now be performed, at the same computational cost, using more rigorously calculated barriers. This method opens the way to properly treating more complex problems, such as the case of self-interstitial cluster formation, in an atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo framework.

  7. Lattice-matched heteroepitaxy of wide gap ternary compound semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Klaus J.

    A variety of applications are identified for heteroepitaxial structures of wide gap I-III-VI(sub 2) and II-IV-V(sub 2) semiconductors, and are assessed in comparison with ternary III-V alloys and other wide gap materials. Non-linear optical applications of the I-III-VI(sub 2) and II-IV-V(sub 2) compound heterostructures are discussed, which require the growth of thick epitaxial layers imposing stringent requirements on the conditions of heteroepitaxy. In particular, recent results concerning the MOCVD growth of ZnSi(x)Ge(1-x)P2 alloys lattice matching Si or GaP substrates are reviewed. Also, heterostructures of Cu(z)Ag(1-z)GaS2 alloys that lattice-match Si, Ge, GaP, or GaAs substrates are considered in the context of optoelectronic devices operating in the blue wavelength regime. Since under the conditions of MOCVD, metastable alloys of the II-IV-V(sub 2) compounds and group IV elements are realized, II-IV-V(sub 2) alloys may also serve as interlayers in the integration of silicon and germanium with exactly lattice-matched tetrahedrally coordinated compound semiconductors, e.g. ZnSi(x)Ge(1-x)P2.

  8. Data and analyses of phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Daiman; Xu, Chengliang; Li, Changrong; Guo, Cuiping; Zheng, Raowen; Du, Zhenmin; Li, Junqin

    2018-02-01

    These data and analyses support the research article "Experimental study on phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system" Zhu et al. (2017) [1]. The data and analyses presented here include the experimental results of XRD, SEM and EPMA for the determination of the whole liquidus projection and the isothermal section at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb system. All the results enable the understanding of the constituent phases and the solidification processes of the as-cast alloys as well as the phase relations and the equilibrium regions at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system over the entire composition.

  9. True ternary fission in 310126X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banupriya, B.; Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    All possible combinations are minimized by the two dimensional minimization process and minimized with respect to neutron numbers and proton numbers of the fragments. Potential energy is low and Q - value is high at true ternary fission region. It shows that true ternary mode is the dominant mode in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei. Also, the results show that the fragments with neutron magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei whereas the fragments with proton magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of heavy nuclei

  10. Phase equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yitai; Chen, Xiaoxian; Liu, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry

    2017-08-15

    Investigation into the reactions and phase equilibria of transition metal elements (i.e. Mo, Zr, Cr, V and Ti), Al and rare earths is academically and industrially important for the development of both refractory alloys and lightweight high-temperature materials. In this work, the equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system at 773 K have been determined by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A new ternary phase Al{sub 4}Mo{sub 2}Ho has been found and the other ternary phase Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}Ho{sub 6} is observed. Ten binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-Ho systems, including Al{sub 17}Mo{sub 4} rather than Al{sub 4}Mo, have been determined to exist at 773 K. The homogeneity ranges of AlMo{sub 3} and Al{sub 8}Mo{sub 3} phase are 7.5 at.% and 1 at.%, respectively. According to the phase-disappearing method, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at.%.

  11. Atomistic approach to predict the glass-forming ability in Zr–Cu–Al ternary metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.Y. [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu, X.J. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zheng, G.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Niu, X.R. [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu, C.T., E-mail: chainliu@cityu.edu.hk [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • An atomistic approach has been developed to predict the glass forming ability (GFA) in Zr–Cu–Al ternary alloy system. • Both of the thermodynamic and structure-dependent kinetic effects to glass formation have been taken into account. • The first-principles calculation and molecular dynamics simulation have been performed. • The approach predicts the best glass former in the model Zr–Cu–Al alloy system. • The predicted GFA is consistent with various experimental results. - Abstract: Prediction of composition-dependent glass-forming ability (GFA) remains to be a key scientific challenge in the metallic-glass community, especially in multi-component alloy systems. In the present study, we apply an atomistic approach to predict the trend of GFA effectively in the Zr–Cu–Al ternary alloy system from alloy compositions alone. This approach is derived from the first-principles calculations based on the density-functional theory and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. By considering of both the thermodynamic and atomic-structure induced kinetic effects, the predicted GFA trend from this approach shows an excellent agreement with experimental data available in this alloy system, manifesting its capability of seeking metallic glasses with superior GFA in ternary alloy systems.

  12. Neutron scattering on molten Ge-Sn-Te alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, Th; Hinz, W.; Hoyer, W.

    1995-01-01

    Three molten ternary Ge-Sn-Te alloys lying on the quasibinary line Ge-SnTe, and the binary equiatomic alloys SnTe and GeTe have been investigated by neutron "time-of-flight" experiments. Published thermodynamic results are interpreted in terms of the coexistence of SnTe and Ge microgroupings in the melt. Using the experimental obtained data of the binary liquid alloy Sn50Te50 and of liquid Ge the structure factors of the ternary melts are calculated on the base of a microheterogeneous model.

  13. Ternary Fission Studies by Correlation Measurements with Ternary Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutterer, Manfred

    2011-10-01

    The rare ternary fission process has been studied mainly by inclusive measurements of the energy distributions and fractional yields of the light charged particles (LCPs) from fission, or by experiments on the angular and energy correlation between LCPs and fission fragments (FFs). The present contribution presents a brief overview of more elaborate correlation measurements that comprise the emission of neutrons and γ rays with LCPs and FFs, or the coincident registration of two LCPs. These measurements have permitted identification of new modes of particle-accompanied fission, such as the population of excited states in LCPs, the formation of neutron-unstable nuclei as short-lived intermediate LCPs, as well as the sequential decay of particle-unstable LCPs and quaternary fission. Furthermore, the neutron multiplicity numbers bar ν (A) and distributions of fragment masses A, measured for the ternary fission modes with various LCP isotopes, give a valuable hint of the role played by nuclear shell structure in the fission process near scission. Finally, two different hitherto unknown asymmetries in ternary α-particle emission with respect to the fission axis, called the TRI and ROT effect, were studied in fission reactions induced by polarised cold neutrons.

  14. Microstructural evolution and thermal stability of aluminum-cerium-nickel ternary eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodran, Eric John

    The engineering community has identified several applications in which the use of a lightweight alloy for elevated temperature service, in substitution for current heavier and more costly alloys, would have a substantial benefit. This need for structural materials to perform at elevated temperatures has driven researchers to develop novel alloys as well as processing routes to manufacture them and obtain optimum microstructures. Previous studies on aluminum based binary eutectic systems have proven that the aluminum alloy system shows promising potential for satisfying this need. This has motivated the investigation of the solidification and thermal stability of the Al-12 wt% Ce-5 wt% Ni ternary eutectic performed in this investigation. The solidification behavior of the Al-Ce-Ni ternary eutectic was conducted via solidification of various compositions at and above the eutectic composition in a copper chill mold, thus allowing the observation of various solidification rates on a single ingot. Directional solidification of the ternary eutectic was also conducted to further study the unique microstructures forms. After casting the ingots were analyzed for the composition of phases in the microstructure via X-ray diffraction, and the distribution of the phases determined by scanning electron microscopy. The solidification of the ternary eutectic was found to occur much like that of a faceted/non-faceted binary couples growth. The thermal stability of the microstructure was also studied. Ternary eutectic microstructures were heat treated at various temperatures for time intervals up to 100 hours. The coupled growth microstructures were found to coarsen at temperature above 400°C, which was associated with a loss in hardness. Coarsening of the microstructures at elevated temperatures was also observed to occur by multiple mechanisms: an Ostwald ripening within the eutectic cell, and an accelerated coarsening at the cell boundaries due to increased diffusion at

  15. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  16. Density functional theory based screening of ternary alkali-transition metal borohydrides: A computational material design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Landis, David; Voss, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    We present a computational screening study of ternary metal borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage based on density functional theory. We investigate the stability and decomposition of alloys containing 1 alkali metal atom, Li, Na, or K (M1); and 1 alkali, alkaline earth or 3d/4d transition...

  17. Homologous series of layered structures in binary and ternary Bi-Sb-Te-Se systems : Ab initio study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, K.; Sluiter, M.H.F.; Partoens, B.; Lamoen, D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to account explicitly for the existence of long-periodic layered structures and the strong structural relaxations in the most common binary and ternary alloys of the Bi-Sb-Te-Se system, we have developed a one-dimensional cluster expansion (CE) based on first-principles electronic structure

  18. Nearly Ternary Quadratic Higher Derivations on Non-Archimedean Ternary Banach Algebras: A Fixed Point Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eshaghi Gordji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stability and superstability of ternary quadratic higher derivations in non-Archimedean ternary algebras by using a version of fixed point theorem via quadratic functional equation.

  19. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce crack-free thin surface layers consisting of binary (Al-Ni, Al-Fe) and ternary (Al-Ni-Fe) intermetallic phases by means of a high power laser beam. The laser surface alloying was carried out by melting Fe and Ni...

  20. Hydrogen solubility in austenite of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirnova, V.V.; Mogutnov, B.M.; Tomilin, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen solubility in Fe-Ni-Cr alloys at 600-1000 deg C is determined. Hydrogen solubility in ternary alloys can not be predicted on the basis of the data on its solubility in binary Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr alloys. Chromium and nickel effect on hydrogen solubility in iron is insignificant in comparison with the effect of these elements on carbon or nitrogen solubility [ru

  1. Calculated site substitution in ternary gamma'-Ni3Al: Temperature and composition effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    The temperature and composition dependence of the site substitution behavior of ternary additions to Ni3Al is examined on the basis of first-principles calculations of the total energies of ternary, partially ordered (gamma') alloys. The calculations are performed by means of the linear muffin......-tin orbitals method in conjunction with the local-density and multisublattice coherent-potential approximations and include all 3d, 4d, 5d, and noble metals. The calculations show the existence of simple trends in the alloying behavior of the gamma' phase which may be explained in a Friedel-like model based...... diagram for the elements Co, Pd, Cu, and Ag incorrectly has been interpreted as evidence for strong Ni site preference and that, in fact, these elements are expected to exhibit only weak Ni site preference....

  2. Ternary scandium and transition metals germanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.

    1992-01-01

    Brief review of data on phase diagram of ternary Sc-Me-Ge systems (Me-d - , f-transition element) is given. Isothermal sections at 870 and 1070 K of 17 ternary systems are plotted. Compositions and their structural characteristics are presented. Variability of crystal structure is typical for ternary scandium germanides: 70 compounds with the studied structure belong to 23 structural types. Ternary germanides isostructural to types of Sm 4 Ge 4 , ZrCrSi 2 , ZrNiAl, ScCeSi, TiNiSi U 4 Re 7 Si 6 145 compounds from 70 under investigation are mostly formed in studied systems

  3. Thermodynamic Database for Zirconium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerlerud Perez, Rosa

    2003-05-01

    For many decades zirconium alloys have been commonly used in the nuclear power industry as fuel cladding material. Besides their good corrosion resistance and acceptable mechanical properties the main reason of using these alloys is the low neutron absorption. Zirconium alloys are exposed to a very severe environment during the nuclear fission process and there is a demand for better design of this material. To meet this requirement a thermodynamic database is developed to support material designers. In this thesis some aspects about the development of a thermodynamic database for zirconium alloys are presented. A thermodynamic database represents an important facility in applying thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for a given material providing: 1) relevant information about the thermodynamic properties of the alloys e.g. enthalpies, activities, heat capacity, and 2) significant information for the manufacturing process e.g. heat treatment temperature. The basic information in the database is first the unary data, i.e. pure elements; those are taken from the compilation of the Scientific Group Thermodata Europe (SGTE) and then the binary and ternary systems. All phases present in those binary and ternary systems are described by means of the Gibbs energy dependence on composition and temperature. Many of those binary systems have been taken from published or unpublished works and others have been assessed in the present work. All the calculations have been made using Thermo C alc software and the representation of the Gibbs energy obtained by applying Calphad technique

  4. On Some Ternary LCD Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Darkunde, Nitin S.; Patil, Arunkumar R.

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study $LCD$ codes. Linear code with complementary dual($LCD$) are those codes which have their intersection with their dual code as $\\{0\\}$. In this paper we will give rather alternative proof of Massey's theorem\\cite{8}, which is one of the most important characterization of $LCD$ codes. Let $LCD[n,k]_3$ denote the maximum of possible values of $d$ among $[n,k,d]$ ternary $LCD$ codes. In \\cite{4}, authors have given upper bound on $LCD[n,k]_2$ and extended th...

  5. The ternary system Zr-Cr-O. Equilibrium diagrams in the zirconium rich zone at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Ruben O.; Gribaudo, Luis M.

    2003-01-01

    Equilibria among hcp α, bcc β solid solutions and cubic C 15 type intermetallic ZrCr 2 are represented graphically over Gibbs triangles in the Zr-rich zone of the ternary Zr-Cr-O system. Experimental results are obtained from zirconium-based alloys containing different oxygen compositions (0,24 and 0,62 % at.). Phase boundaries of the ternary system are extrapolated to the Zr-O and Zr-Cr binaries. The obtained values are compared to recently published evaluated diagrams of these two systems. Chromium compositions of the studied alloys were 0,3 - 1 - 2 - 4 and 15 at. %. Thermal treatment temperatures in order to allow equilibria in alloys were 840, 860, 900 and 960 C degrees. (author)

  6. Pulse reversal plating of nickel alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    Pulse plating has previously been reported to improve the properties of nickel and nickel alloy deposits. Typically, focus has been on properties such as grain size, hardness and smoothness. When pulse plating is to be utilised for microtechnologies such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS......), internal stress and material distribution are even more important. With baths based upon nickel chloride, and nickel and cobalt chlorides, pulse reversal plating of both pure nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys has been used to fabricate tools for microinjection moulding. Pulse reversal plating of ternary soft...... magnetic alloys, comprising 45-65%Co, 15-35%Fe and 15-35%Ni, is also reported....

  7. Experimental and thermodynamic study of the Er-H-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascaro, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work at CEA is being achieved in the framework of the development of an innovating concept including the neutronic solid burnable poison, such as erbium, inside the cladding of pressurized water reactors. These new claddings are constituted by a liner of a zirconium base alloy slightly enriched in erbium between two liners of industrial zirconium alloys. Into the reactor core, the water dissociates at the surface of the cladding. So it is interesting to evaluate the interactions between the hydrogen released and the Zr-Er alloy. To do so, the Er-H-Zr ternary system has to be determined such similarly to its associated binaries. This can be done by experimental determination and by thermodynamic modelling. Both techniques were used in this work. Er-Zr and H-Zr have already been studied experimentally and modelled, but the Er-H binary system is almost unknown. So, we studied it experimentally. Then, it has been modelled using the Calphad method. We obtain a new evaluation of the Er-H binary system with phases limits rather different than what has been proposed in the literature. In order to determine the phase limits and, the potential existence of a ternary compound in the Er-H-Zr ternary system, an experimental study has been carried out. An original technique has been used to obtain the chemical compositions: ERDA combined with RBS. In this study, we propose a new isothermal section at 350 C of the Er-H-Zr ternary system. About the modelling, the compatibility of the three modelled binaries has been checked in order to optimize the ternary system by the projection of the three binaries. The calculation obtained is in good agreement with the experimental isothermal section at 350 C determined in our work. Finally, uniaxial tensile test campaigns have been conducted to evaluate the impact of erbium and/or hydrogen on the mechanical properties of an industrial zirconium pure alloy. We evidenced a hardening effect of erbium and hydrogen but these effects are not

  8. Optical characterization of one-step synthesis of ternary nanoalloy by laser ablation of stainless steel target in Hexane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Wafaa; El-Ansary, Sara; Badr, Yehia

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we ablated stainless steel target in Hexane by 355 nm by tuning laser power to synthesize ternary nanoalloys from its constituents. XRD patterns didn't match with any machine code of carbides, carbonyls and oxides of target elements. Also, they didn't match with any of binary alloys, suggesting the formation of carbides or carbonyls of ternary nanoalloys. In addition, the optical properties of nanoalloys confirms the resonance fluorescence and multistep excitation. By tuning laser power, the shape of nanoalloys is controlled.

  9. Development of Cu-Hf-Al ternary systems and tungsten wire/particle reinforced Cu48Hf43Al9 bulk metallic glass composites for strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joyoung; An, Jihye; Choi-Yim, Haein

    2010-01-01

    Stable bulk glass forming alloys can be developed over a wide range of compositions in Cu-Hf-Al ternary systems starting from the Cu 49 Hf 42 Al 9 bulk metallic glass. Ternary Cu-Hf-Al alloys can be cast directly from the melt into copper molds to form fully amorphous strips with thicknesses of 1 to 6 mm. The maximum critical diameter of the new Cu-Hf-Al ternary alloy was 6 mm. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to confirm the amorphous nature of the ternary Cu-Hf-Al alloys. To increase the toughness of these metallic glasses, we reinforced the Cu 48 Hf 43 Al 9 bulk metallic glass-forming liquid with a 50% volume fraction of tungsten particles and an 80% volume fraction of tungsten wires with diameters of 242.4 μm. Composites with a critical diameter of 7 mm and length 70 mm were synthesized. The structure of the composites was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of the composites were studied in compression tests. The thermal stability and the crystallization processes of the Cu-Hf-Al alloys and composites were investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Values of the glass transition temperature (T g ), the crystallization temperature (T x ), and the supercooled liquid region (ΔT = T x - T g ) are given in this paper.

  10. A high-throughput search for new ternary superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyshadham, Chandramouli; Hansen, Jacob; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

    In 2006 an unexpected new superalloy, Co3[Al,W], was discovered. This new alloy is cobalt-based, in contrast to conventional superalloys, which are nickel-based. Inspired by this new discovery, we performed first-principles calculations, searching through 2224 ternary metallic systems of the form A3[B0.5C0.5], where A = Ni/Co/Fe and [B, C] = all binary combinations of 40 different elements chosen from the periodic table. We found 175 new systems that are better than the Co3[Al, W] superalloy. 75 of these systems are brand new--they have never been reported in experimental literature. These 75 new potential superalloys are good candidates for further experiments. Our calculations are consistent with current experimental literature where data exists. Work supported under: ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  11. Improvement of magnetocaloric properties of Gd-Ge-Si alloys by alloying with iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erenc-Sędziak T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of annealing of Gd5Ge2Si2Fex alloys at 1200°C and of alloying with various amount of iron on structure as well as thermal and magnetocaloric properties is investigated. It was found that annealing for 1 to 10 hours improves the entropy change, but reduces the temperature of maximum magnetocaloric effect by up to 50 K. Prolonged annealing of the Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy results in the decrease of entropy change due to the reduction of Gd5Ge2Si2 phase content. Addition of iron to the ternary alloy enhances the magnetocaloric effect, if x = 0.4 – 0.6, especially if alloying is combined with annealing at 1200°C: the peak value of the isothermal entropy change from 0 to 2 T increases from 3.5 to 11 J/kgK. Simultaneously, the temperature of maximum magnetocaloric effect drops to 250 K. The changes in magnetocaloric properties are related to the change in phase transformation from the second order for arc molten ternary alloy to first order in the case of annealed and/or alloyed with iron. The results of this study indicate that the minor addition of iron and heat treatment to Gd-Ge-Si alloys may be useful in improving the materials’ magnetocaloric properties..

  12. Description of the ternary system Cu-Ge-Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogguy, M.; Carcaly, C.; Rivet, J.; Flahaut, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Cu-Ge-Te ternary system has been studied by DTA and by crystallographic and metallographic analysis. The existence of a ternary compound Cu 2 GeTe 3 is demonstrated; this compound has a ternary incongruent melting point at 500 0 C. This ternary compound has a superstructure of a zinc blende type. The study shows the existence of five ternary eutectics. Two liquid-liquid miscibility gaps exist: the first is situated entirely in the ternary system; the second gives a monotectic region within the ternary system. (Auth.)

  13. Performance Estimation for Lowpass Ternary Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shea Peter

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary filters have tap values limited to , , or . This restriction in tap values greatly simplifies the multipliers required by the filter, making ternary filters very well suited to hardware implementations. Because they incorporate coarse quantisation, their performance is typically limited by tap quantisation error. This paper derives formulae for estimating the achievable performance of lowpass ternary filters, thereby allowing the number of computationally intensive design iterations to be reduced. Motivated by practical communications systems requirements, the performance measure which is used is the worst-case stopband attenuation.

  14. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  15. Ternary fission and cluster radioactivities

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W; Gherghescu, R A; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V

    2002-01-01

    Ternary fission yield for different kinds of light particle accompanied fission processes is compared to the Q-values for the corresponding cold phenomena, showing a striking correlation. The experimental evidence for the existence of a quasimolecular state in sup 1 sup 0 Be accompanied fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf may be explained using a three-center phenomenological model which generates a third minimum in the deformation energy at a separation distance very close to the touching point. This model is a natural extension of the unified approach to three groups of binary decay modes (cold fission, cluster radioactivities and alpha decay), illustrated by sup 2 sup 3 sup 4 U decay modes, and the alpha valley on the potential energy surfaces of sup 1 sup 0 sup 6 Te. New measurements of cluster decay modes, confirming earlier predictions within analytical superasymmetric fission model, are included in a comprehensive half-life systematics. (authors)

  16. Coercivity enhancement in HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Fangming; Han, Jingzhi; Zhang, Yinfeng; Wang, Changsheng; Liu, Shunquan; Yang, Jinbo; Yang, Yingchang; Sun, Aizhi; Yang, Fuqiang; Song, Renbo

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders have been prepared. The coercivity of the powders was improved from 208.6 to 980.1 kA/m by the subsequent diffusion treatment using the Pr–Cu alloy. For comparison, Nd 11.5 Fe 80.7 B 6.1 Pr 1.2 Cu 0.5 alloy, in which Pr and Cu elements were directly added into the original Nd–Fe–B alloy, was also treated by the same HDDR process and the coercivity was only 557.3 kA/m. Microstructural investigations showed that a large area of (Nd, Pr)-rich phases concentrated at triangle regions in the HDDR Nd 11.5 Fe 80.7 B 6.1 Pr 1.2 Cu 0.5 powders, while the (Nd, Pr)-rich phases distributed uniformly in the diffusion treated powders. The uniform grain boundary layer can pin the motion of domain wall more effectively, resulting in a higher coercivity in diffusion treated HDDR Nd–Fe–B powders. - Highlights: • Anisotropic HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders have been prepared. • The coercivity of the powders was improved from 2.62 to 12.31 kOe by the diffusion of Pr–Cu alloy. • The uniform grain boundary layer leads to a higher coercivity in diffusion treated powders

  17. Ternary alloys based on ii-vi semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tomashyk, Vasyl; Shcherbak, Larysa

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria in the Systems Based on ZnSSystems Based on ZnSeSystems Based on ZnTeSystems Based on CdSSystem Based on CdSeSystem Based on CdTeSystems Based on HgSSystems Based on HgSeSystems Based on HgTeIndexReferences appear at the end of each chapter.

  18. Ternary alloy material prediction using genetic algorithm and cluster expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This thesis summarizes our study on the crystal structures prediction of Fe-V-Si system using genetic algorithm and cluster expansion. Our goal is to explore and look for new stable compounds. We started from the current ten known experimental phases, and calculated formation energies of those compounds using density functional theory (DFT) package, namely, VASP. The convex hull was generated based on the DFT calculations of the experimental known phases. Then we did random search on some metal rich (Fe and V) compositions and found that the lowest energy structures were body centered cube (bcc) underlying lattice, under which we did our computational systematic searches using genetic algorithm and cluster expansion. Among hundreds of the searched compositions, thirteen were selected and DFT formation energies were obtained by VASP. The stability checking of those thirteen compounds was done in reference to the experimental convex hull. We found that the composition, 24-8-16, i.e., Fe3VSi2 is a new stable phase and it can be very inspiring to the future experiments.

  19. Ternary alloys based on II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tomashyk, Vasyl; Shcherbak, Larysa

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria in the Systems Based on ZnSSystems Based on ZnSeSystems Based on ZnTeSystems Based on CdSSystem Based on CdSeSystem Based on CdTeSystems Based on HgSSystems Based on HgSeSystems Based on HgTeIndexReferences appear at the end of each chapter.

  20. Magnesium and related low alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.; Caillat, R.; Darras, R.

    1959-01-01

    In the first part the authors examine the comparative corrosion of commercial magnesium, of a magnesium-zirconium alloy (0,4 per cent ≤ Zr ≤ 0,7 per cent) of a ternary magnesium-zinc-zirconium alloy (0,8 per cent ≤ Zn ≤ 1,2 per cent) and of english 'Magnox type' alloys, in dry carbon dioxide-free air, in damp carbon dioxide-free air, and in dry and damp carbon dioxide, at temperatures from 300 to 600 deg. C. In the second part the structural stability of these materials is studied after annealings, of 10 to 1000 hours at 300 to 450 deg. C. Variations in grain after these heat treatments and mechanical stretching properties at room temperature are presented. Finally various creep rate and life time diagrams are given for these materials, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 deg. C. (author) [fr

  1. Corrosion resistance improvement of titanium base alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy in comparison with ternary Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Ringer-Brown solution and artificial Carter-Brugirard saliva of different pH values was studied. In Ringer-Brown solution, the new alloy presented an improvement of all electrochemical parameters due to the alloying with Zr; also, impedance spectra revealed better protective properties of its passive layer. In Carter-Brugirard artificial saliva, an increase of the passive film thickness was proved. Fluoride ions had a slight negative influence on the corrosion and ion release rates, without to affect the very good stability of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy.

  2. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of soft magnetic nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toparli, Cigdem [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany); Ebin, Burçak [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Nuclear Chemistry and Industrial Material Recycling, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Gürmen, Sebahattin, E-mail: gurmen@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    The present study focuses on the synthesis, microstructural and magnetic properties of ternary FeNiCo nanoparticles. Nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles were synthesized via hydrogen reduction assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in single step. The effect of precursor concentration on the morphology and the size of particles was investigated. The syntheses were performed at 800 °C. Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the as-prepared products were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) studies. Scherer calculation revealed that crystallite size of the ternary particles ranged between 36 and 60 nm. SEM and TEM investigations showed that the particle size was strongly influenced by the precursor concentration and Fe, Ni, Co elemental composition of individual particles was homogeneous. Finally, the soft magnetic properties of the particles were observed to be a function of their size. - Highlights: • Ternary FeNiCo alloy nanocrystalline particles were synthesized in a single step. • Cubic crystalline structure and spherical morphology was observed by XRD, SEM and TEM investigations. • The analysis of magnetic properties indicates the soft magnetic features of particles.

  3. Volume dependence of T/sub c/ of Ternary A-15 Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamrai, V.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of measurements of the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/, lattice constant a, magnetic susceptibility /sub chi/, and critical field H/sub c/ 2 for many Nb 3 Al and V 3 Si-based ternary phases and Nb 3 SnH/sub x/. For V 3 Si-based ternary systems and Nb 3 SnH/sub x/ the density of states at the Fermi level N(epsilon/sub F/) sharply decreases with the concentration of the alloying element. The variation of N(epsilon/sub F/) in these ternary systems cannot be explained by the variation of a. In ternary phases Nb 3 (Al/sub 1-x/dY/sub x/), where Y can be Ge, Ga, Sb, or Se, a quite clear correlation is revealed between T/sub c/ and a. The dependence of T/sub c/ on V in these systems is due to the variation of the matrix element of the electron-phonon interaction 2 >

  4. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). College of Materials and Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome

    2017-08-15

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, ZrNi, ZrNi{sub 5}, Zr{sub 14}Cu{sub 51}, and Zr{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}, show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ{sub 3} (Zr{sub 31.1-30.7} . Cu{sub 28.5-40.3}Ni{sub 40.4-29.0}) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  5. Structure and properties of alloys of A15 type compounds with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, E.M.; Efimov, Yu.V.; Myasnikova, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Microstructure and some properties of the alloys on the base of the phases of A15 type in the V-Si-C, Nb-Si-C, Nb-Sn-C, Nb-Al-C, Nb-Ga-C, V-Ga-C ternary systems are investigated. It is established that in the niobium-rich corners of the A-B-C ternary systems the new ternary conpounds do not form, as a rule, bUt the wide ranges of threephase equilibrium A-A 3 B-C exist. New ternary phases with A15 type structure stabilized with carbon are established only in the Nb-Si-C and V-Al-C systems. Alloying with carbon results in sharp refining of structural components of stable and metastable alloys, promotes transition of the alloys into amorphous state at super fast cooling of the melts as well as increases stability of metastable state of the alloys against tempering. After super fast quenching and tempering Tsub(c) of the ternary alloys close to the A15 phases exceed Tsub(c) of equilibrium samples

  6. Powder metallurgy preparation of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals using mechanical alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Vystrčil, J.; Hendrych, R.; Kříž, J.; Mlynár, J.; Vojtěch, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, September (2014), s. 131-137 ISSN 0966-9795 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nanostructure intermetallics * Ternary alloys systems * Mechanical alloying and milling * Sintering * Diffraction Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0966979514001198#

  7. Regularity in the formation of compounds in ternary R-Me-Sn systems, R - REM, Me - Fe, Co, Ni, Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolozdra, R.V.; Komarovskaya, L.P.; Koretskaya, O.Eh.

