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Sample records for ni-mo coatings produced

  1. Characterisation of electrodeposited and heat-treated Ni-Mo-P coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Regis L.; Casciano, Paulo N.S.; Correia, Adriana N.; Lima-Neto, Pedro de, E-mail: pln@ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The electrodeposition, hardness and corrosion resistance properties of Ni-Mo-P coatings were investigated. Characterisations of the electrodeposited coatings were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. Corrosion tests were performed at room temperature in 10-1 mol dm-3 NaCl solutions and by potentiodynamic linear polarisation. Amorphous Ni-Mo-P coatings were successfully obtained by electrodeposition using direct current. The coating composition showed to be dependent on the bath composition, current density and bath temperature. Both P and Mo contents contribute for the hardness properties of the Ni-Mo-P coatings and the absence of cracks is a requirement to produce electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P coatings with good hardness properties. The hardness values increase with heat-treatment temperature due to the precipitation of Ni, Ni{sub 3}P and NiMo phases during the heat treatment. The corrosion resistance of the electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P amorphous coatings increases with P content in the layer. Among the electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P amorphous coatings, Ni{sub 78}Mo{sub 10}P{sub 12} presented the best hardness and corrosion-resistance properties. The results showed that the addition of P is beneficial for the hardness and corrosion resistance properties of the Ni-Mo-based coatings. (author)

  2. Electrodeposition and characterization of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszczyńska, A.; Winiarski, J.; Szczygieł, B.; Szczygieł, I.

    2016-04-01

    Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite coatings were produced by electrodeposition technique from citrate electrolytes containing dispersed ZrO2 nanopowder. The influence of deposition parameters i.e. concentration of molybdate and ZrO2 nanoparticles in the electrolyte, bath pH and deposition current density on the composition and surface morphology of the coating has been investigated. The structure, microhardness and corrosion properties of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composites with different molybdenum and ZrO2 content have been also examined. It was found that ZrO2 content in the deposit is increased by rising the nanoparticles concentration in the plating solution up to 20 g dm-3. An increase in molybdate concentration in the electrolyte affects negatively the amount of codeposited ZrO2 nanoparticles. The correlation between the deposition current efficiency and ZrO2 content in the composite coating has been also observed. A decrease in deposition current efficiency leads to deposition of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite with low nanoparticles content. This may be explained by formation of higher amounts of gas bubbles on the cathode surface, which prevent the adsorption of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the growing deposit. The XRD analysis revealed that all the studied Ni-Mo-ZrO2 coatings were composed of a single, nanocrystalline phase with FCC structure. It was found that the incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles into Ni-Mo alloy matrix affects positively the microhardness and also slightly improves the corrosion properties of Ni-Mo alloy coating.

  3. Electrodeposition of Ni-Mo alloy coatings for water splitting reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Akshatha R.; Hegde, Ampar Chitharanjan

    2018-04-01

    The present study reports the development of Ni-Mo alloy coatings for water splitting applications, using a citrate bath the inducing effect of Mo (reluctant metal) on electrodeposition, its relationship with their electrocatalytic efficiency were studied. The alkaline water splitting efficiency of Ni-Mo alloy coatings, for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction were tested using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) techniques. Moreover, the practical utility of these electrode materials were evaluated by measuring the amount of H2 and O2 gas evolved. The variation in electrocatalytic activity with composition, structure, and morphology of the coatings were examined using XRD, SEM, and EDS analyses. The experimental results showed that Ni-Mo alloy coating is the best electrode material for alkaline HER and OER reactions, at lower and higher deposition current densities (c. d.'s) respectively. This behavior is attributed by decreased Mo and increased Ni content of the alloy coating and the number of electroactive centers.

  4. Diffusion complex layers of TiC-Ni-Mo type produced on steel during vacuum titanizing process combined with the electrolytic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzycka, E.; Krolikowski, A.

    1999-01-01

    Diffusion carbide layers produced on steel surface by means of vacuum titanizing process have been studied. A new technological process combining a vacuum titanizing with an electrolytic deposition of Ni-Mo alloy has been proposed to increase of corrosion resistance of carbide layers. The effect of preliminary electrolytic deposition of Ni-Mo alloy on the NC10 steel surface on the titanized layer structure and its corrosion resistance has ben investigated. As a result, diffusion complex layers of TiC-Ni-Mo type on NC10 steel surface have been obtained. An X-ray structural analysis of titanized surfaces on NC10 steel precovered with an electrolytic Ni-Mo alloy coating (70%Ni+30%Mo) revealed a presence of titanium carbide TiC, NiTi, MoTi and trace quantity of austenite. The image of the TiC-Ni-Mo complex layer on NC10 steel surface obtained by means of joined SEM+TEM method and diagrams of elements distribution in the layer diffusion zone have been shown. Concentration of depth profiles of Ti, Ni, Mo, Cr and Fe in the layer diffusion zone obtained by means of the joined EDS+TEM method are shown. Concentration depth profiles of Ti, Ni, Mo, Cr and Fe in the layer diffusion zone obtained by means of the X r ay microanalysis and microhardness of the layer are shown. An X-ray structural analysis of titanized surfaces on the NC10 steel, without Ni-Mo alloy layer, revealed only a substantial presence of titanium carbide TiC. For corrosion resistance tests the steel samples with various diffusion layers and without layers were used: (i) the TiC-Ni-Mo titanized complex layers on NC10 steel, (ii) the TiC titanized carbide layers on the NC10 steel, (iii) the NC10 steel without layers. Corrosion measurements of sample under test have been performed in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance tests. It has been found that the corrosion resistance of titanized steel samples with the TiC and TiC-Ni-Mo layers is higher than for the steel

  5. Electroplating of Ni-Mo Coating on Stainless Steel for Application in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rashtchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel bipolar plates are preferred choice for use in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs. However, regarding the working temperature of 80 °C and corrosive and acidic environment of PEMFC, it is necessary to apply conductive protective coatings resistant to corrosion on metallic bipolar plate surfaces to enhance its chemical stability and performance. In the present study, by applying Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P alloy coatings via electroplating technique, corrosion resistance was improved, oxid layers formation on substrates which led to increased electrical conductivity of the surface was reduced and consequently bipolar plates fuction was enhanced. Evaluation tests included microstructural and phase characterizations for evaluating coating components; cyclic voltammetry test for electrochemical behavior investigations; wettability test for measuring hydrophobicity characterizations of the coatings surfaces; interfacial contact resistance measurements of the coatings for evaluating the composition of applied coatings; and polarization tests of fuel cells for evaluating bipolar plates function in working conditions. Finally, the results showed that the above-mentioned coatings considerably decreased the corrosion and electrical resistance of the stainless steel.

  6. NiMo-sulfide supported on activated carbon to produce renewable diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Y Acelas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to their weak polarity and large surface area, activated carbon supports have the potential to enhance the dispersion of metal-sulfides. It is expected that the absence of a strong metal-support interaction can result in the formation of a very active and stable Ni-Mo-S phase. In this study, catalysts with different amounts of nickel and molybdenum supported on a commercial activated carbon were prepared by a co-impregnation method and characterized by BET, XRF, and SEM techniques. The catalytic activity for hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated in a batch reactor, and the composition of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. Results showed that gaseous products are mainly composed of high amounts of propane and small amounts of other light hydrocarbons (C1 to C5. Liquid hydrocarbon products consisted of a mixture containing mainly n-paraffins of C15-C18 and some oxygenated compounds. The catalysts with a mass fraction of 3 % Ni, 15 % Mo (Ni3Mo15/AC presented the highest selectivity toward C17-C18 hydrocarbons, with a product distribution similar to a commercial alumina-supported Ni-Mo-S catalyst.

  7. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of FeCoCrNiMo0.2 High Entropy Coatings Prepared by Air Plasma Spray and the High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchen Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the spherical FeCoCrNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy (HEA powders with a single FCC solid solution structure were prepared by gas atomization. Subsequently, the FeCoCrNiMo0.2 coatings with a different content of oxide inclusions were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS and high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF, respectively. The microstructure, phase composition, mechanical properties, and tribological behaviors of these HEA coatings were investigated. The results showed that both HEA coatings showed a typical lamellar structure with low porosity. Besides the primary FCC phase, a mixture of Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and AB2O4 (A = Fe, Co, Ni, and B = Fe, Cr was identified as the oxide inclusions. The oxide content of the APS coating and HVOF coating was calculated to be 47.0% and 12.7%, respectively. The wear resistance of the APS coating was approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of the HVOF coating. It was mainly attributed to the self-lubricated effect caused by the oxide films. The mass loss of the APS coating was mainly ascribed to the breakaway of the oxide film, while the main wear mechanism of the HVOF coating was the abrasive wear.

  8. Hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil using different mesoporous supports of NiMo catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Nino; Simanungkalit, Sabar P.; Kristiani, Anis

    2017-11-01

    Biomass as a renewable and sustainable resources need to utilize in many applications, especially for energy application. One of its energy application is about converting biomass into bio-oil. High oxygen content in bio-oil needs to be upgraded through hydrodeoxygenation process before being used as transportation fuel. The development of heterogenenous catalysts become an important aspect in hydrodeoxygenation process, in particular the upgrading process of bio-oil. Several supporting mesoporous materials, such as TiO2, Al2O3 and MCM-41 have unique properties, both physical and chemical properties that can be utilized in various application, including catalyst. These heterogeneous catalysts were modified their catalytic properties by impregnation with some transition metal. The effect of various supporting material and transition metal impregnated were also studied. Their chemical and physical properties were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluororesence, Fourier Transform Infra-Red, and Surface Area Analyzer. The result of characterizations showed that Ni-Mo/TiO2 is more crystalline than Ni-Mo/MCM-41 and Ni-Mo/Al2O3. In other hand, the specific surface area of Ni-Mo/TiO2 is lower than others. These heterogeneous catalysts were tested their catalytic activity in upgrading bio-oil. The liquid products produced were analyzed by using Elemental Analyzer. The result of catalytic activity tests showed catalysts resulted Ni-Mo/TiO2 exhibits best catalytic activity in hydrodeoxygenation process. The oxygen content decreased significantly from 41.61% to 26.22% by using Ni-Mo/TiO2. Compared with Ni-Mo/TiO2, Ni-Mo/MCM-41 and Ni-Mo/Al2O3 decrease lower to 33.22% % and 28.34%, respectively. Ni-Mo/TiO2 also resulted the highest Deoxygenation Degree (DOD) as of 55% compared with Ni-Mo/MCM-41 and Ni-Mo/Al2O3 as of 31.99 % and 47.99%, respectively.

  9. ACTIVITY TEST AND REGENERATION OF NiMo/Z CATALYST FOR HYDROCRACKING OF WASTE PLASTIC FRACTION TO GASOLINE FRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity test and regeneration of NiMo/active natural zeolite catalyst for hydrocracking of waste plastic fraction of polyprophylene (PP type have been carried out. The catalysts was prepared by loading Mo followed by Ni Metals onto the natural zeolite (Z sample, then calcined at 500oC, oxidized and reduced at 400oC under nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen stream, respectively. The characterization of catalysts including spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume were performed by gas sorption analyzer, amount of total acid sites was determined by gas sorption method, and acid site strength was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The hydrocracking process was carried out in a semi-flow reactor system at 360 oC and catalyst:feed ratio 0.5 under hydrogen stream (150 mL/hour. The feed was vaporized from the pyrolisis reactor into the hydrocracking reactor. A liquid product was collected and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The characterization results showed that spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume of the Z sample decreased after loading of the Ni and Mo metals. Amount of total acid sites of the NiMo/Z catalyst was higher than that of the Z sample. The activity of NiMo/Z catalyst decreased after several continously runs. Its regeneration produced the NiMo/Z reg catalyst with similar activity and selectivity to the fresh catalyst (NiMo/Z. The activity of catalysts at the optimum condition followed the order of NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (conversion of hydrocarbon C>12 and NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (total yield of gasoline fraction. The selectivity of catalysts for C7-C8 product followed the order of Z>NiMo/Z>NiMo/Z reg. Keywords: activity, polyprophylene, catalyst, gasoline fraction.

  10. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Fe - Ni - Mo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, E.E.; Ershov, A.V.; Mashin, A.I.; Mashin, N.I.; Rudnevskij, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Procedures for the X-ray fluorescence determination of the composition and thickness of Fe - Ni - Mo thin films and the concentration of elements in thick films of the Fe - Ni - Mo alloy are developed [ru

  11. Support effects on hydrotreating activity of NiMo catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Diaz-Garcia, L.; Cortez de la Paz, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the gamma alumina particle size on the catalytic activity of NiMoS x catalysts prepared by precipitation method of aluminum acetate at pH = 10 was studied. The structural characterization of the supports was measured by using XRD, pyridine FTIR-TPD and nitrogen physisorption. NiMo catalysts were characterized during the preparation steps (annealing and sulfidation) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen TPR studies of the NiMo catalysts were also carried out in order to correlate their hydrogenating properties and their catalytic functionality. Catalytic tests were carried out in a pilot plant at 613, 633 and 653 K temperatures. The results showed that the rate constants of hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatizing (HDA) at 613-653 K decreased in the following order: A > B > C corresponding to the increase of NiMoS particle size associated to these catalysts

  12. Structural and technological formation of surface nanostructured Ti-Ni-Mo layers by high-speed gas-flame spraying

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    Blednova Zhesfina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers a complex method of forming surface-modified layers using materials with shape memory effect (SME based on TiNiMo including pre-grinding and mechanical activation of the coating material, high-speed gas-flame spraying of Ni adhesive layer and subsequent TiNiMo spraying with molybdenum content up to 2%, thermal and thermomechanical processing in a single technological cycle. This allowed forming nanostructured surface layers with a high level of functional mechanical and performance properties. We defined control parameters of surface steel modification using material with shape memory effect based on TiNiMo, which monitor the structural material state, both at the stage of spraying, and during subsequent combined treatment, which allows affecting purposefully on the functional properties of the SME surface layer. Test results of samples before coating and after surface modification with TiNiMo in the seawater indicate that surface modification brings to a slower damage accumulation and to increase of steel J91171 endurance limit in seawater by 45%. Based on complex metallophysical research of surface layers we obtained new data about nano-sized composition “steel - Ni - TiNiMo”.

  13. Coke formation during the hydrotreatment of bio-oil using NiMo and CoMo catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadarwati, Sri; Hu, Xun; Gunawan, Richard; Westerhof, Roel; Gholizadeh, Mortaza; Hasan, M. D.Mahmudul; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the coke formation during the hydrotreatment of bio-oil at low temperature. The catalytic hydrotreatment of bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis of mallee wood was carried out using pre-sulphided NiMo and CoMo catalysts at a temperature range of 150–300 °C. Our results

  14. Nanocrystalline electrodeposited Ni-Mo-C cathodes for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Sasaki, T.; Meguro, S.; Asami, K.

    2004-01-01

    Tailoring active nickel alloy cathodes for hydrogen evolution in a hot concentrated hydroxide solution was attempted by electrodeposition. The carbon addition to Ni-Mo alloys decreased the nanocrystalline grain size and remarkably enhanced the activity for hydrogen evolution, changing the mechanism of hydrogen evolution. The Tafel slope of hydrogen evolution was about 35 mV per decade. This suggested that the rate-determining step is desorption of adsorbed hydrogen atoms by recombination. As was distinct from the binary Ni-Mo alloys, after open circuit immersion, the overpotential, that is, the activity of nanocrystalline Ni-Mo-C alloys for hydrogen evolution was not changed, indicating the sufficient durability in the practical electrolysis

  15. Study on the Ni Mo alloy nano crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Lidice A. Pereira; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araujo

    1996-01-01

    Materials with nanocrystalline microstructures are solids that contain such a high density of defects, with the spacings between neighboring defects approaching interatomic distances. As result, nanocrystalline solids exhibit physical and chemical properties different from those usually found in normal crystalline s or amorphous materials with the same chemical composition. In this work, the nanocrystalline Ni Mo alloy was prepared by melt-spinning method. The novelly synthesized nanocrystalline Ni Mo alloy was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (D S C) and microscopy. The estimated average crystalline size by the Debye-Scherrer formulas was 20 nm. (author)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Ni-Mo filler brazing alloy for Mo-W joining for microwave tube technology

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    Frank Ferrer Sene

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A brazing process based on Ni-Mo alloy was developed to join porous tungsten cathode bottom and dense molybdenum cathode body for microwave tubes manufacture. The Ni-Mo alloy was obtained by mixing and milling powders in the eutectic composition, and applied on the surface of the components. The brazing was made at 1400 °C by using induction heating in hydrogen for 5 minutes. Alumina surfaces were coated with the binder and analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence. The brazed samples were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Stress-strain tests were performed to determine the mechanical behavior of the joining. The quality of the brazing was evaluated by assuring the presence of a "meniscus" formed by the Ni-Mo alloy on the border of the tungsten and molybdenum joint, the absence of microstructural defects in the interface between the tungsten and molybdenum alloys, and the adhesion of the brazed components.