    1992-01-01

    For the ternary alloy systems of (La, Y, Gd, Lu)-Fe-Sn, (Ce, Y, Gd)-Co-Sn, (Ce, Y, Gd, Lu)-Ni-Sn and (Pr, Gd, Lu)-Cu-Sn isothermal sections of phase diagrams were plotted within the range of 670 to 870 K. It was revealed that substitution of transition metal in the kFe-Co-Ni-Cu series led to changes both in a number of ternary stannides and their structural types. A tendency was observed in change of stannide numbers depending on quantity ratio of R and Me components. Crystallochemical analysis of compounds obtained showed that they could be treated as interstitial structures or lsuperstructures with respect to them. The results of magnetic properties measurements were used for explanation of structural features of ternary compounds considered

  8. Theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of unusual ternary ordered semiconductor compounds in Sr-Pb-S system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shiqiang; Zhao, Li-Dong; Chen, Chang-Qiang; Dravid, Vinayak P; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Wolverton, Christopher M

    2014-01-29

    We examine the thermodynamics of phase separation and ordering in the ternary Ca(x)Pb(1-x)S and Sr(x)Pb(1-x)S systems by density-functional theory combined with a cluster expansion and Monte Carlo simulations. Similar to most other ternary III-V or IV-VI semiconductor alloys, we find that bulk phase separation is thermodynamically preferred for PbS-CaS. However, we predict the surprising existence of stable, ordered ternary compounds in the PbS-SrS system. These phases are previously unreported ordered rocksalt-based compounds: SrPb3S4, SrPbS2, and Sr3PbS4. The stability of these predicted ordered phases is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy observations and band gap measurements. We believe this work paves the way for a combined theory-experiment approach to decipher complex phase relations in multicomponent chalcogenide systems.

  9. Ternary networks reliability and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya; Vaisman, Radislav

    2014-01-01

    Ternary means “based on three”. This book deals with reliability investigations of  networks whose components subject to failures can be in three states –up, down and middle (mid), contrary to traditionally considered networks  having only binary (up/down) components. Extending binary case to ternary allows to consider more realistic and flexible models for communication, flow and supply networks.

  10. Experimental investigation of the ternary system Ni–Pd–Sn with special focus on the B8-type phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, Isabella; Ipser, Herbert; Richter, Klaus W.

    2015-01-01

    The ternary alloy system Ni–Pd–Sn was investigated experimentally from 700 °C upwards, with special focus on the general NiAs-type compounds. The phase diagram and crystallographic parameters were studied by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), light optical microscopy (LOM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). An isothermal section at 700 °C was constructed wherein a continuous phase field between the binary NiAs-type compounds γ (PdSn) and Ni 3 Sn 2 (high temperature modification) was detected. A series of samples throughout this phase field was used to investigate lattice parameter variations, occupation of the atomic sites and the melting behaviour. A partial ordering of the transition metals was observed. Moreover, three vertical sections at 30 at.%, 40 at.% and 50 at.% Sn were determined. Altogether, seven ternary invariant phase reactions were discovered: two ternary eutectic reactions, one ternary eutectoid reaction, three ternary transition reactions and one maximum. A complete reaction scheme for the investigated temperature range is given. Furthermore, a partial liquidus surface projection, except for the low-temperature Sn-rich region, was developed. - Highlights: • Detailed study of the ternary alloy system Ni–Pd–Sn. • 1 Isotherm, 3 vertical sections, a partial liquidus projection and a reaction scheme. • A continuous phase field, between γ and Ni 3 Sn 2 , was discovered. • Lattice parameters and structural features in this phase field were analysed. • A partial order of Ni and Pd in this phase field was observed

  11. Calorimetric measurements of the Ca-Li liquid alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębski A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ternary Cu-Al-Sn phase diagram is the base for several important types of alloys, with relevant industrial interest and applications. The knowledge of the melting/solidification alloys characteristics are determinant for their preparation and properties control. However, there is a lack of experimental information on the ternary phase diagram, at high temperature. In this work, several alloys, with high copper content and additions of Al, up to 10%, and Sn, up to 14% (in wt%, were studied by thermal analysis and by isothermal phase equilibria determination. The alloys liquidus and solidus lines and the binary α + β phase field, at 800 °C, are presented for the studied range of compositions.

  12. Analysis of phase formation in Ni-rich alloys of the Ni-Ta-W system by calorimetry, DTA, SEM, and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Hecht, U.; Warnken, N.; Fries, S.G. [Access e.V., Aachen (Germany); Hu Weiping [Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    The partial enthalpies of dissolution of pure Ni, W and Ta in liquid ternary Ni-Ta-W alloys have been determined at (1773 {+-} 5) K using a high temperature isoperibolic calorimeter. Measurements were performed in Ni-rich alloys (from 80 to 100 at.% Ni) along sections with constant Ta:W atomic ratios 1:0, 2:1, 1:2, and 0:1. The partial enthalpies and thereby the integral enthalpy of mixing of these ternary alloys are calculated from the partial enthalpies of dissolution using SGTE Gibbs energies for pure elements as reference. The obtained thermochemical data confirm that in the investigated Ni-rich alloys the binary interactions between Ta and W as well as the ternary Ni-Ta-W interactions are negligibly small. Due to this the variation of the integral enthalpy of mixing of the ternary alloys is well described as linear combination of the constituent Ni-Ta and Ni-W binaries. Such behaviour of the ternary liquid alloys is related to a very low probability of new ternary stable phases to occur in solid state. This prediction is confirmed by differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy of the as-solidified and annealed samples obtained as last alloy compositions in the series of calorimetric dissolution. (orig.)

  13. The excess enthalpies of liquid Ge-Pb-Te alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachnik, R.; Binder, J.; Schlieper, A.

    1997-01-01

    The excess enthalpies of liquid alloys in the ternary system Ge-Pb-Te were determined at 1210 K in a heat flow calorimeter for five sections Ge y Pb 1-y -Te with y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8 and at 1153 K for Ge 0.5 Pb 0.5 -Te. The enthalpy surface in the ternary system is determined by a valley of exothermic minima, stretching from an exothermic minimum at the composition GeTe to one at the composition PbTe in the respective binaries. The excess enthalpies in the limiting metallic binary were adapted with the Redlich-Kister formalism. For the description of the thermodynamic functions in the ternary system the equation of Bonnier was taken using ternary coefficients. The calculated curves are in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of new type Cu-Hf-Al bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, E; Ronto, V; Solyom, J; Roosz, A

    2009-01-01

    In the last years new type Cu-Hf-Al ternary alloys were developed with high glass forming ability and ductility. The addition of Al to Cu-Hf alloys results in improvements in glass formation, thermal stability and mechanical properties of these alloys. We have investigated new Cu-based bulk amorphous alloys in Cu-Hf-Al ternary system. The alloys with Cu 49 Hf 42 Al 9 , Cu 46 Hf 45 Al 9 , Cu 50 Hf 42.5 Al 7.5 and Cu 50 Hf 45 Al 5 compositions were prepared by arc melting. The samples were made by centrifugal casting and were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. Thermodynamic properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and the structure of the crystallising phases by scanning electron microscopy. The determination of liquidus temperatures of alloys were measured by differential thermal analysis.

  15. A study of phase transformations in complex matallic alloys Al73Mn23Pd4 and Al73Mn21Pd6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Priputen, P.; Černičková, I.; Kusý, M.; Illeková, E.; Švec, P.; Buršík, Jiří; Svoboda, Milan; Dolinšek, J.; Janovec, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 465, - (2011), s. 302-305 ISSN 1013-9826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ternary alloy system * phase transformation * DTA/SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  16. Undercooling and demixing of copper-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbe, M.; Brillo, J.; Egry, I.

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of materials science research under microgravity conditions immiscible alloys have been an interesting subject. New possibilities to investigate such systems are offered by containerless processing techniques. Of particular interest is the ternary system Cu-Fe-Co, and its...

  17. Interstitial void structure in Cu Sn liquid alloy as revealed from reverse Monte Carlo modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, W.; Kleinhempel, R.; Lorinczi, A.; Pohlers, A.; Popescu, M.; Sava, F.

    2005-02-01

    A model for the structure of copper-tin liquid alloy has been developed using the standard reverse Monte Carlo method. The interstitial void structure (size distribution) was analysed. The effects of various kinds of voids (small size and large size) on the interference function and radial distribution function were investigated. Predictions related to the formation of some ternary alloys by filling the interstices of the basic alloy were advanced.

  18. Reduction in thermal conductivity of Bi–Te alloys through grain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ternary alloys of thermoelectric materials Bi–Sb–Te and Bi–Se–Te of molecular formula, Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 ( type) and Bi0.36Se0.064Te0.576 ( type), were prepared by mechanical alloying method. The preparation of materials by mechanical alloying method has effectively reduced the thermal conductivity by generating a ...

  19. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  20. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag–In–Sb alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA ZIVKOVIC

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of calculations of the thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag–In–Sb alloys are presented in this paper. The Redlich–Kister–Muggianu model was used for the calculations. Based on known thermodynamic data for constitutive binary systems and available experimental data for the investigated ternary system, the ternary interaction parameter for the liquid phase in the temperature range 1000–1200 K was determined. Comparison between experimental and calculated results showed their good mutual agreement.

  1. Insight of magnesium alloys and composites for orthopedic implant applications – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Radha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg and its alloys have been widely researched for orthopedic applications recently. Mg alloys have stupendous advantages over the commercially available stainless steel, Co-Cr-Ni alloy and titanium implants. Till date, extensive mechanical, in-vitro and in-vivo studies have been done to improve the biomedical performance of Mg alloys through alloying, processing conditions, surface modification etc. This review comprehensively describes the strategies for improving the mechanical and degradation performance of Mg alloys through properly tailoring the composition of alloying elements, reinforcements and processing techniques. It also highlights the status and progress of research in to (i the selection of nutrient elements for alloying, reinforcement and its effects (ii type of Mg alloy system (binary, ternary and quaternary and composites (iii grain refinement for strengthening through severe plastic deformation techniques. Furthermore it also emphasizes on the importance of Mg composites with regard to hard tissue applications.

  2. Design of lead-free candidate alloys for high-temperature soldering based on the Au–Sn system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hald, John

    2010-01-01

    of the Au–Sn binary system were explored in this work. Furthermore, the effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and microhardness of these promising Au–Sn based ternary alloys were investigated. For this purpose, the candidate alloys were aged at a lower temperature, 150°C for up to 1week...

  3. True ternary fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Oertzen, W. von

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of heavy radioactive nucleus into three fragments is known as ternary fission. If the size of the fragments are almost equal it is referred to as true ternary fission. Recently, Yu. V. Pyatkov et al observed/reported the experimental observation of true ternary fission in 252 Cf. In this work, the possibilities of different true ternary fission modes of 252 Cf through potential energy surface (PES) calculations based on three cluster model (TCM) are discussed. In TCM a condition on the mass numbers of the fission fragments is implied as A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 in order to avoid repetition of combinations. Due to this condition, the values of Z 3 vary from 0 to 36 and Z 2 vary from 16 to 51. Of the different pairs having similar (Z 2 , Z 3 ) with different potential energy, a pair possessing minimum potential energy is chosen. Thus identified favourable combinations are plotted. For the PES calculations the arrangement of the fragments is considered in the order of A 1 +A 2 +A 3 . i.e. the heavy and the lightest fragments are kept at the ends. It is seen that the deepest minimum in the PES occurs for Z 3 =2 labelled as (Z 2 ; 2) indicating He accompanied breakup as the most favourable one. Of which, the breakup with Z 2 around 46 to 48 is the least (shown by dashed (Z 1 = 50) and dotted (Z 1 = 52) lines indicating a constant Z 1 value). The other notable minima in the PES are labelled and they correspond to the (Z 2 , Z 3 ) pairs viz., (20, 20), (28, 20), (28, 28) and (32, 32). Of these four minima, the first three are associated with the magic numbers 20 and 28. For Z 3 =20, there are two minimums at (20,20) and (28,20) among them (28,20) is the lowest minimum through which the minimum-path passes, and it is the ternary decay observed by Yu. V. Pyatkov et al. The fourth minima is the most interesting due to the fact that it corresponds to true ternary fission mode with Z 2 =32, Z 3 =32 and Z 1 =34. The minimum potential energy path also goes through this true

  4. A Josephson ternary associative memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a three-valued content addressable memory cell using a Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. The memory cell proposed here can perform three operations of searching, writing and reading in ternary logic system. The principle of the memory circuit is illustrated in detail by using the threshold-characteristics of the JCTL. In order to investigate how a high performance operation can be achieved, computer simulations have been made. Simulation results show that the cycle time of memory operation is 120psec, power consumption is about 0.5 μW/cell and tolerances of writing and reading operation are +-15% and +-24%, respectively

  5. Grain refinement of zinc-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2006-01-01

    It is now well-established that the structure of the zinc-aluminum die casting alloys can be modified by the binary Al-Ti or the ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys. in this paper, grain refinement of zinc-aluminum alloys by rare earth materials is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining of these alloys and parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the Zn-Al alloys cast, parameters related to the grain refining elements or alloys and parameters related to the process. The effect of addition of other alloying elements e.g. Zr either alone or in the presence of the main grain refiners Ti or Ti + B on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, based on the grain refinement and the parameters affecting it, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is suggested. Finally, the recent research work on the effect of grain refiners on the mechanical behaviour, impact strength, wear resistance, and fatigue life of these alloys are presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Heat storage in alloy transformations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchenall, C E; Gueceri, S I; Farkas, D; Labdon, M B; Nagaswami, N; Pregger, B

    1981-03-01

    A study conducted to determine the feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media is described. The study had the following major elements: (1) the identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements, (2) the development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients, (3) the development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase-change materials, and (4) the identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. The elements selected as candidate media were limited to aluminum, copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus on the basis of low cost and latent heat of transformation. Several new eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases have been determined. A new method employing x-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data that are obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase-change media. Candidate materials were evaluated to determine suitable materials for containment of the metal alloys. Graphite was used to contain the alloys during the volume change measurements. Silicon carbide has been identified as a promising containment material and surface-coated iron alloys were considered.

  7. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Heats of transformation of eutectic alloys were measured for many binary and ternary systems by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis. Only the relatively cheap and plentiful elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Cu, Zn were considered. A method for measuring volume change during transformation was developed using x-ray absorption in a confined sample. Thermal expansion coefficients of both solid and liquid states of aluminum and of its eutectics with copper and with silicon also were determined. Preliminary evaluation of containment materials lead to the selection of silicon carbide as the initial material for study. Possible applications of alloy PCMs for heat storage in conventional and solar central power stations, small solar receivers and industrial furnace operations are under consideration.

  8. Effect of alloying on elastic properties of ZrN based transition metal nitride alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    We report the effect of composition and metal sublattice substitutional element on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of ternary transition metal nitrides Zr1-xMxN with M=Al, Ti, Hf, V, Nb, W and Mo. The analysis of the elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young\\'s modulus, and Poisson\\'s ratio provides insights regarding the mechanical behavior of Zr1-xMxN. We predict that ternary alloys are more ductile compared to their parent binary compounds. The revealed trend in the mechanical behavior might help for experimentalists on the ability of tuning the mechanical properties during the alloying process by varying the concentration of the transition metal. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Nb-Based Nb-Al-Fe Alloys: Solidification Behavior and High-Temperature Phase Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Frank; Philips, Noah

    2018-03-01

    High-melting Nb-based alloys hold significant promise for the development of novel high-temperature materials for structural applications. In order to understand the effect of alloying elements Al and Fe, the Nb-rich part of the ternary Nb-Al-Fe system was investigated. A series of Nb-rich ternary alloys were synthesized from high-purity Nb, Al, and Fe metals by arc melting. Solidification paths were identified and the liquidus surface of the Nb corner of the ternary system was established by analysis of the as-melted microstructures and thermal analysis. Complementary analysis of heat-treated samples yielded isothermal sections at 1723 K and 1873 K (1450 °C and 1600 °C).

  10. Investigation of as-cast alloys in the Pt-Al-Cr system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, R.; Cornish, L.A.; Witcomb, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Platinum-based alloys are being developed which have microstructures that are analogous to the γ/γ' microstructure of the nickel-based superalloys. These Pt-based alloys have the potential to be used for high-temperature applications. The ternary Pt-Al-Cr system was investigated as part of the continued development of a thermodynamic database for the Pt-Al-Cr-Ru system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to obtain phase equilibria data. The alloys were studied in the as-cast condition. A solidification projection was constructed and a liquidus surface derived. It was concluded that all phase regions were identified correctly since the results were self-consistent. Three ternary phases and 21 ternary invariant reactions were identified.

  11. Size effects in band gap bowing in nitride semiconducting alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and size contributions to the band gap bowing of nitride semiconducting alloys (InxGa1-xN, InxAl1-xN, and AlxGa1-xN) are analyzed. It is shown that the band gap deformation potentials of the binary constituents determine the gap bowing in the ternary alloys. The particularly large gap bo...... bowing in In-containing nitride alloys can be explained by specific properties of InN, which do not follow trends observed in several other binaries....

  12. Indacenodithienothiophene-Based Ternary Organic Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini, Nicola; García-Rodríguez, Amaranda; Prosa, Mario; Bayseç, Şebnem; Palma-Cando, Alex; Katsouras, Athanasios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Pagona, Georgia; Gregoriou, Vasilis G.; Chochos, Christos L.; Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ulrich; Brabec, Christoph J.; Ameri, Tayebeh

    2017-01-01

    One of the key aspects to achieve high efficiency in ternary bulk-hetorojunction solar cells is the physical and chemical compatibility between the donor materials. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel conjugated polymer (P1) containing alternating pyridyl[2,1,3]thiadiazole between two different donor fragments, dithienosilole and indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT), used as a sensitizer in a host system of indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene,2,3-bis(3-(octyloxy)phenyl)quinoxaline (PIDTTQ) and [6,6]-phenyl C 70 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM). We found that the use of the same IDTT unit in the host and guest materials does not lead to significant changes in the morphology of the ternary blend compared to the host binary. With the complementary use of optoelectronic characterizations, we found that the ternary cells suffer from a lower mobility-lifetime (μτ) product, adversely impacting the fill factor. However, the significant light harvesting in the near infrared region improvement, compensating the transport losses, results in an overall power conversion efficiency enhancement of ~7% for ternary blends as compared to the PIDTTQ:PC 71 BM devices.

  13. Angular distribution in ternary cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delion, D.S.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Sandulescu, A.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Greiner, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of 252 Cf, accompanied by 4 He, 10 Be and 14 C. The light cluster decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb potential plus a harmonic oscillator potential. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. (author)

  14. The use of ternary mixtures in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This manual is a summary of the findings of a comprehensive study. Its purpose is to provide engineers with the information they need to make educated decisions on the use of ternary mixtures for constructing concrete structures. It discusses the eff...

  15. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    to binary metallic glasses. They are of interest since third element can modify the physical properties of binary metallic glasses and can also be used as a probe to study the host. ..... conducting nature in the present case. When we. Figure 6. Variation of transition temperature (TC) with valance (Z) of ternary metallic glasses.

  16. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  17. The isothermal section at 500 deg. C of the Gd-Tb-Ga ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.Q.; Jian, Y.X.; Ao, W.Q.; Zhuang, Y.H.; He, W.

    2006-01-01

    Phase equilibria in the Gd-Tb-Ga ternary system at 500 deg. C were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The binary compounds, Gd 5 Ga 3 , Gd 3 Ga 2 , GdGa, GdGa 2 , Tb 5 Ga 3 , TbGa, TbGa 2 and TbGa 3 have been confirmed at 500 deg. C. No ternary compound was found in this system. The isothermal section of this system at 500 deg. C was constructed. It is composed of 7 single-phase regions, 8 two-phase regions and 2 three-phase regions. Four ternary continuous solid solutions (Gd, Tb), (Gd, Tb) 5 Ga 3 , (Gd, Tb)Ga, (Gd, Tb)Ga 2 were formed in this isothermal section. The maximum solid solubilities of Ga in (Gd, Tb) at 500 deg. C is 5.0 at.%. The homogeneity range of (Gd, Tb)Ga 2 is from 20 to 33.3 at.% Ga in Gd-Ga side but limited in Tb-Ga side. The solid solubilities of Ga in the other phases cannot be detected. The Curie temperatures of the Gd 0.6 Tb 0.4-x Ga x alloys increase from 270 to 298 K as x increases from 0 to 0.03

  18. Design of a novel quantum reversible ternary up-counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Pouran; Haghparast, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Reversible logic has been recently considered as an interesting and important issue in designing combinational and sequential circuits. The combination of reversible logic and multi-valued logic can improve power dissipation, time and space utilization rate of designed circuits. Only few works have been reported about sequential reversible circuits and almost there are no paper exhibited about quantum ternary reversible counter. In this paper, first we designed 2-qutrit and 3-qutrit quantum reversible ternary up-counters using quantum ternary reversible T-flip-flop and quantum reversible ternary gates. Then we proposed generalized quantum reversible ternary n-qutrit up-counter. We also introduced a new approach for designing any type of n-qutrit ternary and reversible counter. According to the results, we can conclude that applying second approach quantum reversible ternary up-counter is better than the others.

  19. Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys by the binary Al-Ti and Ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining to the cast industry and the parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the cast, parameters related to the grain refining alloy and parameters related to the process. The different mechanisms, suggested in the literature for the process of grain refining are presented and discussed, from which it is found that although the mechanism of refining by the binary Al-Ti is well established the mechanism of grain refining by the ternary Al-Ti-B is still a controversial matter and some research work is still needed in this area. The effect of the addition of other alloying elements in the presence of the grain refiner on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. It is found that some elements e.g. V, Mo, C improves the grain refining efficiency, whereas other elements e.g. Cr, Zr, Ta poisons the grain refinement. Based on the parameters affecting the grain refinement and its mechanism, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is forwarded and discussed. (author)

  20. Simulation of Concurrent Precipitation of Two Strengthening Phases in Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weihua; Zhang, Chuan; Klarner, Andrew D.; Cao, Weisheng; Luo, Alan A.

    The precipitation kinetics and microtructure in Mg-Sn binary and Mg-Al-Sn ternary alloys are simulated using PanPrecipitation coupled with Mg thermodynamic database and a newly established mobility database of the Mg-Al-Sn ternary system. Both Mg2Sn and Mg17Al12 precipitates are considered in this work. The obtained kinetic parameters for these two precipitates can be used in the simulation of both individual and concurrent precipitations of Mg17Al12 and Mg2Sn in Mg-Al-Sn alloys. The simulated microstructure evolution, such as the particle size and number density, are in agreement with experimental data.

  1. Electronic modification effects induced by Fe in Pt-Ru-Fe ternary catalyst on the electrooxidation of CO/H₂ and methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyoon; Kobayashi, Koichi; Take, Tetsuo; Nagai, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Electro-oxidation of CO/H₂ and methanol was performed over a carbon supported Pt-Ru-Fe ternary alloy catalyst prepared via the conventional NaBH₄ reduction method. Physicochemical and electrochemical measurements were used to elucidate the respective roles of Ru and Fe in the ternary catalyst, revealing synergistic effects in the Pt-Ru-Fe catalyst on the electro-oxidation of CO/H₂ and methanol. The methanol oxidation activity of Pt₃Ru₂Fe/C was ca. 2.5 times higher than that of PtRu/C at 0.45 V vs. RHE as a result of enhanced CO tolerance. The enhanced CO tolerance of the Pt-Ru-Fe ternary alloy catalysts was derived from the reaction between the high mobility, weakly adsorbed CO on the Pt site that was electronically modified by alloying with Fe and adsorbed water species on the Ru site. This combination of features produced an improvement in the electro-oxidation of CO/H₂ and methanol at lower potential. On the basis of the data, it was proposed that the addition of a water activator such as Ru is indispensible in the design of multicomponent alloy catalysts for methanol oxidation, and the additional effect derived from an electronic modifier is an important factor for improving the CO and methanol oxidation activity of the catalyst containing the water activator.

  2. Contribution to the study of the Fe-Nb-C ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, F.; Amara, S. E.; Kesri, R.; Hamar-Thibault, S.

    2004-12-01

    In the present paper, solidification sequences are proposed in relation to the observed microstructures for Fe-Nb-C iron based ternary alloys. These alloys are arc melted and characterised by means of differential thermal analysis, scanning electronic microscopy and by quantitative electron probe microanalysis. Thus, an invariant eutectic ternary reaction L ≤ftrightarrow γ + NbC1-x + Fe3C is proposed at 1140°C. Dans cet article, les séquences de solidification sont proposes en relation avec les microstructures observées pour une famille d’alliages ternaires base fer Fe-Nb-C. Ces alliages ont été élaborés dans un four à arc et caractérisés par Analyse Thermique Différentielle, Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et Microsonde Electronique. Ainsi, une réaction invariante ternaire L ≤ftrightarrow γ + NbC1-x + Fe3C est proposée à 1140 °C.

  3. Thermal aging effects in refractory metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1987-01-01

    The alloys of niobium and tantalum are attractive from a strength and compatibility viewpoint for high operating temperatures required in materials for fuel cladding, liquid metal transfer, and heat pipe applications in space power systems that will supply from 100 kWe to multi-megawatts for advanced space systems. To meet the system requirements, operating temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1600 K have been proposed. Expected lives of these space power systems are from 7 to 10 yr. A program is conducted at NASA Lewis to determine the effects of long-term, high-temperature exposure on the microstructural stability of several commercial tantalum and niobium alloys. Variables studied in the investigation include alloy composition, pre-age annealing temperature, aging time, temperature, and environment (lithium or vacuum), welding, and hydrogen doping. Alloys are investigated by means of cryogenic bend tests and tensile tests. Results show that the combination of tungsten and hafnium or zirconium found in commercial alloys such as T-111 and Cb-752 can lead to aging embrittlement and increased susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of ternary and more complex alloys. Modification of alloy composition helps to eliminate the embrittlement problem.

  4. Influence of polymer compatibility on the open-circuit voltage in ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyabich, Petr P; Rudenko, Andrey E; Street, Robert A; Thompson, Barry C

    2014-07-09

    The evolution of the open-circuit voltage (Voc) with composition in ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is correlated with the miscibility of the polymers. Ternary blends based on poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole) (P3HTT-DPP-10%) with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) acceptor were investigated. The Voc is pinned to the lower value of the P3HTT-DPP-10%:PC61BM binary blend even up to 95% PCDTBT in the polymer fraction. This is in stark contrast to the previously investigated system based on P3HTT-DPP-10%, poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene) (P3HT75-co-EHT25), and PC61BM, where the Voc varied regularly across the full composition range, as explained by an organic alloy model, implying strong physical and electronic interaction between the polymers. Photocurrent spectral response (PSR) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements indicate that the present system does not exhibit the hallmarks of alloy formation. Measured values of the surface energies of the polymers support miscibility of P3HTT-DPP-10% with P3HT75-co-EHT25 but not with PCDTBT. Surface energy is proposed as a figure of merit for predicting alloy formation and compositional dependence of the Voc in ternary blend solar cells and miscibility between polymers is proposed as a necessary attribute for polymer pairs that will display alloy behavior.

  5. Development Program for Natural Aging Aluminum Casting Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Geoffrey K. Sigworth

    2004-05-14

    A number of 7xx aluminum casting alloys are based on the ternary Al-Zn-Mg system. These alloys age naturally to high strength at room temperature. A high temperature solution and aging treatment is not required. Consequently, these alloys have the potential to deliver properties nearly equivalent to conventional A356-T6 (Al-Si-Mg) castings, with a significant cost saving. An energy savings is also possible. In spite of these advantages, the 7xx casting alloys are seldom used, primarily because of their reputation for poor castibility. This paper describes the results obtained in a DOE-funded research study of these alloys, which is part of the DOE-OIT ''Cast Metals Industries of the Future'' Program. Suggestions for possible commercial use are also given.

  6. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    When used with a suitable form of dialectic screening functions, this potential has also been found to yield good results in computing the SSP of (Ni33Zr67)1–x ..... superconducting nature. Hence, (Ni33Zr67)1–xMx. (M = Ti, V, Co, Cu) ternary metallic glasses exhibit super- conducting nature in the present case. When we.

  7. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  8. The development of platinum-based alloys and their thermodynamic database

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish L.A.; Hohls J.; Hill P.J.; Prins S.; Süss R.; Compton D.N.

    2002-01-01

    A series of quaternary platinum-based alloys have been demonstrated to exhibit the same two-phase structure as Ni-based superalloys and showed good mechanical properties. The properties of ternary alloys were a good indication that the quaternary alloys, with their better microstructure, will be even better. The quaternary alloy composition has been optimised at Pt84:Al11:Ru2:Cr3 for the best microstructure and hardness. Work has begun on establishing a thermodynamic database for Pt-Al-Ru-Cr ...

  9. Advanced methods for preparation and characterization of infrared detector materials. [mercury cadmium telluride alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1981-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis data were obtained on mercury cadmium telluride alloys in order to establish the liquidus temperatures for the various alloy compositions. Preliminary theoretical analyses was performed to establish the ternary phase equilibrium parameters for the metal rich region of the phase diagram. Liquid-solid equilibrium parameters were determined for the pseudobinary alloy system. Phase equilibrium was calculated and Hg(l-x) Cd(x) Te alloys were directionally solidified from pseudobinary melts. Electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements were obtained.

  10. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Fengna, Mei

    2011-10-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions.

  11. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Mei Fengna

    2011-01-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Ternary q-Virasoro-Witt Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, F; Makhlouf, A; Silvestrov, S

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras which q-deform the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos using su(1, 1) enveloping algebra techniques. The ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos depend on a parameter and are not Nambu-Lie algebras for all but finitely many values of this parameter. For the parameter values for which the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras are Nambu-Lie, the corresponding ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed in this paper are also Hom-Nambu-Lie because they are obtained from the ternary Nambu-Lie algebras using the composition method. For other parameter values this composition method does not yield a Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra structure for q-Virasoro-Witt algebras. We show however, using a different construction, that the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras of Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos, as well as the general ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras we construct, carry a structure of the ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra for all values of the involved parameters.

  13. Description of light charged particle emission in ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kuklin, S. N.; Scheid, W.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the motion of three fragments starting from the scission point of ternary system. In the alpha-accompanied ternary fission the initial conditions are not the free parameters and determined by minimization of potential energy at scission point. In the trajectory calculations the angular distribution and mean value of the kinetic energy of the alpha-particles are well described in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252 Cf. In the Be- and C-accompanied ternary fission we found that the emission of the third particle occurs from one of the heavy fragments after their separation. (authors)

  14. Ternary q-Virasoro-Witt Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammar, F [Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Makhlouf, A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Informatique et Applications, Universite de Haute Alsace, 4, rue des Freres Lumiere F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Silvestrov, S, E-mail: Faouzi.Ammar@rnn.fss.t, E-mail: Abdenacer.Makhlouf@uha.f, E-mail: sergei.silvestrov@math.lth.s [Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-07-02

    In this paper we construct ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras which q-deform the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos using su(1, 1) enveloping algebra techniques. The ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos depend on a parameter and are not Nambu-Lie algebras for all but finitely many values of this parameter. For the parameter values for which the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras are Nambu-Lie, the corresponding ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed in this paper are also Hom-Nambu-Lie because they are obtained from the ternary Nambu-Lie algebras using the composition method. For other parameter values this composition method does not yield a Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra structure for q-Virasoro-Witt algebras. We show however, using a different construction, that the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras of Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos, as well as the general ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras we construct, carry a structure of the ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra for all values of the involved parameters.