  17. Engineering Ni-Mo-S Nanoparticles for Hydrodesulfurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodin, Anders; Christoffersen, Ann-Louise N.; Elkjær, Christian F.

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticle engineering for catalytic applications requires both a synthesis technique for the production of well-defined nanoparticles and measurements of their catalytic performance. In this paper, we present a new approach to rationally engineering highly active Ni-Mo-S nanoparticle catalysts...... for hydrodesulfurization (HDS), i.e., the removal of sulfur from fossil fuels. Nanoparticle catalysts are synthesized by the sputtering of a Mo75Ni25 metal target in a reactive atmosphere of Ar and H2S followed by the gas aggregation of the sputtered material into nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are filtered...

  18. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J.; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process. PMID:28772747

  19. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt % were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD, Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  20. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-04-06

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5-2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni₃Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo₂C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall-Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  1. Electroless Ni-Mo-P diffusion barriers with Pd-activated self-assembled monolayer on SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dianlong; Yang Zhigang; Zhang Chi

    2010-01-01

    Ternary Ni-based amorphous films can serve as a diffusion barrier layer for Cu interconnects in ultralarge-scale integration (ULSI) applications. In this paper, electroless Ni-Mo-P films deposited on SiO 2 layer without sputtered seed layer were prepared by using Pd-activated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The solutions and operating conditions for pretreatment and deposition were presented, and the formation of Pd-activated SAM was demonstrated by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis and BSE (back-scattered electron) observation. The effects of the concentration of Na 2 MoO 4 added in electrolytes, pH value, and bath temperature on the surface morphology and compositions of Ni-Mo-P films were investigated. The microstructures, diffusion barrier property, electrical resistivity, and adhesion were also examined. Based on the experimental results, the Ni-Mo-P alloys produced by using Pd-activated SAM had an amorphous or amorphous-like structure, and possessed good performance as diffusion barrier layer.

  2. A real support effect on the hydrodeoxygenation of methyl oleate by sulfided NiMo catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, A.E.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the support on the catalytic performance of sulfided NiMo in the hydrodeoxygenation of methyl oleate as a model compound for triglyceride upgrading to green diesel was investigated. NiMo sulfides were prepared by impregnation and sulfidation on activated carbon, silica, γ-alumina and

  3. Density of Liquid Ni-Mo Alloys Measured by a Modified Sessile Drop Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Zushu LI; ZaiNan TAO; Feng XIAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of liquid binary Ni-Mo alloys with molybdenum concentration from 0 to 20% (mass fraction) was measured by a modified sessile drop method. It has been found that the density of the liquid Ni-Mo alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of molybdenum concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Mo binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and molybdenum concentration. The partial molar volume of molybdenum in Ni-Mo binary alloy has been approximately calculated as [13.18 - 2.65 × 10-3T + (-47.94 + 3.10 × 10-2T) × 10-2XMo] × 10-6m3·mol-1. The molar volume of Ni-Mo alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear mixing molar volume.

  4. Acoustic properties of TiNiMoFe base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunter, V.Eh.; Chernyshev, V.I.; Chekalkin, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    The regularity of changing the acoustic properties of the TiNi base alloys in dependence on the alloy composition and impact temperature is studied. It is shown that the oscillations of the TiNiMoFe base alloys within the temperature range of the B2 phase existence and possible appearance of the martensite under the load differ from the traditional materials oscillations. After excitation of spontaneous oscillations within the range of M f ≤ T ≤ M d there exists the area of long-term and low-amplitude low-frequency acoustic oscillations. It is established that free low-frequency oscillations of the TH-10 alloy sample are characterized by the low damping level in the given temperature range [ru

  5. Fatigue resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumchenkov, N.E.; Filimonova, O.V.; Borisov, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of additional alloying (Ni, Ni+Co), stress concentration, surface plastic strain on fatigue resistance of rotor steel of Cr-Ni-Mo-V-composition. It is shown that the steel with decreased carbon content possesses high complex of mechanical properties. Fatigue characteristics are not inferior to similar characteristics of steels of 25KhN3MFA type. Additional alloying of the steel containing 0.11...0.17% C and 4.5...4.7% N:, with niobium separately or niobium and cobalt in combination enabled to improve fatigue resistance of samles up to 25%. Strengthening of stress concentration zones by surface plastic strain is recommended for improving rotor suppporting 'nower under cyclic loading

  6. Explosive anisotropic grain growth of delta-NiMo by solid-state diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.C.; Nieh, T.G.

    1991-01-01

    Anomalous, anisotropic grain growth has been observed in delta(δ)-NiMo intermetallic compound during the annealings of Mo/Ni thin-film diffusion couples at 700 and 800 degree C. Two layered microstructures showing median-sized, equiaxed grains and large columnar single crystalline grains were generated. The growth direction of the columnar grains was parallel to the direction of Ni diffusion flux. Electron diffraction indicated that both the median-sized and the columnar grains were δ-NiMo. The composition of δ-NiMo was determined to be Ni48-Mo52 (at.%). According to the thickness of reaction-formed δ-NiMo, the apparent interdiffusion coefficient was measured to be about 10 -10 cm 2 /s which is 4 to 5 orders of magnitude greater than literature data. The enhanced diffusion rate in Ni-Mo, and the anomalous anisotropic grain growth of δ-NiMo compound are discussed on the basis of exothermic reactions between Ni and Mo during diffusional intermixing. The enthalpy of the formation of δ-NiMo is calculated and demonstrated to be sufficient to cause melting/solidification of the compound

  7. Solvothermal conversion of technical lignins over NiMo catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghafarnejad Parto, Soheila; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Pedersen, Lars Saaby

    Scope: Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose are the main constituents of plants cell walls. Lignin is an aromatic rich compound, composed of phenolic building blocks. Depending on the method used for isolation of lignin from cellulose and hemicellulose, several types of technical lignin are availa......Scope: Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose are the main constituents of plants cell walls. Lignin is an aromatic rich compound, composed of phenolic building blocks. Depending on the method used for isolation of lignin from cellulose and hemicellulose, several types of technical lignin...... of the range of available technical lignins. In this work, catalytic conversion of different types of lignin using an alumina supported NiMo catalyst (provided by Haldor Topsøe A/S) is conducted in ethanol at 310 ˚C with initial hydrogen pressure of 25 barg. The reaction time was set to 3 hours. Proton......, attributed as ‘bio-oil’. GC-MS-FID analysis was used for identification and quantification of the bio-oil and ethanol rich light fraction. The molecular weight of the oil fraction was determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Elemental analysis (Eurovector EuroEA3000) was conducted for measuring...

  8. Cracking vegetable oil from Callophylluminnophyllum L. seeds to bio-gasoline by Ni-Mo/Al2O3 and Ni-Mo/Zeolite as micro-porous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitri, Effendi, R.; Tursiloadi, S.

    2016-02-01

    Natural minerals such as zeolite are local natural resources in the various regions in Indonesia. Studies on the application of natural mineral currently carried out by national research institutions, among others, as a filler, bleaching agent, or dehydration agent. However, not many studies that utilize these natural minerals as green catalysts material which has high performance for biomass conversion processes and ready to be applied directly by the bio-fuel industry. The trend movement of green and sustainable chemistry research that designing environmentally friendly chemical processes from renewable raw materials to produce innovative products derived biomass for bio-fuel. Callophylluminnophyllum L. seeds can be used as raw material for bio-energy because of its high oil content. Fatty acid and triglyceride compounds from this oil can be cracked into bio-gasoline, which does not contain oxygen in the hydrocarbon structure. Bio-gasoline commonly is referred to as drop-in biofuel because it can be directly used as a substitute fuel. This paper focused on the preparation and formulation of the catalyst NiMo/H-Zeolite and Ni-Mo/Al2O3 which were used in hydro-cracking process of oil from Callophylluminnophyllum L. seeds to produce bio-gasoline. The catalysts were analyzed using XRD, BET and IR-adsorbed pyridine method. The results of hydro-cracking products mostly were paraffin (C10-C19) straight chain, with 59.5 % peak area based on GC-MS analysis.

  9. Cathodic Electrodeposition of Ni-Mo on Semiconducting NiFe2 O4 for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution in Alkaline Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijten, Jochem H J; Jong, Ronald P H; Mul, Guido; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2018-04-25

    Photocathodes for hydrogen evolution from water were made by electrodeposition of Ni-Mo layers on NiFe 2 O 4 substrates, deposited by spin coating on F:SnO 2 -glass. Analysis confirmed the formation of two separate layers, without significant reduction of NiFe 2 O 4 . Bare NiFe 2 O 4 was found to be unstable under alkaline conditions during (photo)electrochemistry. To improve the stability significantly, the deposition of a bifunctional Ni-Mo layer through a facile electrodeposition process was performed and the composite electrodes showed stable operation for at least 1 h. Moreover, photocurrents up to -2.1 mA cm -2 at -0.3 V vs. RHE were obtained for Ni-Mo/NiFe 2 O 4 under ambient conditions, showing that the new combination functions as both a stabilizing and catalytic layer for the photoelectrochemical evolution of hydrogen. The photoelectrochemical response of these composite electrodes decreased with increasing NiFe 2 O 4 layer thickness. Transient absorption spectroscopy showed that the lifetime of excited states is short and on the ns timescale. An increase in lifetime was observed for NiFe 2 O 4 of large layer thickness, likely explained by decreasing the defect density in the primary layer(s), as a result of repetitive annealing at elevated temperature. The photoelectrochemical and transient absorption spectroscopy results indicated that a short charge carrier lifetime limits the performance of Ni-Mo/NiFe 2 O 4 photocathodes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2016-02-09

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  11. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2017-12-19

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  12. Shot Peening Effects on Subsurface Layer Properties and Fatigue Performance of Case-Hardened 18CrNiMo7-6 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Ho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is conducted with a dual-aim: firstly, to examine the effect of several single shot peening conditions on the subsurface layer properties and fatigue performance of the case-hardened 18CrNiMo7-6 steel, and secondly, to propose an optimized peening condition for improved fatigue performance. By carrying out the subsurface integrity analysis and fatigue testing, the underlying relationships among the peening process, subsurface layer property and fatigue performance are investigated, the way peening conditions affect the fatigue life and its associated scatter for the case-hardened 18CrNiMo7-6 steel is quantitatively assessed. The in-depth study shows that dual peening can be an optimized solution, for it is able to produce a subsurface layer with enhanced properties and eventually gain a significant improvement in fatigue performance.

  13. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Mo PM Steels with Addition of Mn And Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichańska, E.; Kulecki, P.; Pańcikiewicz, K.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of chemical composition on the structure and mechanical properties of Mn-Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-Cu PM steels. Pre-alloyed powder Astaloy 85Mo, diffusion alloyed powders Distaloy AQ and Distaloy AB produced by Höganäs, low carbon ferromanganese, carbonyl nickel powder T255 with three-dimensional filamentary structure and graphite CU-F have been used as the basic powders. Three mixtures with compositions of Fe-1%Mn-(0.5/1.75)%Ni-(0.5/0.85)%Mo-0.8%C and Fe-1.75%Ni-0.5%Mo-1.5%Cu-0.8%C were prepared in a Turbula mixer. Green compacts were single pressed in a steel die at 660 MPa according to PN-EN ISO 2740 standard. Sinterhardening was carried out at 1250°C in a mixture of 95% N2+5% H2 for 60 minutes. Mechanical tests (tensile, bend, hardness) and microstructural investigations were performed. Additionally, XRD and EDS analysis, fractographic investigations were carried out. The microstructures of steels investigated were mainly bainitic or bainitic-martensitic. Addition 1% Mn to Distaloy AQ based steel caused increase of tensile properties (YS from 422 to 489 MPa, UTS from 522 to 638 MPa, TRS from 901 to 1096 MPa) and decrease of plasticity (elongation from 3.65 to 2.84%).

  14. Hydrotreating NiMo/sepiolite catalysts: influence of catalyst preparation on activity for HDS, hydrogenation and chain isomerization reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, F.V.; Sanz, E.; Corma, A.; Mifsud, A.

    1987-01-01

    A series of NiMo catalysts supported on a sepiolite: a) in its natural state, b) modified by acid leaching, and c) modified by cation exchange, have been prepared. The preparation variables studied were: Method of metal deposition, amount of active phase, sepiolite pretreatment, and temperature and time of sulfurization. The catalytic activity for HDS, hydrogenation, and cracking-isomerization has been studied by feeding a thiophene-cyclohexene-cyclohexane mixture and carrying out the reaction in the following conditions: 300 0 and 400 0 C reaction temperature, 20 Kg.cm -2 total pressure, and 3 to 1 molar ratio of H 2 to hydrocarbons. An optimium for HDS and hydrogenation activity was found for a 12% wt MoO 3 , and 5% wt NiO, prepared by simultaneous impregnation by the pore volume method at Ph = 5.0. The optimum conditions with these catalysts are 400 0 C and 3 hours of sulfurization. An increase in the acidity of the support produces a decrease of HDS and hydrogenation and an increase of the cracking-isomerization activities. A good correlation between HDS and the concentration of an XNiO.MoO 3 phase is found. The XNiO.MoO 3 phase is completely sulfurized to a modified MoS 2 , while NiMoO 4 and MoO 3 are only slightly sulfurized. 31 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 table

  15. Electrochemical behavior of Ni-Mo electro catalyst for water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez V, S. M.; Ordonez R, E. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cabanas M, G. [IPN, Centro de Nanociencias y Micro y Nanotecnologias, A. P. 75-874, 07300 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Solorza F, O., E-mail: suilma.fernandez@inin.gob.m [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Quimica, A. P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Nickel-molybdenum based electrocatalysts were synthesized in organic media for the hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media. The structure, morphology and chemical composition of the catalysts were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Aas. Results revealed nanocrystalline powder materials with Ni{sub 0.006}Mo, Ni{sub 0.1}Mo and Ni Mo compositions. The best performance for hydrogen evolution reaction, was obtained on Ni{sub 0.1}Mo electrode, whereas Ni Mo was for the oxygen evolution reaction. Results suggest that the material with 1:1 stoichiometric ratio could be considered as a promising electro catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction. This nanocrystalline powder is formed by Ni{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 8} and a crystalline structure attributed to the possible formation of a Ni Mo cluster, becomes NiMoO{sub 4} after thermal treatment at 1073 K in air. The Ni Mo 1:1 cluster catalyst presented electrochemical stability during the oxygen evolution reaction. (Author)

  16. Electrochemical behavior of Ni-Mo electro catalyst for water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez V, S. M.; Ordonez R, E.; Cabanas M, G.; Solorza F, O.

    2010-01-01

    Nickel-molybdenum based electrocatalysts were synthesized in organic media for the hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media. The structure, morphology and chemical composition of the catalysts were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Aas. Results revealed nanocrystalline powder materials with Ni 0.006 Mo, Ni 0.1 Mo and Ni Mo compositions. The best performance for hydrogen evolution reaction, was obtained on Ni 0.1 Mo electrode, whereas Ni Mo was for the oxygen evolution reaction. Results suggest that the material with 1:1 stoichiometric ratio could be considered as a promising electro catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction. This nanocrystalline powder is formed by Ni 2 Mo 3 O 8 and a crystalline structure attributed to the possible formation of a Ni Mo cluster, becomes NiMoO 4 after thermal treatment at 1073 K in air. The Ni Mo 1:1 cluster catalyst presented electrochemical stability during the oxygen evolution reaction. (Author)

  17. Phase transitions in alloys of the Ni-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinovshikov, Y.; Shabanova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The structure of Ni-20 at.% Mo and Ni-25 at.% Mo alloys was studied by methods of TEM and XPS. It is shown that at high temperatures the tendency toward phase separation takes place in the alloys and crystalline bcc Mo particles precipitate in the liquid solution. At 900 deg. C and below, the tendency toward ordering leads to the dissolution of Mo particles and precipitation of the particles of Ni 3 Mo, Ni 2 Mo or Ni 4 Mo chemical compounds. Highlights: → 'Chemical' phase transition 'ordering-phase separation' is first discovered in alloys of the Ni-Mo system. → It is first shown that the phase separation in the alloys studied begins at temperatures above the liquidus one. → The formation of Ni 3 Mo from A1 has gone through the intervening stage of the Ni 4 Mo and Ni 2 Mo coexistence. - Abstract: The structure of Ni-20 at.% Mo and Ni-25 at.% Mo alloys heat treated at different temperatures was studied by the method of transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to detect the sign of the chemical interaction between Ni and Mo atoms at different temperatures. It is shown that at high temperatures the tendency toward phase separation takes place. The system of additional reflections at positions {1 1/2 0} on the electron diffraction patterns testifies that the precipitation of crystalline bcc Mo particles begins in the liquid solution. At 900 deg. C and below, the tendency toward ordering leads to the precipitation of the particles of the chemical compounds. A body-centered tetragonal phase Ni 4 Mo (D1 a ) is formed in the Ni-20 at.% Mo alloy. In the Ni-25 at.% Mo alloy, the formation of the Ni 3 Mo (D0 22 ) chemical compound from the A1 solid solution has gone through the intervening stage of the Ni 4 Mo (D1 a ) and Ni 2 Mo (Pt 2 Mo) formation.

  18. Seaurchin-like hierarchical NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 core-shell nanomaterials for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Deng, Yanghua; Hu, Zhonghua; Liu, Yafei; Yao, Mingming; Liu, Peipei

    2014-11-14

    A novel electrode material of the three-dimensional (3D) multicomponent oxide NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 core-shell was synthesized via a facile two-step hydrothermal method using a post-annealing procedure. The uniform NiMoO4 nanosheets were grown on the seaurchin-like NiCo2O4 backbone to form a NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 core-shell material constructed by interconnected ultrathin nanosheets, so as to produce hierarchical mesopores with a large specific surface area of 100.3 m(2) g(-1). The porous feature and core-shell structure can facilitate the penetration of electrolytic ions and increases the number of electroactive sites. Hence, the NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 material exhibited a high specific capacitance of 2474 F g(-1) and 2080 F g(-1) at current densities of 1 A g(-1) and 20 A g(-1) respectively, suggesting that it has not only a very large specific capacitance, but also a good rate performance. In addition, the capacitance loss was only 5.0% after 1000 cycles of charge and discharge tests at the current density of 10 A g(-1), indicating high stability. The excellent electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to its 3D core-shell and hierarchical mesoporous structures which can provide unobstructed pathways for the fast diffusion and transportation of ions and electrons, a large number of active sites and good strain accommodation.

  19. Synthesis of Green Diesel From Waste Cooking Oil Through Hydrodeoxygenation Technology With NiMo/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriyanto Heri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of waste cooking oil (WCO and trapped grease over sulfide catalysts was examined to produce high quality transportation fuel from low-grade resources. The hydrodeoxygenation of waste cooking oils was carried out in a high pressure of 30 and 60 bar and high temperature of 300 – 400 °C in a batch reactor autoclave. NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared and for the first time tested in hydroprocessing of waste cooking oil. The content of NiMo/γ-Al2O3 in each catalyst was about wCo 5 wt.%. A maximum of 77,97 % green diesel yield was achieved at nearly complete conversion of waste cooking oil using NiMo/γ-Al2O3 at temperature of 400°C, pressure 60 bar and 4 hours of reaction time. The oxygen content was decreased from 14,25 wt.% to 13,35 wt.%, at temperature of 400°C, pressure of 30 bar and 1 hour of reaction time. The Hydrodeoxygenation process was much influenced by temperature, pressure, and time.

  20. Hydroconversion of Waste Cooking Oil into Green Biofuel over Hierarchical USY-Supported NiMo Catalyst: A Comparative Study of Desilication and Dealumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongwei Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydroconversion of waste cooking oil into hydrocarbon fuel was investigated over the hierarchical USY zeolite-supported NiMo catalysts which were prepared by dealumination ((NH42SiF6/desilication (NaOH. The physical and acidity properties of the hierarchical catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine (Py-IR, ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, and H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR. The Brønsted/Lewis (B/L acid distribution was little affected by dealumination and the acid density decreased significantly. However, the highly-desilicated catalysts decreased the B/L ratio obviously. Therefore, many more Mo species in the NiMoO4− and MoO3 phases were produced in the AHFS-treated catalysts, while more high-valence-state Mo species in the NiMoO4− phase were formed in the NaOH-treated catalysts. The AHFS-treated catalysts showed higher catalytic activity and better DCO2 selectivity and selective cracking for jet fuel. The 42.3% selectivity of jet fuel and 13.5% selectivity of jet-range aromatics was achieved over the 8 wt % (NH42SiF6-treated catalyst with 67% DCO2 selectivity.

  1. Microstructure and tribological properties of NiMo/Mo2Ni3Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Yongliang; Song Chunyan; Yang Li; Qin Xiaoling

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Wear resistant NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites was fabricated successfully with Mo-Ni-Si powder blends as the starting materials. Microstructure of the NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites consists of Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendrites, binary intermetallic phase NiMo and small amount of Ni/NiMo eutectics structure. The NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites exhibited high hardness and outstanding tribological properties under room-temperature dry-sliding wear test conditions which were attributed to the covalent-dominant strong atomic bonds and excellent combination of strength and ductility and toughness. - Abstract: Wear resistant NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites with a microstructure of ternary metal silicide Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendritic, the long strip-like NiMo intermetallic phase, and a small amount of Ni/NiMo eutectics structure were designed and fabricated using molybdenum, nickel and silicon elemental powders. Friction and wear properties of NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites were evaluated under different contact load at room-temperature dry-sliding wear test conditions. Microstructure, worn surface morphologies and subsurface microstructure were characterized by OM, XRD, SEM and EDS. Results indicate that NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites have low fiction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and sluggish wear-load dependence. The dominant wear mechanisms of NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites are soft abrasion and slightly superficial oxidative wear.

  2. Electrodeposition and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Ni-Mo Catalysts for Hydrogen Production

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, J.; Abdel-Karim, R.; El-Raghy, S.; Nabil, M.; Waheed, A.

    2012-01-01

    Ni-Mo nanocrystalline deposits (7–43 nm) with a nodular morphology were prepared by electrodeposition using direct current from citrate-ammonia solutions. They exhibited a single Ni-Mo solid solution phase. The size of the nodules increased as electroplating current density increased. The molybdenum content—estimated using EDX analysis—in the deposits decreased from about 31 to 11 wt% as the current density increased from 5 to 80 mA·cm−2. The highest microhardness value (285 Hv) corresponded ...

  3. Microwave effects on NiMoS and CoMoS single-sheet catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, I; Silva, Alexander M; Modesto-Costa, Lucas

    2018-05-04

    Single-sheet nanoclusters of MoS 2 , NiMoS or CoMoS are widely used in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysis in the petroleum industry. In HDS reactions under microwave irradiation, experiments indirectly pointed out that for pristine MoS 2 reaction rates are accelerated because hot spots are generated on the catalyst bed. In this work, we investigated NiMoS and CoMoS isolated single-sheet substituted catalysts before and after thiophene adsorption focusing on quantifying the effect of microwave irradiation. For that purpose, density functional theory (DFT) molecular charge densities of each system were decomposed according to the distributed multipole analysis (DMA) of Stone. Site dipole values of each system were directly associated with a larger or smaller interaction with the microwave field according to a proposed general approach. We showed that microwave enhancement of HDS reaction rates can occur more efficiently in the CoMoS and NiMoS promoted clusters compared to pristine MoS 2 in the following order: CoMoS > NiMoS > MoS 2 . The atomic origin of the catalyst hot spots induced by microwaves was clearly established in the promoted clusters.

  4. The role of Ni in sulfided carbon-supported Ni-Mo hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, S.M.A.M.; Barthe-Zahir, N.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Prins, R.

    1991-01-01

    The thiophene hydrodesulfurization activities of Ni and Ni---Mo sulfide catalysts supported on activated carbon were measured at atmospheric pressure and the catalyst structures were studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic oxygen chemisorption, and chemical sulfur analysis. The

  5. Improved hardness of laser alloyed X12CrNiMo martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyi, DI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in hardness of X12CrNiMo martensitic stainless steel laser alloyed with 99.9% pure titanium carbide, stellite 6 and two cases of premixed ratio of titanium carbide and stellite 6 [TiC (30 wt.%)- stellite 6 (70 wt.%) and TiC (70 wt...

  6. Anodization process produces opaque, reflective coatings on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Opaque, reflective coatings are produced on aluminum articles by an anodizing process wherein the anodizing bath contains an aqueous dispersion of finely divided insoluble inorganic compounds. These particles appear as uniformly distributed occlusions in the anodic deposit on the aluminum.

  7. Studies on the influence of processing methods on the corrosion characteristics of electroslag-tape-plating with NiMo16Cr16Ti. Untersuchungen zum Einfluss der Prozessfuehrung auf die Korrosionseigenschaften beim Elektroschlacke-Bandplattieren mit NiMo16Cr16Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, J

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the project was to demonstrate an economic possibility of using NiMo16Cr16Ti reliably as a plating material with simple to use methods. For this, the electroslag and submerged arc welding with tape electrodes as a coating technology are compared with each other. As the research showed, it is possible to coat large surface area, thick walled components economically with NiMo16Cr16Ti using electroslag (RES) tape plating. The choice of powder is important for the hot crack freedom and the precipitation poverty and thus the corrosion resistance of the plating. The silicon content was proved to be of importance in the plating. With the right choice of powder, the second layer already possesses the endurance of laminated materials against intercrystalline corrosion in coating tests as well as against pitting in a 10% FeCl{sub 3} solution. The coating capability lies at 0.5 m{sup 2}/h. - In addition the use of video thermography for on-line surveillance of seam on RES plates is documented. The evaluation of the pictures makes possible the targeting of the external magnets and thus the influencing of the melting bath flux. (orig./RHM) With 80 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Electrodeposition and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Ni-Mo Catalysts for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni-Mo nanocrystalline deposits (7–43 nm with a nodular morphology were prepared by electrodeposition using direct current from citrate-ammonia solutions. They exhibited a single Ni-Mo solid solution phase. The size of the nodules increased as electroplating current density increased. The molybdenum content—estimated using EDX analysis—in the deposits decreased from about 31 to 11 wt% as the current density increased from 5 to 80 mA·cm−2. The highest microhardness value (285 Hv corresponded to nanodeposits with 23% Mo. The highest corrosion resistance accompanied by relatively high hardness was detected for electrodeposits containing 15% Mo. Mo content values between 11 and 15% are recommended for obtaining better electrocatalytic activity for HER.

  9. Refinement of grain structure in 20 MnNiMo (SA508C) steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zhongqi; Xiao Hong; Peng Feng; Zou Min

    1997-04-01

    The size of prior austenite grains and bainitic colonies of 20 MnNiMo (SA508C) steel (a reactor pressure vessel steel) after normal heat treatment is measured and its controlling factors are discussed. Results show that low aluminium content can induce serious mixed structure with fine and coarse grains in prior austenite. Fast cooling rate can promote refinement of bainitic colonies. Further refinement of grains can be obtained by inter-critical quenching. (5 figs., 1 tab.)

  10. Method of producing oxidation resistant coatings for molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A method is described for producing a molybdenum element having adherently bonded thereto a thermally self-healing plasma-sprayed coating consisting essentially of a composite of molybdenum and a refactory oxide material capable of reacting with molybdenum oxide under oxidizing conditions to form a substantially thermally stable refractory compound of molybdenum, the method comprising plasma-spraying a coating formed by the step-wise application of a plurality of interbonded plasma-sprayed layers of a composite of molybdenum/refractory oxide material produced from a particulate mixture thereof. The coating comprises a first layer of molybdenum plasma-sprayed bonded to the substrate of the molybdenum element, a second layer of plasma-sprayed mixture of particulate molybdenum/refactory oxide consisting essentially of predominantly molybdenum bonded to the first layer, and succeeding layers of this mixture. The next step is heating the coated molybdenum element under oxidizing conditions to an elevated temperature sufficient to cause oxygen to diffuse into the surface of the multi-layered coating to react with dispersed molybdenum therein to form molybdenum oxide and effect healing of the coating by reaction of the molybdenum oxide with the contained refractory oxide and thereby protect the substrate of the molybdenum element against oxidation

  11. Preparation and Characterization of NiMo/Al2O3Catalyst for Hydrocracking Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiyadi Aditya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocracking is a chemical process used in petroleum refineries for converting high boiling hydrocarbons in petroleum crude oils to more valuable lower boiling products such as gasoline, kerosene, and diesel oil that operate at high temperature and pressure. Catalyst was used in hydrocracking to reduce temperature and pressure. Hydrocracking catalyst are composed of active components and support. Alumina is widely used in hydrocracking process as catalyst support due to its high surface area, high thermal stability, and low prices. The objective of this research was preparated NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst that used as hydrocracking catalyst. Catalyst was synthesized by wetness impregnation method and simple heating method with various kind of Al2O3. The physicochemical properties of catalyst were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD to determine type of crystal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to determine morphology of the catalyst. The NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate exhibited the highest crystallinity of 90.23% and it is clear that MoO3 and NiO crystallites are highly dispersed on the NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst which indicates as the best catalyst. The catalytic activity in hydrocracking process was successfully examined to convert fatty acid into hydrocarbon.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of NiMo/Al2O3Catalyst for Hydrocracking Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyadi, Aditya; Guspiani, Gema Adil; Riady, Jeffry; Andreanto, Rikky; Chaiunnisa, Safina Dea; Widayat

    2018-02-01

    Hydrocracking is a chemical process used in petroleum refineries for converting high boiling hydrocarbons in petroleum crude oils to more valuable lower boiling products such as gasoline, kerosene, and diesel oil that operate at high temperature and pressure. Catalyst was used in hydrocracking to reduce temperature and pressure. Hydrocracking catalyst are composed of active components and support. Alumina is widely used in hydrocracking process as catalyst support due to its high surface area, high thermal stability, and low prices. The objective of this research was preparated NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst that used as hydrocracking catalyst. Catalyst was synthesized by wetness impregnation method and simple heating method with various kind of Al2O3. The physicochemical properties of catalyst were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine type of crystal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine morphology of the catalyst. The NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate exhibited the highest crystallinity of 90.23% and it is clear that MoO3 and NiO crystallites are highly dispersed on the NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst which indicates as the best catalyst. The catalytic activity in hydrocracking process was successfully examined to convert fatty acid into hydrocarbon.

  13. Synthesis of supported and unsupported NiMo carbides and their properties for the catalytic hydrocracking of n-octane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, A I Reyes de la; Banda, J A Melo; Alamilla, R GarcIa; Sandoval Robles, G; Rojas, E Terres; Lopez Ortega, A; Dominguez, J M

    2004-01-01

    Unsupported and γ-Al 2 O 3 -, MCM-41-supported (Ni, Mo) carbides were prepared and modified by 'in situ' polymer (PAN: polyacrylonitrile) pyrolysis. The supported catalysts were impregnated with Ni and Mo metals, i.e. 2.8 atom Mo/nm 2 , whose atomic ratio was Ni/Ni+Mo = 0.5. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed single NiC, MoC phases in all cases, with relatively low surface areas, as verified by N 2 adsorption (BET). The catalytic behaviour of the supported (Ni, Mo)C phases for n-C 8 hydrocracking depended on the support type. (Ni, Mo)C/MCM41-PAN-P (P = pyrolyzed) showed a total conversion of 40% while it was only 15% on Ni,MoC/γ-Al 2 O 3 . The most active catalysts were (Ni, Mo)C unsupported catalysts, i.e., 90% total conversion. In all cases the hydrocracking selectivity favoured lighter hydrocarbons (C 1 -C 4 )

  14. Co-Processing of Jatropha-Derived Bio-Oil with Petroleum Distillates over Mesoporous CoMo and NiMo Sulfide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yuan Chen

    2018-02-01

    -oil were present in the oil feedstock. In contrast, the mesoporous NiMo/γ-Al2O3 sulfide catalyst, which had a high HYD activity and low affinity for heteroatoms, was efficient in the simultaneous removal of those heteroatoms from model diesel oils, and, in particular, Jatropha bio-oil co-fed with petroleum distillates. This could allow the production of a drop-in diesel-like fuel, which would be a greener fuel and reduce the CO2 emissions and hazardous exhaust gases produced by the transport sector, reducing the burden on the environment.

  15. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  16. A model to describe the surface gradient-nanograin formation and property of friction stir processed laser Co-Cr-Ni-Mo alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruidi; Yuan, Tiechui; Qiu, Zili

    2014-07-01

    A gradient-nanograin surface layer of Co-base alloy was prepared by friction stir processing (FSP) of laser-clad coating in this work. However, it is lack of a quantitatively function relationship between grain refinement and FSP conditions. Based on this, an analytic model is derived for the correlations between carbide size, hardness and rotary speed, layer depth during in-situ FSP of laser-clad Co-Cr-Ni-Mo alloy. The model is based on the principle of typical plastic flow in friction welding and dynamic recrystallization. The FSP experiment for modification of laser-clad Co-based alloy was conducted and its gradient nanograin and hardness were characterized. It shows that the model is consistent with experimental results.