  15. Virtual crystal description of III–V semiconductor alloys in the tight binding approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestoklon, M O; Benchamekh, R; Voisin, P

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple and effective approach to construct the empirical tight-binding parameters of ternary alloys in the virtual crystal approximation. This combines a new, compact formulation of the strain parameters and a linear interpolation of the Hamiltonians of binary materials strained to the alloy equilibrium lattice parameter . We show that it is possible to obtain a perfect description of the bandgap bowing of ternary alloys in the InGaAsSb family of materials. Furthermore, this approach is in a good agreement with supercell calculations using the same set of parameters. This scheme opens a way for atomistic modeling of alloy-based quantum wells and quantum wires without extensive supercell calculations. (paper)

  16. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ag–Bi–Cu alloys at 1073 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fima, Przemysław; Flandorfer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Partial and integral mixing enthalpies of liquid Ag–Bi–Cu alloys were determined. • Integral mixing enthalpies are small and endothermic, similar to limiting binaries. • The ternary data were fitted on the basis of Redlich–Kister–Muggianu model. - Abstract: The Ag–Bi–Cu system is among those ternary systems which have not been fully studied yet, in particular the thermodynamic description of the liquid phase is missing. Partial and integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid ternary Ag–Bi–Cu alloys were determined over a broad composition range along six sections: x(Ag)/x(Bi) = 0.25, 1, 4; x(Ag)/x(Cu) = 1.5; x(Bi)/x(Cu) = 1.86, 4. Measurements were carried out at 1073 K using two Calvet type microcalorimeters and drop calorimetric technique. It was found that integral enthalpies of mixing are small and endothermic, similarly to limiting binary alloys. The ternary data were fitted on the basis of an extended Redlich–Kister–Muggianu model for substitutional solutions. There are no significant additional ternary interactions

  17. Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Junjun; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; dos Santos, Jorge F.

    2014-05-01

    A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl2 eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

  18. Band alignment and optical absorption in Ga(Sb)N alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Antonis N; Sheetz, R Michael; Richter, Ernst; Menon, Madhu

    2014-02-05

    We extend the theory of band alignment proposed by Harrison to ternary and quaternary heteropolar semiconductors. Combining this with first-principles density functional theory incorporating the LDA/GGA+U formalism (LDA: local density approximation; GGA: generalized gradient approximation) can result in useful electronic structure predictions for new alloys. The practicality of this is demonstrated by application to the Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys, where the feasibility of water splitting reaction under visible light irradiation is discussed.

  19. Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Junjun; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; Santos, Jorge F. dos

    2014-01-01

    A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl 2 eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting

  20. Role of alloying additions on the properties of Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Rupa; Jain, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Pravir; Hussain, Shahadat; Pandey, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    are significantly high than conventionally reported except with the addition of Mg in which case no distinct peaks have been recorded. The range of martensite retention is the maximum in ternary Cu–Al–Mn alloys; addition of quaternary elements decreases this range significantly. Presence of Ni delays austenite formation and completion [As and Af] significantly as compared to the ternary alloys; whereas with other additions the As and Af temperatures are brought forward. This means that whereas the alloys without quaternary additions would be better suited for its shape memory properties, ternary alloys would be better suited for higher transition temperatures. The role of different alloying additions has been highlighted in the findings. Variations in properties have been attained due to different additions and improvements attained in terms of higher transformation temperatures and martensite formation due to the alloying additions

  1. Role of alloying additions on the properties of Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Rupa, E-mail: rupadasgupta@ampri.res.in; Jain, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Pravir; Hussain, Shahadat; Pandey, Abhishek

    2015-01-25

    are significantly high than conventionally reported except with the addition of Mg in which case no distinct peaks have been recorded. The range of martensite retention is the maximum in ternary Cu–Al–Mn alloys; addition of quaternary elements decreases this range significantly. Presence of Ni delays austenite formation and completion [As and Af] significantly as compared to the ternary alloys; whereas with other additions the As and Af temperatures are brought forward. This means that whereas the alloys without quaternary additions would be better suited for its shape memory properties, ternary alloys would be better suited for higher transition temperatures. The role of different alloying additions has been highlighted in the findings. Variations in properties have been attained due to different additions and improvements attained in terms of higher transformation temperatures and martensite formation due to the alloying additions.

  2. High performance wood composites based on benzoxazine-epoxy alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubsilp, Chanchira; Takeichi, Tsutomu; Hiziroglu, Salim; Rimdusit, Sarawut

    2008-12-01

    Wood-substituted composites from matrices based on ternary mixtures of benzoxazine, epoxy, and phenolic novolac resins (BEP resins) using woodflour (Hevea brasiliensis) as filler are developed. The results reveal that the addition of epoxy resin into benzoxazine resin can lower the liquefying temperature of the ternary systems whereas rheological characterization of the gel points indicates an evident delay of the vitrification time as epoxy content increased. The gelation of the ternary mixtures shows an Arrhenius-typed behavior and the gel time can be well predicted by an Arrhenius equation with activation energy of 35-40kJ/mol. For wood-substituted composites from highly filled BEP alloys i.e. at 70% by weight of woodflour, the reinforcing effect of the woodflour shows a substantial enhancement in the composite stiffness i.e. 8.3GPa of the filled BEP811 vs 5.9GPa of the unfilled BEP811. The relatively high flexural strength of the BEP wood composites up to 70MPa can also be obtained. The outstanding compatibility between the woodflour and the ternary matrices attributed to the modulus and thermal stability enhancement of the wood composites particularly with an increase of the polybenzoxazine fraction in the BEP alloys.

  3. Thermodynamic database of multi-component Mg alloys and its application to solidification and heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview about one thermodynamic database of multi-component Mg alloys is given in this work. This thermodynamic database includes thermodynamic descriptions for 145 binary systems and 48 ternary systems in 23-component (Mg–Ag–Al–Ca–Ce–Cu–Fe–Gd–K–La–Li–Mn–Na–Nd–Ni–Pr–Si–Sn–Sr–Th–Y–Zn–Zr system. First, the major computational and experimental tools to establish the thermodynamic database of Mg alloys are briefly described. Subsequently, among the investigated binary and ternary systems, representative binary and ternary systems are shown to demonstrate the major feature of the database. Finally, application of the thermodynamic database to solidification simulation and selection of heat treatment schedule is described.

  4. Composition pathway in Fe–Cu–Ni alloy during coarsening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Rajdip; Nestler, Britta; Choudhury, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    In this work the microstructure evolution for a two phase Fe–Cu–Ni ternary alloy is studied in order to understand the kinetic composition paths during coarsening of precipitates. We have employed a quantitative phase-field model utilizing the CALPHAD database to simulate the temporal evolution of a multi-particle system in a two-dimensional domain. The paths for the far-field matrix and for precipitate average compositions obtained from simulation are found to be rectilinear. The trends are compared with the corresponding sharp interface theory, in the context of an additional degree of freedom for determining the interface compositions due to the Gibbs–Thomson effect in a ternary alloy. (paper)

  5. Composition pathway in Fe-Cu-Ni alloy during coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rajdip; Choudhury, Abhik; Nestler, Britta

    2013-10-01

    In this work the microstructure evolution for a two phase Fe-Cu-Ni ternary alloy is studied in order to understand the kinetic composition paths during coarsening of precipitates. We have employed a quantitative phase-field model utilizing the CALPHAD database to simulate the temporal evolution of a multi-particle system in a two-dimensional domain. The paths for the far-field matrix and for precipitate average compositions obtained from simulation are found to be rectilinear. The trends are compared with the corresponding sharp interface theory, in the context of an additional degree of freedom for determining the interface compositions due to the Gibbs-Thomson effect in a ternary alloy.

  6. Solubility of uranium in liquid gallium, indium and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Maltsev, Dmitry S.; Yamschikov, Leonid F.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) employing molten salts and liquid metals as working media is considered as a possible alternative to the existing liquid extraction (PUREX) processes. Liquid salts and metals allow reprocessing highly irradiated high burn-up fuels with short cooling times, including the fuels of fast neutron reactors. Pyrochemical technology opens a way to practical realization of short closed fuel cycle. Liquid low-melting metals are immiscible with molten salts and can be effectively used for separation (or selective extraction) of SNF components dissolved in fused salts. Binary or ternary alloys of eutectic compositions can be employed to lower the melting point of the metallic phase. However, the information on SNF components behaviour and properties in ternary liquid metal alloys is very scarce

  7. Use of steel and tantalum apparatus for molten Cd-Mg-Zn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G. A.; Burris, L., Jr.; Kyle, M. L.; Nelson, P. A.

    1966-01-01

    Steel and tantalum apparatus contains various ternary alloys of cadmium, zinc, and magnesium used in pyrochemical processes for the recovery of uranium-base reactor fuels. These materials exhibit good corrosion resistance at the high temperatures necessary for fuel separation in liquid metal-molten salt solvents.

  8. Low alloy additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the literature has been made on the experimental results of small additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium. Information is also included on the constitution, mechanical properties, heat treatment, and deformation of various binary and ternary alloys. 42 references, 24 figures, 13 tables

  9. Rapid theory-guided prototyping of ductile Mg alloys: from binary to multi-component materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pei, Z.; Friák, Martin; Sandlöbes, S.; Nazarov, R.; Svendsen, B.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2015), Art. n. 093009 ISSN 1367-2630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : magnesium * alloys * ductile * ternary * rare-earth * ab initio Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.570, year: 2015

  10. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsoum, Michael; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Sindelar, Robert; Garcua-Diaz, Brenda; Kohse, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  11. Dumbbells and onions in ternary nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellas, Ricky B; Chen, Bin; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2007-06-14

    Molecular simulations for a ternary nucleation system (water/n-nonane/1-butanol) demonstrate a more complex nucleation mechanism than previously thought, where critical nuclei with different compositions are present even for a given vapour-phase composition; the spatial distribution in these critical nuclei is heterogeneous and dumbbell and onion motifs are found; in the former, water and nonane nano-droplets are connected through a butanol handle, while in the latter a water core is surrounded by a nonane corona with an interfacial butanol shell.

  12. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michael [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcua-Duaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-06-17

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  13. Viscometric and thermodynamic studies of interactions in ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Viscometric and thermodynamic studies of interactions in ternary solutions containing sucrose and aqueous alkali metal halides at 293.15, 303.15 and 313.15 K. Reena Gupta Mukhtar Singh ... Keywords. Ternary solutions; interactions of ionic and nonionic solutes; partial molar volumes; sucrosealkali metal halide solutions.

  14. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  15. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  16. Nonswelling alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses

  17. Solidification processing of intermetallic Nb-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston P.; Oliver, Ben F.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    Several Nb-Al alloys, including single-phase NbAl3 and the eutectic of Nb2Al and NbAl3, were prepared either by nonconsumable arc melting in Ar or by zone processing in He following initial induction melting and rod casting, and the effect of the solidification route on the microstructure and room-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys was investigated. Automated control procedures and melt conditions for directional solidification of NbAl3 and the Nb2Al/Nb3Al eutectic were developed; high purity and stoichiometry were obtained. The effects of ternary additions of Ti and Ni are described.

  18. Study of Cu-Al-Zn alloys hardness temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmanova, D.T.; Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of studies for the Cu-Al-Zn ternary alloys hardness temperature dependence are presented. The method of 'hot hardness' has been used during study of the solid state phase transformations and under determination of the hot stability boundaries. Due to the samples brittleness a hardness temperature dependence definition is possible only from 350-400 deg. C. Sensitivity of the 'hot hardness' method is decreasing within high plasticity range, so the measurements have been carried out only up to 700-800 deg. C. It is shown, that the alloys hardness dependence character from temperature is close to exponential one within the certain structure modification existence domain

  19. Lead activity in Pb-Sb-Bi alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kholkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to the study of lead thermodynamic activity in the Pb-Sb-Bi alloys. The method for EMF measurements of the concentration cell: (–Pb|KCl-PbCl2¦¦KCl-PbCl2|Pb-(Sb-Bi(+ was used. The obtained concentration dependences of the galvanic cell EMF are described by linear equations. The lead activity in the ternary liquid-metal alloy demonstrates insignificant negative deviations from the behavior of ideal solutions.

  20. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-27

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  1. Nanoscratching of nylon 66-based ternary nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu Zhongzhen; Mai Yiuwing

    2007-01-01

    The nanoscratch behavior of nylon 66/SEBS-g-MA/clay ternary nanocomposites produced by different blending protocols with contrasting microstructures is studied by using atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. A standard diamond Berkovich indenter is used for scratching and a low load of 1 mN, along with a low sliding velocity of 1 μm s -1 , are employed for this purpose. It is shown that in order to resist penetration it is more important to have exfoliated clay in the continuous nylon matrix during nanoscratching than to have the clay in the dispersed soft rubber domains. The results obtained also explain the preferred usage of ternary nanocomposites compared to binary nanocomposites, particularly nylon 66/exfoliated clay nanocomposites. This research extends current basic knowledge and provides new insights on the nature of nanoscale processes that occur during nanoscratching of polymer nanocomposites. Critical questions are raised on the relationships between the penetration depth and material deformation and damage left behind the moving indenter

  2. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  3. Distillation of cadmium from uranium plutonium cadmium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tetsuya; Iizuka, Masatoshi; Inoue, Tadashi; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

    2005-04-01

    Uranium-plutonium alloy was prepared by distillation of cadmium from U-Pu-Cd ternary alloy. The initial ternary alloy contained 2.9 wt% U and 8.7 wt% Pu other than Cd, which were recovered by molten salt electrolysis with liquid Cd cathode. The distillation experiments were conducted in 10 g scale of the initial alloy using a small-scale distillation furnace equipped with an evaporator and a condenser in a vacuum vessel. After distillation at 1073 K, the weight of the residue was in good agreement with that of the loaded actinides, where the content of Cd decreased to less than 0.05 wt%. The uranium-plutonium alloy product was recovered without adhering to the yttria crucible. The cross section of the product was observed using electron probe micro-analyzer and it was found to consist of a dense material. Almost all of the evaporated Cd was recovered in the condenser and so enclosed well in the apparatus.

  4. Investigation of sulphides in iron alloys of high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyjadlowski, T.

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the morphology and composition of sulphides in iron alloys with respect to metal composition and to the nature of impurities. In order to understand the specific action of each addition on inclusion morphology, this work has started with high-purity alloys (binary alloys and then ternary alloys). The author studied whether solubility variations would entail either intergranular or intragranular or hybrid iron sulphide precipitation. He examined whether sulphide morphology is depending on thermal treatment, and whether equilibrium precipitates were different in terms of morphology and composition at high and room temperature. He studied the influence of addition elements on sulphide morphology and composition, an important issue as some elements may reduce brittleness. These elements are classified in terms of affinity with sulphur

  5. Controlling the physics and chemistry of binary and ternary praseodymium and cerium oxide systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Zoellner, Marvin Hartwig; Schroeder, Thomas; Schaefer, Andreas; Jhang, Jin-Hao; Zielasek, Volkmar; Bäumer, Marcus; Wilkens, Henrik; Wollschläger, Joachim; Olbrich, Reinhard; Lammers, Christian; Reichling, Michael

    2015-10-14

    Rare earth praseodymium and cerium oxides have attracted intense research interest in the last few decades, due to their intriguing chemical and physical characteristics. An understanding of the correlation between structure and properties, in particular the surface chemistry, is urgently required for their application in microelectronics, catalysis, optics and other fields. Such an understanding is, however, hampered by the complexity of rare earth oxide materials and experimental methods for their characterisation. Here, we report recent progress in studying high-quality, single crystalline, praseodymium and cerium oxide films as well as ternary alloys grown on Si(111) substrates. Using these well-defined systems and based on a systematic multi-technique surface science approach, the corresponding physical and chemical properties, such as the surface structure, the surface morphology, the bulk-surface interaction and the oxygen storage/release capability, are explored in detail. We show that specifically the crystalline structure and the oxygen stoichiometry of the oxide thin films can be well controlled by the film preparation method. This work leads to a comprehensive understanding of the properties of rare earth oxides and highlights the applications of these versatile materials. Furthermore, methanol adsorption studies are performed on binary and ternary rare earth oxide thin films, demonstrating the feasibility of employing such systems for model catalytic studies. Specifically for ceria systems, we find considerable stability against normal environmental conditions so that they can be considered as a "materials bridge" between surface science models and real catalysts.

  6. Mixing effects in a ternary Hf-Zr-Ni metallic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, B.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Yang, F.; Evenson, Z.; Meyer, A.

    2018-03-01

    We study the effect of the substitution of Zr by Hf on the dynamical behavior in the Zr36Ni64 melt. A reduced measured self-diffusion coefficient and a higher measured melt viscosity for an increased amount of Hf were observed. The ternary Hf10Zr25Ni65 melt, which exhibits a pronounced deviation from Arrhenius behavior over a studied temperature range of 550 K, can be accurately described by the scaling law of mode-coupling theory (MCT) with almost equal parameters for the self-diffusion and the viscosity. Although we only substitute alloy components with a nearly equal atomic size and the measured overall packing fraction remains almost unchanged, the dynamics in Hf10Zr25Ni65 are slower compared to Zr36Ni64 . This corresponds also to a higher critical temperature Tc and might be induced by different chemical interactions in the melts. The increased Tc results in a significantly smaller difference between liquidus and critical temperature Δ TLC=TL-Tc for the ternary melt in comparison with Zr36Ni64 , which may favor the glass formation in the Hf10Zr25Ni65 melt.

  7. Ostwald ripening of decomposed phases in Cu-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Santiago, Felipe; Lopez-Hirata, Victor; Dorantes-Rosales, Hector J.; Saucedo-Munoz, Maribel L.; Gonzalez-Velazquez, Jorge L.; Paniagua-Mercado, Ana Ma.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the coarsening process of the decomposed phases was carried out in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys using transmission electron microscopy. As aging progressed, the morphology of the coherent decomposed Ni-rich phase changed from cuboids to platelets aligned in the Cu-rich matrix directions. Prolonged aging caused the loss of coherency between the decomposed phases and the morphology of the Ni-rich phase changed to ellipsoidal. The variation of mean radius of the coherent decomposed phases with aging time followed the modified LSW theory for thermally activated growth in ternary alloy systems. The linear variation of the density number of precipitates and matrix supersaturation with aging time, also confirmed that the coarsening process followed the modified LSW theory in both alloys. The coarsening rate was faster in the symmetrical Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloy due to its higher volume fraction of precipitates. The activation energy for thermally activated growth was determined to be about 182 and 102 kJ mol -1 in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys, respectively. The lower energy for the former alloy seems to be related to an increase in the atomic diffusion process as the chromium content increases. The size distributions of precipitates in the Cu-Ni-Cr alloys were broader and more symmetric than that predicted by the modified LSW theory for ternary alloys

  8. Second phase formation in melt-spun Mg-Ca-Zn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, P.M.; Solorzano, G.; Sande, J.B. Vander

    2004-01-01

    Three ternary alloys based on the Mg-Ca-Zn system were produced by melt spinning in the form of ribbons. The alloys were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with scanning transmission electron Microscopy (STEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the alloys showed a difference in microstructure between the wheel contact side and the free surface side. The second phase found in the three ternary alloys studied was identified as the compound Ca 2 Mg 6 Zn 3 (trigonal with space group P3-bar1c and lattice parameters a=0.97 nm and c=1.0 nm). The alloys thermal behavior was investigated by measuring the changes in microhardness after isochronal aging and only a modest age hardening behavior was observed principally in one of the alloys. The alloys phase stability was also studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the results indicate that the melting onset for the three alloys is near 400 deg.C and it decreases with Zn content

  9. Second phase formation in melt-spun Mg-Ca-Zn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, P.M.; Solorzano, G.; Sande, J.B. Vander

    2004-09-15

    Three ternary alloys based on the Mg-Ca-Zn system were produced by melt spinning in the form of ribbons. The alloys were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with scanning transmission electron Microscopy (STEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the alloys showed a difference in microstructure between the wheel contact side and the free surface side. The second phase found in the three ternary alloys studied was identified as the compound Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} (trigonal with space group P3-bar1c and lattice parameters a=0.97 nm and c=1.0 nm). The alloys thermal behavior was investigated by measuring the changes in microhardness after isochronal aging and only a modest age hardening behavior was observed principally in one of the alloys. The alloys phase stability was also studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the results indicate that the melting onset for the three alloys is near 400 deg.C and it decreases with Zn content.

  10. Platinum free ternary electrocatalysts prepared via organic colloidal method for oxygen reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rongfang; Liao, Shijun; Fu, Zhiyong [College of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ji, Shan [South Africa Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2008-04-15

    Novel ternary palladium based alloy catalysts, PdFeIr/C, for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been successfully prepared via an organic colloid method with ethylene glycol as solvent and sodium citrate as complexing agent. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Electrochemical activity of the catalysts for ORR was evaluated by steady state polarization measurements, which were carried out on an ultra thin layer rotating disk electrode (RDE). Compared to pure Pd/C and Pd{sub 3}Fe/C, results showed that the ORR activity of PdFeIr/C was highest, and its methanol tolerance was better than Pt/C catalyst. (author)

  11. Preparation and characterization of CBN ternary compounds with nano-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Y.H.; Yang, S.; Xiong, C.S.; Pi, H.L.; Zhang, J.; Ren, Z.M.; Mai, Y.T.; Xu, W.; Dai, G.H.; Song, S.J.; Xiong, J.; Zhang, L.; Xia, Z.C.; Yuan, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    CBN ternary compounds with nano-structure have been prepared directly by a mechanical alloying technique at room temperature. The characteristic and formation mechanism of CBN are discussed. The nano-sheets and nano-layered rods of CBN are observed according to the morphology of scanning electron microscopy. It is substantiated that the microstructure of CBN was closely related to the ball milling time and the ball milling condition according to the results of X-ray diffraction of CBN with different ball milling time. After ball milling for 60 and 90 h, some new diffraction peaks are observed, which implies that some unknown microstructure and phase separation are induced in the reactive ball milling of CBN. The results of XRD are in accordance with that of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of CBN before ball milling and after ball milling for 90 h

  12. Direct observation of interface and nanoscale compositional modulation in ternary III-As heterostructure nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Sriram; Scheu, Christina [Department of Chemistry and Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Butenandstr 5-13(E), 81377 München (Germany); Madsen, Morten H.; Krogstrup, Peter; Johnson, Erik [Nano-Science Center and Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Schmid, Herbert [INM-Leibniz Institute for New Materials, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2013-08-05

    Straight, axial InAs nanowire with multiple segments of Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As was grown. High resolution X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping reveals the distribution of group III atoms at the axial interfaces and at the sidewalls. Significant Ga enrichment, accompanied by a structural change is observed at the Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As/InAs interfaces and a higher Ga concentration for the early grown Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As segments. The elemental map and EDS line profile infer Ga enrichment at the facet junctions between the sidewalls. The relative chemical potentials of ternary alloys and the thermodynamic driving force for liquid to solid transition explains the growth mechanisms behind the enrichment.

  13. Quantitative Comparison of Ternary Eutectic Phase-Field Simulations with Analytical 3D Jackson-Hunt Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Philipp; Kellner, Michael; Hötzer, Johannes; Nestler, Britta

    2018-02-01

    For the analytical description of the relationship between undercoolings, lamellar spacings and growth velocities during the directional solidification of ternary eutectics in 2D and 3D, different extensions based on the theory of Jackson and Hunt are reported in the literature. Besides analytical approaches, the phase-field method has been established to study the spatially complex microstructure evolution during the solidification of eutectic alloys. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms controlling the morphology development in multiphase, multicomponent systems is of high interest. For this purpose, a comparison is made between the analytical extensions and three-dimensional phase-field simulations of directional solidification in an ideal ternary eutectic system. Based on the observed accordance in two-dimensional validation cases, the experimentally reported, inherently three-dimensional chain-like pattern is investigated in extensive simulation studies. The results are quantitatively compared with the analytical results reported in the literature, and with a newly derived approach which uses equal undercoolings. A good accordance of the undercooling-spacing characteristics between simulations and the analytical Jackson-Hunt apporaches are found. The results show that the applied phase-field model, which is based on the Grand potential approach, is able to describe the analytically predicted relationship between the undercooling and the lamellar arrangements during the directional solidification of a ternary eutectic system in 3D.

  14. Effects of alloying element and metallurgical structure on semiconducting characteristics of oxide film of zirconium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Masahisa; Kanno, Masayosi; Maki, Hideo.

    1991-01-01

    Semiconducting characteristics of oxide films formed on pure Zr, Zr-Sn binary alloy and Zr-Sn-X (X: Fe, Ni or Cr) ternary alloys were evaluated by photo-electrochemical method, in order to make clear the effects of alloying elements on oxidation mechanism of Zr alloy in BWR environment. Oxide films of the alloys showed the characteristics of n-type semiconductor. Maximum photocurrent (I max) was generated by an illumination of monochromatic light with the energy of 5 ∼ 6 eV, i.e. the band gap energy of the Zr alloy oxide was 5 ∼ 6 eV. This value is lower by 2 ∼ 3 eV than the theoretical band gap energy (8 eV) of stoichiometric ZrO 2 . These facts suggest that the generation of I max was resulted from an excitation of electrons trapped with anion vacancies (oxygen vacancies) of non-stoichiometric ZrO 2-x . Therefore, the value of I max is considered to be proportional to the density of anion vacancy. High corrosion resistant alloys showed lower value of I max. The changes of I max, due to change of chemical composition of alloys and due to the change of metallurgical structure, was able to be explained by the valence theory of oxide semiconductor, i.e. the decrease of 1 max was considered to be resulted from the decrease of anion vacancies due to the substitution of divalent cations (Ni 2+ ) and trivalent cations (Fe 3+ , Cr 3+ ) at Zr 4+ cation sites. From these results, it was concluded that oxidation rate of Zr alloy depended on the density of oxygen vacancies in oxide film. (author)

  15. A three-dimensional cellular automaton model for dendritic growth in multi-component alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianfei; Zhao, Jiuzhou; Jiang, Hongxiang; Zhu, Mingfang

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) cellular automaton model for dendritic growth in multi-component alloys is developed. The velocity of advance of the solid/liquid (S/L) interface is calculated using the solute conservation relationship at the S/L interface. The effect of interactions between the alloying elements on the diffusion coefficient of solutes in the solid and liquid phases are considered. The model is first validated by comparing with the theoretical predictions for binary and ternary alloys, and then applied to simulate the solidification process of Al–Cu–Mg alloys by a coupling of thermodynamic and kinetic calculations. The numerical results obtained show both the free dendrite growth process as well as the directional solidification process. The calculated secondary dendrite arm spacing in the directionally solidified Al–Cu–Mg alloy is in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of interactions between the various alloying elements on dendritic growth is discussed.

  16. The development of platinum-based alloys and their thermodynamic database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornish L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of quaternary platinum-based alloys have been demonstrated to exhibit the same two-phase structure as Ni-based superalloys and showed good mechanical properties. The properties of ternary alloys were a good indication that the quaternary alloys, with their better microstructure, will be even better. The quaternary alloy composition has been optimised at Pt84:Al11:Ru2:Cr3 for the best microstructure and hardness. Work has begun on establishing a thermodynamic database for Pt-Al-Ru-Cr alloys, and further work will be done to enhance the mechanical and oxidation properties of the alloys by adding small amounts of other elements to the base composition of Pt84:Al11:Ru2:Cr3.

  17. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo-40Ni-13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunyan; Wang, Shuhuan; Gui, Yongliang; Cheng, Zihao; Ni, Guolong

    2016-12-06

    Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo-40Ni-13Si (at %). Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo-Ni-Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy-including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility-were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear.

  18. [Construction of Three-Dimensional Isobologram for Ternary Pollutant Mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China) Isobolographic analysis was widely used in the interaction assessment of binary mixtures. However, how to construct a three-dimensional (3D) isobologram for the assessment of toxicity interaction within ternary mixtures is still not reported up to date. The main purpose of this paper is to develop a 3D isobologram where the relative concentrations of three components are acted as three coordinate axes in 3D space to examine the toxicity interaction within ternary mixtures. Taking six commonly used pesticides in China, including three herbicides (2, 4-D, desmetryne and simetryn) and three insecticides ( dimethoate, imidacloprid and propoxur) as the mixture components, the uniform design ray procedure (UD-Ray) was used to rationally design the concentration composition of various components in the ternary mixtures so that effectively and comprehensively reflected the variety of actual environmental concentrations. The luminescent inhibition toxicities of single pesticides and their ternary mixtures to Vibrio fischeri at various concentration levels were determined by the microplate toxicity analysis. Selecting concentration addition (CA) as the addition reference, 3D isobolograms were constructed to study the toxicity interactions of various ternary mixtures. The results showed that the 3D isobologram could clearly and directly exhibit the toxicity interactions of ternary mixtures, and extend the use of isobolographic analysis into the ternary mixtures.

  19. Design and development of novel antibacterial Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. F.; Qiu, K. J.; Zhou, F. Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2016-11-01

    In the case of medical implants, foreign materials are preferential sites for bacterial adhesion and microbial contamination, which can lead to the development of prosthetic infections. Commercially biomedical TiNi shape memory alloys are the most commonly used materials for permanent implants in contact with bone and dental, and the prevention of infections of TiNi biomedical shape memory alloys in clinical cases is therefore a crucial challenge for orthopaedic and dental surgeons. In the present study, copper has been chosen as the alloying element for design and development novel ternary biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys with antibacterial properties. The effects of copper alloying element on the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys have been systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys have good mechanical properties, and remain the excellent shape memory effects after adding copper alloying element. The corrosion behaviors of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys are better than the commercial biomedical Ti‒50.8Ni alloys. The Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys exhibit excellent antibacterial properties while maintaining the good cytocompatibility, which would further guarantee the potential application of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys as future biomedical implants and devices without inducing bacterial infections.