  17. Improvement of NiMoNb to polyimide adhesion by inductively coupled nitrogen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, S.-H., E-mail: zxclucy@snu.ac.kr

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • NiMoNb was introduced as the adhesion layer for flexible Cu-clad laminate structure. • The effect of sputtering and plasma power on the peel strength was studied. • Plasma pretreatment in inductively coupled plasma greatly affects the peel strength. • FCCL with NiMoNb adhesion layer show outstanding peel strength. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of sputtering power on the peel strength of the flexible copper clad laminate (FCCL) was evaluated before and after heat treatment using 180° peel test. An increase in the sputtering powers from 200 W to 600 W increased film density and improved peel strength. To enhance peel strength much more, an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was treated on the PI surface using N{sub 2} gas with Ar as a function of RF power. A dramatic enhancement of the peel strength, 923 N/m was achieved, especially after heat treatment by changing ICP power from 200 W to 900 W. The reduction ratio of the peel strength for the 900 W plasma-treated FCCL was only 12%, whereas that for the 200 W plasma-treated FCCL was 43%. The root mean square (RMS) surface roughness with PIs exposed to both 200 W and 900 W plasma treatments was rarely changed, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed the substantial increase of C–N functional groups. To obtain insight the film characteristics, the NiMoNb/PI interfaces were investigated by a high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM).

  18. Development of FeNiMoB thin film materials for microfabricated magnetoelastic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai; Gooneratne, Chinthaka; Cha, Dong Kyu; Chen, Long; Gianchandani, Yogesh; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    MetglasTM 2826MB foils of 25–30 μm thickness with the composition of Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 have been used for magnetoelastic sensors in various applications over many years. This work is directed at the investigation of ∼3 μm thick iron-nickel-molybdenum-boron (FeNiMoB) thin films that are intended for integrated microsystems. The films are deposited on Si substrate by co-sputtering of iron-nickel (FeNi), molybdenum(Mo), and boron (B) targets. The results show that dopants of Mo and B can significantly change the microstructure and magnetic properties of FeNi materials. When FeNi is doped with only Mo its crystal structure changes from polycrystalline to amorphous with the increase of dopant concentration; the transition point is found at about 10 at. % of Mo content. A significant change in anisotropic magneticproperties of FeNi is also observed as the Modopant level increases. The coercivity of FeNi filmsdoped with Mo decreases to a value less than one third of the value without dopant.Doping the FeNi with B together with Mo considerably decreases the value of coercivity and the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropyproperties, and it also greatly changes the microstructure of the material. In addition, doping B to FeNiMo remarkably reduces the remanence of the material. The filmmaterial that is fabricated using an optimized process is magnetically as soft as amorphous MetglasTM 2826MB with a coercivity of less than 40 Am−1. The findings of this study provide us a better understanding of the effects of the compositions and microstructure of FeNiMoB thin filmmaterials on their magnetic properties.

  19. Analysis and removal of heteroatom containing species in coal liquid distillate over NiMo catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.D. Sumbogo Murtia; Ki-Hyouk Choi; Kinya Sakanishi; Osamu Okuma; Yozo Korai; Isao Mochida [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering

    2005-02-01

    Heteroatom containing molecules in South Banko coal liquid (SBCL) distillate were identified with a gas chromatograph equipped with an atomic emission detector (GC-AED). Thiophenes and benzothiophenes were found to be the major sulfur compounds. Pyridines, anilines, and phenols were the major nitrogen and oxygen compounds, respectively. Reactivities of heteroatom containing species in hydrotreatment over conventional NiMoS/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiMoS/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} catalysts were very different according to their cyclic structure as well as the kind of heteroatom in the species. The sulfur species were completely desulfurized over the catalysts examined in the present study by 60 min at 360{degree}C under initial hydrogen pressure of 5 MPa. However, hydrodenitrogenation was more difficult than hydrodesulfurization even at 450{degree}C. Anilines were found the most refractory ones among the nitrogen species. Hydrodeoxygenation of SBCL was also difficult in the hydrotreatment conditions examined in the present study. Dibenzofuran was the most refractory molecule among the oxygen species. A two-stage reaction configuration at 340 and 360{degree}C improved HDN and HDO reactivities, although the conversions were still insufficient. Increasing the acidity of the support as well as the loading of the metals on the NiMoS/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts improved very much the heteroatom reduction to achieve complete removal of nitrogen by two-stage reaction configuration at 340-360{degree}C and oxygen at 360{degree}C, respectively. The addition of H{sub 2}S in the reaction atmosphere inhibited the HDN reaction but increased markedly the HDO conversion. The acidic support increased the activity in hydrotreatment through enhancing the hydrogenation activity, while H{sub 2}S maintained the catalyst in a sufficiently sulfided state. 19 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Development of FeNiMoB thin film materials for microfabricated magnetoelastic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai

    2012-12-07

    MetglasTM 2826MB foils of 25–30 μm thickness with the composition of Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 have been used for magnetoelastic sensors in various applications over many years. This work is directed at the investigation of ∼3 μm thick iron-nickel-molybdenum-boron (FeNiMoB) thin films that are intended for integrated microsystems. The films are deposited on Si substrate by co-sputtering of iron-nickel (FeNi), molybdenum(Mo), and boron (B) targets. The results show that dopants of Mo and B can significantly change the microstructure and magnetic properties of FeNi materials. When FeNi is doped with only Mo its crystal structure changes from polycrystalline to amorphous with the increase of dopant concentration; the transition point is found at about 10 at. % of Mo content. A significant change in anisotropic magneticproperties of FeNi is also observed as the Modopant level increases. The coercivity of FeNi filmsdoped with Mo decreases to a value less than one third of the value without dopant.Doping the FeNi with B together with Mo considerably decreases the value of coercivity and the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropyproperties, and it also greatly changes the microstructure of the material. In addition, doping B to FeNiMo remarkably reduces the remanence of the material. The filmmaterial that is fabricated using an optimized process is magnetically as soft as amorphous MetglasTM 2826MB with a coercivity of less than 40 Am−1. The findings of this study provide us a better understanding of the effects of the compositions and microstructure of FeNiMoB thin filmmaterials on their magnetic properties.

  1. 57Fe Moessbauer studies on Ni-Mo system in the critical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, D.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Mookerjee, A.; Mukherjee, G.D.

    2001-01-01

    Disordered magnetic system NiMo is investigated in the critical region (Mo concentration 10 and 11 wt %) using Moessbauer spectroscopy as a local probe. 57 Co activity has been diffused in the alloy and is used at the source while stainless steel is used as standard absorber. Moessbauer spectrum of the alloy showed a sharp singlet at room temperature which indicates that 57 Co atoms have gone to the substitutional site. Below 200 K, Moessbauer spectra indicate complicated hyperfine interactions and more than one magnetic phase in the samples. Moessbauer results are corroborated by ac susceptibility, resistivity and positron annihilation Doppler broadening measurements. (author)

  2. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of 13CrNiMo weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilmes, P.D.; Llorente, C.L.; Saire Huaman, L.; Gassa, L.M.; Gervasi, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic potentiodynamic measurements and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze susceptibility to pitting corrosion of 13CrNiMo weld metals. In order to carry out a critical assessment of the influence of microstructural factors on localized corrosion, different heat treatments were applied to the alloys under investigation. Volume fractions of austenite in tempered conditions as well as the amount and size of precipitated carbides strongly affect pitting resistance. Characteristic potentials (pitting potential and repassivation potential) increase according to the retained austenite content. Results can be discussed in terms of a model that describes the structural refinement resulting from a double-tempering procedure

  3. Comparative study of NiW, NiMo and MoW prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Sagarzazu, A.; Villalba, R.; Ochoa, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present work concern the amorphisation process induced by mechanical alloying in the NiW, NiMo and MoW systems. The alloys chosen combine a group of transition elements varying from very similar atomic radius and electronic valences (MoW) to different ones (NiW and NiMo). The three systems achieved an amorphous state after 50 h of milling. The mechanism of amorphisation proposed for NiW and NiMo was the combined effect of an excess concentration of the solute atoms entering into the structure of one of the elements and a critical concentration of defects. Continuous formation of an amorphous phase at the interface of the crystalline phase was observed during the process. MoW seems to amorphize by continuous reduction of grain size down to a critical value where the amorphisation takes place

  4. The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy under Xe26+ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaican; Hai, Yang; Liu, Renduo; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiang-xi; Li, Jianjian; Xue, Wandong; Wang, Wanxia; Tang, Ming; Yan, Long; Yin, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2018-04-01

    The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy was investigated. 7 MeV Xe26+ ion irradiation was performed at room temperature and 650 °C with peak damage dose from 0.05 to 10 dpa. With the increase of damage dose, the hardness of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy increases, and reaches saturation at damage dose ≥1 dpa. Moreover, the damage dose dependence of hardness in both alloys can be described by the Makin and Minter's equation, where the effective critical volume of obstacles can be used to represent irradiation hardening resistance of the alloys. Our results also show that Ni-W-Cr alloy has better irradiation hardening resistance than Ni-Mo-Cr alloy. This is ascribed to the fact that the W, instead of Mo in the alloy, can suppress the formation of defects under ion irradiation.

  5. Electrodeposition of CoNiMo thin films using glycine as additive: anomalous and induced codeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Marcos C.; Sumodjo, Paulo T.A.; Podlaha, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mixed/induced codeposition of CoNiMo from a glycine containing bath. → Deposition in a rotating cylinder Hull cell. → The mechanism is explained in term of the complex species that can be formed. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the behavior of the CoNiMo mixed anomalous/induced codeposition process, using glycine as a probe to influence the coverage of adsorbed intermediates. In order to facilitate the investigation of a wide variation of parameters the electrodeposition of the alloy films was performed using a rotating cylinder Hull cell. Alloy composition, current efficiency and partial currents of each metal were analyzed. The partial current densities and hence alloy composition was affected by the amount of glycine in the electrolyte: increasing glycine enhanced both cobalt and molybdenum deposition rates and hindered nickel deposition. It is suggested that the glycine facilitates the adsorption of M(I) adsorbed intermediates that control the anomalous and induced codeposition behavior. The current efficiency ranged from 30 up to 75% and was only slightly affected by glycine at high applied current densities. Films with a tridimensional porous structure were obtained applying current densities higher than 200 mA cm -2 , formed as a consequence of the large hydrogen evolution side reaction, presenting conditions for a novel Mo-alloy electrode structure.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of ordering transformations in Ni-Mo-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, U.D.

    2004-01-01

    The quenched in state of short range order (SRO) in binary Ni-Mo alloys is characterized by intensity maxima at {1 (1/2) 0} and equivalent positions in the reciprocal space. Ternary addition of a small amount of Al to the binary alloy, on the other hand, leads to a state of SRO that gives rise to intensity maxima at {1 0 0} and equivalent, in addition to {1 (1/2) 0} and equivalent, positions in the selected area electron diffraction patterns. Different geometric patterns of streaks of diffuse intensity, joining the SRO maxima with the superlattice positions of the emerging long range ordered (LRO) structures or in some cases between the superlattice positions of different LRO structures, are observed during the SRO-to-LRO transitions in the Ni-Mo-based and other 1 (1/2) 0 alloys. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out here in order to shed some light on the atomic structures of the SRO and the SRO-to-LRO transition states in these alloys

  7. A Weakest-Link Approach for Fatigue Limit of 30CrNiMo8 Steels (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    34Application of a Weakest-Link Concept to the Fatigue Limit of the Bearing Steel Sae 52100 in a Bainitic Condition," Fatigue and Fracture of...AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4206 A WEAKEST-LINK APPROACH FOR FATIGUE LIMIT OF 30CrNiMo8 STEELS (PREPRINT) S. Ekwaro-Osire and H.V. Kulkarni Texas...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A WEAKEST-LINK APPROACH FOR FATIGUE LIMIT OF 30CrNiMo8 STEELS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT

  8. Amorphous boron coatings produced with vacuum arc deposition technology

    CERN Document Server

    Klepper, C C; Yadlowsky, E J; Carlson, E P; Keitz, M D; Williams, J M; Zuhr, R A; Poker, D B

    2002-01-01

    In principle, boron (B) as a material has many excellent surface properties, including corrosion resistance, very high hardness, refractory properties, and a strong tendency to bond with most substrates. The potential technological benefits of the material have not been realized, because it is difficult to deposit it as coatings. B is difficult to evaporate, does not sputter well, and cannot be thermally sprayed. In this article, first successful deposition results from a robust system, based on the vacuum (cathodic) arc technology, are reported. Adherent coatings have been produced on 1100 Al, CP-Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, 316 SS, hard chrome plate, and 52 100 steel. Composition and thickness analyses have been performed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Hardness (H) and modules (E) have been evaluated by nanoindentation. The coatings are very pure and have properties characteristic of B suboxides. A microhardness of up to 27 GPa has been measured on a 400-nm-thick film deposited on 52 100 steel, with a corresp...

  9. Superaerophobic Ultrathin Ni-Mo Alloy Nanosheet Array from In Situ Topotactic Reduction for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Pengsong; Zhou, Daojin; Chang, Zheng; Kuang, Yun; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) has prospect to becoming clean and renewable technology for hydrogen production and Ni-Mo alloy is among the best HER catalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Here, an in situ topotactic reduction method to synthesize ultrathin 2D Ni-Mo alloy nanosheets for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution is reported. Due to its ultrathin structure and tailored composition, the as-synthesized Ni-Mo alloy shows an overpotential of 35 mV to reach a current density of 10 mA cm -2 , along with a Tafel slope of 45 mV decade -1 , demonstrating a comparable intrinsic activity to state-of-art commercial Pt/C catalyst. Besides, the vertically aligned assemble structure of the 2D NiMo nanosheets on conductive substrate makes the electrode "superaerophobic," thus leading to much faster bubble releasing during HER process and therefore shows faster mass transfer behavior at high current density as compared with drop drying Pt/C catalyst on the same substrate. Such in situ topotactic conversion finds a way to design and fabricate low-cost, earth-abundant non-noble metal based ultrathin 2D nanostructures for electrocatalytic issues. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Synthesis, surface structure and optical properties of double perovskite Sr{sub 2}NiMoO{sub 6} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lei; Wan, Yingpeng [State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Novel Functional Polymeric Materials, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Xie, Hongde, E-mail: xiehongde@suda.edu.cn [State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Novel Functional Polymeric Materials, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Huang, Yanlin; Yang, Li [State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Novel Functional Polymeric Materials, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Qin, Lin [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyo Jin, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Double perovskite Sr{sub 2}NiMoO{sub 6} nanoparticles were prepared via sol-gel route. • The nanoparticles have efficient optical absorption in visible light. • The band structure and energy positions were determined. • The perovskite has efficient photocatalytic on RhB photodegradation. • Multivalent Mo and Ni-ions on the surfaces were investigated. - Abstract: Double perovskite Sr{sub 2}NiMoO{sub 6} nanoparticles were synthesized via the chemical sol-gel route. The phase formation was investigated through X-ray polycrystalline diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinements. The perovskite crystallized in worm-like nano-grains with the diameter of 20–50 nm. The optical properties were measured by the optical absorption spectra. The nanoparticles present an indirect allowed transition with a narrow band gap of 2.1 eV. Sr{sub 2}NiMoO{sub 6} nanoparticles have obvious photocatalytic ability on the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) solutions under the irradiation of visible light. The transport behaviors of the excitons were investigated from the photoluminescence spectra and the corresponding decay lifetimes. Sr{sub 2}NiMoO{sub 6} nanoparticles present several advantages for photocatalysis such as the appropriate band energy positions, the quenched luminescence, and the coexistence of multivalent ions in the lattices.

  11. Application of NiMoNb adhesion layer on plasma-treated polyimide substrate for flexible electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, S.-H.; Kim, K.-K.; Jung, H.-Y.; Kim, T.-H.; Jeon, S.-H. [Metal and Material Technology Group, R and D Center, LS Mtron Ltd., Gyeonggi 431-080 (Korea, Republic of); Seol, Jae-Bok, E-mail: zptkfm20@hanmail.net [Max-Planck-Insititut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2014-05-02

    A thin film, NiMoNb, was introduced as an adhesion layer between the Cu metal and the insulator polyimide substrate in a flexible Cu-clad laminated structure. Using 90° peel test, we evaluated the peel strength of the system as a function of the thickness of the adhesion layer. An increase in the NiMoNb thickness from 7 to 40 nm enhanced the peel strength of the deposited systems. After plasma treatment by the roll-to-roll method, the multilayer structure showed an outstanding peel strength of ∼ 529 N/m, even after thermal annealing at 150 °C for 168 h. We also studied the role of plasma treatment of the polyimide substrate on the adhesion strength and microstructure of a flexible Cu-clad laminated structure by peel strength, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. These experimental observations showed that the plasma-treated polyimide substrate with the deposition of NiMoNb showed the enhanced adhesion of ∼ 656 N/m, because of the change of functional groups, which affected the bonding force and crystallinity of the thin films deposited on polyimide, rather than an increase in the surface roughness. - Highlights: • NiMoNb film on polyimide substrate was employed for higher peel strength. • Plasma-treated substrate enhances the peel strength of multilayer. • Even when annealed at 150 °C, plasma-treated films showed enhanced peel strength.

  12. A model compound (methyl oleate, oleic acid, triolein) study of triglycerides hydrodeoxygenation over alumina-supported NiMo sulfide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, A.E.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    We studied hydrodeoxygenation of model compounds for vegetable oil into diesel-range hydrocarbons on a sulfided NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst under trickle-flow conditions. Methyl oleate (methyl ester of oleic acid, a C18 fatty acid with one unsaturated bond in the chain) represented the C18 alkyl esters in

  13. Deactivation of Ni-MoS2 by bio-oil impurities during hydrodeoxygenation of phenol and octanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Gardini, Diego; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad

    2016-01-01

    The stability of Ni-MoS2/ZrO2 toward water, potassium, and chlorine containing compounds during hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of a mixture of phenol and 1-octanol was investigated in a high pressure gas and liquid continuous flow fixed bed setup at 280 °C and 100 bar. To maintain the stability...

  14. Hydrodesulfurization of Iraqi Atmospheric Gasoil by Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 Prepared Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim Abdul Karim Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the improvement of Iraqi atmospheric gas oil characteristics which contains 1.402 wt. % sulfur content and 16.88 wt. % aromatic content supplied from Al-Dura Refinery by using hydrodesulfurization (HDS process using Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst in order to achieve low sulfur and aromatic saturation gas oil. Hydrodearomatization (HDA occurs simultaneously with hydrodesulfurization (HDS process. The effect of titanium on the conventional catalyst Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 was investigated by physical adsorption and catalytic activity test.Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared under vacuum impregnation condition to ensure efficient precipitation of metals within the carrier γ-Al2O3. The loading percentage of metals as oxide; titanium oxide 3 wt. %, nickel oxide 5 wt. % and molybdenum oxide 12 wt. %. The performance of the synthesized catalyst for removing sulfur and aromatic saturation were tested at various temperatures 275 to 350°C, LHSV 1 to 4h-1, constant pressure 40 bar and H2/HC ratio 500 ml/ml.Results showed that the sulfur and aromatic content were reduced at all operating conditions. Maximum sulfur removal was 75.52 wt. % in gas oil on Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 at temperature 350˚C, LHSV 1h-1, while minimum aromatic content achieved was 15.6 wt. % at the same conditions.

  15. Application of NiMoNb adhesion layer on plasma-treated polyimide substrate for flexible electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, S.-H.; Kim, K.-K.; Jung, H.-Y.; Kim, T.-H.; Jeon, S.-H.; Seol, Jae-Bok

    2014-01-01

    A thin film, NiMoNb, was introduced as an adhesion layer between the Cu metal and the insulator polyimide substrate in a flexible Cu-clad laminated structure. Using 90° peel test, we evaluated the peel strength of the system as a function of the thickness of the adhesion layer. An increase in the NiMoNb thickness from 7 to 40 nm enhanced the peel strength of the deposited systems. After plasma treatment by the roll-to-roll method, the multilayer structure showed an outstanding peel strength of ∼ 529 N/m, even after thermal annealing at 150 °C for 168 h. We also studied the role of plasma treatment of the polyimide substrate on the adhesion strength and microstructure of a flexible Cu-clad laminated structure by peel strength, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. These experimental observations showed that the plasma-treated polyimide substrate with the deposition of NiMoNb showed the enhanced adhesion of ∼ 656 N/m, because of the change of functional groups, which affected the bonding force and crystallinity of the thin films deposited on polyimide, rather than an increase in the surface roughness. - Highlights: • NiMoNb film on polyimide substrate was employed for higher peel strength. • Plasma-treated substrate enhances the peel strength of multilayer. • Even when annealed at 150 °C, plasma-treated films showed enhanced peel strength

  16. Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Nickel Molybdate (NiMoO4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Oudghiri-Hassani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel molybdate (NiMoO4 nanoparticles were synthesized via calcination of an oxalate complex in static air at 500 °C. The oxalate complex was analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The as-synthesized nickel molybdate was characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller technique (BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and its catalytic efficiency was tested in the reduction reaction of the three-nitrophenol isomers. The nickel molybdate displays a very high activity in the catalytic reduction of the nitro functional group to an amino. The reduction progress was controlled using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis absorption.

  17. Development of banded microstructure in 34CrNiMo6 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development of a banded microstructure in hot-rolled 34CrNiMo6 steel which consisted of bainitic and martensitic bands is explained. The chemical compositions of the bands were measured with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS, which showed that the martensitic bands contained more alloying elements (Mn, Cr, Mo, Si than bainitic bands. By using Oberhoffer reagent, the segregations of phosphorus were also revealed. These phosphorus segregations coincided with the positive segregations of the alloying elements. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams of steel were calculated. They confirmed the formation of martensite in positive segregations and the formation of bainite in negative segregations.

  18. Monotonic and Cyclic Behavior of DIN 34CrNiMo6 Tempered Alloy Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Branco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at studying the monotonic and cyclic plastic deformation behavior of DIN 34CrNiMo6 high strength steel. Monotonic and low-cycle fatigue tests are conducted in ambient air, at room temperature, using standard 8-mm diameter specimens. The former tests are carried out under position control with constant displacement rate. The latter are performed under fully-reversed strain-controlled conditions, using the single-step test method, with strain amplitudes lying between ±0.4% and ±2.0%. After the tests, the fracture surfaces are examined by scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize the surface morphologies and identify the main failure mechanisms. Regardless of the strain amplitude, a softening behavior was observed throughout the entire life. Total strain energy density, defined as the sum of both tensile elastic and plastic strain energies, was revealed to be an adequate fatigue damage parameter for short and long lives.

  19. Cellular microstructure of chill block melt spun Ni-Mo alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, S. N.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1987-01-01

    Chill block melt spun ribbons of Ni-Mo binary alloys containing 8.0 to 41.8 wt pct Mo have been prepared under carefully controlled processing conditions. The growth velocity has been determined as a function of distance from the quench surface from the observed ribbon thickness dependence on the melt puddle residence time. Primary arm spacings measured at the midribbon thickness locations show a dependence on growth velocity and alloy composition which is expected from dendritic growth models for binary alloys directionally solidified in a positive temperature gradient. Microsegregation across cells and its variation with distance from the quench surface and alloy composition have been examined and compared with theoretical predictions.

  20. The influence of Ni, Mo, Si, Ti on the surface alloy layer quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Walasek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of microstructure and selected mechanical properties of alloy layer. The aim of the researches was to determine the influence of Ni, Mo, Si and Ti with high-carbon ferrochromium (added separately to pad on the alloy layer on the steel cast. Metallographic studies were made with use of light microscopy. During studies of usable properties measurements of hardness, microhardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral for creation alloy layer were made. As thick as possible composite layer without any defects and discontinuity was required. The conducted researches allowed to take the suitable alloy addition of the pad material which improved the quality of the surface alloy layer.

  1. Effect of boron on the properties of ordered Ni-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawancy, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    Ordered alloys and intermetallic compounds have long been known to possess a number of technologically useful properties, however, their structural applications is limited by relatively poor ductility. Efforts to improve the mechanical strength of these materials have led to the recognition that small additions of B improve the ductility of intermetallic compounds, based upon the L1 2 , superlattice such as Ni 3 Al and Ni 3 Si. Also it has been demonstrated that small additions of B improve the ductility of binary ordered Ni-Ni 4 Mo alloys. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that critical additions of B to selected Ni-Mo alloys could significantly improve their ductility and corrosion properties in the ordered state while maintaining a similar level of other properties, particularly, weldability. The effect of B on the ordered microstructure was emphasized

  2. Soft-martensitic stainless Cr-Ni-Mo steel for turbine rotors in geothermic power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonfeld, K.; Potthast, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steel Grade X5 Cr-Ni-Mo 12 6 containing 0.05% carbon, 12% chromium, 6% nickel, and 1.50% molybdenum is an advantageous material for turbine rotors in geothermic power stations because of its excellent strength and toughness properties in combination with good erosion and corrosion resistance. In terms of the phase diagram, this soft-martensitic steel has its place at the martensite/austenite/ferrite interface. Therefore, its chemical composition must be chosen so as to have a completely martensitic structure after hardening. The manufacture of and the mechanical properties of a turbine rotor 1200 mm in diameter by 5600 mm in length with a finished weight of approximately 21.5 tons are described in detail

  3. Strength and low temperature toughness of Fe-13%Ni-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Keisuke; Maruyama, Norio; Tsuya, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    Mechanical tests were made on newly developed Fe-13%Ni-Mo alloys for eryogenic service. The effects of the additional elements were investigated from the viewpoint of the strength and the low temperature toughness. The alloys added by Al, Ti or V have the better balance of these properties. They did not show low temperature brittleness induced by cleavage fracture in Charpy impact test at 77 K. The microfractography showed the utterly dimple rupture patterns on the broken surface of all specimens. It would be supposed that the cleavage fracture stress is considerably higher than the flow stress. These alloys are superior to some commercial structural materials for low temperature use in the balance between the strength at 300 K and the toughness at 77 K. Additionally, it is noted that these experimental alloys have a good advantage in getting high strength and high toughness by the rather simple heat treatment. (auth.)

  4. Electrochemical and metallurgical characterization of ZrCr{sub 1-x}NiMo{sub x} AB{sub 2} metal hydride alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika, Teliz [Universidad de la República, Facultad de Ciencias, Laboratorio de Electroquímica Fundamental, Núcleo Interdisciplinario Ingeniería Electroquímica, Igua 4225, CP 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Ricardo, Faccio [Universidad de la República, Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Facultad de Química, Montevideo (Uruguay); Fabricio, Ruiz [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas , CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche , Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CAB-CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, CP 8400 S.C. de Bariloche, RN (Argentina); Fernando, Zinola [Universidad de la República, Facultad de Ciencias, Laboratorio de Electroquímica Fundamental, Núcleo Interdisciplinario Ingeniería Electroquímica, Igua 4225, CP 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); and others

    2015-11-15

    The effects of partial replacement of chromium by molybdenum was studied on the structure and electrochemical kinetic properties of ZrCr{sub 1-x}NiMo{sub x}(x = 0.0, 0.3 and 0.6) metal hydride alloys. The arc-melting prepared alloys were metallurgically characterized by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis, which showed AB{sub 2} (with hexagonal C14 structure) and Zr{sub x}Ni{sub y} (Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, Zr{sub 9}Ni{sub 11}) phases. After a partial substitution of chromium by molybdenum, secondary phases monotonically increase with the C14 unit cell volume indicating that most of molybdenum atoms locate in the B-site. The alloys were electrochemically characterized using charge/discharge cycling, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and rate capability experiments that allowed the determination of hydriding reaction kinetic parameters. The presence of molybdenum produces a positive effect for hydrogen diffusion in the alloy lattice, and ZrCr{sub 0.7}NiMo{sub 0.3} alloy depicts the better kinetics associated with a fast activation, lower charge transfer resistance and the best high rate discharge behavior. This fact would be related to a lower diffusion time constant and a bigger value of the product between exchange density current and surface active area. There is a trade-off in the amounts of secondary phase and Laves phases in order to improve the kinetic performance. - Highlights: • Metallurgical characterization evidences the presence of Zr{sub x}Ni{sub y} and C14 phases. • The partial replacement of Cr by Mo promotes the segregation of Zr{sub x}Ni{sub y} phase. • The incorporation of molybdenum improves the kinetics for the hydriding process. • Mo produces a decrease in the diffusion time constant.

  5. Erosion resistance and adhesion of composite metal/ceramic coatings produced by plasma spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm , D.; Hutchings , I.; Clyne , T.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic coatings can exhibit greater erosion resistance than most metallic coatings. Such coatings are conveniently produced by thermal spraying. Unfortunately, thermally sprayed ceramic coatings often exhibit poor adhesion, partly as a consequence of the development of residual stresses during spraying and subsequent cooling. Composite coatings have been studied using aluminium/alumina deposits on steel substrates. The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharp...

  6. Process for producing a coating composition. [electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T; Harada, H; Kobayashi, S; Nakamoto, H; Sunano, K

    1968-07-19

    An easily hardenable acrylic coating composition is produced by irradiation with low energy electron beams to economize the industrial application of the composition. A polymer with molecular weights in the 5,000 to 500,000 range is composed of 1 to 40% by weight of a vinyl monomer containing a glycidyl radical, 30 to 99% of a methacrylic monomer and 0 to 69% of other copolymerizable vinyl monomers. This polymer dissolves in a monomer containing at least 30% of an acrylic monomer and 70% of other vinyl monomers. The reaction takes place between 0.1 to 1.0 mole of vinyl monomer containing a carboxyl radical and one mole of glycidyl radical in the solution. In an embodiment, 17.5% by weight of glycidyl methacrylate and 82.5% of alkyl acrylate are polymerized in suspension in the presence of a catalyst to form a bead like polymer with molecular weights in the 5,000 to 500,000 range. After 120 parts of the bead like polymer are dissolved in 180 parts of the acrylic monomer in the presence of a polymerization inhibitor by heating, 22 parts of ..cap alpha.., ..beta..- unsaturated monocarboxylic acid are added to the solution to react with the glycidyl radical, whereby a non-solvent type coating material containing the polymer having a vinyl radical side chain is produced. In the place of the catalyst, electron beams can be used at an energy level of 0.1 to 20 MeV. The dose rate may be in the range of 0.1 to 2.0 Mrad/sec.

  7. Effect of phosphorus addition on the hydrotreating activity of NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} carbide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaramurthy, V.; Dalai, A.K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Edmonton Research Centre, Edmonton, AB T6N 1H4 (Canada)

    2007-07-30

    A series of phosphorus promoted {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported NiMo carbide catalysts with 0-4.5 wt.% P, 13 wt.% Mo and 2.5 wt.% Ni were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, pulsed CO chemisorption, BET surface area measurement, X-ray diffraction, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, DRIFT spectroscopy of CO adsorption and H{sub 2} temperature programmed reduction. X-ray diffraction patterns and CO uptake showed the P addition to NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} carbide, increased the dispersion of {beta}-Mo{sub 2}C particles. DRIFT spectra of adsorbed CO revealed that P addition to NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} carbide catalyst not only increases the dispersion of Ni-Mo carbide phase, but also changes the nature of surface active sites. The hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activities of these P promoted NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} carbide catalysts were performed in trickle bed reactor using light gas oil (LGO) derived from Athabasca bitumen and model feed containing quinoline and dibenzothiophene at industrial conditions. The P added NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} carbide catalysts showed enhanced HDN activity compared to the NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with both the feed stocks. The P had almost no influence on the HDS activity of NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} carbide with LGO and dibenzothiophene. P addition to NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} carbide accelerated C-N bond breaking and thus increased the HDN activity. (author)

  8. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of mesoporous NiMoO_4 nanorod/reduced graphene oxide composites for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ting; Chai, Hui; Jia, Dianzeng; Su, Ying; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Wanyong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mesoporous NiMoO_4-rGO shows high specific capacitance of 1274 F/g at 1 A/g and ultrahigh energy density of 30.3 Wh/kg at a power density of 187 W/kg. - Abstract: Mesoporous NiMoO_4 nanorods grown on the surface of reduced graphene oxide composites (NiMoO_4-rGO) were synthesized via a simple, rapidly, and environment-friendly microwave-solvothermal method. The structure and morphology of the composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The NiMoO_4-rGO composite exhibited high performance as an electrode material for supercapacitors. At a current density of 1 A g"−"1, the specific capacitance reached 1274 F g"−"1, which is higher than that of pure NiMoO_4 (800 F g"−"1). NiMoO_4-rGO can retain about 81.1% of its initial capacitance after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Remarkably, NiMoO_4-rGO composites can be applied in asymmetric supercapacitors with ultrahigh energy density of 30.3 Wh kg"−"1 at a power density of 187 W kg"−"1. The enhanced electrochemical performance of NiMoO_4-rGO is mainly ascribed to the mesoporous-NiMoO_4 nanorods with large specific surface area, as well as high coupling with conductive rGO.