  20. Mechanical characterization and structural of Mg70Zn28Ca2 alloy for use as bioabsorbable implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asato, G.H.; Matias, T.B.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta, W.J.; Bolfarini, C.

    2014-01-01

    A ternary magnesium-based alloy was studied for your biocompatibility, high mechanical properties, elastic modulus close to the bone and corrosion rate less than pure magnesium. The experimental conditions enabled to process a Mg70Zn28Ca2 ternary amorphous alloy by the fusion of eutectic binary alloys (Mg-Zn and Mg-Ca), which were obtained from pure elements in a induction furnace in an argon atmosphere. The characterization of alloy involved quantitative chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that the actual composition was very close to the nominal, with the presence of amorphous up to 1.3 mm thick. The mechanical compression test was performed in the conventional cylindrical samples with a diameter of 3 mm on an Instron type machine, obtaining the compressive strength above 400 MPa. (author)

  1. Variations of color with alloying elements in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Takanobu; Takuma, Yasuko; Miura, Eri; Fujita, Takeshi; Hisatsune, Kunihiro

    2007-01-01

    The effects of alloying addition of a small amount of base metals (In, Sn, Fe, Zn) on color variations in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys were investigated in terms of rectilinear and polar color coordinates. The ternary Au-Pt-X (X = In, Sn, Fe, Zn) and quaternary Au-Pt-In-Y (Y = Sn, Fe, Zn) alloys were prepared from high purity component metals. The amount of alloying base metals, X and Y, were restricted up to 2 at.%. The alloying addition of a small amount of Fe, In, Sn, to a binary Au-10 at.% Pt alloy (referred to as AP10) effectively increased chroma, C *. On the other hand, the addition of Zn to the parent alloy AP10 did not change color coordinates greatly. The increase in chroma in the present Au-Pt-based high noble alloys was attributed to the increase in the slope of spectral reflectance curve at its absorption edge near 515 nm. It was found that the addition of a small amount of Fe to the parent alloy AP10 markedly increased lightness, L *, and the addition of Sn gave a very light tint of red to the parent alloy. Although red-green chromaticity index a * contributed to chroma to some extent, contribution of yellow-blue chromaticity index b * was much greater in determining chroma in this Pd-free Au-Pt-based multi-component alloys. The present results are expected to be valuable in case color is to be taken into account in designing Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys

  2. Fabrication of biodegradable Zn-Al-Mg alloy: Mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsheshi-Rad, H R; Hamzah, E; Low, H T; Kasiri-Asgarani, M; Farahany, S; Akbari, E; Cho, M H

    2017-04-01

    In this work, binary Zn-0.5Al and ternary Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys with various Mg contents were investigated as biodegradable materials for implant applications. Compared with Zn-0.5Al (single phase), Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys consisted of the α-Zn and Mg 2 (Zn, Al) 11 with a fine lamellar structure. The results also revealed that ternary Zn-Al-Mg alloys presented higher micro-hardness value, tensile strength and corrosion resistance compared to the binary Zn-Al alloy. In addition, the tensile strength and corrosion resistance increased with increasing the Mg content in ternary alloys. The immersion tests also indicated that the corrosion rates in the following order Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mgcorrosion rate, good biocompatibility and antibacterial activities was believed to be a good candidate as a biodegradable implant material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ternary phosphates of rubidium-cesium-rare earth element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, P.P.; Carrillo-Eredero, H.D.; Efremov, V.A.; Komissarova, L.N.; Quiroga, E.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the possibility of the existence of ternary phosphates of the rare earth elements (REE) containing two large alkali cations in order to establish the morphological and physicochemical characteristics in the entire group of ternary REE phosphates. The synthesis of the ternary rubidium-cesium-REE phosphates was carried out with molten charges that did not contain an excess of components. Analysis for the uncommon alkali cations was done by the atomic absorption technique; for holmium, by complexometric titration; and for phosphorus, by gravimetry as NH 4 CdPO 4 . The data obtained fully confirm the composition of Rb 2 CsLn(PO 4 ) 2

  4. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested. (paper)

  5. Can Time Reversal be tested in ternary fission?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goennenwein, F.; Jesinger, P.; Koetzle, A.; Mutterer, M.; Kalben, J. von; Trzaska, W.H.; Petrov, G.A.; Gagarski, A.M.; Danilyan, G.; Pavlov, V.S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Zimmer, O.

    2000-01-01

    Ternary fission of 233 U and 235 U induced by cold polarized neutrons has been investigated. Several correlations between neutron spin and the momenta of fission fragments and ternary particles were analyzed. These correlations are probing time reversal invariance, parity non-conservation and left-right asymmetries. Results for all three correlations from the reaction 233 U(n,f) are presented. Especially the outcome in the searches for time reversal correlations and left-right asymmetries is unexpected. A huge effect observed formally as a violation of time reversal is most probably simulated by specific properties of the emission mechanism for ternary particles

  6. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  7. Magnetism and crystal fields in ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, G.K.; Crabtree, G.W.; Niarchos, D.; Behroozi, F.; Dunlap, B.D.; Hinks, D.; Noakes, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of crystalline electric field (CEF) in two important classes of ternary superconductors has been described. It is clear that in understanding the superconducting and magnetic behavior of RERh 4 B 4 , the CEF plays a very important role. Considerable importance has been given to the specific heat Schottky anomalies in deducing the position and degeneracy of various CEF levels. Interpretation of these data is made difficult because of complicated subtraction of lattice, electronic and superconducting specific heats. Furthermore, the purity of the sample is important in such studies. It is known that a few percent of Rh-B/sub x/, RERh 3 B 2 and RERh 6 B 4 are commonly present in RERh 4 B 4 , while Mo-Ch/sub x/, RE-Ch/sub x/ and RE 2 O 2 Ch phases occur in Chevrel phase compounds. Only single-crystal samples will lead to dependable specific heat data

  8. Experimental Investigation of Microstructure and Phase Transitions in Ag-Cu-Zn Brazing Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Stevan P.; Manasijević, Dragan; Kamberović, Željko; Dimitrijević, Silvana B.; Mitrić, Miodrag; Gorgievski, Milan; Mladenović, Srba

    2018-03-01

    Microstructure and phase transitions of selected brazing alloys from the Ag-Cu-Zn ternary system were investigated. Four ternary alloys with silver content in the compositional range from 25 to 60 wt.% were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Phase transitions of the investigated alloys were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Experimentally obtained results were compared with the results of a thermodynamic calculation of the phase equilibria according to the CALPHAD method. The experiments confirmed the optimized thermodynamic parameters for the calculations from the thermodynamic assessment in literature. Phase compositions, liquidus and solidus temperatures were confirmed by the EDS and DTA methods. Additionally, the calculated solidification paths and predicted phase transformations were in agreement with the SEM images.

  9. Modification of Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloy by addition of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Koichi; Tsutsumi, Akinori; Ohtsuka, Hideyuki; Umemoto, Minoru

    2003-01-01

    Effect of addition of rare earth elements, such as, Nd, Sm and Tb, was investigated on various properties of Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (SMAs). The solubility of the rare earth in the L2 1 phase was found to be very low, most likely less than 0.1 mol%. Insolvable rare earth segregated into subgrain boundaries or grain boundaries to form precipitates. Phase transformation behavior and the structure of martensite phase exhibit a similar dependence on valence electron concentration to those in ternary Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. It was revealed that the addition of rare earth significantly improves the compressive ductility of the alloy

  10. Vanadium alloy membranes for high hydrogen permeability and suppressed hydrogen embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hee; Park, Hyeon Cheol; Lee, Jaeho; Cho, Eunseog; Lee, Sang Mock

    2013-01-01

    The structural properties and hydrogen permeation characteristics of ternary vanadium–iron–aluminum (V–Fe–Al) alloy were investigated. To achieve not only high hydrogen permeability but also strong resistance to hydrogen embrittlement, the alloy composition was modulated to show high hydrogen diffusivity but reduced hydrogen solubility. We demonstrated that matching the lattice constant to the value of pure V by co-alloying lattice-contracting and lattice-expanding elements was quite effective in maintaining high hydrogen diffusivity of pure V

  11. Understanding the vapor-liquid-solid growth and composition of ternary III-V nanowires and nanowire heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    Based on the recent achievements in vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) synthesis, characterization and modeling of ternary III-V nanowires and axial heterostructures within such nanowires, we try to understand the major trends in their compositional evolution from a general theoretical perspective. Clearly, the VLS growth of ternary materials is much more complex than in standard vapor-solid epitaxy techniques, and even maintaining the necessary control over the composition of steady-state ternary nanowires is far from straightforward. On the other hand, VLS nanowires offer otherwise unattainable material combinations without introducing structural defects and hence are very promising for next-generation optoelectronic devices, in particular those integrated with a silicon electronic platform. In this review, we consider two main problems. First, we show how and by means of which parameters the steady-state composition of Au-catalyzed or self-catalyzed ternary III-V nanowires can be tuned to a desired value and why it is generally different from the vapor composition. Second, we present some experimental data and modeling results for the interfacial abruptness across axial nanowire heterostructures, both in Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed VLS growth methods. Refined modeling allows us to formulate some general growth recipes for suppressing the unwanted reservoir effect in the droplet and sharpening the nanowire heterojunctions. We consider and refine two approaches developed to date, namely the regular crystallization model for a liquid alloy with a critical size of only one III-V pair at high supersaturations or classical binary nucleation theory with a macroscopic critical nucleus at modest supersaturations.

  12. Study of the evolution of the microstructure and hardness of Cu-Al and Cu-Al-Ti alloys during their production by reactive milling and extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, F; Sepulveda, A; Zuniga, A; Donoso, E; Palma, R

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and hardness of two alloys produced by reactive milling of elementary powders for 10, 20 and 30 hours and later hot extrusion were studied: a Cu-5 vol.% Al 2 O 3 binary and another Cu-2.5 vol.%TiC-2.5 vol.% Al 2 O 3 ternary. The microstructure of the alloys was characterized with a transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and different methods of chemical analysis. Then their hardness was evaluated before and after annealing at 873 K. The extruded binary alloy showed a micrometric grain structure, with nanometric subgrains (100 nm), together with the formation of nanometric dispersoids of semi-coherent Al 2 0 3 with the Cu matrix. The ternary alloy showed a microstructure very similar to the binary alloy, except that it also showed the formation of nanometric TiC dispersoids. The nanoparticles acted effectively as anchoring points for the movement of dislocations and grain growth. The microstructure was observed to be stable after annealing treatments for all the alloys. The milled ternary alloy was 32% harder (290 HV) than the hardest binary alloy (milled for 30 hours) (au)

  13. First principles theoretical investigations of low Young's modulus beta Ti-Nb and Ti-Nb-Zr alloys compositions for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Rajamallu; Niranjan, Manish K; Dey, Suhash R

    2015-05-01

    High alloyed β-phase stabilized titanium alloys are known to provide comparable Young's modulus as that to the human bones (~30 GPa) but is marred by its high density. In the present study the low titanium alloyed compositions of binary Ti-Nb and ternary Ti-Nb-Zr alloy systems, having stable β-phase with low Young's modulus are identified using first principles density functional framework. The theoretical results suggest that the addition of Nb in Ti and Zr in Ti-Nb increases the stability of the β-phase. The β-phase in binary Ti-Nb alloys is found to be fully stabilized from 22 at.% of Nb onwards. The calculated Young's moduli of binary β-Ti-Nb alloy system are found to be lower than that of pure titanium (116 GPa). For Ti-25(at.%)Nb composition the calculated Young's modulus comes out to be ~80 GPa. In ternary Ti-Nb-Zr alloy system, the Young's modulus of Ti-25(at.%)Nb-6.25(at.%)Zr composition is calculated to be ~50 GPa. Furthermore, the directional Young's moduli of these two selected binary (Ti-25(at.%)Nb) and ternary alloy (Ti-25(at.%)Nb-6.25(at.%)Zr) compositions are found to be nearly isotropic in all crystallographic directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interatomic potential to predict the favored and optimized compositions for ternary Cu-Zr-Hf metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, S. Y.; Cui, Y. Y.; Dai, Y.; Li, J. H.; Liu, B. X.

    2012-01-01

    Under the framework of smoothed and long range second-moment approximation of tight-binding, a realistic interatomic potential was first constructed for the Cu-Zr-Hf ternary metal system. Applying the constructed potential, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compare the relative stability of crystalline solid solution versus its disordered counterpart over the entire composition triangle of the system (as a function of alloy composition). Simulations not only reveal that the origin of metallic glass formation but also determine, in the composition triangle, a quadrilateral region, within which metallic glass formation is energetically favored. It is proposed to define the energy differences between the crystalline solid solutions and disordered states as the driving force for amorphization and the corresponding calculations pinpoint an optimized composition locating at an composition of Cu 55 Zr 10 Hf 35 , around which the driving force for metallic glass formation reaches its maximum, suggesting that the ternary Cu-Zr-Hf metallic glasses designed to have the compositions around Cu 55 Zr 10 Hf 35 could be more stable than other alloys in the system. Moreover, for the Cu 55 Zr 10 Hf 35 metallic glass, the Voronoi tessellation calculations reveal some interesting features of its atomic configurations and coordination polyhedra distribution.

  15. Theoretical Studies of Hydrogen Storage Alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Hannes

    2012-03-22

    Theoretical calculations were carried out to search for lightweight alloys that can be used to reversibly store hydrogen in mobile applications, such as automobiles. Our primary focus was on magnesium based alloys. While MgH{sub 2} is in many respects a promising hydrogen storage material, there are two serious problems which need to be solved in order to make it useful: (i) the binding energy of the hydrogen atoms in the hydride is too large, causing the release temperature to be too high, and (ii) the diffusion of hydrogen through the hydride is so slow that loading of hydrogen into the metal takes much too long. In the first year of the project, we found that the addition of ca. 15% of aluminum decreases the binding energy to the hydrogen to the target value of 0.25 eV which corresponds to release of 1 bar hydrogen gas at 100 degrees C. Also, the addition of ca. 15% of transition metal atoms, such as Ti or V, reduces the formation energy of interstitial H-atoms making the diffusion of H-atoms through the hydride more than ten orders of magnitude faster at room temperature. In the second year of the project, several calculations of alloys of magnesium with various other transition metals were carried out and systematic trends in stability, hydrogen binding energy and diffusivity established. Some calculations of ternary alloys and their hydrides were also carried out, for example of Mg{sub 6}AlTiH{sub 16}. It was found that the binding energy reduction due to the addition of aluminum and increased diffusivity due to the addition of a transition metal are both effective at the same time. This material would in principle work well for hydrogen storage but it is, unfortunately, unstable with respect to phase separation. A search was made for a ternary alloy of this type where both the alloy and the corresponding hydride are stable. Promising results were obtained by including Zn in the alloy.

  16. Densities and Excess Molar Volume for the Ternary Systems (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methylimidazolium methyl sulphate ([BMIM]+[MeSO4]-) were determined. The ternary systems studied were ... The results are interpreted in terms of the alcohol chain length and the intermolecular interactions. KEYWORDS Density, excess molar ...

  17. Features of programming in DSSP for the ternary machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey А. Burtsev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In article characteristic properties of the Dialogue System for Structured Programming (DSSP in which it significantly differs from the traditional languages (Pascal, C which are usually used for development of a basic course of programming are emphasized. And also the new possibilities of program creation which can be effectively realized on the ternary computer and which are provided now by programming system DSSP for TVM — the ternary virtual machine are considered.

  18. Tricolore. A flexible color scale for ternary compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    tricolore is an R library providing a flexible color scale for the visualization of three-part/ternary compositions. Its main functionality is to color-code any ternary composition as a mixture of three primary colours and to draw a suitable color-key. tricolore flexibly adapts to different...... visualisation challenges via - discrete and continuous color support - support for unbalanced compositional data via centering - support for data with very narrow range via scaling - hue, chroma and lightness options...

  19. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...

  20. Precipitation processes in Al-4Cu-(Mg, Cd) (wt.%) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofyan, B.T.; Polmear, I.J. [Monash Univ., Vic. (Australia). School of Physics and Materials Engineering; Ringer, S.P. [Australian Key Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, Univ. of Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The precipitation processes during elevated temperature ageing of Al-4Cu-(Mg, Cd) (wt.%) alloys have been studied using transmission electron microscopy and three dimensional atom probe (3DAP). Enhanced precipitation of {theta}' (Al{sub 2}Cu) was confirmed in Cd-containing alloys. Additions of Cd into the Al-Cu-Mg alloys also stimulated the precipitation of the {sigma} phase (Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 6}Mg{sub 2}). In the ternary Al-Cu-Cd alloy, elemental Cd particles were detected in a uniform dispersion throughout the matrix and were attached to {theta}', while in the Al-Cu-Mg-Cd alloy, co-clustering of Cd-Mg was observed at early stages of ageing. This result suggests that the enhanced precipitation and associated hardening in the quaternary Al-Cu-Mg-Cd alloy is initiated by the Cd-Mg co-clusters, through what is called as cluster-assisted nucleation. The nucleation mechanism in the ternary Al-Cu-Cd alloy is almost certainly the same, although the chemistry of the initiating cluster which assists nucleation is different, which is thought to be Cd clusters. (orig.)

  1. Thermodynamic Measurements on Alloys and Compounds in Ag-Au-Se and Ag-Pd systems by the Electromotive Force Method

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Gold and silver chalcogenides are significant minerals and major carriers of precious metals, and silver palladium alloy is one of the most important silver alloys with various industrial applications. The Ag-Au-Se ternary system and the Ag-Pd binary system have been investigated by the electromotive force (EMF) method in this study. For the Ag-Au-Se ternary system, the numerical values of the standard thermodynamic functions of the compounds Ag2Se (naumannite), AuSe, and Ag3AuSe2 (fisches...

  2. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  3. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  4. Fusion and characterization of an alloy Cu-Zn-Al-Ni of nuclear interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana M, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present work is the result of the study of a non ferrous quatenary alloy of Cu-Zn-Al-Ni (Foundry 3), it was chosen of a series of alloys to obtain so much information of its microstructural properties like mechanical, evaluating them and comparing them with the previously obtained ternary alloys of Cu-AI-Ni (Foundry 1) and Cu-Zn-AI (Foundry 2) identified as alloys of memory effect and superalloys. These were carried out starting from the foundry of their pure elements of Cu, Zn, Al, Ni. When physically having the ingot of each alloy, different techniques were used for their characterization. The used techniques were through the metallographic analysis, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical essays and Rockwell hardness. The non ferrous quaternary alloy Cu-Zn-AI-Ni by means of the metallographic analysis didn't show significant differences in their three sections (superficial, longitudinal and transverse) since result an homogeneous alloy at the same that the both ternaries. The grain size of the quaternary alloy is the finest while the ternary alloy of Cu-AI-Ni is the one that obtained the biggest grain size. Through MEB together with the analysis by EDS and the mapping of the elements that constitute each alloy, show that the three foundries were alloyed, moreover the presence of aggregates was also observed in the Foundries 2 and 3. These results by means of the analysis of XRD corroborate that these alloys have more of two elements. Relating the microstructural properties with those mechanical show us that as minor was the grain size, better they were his mechanical properties, in this case that of the quaternary alloy. With regard to the test of Rockwell hardness the Foundry 1 were the softest with the temper treatment, while that the Foundries 2 and 3 were the hardest with this same treatment, being still harder the Foundry 2 but with very little difference, for what great

  5. Synergistic alloying effect on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Cu precipitation-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.R.; Li, Y.P.; Hirata, A.; Zhang, Y.; Fujita, T.; Furuhara, T.; Liu, C.T.; Chiba, A.; Chen, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    We report the influence of alloying elements (Ni, Al and Mn) on the microstructural evolution of Cu-rich nanoprecipitates and the mechanical properties of Fe–Cu-based ferritic alloys. It was found that individual additions of Ni and Al do not give rise to an obvious strengthening effect, compared with the binary Fe–Cu parent alloy, although Ni segregates at the precipitate/matrix interface and Al partitions into Cu-rich precipitates. In contrast, the co-addition of Ni and Al results in the formation of core–shell nanoprecipitates with a Cu-rich core and a B2 Ni–Al shell, leading to a dramatic improvement in strength. The coarsening rate of the core–shell precipitates is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of monolithic Cu-rich precipitates in the binary and ternary Fe–Cu alloys. Reinforcement of the B2 Ni–Al shells by Mn partitioning further improves the strength of the precipitation-strengthened alloys by forming ultrastable and high number density core–shell nanoprecipitates

  6. Irradiation induced surface segregation in concentrated alloys: a contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A new computer modelization of irradiation induced surface segregation is presented together with some experimental determinations in binary and ternary alloys. The model we propose handles the alloy thermodynamics and kinetics at the same level of sophistication. Diffusion is described at the atomistic level and proceeds vis the jumps of point defects (vacancies, dumb-bell interstitials): the various jump frequencies depend on the local composition in a manner consistent with the thermodynamics of the alloy. For application to specific alloys, we have chosen the simplest statistical approximation: pair interactions in the Bragg Williams approximation. For a system which exhibits the thermodynamics and kinetics features of Ni-Cu alloys, the model generates the behaviour parameters (flux and temperature) and of alloy composition. Quantitative agreement with the published experimental results (two compositions, three temperatures) is obtained with a single set of parameters. Modelling austenitic steels used in nuclear industry requires taking into account the contribution of dumbbells to mass transport. The effects of this latter contribution are studied on a model of Ni-Fe. Interstitial trapping on dilute impurities is shown to delay or even suppress the irradiation induced segregation. Such an effect is indeed observed in the experiments we report on Fe 50 Ni 50 and Fe 49 Ni 50 Hf 1 alloys. (author)

  7. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient estimation for ternary systems: an ideal ternary alcohol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie-Ebrahim, Tariq; Zhu, Qingyu; Bräuer, Pierre; Moggridge, Geoff D; D'Agostino, Carmine

    2017-06-21

    The Maxwell-Stefan model is a popular diffusion model originally developed to model diffusion of gases, which can be considered thermodynamically ideal mixtures, although its application has been extended to model diffusion in non-ideal liquid mixtures as well. A drawback of the model is that it requires the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, which are not based on measurable quantities but they have to be estimated. As a result, numerous estimation methods, such as the Darken model, have been proposed to estimate these diffusion coefficients. However, the Darken model was derived, and is only well defined, for binary systems. This model has been extended to ternary systems according to two proposed forms, one by R. Krishna and J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, 6939-6947 and the other by X. Liu, T. J. H. Vlugt and A. Bardow, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50, 10350-10358. In this paper, the two forms have been analysed against the ideal ternary system of methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol and using experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients. In particular, using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSTE-NMR) we have measured the self-diffusion coefficients in various methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol mixtures. The experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients were then used as the input data required for the Darken model. The predictions of the two proposed multicomponent forms of this model were then compared to experimental values of mutual diffusion coefficients for the ideal alcohol ternary system. This experimental-based approach showed that the Liu's model gives better predictions compared to that of Krishna and van Baten, although it was only accurate to within 26%. Nonetheless, the multicomponent Darken model in conjunction with self-diffusion measurements from PGSTE-NMR represents an attractive method for a rapid estimation of mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, especially when compared to exhaustive

  8. Anisotropy in the ternary cold fission

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, D S; Greiner, W

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, accompanied by sup 4 He, sup 1 sup 0 Be and sup 1 sup 4 C within a stationary scattering formalism. We show that the light cluster should be born in the neck region. It decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb plus harmonic oscillator potential, centred in this region and eccentric with respect to the symmetry axis. This description gives a simple answer to the question why the averaged values in the energy spectra of emitted clusters are close to each other, in spite of different Coulomb barriers. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. Experimental angular distributions can be explained by the spherical shapes of emitted clusters, except for a deformed sup 1 sup 0 Be. We also predicted some dependences of half-lives for such tri-nuclear systems upon potential parameters.

  9. Two-layer synchronized ternary quantum-dot cellular automata wire crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata are an interesting nanoscale computing paradigm. The introduction of the ternary quantum-dot cell enabled ternary computing, and with the recent development of a ternary functionally complete set of elementary logic primitives and the ternary memorizing cell design of complex processing structures is becoming feasible. The specific nature of the ternary quantum-dot cell makes wire crossings one of the most problematic areas of ternary quantum-dot cellular automata circuit design. We hereby present a two-layer wire crossing that uses a specific clocking scheme, which ensures the crossed wires have the same effective delay. PMID:22507371

  10. Effect of composition on the structure and properties of Ti-Co-Cr alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a study of six as-cast Ti-Co-Cr alloys in the Ti-rich region with the purpose of examining the possibility of obtaining a new β-type Ti-alloys. Two experimental alloys Ti80Co10Cr10 and Ti70Co10Cr20 are nearly single-phases and are identified as bcc β-Ti phase. They also display the lowest hardness values and the best corrosion properties. The present study indicates that the region of biomedically-acceptable ternary Ti-rich alloys is situated within lower concentrations of alloying elements, i.e. about 10 at.% Co and 20 at. % Cr.

  11. Electronic structure and properties of disordered alloys of d-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidenko, V.S.; Kal'yanov, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of coherent potential approximation the fundamental characteristics in which transition element alloys differ have been established. Connection of the characteristics with position of the elements alloyed in the Mendeleev table is considered. It is confirmed by calculations that electronic structure and, consequently, physical properties of the alloys of a certain value potential disturbing matrix, change qualitatively. Results of the calculation of electron energy state density, diagrams of partial and average magnetic momenta in binary and ternary alloys of the first transition period, are presented. Besides, calculation results of bond energy in d-metals and energy of segregation formation in their alloys are also given. Comparison with experiment confirms the efficiency of concepts given in the paper

  12. Contrasting performance of donor-acceptor copolymer pairs in ternary blend solar cells and two-acceptor copolymers in binary blend solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyabich, Petr P; Rudenko, Andrey E; Burkhart, Beate; Thompson, Barry C

    2015-02-04

    Here two contrasting approaches to polymer-fullerene solar cells are compared. In the first approach, two distinct semi-random donor-acceptor copolymers are blended with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) to form ternary blend solar cells. The two poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based polymers contain either the acceptor thienopyrroledione (TPD) or diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP). In the second approach, semi-random donor-acceptor copolymers containing both TPD and DPP acceptors in the same polymer backbone, termed two-acceptor polymers, are blended with PC61BM to give binary blend solar cells. The two approaches result in bulk heterojunction solar cells that have the same molecular active-layer components but differ in the manner in which these molecular components are mixed, either by physical mixing (ternary blend) or chemical "mixing" in the two-acceptor (binary blend) case. Optical properties and photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies of the binary and ternary blends were found to have similar features and were described as a linear combination of the individual components. At the same time, significant differences were observed in the open-circuit voltage (Voc) behaviors of binary and ternary blend solar cells. While in case of two-acceptor polymers, the Voc was found to be in the range of 0.495-0.552 V, ternary blend solar cells showed behavior inherent to organic alloy formation, displaying an intermediate, composition-dependent and tunable Voc in the range from 0.582 to 0.684 V, significantly exceeding the values achieved in the two-acceptor containing binary blend solar cells. Despite the differences between the physical and chemical mixing approaches, both pathways provided solar cells with similar power conversion efficiencies, highlighting the advantages of both pathways toward highly efficient organic solar cells.

  13. Hydrogen solubility and permeability of Nb-W-Mo alloy membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awakura, Y.; Nambu, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yukawa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The concept for alloy design of Nb-based hydrogen permeable membrane has been applied to Nb-W-Mo ternary alloy in order to improve further the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen permeability. → The alloying effects of Mo on the hydriding properties of Nb-W alloy have been elucidated. → The addition of Mo and/or W into niobium improves the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement by reducing the dissolved hydrogen concentration in the alloy. → Nb-W-Mo alloy possesses excellent hydrogen permeability together with strong resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. - Abstract: The alloying effects of molybdenum on the hydrogen solubility, the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and the hydrogen permeability are investigated for Nb-W-Mo system. It is found that the hydrogen solubility decreases by the addition of molybdenum into Nb-W alloy. As a result, the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement improves by reducing the hydrogen concentration in the alloy. It is demonstrated that Nb-5 mol%W-5 mol%Mo alloy possesses excellent hydrogen permeability without showing any hydrogen embrittlement when used under appropriate hydrogen permeation conditions, i.e., temperature and hydrogen pressures.