  9. Microstructure and phase transformations in laser clad CrxSy/Ni coating on H13 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yiwen; Sun, Ronglu; Tang, Ying; Niu, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Laser cladding was carried out onto H13 steel with preplaced NiCrBSi+Ni/MoS2 powders using CO2 laser under the optimized experimental parameters of laser power 2 kW, scanning velocity 6 mm/s and laser beam diameter 3 mm. An X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy were applied to analyze the microstructure and phase compositions of the coating. Thermodynamic calculation was performed with Thermo-Calc software on the basis of a commercially available Ni-based Alloys' database. The experimental results show that MoS2 decomposed and S reacted with Cr to form nonstoichiometric CrxSy during the laser cladding process. The coating consists of spherical CrxSy particles, primary γ-Ni dendrite, interdendritic eutectic (γ-Ni+NiMo) and precipitated NiMo. The precipitated NiMo was fine and uniformly distributed in primary γ-Ni dendrite. The calculated results and experimental data indicate that the solidification process in the coating during laser cladding process was liquid→liquid+CrxSy→ liquid+CrxSy+γ-Ni→liquid+CrxSy+γ-Ni+ eutectic (γ-Ni+NiMo). A solid state phase transformation (fine and uniformly distributed NiMo precipitated from γ-Ni) occurred after the solidification process. The calculations agree well with the experimental data and it is helpful to understand the phase transformation and microstructure evolution in the coating.

  10. Synthesis of renewable diesel through hydrodeoxygenation reaction from nyamplung oil (Calophyllum Inophyllum oil) using NiMo/Z and NiMo/C catalysts with rapid heating and cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, B. H.; Prakasa, M. B.; Shahab, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    The synthesis of metal nanocrystal was conducted by modification preparation from simple heating method which heating and cooling process run rapidly. The result of NiMo/Z 575 °C characterizations are 33.73 m2/gram surface area and 31.80 nm crystal size. By used NiMo/C 700 °C catalyst for 30 minutes which had surface area of 263.21 m2/gram, had 31.77 nm crystal size, and good morphology, obtained catalyst with high activity, selectivity, and stability. After catalyst activated, synthesis of renewable diesel performed in hydrogenation reactor at 375 °C, 12 bar, and 800 rpm. The result of conversion was 81.99%, yield was 68.08%, and selectivity was 84.54%.

  11. Optically transparent, superhydrophobic, biocompatible thin film coatings and methods for producing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Simpson, John T.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Trammell, Neil E.

    2017-09-05

    An optically transparent, hydrophobic coating, exhibiting an average contact angle of at least 100 degrees with a drop of water. The coating can be produced using low-cost, environmentally friendly components. Methods of preparing and using the optically transparent, hydrophobic coating.

  12. Influence of graphite-alloy interactions on corrosion of Ni-Mo-Cr alloy in molten fluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hua; Hou, Juan; Ye, Xiang-Xi; Zeng, Chao Liu; Sun, Hua; Li, Xiaoyun; Yu, Guojun; Zhou, Xingtai; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effects of graphite-alloy interaction on corrosion of Ni-Mo-Cr alloy in molten FLiNaK salt were investigated. The corrosion tests of Ni-Mo-Cr alloys were conducted in graphite crucibles, to examine the differences of test specimens in conditions of electric contact and isolated with graphite, respectively. The corrosion attack is severer with more weight loss and deeper Cr depletion layer in samples electric contact with graphite than those isolated with graphite. The occurrence of galvanic corrosion between alloy specimens and graphite container was confirmed by electrochemical measurement. The corrosion is controlled by nonelectric transfer in isolated test while electrochemical reaction accelerated corrosion in electric contact test.

  13. Designing and controlling the microstructure of 37MnNiMo6-4-3 hypoeutectoid steel after continuous cooling

    OpenAIRE

    E. Rożniata

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Present work corresponds to the research on the kinetic of phase transformation of undercooled austenite of 37MnNiMo6-4-3 hypoeutctoid steel. The kinetic of phase transformation of under cooled austenite of investigated alloy was presented on CCT diagram (continuous cooling transformation). Also the methodology of a dilatometric samples preparation and the method of the critical points determination were described.Design/methodology/approach: The austenitising temperature was defined...

  14. On cobalt effect on structural and phase transformations during tempering carbon-containing steels of Fe-Ni-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhshtadt, A.G.; Khovova, O.M.; Kan, A.V.; Perkas, M.D.; Kudryavtsev, A.N.; Rodionov, Yu.L.

    1990-01-01

    Methods of resistometry, colorimetry, X-ray diffraction chemical and electrochemical phase analyses, Moessbauer spectroscopy and field-ion mass spectrometry are used to study the nature of precipitation hardening of carbon containing Fe-Ni-Mo martensitic steels. Cobalt contribution to formation of phase composition and structural state of steels during tempering is analyzed. Realization conditions of effective combined (carbide-intermetallide) hardening of the investigated system steels are determined

  15. Hydrotreatment of 8-hydroxyquinoline on a NiMo/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.M.; Satterfield, C.N. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    The hydrotreatment of 8-hydroxyquinoline was studied on a sulfided NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at 360{degree}C and 6.9 MPa total pressure of H{sub 2} in a vapour-phase tubular reactor. Some minor studies were performed at 385{degree}C. 8-Hydroxyquinoline undergoes hydrodeoxygenation via three routes to enter the hydrodenitrogenation network of quinoline. Route 1 is hydrogenation of the heterocyclic ring to 8-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (8HTHQ) followed by hydrogenation of the aromatic ring to 8-hydroxydecahydroquinoline which undergoes C-O hydrogenolysis to decahydroquinoline. Route 2 is direct C-O hydrogenolysis of 8HTHQ to form 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (PyTHQ). Route 3 is hydrogenation of the benzene ring in 8-hydroxyquinoline to form 8-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoline followed by removal of the oxygen to form 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoline. After oxygen removal, subsequent reactions follow the hydrodenitrogenation network of quinoline. The hydroconversion of 8-hydroxyquinoline is governed by the N center rather than the OH center. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Effect of heat treatment on workability of Cr-Ni-Mo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcal, J.; Macek, K.

    1988-01-01

    The workability was studied of the new development generation of hardenable martensite Cr-Ni-Mo steels of the 10-10-2 and 6-11-3 types whose application is envisaged in future in nuclear engineering. Attention is paid to identification of inclusions and the phase analysis ofthe structure with respect to heat treatment and steel type. Face milling was used in the test of workability. In addition, tensile strength and impact bending strength testing was performed. The results showed that steel of the 6-11-3 type in the quenched condition was best workable. However, this steel showed a significant reduction in workability when in the hardened condition. Reduced workability can also be presumed for type 10-10-2 steel in the hardened condition when life is considered. Microstructure changes leading to softening of steel by aging had a favourable effect on workability, especially in steels of the 10-10-2 type. Hardened steels of the 6-11-3 type are recommended to be re-quenched. (Z.M.). 7 figs., 3 tabs., 9 refs

  17. Effect of microstructure on the cleavage fracture strength of low carbon Mn-Ni-Mo bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Young-Roc; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Oh, Yong Jun; Hong, Jun Hwa; Lee, Hu-Chul

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the microstructure on the cleavage fracture strength of low carbon Mn-Ni-Mo bainitic steels were examined. A four-point bend test and double-notched bend specimens were used to measure the cleavage fracture strength of the alloys and identify the cleavage initiating micro-cracks, respectively. The cleavage fracture strength and DBTT of Mn-Ni-Mo bainitic steels were strongly affected by the alloy carbon content. The decrease in the alloy carbon content resulted in a decrease in the inter-lath cementite-crowded layers and higher cleavage fracture strength. Micro-cracks that formed across the inter-lath cementite-crowded layers were observed to initiate cleavage fracture. The width of these inter-lath cementite-crowded layers was accepted as a cleavage initiating micro-crack size in the micro-mechanical modeling of the cleavage fracture, and the measured cleavage strength values of the bainitic Mn-Ni-Mo steels were well represented by the modified Griffith relationship

  18. Novel Chemical Process for Producing Chrome Coated Metal

    OpenAIRE

    Pelar, Christopher; Greenaway, Karima; Zea, Hugo; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma11010078 This work demonstrates that a version of the Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES) process, Cr-RES, can create a micron scale Cr coating on an iron wire. The process involves three steps. I. A paste consisting of a physical mix of urea, chrome nitrate or chrome oxide, and water is prepared. II. An iron wire is coated by dipping. III. The coated, and dried, wire is heated to ~800 ◦C for 10 min in a tube fu...

  19. Understanding the role of Co3O4 on stability between active hierarchies and scaffolds: An insight into NiMoO4 composites for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Peng; Fu, Wenbin; Ma, Xiangwen; Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Li, Jian; Xie, Erqing; Pan, Xiaojun

    2017-09-01

    It is often reported that pseudocapacitive electrodes' mechanical stability seriously limited their cycling performances in supercapacitors due to their quick fall off the electrode matrix during frequent fast charge/discharge process. In this work, we have demonstrated the mechanical enhancement in hierarchical NiMoO4 nanosheet arrays (NSAs) on free-standing substrates after introducing Co3O4 hierarchies. Under sonication vibration environment, the mechanical stability of Co3O4@NiMoO4 NSAs was enhanced by ∼70% compared to that of the pure NiMoO4 ones. Moreover, the Co3O4@NiMoO4 NSAs can display a high specific capacitance of 1476 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1, and an excellent rate capability (keeping 81% at 20 A g-1). And after 2000 cycles, high capacitance retention of 96% was achieved for the Co3O4@NiMoO4 core/shell NSAs, while only 70% for the pure NiMoO4 ones.

  20. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Paul K. T.; Gallaher, George R.; Wu, Jeffrey C. S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane.

  1. Erosion resistance and adhesion of composite metal/ceramic coatings produced by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, D.A.J.; Hutchings, I.M.; Clyne, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic coatings can exhibit greater erosion resistance than most metallic coatings. Such coatings are conveniently produced by thermal spraying. Unfortunately, thermally sprayed ceramic coatings often exhibit poor adhesion, partly as a consequence of the development of residual stresses during spraying and subsequent cooling. Composite coatings have been studied using aluminium/alumina deposits on steel substrates. The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharply reducing the erosive wear at high erodent impact angles, whilst retaining the good erosion resistance of ceramics at low angles. It is shown that the proportion of metal and ceramic at the free surface can be specified so as to optimise the erosion resistance. Experiments have also been carried out on the resistance of the coatings to debonding during four-point bending of the coated substrate. Progress is being made towards the tailoring of composition profiles in graded coatings so as to optimise the combination of erosion resistance and adhesion. (orig.)

  2. Utilization of calcite produced in Turkey for paper coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdaverdi Eroğlu

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate is one of the coating pigments widely used in paper industry. Especially, in recent years calcium carbonate filler has gained high importance in alkaline pulping. In Turkey industry actually imports calcium carbonate; whereas, there are rich calcite reservoirs in the country. In this study two different types of domestic ground (GCC calcite samples were used. Physical and chemical properties of calcite samples were tested firstly. CaCO3 percentages of both samples were 97.3 % and 97.6 % (min. 95 % CaCO3. MgCO3 and Fe2O3 percentages were within the desired limits. Brightness values were 95.5 % and 94.5 % and yellowness 1.1 % and 1.5 % elrepho. These values also were within the requested limits. Under 2 microns particle size and over 10 microns particle size fractions were 95 % and 89 % (min. 80 and 1 % and 2 % (max. 2 respectively. Dry matter rates were between 40 %-65 %, for the pilot plant-coating machine. During the preparation of coating color calcium carbonate has been used together with kaolin. The ratios of calcium carbonate to kaolin were 30/70, 40/60, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30, 100/0. In coating color preparation latex was used as a binder because of its wide applications. Latex percentages were 11, 12, and 13 %. Coated papers were glossed and physically tested. As a result, both calcium carbonate samples were found suitable for using in coating color preparation. By the utilization of domestic calcium carbonate in coated paper production, there will be foreign currencies saving.

  3. Intergranular fracture stress and phosphorus grain boundary segregation of a Mn-Ni-Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudin, C.; Frund, J.M.; Pineau, A.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steel A508 class 3 which is a low alloyed steel is not usually sensitive to reversible temper embrittlement when properly heat treated. However heterogeneous zones may be present in particular near the inner side of the vessel. These zones result from the segregation of the alloying elements (C, Mn, Ni, Mo) and impurities (S, P) taking place during solidification of the material. They are called segregated zones (or ghost lines). They can reach 2 mm thick along the radius and 30 mm long through the circumferential direction. Their susceptibility to reversible temper embrittlement is mainly due to grain boundary phosphorus segregation triggering brittle intergranular fracture when the material is tested at low temperature. In this material like in other steels the influence of some other alloying elements (Mo, Mn...) is clearly significant and should also be taken into account. But phosphorus effect has proved to be predominant. The aim of the present study is therefore to find out a quantitative relationship between grain boundary phosphorus segregation and critical intergranular fracture stress. A synthetic steel with a chemical composition representative of an average segregated zone was prepared for the present study. A number of heat treatments were applied to reach different embrittlement conditions. Then brittle fracture properties were obtained by performing cryogenic fracture tests on notched tensile specimens while the corresponding grain boundary phosphorus levels were measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. Systematic fractographic observations were carried out. Moreover an attempt to determine the influence of temperature on the critical intergranular fracture stress was made

  4. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  5. Structure of Biocompatible Coatings Produced from Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles by Detonation Spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Nosenko, Valentyna; Strutynska, Nataliia; Vorona, Igor; Zatovsky, Igor; Dzhagan, Volodymyr; Lemishko, Sergiy; Epple, Matthias; Prymak, Oleg; Baran, Nikolai; Ishchenko, Stanislav; Slobodyanik, Nikolai; Prylutskyy, Yuriy; Klyui, Nickolai; Temchenko, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    Detonation-produced hydroxyapatite coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The source material for detonation spraying was a B-type carbonated hydroxyapatite powder. The coatings consisted of tetracalcium phosphate and apatite. The ratio depended slightly on the degree of crystallinity of the initial powder and processing parameters of the coating preparation. The t...

  6. Kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite in 18CrNiMo7-6 steel applied for toothed wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Toothed wheels constitute essential part of the steel structural elements market. The most often hypereutectoid structural steels forcarburizing are used for toothed wheels. The final producers of toothed wheels are not demanding regarding a microstructure, providedthat the determined requirements will be fulfilled (e.g. metallurgical purity determined by ultrasounds. Therefore delivered forgings can be in an annealed or quenched state. This results from the situation that the final heat treatment or heat-chemical one is being done at one of the last stages of the toothed wheel production. An essential factor allowing to develop the proper heat treatment is the knowledge of the kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite and its relating to technological conditions, being at the producer disposal, as well as to forging dimensions. Such investigations should be carried out on real melts used for forgings for toothed wheels production together with an analysis of microstructure changes on the forging cross-section. They should be based on calculation methods determining the distribution of cooling rates on its cross-section in dependence of an applied cooling medium.The mentioned above problems in relation to 18CrNiMo7-6 steel - are elucidated in this paper. The aim of the investigations wasthe description of the kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite in this steel. The CCT diagram was constructed for the austenitizing temperature determined on the basis of phase transformations temperatures (the so-called critical points.

  7. Ni-YSZ graded coatings produced by dipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, B.; Moreno, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new colloidal processing route for the shaping of a graded Ni-YSZ composite for applications in SOFC devices is described. A Ni foil is coated by Ni/YSZ layers by dipping in aqueous suspensions with an organic binder. Behind the metal-ceramic layers introduced to improve adhesion, an outer thin layer of nanosized YSZ is formed by electrophoretic deposition. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Novel Chemical Process for Producing Chrome Coated Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pelar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates that a version of the Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES process, Cr-RES, can create a micron scale Cr coating on an iron wire. The process involves three steps. I. A paste consisting of a physical mix of urea, chrome nitrate or chrome oxide, and water is prepared. II. An iron wire is coated by dipping. III. The coated, and dried, wire is heated to ~800 °C for 10 min in a tube furnace under a slow flow of nitrogen gas. The processed wires were then polished and characterized, primarily with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. SEM indicates the chrome layer is uneven, but only on the scale of a fraction of a micron. The evidence of porosity is ambiguous. Elemental mapping using SEM electron microprobe that confirmed the process led to the formation of a chrome metal layer, with no evidence of alloy formation. Additionally, it was found that thickness of the final Cr layer correlated with the thickness of the precursor layer that was applied prior to the heating step. Potentially, this technique could replace electrolytic processing, a process that generates carcinogenic hexavalent chrome, but further study and development is needed.