  14. Constitution of the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krendelsberger, Natalja; Weitzer, Franz; Du, Yong; Schuster, Julius C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Reaction scheme and liquidus surface for Cr-Ni-Ti are given. •In the ternary the C14-type Laves phase coexists with the liquid phase. •Two ternary eutectics are identified. -- Abstract: The nature of solid–liquid phase equilibria in the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti was investigated using electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Literature data on solid state phase equilibria are confirmed. The Cr 2 Ti Laves phase modifications coexisting with Ni–Ti phases are clarified to be hexagonal C14-type and cubic C15-type. The C14-type Laves phase γCr 2 Ti is found to coexist with the liquid phase. It forms in the pseudobinary peritectic reaction p max1 from L + β(Cr,Ti) at 1389 °C. On further cooling γCr 2 Ti + NiTi solidify at 1202 °C in the pseudobinary eutectic e max2 . In the Cr-rich part of the system ternary eutectics occur at 1216 °C (E 1 : L = Ni 3 Ti + (Ni) + β(Cr,Ti)) and 1100 °C (E 2 : L = NiTi + Ni 3 Ti + β(Cr,Ti)), respectively. No ternary eutectic is found in the Ti-rich part. Rather the eutectic trough ends in the binary eutectic L = NiTi 2 + β(Ti)

  15. Ternary fission of spontaneously fissile uranium isomers excited by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.; Molchanov, Y.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneously fissile isomers (SFI) of uranium were excited in the reactions 236,238 U(n,n') at an average neutron energy 4.5 MeV. A pulsed electrostatic accelerator and time analysis of the fission events were used. Fission fragments were detected by the scintillation method, and long-range particles from fission were detected by an ionization method. The relative probability of fission of nuclei through a spontaneously fissile isomeric state was measured: (1.30±0.01)·10 -4 ( 236 U) and (1.48±0.02)·10 -4 ( 238 U). Half-lives of the isomers were determined: 121±2 nsec (the SFI 236 U) and 267±13 nsec (the SFI 238 U). In study of the ternary fission of spontaneously fissile isotopes of uranium it was established that the probability of the process amounts to one ternary fission per 163±44 binary fissions of the SFI 236 U and one ternary fission per 49±14 binary fissions of the SFI 238 U. The substantial increase of the probability of ternary fission of SFI of uranium in comparison with the case of ternary fission of nuclei which are not in an isomeric state may be related to a special nucleon configuration of the fissile isomers of uranium

  16. Nanoporous PtFe alloys as highly active and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huimei; Hao, Qin; Xu, Caixia

    2014-12-01

    Nanoporous PtFe alloys with two different bimetallic ratios are fabricated by selectively dealloying PtFeAl ternary alloys, characterized by nanoscaled bicontinuous network skeleton with interconnected hollow channels extending in all three dimensions. The reactive components in PtFeAl ternary alloy were sequentially leached out in a highly controllable manner, generating nanoporous architecture with different bimetallic ratios and the typical ligament size as small as 5 nm. These nanoporous PtFe alloys exhibit much enhanced electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction compared with the PtFe/C and Pt/C catalysts. The specific and mass activities for oxygen reduction follow the order of nanoporous Pt75Fe25 > nanoporous Pt55Fe45 > PtFe/C > Pt/C. In the absence of any catalyst support, the structure stability of nanoporous PtFe alloys is greatly enhanced with less loss of the electrochemical surface area and the oxygen reduction activity upon long-term potential scan tests compared with PtFe/C and Pt/C catalysts. The as-made nanoporous PtFe alloys thus hold great application potential as promising cathode electrocatalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells with the advantages of easy preparation along with superior oxygen reduction activity and durability.

  17. First principles investigation of the activity of thin film Pt, Pd and Au surface alloys for oxygen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    active binary thin films are near-surface alloys of Pt with subsurface Pd and certain PdAu and PtAu thin films with surface and/or subsurface Au. The most active ternary thin films are with pure metal Pt or Pd skins with some degree of Au in the surface and/or subsurface layer and the near-surface alloys...... driving force for surface segregation, diffusion to defects or surface self-assembling. On the basis of stability and activity analysis we conclude that the near surface alloy of Pd in Pt and some PdAu binary and PtPdAu ternary thin films with a controlled amount of Au are the best catalysts for oxygen...

  18. The corrosion resistance of Zr-Nb and Zr-Nb-Sn alloys in high-temperature water and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgaard, S.B.

    1960-03-01

    An alloy of reactor-grade sponge zirconium-2.5 wt. % niobium was exposed to water and steam at high temperature. The corrosion was twice that of Zircaloy-2 while hydrogen pickup was found to be equal to that of Zircaloy-2. Ternary additions of tin to this alloy in the range 0.5-1.5 had no effect on the corrosion resistance in water at 315 o C up to 100 days. At higher temperatures, tin increased the corrosion, the effect varying with temperature. Heat treatment of the alloys was shown to affect corrosion resistance. (author)

  19. Relationship of interaction of titanium aluminides with alloying elements as a basis for design of high-temperature alloys and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarova, K.B.; Bannykh, O.A.; Antonova, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    One analyzed the available ternary phase diagrams of Ti-Al-AE where AE - alloying metal or metalloid. Nature of interaction of titanium aluminides, in particular, α 2 -Ti 3 Al, γ-TiAl and TiAl 3 with alloying elements (AE) in the uninvestigated systems was hypothesized with regard to the available binary and ternary phase diagrams and data on electron structure of AE. One determined that structure of Ti-Al-AE ternary phase diagrams, namely, position of domains of γ-TiAl and α 2 -Ti 3 Al base solid solutions, nature of substitution for AE positions in Ti or Al sublattices and position of (α 2 +γ)/γ domain boundary were governed by likeness or difference of electron structure of AE and of the substituted metal (Ti or Al) in titanium aluminide lattice and by value of dimension factor (difference of atomic radii of Al and Ti or Al). One analyzed promises offered by application of solid solution alloying and microalloying of aluminides by I-VIII group metals of the Periodic System [ru

  20. Completed local ternary pattern for rotation invariant texture classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassem, Taha H; Khoo, Bee Ee

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP) and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC), have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP) drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter's weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP) scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  1. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  2. Thermal decomposition of cesium-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Oishi, Y.; Arii, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal decomposition of air-stable Cs-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) is discussed. The air stability of Cs-GICs is improved remarkably after the absorption of ethylene into their interlayer nanospace, because the ethylene molecules oligomerize and block the movement of Cs atoms. In addition, the evaporation of Cs atoms from the Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs is observed above 400 o C under a N 2 atmosphere of 100 Pa by ion attachment mass spectrometry. Although the results indicate that Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs remain stable up to approximately 400 o C, their thermal stability is not very high as compared to that of Cs-GICs.

  3. The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2010-01-01

    The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products dashv and vdash by making the argument a the center of each term. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree ≤9 satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5, these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

  4. Material and device properties of single-phase Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 alloys prepared by selenization/sulfurization of metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, V.; Titus, J.; Birkmire, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Single-phase Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 alloys have been prepared using a novel two-step selenization/sulfurization growth process to react copper-indium-gallium alloy films. The growth scheme differs critically from standard two-step growth processes and is based on the manipulation of the reaction kinetics in order to inhibit the formation of stable ternary phases. In the first step, the metallic precursors are reacted with H 2 Se/Ar to produce a composite alloy containing a mixture of binary selenides and at least one partially reacted ternary alloy. The film is then exposed to H 2 S/Ar at a defined temperature to produce uniform, single-phase pentenary Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 alloys. Solar cell results for Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 films with the S/(S+Se) ratio from 0.23 to 0.65 at a fixed Ga/(Ga+In) ratio are presented

  5. Equilibrium phase diagram of the Ag-Au-Pb ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassam, S.; Bahari, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The phase diagram of the ternary system Ag-Au-Pb has been established using differential thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Four vertical sections were studied: X Pb = 0.40, X Au /X Pb = 1/3, X Ag /X Au = 4/1 and X Ag /X Au = 1/1. Two ternary transitory peritectics and one ternary eutectic were characterized. A schematic representation of the ternary equilibria is given

  6. Effects of Palladium Content, Quaternary Alloying, and Thermomechanical Processing on the Behavior of Ni-Ti-Pd Shape Memory Alloys for Actuator Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Glen

    2008-01-01

    The need for compact, solid-state actuation systems for use in the aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries is currently driving research in high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) having transformation temperatures above 100 C. One of the basic high temperature systems under investigation to fill this need is NiTiPd. Prior work on this alloy system has focused on phase transformations and respective temperatures, no-load shape memory behavior (strain recovery), and tensile behavior for selected alloys. In addition, a few tests have been done to determine the effect of boron additions and thermomechanical treatment on the aforementioned properties. The main properties that affect the performance of a solid state actuator, namely work output, transformation strain, and permanent deformation during thermal cycling under load have mainly been neglected. There is also no consistent data representing the mechanical behavior of this alloy system over a broad range of compositions. For this thesis, ternary NiTiPd alloys containing 15 to 46 at.% palladium were processed and the transformation temperatures, basic tensile properties, and work characteristics determined. However, testing reveals that at higher levels of alloying addition, the benefit of increased transformation temperature begins to be offset by lowered work output and permanent deformation or "walking" of the alloy during thermal cycling under load. In response to this dilemma, NiTiPd alloys have been further alloyed with gold, platinum, and hafnium additions to solid solution strengthen the martensite and parent austenite phases in order to improve the thermomechanical behavior of these materials. The tensile properties, work behavior, and dimensional stability during repeated thermal cycling under load for the ternary and quaternary alloys were compared and discussed. In addition, the benefits of more advanced thermomechanical processing or training on the dimensional stability of

  7. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecar, P; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I; Ramsak, A

    2008-01-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  8. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P.; Ramšak, A.; Zimic, N.; Mraz, M.; Lebar Bajec, I.

    2008-12-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  9. Monte Carlo Simulation of Alloy Design Techniques: Fracture and Welding Studied Using the BFS Method for Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Good, Brian; Noebe, Ronald D.; Honecy, Frank; Abel, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale simulations of dynamic processes at the atomic level have developed into one of the main areas of work in computational materials science. Until recently, severe computational restrictions, as well as the lack of accurate methods for calculating the energetics, resulted in slower growth in the area than that required by current alloy design programs. The Computational Materials Group at the NASA Lewis Research Center is devoted to the development of powerful, accurate, economical tools to aid in alloy design. These include the BFS (Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith) method for alloys (ref. 1) and the development of dedicated software for large-scale simulations based on Monte Carlo- Metropolis numerical techniques, as well as state-of-the-art visualization methods. Our previous effort linking theoretical and computational modeling resulted in the successful prediction of the microstructure of a five-element intermetallic alloy, in excellent agreement with experimental results (refs. 2 and 3). This effort also produced a complete description of the role of alloying additions in intermetallic binary, ternary, and higher order alloys (ref. 4).

  10. Enhanced age-strengthening by two-step progressive solution treatment in an Mg–Zn–Al–Re alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Fuqing; Du, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-step progressive solution treatment schedule was proposed. • The treatment enhanced dissolution of ternary eutectic phases in Mg–Zn–Al alloy. • Solution temperature could break the limit of the ternary eutectic temperature. • There was no microstructural over-heating defect during the progressive heating. • The τ precipitates have a remarkable dispersion strengthening effect. - Abstract: A two-step progressive solution treatment was designed and performed on an as-extruded Mg–7Zn–3Al–0.7Er alloy. The resultant microstructure and mechanical properties were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimetry and hardness testing. The results showed that the two-step progressive solution treatment could enhance the dissolution of the ternary eutectic phases in the Mg–Zn–Al system without the formation of microstructure over-heating defects. After homogenization for 50 h at 325 °C, the volume fraction of the undissolved particles in the Mg–7Zn–3Al–0.7Er alloy ingot was ∼4.1%. Two-step progressive solution treatment performed on the as-extruded alloy could further dissolve the particles. Only 1.5% undissolved particles remained after the treatment. The supersaturated degree of both the dissolved solute atoms and vacancies in the α-Mg matrix was expected to be increased, resulting in an enhanced age-strengthening, compared with normal solution and aging treatments. Moreover, the processed alloy exhibited a homogenous and stable fine grain structure. Remarkable dispersion strengthening effect of ternary τ (Mg 32 (Al,Zn) 49 ) precipitates occurred in Mg–Zn–Al alloy was also identified

  11. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  12. The importance of secondary and ternary twinning in compressed Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirry, W.; Nixon, M.; Cazacu, O.; Coghe, F.; Rabet, L.

    2011-01-01

    Twin formation during uniaxial compression of high-purity α-Ti at room temperature is investigated for both quasi-static and dynamic conditions using electron backscatter diffraction techniques. The initial texture is favorable for {101-bar 2} twinning, yet it is observed that secondary and ternary twins occur for both strain rates, showing a higher propensity in the dynamic case. While secondary twins may explain the difference in texture change and strain hardening between the two loading conditions, the ternary twins mainly contribute to grain fractioning.

  13. A novel ternary logic circuit using Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Oochi, K.; Nishizawa, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. This fundamental circuit is constructed by combination of two SQUIDs, one of which is switched in the positive direction and the other in the negative direction. The JCTL can perform the fundamental operations of AND, OR, NOT and Double NOT in ternary form. The principle of the operation and design criteria are described in detail. The results of the simulation show that the reliable operations of these circuits can be achieved with a high performance

  14. Organic semiconductor: Insulator polymer ternary blends for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenczi, Toby A.M. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Mueller, Christian [Department of Materials, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bradley, Donal D.C.; Nelson, Jenny [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Smith, Paul [Department of Materials, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Stingelin, Natalie [Department of Materials, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Ternary blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM) and the insulating bulk polymers high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isotactic- and atactic polystyrene (i-PS, a-PS), are investigated. Addition of up to {approx}50 wt% of the electronically inert, semicrystalline HDPE and i-PS to the organic semiconducting system does not significantly degrade the performance of photovoltaic devices fabricated with these ternary blends. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Angular Correlations with γ-RAYS and Neutrons in Ternary Fission of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutterer, M.; Kopatch, Yu. N.; Singer, P.; Klemens, M.; Hotzel, A.; Schwalm, D.; Thirolf, P.; Hesse, M.; Gönnenwein, F.

    The following sections are included: * Experiment * Data analysis * Anisotropy of γ-Ray Emission in Binary and Ternary Fission * Anisotropy of γ-ray emission with respect to fragment motion * Anisotropy of γ-my emission with respect to a-particle motion * Gamma-ray angular correlations for other ternary fission modes * Neutron Decay of Ternary Particles * References

  16. Binary and ternary carbides and nitrides of the transition metals and their phase relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrance and the structure of the binary and ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides are described. Phase diagrams are assessed for most of the binary and ternary systems. Many ternary phase diagrams are published in this report for the first time. (orig.) [de

  17. Structure and anelasticity of Fe{sub 3}Ga and Fe{sub 3}(Ga,Al) type alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovin, I.S., E-mail: i.golovin@misis.ru [Department of Physical Metallurgy of Non-Ferrous Metals, National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky ave. 4, Moscow 117936 (Russian Federation); Palacheva, V.V.; Bazlov, A.I. [Department of Physical Metallurgy of Non-Ferrous Metals, National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky ave. 4, Moscow 117936 (Russian Federation); Cifre, J. [Serveis Cientificotecnics, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Ctra. deValldemossa, km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Pons, J. [Dept. de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Ctra. deValldemossa, km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • The A2 to D0{sub 3} transition in quenched Fe–27Ga takes place at heating from 150 to 300 °C. • The L1{sub 2} phase appears after incubation period at 350 °C and above. • The L1{sub 2} phase formation is accompanied by a transient internal friction peak. • Substitution of Ga atoms by Al slows down the massive formation of the L1{sub 2} phase. • TEM study of Fe–Ga–Al alloy proves weak D0{sub 3} ordering and formation L1{sub 2} phase. - Abstract: The structure of binary Fe–27at.%Ga and ternary Fe–18at.%Ga–6at.%Al alloys is studied after different annealing regimes of as quenched samples. This paper focuses mainly on early stages of different phase transitions: from A2 to D0{sub 3}, to L1{sub 2} and D0{sub 19}, which decrease functional properties of Fe–Ga alloys. Formation of stable phases goes through formation of metastable phases: according to XRD, the D0{sub 3} ordering of practically disordered A2 solid solution clearly takes place at 150 °C, while formation of equilibrium fcc ordered L1{sub 2} phase starts after four hours annealing at 350 °C. Upon continuous heating, the transition from D0{sub 3} to L1{sub 2} phase is accompanied by a transient internal friction peak. On its turn, the phase transitions are retarded in the ternary Fe–18Ga–5Al alloy, although a careful TEM study of the ternary alloy proves weak D0{sub 3} ordering in the as-quenched state and formation of small precipitates of L1{sub 2} phase (not detectable by X-ray) after four hours annealing at 275 °C. The presence of carbon in studied alloys leads to appearance of Snoek-type relaxation in both binary and ternary alloys: the peak in binary Fe–27Ga alloy is unimodal with activation energy of about 1 eV, and it has bi-modal shape in the ternary alloy Fe–18Ga–5Al with activation energies of about 1.1 and 1.4 eV, corresponding to carbon atom diffusion under stress in vicinity of Ga and Al atoms, respectively.

  18. Structure and phase transformation behavior of electroless Ni-P alloys containing tin and tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaraju, J.N.; Jahan, S. Millath; Jain, Anjana; Rajam, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    Autocatalytic ternary Ni-Sn-P, Ni-W-P and quaternary Ni-W-Sn-P films were prepared using alkaline citrate-based baths and compared with binary Ni-P coatings. Energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) showed that binary Ni-P deposit contained 11.3 wt.% of phosphorus. Codeposition of tungsten in Ni-P matrix resulted in ternary Ni-W-P with 5 wt.% P and 7.8 wt.% of tungsten. Incorporation of tin led to ternary Ni-Sn-P deposit containing 0.4 wt.% Sn and 10.3 wt.% P. Presence of both sodium tungstate and sodium stannate in the basic bath had resulted in quaternary coating with 6.9 wt.% W, traces of Sn and 6.4 wt.% P. X-ray diffraction patterns of all the deposits revealed a single, broad peak which showed the nanocrystalline nature of the deposits. For the first time in related literature, the presence of a metastable phase Ni 12 P 5 in ternary deposits is reported in the present study. Metallographic cross-sections of all the deposits revealed the banded/lamellar structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the deposits showed smooth nodules for ternary deposits, but coarse and well-defined nodules for quaternary deposits. DSC studies of phase transformation behavior of the ternary Ni-Sn-P deposit revealed a single sharp exothermic peak at 365 o C. However, ternary Ni-W-P and quaternary Ni-W-Sn-P deposits exhibited a low temperature peak at 300 o C, a split type high temperature peak at 405 and 440 o C and a very high temperature peak at 550 o C. Higher activation energy values were obtained for W-based alloy deposits. Presence of W and Sn has helped to retain high microhardness values even at higher temperatures indicating an improved thermal stability

  19. The ternary system: silicon-uranium-vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes I, Avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes, Cedex (France); Rogl, Peter Franz, E-mail: peter.franz.rogl@univie.ac.a [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Waehringerstrasse 42 (Austria)

    2010-09-01

    Phase equilibria in the system Si-U-V were established at 1100 {sup o}C by optical microscopy, EMPA and X-ray diffraction. Two ternary compounds were observed, U{sub 2}V{sub 3}Si{sub 4} and (U{sub 1-x}V{sub x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3}, for which the crystal structures were elucidated by X-ray powder data refinement and found to be isotypic with the monoclinic U{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}Si{sub 4}-type (space group P2{sub 1}/c; a = 0.6821(3), b = 0.6820(4), c = 0.6735(3) nm, {beta} = 109.77(1){sup o}) and the tetragonal W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type (space group I4/mcm, a = 1.06825(2), c = 0.52764(2) nm), respectively. (U{sub 1-x}V{sub x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3} appears at 1100 {sup o}C without any significant homogeneity region at x {approx} 0.2 resulting in a formula U{sub 4}VSi{sub 3} which corresponds to a fully ordered atom arrangement. DTA experiments clearly show decomposition of this phase above 1206 {sup o}C revealing a two-phase region U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} + V{sub 3}Si. At 1100 {sup o}C U{sub 4}VSi{sub 3} is in equilibrium with V{sub 3}Si, V{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and U(V). At 800 {sup o}C U{sub 4}VSi{sub 3} forms one vertex of the tie-triangle to U{sub 3}Si and V{sub 3}Si. Due to the rather high thermodynamic stability of V{sub 3}Si and the corresponding tie-lines V{sub 3}Si + liquid at 1100 {sup o}C and V{sub 3}Si + U(V) below 925 {sup o}C, no compatibility exists between U{sub 3}Si or U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and vanadium metal.

  20. The distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in precipitates within a Zr alloy: A combined first-principles and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, B.F., E-mail: bfluan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang, J.M.; Qiu, R.S.; Tao, B.R.; He, W.J. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhang, X.Y.; Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, Q., E-mail: qingliu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM-EDS) technique and first-principles calculation are jointly utilized to investigate the distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in the precipitates within Zr-1.0Cr-0.4Fe-0.4Mo-0.4Bi alloy. Based on selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results, the precipitates within the studied alloy are confirmed to be ZrCr{sub 2}-based Laves phase with FCC (C15) type structure. The STEM-EDS elemental mapping is acquired to clarify the distribution trends of alloying elements in precipitates, i.e. Fe>Mo>Bi. To better verify this distribution behavior, substitutional formation energies and equilibrium concentrations of ternary alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are calculated by first-principles. The calculated results show a good consistence with the STEM-EDS results. In addition, the site preferences of ternary alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are predicted by the calculation of transfer energies. Finally, the reasons accounting for different distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are discussed in terms of density of states, which attributed to the pseudogap effect and hybridizations between atoms. - Highlights: • Clarified the distribution trends of Fe>Mo>Bi in precipitates by STEM-EDS. • Verified the experimental results by first-principles calculation. • Predicted the site preferences of alloying elements by first-principles calculation. • Hybridization and pseudogap lead to the strong distribution and site preferences.

  1. Studies on yttrium-containing smart alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Felix; Wegener, Tobias; Litnovsky, Andrey; Rasinski, Marcin; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany); Mayer, Joachim [Ernst Ruska-Centrum, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Tungsten is the main candidate as plasma-facing armour material for future fusion reactors, like DEMO. Advantages of tungsten include high melting point, high thermal conductivity, low tritium retention, and low erosion yield. A problem is oxide volatilisation under accidental conditions where the temperature of the first wall can reach 1200 K to 1450 K and air ingress occurs. Therefore smart tungsten alloys are developed. Smart alloys are supposed to preserve properties of tungsten during plasma operation coupled with suppressed tungsten oxide formation in case of an accident. Lab-scale tungsten-chromium-yttrium (W-Cr-Y) samples prepared by magnetron sputtering are used as model system. The mechanisms of oxidation and its dynamics are studied using a thermogravimetric system, focussed ion beam, and electron microscopy. A composition scan was conducted: The new material composition featuring W, ∝ 12 wt.% Cr, ∝ 0.3 wt.% Y showed strongest suppression of oxidation, no pores, and least internal oxidation. At 1273 K in argon-oxygen atmosphere an oxidation rate of 3 . 10{sup -6} mg{sup 2}cm{sup -4}s{sup -1} was measured. At 1473 K ternary W-Cr-Y alloys suppressed evaporation up to 20 min while for W-Cr evaporation was already evident after 5 min. Comparison of passivation in dry and humid atmosphere, at temperatures of 1073 K to 1473 K is performed.

  2. Studies on yttrium-containing smart alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Felix; Wegener, Tobias; Litnovsky, Andrey; Rasinski, Marcin; Linsmeier, Christian; Mayer, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten is the main candidate as plasma-facing armour material for future fusion reactors, like DEMO. Advantages of tungsten include high melting point, high thermal conductivity, low tritium retention, and low erosion yield. A problem is oxide volatilisation under accidental conditions where the temperature of the first wall can reach 1200 K to 1450 K and air ingress occurs. Therefore smart tungsten alloys are developed. Smart alloys are supposed to preserve properties of tungsten during plasma operation coupled with suppressed tungsten oxide formation in case of an accident. Lab-scale tungsten-chromium-yttrium (W-Cr-Y) samples prepared by magnetron sputtering are used as model system. The mechanisms of oxidation and its dynamics are studied using a thermogravimetric system, focussed ion beam, and electron microscopy. A composition scan was conducted: The new material composition featuring W, ∝ 12 wt.% Cr, ∝ 0.3 wt.% Y showed strongest suppression of oxidation, no pores, and least internal oxidation. At 1273 K in argon-oxygen atmosphere an oxidation rate of 3 . 10 -6 mg 2 cm -4 s -1 was measured. At 1473 K ternary W-Cr-Y alloys suppressed evaporation up to 20 min while for W-Cr evaporation was already evident after 5 min. Comparison of passivation in dry and humid atmosphere, at temperatures of 1073 K to 1473 K is performed.

  3. Effect of composition on the high rate dynamic behaviour of tungsten heavy alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Kesemen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten heavy alloys are currently used as kinetic energy penetrators in military applications due to their high density and superior mechanical properties. In the literature, quasi-static properties of different tungsten heavy alloys based on W-Ni-Cu and W-Ni-Fe ternary systems are well documented and presented. However, comparison of the dynamic behaviour of these alloys in terms of the correlation between quasi-static mechanical characterization and dynamical properties is lacking. In the present study, dynamic properties of tungsten heavy alloys having different binder phase compositions (90W-7Ni-3Cu and 90W-8Ni-2Fe at different projectile velocities were investigated. The examined and tested alloys were produced through the conventional powder metallurgy route of mixing, cold compaction and sintering. Mechanical characterization of these alloys was performed. In the ballistic tests, cylindrical tungsten heavy alloys with L/D ratio of 3 were impacted to hardened steel target at different projectile velocities. After the ballistic tests, deformation characteristics of test specimens during dynamic loading were evaluated by comparing the change of length and diameter of the specimens versus kinetic energy densities. The study concluded that 90W-8Ni-2Fe alloy has better perforation characteristics than 90W-7Ni-3Cu alloy.

  4. Effects of Ni and Mo on the microstructure and some other properties of Co-Cr dental alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matkovic, Tanja; Matkovic, Prosper; Malina, Jadranka

    2004-01-01

    Influences of adding Ni and Mo on the microstructure and properties of as-cast Co-Cr base alloys have been investigated in order to determine the region of their optimal characteristics for biomedical application. The alloys were produced by arc-melting technique under argon atmosphere. Using optical metallography and scanning electron micro analyser it has been established that among 10 samples of Co-Cr-Ni alloys only samples 5 and 9 with the composition Co 55 Cr 40 Ni 5 and Co 60 Cr 30 Ni 10 have appropriate dendritic solidification microstructure. This microstructure, typical for commercial dental alloys, appears and beside greater number of as-cast Co-Cr-Mo alloys. The results of hardness and corrosion resistance measurements revealed the strong influence of different alloy chemistry and of as-cast microstructure. Hardness of alloys decreases with nickel content, but increases with chromium content. Therefore all Co-Cr-Ni alloys have significantly lower hardness than Co-Cr-Mo alloys. Corrosion resistance of alloys in artificial saliva was evaluated on the base of pitting potential. Superior corrosion characteristics have the samples with typical dendritic microstructure and higher chromium content, until nickel content have not significant effect. According to this, in ternary Co-Cr-Ni phase diagram was located the small concentration region (about samples 5 and 9) in them alloy properties can satisfied the high requirements for biomedical applications. This region is considerably larger in Co-Cr-Mo phase diagram

  5. [Corrosion of Ag-Pd-Cu alloys in saline solution. Amount of released elements and electrochemical corrosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, M

    1989-03-01

    The effect of the Pd content on corrosion and tarnish resistance in twelve experimental alloys was investigated. The alloys were prepared with a composition of Pd content from 20.1 to 30.1 at %. The composition of the alloys Ag-20% Pd, Ag-25% Pd and Ag-30% Pd was varied by adding Cu 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 15 wt% to each of them. The corrosion resistance was estimated by the amount of the released Ag, Cu and by electrochemical corrosion behavior in 0.86% NaCl solution at 37 degrees C. The tarnish resistance was assessed using a spectrophotometer. The test solutions included 0.86% NaCl solution, 0.1% Na2S solution and a mixture of 1.0% lactic acid and 0.1% Na2S, all at 37 degrees C, in sealed containers. The results are summarized as follows. The larger the amount of Pd in Ag-Pd binary alloys and Ag-Pd-Cu ternary alloys, the more stable was the release and the release rate of Ag, Cu and corrosion resistance increased in 0.86% NaCl solution. The addition of Cu to Ag-Pd binary alloys increased the release and release rate of Ag, but there was a shift of the rest potential in the noble direction. A relationship was found between the amount of Ag and Cu released from Ag-Pd-Cu ternary alloys. In this study, an increase in corrosion resistance was observed when the content of Pd in Ag-Pd binary alloys was 25 wt%. Furthermore, it was also observed that Ag-Pd-Cu ternary alloys need an additional 30 wt% Pd for corrosion resistance. Moreover, the addition of Cu must be kept lower than 10 wt%. The tarnish resistance of the twelve experimental alloys was good in 0.86% NaCl solution but was barely improved with increased in the Pd content in sulfide solution. The correlation between electrochemical corrosion behavior and tarnish resistance was not significant, but the correlation between the amount of Ag, Cu release from Ag-Pd-Cu ternary alloys and tarnish resistance was remarkable.

  6. Hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G. J.; Barret, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys was examined by cyclically oxidizing sodium sulfate-coated specimens in still air at 900, 1000, and 1100 C. The compositions tested were within the ternary region: Ni, Ni-50 at.% Cr, and Ni-50 at.% Al. At each temperature the corrosion data were statistically fitted to a third order regression equation as a function of chromium and aluminum contents. From these equations corrosion isopleths were prepared. Compositional regions with the best hot corrosion resistance were identified.

  7. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of rare earths in copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhibin; Wang Hui; Deng Yanping

    1985-01-01

    The ternary complex with metal-ligand ratio of 1:1:1 is formed in the RE-Cu-chlorophosphonazo (CPA III) system. The absorption maximum of the complex lies at 630 nm. If the pH is ranged from 5.8 to 6.0 and the sample solution is warmed, the complex can be easily reduced by sodium sulfite. The rate of redox reaction is proportional to the concentration of rare earths in a certain definite range. The complex serves well for catalytic spectrophotometric determination of rare earths in copper alloys

  8. Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Voznyak, O.M.; Bodak, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Phase equilibria in Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems are investigated at 1070 K. Sc 2+x W 3-x Si 4 ternary compound (0≤x≤1) is determined, its crystal structure (Ce 2 Sc 3 Si 4 structural type), as well as, change of elementary cell parameters and microhardness within homogeneity range are determined. Regularities of component interaction within Sc-M-Si(Ge) (M-Cr, Mo, W) ternary system are determined. Ternary systems with Mo and W are more closer to each other according to the phase equilibria character, than to ternary systems with Cr

  9. Viscometric and thermodynamic studies of interactions in ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    making and structure-breaking capacities of alkali metal halides in pure aqueous solutions and in the pre- sence of sucrose have been ascertained from temperature dependence of φv. 0. Keywords. Ternary solutions; interactions of ionic and nonionic solutes; partial molar volumes; sucrose- alkali metal halide solutions. 1.

  10. Densities and Excess Molar Volume for the Ternary Systems (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2012-09-10

    methylimidazolium methyl sulphate. ([BMIM]+[MeSO4]–) were determined. The ternary systems studied were ([BMIM]+[MeSO4]– + nitromethane + methanol or ethanol or 1-propanol) at the temperatures (303.15 and 313.15) K. The ...

  11. Speeds of sound and isothermal compressibility of ternary liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ternary liquid systems. PACS Nos 43.35.Bf; 61.20.Gy; 82.60.Lf. 1. Introduction. The primary objective is to measure the speeds of sound and density of liquid systems in order to estimate the value of isentropic compressibility (βS). This cannot be done by any other method. Isentropic compressibility has been widely used to ...

  12. Mechanochemically prepared ternary hybrid cathode material for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posudievsky, Oleg Yu; Kozarenko, Olga A.; Dyadyun, Vyacheslav S.; Jorgensen, Scott W.; Spearot, James A.; Koshechko, Vyacheslav G.; Pokhodenko, Vitaly D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy–PEO/V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite. -- Highlights: • Two- and three component nanocomposites are prepared via a solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis. • The nanocomposites retain their capacity above 200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles. • The presence of PEO promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and facilitates faster transport inside the nanocomposite. -- Abstract: Ternary host–guest nanocomposite based on vanadium oxide and two polymers with different types of conductivity (ionic and electronic) – polypyrrole (PPy) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) – is prepared by solventless mechanochemical synthesis. The nanocomposite can be reversibly cycled with a specific capacity of ∼200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles of full charge–discharge as the active component of the positive electrode of lithium batteries. Electrochemical performance of ternary PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 is compared with two-component analog PPy 0.1 V 2 O 5 . The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite

  13. The ternary-encoded fuzzy-neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Semenova, Olena; Semenov, Andriy; Koval, Kostyantyn; Galka, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    When combining fuzzy logic and neural networks it is possible to get a hybrid system that can process uncertain values and can be trained. Fuzzy logic elements can be regarded as fuzzy-neural networks. In order to present a set of fuzzy values the ternary encoding is used.

  14. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Speed of sound of the binary mixtures and the ternary mixture have been compared with calculated values from free length theory (FLT), collision factor theory (CFT), Nomoto's relation (NR), Van Deal's ideal mixing relation (IMR) and Junjie's relation (JR). The results are used to compare the relative merits of these theories ...

  15. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  16. Optical Properties of Lead Silver Sulphide Ternary Thin Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optical Properties of Lead Silver Sulphide Ternary Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Bath Method. ... The optical properties studied include reflectance, absorption coefficient, thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient, optical conductivity and band gap energy. The films showed very high absorbance in the UV region, ...

  17. Application of Analytic Geometry to Ternary and Quaternary Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Advantages of representing ternary and quaternary composition diagrams by means of rectangular coordinates were pointed out in a previous paper (EJ 288 693). A further advantage of that approach is that analytic geometry, based on rectangular coordinates, is directly applicable as demonstrated by the examples presented. (JN)

  18. Ternary forecast of heavy snowfall in the Honam area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Keon Tae; Lee, Jeong Hyeong; Cho, Young Seuk

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the statistical modeling for the ternary forecast of heavy snowfall in the Honam area in Korea. The ternary forecast of heavy snowfall consists of one of three values, 0 for less than 50 mm, 1 for an advisory (50-150 mm), and 2 for a warning (more than 150 mm). For our study, the observed daily snow amounts and the numerical model outputs for 45 synoptic factors at 17 stations in the Honam area during 5 years (2001 to 2005) are used as observations and potential predictors respectively. For statistical modeling and validation, the data set is divided into training data and validation data by cluster analysis. A multi-grade logistic regression model and neural networks are separately applied to generate the probabilities of three categories based on the model output statistic (MOS) method. Two models are estimated by the training data and tested by the validation data. Based on the estimated probabilities, three thresholds are chosen to generate ternary forecasts. The results are summarized in 3×3 contingency tables and the results of the three-grade logistic regression model are compared to those of the neural networks model. According to the model training and model validation results, the estimated three-grade logistic regression model is recommended as a ternary forecast model for heavy snowfall in the Honam area.

  19. Robust Self-Triggered Coordination With Ternary Controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo; Nair, G.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  20. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These excess properties of the binary mixtures were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation, while the Cibulka's equation was used to fit the values related to the values to the ternary system. These excess properties have been used to discuss the presence of significant interactions between the component molecules in the binary ...

  1. Univolatility curves in ternary mixtures: geometry and numerical computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakova, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new non-iterative numerical algorithm allowing computation of all univolatility curves in homogeneous ternary mixtures independently of the presence of the azeotropes. The key point is the concept of generalized univolatility curves in the 3D state space, which allows the main...... computational part to be reduced to a simple integration of a system of ordinary differential equations....

  2. Robust self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  3. Intermolecular Interactions in Ternary Glycerol–Sample–H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; Koga, Yoshikata

    2011-01-01

    We studied the intermolecular interactions in ternary glycerol (Gly)–sample (S)–H2O systems at 25 °C. By measuring the excess partial molar enthalpy of Gly, HGlyEHEGly, we evaluated the Gly–Gly enthalpic interaction, HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly, in the presence of various samples (S). For S, tert...

  4. Ternary mixtures of alkyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (C12 TPB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    TPB) in aqueous medium: their interfacial, bulk and fluorescence quenching behaviour. GARGI BASU RAY, SOUMEN .... aqueous and micellar media of CTAB and SDS at concentrations 20 times their CMCs. The alkyl- ... vailing in the ternary mixed micelles in contrast to the predominantly antagonistic behaviour reported.

  5. Ternary mixtures of alkyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (C12 TPB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    C14TPB and C16TPB, respectively (structures shown in scheme 1). Prasad et al23 have reported the prop- erties of binary .... dicating associative or cooperative interaction pre- vailing in the ternary mixed micelles in contrast to ... The organizational change in the mixed systems with variation in the associated counterion.

  6. Evaluation of griseofulvin binary and ternary solid dispersions with HPMCAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Hisham; Buckton, Graham

    2009-01-01

    The stability and dissolution properties of griseofulvin binary and ternary solid dispersions were evaluated. Solid dispersions of griseofulvin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared using the spray drying method. A third polymer, poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylate] (PHPMA), was incorporated to investigate its effect on the interaction of griseofulvin with HPMCAS. In this case, HPMCAS can form H bonds with griseofulvin directly; the addition of PHPMA to the solid dispersion may enhance the stability of the amorphous griseofulvin due to greater interaction with griseofulvin. The X-ray powder diffraction results showed that griseofulvin (binary and ternary solid dispersions) remained amorphous for more than 19 months stored at 85% RH compared with the spray-dried griseofulvin which crystallized totally within 24 h at ambient conditions. The Fourier transform infrared scan showed that griseofulvin carbonyl group formed hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl group in the HPMCAS, which could explain the extended stability of the drug. Further broadening in the peak could be seen when PHPMA was added to the solid dispersion, which indicates stronger interaction. The glass transition temperatures increased in the ternary solid dispersions regardless of HPMCAS grade. The dissolution rate of the drug in the solid dispersion (both binary and ternary) has significantly increased when compared with the dissolution profile of the spray-dried griseofulvin. These results reveal significant stability of the amorphous form due to the hydrogen bond formation with the polymer. The addition of the third polymer improved the stability but had a minor impact on dissolution.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of ternary Pt-Ni-M/C (M=Cu, Fe, Ce, Mo, W) nano-catalysts for low temperature fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Riaz; Jamil, Rabia; Ansari, Muhammad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Ternary metal catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The mixture of metal solutions was reduced slowly under inert atmosphere and the reduced metals were deposited on the Vulcan Carbon(VC). Tungsten, molybdenum, cerium, iron and copper were added to specified amounts of platinum and nickel. Addition of nickel generally improves catalytic activity of platinum. The XRD of the catalysts was done and the crystallite size and other parameters were calculated. Crystallite sizes were in the range of 5 to 16 nm. Electrochemical surface areas of the catalysts were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in acidic media and are compared. Electro oxidation of methanol on the catalysts was done and peak potential, peak current, mass activity of the catalysts were calculated and are compared. These parameters were determined in acidic and basic media. It was found that mass activity increased significantly in basic media. Rate constants for the electro oxidation of methanol were also calculated in acidic and basic media and are compared and discussed. Rate constants were generally higher in basic media. Ternary catalysts showed improved catalytic activity than the binary catalyst. Nano alloying improved the catalytic activity and stability of the ternary catalysts

  8. Formation of AlFeSi phase in AlSi12 alloy with Ce addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cerium addition on the solidification sequence and microstructure constituents of the Al-Si alloys with 12,6 mass % Si was examined. The solidification was analyzed by a simple thermal analysis. The microstructures were examined with conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Ternary AlSiCe phase was formed in the Al-Si alloys with added cerium during the solidification process. AlSiCe and β-AlFeSi phases solidified together in the region that solidified the last. Cerium addition influenced on the morphology of the α-AlFeSi phase solidification.

  9. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  10. Design of ternary low-power Domino JKL flip—flop and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Yang Qiankun; Zheng Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    By researching the ternary flip—flop and the adiabatic Domino circuit, a novel design of low-power ternary Domino JKL flip—flop on the switch level is proposed. First, the switch-level structure of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is derived according to the switch-signal theory and its truth table. Then the ternary loop operation circuit and ternary reverse loop operation circuit are achieved by employing the ternary JKL flip—flop. Finally, the circuit is simulated by using the Spice tool and the results show that the logic function is correct. The energy consumption of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is 69% less than its conventional Domino counterpart. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Sulfide phase in the Fe-Ti-S and Fe-C-Ti-S alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinochka, Ya.N.; Balakina, N.A.; Shmelev, Yu.S.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the sulfide phases in Fe-Ti-S and Fe-C-Ti-S alloys was studied. The carbide and the sulfide phase were identified the aid of X-ray spectral microanalysis. It was established that for a small content of titanium and sulfur in ternary Fe-Ti-S alloys the solidification of the γ-solution on the boundaries of dendritic branches is accompanied, along with the precipitation of a sulfide rich in iron of the (Fe, Ti) S type where a small quantity of titanium is dissolved, by the formation of a titanium-bearing sulfide eutectic γ + TiS. The amount of the sulfide eutectic increases with the contents of titanium and sulfur until a purely eutectic alloy is formed. Both carbides and sulfides may be formed in the solidification of quaternary alloys Fe-C-Ti-S

  12. Structure, electronic and mechanical properties of Ga1-xBxP alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Junqin; Ma, Huihui; Wei, Qun; Yang, Yintang

    2017-09-01

    The structural, electronic and mechanical properties of Ga1-xBxP ternary alloys are carried out by the first-principles based on density functional theory. We studied the effect of composition on the ground state properties such as lattice parameter, band gap and elastic modulus and anisotropy. The elastic anisotropy of Ga1-xBxP alloys have been described through different anisotropic factors. We analyzed elastic anisotropy by depicting the three-dimensional surface structure of elastic modulus. Due to the introduction of boron atoms, the Ga1-xBxP alloys become direct-gap semiconductors at x = 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75. At last, we calculated the average acoustic velocity in different directions and the Debye temperatures for the Ga1-xBxP alloys.

  13. Phase-field simulation of solidification in multicomponent alloys coupled with thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruijie; Jing Tao; Jie Wanqi; Liu Baicheng

    2006-01-01

    To simulate quantitatively the microstructural evolution in the solidification process of multicomponent alloys, we extend the phase-field model for binary alloys to multicomponent alloys with consideration of the solute interactions between different species. These interactions have a great influence not only on the phase equilibria but also on the solute diffusion behaviors. In the model, the interface region is assumed to be a mixture of solid and liquid with the same chemical potential, but with different compositions. The simulation presented is coupled with thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases, which can accurately predict the phase equilibria and the solute diffusion transportation in the whole system. The phase equilibria in the interface and other thermodynamic quantities are obtained using Thermo-Calc through the TQ interface. As an example, two-dimensional computations for the dendritic growth in Al-Cu-Mg ternary alloy are performed. The quantitative solute distributions and diffusion matrix are obtained in both solid and liquid phases

  14. The precipitation process in Mg-Ca-(Zn) alloys investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Yanicet [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: yanicet@fis.ucm.es; Monge, Miguel Angel; Pareja, Ramiro [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2008-09-08

    Coincidence doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopy has been applied to study the precipitation process induced by aging in Mg-1.0 wt.% Ca and Mg-1.0 wt.% Ca-1.0 wt.% Zn alloys. In addition positron lifetime experiments and microhardness measurements have been performed. A peak centered at {approx}11.5 x 10{sup -3}m{sub 0}c is found in the CDB ratio spectra of the alloys aged at 473 K. It is attributed to annihilations with the core electrons of Ca. The results indicate the formation of a particle dispersion that hardens the alloys. This dispersion is correlated with the appearance of the peak attributed to Ca atoms. Zn atoms in the Mg matrix inhibit the formation of quenched-in vacancies bound to Ca atoms in the aged ternary alloy producing the dispersion refinement.

  15. The precipitation process in Mg-Ca-(Zn) alloys investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Yanicet; Monge, Miguel Angel; Pareja, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    Coincidence doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopy has been applied to study the precipitation process induced by aging in Mg-1.0 wt.% Ca and Mg-1.0 wt.% Ca-1.0 wt.% Zn alloys. In addition positron lifetime experiments and microhardness measurements have been performed. A peak centered at ∼11.5 x 10 -3 m 0 c is found in the CDB ratio spectra of the alloys aged at 473 K. It is attributed to annihilations with the core electrons of Ca. The results indicate the formation of a particle dispersion that hardens the alloys. This dispersion is correlated with the appearance of the peak attributed to Ca atoms. Zn atoms in the Mg matrix inhibit the formation of quenched-in vacancies bound to Ca atoms in the aged ternary alloy producing the dispersion refinement

  16. Multiscale Modeling of Grain Boundary Segregation and Embrittlement in Tungsten for Mechanistic Design of Alloys for Coal Fired Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jian; Tomar, Vikas; Zhou, Naixie; Lee, Hongsuk

    2013-06-30

    Based on a recent discovery of premelting-like grain boundary segregation in refractory metals occurring at high temperatures and/or high alloying levels, this project investigated grain boundary segregation and embrittlement in tungsten (W) based alloys. Specifically, new interfacial thermodynamic models have been developed and quantified to predict high-temperature grain boundary segregation in the W-Ni binary alloy and W-Ni-Fe, W-Ni-Ti, W-Ni-Co, W-Ni-Cr, W-Ni-Zr and W-Ni-Nb ternary alloys. The thermodynamic modeling results have been experimentally validated for selected systems. Furthermore, multiscale modeling has been conducted at continuum, atomistic and quantum-mechanical levels to link grain boundary segregation with embrittlement. In summary, this 3-year project has successfully developed a theoretical framework in combination with a multiscale modeling strategy for predicting grain boundary segregation and embrittlement in W based alloys.

  17. Ostwald ripening of decomposed phases in Cu-Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Santiago, Felipe [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Metallurgy, Apartado Postal 188-55, Mexico, D.F. 07051 (Mexico); Lopez-Hirata, Victor [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Metallurgy, Apartado Postal 188-55, Mexico, D.F. 07051 (Mexico)], E-mail: vlopezhi@prodigy.net.mx; Dorantes-Rosales, Hector J.; Saucedo-Munoz, Maribel L.; Gonzalez-Velazquez, Jorge L.; Paniagua-Mercado, Ana Ma. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Metallurgy, Apartado Postal 188-55, Mexico, D.F. 07051 (Mexico)

    2008-06-12

    A study of the coarsening process of the decomposed phases was carried out in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys using transmission electron microscopy. As aging progressed, the morphology of the coherent decomposed Ni-rich phase changed from cuboids to platelets aligned in the <1 0 0> Cu-rich matrix directions. Prolonged aging caused the loss of coherency between the decomposed phases and the morphology of the Ni-rich phase changed to ellipsoidal. The variation of mean radius of the coherent decomposed phases with aging time followed the modified LSW theory for thermally activated growth in ternary alloy systems. The linear variation of the density number of precipitates and matrix supersaturation with aging time, also confirmed that the coarsening process followed the modified LSW theory in both alloys. The coarsening rate was faster in the symmetrical Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloy due to its higher volume fraction of precipitates. The activation energy for thermally activated growth was determined to be about 182 and 102 kJ mol{sup -1} in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys, respectively. The lower energy for the former alloy seems to be related to an increase in the atomic diffusion process as the chromium content increases. The size distributions of precipitates in the Cu-Ni-Cr alloys were broader and more symmetric than that predicted by the modified LSW theory for ternary alloys.

  18. Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigutti, L., E-mail: lorenzo.rigutti@univ-rouen.fr; Mancini, L.; Hernández-Maldonado, D.; Lefebvre, W.; Blavette, D.; Vurpillot, F. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS, University and INSA of Rouen, Normandie University, 76800 St. Etienne du Rouvray (France); Giraud, E.; Butté, R.; Carlin, J. F.; Grandjean, N. [Institute of Physics (IPhys), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-14

    The ternary semiconductor alloy Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N has been analyzed by means of correlated photoluminescence spectroscopy and atom probe tomography (APT). We find that the composition measured by APT is strongly dependent on the surface electric field, leading to erroneous measurements of the alloy composition at high field, due to the different evaporation behaviors of Al and Ga atoms. After showing how a biased measurement of the alloy content leads to inaccurate predictions on the optical properties of the material, we develop a correction procedure which yields consistent transition and localization energies for the alloy photoluminescence.

  19. Crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compound semiconductors by physical vapor transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    1993-01-01

    The materials to be investigated are ZnSe and related ternary semiconducting alloys (e.g., ZnS(x)Se(1-x), ZnTe(x)Se(1-x), and Zn(1-x)Cd(x)Se). These materials are useful for opto-electronic applications such as high efficient light emitting diodes and low power threshold and high temperature lasers in the blue-green region of the visible spectrum. The recent demonstration of its optical bistable properties also makes ZnSe a possible candidate material for digital optical computers. The investigation consists of an extensive ground-based study followed by flight experimentation, and involves both experimental and theoretical work. The objectives of the ground-based work are to establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low gravity environment and to obtain the experimental data and perform the analyses required to define the optimum parameters for the flight experiments. During the six months of the Preliminary Definition Phase, the research efforts were concentrated on the binary compound ZnSe - the purification of starting materials of Se by zone refining, the synthesis of ZnSe starting materials, the heat treatments of the starting materials, the vapor transport rate measurements, the vapor partial pressure measurements of ZnSe, the crystal growth of ZnSe by physical vapor transport, and various characterization on the grown ZnSe crystals.

  20. The structure of a new ternary aluminide Th4Fe3Al32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enidjer, D.; Venkert, A.; Bernstein, J.; Talianker, M.

    2009-01-01

    The atomic structure of a new ternary Th 4 Fe 3 Al 32 phase appearing in the alloy with composition Al-5 at.%Th-2.5 at.% Fe was solved using electron crystallography and X-ray diffraction techniques. Unit cell dimensions, type of Bravais lattice and the symmetry of the new compound were determined in transmission electron microscope by applying selected area and micro-beam electron diffraction techniques. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction data were used for developing the structural model. The Th 4 Fe 3 Al 32 compound crystallizes in a new type of crystal structure which is orthorhombic and belongs to Cmmm space group with the unit cell dimensions a = 10.03 A, b = 16.44 A and c = 8.21 A. The unit cell contains 77 atoms which occupy 78 positions: 4i and 4j (for Th atoms), 4h and 2d (for Fe atoms) and 16r, 8m, 8n, 8q, 8p, 8o, 4g, 2b and 2c (for Al atoms). Refinement of the structure with isotropic thermal parameters for all atoms led to agreement factor R1 = 0.11. Refinement with anisotropic thermal parameters for Th atoms converged at R1 = 0.071

  1. Crystal structure of the ternary silicide Gd2Re3Si5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliia Fedyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A single crystal of the title compound, the ternary silicide digadolinium trirhenium pentasilicide, Gd2Re3Si5, was isolated from an alloy of nominal composition Gd20Re30Si50 synthesized by arc melting and investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure belongs to the U2Mn3Si5 structure type. All atoms in the asymmetric lie on special positions. The Gd site has site symmetry m..; the two Mn atoms have site symmetries m.. and 2.22; the three Si atoms have site symmetries m.., ..2 and 4.. . The coordination polyhedra of the Gd atoms have 21 vertices, while those of the Re atoms are cubooctahedra and 13-vertex polyhedra. The Si atoms are arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms, bicapped square antiprisms, or 11-vertex polyhedra. The crystal structure of the title compound is also related to the structure types CaBe2Ge2 and W5Si3. It can be represented as a stacking of Gd-centred polyhedra of composition [GdSi9]. The Re atoms form infinite chains with an Re—Re distance of 2.78163 (5 Å and isolated squares with an Re—Re distance of 2.9683 (6 Å.

  2. Fabrication and high frequency magnetic characterization of FeCoAl ternary thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yung-Wang [Center for Nanotechnology, Materials Science, and Microsystems, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Kuang-Fu Rd., Sec. 2, Hsinchu 300 (China); Wu, Fan-Bean [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, MiaoLi 360 (China); Li, Shandong [Center for Nanotechnology, Materials Science, and Microsystems, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Kuang-Fu Rd., Sec. 2, Hsinchu 300 (China); Department of Physics, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 35007 (China); Kuo, Cheng-Lun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Kuang-Fu Rd., Sec. 2, Hsinchu 300 (China); Duh, Jenq-Gong [Center for Nanotechnology, Materials Science, and Microsystems, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Kuang-Fu Rd., Sec. 2, Hsinchu 300 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Kuang-Fu Rd., Sec. 2, Hsinchu 300 (China)

    2007-12-15

    Integration of ferromagnetic materials with electronic components represents a key solution to the enhancement of high frequency characteristics for recent miniaturized communication devices. In this study, Al element was introduced into FeCo binary alloy to form a ternary FeCoAl magnetic thin film by co-sputtering technique followed by annealing in the presence of an external magnetic field. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the FeCoAl films exhibited a solid solution microstructure of FeCo matrix with Al as the solute element. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of FeCoAl thin film still maintained a high value around 1780 emu/cm{sup 3}. It was found that the FeCoAl system possessed a high permeability around 1000 and an uni-axial anisotropic field (H{sub k}) of 50 Oe. In addition, with the incorporation of Al element, the resonance frequency of the FeCoAl film reached 2.1 GHz. Hence, it is suggested that the FeCoAl magnetic thin film is a potential candidate for high frequency devices operated in GHz bands. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. In vitro corrosion properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys as potential biodegradable metallic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henan; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Li, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The in vitro biodegradable properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys including Fe 81 Ga 19 , (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 98 B 2 and (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 99.5 (TaC) 0.5 , and pure Fe were investigated for biomedical applications. The microstructure of the alloys was characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The results showed that A2 and D0 3 phases were detected for the three types of Fe-Ga alloys, and additional Fe 2 B and TaC phases were found in the (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 98 B 2 and (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 99.5 (TaC) 0.5 alloys, respectively. The corrosion rates of the Fe-Ga alloys were higher than that of pure Fe, as demonstrated by both potentiodynamic polarization measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid. The alloying element Ga lowered the corrosion potential of the Fe matrix and made it more susceptible to corrosion. Severe pitting corrosion developed on the surface of the Fe 81 Ga 19 alloy after the addition of ternary B or TaC due to the multi-phase microstructures. The MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited good adhesion and proliferation behavior on the surfaces of the Fe-Ga alloys after culture for 4h and 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidation behaviour of experimental Co-Re-base alloys in laboratory air at 1000 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauke, Michael; Mukherji, Debashis; Roesler, Joachim [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institut fuer Werkstoffe (Germany); Gorr, Bronislava; Christ, Hans-Juergen [Universitaet Siegen, Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik (Germany); Braz da Trindade Filho, Vicente [Vallourec und Mannesmann Tubes, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The oxidation behaviour of experimental Co-Re-based alloy at 1000 C was studied. A set of binary, ternary and quaternary alloys from the Co-Re-Cr-C system was used as model alloys to understand the role each alloying element plays on oxidation. The morphology and composition of the oxide scale that formed was analysed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the present Co-Re alloys with 23 at.% and 30 at.% Cr additions behaved very similarly to Co-Cr binary alloys with equivalent Cr content. The oxide scale was multilayered, consisting of a dense CoO outer layer, a porous mixed oxide layer containing Co-oxide and Co-Cr spinel, and a discontinuous and non-protective Cr{sub 3}O{sub 2} layer. The binary Co-Re alloy behaved differently in oxidation, and it formed only a monolithic CoO scale. However, Re in combination with Cr promotes Cr-Re-rich {sigma} phase formation, which oxidises preferentially compared to the Co matrix. Carbon ties up part of the Cr to form Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} type carbides. However, these carbides are not stable at 1000 C and dissolved with time, therefore C had only a minor role in the oxidation behaviour. In general, increasing Cr content in the alloy improved oxidation resistance. (orig.)

  5. Influence of tin additions on the precipitation processes in a Cu-Ni-Zn alloys; Influencia de la adicion de estano en el proceso de precipitacion en una aleacion de Cu-Ni-Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, E. C.; Dianez, M. J.; Criado, J. M.; Espinoza, R.; Mosquera, E.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of 1.1 wt% tin additions on the precipitation hardening of Cu-11 wt% Ni-20 wt% Zn alloy was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), microhardeness measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The calorimetric curves, in the range of temperatures analyzed, show the presence of two exothermic reactions in the ternary alloy, associated to the short-range-order development assisted by migration of excess vacancies. On the other hand, one exothermic and one endothermic reaction are observed in the quaternary alloy, associated to the formation and dissolution of Cu{sub 2}NiZn precipitates, respectively. It has been show that an addition of 1.1% tin plays an important role in the formation of Cu{sub 2}NiZn precipitates, responsible for the precipitation hardening of the ternary alloy. (Author)

  6. Impact toughness of ternary Al–Zn–Mg alloys in as cast and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Avner S H 1974 Introduction to physical metallurgy (Auckland: McGraw Hill) pp 42–44. Balasubramanian P K and Sarkar B K 1979 Trans. IIM Calcutta. 32 170. Beechen C D 1972 Met. Trans. A3 437. Brown B F 1968 Metall. Rev. 13 171. Cottrell A H 1958 Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 212 192. Courtney T H 1990 Mechanical ...

  7. Influence of indium clustering on the band structure of semiconducting ternary and quaternarynitride alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca,, I.; Łepkowski, S. P.; Suski, T.

    2009-01-01

    and atomic arrangements are examined. Particular attention is paid to the magnitude of and trends in bowing of the band gaps. Indium composition fluctuation (clustering) is simulated by different distributions of In atoms and it is shown that it strongly influences the band gaps. The gaps are considerably...... show a similar trend. It is suggested that the large variation in the band gaps determined on samples grown in different laboratories is caused by different degrees of In clustering....

  8. Synthesis and characterization of cadmium manganese telluride: a semimagnetic ternary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, T.; Basu, S.

    1993-01-01

    Polycrystalline cadmium manganese telluride (Cd ( 1-x)Mn x Te) was synthesized by the vertical Bridgman method. Compositional analysis was done by X-ray studies and optical absorption to indicate x=0.23. XPS, ac and dc susceptibility studies are also presented. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs

  9. Optical fingerprints of Y2 ordering in III–V ternary semiconductor alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dongguo; Ravindra, N M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report the Y2 ordering induced changes in the crystal field splitting, spin–orbit splitting and band gap for Al x Ga 1−x As, Ga x In 1−x As, Ga x In 1−x P, GaAs x Sb 1−x and InP x Sb 1−x using first-principles calculations. These values and the valence band splittings E 12 , E 13 for these materials are provided as a function of the ordering parameter η. The trends of these properties among materials are explained. The optical fingerprints of Y2 ordering are then compared with those of other available structures and the experimental data. (paper)

  10. Thermodynamic calculations in ternary titanium–aluminium–manganese system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA I. KOSTOV

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations in the ternary Ti–Al–Mn system are shown in this paper. The thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermochemical software and database, with the aim of determining thermodynamic properties, such as activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values of the enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at two different temperatures: 2000 and 2100 K. Bearing in mind that no experimental data for the Ti–Al–Mn ternary system have been obtained or reported. The obtained results represent a good base for further thermodynamic analysis and may be useful as a comparison with some future critical experimental results and thermodynamic optimization of this system.

  11. A New Multifunctional Sensor for Measuring Concentrations of Ternary Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Shida, Katsunori

    This paper presents a multifunctional sensor with novel structure, which is capable of directly sensing temperature and two physical parameters of solutions, namely ultrasonic velocity and conductivity. By combined measurement of these three measurable parameters, the concentrations of various components in a ternary solution can be simultaneously determined. The structure and operation principle of the sensor are described, and a regression algorithm based on natural cubic spline interpolation and the least square method is adopted to estimate the concentrations. The performances of the proposed sensor are experimentally tested by the use of ternary aqueous solution of sodium chloride and sucrose, which is widely involved in food and beverage industries. This sensor could prove valuable as a process control sensor in industry fields.

  12. Dynamical theory of subconstituents based on ternary algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, I.; Guenaydin, M.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a dynamical theory of possible fundamental constituents of matter. Our scheme is based on (super) ternary algebras which are building blocks of Lie (super) algebras. Elementary fields, called ''ternons,'' are associated with the elements of a (super) ternary algebra. Effective gauge bosons, ''quarks,'' and ''leptons'' are constructed as composite fields from ternons. We propose two- and four-dimensional (super) ternon theories whose structures are closely related to CP/sub N/ and Yang-Mills theories and their supersymmetric extensions. We conjecture that at large distances (low energies) the ternon theories dynamically produce effective gauge theories and thus may be capable of explaining the present particle-physics phenomenology. Such a scenario is valid in two dimensions

  13. Investigation of ternary and quaternary high-temperature fixed-point cells, based on platinum-carbon-X, as blind comparison artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Machin, G.; Bloembergen, P.; Lowe, D.; Wang, T.