  9. Novel Chemical Process for Producing Chrome Coated Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelar, Christopher; Greenaway, Karima; Zea, Hugo; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Luhrs, Claudia C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2018-01-05

    This work demonstrates that a version of the Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES) process, Cr-RES, can create a micron scale Cr coating on an iron wire. The process involves three steps. I. A paste consisting of a physical mix of urea, chrome nitrate or chrome oxide, and water is prepared. II. An iron wire is coated by dipping. III. The coated, and dried, wire is heated to ~800 °C for 10 min in a tube furnace under a slow flow of nitrogen gas. The processed wires were then polished and characterized, primarily with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM indicates the chrome layer is uneven, but only on the scale of a fraction of a micron. The evidence of porosity is ambiguous. Elemental mapping using SEM electron microprobe that confirmed the process led to the formation of a chrome metal layer, with no evidence of alloy formation. Additionally, it was found that thickness of the final Cr layer correlated with the thickness of the precursor layer that was applied prior to the heating step. Potentially, this technique could replace electrolytic processing, a process that generates carcinogenic hexavalent chrome, but further study and development is needed.

  10. Low content of Pt supported on Ni-MoCx/carbon black as a highly durable and active electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation, oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions in acidic condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zang, Jianbing; Jia, Shaopei; Tian, Pengfei; Han, Chan; Wang, Yanhui

    2017-08-01

    Nickel and molybdenum carbide modified carbon black (Ni-MoCx/C) was synthesized by a two-step microwave-assisted deposition/carbonthermal reduction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-prepared Ni-MoCx/C supported Pt (10 wt%) electrocatalyst (10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C) was synthesized through a microwave-assisted reduction method and 10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C exhibited high electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation, oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions. Results showed that 10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C electrocatalyst had better electrocatalytic activity and stability performance than 20 wt% Pt/C (20Pt/C) electrocatalyst. Among them, the electrochemical surface area of 10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C reached 68.4 m2 g-1, which was higher than that of 20Pt/C (63.2 m2 g-1). The enhanced stability and activity of 10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C electrocatalyst were attributed to: (1) an anchoring effect of Ni and MoCx formed during carbonthermal reduction process; (2) a synergistic effect among Pt, Ni, MoOx and MoCx. These findings indicated that 10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C was a promising electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

  11. Electrochemical synthesis, structure and phase composition of nano structured amorphous thin layers of NiW and Ni-Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitina, I.; Lubane, M.; Belmane, V.; Rubene, V.; Krumina, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Nano structured Ni-W thin layers containing W 6-37 wt.% were electrodeposited on a copper substratum. The W content in the layer changes, and it is determined by the electrolyte pH in the range 8.0-9.6 and the cathode current density in the range 1.0-10.0 A/dm 2 . The atomic composition and thermal stability of structure of the electrodeposited thin layers depend for the most part on the conditions of the electrodeposition and less on the W content in the layer. Cracking of the Ni-W layers electrodeposited at the electrolyte pH 8.5 and containing 34-37 wt.% W and 8.5 wt.% W was observed. The cracking increases at heating at 400 deg C for 50 h. On the contrary, no cracking of the Ni-W layer electrodeposited at the electrolyte pH 9.0 and containing 25 wt.% W was observed. The atomic composition of the layer remains practically unchanged at heating at 400 deg C for 50 h. The layer binds oxygen up to 7 wt.%. According to X-ray diffraction, in spite of the W content 35-37 wt.% in the layer, nano structured layers rather than amorphous layers were obtained which at heating at 400 deg C depending on the W content crystallises as Ni or intermetallic compounds Ni x W y if the W content is approx. 25 wt.%. Amorphous Ni-Mo alloys containing 35-52 wt.% Mo was electrodeposited on copper substratum at the cathode current densities of 0.5-1.5 A/dm2 and the electrolyte pH 6.8-8.6. Formation of thin layer (∼1-2μm) of X-ray amorphous Ni-Mo alloy, the Mo content, the characteristics of structure depend on the electrodeposition process, the electrolyte pH, and the cathode current density. The Ni-Mo layer deposited at the electrolyte pH above 8.6 and below average 6.8 had a nanocrystalline structure rather than characteristics of amorphous structure. Ni- W and Ni-Mo alloys were electrodeposited from citrate electrolyte not containing ammonium ions

  12. Structure of Biocompatible Coatings Produced from Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles by Detonation Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, Valentyna; Strutynska, Nataliia; Vorona, Igor; Zatovsky, Igor; Dzhagan, Volodymyr; Lemishko, Sergiy; Epple, Matthias; Prymak, Oleg; Baran, Nikolai; Ishchenko, Stanislav; Slobodyanik, Nikolai; Prylutskyy, Yuriy; Klyui, Nickolai; Temchenko, Volodymyr

    2015-12-01

    Detonation-produced hydroxyapatite coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The source material for detonation spraying was a B-type carbonated hydroxyapatite powder. The coatings consisted of tetracalcium phosphate and apatite. The ratio depended slightly on the degree of crystallinity of the initial powder and processing parameters of the coating preparation. The tetracalcium phosphate phase was homogeneous; the apatite phase contained defects localized on the sixfold axis and consisted of hydroxyapatite and oxyapatite. Technological factors contributing to the transformation of hydroxyapatite powder structure during coating formation by detonation spraying are discussed.

  13. Study of radioactivity diffusion for bitumen-coated blocks produced by an industrial coating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.

    1969-01-01

    The solidification by bitumen of chemical coprecipitation sludges from the Marcoule waste treatment station has been studied in the laboratory and has led to the construction of an industrial coating plant. The quality of the coated material obtained has been controlled by the lixiviation test carried out with ordinary water and with sea-water on 45 ml laboratory samples and on industrial coated blocks of 150 litres. Tests on blocks of such a size have necessitated the installation of three special tanks. Two, each of 2000 litres capacity, contain ordinary and sea-water which was continuously recycled at a rate of 2.5 cm/hr and renewed periodically. In the third tank having a capacity of 11000 litres, the coated block was buried in earth and sprinkled with ordinary water with a view to studying the migration of radioelements in soil. The results of these tests confirm those obtained during the laboratory experiments. (authors) [fr

  14. Support acidity influence in NiMoS (Nickel and Molybdenum) catalyst for Marlim diesel; Influencia da acidez do suport de catalisadores NiMoS (Niquel e Molibidenio) no hidrotratamento de diesel Marlim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Sheila Guimaraes de Almeida; Zotin, Jose Luiz; Jesus, Anderson Gomes de; Santos, Bruno Martins; Medeiros, Marcus Vinicius Costa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The specification of diesel points to the reduction of the sulfur content, of the final boiling point, of the density range and increase of the cetane number. These two last properties are directly related with the ability of the hydrotreating catalytic system in promoting the hydrogenation of aromatic structures and ring opening of the naphthenic compounds, which are both associated to low cetane number. In such way, more acidic catalysts, able to promote the cracking of naphthenic structures, should be evaluated for the diesel HDT. Three bifunctional NiMo catalysts with the same metal content, different acidity and similar active phase dispersion were prepared using alumina, silica-alumina and alumina-Y zeolite as supports. These catalysts were evaluated in a micro-reactor unit for diesel HDT aiming to correlate their activity with the support acidity. The alumina and alumina-zeolite supported catalysts presented better performance than the one supported on silica-alumina. NiMo/alumina-zeolite showed higher cetane and density improvement, associated with a slight decrease in the initial boiling point. (author)

  15. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  16. Production of bio-hydrogenated diesel by catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srifa, Atthapon; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Itthibenchapong, Vorranutch; Viriya-Empikul, Nawin; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai

    2014-04-01

    Catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil (refined palm olein type) to produce bio-hydrogenated diesel (BHD) was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Effects of dominant hydrotreating parameters: temperature: 270-420°C; H2 pressure: 15-80 bar; LHSV: 0.25-5.0 h(-1); and H2/oil ratio: 250-2000 N(cm(3)/cm(3)) on the conversion, product yield, and a contribution of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and decarbonylation/decarboxylation (DCO/DCO2) were investigated to find the optimal hydrotreating conditions. All calculations including product yield and the contribution of HDO and DCO/DCO2 were extremely estimated based on mole balance corresponding to the fatty acid composition in feed to fully understand deoxygenation behaviors at different conditions. These analyses demonstrated that HDO, DCO, and DCO2 reactions competitively occurred at each condition, and had different optimal and limiting conditions. The differences in the hydrotreating reactions, liquid product compositions, and gas product composition were also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Bonding Enamel-Coated Steel Fixtures to Produce More Durable Brick/Masonry Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Initial tests with enameled metal straps cracked all the test cylinders and straps would not pull out BUILDING STRONG® New Strong Durable Ties...BUILDING STRONG® Using Bonding Enamel -Coated Steel Fixtures to Produce More Durable Brick/Masonry Structures Principal Investigator: Steven C...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Using Bonding Enamel -Coated Steel Fixtures to Produce More Durable Brick/Masonry

  18. Hierarchical core-shell NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 nanowires grown on carbon cloth as integrated electrode for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Xiang, Jinwei; Xu, Henghui; Li, Guolong; Huang, Yunhui

    2016-08-01

    Hierarchical core-shell NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 nanowires were grown on carbon cloth (CC@NiCo2O4@NiMoO4) by a two-step hydrothermal route to fabricate a flexible binder-free electrode. The prepared CC@NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 integrated electrode was directly used as an electrode for faradaic supercapacitor. It shows a high areal capacitance of 2.917 F cm-2 at 2 mA cm-2 and excellent cycling stability with 90.6% retention over 2000 cycles at a high current density of 20 mA cm-2. The superior specific capacitance, rate and cycling performance can be ascribed to the fast transferring path for electrons and ions, synergic effect and the stability of the hierarchical core-shell structure.

  19. Study to improve the quality of a Mexican straight run gasoil over NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Diaz-Garcia, L.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Cortez de la Paz, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Four NiMo catalyst supported on Al 2 O 3 with different textural properties have been studied in the hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatization (HDA) of a Mexican straight run gasoil (SRGO). All reactions were carried out at three different temperatures 613, 633, and 653 K. Alumina supports were analysed by pyridine FTIR-TPD and nitrogen physisorption in order to determine their surface acidity and textural properties, respectively. TPR studies of the NiMo catalysts were analysed to correlate their hydrogenating properties. Metallic particles were characterized (after sulfidation) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Catalytic activities are discussed in relation to the physicochemical properties of NiMo catalysts. The importance of textural properties on coke deposition has been emphasized. The results of catalytic activity of these materials varied depending on dispersed MoS particles and pore distribution in final catalysts. The optimum pore diameter was found around 80 A for HDS and HDN

  20. Study to improve the quality of a Mexican straight run gasoil over NiMo/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Crespo, M. A.; Díaz-García, L.; Arce-Estrada, E. M.; Torres-Huerta, A. M.; Cortéz-De la Paz, M. T.

    2006-11-01

    Four NiMo catalyst supported on Al 2O 3 with different textural properties have been studied in the hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatization (HDA) of a Mexican straight run gasoil (SRGO). All reactions were carried out at three different temperatures 613, 633, and 653 K. Alumina supports were analysed by pyridine FTIR-TPD and nitrogen physisorption in order to determine their surface acidity and textural properties, respectively. TPR studies of the NiMo catalysts were analysed to correlate their hydrogenating properties. Metallic particles were characterized (after sulfidation) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Catalytic activities are discussed in relation to the physicochemical properties of NiMo catalysts. The importance of textural properties on coke deposition has been emphasized. The results of catalytic activity of these materials varied depending on dispersed MoS particles and pore distribution in final catalysts. The optimum pore diameter was found around 80 Å for HDS and HDN.

  1. Pd surface functionalization of 3D electroformed Ni and Ni-Mo alloy metallic nanofoams for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petica, A.; Brincoveanu, O.; Golgovici, F.; Manea, A. C.; Enachescu, M.; Anicai, L.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents some experimental results regarding the functionalization of 3D electroformed Ni and Ni-Mo alloy nanofoams with Pd nanoclusters, as potential cathodic materials suitable for HER during seawater electrolysis. The electrodeposition from aqueous electrolytes containing NiCl2 and NH4Cl has been applied to prepare the 3D Ni nanofoams. Ni-Mo alloys have been electrodeposited involving aqueous ammonium citrate type electrolytes. Pd surface functionalization has been performed using both electroless and electrochemical procedures. Pd content varied in the range of 0.5 – 8 wt.%, depending on the applied procedure and the operation conditions. The use of a porous structure associated with alloying element (i.e. Mo) and Pd surface functionalization facilitated enhanced performances from HER view point in seawater electrolyte (lower Tafel slopes). The determined Tafel slope values ranged from 123 to 105 mV.dec-1, suggesting the Volmer step as rate determining step. The improvement of the HER catalytic activity may be ascribed to a synergistic effect between the high real active area of the 3D electroformed metallic substrate, Ni alloying with a left transition metal and surface modification using Pd noble metal.

  2. A detailed study of the amorphisation reaction in NiMo alloys by diffraction and scattering methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray and neutron diffraction and neutron small angle scattering (SAS) measurements have been made on NiMo specimens prepared by mechanical alloying (MA). We have extended our earlier studies and measured a new series of MA treated NiMo samples. Molybdenum scatters X-rays more strongly than nickel, but with neutrons, the reverse is the case. Analysis of the X-ray and neutron diffraction patterns together, therefore provides an accurate measurement of the consumption of both constituents in the reaction. The diffraction data on the new samples confirm that the consumption of the parent crystalline materials follows an exponential dependence with the time of MA treatment and also provides evidence of a ''delayed start'' to the reaction. This is consistent with an initial period of mixing of the constituents before the onset of (atomic) interdiffusion and amorphisation. The neutron SAS experiments have been made on Ni 47.7 Mo 52.3 MA treated specimens, which can be ''contrast-matched'' to reduce the scattering from the external surfaces of the powder grains. The new neutron SAS data confirm the presence of fractal surfaces between the alloy constituents, for samples in the early stages of the MA process. (orig.)

  3. HIDRODENITROGENACION DE CARBAZOL SOBRE CATALIZADORES NiMo/Al2O3-SiO2(x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Sánchez-Minero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió la velocidad de reacción del carbazol sobre catalizadores NiMo soportados sobre Al2O3 modificada superficialmente con SiO2 (0 y 10 % en peso de SiO2 en el soporte. Los catalizadores fueron evaluados en un reactor intermitente a cuatro temperaturas (287, 300, 312 y 325oC, presión de 4.0 MPa y relación molar hidrogeno/carbazol de 2400. A partir de los resultados experimentales se realizó un estudio cinético utilizando ecuaciones del tipo Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H. Luego, los parámetros cinéticos fueron estimados mediante la minimización de Powell (programa Scientist de MicroMath. Los resultados muestran que el catalizador con sílice (NiMo-SAC 10 alcanza una mayor actividad para la HDN de carbazol debido a que presenta un mayor número de sitios activos (valor de A, así como una menor fuerza de adsorción entre el reactante y la superficie catalítica (valor de KN, lo cual posiblemente favorece una mejor regeneración de sitios activos.

  4. New coating material for producing virgin coconut oil (VCO microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin, Z.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE of different grades of broken rice (RB and breadfruit (BB-based maltodextrin as a coating material, using virgin coconut oil (VCO as a model system. The VCO was generally found to be well microencapsulated using BB, RB or commercial (COM maltodextrin at a core/wall material ratio of 1:3. In comparison to a different dextrose equivalent (DE group, both RB and BB maltodextrins with DE values of 10-14 showed higher MEE values (84.81-94.39% than maltodextrins with DE value of 15-19 (78.23-79.65%. Low DE value maltodextrins were shown higher glass transition temperatures than high DE value maltodextrins under the same moisture content. Both RB and BB maltodextrins were found to be compatible with COM maltodextrin as shown in the microstructure appearance when viewed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM.

  5. Layer structured Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particles as a visible-light-driven photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuting; Chen, Luyang; Huang, Yanlin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Chen, Cuili; Kim, Sun Il [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyo Jin, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} nanoparticles were developed by Pechini method. • The nanoparticles show high absorption in UV–vis wavelength region. • Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} has high activity in the MB dye degradation under visible light. • Hexagonal layers with heavily distorted NiO{sub 6} were superiority for photocatalysis. - Abstract: A new visible-light-driven photocatalyst of Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle was prepared by the modified Pechini method. The crystal structure was measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the structural refinement. The sample was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–vis absorption spectrum measurements. The average size of Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle is about 180 nm. Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle have an efficient optical absorption in the UV–visible light wavelength region with a direct allowed electronic transition of 2.06 eV. The effective photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye was demonstrated, which benefits from the special crystal structure of Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle. This crystal lattice has two infinite chains formed by (Ni,Na)O{sub 6} and MoO{sub 4} polyhedra standing in lines alone with the inner wall of the hexagonal tunnels. This results in the efficient optical absorption and provides more chances for electron–hole separations, which can further react with dye molecules to oxidize the dye pollutant into non-toxic products.