    2016-11-01

    Extensive studies of platinum-carbon eutectic alloy based high temperature fixed point cells have shown that this alloy has extremely good metrological potential as a temperature reference. However, it’s possible adoption as an accepted reference standard means that its eutectic temperature value will soon be agreed with an uncertainty less than most radiation thermometry scales at that temperature. Thus it will lack credibility if used as a future scale comparison artefact. To avoid this, the fixed-point cell can be deliberately doped with an impurity to change its transition temperature by an amount sufficient to test the accuracy of the scales of the institutes, involved in the comparison. In this study dopants of palladium and iridium were added to platinum-carbon to produce ternary alloy and quaternary alloy fixed-point cells. The stability of these artefacts was demonstrated and the fixed-point cells were used to compare the ITS-90 scales of NIM and NPL. It was found that the fixed point temperatures could be changed by an appreciable amount while retaining the stability and repeatability required for comparison artefacts.

  14. Ternary and senary representations using DNA double-crossover tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeonghoon; Jo, Soojin; Son, Junyoung; Kim, Junghoon; Kim, Min Hyeok; Hwang, Si Un; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Kim, Byung-Dong; Liu, Wing Kam; Kim, Moon Ki; Park, Sung Ha

    2014-03-14

    The information capacity of DNA double-crossover (DX) tiles was successfully increased beyond a binary representation to higher base representations. By controlling the length and the position of DNA hairpins on the DX tile, ternary and senary (base-3 and base-6) digit representations were realized and verified by atomic force microscopy. Also, normal mode analysis was carried out to study the mechanical characteristics of each structure.

  15. Formation of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    showed that a series of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses (BGMs) with a diameter of 4–8 mm were suc- cessfully fabricated in the system with ... rods with the maximum diameter of 6–16 mm are fabri- cated by copper-mold casting .... some minor secondary event, resulting in a large melting point of about 65 K, which ...

  16. Evaluation of Griseofulvin Binary and Ternary Solid Dispersions with HPMCAS

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Obaidi, Hisham; Buckton, Graham

    2009-01-01

    The stability and dissolution properties of griseofulvin binary and ternary solid dispersions were evaluated. Solid dispersions of griseofulvin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared using the spray drying method. A third polymer, poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylate] (PHPMA), was incorporated to investigate its effect on the interaction of griseofulvin with HPMCAS. In this case, HPMCAS can form H bonds with griseofulvin directly; the addition of PHPMA to t...

  17. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vi, αi and Cp,i are molar volume, cubic expansion coefficient, and the molar heat capacity of pure components, respectively. The excess speed of sound, uE, is estimated in binary and ternary mixtures using the following expression: uE = u − uid = u − (ρidκid s )−1/2,. (5) where ρid is the density of the corresponding ideal ...

  18. Thermoelectric properties of RuSb2Te ternary skutterudites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Plecháček, T.; Drašar, Č.; Laufek, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2013), s. 1864-1869 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RuSb2Te * ternary skutterudite * doping Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11664-012-2451-5

  19. Ternary Ag/epoxy adhesive with excellent overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan-Hong; Liu, Yu; Huang, Gui-Wen; Shen, Xiao-Jun; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2015-04-22

    Excellent electrical conductivity (EC) generally conflicts with high lap shear strength (LSS) for electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) since EC increases while LSS decreases with increasing conductive filler content. In this work, the ECAs with the excellent overall performance are developed based on the ternary hybrid of Ag microflakes (Ag-MFs), Ag nanospheres (Ag-NSs), and Ag nanowires (Ag-NWs). First, a low silver content adhesive system is determined. Then, the effects of the relative contents of Ag fillers on the EC and the LSS are studied. It is shown that a small amount of Ag-NSs or Ag-NWs can dramatically improve the EC for the Ag-MF/epoxy adhesives. The Ag-NSs and Ag-NWs with appropriate contents have a synergistic effect in improving the EC. Meanwhile, the LSS of the as-prepared adhesive with the appropriate Ag contents reaches an optimal value. Both the EC and the LSS of the as-prepared ternary hybrid ECA with a low content of 40 wt % Ag are higher than those of the commercial ECAs filled with the Ag-MF content over 60 wt %. Finally, the ternary hybrid ECA with the optimal formulation is shown to be promising for printing the radio frequency identification tag antennas as an immediate application example.

  20. Realizing Ternary Logic in FPGAs for SWL DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Din

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently SWL (Short Word Length DSP (Digital Signal Processing applications has been proposed to overcome multiplier complexity that is evident in most of the digital applications. These SWL applications have been processed through sigma-delta modulation as a key element. For such applications, adder design plays vital role and can impact upon the chip area and its performance. In this paper, a ternary approach for adder tree has been proposed instead of binary that can accommodate more data with less chip-area at the cost of extra pin. The proposed ternary adder tree has been designed and developed in Quartus-II using three different design strategies namely T-gate (Ternary gate, LUT (Look Up Table and algebraic equations. Through rigorous simulation it was found that T-gate technique results in superior performance, an average of 23.5 and 33% improvement compared to the same adder structure based on Boolean Algebraic Equation and LUT, respectively. The proposed adder design would benefit the efficient implementation of SWL applications.

  1. Development of Combinatorial Methods for Alloy Design and Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharr, George M.; George, Easo P.; Santella, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this research was to develop a comprehensive methodology for designing and optimizing metallic alloys by combinatorial principles. Because conventional techniques for alloy preparation are unavoidably restrictive in the range of alloy composition that can be examined, combinatorial methods promise to significantly reduce the time, energy, and expense needed for alloy design. Combinatorial methods can be developed not only to optimize existing alloys, but to explore and develop new ones as well. The scientific approach involved fabricating an alloy specimen with a continuous distribution of binary and ternary alloy compositions across its surface--an ''alloy library''--and then using spatially resolved probing techniques to characterize its structure, composition, and relevant properties. The three specific objectives of the project were: (1) to devise means by which simple test specimens with a library of alloy compositions spanning the range interest can be produced; (2) to assess how well the properties of the combinatorial specimen reproduce those of the conventionally processed alloys; and (3) to devise screening tools which can be used to rapidly assess the important properties of the alloys. As proof of principle, the methodology was applied to the Fe-Ni-Cr ternary alloy system that constitutes many commercially important materials such as stainless steels and the H-series and C-series heat and corrosion resistant casting alloys. Three different techniques were developed for making alloy libraries: (1) vapor deposition of discrete thin films on an appropriate substrate and then alloying them together by solid-state diffusion; (2) co-deposition of the alloying elements from three separate magnetron sputtering sources onto an inert substrate; and (3) localized melting of thin films with a focused electron-beam welding system. Each of the techniques was found to have its own advantages and disadvantages. A new and very powerful technique for

  2. Development of Combinatorial Methods for Alloy Design and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharr, George M.; George, Easo P.; Santella, Michael L

    2005-07-01

    The primary goal of this research was to develop a comprehensive methodology for designing and optimizing metallic alloys by combinatorial principles. Because conventional techniques for alloy preparation are unavoidably restrictive in the range of alloy composition that can be examined, combinatorial methods promise to significantly reduce the time, energy, and expense needed for alloy design. Combinatorial methods can be developed not only to optimize existing alloys, but to explore and develop new ones as well. The scientific approach involved fabricating an alloy specimen with a continuous distribution of binary and ternary alloy compositions across its surface--an ''alloy library''--and then using spatially resolved probing techniques to characterize its structure, composition, and relevant properties. The three specific objectives of the project were: (1) to devise means by which simple test specimens with a library of alloy compositions spanning the range interest can be produced; (2) to assess how well the properties of the combinatorial specimen reproduce those of the conventionally processed alloys; and (3) to devise screening tools which can be used to rapidly assess the important properties of the alloys. As proof of principle, the methodology was applied to the Fe-Ni-Cr ternary alloy system that constitutes many commercially important materials such as stainless steels and the H-series and C-series heat and corrosion resistant casting alloys. Three different techniques were developed for making alloy libraries: (1) vapor deposition of discrete thin films on an appropriate substrate and then alloying them together by solid-state diffusion; (2) co-deposition of the alloying elements from three separate magnetron sputtering sources onto an inert substrate; and (3) localized melting of thin films with a focused electron-beam welding system. Each of the techniques was found to have its own advantages and disadvantages. A new and very

  3. Ternary fission of 184466,476X formed in U + U collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthikraj, C.; Subramanian, S.; Selvaraj, S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the very rare process of nuclear ternary fission has been of great interest in nuclear dynamics. Based on the statistical theory of fission, we discuss here the ternary-fission mass distribution of 184 466,476 X formed in low-energy U + U collisions for different heavy third fragments at T = 1 and 2 MeV. The expected ternary configurations 208 Pb + 208 Pb + 50 Ca and 204 Hg + 204 Hg + 58 Cr are obtained from the ternary fission of 184 466 X at T = 2 MeV. In addition, for both the systems, various possible ternary modes are listed for different heavy third fragments. Our results clearly indicate that the favored ternary configurations have either proton and/or neutron shell closure nucleus as one of their partners. (orig.)

  4. A ternary phase-field model incorporating commercial CALPHAD software and its application to precipitation in superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.H.; Lill, J.V.; Chen, S.L.; Simmons, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    A ternary phase-field model was developed that is linked directly to commercial CALPHAD software to provide quantitative thermodynamic driving forces. A recently available diffusion mobility database for ordered phases is also implemented to give a better description of the diffusion behavior in alloys. Because the targeted application of this model is the study of precipitation in Ni-based superalloys, a Ni-Al-Cr model alloy was constructed. A detailed description of this model is given in the paper. We have considered the misfit effects of the partitioning of the two solute elements. Transformation rules of the dual representation of the γ+γ ' microstructure by CALPHAD and by the phase field are established and the link with commercial CALPHAD software is described. Proof-of-concept tests were performed to evaluate the model and the results demonstrate that the model can qualitatively reproduce observed γ ' precipitation behavior. Uphill diffusion of Al is observed in a few diffusion couples, showing the significant influence of Cr on the chemical potential of Al. Possible applications of this model are discussed.

  5. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  6. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  7. Can time reversal invariance be tested in ternary fission?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesinger, P.; Koetzle, A.; Goennenwein, F.; Schmidt, K.; Gagarski, A. M.; Petrov, G. A.; Petrova, V. I.; Danilyan, G.; Pavlov, V. S.; Chvatchkin, V. B.; Mutterer, M.; Neumaier, S. R.; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Zimmer, O.; Geltenbort, P.; Korobkina, K.

    1998-01-01

    Already several years ago the idea has been put forward that a reaction well suited for tests of Time Reversal Invariance (TRI) might be ternary fission [1][2]. In ternary fission, besides the two main fission fragments, a third (usually light) charged particle is emitted. For a test of TRI a triple correlation has to be studied involving on one hand the momenta of a fission fragment p f and the ternary particle p t , and on the other hand e.g. the spin of the neutron inducing fission s. The correlation coefficient B=s·[p f xp t ] for the respective unit vectors s, p f and p t reverses sign upon time reversal and a non-vanishing expectation value for B could possibly be due to TRI being violated. However, final state interactions could equally well lead to a non-zero B with TRI being perfectly conserved. A first experiment of this type has been performed in early 1998 at the ILL. Placing fragment and ternary particle detectors at right angles both relative to each other and relative to a longitudinally polarized neutron beam, the observable B assumes the values B=±1. For a fixed set of detectors the sign of B is reversed upon flipping the neutron spin. The expected count rates for the two spin orientations are N=N 0 ·(1±D) with N 0 the count rate for an unpolarized beam. The asymmetry D measures the expectation value of the observable B. The reaction chosen was 233 U(n,f). An unexpectedly large correlation coefficient passing all tests of fake asymmetries was observed. From the raw data the expectation value for B is D=-(2.35±0.05)·10 -3 with the sign corresponding to light fragments. Corrections for finite solid angles subtended by the detectors are not included in the above figure. The corrections will further increase the correlation coefficient. At the moment the mere size of D is believed to rule out a failure of TRI as the origin of the effect. But even a less spectacular interpretation--which as yet is not available--should give a detailed and quite

  8. Cluster-based bulk metallic glass formation in Fe-Si-B-Nb alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, C L; Wang, Q; Li, F W; Li, Y H; Wang, Y M; Dong, C [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, W; Inoue, A, E-mail: dong@dlut.edu.c [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass formations have been explored in Fe-B-Si-Nb alloy system using the so-called atomic cluster line approach in combination with minor alloying guideline. The atomic cluster line refers to a straight line linking binary cluster to the third element in a ternary system. The basic ternary compositions in Fe-B-Si system are determined by the inetersection points of two cluster lines, namely Fe-B cluster to Si and Fe-Si cluster to B, and then further alloyed with 3-5 at. % Nb for enhancing glass forming abilities. BMG rods with a diameter of 3 mm are formed under the case of minor Nb alloying the basic intersecting compositions of Fe{sub 8}B{sub 3}-Si with Fe{sub 12}Si-B and Fe{sub 8}B{sub 2}-Si with Fe{sub 9}Si-B. The BMGs also exhibit high Vickers hardness (H{sub v}) of 1130-1164 and high Young's modulous (E) of 170-180 GPa

  9. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sommer, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr system is a basis for the production of bulk amorphous materials by rapid solidification techniques from the liquid state, it is of great scientific interest to determine the partial and the integral thermodynamic functions of liquid and undercooled liquid alloys. Such data, as was pointed out previously, are important in order to understand their extremely good glass-forming ability in multicomponent metallic systems as well as for processing improvements. In order to measure the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr quaternary, it is necessary to have reliable thermochemical data for its constituent canaries and ternaries first. In a series of articles, the authors have reported in detail the thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zr, Al-Zr, Al-Cu-Ni, and Al-Cu-Zr alloys. This article deals with the direct calorimetric measurements of the partial and the integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys and the heat capacity of liquid Ni 26 Zr 74 . In a subsequent article, the authors will present similar data for the liquid ternary Al-Ni-Zr and for the liquid quaternary Al-Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

  10. Liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary polymer solutions with PC-SAFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Thomas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2004-01-01

    are used for investigating the correlative and predictive capabilities of the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT. The investigation shows that the model correlates well experimental LLE data for binary as well as ternary systems but further predicts the behavior of the ternary systems with reasonably good......Two algorithms for evaluating liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for binary and ternary polymer solutions are presented. The binary algorithm provides the temperature versus concentration cloud-point curve at fixed pressure, whereas the ternary algorithm provides component 1 versus component 2...

  11. Influence of Hf solute additions on the precipitation and hardenability in Ni-rich NiTi alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbuckle, B.C. [The University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Noebe, R.D. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Materials and Structures Division, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Thompson, G.B., E-mail: gthompson@eng.ua.edu [The University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The initial hardening for all alloys was due to the precipitation of Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}. • Extended aging resulted in H-phase precipitation for all the alloys. • Its presence yielded a slight secondary increase in hardness for all alloys. • The 56Ni–40Ti–4Hf (at.%) alloy yielded the highest hardness with a value of 679 VHN. • H-phase also appeared to alter the decomposition sequence of Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} in this alloy. - Abstract: Very Ni-rich NiTi alloys have recently been shown to have an unusually high hardness, comparable to tool steels, and other attributes that make them promising candidates for bearing and related applications. This high hardness has been associated with the precipitation of a large volume fraction of Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} platelets, resulting in a matrix that consists of narrow B2 matrix channels. In this work, a series of Ni-rich ternary alloys with dilute solute additions of Hf (54Ni–45Ti–1Hf, 55Ni–44Ti–1Hf, 54Ni–44Ti–2Hf, and 56Ni–40Ti–4Hf (at.%)) have been investigated. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed a B2 NiTi matrix phase containing nanoscale Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} platelets, H-phase precipitates, and R-phase; however, the H-phase and R-phase were not present initially but only after aging for a period of time. At aging times greater than ∼100 h at 400 °C, all ternary alloys showed a slight secondary increase in hardness, which was attributed to H-phase precipitation and growth within the B2 channels. In the particular case of the 56Ni–40Ti–4Hf alloy, hardness increased with aging to a maximum value of 679 VHN, which was greater than all other binary or ternary alloys examined. Additionally the H-phase appeared to alter or delay the typical breakdown sequence of the metastable Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} strengthening phase by removing the excess Ni needed for its decomposition. The collective results provide new material insights for creating a next-generation NiTi based bearing alloy.

  12. Fusion and characterization of an alloy Cu-Zn-Al-Ni of nuclear interest; Fusion y caracterizacion de una aleacion Cu-Zn-Al-Ni de interes nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana M, J.S

    2003-07-01

    The present work is the result of the study of a non ferrous quatenary alloy of Cu-Zn-Al-Ni (Foundry 3), it was chosen of a series of alloys to obtain so much information of its microstructural properties like mechanical, evaluating them and comparing them with the previously obtained ternary alloys of Cu-AI-Ni (Foundry 1) and Cu-Zn-AI (Foundry 2) identified as alloys of memory effect and superalloys. These were carried out starting from the foundry of their pure elements of Cu, Zn, Al, Ni. When physically having the ingot of each alloy, different techniques were used for their characterization. The used techniques were through the metallographic analysis, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical essays and Rockwell hardness. The non ferrous quaternary alloy Cu-Zn-AI-Ni by means of the metallographic analysis didn't show significant differences in their three sections (superficial, longitudinal and transverse) since result an homogeneous alloy at the same that the both ternaries. The grain size of the quaternary alloy is the finest while the ternary alloy of Cu-AI-Ni is the one that obtained the biggest grain size. Through MEB together with the analysis by EDS and the mapping of the elements that constitute each alloy, show that the three foundries were alloyed, moreover the presence of aggregates was also observed in the Foundries 2 and 3. These results by means of the analysis of XRD corroborate that these alloys have more of two elements. Relating the microstructural properties with those mechanical show us that as minor was the grain size, better they were his mechanical properties, in this case that of the quaternary alloy. With regard to the test of Rockwell hardness the Foundry 1 were the softest with the temper treatment, while that the Foundries 2 and 3 were the hardest with this same treatment, being still harder the Foundry 2 but with very little difference, for what great

  13. Microstructure and property evaluation of high-pressure die-cast Mg–La–rare earth (Nd, Y or Gd) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavras, Serge; Easton, Mark A.; Gibson, Mark A.; Zhu, Suming; Nie, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Different rare earth elements have remarkably different effects on Mg castability. • For the addition of each RE element, the alloy castability follows a unique pattern. • The effects of RE elements on the castability can be modelled. - Abstract: Microstructure, castability and tensile properties were investigated in high-pressure die-cast Mg–La–Nd, Mg–La–Y and Mg–La–Gd alloy series, with a constant La concentration at approximately 2.5 wt.% and the concentrations of Nd, Y or Gd were varied. All three alloy series had a dendritic microstructure with a Mg–La-rich eutectic with increasing Nd, Y or Gd content and containing a Mg 12 RE intermetallic phase. The morphology of the eutectic at ternary alloying additions of equal to or less than 1.0 wt.% was lamellar but became increasingly divorced at higher ternary concentrations. This was however more obvious in Mg–La–Y and Mg–La–Gd than Mg–La–Nd alloys. The hot tearing susceptibility in all three alloy series increased markedly with even micro-alloying additions of Nd, Y or Gd, and began to decrease again in alloys with more than 0.5 wt.% Y or 1.0 wt.% Gd, but did not decrease significantly for Mg–La–Nd. A model using the temperature–fraction solid curves as input parameters was used to estimate hot tearing susceptibility for Mg–La–Nd alloys. Tensile testing at room temperature showed that Mg–La–Nd alloy series had higher 0.2% proof stress and lower elongation to failure than either the Mg–La–Y or the Mg–La–Gd alloy series for Nd concentrations greater than 1 wt.% due to a greater effectiveness of grain boundary reinforcement

  14. In-Situ Imaging of Liquid Phase Separation in Molten Alloys Using Cold Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Alexander Derimow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the liquid phases and solidification behaviors of multicomponent alloy systems becomes difficult as modern engineering alloys grow more complex, especially with the discovery of high-entropy alloys (HEAs in 2004. Information about their liquid state behavior is scarce, and potentially quite complex due to the presence of perhaps five or more elements in equimolar ratios. These alloys are showing promise as high strength materials, many composed of solid-solution phases containing equiatomic CoCrCu, which itself does not form a ternary solid solution. Instead, this compound solidifies into highly phase separated regions, and the liquid phase separation that occurs in the alloy also leads to phase separation in systems in which Co, Cr, and Cu are present. The present study demonstrates that in-situ neutron imaging of the liquid phase separation in CoCrCu can be observed. The neutron imaging of the solidification process may resolve questions about phase separation that occurs in these alloys and those that contain Cu. These results show that neutron imaging can be utilized as a characterization technique for solidification research with the potential for imaging the liquid phases of more complex alloys, such as the HEAs which have very little published data about their liquid phases. This imaging technique could potentially allow for observation of immiscible liquid phases becoming miscible at specific temperatures, which cannot be observed with ex-situ analysis of solidified structures.

  15. Neural network potential for Al-Mg-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryo; Giofré, Daniele; Junge, Till; Ceriotti, Michele; Curtin, William A.

    2017-10-01

    The 6000 series Al alloys, which include a few percent of Mg and Si, are important in automotive and aviation industries because of their low weight, as compared to steels, and the fact their strength can be greatly improved through engineered precipitation. To enable atomistic-level simulations of both the processing and performance of this important alloy system, a neural network (NN) potential for the ternary Al-Mg-Si has been created. Training of the NN uses an extensive database of properties computed using first-principles density functional theory, including complex precipitate phases in this alloy. The NN potential accurately reproduces most of the pure Al properties relevant to the mechanical behavior as well as heat of solution, solute-solute, and solute-vacancy interaction energies, and formation energies of small solute clusters and precipitates that are required for modeling the early stage of precipitation and mechanical strengthening. This success not only enables future detailed studies of Al-Mg-Si but also highlights the ability of NN methods to generate useful potentials in complex alloy systems.

  16. Statistical physics of multicomponent alloys using KKR-CPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suffian N.; Staunton, J. B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2016-02-01

    We apply variational principles from statistical physics and the Landau theory of phase transitions to multicomponent alloys using the multiple-scattering theory of Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) and the coherent potential approximation (CPA). This theory is a multicomponent generalization of the S(2 ) theory of binary alloys developed by G. M. Stocks, J. B. Staunton, D. D. Johnson, and others. It is highly relevant to the chemical phase stability of high-entropy alloys as it predicts the kind and size of finite-temperature chemical fluctuations. In doing so, it includes effects of rearranging charge and other electronics due to changing site occupancies. When chemical fluctuations grow without bound, an absolute instability occurs and a second-order order-disorder phase transition may be inferred. The S(2 ) theory is predicated on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem; thus we derive the linear response of the CPA medium to perturbations in site-dependent chemical potentials in great detail. The theory lends itself to a natural interpretation in terms of competing effects: entropy driving disorder and favorable pair interactions driving atomic ordering. To further clarify interpretation, we present results for representative ternary alloys CuAgAu, NiPdPt, RhPdAg, and CoNiCu within a frozen charge (or band-only) approximation. These results include the so-called Onsager mean-field correction that extends the temperature range for which the theory is valid.

  17. Development of a high density fuel based on uranium-molybdenum alloys with high compatibility in high temperatures; Desenvolvimento de um combustivel de alta densidade a base das ligas uranio-molibdenio com alta compatibilidade em altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de

    2008-07-01

    This work has as its objective the development of a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on the gamma-UMo alloys, for utilization where it is necessary satisfactory behavior in high temperatures, considering its utilization as dispersion. For its accomplishment, it was started from the analysis of the RERTR ('Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors') results and some theoretical works involving the fabrication of gamma-uranium metastable alloys. A ternary addition is proposed, supported by the properties of binary and ternary uranium alloys studied, having the objectives of the gamma stability enhancement and an ease to its powder fabrication. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum were prepared with 5 to 10% Mo addition, and 1 and 3% of ternary, over a gamma U7Mo binary base alloy. In all the steps of its preparation, the alloys were characterized with the traditional techniques, to the determination of its mechanical and structural properties. To provide a process for the alloys powder obtention, its behavior under hydrogen atmosphere were studied, in thermo analyser-thermo gravimeter equipment. Temperatures varied from the ambient up to 1000 deg C, and times from 15 minutes to 16 hours. The results validation were made in a semi-pilot scale, where 10 to 50 g of powders of some of the alloys studied were prepared, under static hydrogen atmosphere. Compatibility studies were conducted by the exposure of the alloys under oxygen and aluminum, to the verification of possible reactions by means of differential thermal analysis. The alloys were exposed to a constant heat up to 1000 deg C, and their performances were evaluated in terms of their reaction resistance. On the basis of the results, it was observed that ternary additions increases the temperatures of the reaction with aluminum and oxidation, in comparison with the gamma UMo binaries. A set of conditions to the hydration of the alloys were defined, more restrictive in terms of temperature

  18. Phase-Field simulation of phase decomposition in Fe-Cr-Co alloy under an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Toshiyuki; Onodera, Hidehiro

    2004-07-01

    Phase decomposition during isothermal aging of a Fe-Cr-Co ternary alloy under an external magnetic field is simulated based on the phase-field method. In this simulation, since the Gibbs energy available from the thermodynamic CALPHAD database of the equilibrium phase diagram is employed as a chemical free energy, the present calculation provides the quantitative microstructure changes directly linked to the phase diagram. The simulated microstructure evolution demonstrates that the lamella like microstructure elongated along the external magnetic field is evolved with the progress of aging. The morphological and temporal developments of the simulated microstructures are in good agreement with experimental results that have been obtained for this alloy system.

  19. Processing and alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.

    1993-01-01

    Tungsten heavy alloys are two-phase metal matrix composites with a unique combination of density, strength, and ductility. They are processed by liquid-phase sintering of mixed elemental powders. The final microstructure consists of a contiguous network of nearly pure tungsten grains embedded in a matrix of a ductile W-Ni-Fe alloy. Due to the unique property combination of the material, they are used extensively as kinetic energy penetrators, radiation shields. counterbalances, and a number of other applications in the defense industry. The properties of these alloys are extremely sensitive to the processing conditions. Porosity levels as low as 1% can drastically degrade the properties of these alloys. During processing, care must be taken to reduce or prevent incomplete densification, hydrogen embrittlement, impurity segregation to the grain boundaries, solidification shrinkage induced porosity, and in situ formation of pores due to the sintering atmosphere. This paper will discuss some of the key processing issues for obtaining tungsten heavy alloys with good properties. High strength tungsten heavy alloys are usually fabricated by swaging and aging the conventional as-sintered material. The influence of this on the shear localization tendency of a W-Ni-Co alloy will also be demonstrated. Recent developments have shown that the addition of certain refractory metals partially replacing tungsten can significantly improve the strength of the conventional heavy alloys. This development becomes significant due to the recent interest in near net shaping techniques such as powder injection moldings. The role of suitable alloying additions to the classic W-Ni-Fe based heavy alloys and their processing techniques will also be discussed in this paper

  20. First principles investigation of the activity of thin film Pt, Pd and Au surface alloys for oxygen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    driving force for surface segregation, diffusion to defects or surface self-assembling. On the basis of stability and activity analysis we conclude that the near surface alloy of Pd in Pt and some PdAu binary and PtPdAu ternary thin films with a controlled amount of Au are the best catalysts for oxygen......Further advances in fuel cell technologies are hampered by kinetic limitations associated with the sluggish cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. We have investigated a range of different formulations of binary and ternary Pt, Pd and Au thin films as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. The most...... active binary thin films are near-surface alloys of Pt with subsurface Pd and certain PdAu and PtAu thin films with surface and/or subsurface Au. The most active ternary thin films are with pure metal Pt or Pd skins with some degree of Au in the surface and/or subsurface layer and the near-surface alloys...

  1. Castability of Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, A. L.; Han, Q.; Horton, J. A.

    There is intense research effort into the development of high pressure die cast-able creep resistant magnesium alloys. One of the difficulties encountered in magnesium alloy development for creep resistance is that many additions made to improve the creep properties have reportedly resulted in alloys that are difficult to cast. It is therefore important to have an understanding of the effect of alloying elements on the castability. This paper gives a review of the state of the knowledge of the castability of magnesium alloys.

  2. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  3. Microstructural Characterization of the As-cast AZ91 Magnesium Alloy with Rare Earth Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grzybowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural analysis of as-cast Mg-9Al-0.9Zn-xRE (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 wt.% magnesium alloys is presented. Light microscopy (LM andscanning electron microscopy (SEM+EDX were used to characterized the obtained material. The results revealed that the as-cast AZ91alloy consists of α – Mg matrix, binary eutectic  +  (where  is Mg17Al12. While rare earth elements were introduced to the Mg-Al-Znalloy new Al11RE3 phase was formed. Additionally, in the experimental alloys instead of Al-Mn phase, ternary Al-Mn-RE compound was observed. What is more, the influence of RE addition on the area fraction of eutectic and needle-like phase was analysed. With increasing addition of RE, the amount of γ phase decreased, but the amount of Al11RE3 phase increased.

  4. The tensile behavior of Ti36Ni49Hf15 high temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Q.; Zheng, Y.F.; Cai, W.; Zhao, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, ternary Ti-Ni-Hf alloys have attracted great interest in the field of high temperature shape memory materials research and development. Extensive studies have been made on its manufacture process, constitutional phases, phase transformation behavior, the structure, substructure and interface structure of martensite and the precipitation behavior during ageing. Yet up to date there is no report about the fundamental mechanical properties of Ti-Ni-Hf alloys, such as the stress-strain data, the variation laws of the yield strength and elongation with the temperature. In the present study, tensile tests at various temperatures are employed to investigate the mechanical behavior of Ti-Ni-Hf alloy with different matrix structures, from full martensite to full parent phase structure, with the corresponding deformation mechanism discussed

  5. Mg amorphous alloys for biodegradable implants; Ligas amorfas de magnesio utilizadas em implantes consumiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danez, G.P., E-mail: gabidanez@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Koga, G.Y.; Tonucci, S.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The use of implants made from amorphous alloys magnesium-based with additions of zinc and calcium are promising. Properties such as biocompatibility, low density, high mechanical strength, low modulus (as compared to alloys such as stainless steel and titanium), corrosion resistance and wear resistance make it attractive for use in implants. Moreover, the by-products of corrosion and wear are not toxic and may contribute to fixation. Aiming to understand the tendency of this amorphous ternary (Mg-Zn-Ca) and expand the information about this system, this work involved the use of the topological criterion of instability ({lambda}) and the criterion of electronegativity ({Delta}e) to the choice of compositions. The alloys were processed into wedge-shaped and analyzed structurally and in X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  6. Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence polarization of ordered III-V semiconductor alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prutskij, T.; Makarov, N.; Attolini, G.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the linear polarization of the photoluminescence (PL) emission of atomically ordered GaInAsP and GaInP alloys with different ordering parameters in the temperature range from 10 to 300 K. The epitaxial layers of these alloys were grown on GaAs and Ge (001) substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The polarization of the PL emission propagating along different crystallographic axes depends on the value of biaxial strain in the layer and changes with temperature. We calculated the PL polarization patterns for different propagation directions as a function of biaxial strain using an existing model developed for ternary atomically ordered III-V alloys. Comparing the calculated PL polarization patterns with those obtained experimentally, we separated the variation of the PL polarization due to change of biaxial strain with temperature.

  7. Structural properties of calcogenic thin films and alloys subjected to synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, P.R.; Almeida, D.P.; Lima, J.C. de; Campos, C.E.M.; Ponciano, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Results on structural characterization of Sb 50 Te 50 and Te 24 In 38 Sb 38 alloys prepared as powder and after deposited as a thin films are presented. For that x ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence were used. The nanocrystalline phases Sb 2 Te 2 and Sb 24 Te 9 were nucleated in both Sb 50 Te 50 and Te 24 In 38 Sb 38 alloys, respectively. The thin films of both binary and ternary alloys are mainly amorphous. According to X-ray fluorescence results the chemical composition inside the ultraviolet irradiated region on one of the binary thin film become different than that outside irradiation marks, suggesting Sb migration. (author)

  8. Formation of Al70Cu20Fe10 icosahedral quasicrystal by mechanically alloyed method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shilong; Bian Qing; Qian Liying; Zhang Aimei

    2007-01-01

    The structural evolutions of the mechanically alloyed ternary Al 70 Cu 20 Fe 10 powders with the milling time and the annealing treatment have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) techniques. Results show that an Al 2 Cu compound forms with short-time milling, while a Cu 9 Al 4 compound forms with long-time milling. Fe can react with Al-Cu alloy by annealing treatment. Al 7 Cu 2 Fe compound with tetragonal structure or Al (Cu, Fe) solid solution with cubic structure may form at lower temperature, while a quasicrystal phase of Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy may form at higher temperature

  9. Development of High-Strength High-Temperature Cast Al-Ni-Cr Alloys Through Evolution of a Novel Composite Eutectic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, P.; Kashyap, S.; Tiwary, C. S.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2017-12-01

    Aiming to develop high-strength Al-based alloys with high material index (strength/density) for structural application, this article reports a new class of multiphase Al alloys in the Al-Ni-Cr system that possess impressive room temperature and elevated temperature (≥ 200 °C) mechanical properties. The ternary eutectic and near eutectic alloys display a complex microstructure containing intermetallic phases displaying hierarchically arranged plate and rod morphologies that exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties. The yield strengths achieved at room temperatures are in excess of 350 MPa with compressive plastic strains of more than 30 pct (without fracturing) for these alloys. The stability of the complex microstructure also leads to a yield stress of 191 ± 8 to 232 ± 5 MPa at 250 °C. It is argued that the alloys derive their high strength and impressive plasticity through synergic effects of refined nanoeutectics of two different morphologies forming a core shell type of architecture.

  10. The influence of the oxygen partial pressure on the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rosales, C.; Schulze, H.A.; Naoumidis, A.; Nickel, H.

    1991-05-01

    The passivation layers formed by the oxidizing corrosion of high temperature alloys consist primarily of oxides and mixed oxides of the elements chromium, manganese and titanium. For a reproducible formation and characterization of such oxide layers it is necessary to know the phase equilibria of these oxide systems at temperature and oxygen partial pressure conditions which will be relevant during their application. For the investigation of the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide, oxide powders were prepared and annealed at 1000deg C under different oxygen partial pressures ranging from 0.21 bar to 10 -21 bar. Phase identification and determination of lattice parameter using X-ray diffraction analysis as well as the direct measurement of phase boundaries as a function of oxygen partial pressure using the emf-methode were carried out for these investigations. In the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide the spinels play a decisive role in the oxigen partial pressure range examined. The spinel MnCr 2 O 4 may be regarded as the most significant compound. Part of the chronium can be replaced by trivalent manganese at high oxygen partial pressures and by trivalent titanium at low pressures, and the formation of a solid solution with the spinel Mn 2 TiO 4 is possible in all cases. In this way a coherent single-phase spinel region is observed which extends over the entire oxygen partial pressure range form 0.21 bar to 10 -21 bar examined at 1000deg C. (orig.) [de

  11. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  12. Evaporation behaviour of the ternary uranium plutonium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohse, R.W.; Capone, F.

    1976-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of total and partial pressures; variation of plutonium pressure with 1/T in the single phase region MC from C/M = 1.014 to 1.15 and two-phase region MC + M 2 C 3 from C/M = 1.15 to 1.30 from 2,000 K to 2,500 K and determination of the corresponding sublimation heat from the measured values; pressure composition diagram of the ternary (U,Pu) carbides giving the phase boundaries between MC and MC + M 2 C 3 phase fields. (RB) [de

  13. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + butyric acid + esters) ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirbaslar, S. Ismail; Sahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data of the solubility (binodal) curves and tie-line end compositions were examined for mixtures of {water (1) + butyric acid (2) + ethyl propionate or dimethyl phthalate or dibutyl phthalate (3)} at T = 298.15 K and (101.3 ± 0.7) kPa. The relative mutual solubility of the butyric acid is higher in the layers of esters than in the aqueous layer. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was confirmed by using the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The LLE data of the ternary systems were predicted by UNIFAC method. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region

  14. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + lactic acid + alcohol) ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Selin [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey); Ismail Kirbaslar, S. [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: krbaslar@istanbul.edu.tr; Bilgin, Mehmet [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) measurements of the solubility (binodal) curves and tie-line end compositions were carried out for {l_brace}water (1) + lactic acid (2) + octanol, or nonanol, or decanol (3){r_brace} at T = 298.15 K and 101.3 {+-} 0.7 kPa. The relative mutual solubility of lactic acid is higher in the water layers than in the organic layers. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was confirmed by using the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The LLE results for the ternary systems were predicted by UNIFAC method. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  15. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + propionic acid + alcohol) ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirbaslar, S. Ismail [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: krbaslar@istanbul.edu.tr; Sahin, Selin [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey); Bilgin, Mehmet [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-12-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data of the solubility (binodal) curves and tie-line end composition were examined for mixtures of {l_brace}water (1) + propionic acid (2) + octanol or nonanol or decanol or dodecanol (3){r_brace} at T = 298.15 K and 101.3 {+-} 0.7 kPa. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was confirmed by using the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The LLE data of the ternary systems were predicted by UNIFAC method. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  16. Paramagnetic centers in ternary coordinated oxygen in beryllium aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaginina, L.A.; Zatsepin, A.F.; Dmitriev, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Glasses of the composition 3BeO-Al 2 O 3 -6SiO 2 containing a homogenizing additive of MgF 2 were synthesized. The ESR spectra of x-ray and gamma irradiated specimens were determined. A complex ESR spectrum arose in the original glass. The ESR spectrum of the gamma-irradiated polycrystalline Be 2 SiO 4 glass was almost identical to the crystallized glass. It was shown that the presence of beryllium atoms in the composition of silicate glasses created the conditions for the formation of structural fragments with ternary coordinated oxygen

  17. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    and mathematical modeling to describe the energetics of cooperativity in a trimolecular protein complex. As a model system for quantifying cooperativity, we studied the ternary complex formed by the simultaneous interaction of a superantigen with major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor, for which...... a structural model is available. This system exhibits positive and negative cooperativity, as well as augmentation of the temperature dependence of binding kinetics upon the cooperative interaction of individual protein components in the complex. Our experimental and theoretical analysis may be applicable...... to other systems involving cooperativity....

  18. Implementation of DFT application on ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjie, Peng; Youyi, Fu; Xiaofeng, Zhang; Shuai, Kong; Xinyu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    As its characteristics of huge number of data bits and low energy consumption, optical computing may be used in the applications such as DFT etc. which needs a lot of computation and can be implemented in parallel. According to this, DFT implementation methods in full parallel as well as in partial parallel are presented. Based on resources ternary optical computer (TOC), extensive experiments were carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes are correct and feasible. They provide a foundation for further exploration of the applications on TOC that needs a large amount calculation and can be processed in parallel.

  19. Ternary system of cesium, rubidium and lead iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchanskaya, V.V.; Dunaeva, T.I.; Il'yasov, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    Meltability diagram of ternary system (CsI) 2 -(RbI) 2 -PbI 2 has been studied. The liquidus of the given system consists of crystallization fields of solid solutions (CsI-RbI) and (CsI·PbI 2 -RbI-PbI 2 ), fields of incongruently melting compounds 9RbI·PbI 2 , 4CsI·PbI 2 and field of PbI 2 component. In the system two nonvariant points at 410 and 380 deg C are detected

  20. A refracto-densimetric method for composition analysis of homogeneous ternary liquid mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Fleming; Rojas, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    A new method for composition analysis of homogeneous ternary liquid mixtures is presented. The method is based in the determination of refractive index and density of the unknown mixture. These values are localized in triangular diagrams of thermo-physical properties for the ternary system. The mixture composition correspond to the interception point of the isooptic and isopycnic curves.

  1. Using a Ternary Diagram to Display a System's Evolving Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzle, Bob; Tapp, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A ternary diagram is a graphical representation used for systems with three components. They are familiar to mineralogists (who typically use them to categorize varieties of solid solution minerals such as feldspar) but are not yet widely used in the physics community. Last year the lead author began using ternary diagrams in his introductory…

  2. Detection of the ternary alpha particles from 252Cr spontaneous source with timepix pixeleted detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, G.S.; Telezhnikov, S.A.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Garibov, A.A.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2013-01-01

    A third charged particle is emitted besides the two main fission fragments in ternary fission. Because of the ternary fission is a unique tool to explore the dynamics and structure of atomic nuclei by probing the fissioning system near the scission point and observing fissioning reaction and decay mechanisms main tool to study nuclear fission processes

  3. Ternary System with Controlled Structure: A New Strategy toward Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Jingshuai; Huang, Wenchao; Chang, Sheng-Yung; Meng, Lei; Sun, Pengyu; Cheng, Hao-Wen; Qin, Meng; Zhu, Chenhui; Zhan, Xiaowei; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a new type of active layer with a ternary system has been developed to further enhance the performance of binary system organic photovoltaics (OPV). In the ternary OPV, almost all active layers are formed by simple ternary blend in solution, which eventually leads to the disordered bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure after a spin-coating process. There are two main restrictions in this disordered BHJ structure to obtain higher performance OPV. One is the isolated second donor or acceptor domains. The other is the invalid metal-semiconductor contact. Herein, the concept and design of donor/acceptor/acceptor ternary OPV with more controlled structure (C-ternary) is reported. The C-ternary OPV is fabricated by a sequential solution process, in which the second acceptor and donor/acceptor binary blend are sequentially spin-coated. After the device optimization, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of all OPV with C-ternary are enhanced by 14-21% relative to those with the simple ternary blend; the best PCEs are 10.7 and 11.0% for fullerene-based and fullerene-free solar cells, respectively. Moreover, the averaged PCE value of 10.4% for fullerene-free solar cell measured in this study is in great agreement with the certified one of 10.32% obtained from Newport Corporation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Asymmetry in ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons and fission mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V.E.; Gennenvajn, F.; Dzhessinger, P.; Mutterer, M.; Petrov, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of measuring the P-odd, P-even (right-left) and T-odd asymmetries of the charged particles emission in the double and ternary fission, induced by the polarized neutrons, are considered. It is shown, what kind of information on the mechanism of the ternary nuclear fission may be obtained from the theoretical analysis of these data [ru

  5. INTERVAL-VALUED INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY BI-IDEALS IN TERNARY SEMIRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. KRISHNASWAMY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notions of interval-valued fuzzy bi-ideal, interval-valued anti fuzzy bi-ideal and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy bi-ideal in ternary semirings and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. We also introduce normal interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings.

  6. In Situ Synthesis of Al-Si-Cu Alloy During Brazing Process and Mechanical Property of Brazing Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LONG Wei-min

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Si-Cu alloy system is considered to be a promising choice of filler metal for aluminium alloys brazing due to its high strength and low melting point. The greatest obstacle is its lack of plastic forming ability and being difficult to be processed by conventional methods. This disadvantage is ascribed to the considerable amount of brittle CuAl2 intermetallic compound which forms when alloy composition is around the ternary eutectic point. In order to overcome this deficiency, authors of this article proposed to synthesize Al-Si-Cu filler metal by using in situ synthesis method, and the structure and properties of brazing joints were studied. The results show that AlSi alloy is used as the wrap layer, and CuAl alloy is used as the powder core in the composite brazing wire, the two alloys have similar melting points. The machinability of the composite brazing wire is much superior to the traditional Al-Si-Cu filler metal. During the induction brazing of 3A21 alloy, when using AlSi-CuAl composite filler wire, AlSi and CuAl alloys melt almost simultaneously, then after short time holding, Al-Si-Cu braze filler is obtained, the brazing seam has uniform composition and good bonding interface, also, the shearing strength of the brazing joints is higher than the joint brazed by conventional Al-Si-Cu filler metal.

  7. Energy dissipation in the process of ternary fission in heavy nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xian; Wang Chengqian; Yan Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the collective motion, interaction potential, the total kinetic and excitation energies in ternary fissions of 197 Au + 197 Au system at 15 MeV/u, and discussed energy dissipation of this reaction. Through the comparison with energy-angle correlation data in binary fissions, we preliminarily concluded that the rst fission of ternary fission was an extreme deep-inelastic process. We further analyzed the correlation of the total kinetic energy with impact parameters in both binary and ternary reactions, and found that the total energy of binary reactions systems was lost about 150 MeV more than ternary fission with small impact parameters, and with larger impact parameters the total energy of ternary reactions were lost 300 MeV more than binary reactions. (authors)

  8. First-principles study of ternary fcc solution phases from special quasirandom structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Dongwon; Wang Yi; Liu Zikui; Walle, Axel van de

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, ternary special quasirandom structures (SQSs) for a fcc solid solution phase are generated at different compositions, x A =x B =x C =(1/3) and x A =(1/2), x B =x C =(1/4), whose correlation functions are satisfactorily close to those of a random fcc solution. The generated SQSs are used to calculate the mixing enthalpy of the fcc phase in the Ca-Sr-Yb system. It is observed that first-principles calculations of all the binary and ternary SQSs in the Ca-Sr-Yb system exhibit very small local relaxation. It is concluded that the fcc ternary SQSs can provide valuable information about the mixing behavior of the fcc ternary solid solution phase. The SQSs presented in this work can be widely used to study the behavior of ternary fcc solid solutions

  9. Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction into Syngas Boosted by a Partially Delocalized Charge in Molybdenum Sulfide Selenide Alloy Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaqi; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yongfu; Ju, Zhengyu; Yao, Tao; Wang, Chengming; Ju, Huanxin; Zhu, Junfa; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2017-07-24

    Structural parameters of ternary transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) alloy usually obey Vegard law well, while interestingly it often exhibits boosted electrocatalytic performances relative to its two pristine binary TMDs. To unveil the underlying reasons, we propose an ideal model of ternary TMDs alloy monolayer. As a prototype, MoSeS alloy monolayers are successfully synthesized, in which X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy manifests their shortened Mo-S and lengthened Mo-Se bonds, helping to tailor the d-band electronic structure of Mo atoms. Density functional theory calculations illustrate an increased density of states near their conduction band edge, which ensures faster electron transfer confirmed by their lower work function and smaller charge-transfer resistance. Energy calculations show the off-center charge around Mo atoms not only benefits for stabilizing COOH* intermediate confirmed by its most negative formation energy, but also facilitates the rate-limiting CO desorption step verified by CO temperature programmed desorption and electro-stripping tests. As a result, MoSeS alloy monolayers attain the highest 45.2 % Faradaic efficiency for CO production, much larger than that of MoS 2 monolayers (16.6 %) and MoSe 2 monolayers (30.5 %) at -1.15 V vs. RHE. This work discloses how the partially delocalized charge in ternary TMDs alloys accelerates electrocatalytic performances at atomic level, opening new horizons for manipulating CO 2 electroreduction properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Halo Formation During Solidification of Refractory Metal Aluminide Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N.; Feitosa, L. M.; West, G. D.; Dong, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of eutectic morphologies following primary solidification has been studied in the refractory metal aluminide (Ta-Al-Fe, Nb-Al-Co, and Nb-Al-Fe) ternary systems. The undercooling accompanying solid growth, as related to the extended solute solubility in the primary and secondary phases can be used to account for the evolution of phase morphologies during ternary eutectic solidification. For small undercooling, the conditions of interfacial equilibrium remain valid, while in the case of significant undercooling when nucleation constraints occur, there is a departure from equilibrium leading to unexpected phases. In Ta-Al-Fe, an extended solubility of Fe in σ was observed, which was consistent with the formation of a halo of μ phase on primary σ. In Nb-Al-Co, a halo of C14 is formed on primary CoAl, but very limited vice versa. However, in the absence of a solidus projection it was not possible to definitively determine the extended solute solubility in the primary phase. In Nb-Al-Fe when nucleation constraints arise, the inability to initiate coupled growth of NbAl3 + C14 leads to the occurrence of a two-phase halo of C14 + Nb2Al, indicating a large undercooling and departure from equilibrium.

  11. Genetic Synthesis of New Reversible/Quantum Ternary Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEIBUK, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods of quantum/reversible logic synthesis are based on the use of the binary nature of quantum computing. However, multiple-valued logic is a promising choice for future quantum computer technology due to a number of advantages over binary circuits. In this paper we have developed a synthesis of ternary reversible circuits based on Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates using a genetic algorithm. The method of coding chromosome is presented, and well-grounded choice of algorithm parameters allowed obtaining better circuit schemes of one- and n-qutrit ternary comparators compared with other methods. These parameters are quantum cost of received reversible devices, delay time and number of constant input (ancilla lines. Proposed implementation of the genetic algorithm has led to reducing of the device delay time and the number of ancilla qutrits to 1 and 2n-1 for one- and n-qutrits full comparators, respectively. For designing of n-qutrit comparator we have introduced a complementary device which compares output functions of 1-qutrit comparators.

  12. A ternary logic model for recurrent neuromime networks with delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, R D; Cull, P

    1995-07-01

    In contrast to popular recurrent artificial neural network (RANN) models, biological neural networks have unsymmetric structures and incorporate significant delays as a result of axonal propagation. Consequently, biologically inspired neural network models are more accurately described by nonlinear differential-delay equations rather than nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), and the standard techniques for studying the dynamics of RANNs are wholly inadequate for these models. This paper develops a ternary-logic based method for analyzing these networks. Key to the technique is the realization that a nonzero delay produces a bounded stability region. This result significantly simplifies the construction of sufficient conditions for characterizing the network equilibria. If the network gain is large enough, each equilibrium can be classified as either asymptotically stable or unstable. To illustrate the analysis technique, the swim central pattern generator (CPG) of the sea slug Tritonia diomedea is examined. For wide range of reasonable parameter values, the ternary analysis shows that none of the network equilibria are stable, and thus the network must oscillate. The results show that complex synaptic dynamics are not necessary for pattern generation.

  13. Face Liveness Detection Using Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Parveen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Face spoofing is considered to be one of the prominent threats to face recognition systems. However, in order to improve the security measures of such biometric systems against deliberate spoof attacks, liveness detection has received significant recent attention from researchers. For this purpose, analysis of facial skin texture properties becomes more popular because of its limited resource requirement and lower processing cost. The traditional method of skin analysis for liveness detection was to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP and its variants. LBP descriptors are effective, but they may exhibit certain limitations in near uniform patterns. Thus, in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Local Ternary Pattern (LTP as an alternative to LBP. In addition, we adopted Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP, which eliminates the manual threshold setting in LTP by using Weber’s law. The proposed method was tested rigorously on four facial spoof databases: three are public domain databases and the other is the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM face spoof database, which was compiled through this study. The results obtained from the proposed DLTP texture descriptor attained optimum accuracy and clearly outperformed the reported LBP and LTP texture descriptors.

  14. Enhanced Light Absorption in Fluorinated Ternary Small-Molecule Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, Nicholas D. [Department; Dudnik, Alexander S. [Department; Harutyunyan, Boris [Department; Aldrich, Thomas J. [Department; Leonardi, Matthew J. [Department; Manley, Eric F. [Department; Chemical; Butler, Melanie R. [Department; Harschneck, Tobias [Department; Ratner, Mark A. [Department; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Department; Department; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S. [Department; Facchetti, Antonio [Department; Chang, Robert P. H. [Department; Marks, Tobin J. [Department; Department

    2017-06-14

    Using small-molecule donor (SMD) semiconductors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has historically afforded lower power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) than their polymeric counterparts. The PCE difference is attributed to shorter conjugated backbones, resulting in reduced intermolecular interactions. Here, a new pair of SMDs is synthesized based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole-benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BDT-DPP2) skeleton but having fluorinated and fluorinefree aromatic side-chain substituents. Ternary OPVs having varied ratios of the two SMDs with PC61BM as the acceptor exhibit tunable open-circuit voltages (Vocs) between 0.833 and 0.944 V due to a fluorination-induced shift in energy levels and the electronic “alloy” formed from the miscibility of the two SMDs. A 15% increase in PCE is observed at the optimal ternary SMD ratio, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) significantly increased to 9.18 mA/cm2. The origin of Jsc enhancement is analyzed via charge generation, transport, and diffuse reflectance measurements, and is attributed to increased optical absorption arising from a maximum in film crystallinity at this SMD ratio, observed by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering.

  15. Experimental investigation of the U–Zr–Al ternary phase diagram: Isothermal sections at 673 K and 1073 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, C.; Désévédavy, F.; Noël, H.; Pasturel, M.; Gouttefangeas, F. [ISCR/CSM, Université de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France, (France); Dubois, S. [CEA/DEN/DEC, Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Stepnik, B. [AREVA/CERCA, 10 Rue Juliette Récamier, 69006 Lyon (France); Tougait, O., E-mail: tougait@univ-rennes1.fr [ISCR/CSM, Université de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France, (France); UCCS, UMR 8181 CNRS, Université Lille 1, ENSCL, Avenue Mendeleiev, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Isothermal sections of the U–Zr–Al system were investigated for 673 K and 1073 K. • The crystallographic properties of the equilibrium phases were checked. • The ternary extension of both unary and binary phases was determined. • The solubility of Al into UZr{sub 2} (δ-phase) was assessed by diffusion couples. • The microstructure of quenched alloys is discussed. - Abstract: Isothermal sections at 673 K and 1073 K of the ternary U–Zr–Al system were established in the whole concentration range, by means of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. All measured compositions and unit-cell refinements were performed at room temperature from quenched samples annealed at 1073 K and 673 K for four and eight weeks respectively. For both temperatures, the Al-rich corner of the phase diagram is characterized by extended homogeneity ranges due to mutual exchange between U and Zr in UAl{sub 3} (cubic, AuCu{sub 3}-type) and in the Laves phase UAl{sub 2} (cubic, MgCu{sub 2}-type). Minute U solubility in ZrAl{sub 2} (hexagonal, MgZn{sub 2}-type) and in Zr{sub 2}Al (hexagonal, Ni{sub 2}In-type) was evaluated to be of the order of 1 at.% U. For the other binary compounds, the solubility of the third component was found negligible. At 1073 K, the solid solution based on γU (cubic, W-type) which covers the U–Zr binary axis up to 95.5 at.% Zr, allows also some limited solubility of Al [maximum of 5 at.%]. For Al-content below 66 at.%, most of the phase relations comprise equilibria between the Zr–Al binaries and the γ(U,Zr,Al) solid solution. At 673 K, the U–Zr axis is found in agreement with the literature data and no Al solubility could be detected in αU, αZr and UZr{sub 2} (δ phase). The phase relations are mainly established between Zr–Al binaries and αU. For monolithic UMo fuel with a Zr diffusion barrier foil cladded with Al, the main interaction

  16. Experimental investigation of the U–Zr–Al ternary phase diagram: Isothermal sections at 673 K and 1073 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, C.; Désévédavy, F.; Noël, H.; Pasturel, M.; Gouttefangeas, F.; Dubois, S.; Stepnik, B.; Tougait, O.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Isothermal sections of the U–Zr–Al system were investigated for 673 K and 1073 K. • The crystallographic properties of the equilibrium phases were checked. • The ternary extension of both unary and binary phases was determined. • The solubility of Al into UZr 2 (δ-phase) was assessed by diffusion couples. • The microstructure of quenched alloys is discussed. - Abstract: Isothermal sections at 673 K and 1073 K of the ternary U–Zr–Al system were established in the whole concentration range, by means of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. All measured compositions and unit-cell refinements were performed at room temperature from quenched samples annealed at 1073 K and 673 K for four and eight weeks respectively. For both temperatures, the Al-rich corner of the phase diagram is characterized by extended homogeneity ranges due to mutual exchange between U and Zr in UAl 3 (cubic, AuCu 3 -type) and in the Laves phase UAl 2 (cubic, MgCu 2 -type). Minute U solubility in ZrAl 2 (hexagonal, MgZn 2 -type) and in Zr 2 Al (hexagonal, Ni 2 In-type) was evaluated to be of the order of 1 at.% U. For the other binary compounds, the solubility of the third component was found negligible. At 1073 K, the solid solution based on γU (cubic, W-type) which covers the U–Zr binary axis up to 95.5 at.% Zr, allows also some limited solubility of Al [maximum of 5 at.%]. For Al-content below 66 at.%, most of the phase relations comprise equilibria between the Zr–Al binaries and the γ(U,Zr,Al) solid solution. At 673 K, the U–Zr axis is found in agreement with the literature data and no Al solubility could be detected in αU, αZr and UZr 2 (δ phase). The phase relations are mainly established between Zr–Al binaries and αU. For monolithic UMo fuel with a Zr diffusion barrier foil cladded with Al, the main interaction product is expected to involve the U

  17. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  18. A Review of TiNiPdCu Alloy System for High Temperature Shape Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Imran; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    High temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) are important smart materials and possess a significant potential to improve many engineering systems. Many TiNi-based high temperature ternary alloy systems have been reported in literature including TiNiPd, TiNiPt, TiNiZr, TiNiAu, TiNiHf, etc. Some quaternary additions of certain elements in the above systems have been successful to further improve many important shape memory and mechanical properties. The success criteria for an HTSMA become strict in terms of its cyclic stability, maximum recoverable strain, creep resistance, and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. TiNiPdCu alloy system has been recently proposed as a promising HTSMA. Unique nanoscaled precipitates formed in TiNiPdCu-based HTSMAs are found to be stable at temperatures above 773 K, while keeping the benefits of ease of fabrication. It is expected that this alloy system possesses significant potential especially for the high temperature shape memory applications. Till now many research reports have been published on this alloy system. In the present work, a comprehensive review of the TiNiPdCu system is presented in terms of thermomechanical behavior, nanoscale precipitation mechanism, microstructural features, high temperature shape memory and mechanical properties, and the important parameters to control the high temperature performance of these alloys.

  19. Microstructure and age-hardening effects of aluminium alloys with additions of scandium and zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galun, R.; Mordike, B.L. [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstofftechnik, Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Maiwald, T.; Smola, B. [Zentrum fuer Funktionswerkstoffe GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Mergen, R.; Manner, M.; Uitz, W. [Miba Gleitlager GmbH, Laakirchen (Australia)

    2004-12-01

    The aim of the work presented in this report was to produce age-hardenable aluminium alloys containing scandium and zirconium by a casting process with similar cooling conditions like an industrial casting process. Microstructure, precipitation structure and age-hardening response of different alloys with up to 0.4 wt.% Sc and Zr were investigated. Age-hardening experiments from the as-cast condition without solution annealing showed a significant increase of hardness of about 100% for Sc-rich alloys and of 50% for Zr-rich alloys compared to the as-cast condition. TEM investigations revealed the formation of precipitates of ternary Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}) phases with a cubic cP4 crystal structure. In addition to the strengthening effect, a high thermal stability especially of the precipitates in Zr-rich alloys up to 400 C let these alloys look very promising for high-temperature applications. (orig.)

  20. Metal-insulator transition of alloyed radical cation salts, (MexEDO-TTF)2PF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tsuyoshi; Shao, Xiangfeng; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Uruichi, Mikio; Yakushi, Kyuya; Tanaka, Koichiro

    2010-06-01

    Ternary radical cation salts containing ethylenedioxytetrathiafulvalene, its mono-methyl substituted derivative, and hexafluorophosphate, [(EDO-TTF)1-x(MeEDO-TTF)x]2PF6 (x=mole fraction of MeEDO-TTF, x=0.01-0.13) were prepared by electrooxidation. Mole fractions of EDO-TTF and MeEDO-TTF in EDO-TTF rich alloys were consistent with the donor mixing ratios in preparation. Crystal structures of these alloys at room temperature were isostructural to that of (EDO-TTF)2PF6, where the donor molecules formed a nearly uniform stacking column to give a quasi-one-dimensional Fermi surface. The alloys exhibited a metal-insulator transition with tetramerization within the donor stack and anion-ordering. Temperature-variable structural analysis and Raman spectra revealed that the charge-ordering took place in the low temperature phase of x=0.05 alloy, however, this feature vanished in the x=0.13 alloy. The phase transition temperature decreased with increasing x value from 279 K of pristine (EDO-TTF)2PF6 to 188 K of x=0.13 alloy.