  6. Ni nanoparticles@Ni-Mo nitride nanorod arrays: a novel 3D-network hierarchical structure for high areal capacitance hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yunjun; Lv, Lin; Li, Zhishan; Wang, Chundong; Jiang, Jianjun

    2017-11-23

    Because of the advanced nature of their high power density, fast charge/discharge time, excellent cycling stability, and safety, supercapacitors have attracted intensive attention for large-scale applications. Nevertheless, one of the obstacles for their further development is their low energy density caused by sluggish redox reaction kinetics, low electroactive electrode materials, and/or high internal resistance. Here, we develop a facile and simple nitridation process to successfully synthesize hierarchical Ni nanoparticle decorated Ni 0.2 Mo 0.8 N nanorod arrays on a nickel foam (Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF) from its NiMoO 4 precursor, which delivers a high areal capacity of 2446 mC cm -2 at a current density of 2 mA cm -2 and shows outstanding cycling stability. The superior performance of the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF can be ascribed to the metallic conductive nature of the Ni-Mo nitride, the fast surface redox reactions for the electrolyte ions and electrode materials, and the low contacted resistance between the active materials and the current collectors. Furthermore, a hybrid supercapacitor (HSC) is assembled using the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as the negative electrode. The optimized HSC exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a high energy density of 40.9 W h kg -1 at a power density of 773 W kg -1 and a retention of 80.1% specific capacitance after 6000 cycles. These results indicate that the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF have a promising potential for use in high-performance supercapacitors.

  7. Tribological and Corrosion Properties of Coatings Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on the ZA27 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyin; Mao, Yifan; Li, Zhijian; Wang, Linlin; DaCosta, Herbert

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a continuous and dense coating was deposited on samples of the ZA27 alloy through the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process to improve its wear and corrosion performance. A nontoxic and environmentally friendly inorganic salt, Na2SiO3, is chosen as electrolytes with different concentrations. The effect of the concentration of Na2SiO3 aqueous solutions on the coating performances was investigated. The coatings with 3Al2O3·2SiO2 (mullite), Zn2SiO4 and Al2O3 (either crystal phase or with some amorphous SiO2 phases) were formed by the PEO processes. It was found that the coating thickness increased with the increase in electrolyte concentration. However, the wear and corrosion resistance performance of the coatings did not improve as the coating's thickness increased. This was due to the fact that the coating produced with electrolytes of 10 g/L has a porous structure with large pore size. Among all the samples, coating produced by 15 g/L Na2SiO3 has the best wear and corrosion resistance, which is attributed to its continuous and dense structure with thickness of about 47 μm.

  8. Tribological and Corrosion Properties of Coatings Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on the ZA27 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyin; Mao, Yifan; Li, Zhijian; Wang, Linlin; DaCosta, Herbert

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a continuous and dense coating was deposited on samples of the ZA27 alloy through the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process to improve its wear and corrosion performance. A nontoxic and environmentally friendly inorganic salt, Na2SiO3, is chosen as electrolytes with different concentrations. The effect of the concentration of Na2SiO3 aqueous solutions on the coating performances was investigated. The coatings with 3Al2O3·2SiO2 (mullite), Zn2SiO4 and Al2O3 (either crystal phase or with some amorphous SiO2 phases) were formed by the PEO processes. It was found that the coating thickness increased with the increase in electrolyte concentration. However, the wear and corrosion resistance performance of the coatings did not improve as the coating's thickness increased. This was due to the fact that the coating produced with electrolytes of 10 g/L has a porous structure with large pore size. Among all the samples, coating produced by 15 g/L Na2SiO3 has the best wear and corrosion resistance, which is attributed to its continuous and dense structure with thickness of about 47 μm.

  9. Co-Pyrolysis Behaviors of the Cotton Straw/PP Mixtures and Catalysis Hydrodeoxygenation of Co-Pyrolysis Products over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derun Hua

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The doping of PP (polypropylene with cotton straw improved the bio-oil yield, which showed there was a synergy in the co-pyrolysis of the cotton straw and PP at the range of 380–480 °C. In a fixed-bed reactor, model compounds and co-pyrolysis products were used for reactants of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO over Ni-Mo/Al2O3. The deoxygenation rate of model compounds decreased over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 in the following order: alcohol > aldehyde > acetic acid > ethyl acetate. The upgraded oil mainly consisted of C11 alkane.

  10. Laminar iridium coating produced by pulse current electrodeposition from chloride molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Li’an, E-mail: mr_zla@163.com; Bai, Shuxin; Zhang, Hong; Ye, Yicong

    2013-10-01

    Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, Iridium (Ir) is one of the most promising oxidation-resistant coatings for refractory materials above 1800 °C in aerospace field. However, the Ir coatings prepared by traditional methods are composed of columnar grains throughout the coating thickness. The columnar structure of the coating is considered to do harm to its oxidation resistance. The laminar Ir coating is expected to have a better high-temperature oxidation resistance than the columnar Ir coating does. The pulse current electrodeposition, with three independent parameters: average current density (J{sub m}), duty cycle (R) and pulse frequency (f), is considered to be a promising method to fabricate layered Ir coating. In this study, laminar Ir coatings were prepared by pulse current electrodeposition in chloride molten salt. The morphology, roughness and texture of the coatings were determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), profilometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results showed that the laminar Ir coatings were composed of a nucleation layer with columnar structure and a growth layer with laminar structure. The top surfaces of the laminar Ir coatings consisted of cauliflower-like aggregates containing many fine grains, which were separated by deep grooves. The laminar Ir coating produced at the deposition condition of 20 mA/cm{sup 2} (J{sub m}), 10% (R) and 6 Hz (f) was quite smooth (R{sub a} 1.01 ± 0.09 μm) with extremely high degree of preferred orientation of 〈1 1 1〉, and its laminar structure was well developed with clear boundaries and uniform thickness of sub-layers.

  11. Microscopic Analysis and Electrochemical Behavior of Fe-Based Coating Produced by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of laser cladding on the surface microstructure and corrosion properties of coated/uncoated specimens were investigated. Fe-based alloy coating was produced on 35CrMo steel by laser cladding. The phase composition, microstructure, interface element distribution, microhardness and corrosion resistance of the cladding coating were measured. The results show that the cladding layer is mainly composed of α-Fe phases, the microstructure presents a gradient distribution, and a good metallurgical bond is formed at the boundary with the substrate. Microhardness profiles show that the average microhardness of the cladding coating is about 2.1 times higher than that of the uncoated specimen. In addition, the electrochemical results show that the coated specimen exhibits far better corrosion resistance than to the uncoated specimen.

  12. Characterization of industrially produced galvannealed coating using cross-sectional specimen in TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Saha, R.; Ray, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Galvannealed coated sheet steels are extensively used in the automotive industry due to their inherent advantages, as compared to other zinc based coating, such as excellent spot weldability, good corrosion resistance and better paintability. Despite the above advantages, galvannealed coating suffers from poor formability due to the presence of hard and brittle Fe-Zn intermetallic phases. The formability of the coating depends on the amount and orientation of different Fe-Zn intermetallic phases. The present study deals with the characterization of an industrially produced galvannealed coating using cross-sectional specimen in a Transmission Electron Microscope. From the selected area diffraction patterns obtained in Transmission Electron Microscope, the orientations of the delta phase were calculated.

  13. Low content of Pt supported on Ni-MoC{sub x}/carbon black as a highly durable and active electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation, oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions in acidic condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan; Zang, Jianbing; Jia, Shaopei; Tian, Pengfei; Han, Chan; Wang, Yanhui, E-mail: diamond_wangyanhui@163.com

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Ni-MoC{sub x}/C catalyst support was synthesized by a two-step method. • 10Pt/Ni-MoC{sub x}/C was an active and durable low Pt catalyst for MOR, ORR and HER. • The high stability of 10Pt/Ni-MoC{sub x}/C was ascribed to the anchoring effect of MoC{sub x}. • High activity of 10Pt/Ni-MoC{sub x}/C was due to a synergistic of Pt, Ni, MoO{sub x} and MoC{sub x}. - Abstract: Nickel and molybdenum carbide modified carbon black (Ni-MoC{sub x}/C) was synthesized by a two-step microwave-assisted deposition/carbonthermal reduction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-prepared Ni-MoC{sub x}/C supported Pt (10 wt%) electrocatalyst (10Pt/Ni-MoC{sub x}/C) was synthesized through a microwave-assisted reduction method and 10Pt/Ni-MoC{sub x}/C exhibited high electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation, oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions. Results showed that 10Pt/Ni-MoC{sub x}/C electrocatalyst had better electrocatalytic activity and stability performance than 20 wt% Pt/C (20Pt/C) electrocatalyst. Among them, the electrochemical surface area of 10Pt/Ni-MoC{sub x}/C reached 68.4 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which was higher than that of 20Pt/C (63.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}). The enhanced stability and activity of 10Pt/Ni-MoC{sub x}/C electrocatalyst were attributed to: (1) an anchoring effect of Ni and MoC{sub x} formed during carbonthermal reduction process; (2) a synergistic effect among Pt, Ni, MoO{sub x} and MoC{sub x}. These findings indicated that 10Pt/Ni-MoC{sub x}/C was a promising electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

  14. Microstructural, mechanical and oxidation features of NiCoCrAlY coating produced by plasma activated EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jian; Guo, Hongbo; Peng, Hui; Gong, Shengkai

    2013-01-01

    NiCoCrAlY coatings produced by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) have been extensively used as the oxidation resistance coatings or suitable bond coats in thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. However, the inherent imperfections caused by EB-PVD process degrade the oxidation resistance of the coatings. In the present work, NiCoCrAlY coatings were creatively produced by plasma activated electron beam-physical vapor deposition (PA EB-PVD). The novel coatings showed a terraced substructure on the surface of each grain due to the increased energy of metal ions and enhanced mobility of adatoms. Also a strong (1 1 1) crystallographic texture of γ/γ′ grains was observed. The toughness of the coatings got remarkably improved compared with the coatings deposited by conventional EB-PVD and the oxidation behavior at 1373 K showed that the novel coatings had excellent oxidation resistance. The possible mechanism was finally discussed.

  15. Mg-containing hydroxyapatite coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Cesar Augusto; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Durrant, Steven Frederick; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da, E-mail: cesar.augustoa@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Plasmas Tecnologicos; Delgado-Silva, Adriana de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Tabacniks, Manfredo H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-07-15

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is promising for the processing of biomaterials because it enables the production of surfaces with adjustable composition and structure. In this work, aimed at the improvement of the bioactivity of titanium, PEO has been used to grow calcium phosphide coatings on titanium substrates. The effects of the addition of magnesium acetate to the electrolytes on the composition of the coatings produced during 120 s on Ti disks using bipolar voltage pulses and solutions of calcium and magnesium acetates and sodium glycerophosphate as electrolytes have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry with Rietveld refinement and profilometry were used to characterize the modified samples. Coatings composed of nearly 50 % of Mg-doped hydroxyapatite have been produced. In certain conditions up to 4% Mg can be incorporated into the coating without any observable significant structural modifications of the hydroxyapatite. (author)

  16. Room temperature diamond-like carbon coatings produced by low energy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwitz, A., E-mail: a.markwitz@gns.cri.nz [Department for Ion Beam Technologies, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Mohr, B.; Leveneur, J. [Department for Ion Beam Technologies, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2014-07-15

    Nanometre-smooth diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) were produced at room temperature with ion implantation using 6 kV C{sub 3}H{sub y}{sup +} ion beams. Ion beam analysis measurements showed that the coatings contain no heavy Z impurities at the level of 100 ppm, have a homogeneous stoichiometry in depth and a hydrogen concentration of typically 25 at.%. High resolution TEM analysis showed high quality and atomically flat amorphous coatings on wafer silicon. Combined TEM and RBS analysis gave a coating density of 3.25 g cm{sup −3}. Raman spectroscopy was performed to probe for sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} bonds in the coatings. The results indicate that low energy ion implantation with 6 kV produces hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings with a sp{sup 3} content of about 20%. Results highlight the opportunity of developing room temperature DLC coatings with ion beam technology for industrial applications.

  17. Conversion Coatings Produced on AZ61 Magnesium Alloy by Low-Voltage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The resultes of anodic oxide conversion coatings on wrought AZ61 magnesium alloy production are describe. The studies were conducted in a solution containing: KOH (80 g/l and KF (300 g/l using anodic current densities of 3, 5 and 10 A/dm2 and different process durations. The obtained coatings were examined under a microscope and corrosion tests were performed by electrochemical method. Based on these results, it was found that the low-voltage process produces coatings conferring improved corrosion resistance to the tested magnesium alloy.

  18. Experimental and kinetics studies of aromatic hydrogenation in a two-stage hydrotreating process using NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiW/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owusu-Boakye, A.; Dalai, A.K.; Ferdous, D. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories; Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-10-15

    The degree of hydrogenation of aromatics in light gas oil (LGO) feed from Athabasca bitumen was examined using a two-stage process. Experiments were conducted in a trickle-bed reactor using 2 catalysts, namely nickel molybdenum alumina (NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in stage one and nickel tungsten alumina (NiW/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the second stage. NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used in the first stage in order to remove nitrogen and sulphur containing heteroatoms. NiW/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used in the second stage for saturation of the aromatic rings in the hydrocarbon species. The catalysts were used under a range of temperature and pressure condition. Temperature and liquid hourly space velocity ranged from 350 to 390 degrees C and 1.0 to 1.5 per hour, respectively. Pressure was kept constant at 11.0 MPa for all experiments. Reaction time results from the two-stage process were compared with those from a single-stage where hydrotreating was performed over NiMo/AL{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Product samples from different feedstocks were analyzed with respect to sulfur, nitrogen and aromatic content. Gasoline selectivity and kinetic parameters for hydrodesulphurization (HDS) or hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) reactions for the feed materials were also compared. The effect of hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) inhibition on aromatics hydrogenation (HDA) was also kinetically modelled using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood approach. Kinetic analysis of the single-stage hydrotreating process showed that HDA and HDS activities were slowed by the presence of hydrogen sulphide that is produced as a by-product of the HDS process. However, with inter-stage removal of hydrogen sulphide in the two-stage process, significant improvement of the HDA and HDS activities were noted. It was concluded that the experimental data was successfully predicted by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic models. 27 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. The influence of heat treatment and process parameters optimization on hardness and corrosion properties of laser alloyed X12CrNiMo steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Popoola, API

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Martensitic stainless steels are used in the production of steam turbine blades but their application is limited due to low hardness and poor corrosion resistance. Laser surface alloying and heat treatment of X12CrNiMo Martensitic stainless steel...

  20. Phase-pure β-NiMoO4 yolk-shell spheres for high-performance anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jee Hyun; Park, Gi Dae; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2015-01-01

    Phase-pure β-NiMoO 4 yolk-shell spheres for lithium-ion battery anodes were prepared for the first time by one-pot spray pyrolysis, and their electrochemical properties were investigated. The yolk-shell-structured β-NiMoO 4 powders exhibited high initial discharge/charge capacities (1634/1253 mA h g −1 ) at a current density of 1000 mA g −1 . After 200 cycles, these powders exhibited a high discharge capacity of 1292 mA h g −1 , whereas the initial discharge capacity (1341 mA h g −1 ) of the filled structured NiMoO 4 powders was dramatically decreased to 479 mA h g −1 . The significant enhancement of the cycling performance of the β-NiMoO 4 powders with ultrafine crystallite size was attributed to the structural stability of the yolk-shell structure

  1. Hydrogenation of naphthalene on NiMo- Ni- and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro-Gezork, Ana Cristina Alves; Winterbottom, John Mike [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Natividad, Reyna [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Colon Esq. Tollocan, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico, Mexico CP 50120 (Mexico)

    2008-01-30

    The importance of the hydrodearomatisation (HDA) is increasing together with tightening legislation of fuel quality and exhaust emissions. The present study focuses on hydrogenation (HYD) kinetics of the model aromatic compound naphthalene, found in typical diesel fraction, in n-hexadecane over a NiMo (nickel molybdenum), Ni (nickel) and Ru (ruthenium) supported on trilobe alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) catalysts. Kinetic reaction expressions based on the mechanistic Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model were derived and tested by regressing the experimental data that translated the effect of both naphthalene and hydrogen concentration at a constant temperature (523.15 and 573.15 K over the NiMo catalyst and at 373.15 K over the Ni and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts) on the initial reaction rate. The L-H equation, giving an adequate fit to the experimental data with physically meaningful parameters, suggested a competitive adsorption between hydrogen and naphthalene over the presulphided NiMo catalyst and a non-competitive adsorption between these two reactants over the prereduced Ni and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. In addition, the adsorption constant values indicated that the prereduced Ru catalyst was a much more active catalyst towards naphthalene HYD than the prereduced Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or the presulphided NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. (author)

  2. Effect of radiation-thermal treatment on the physicochemical properties of the Ni-Mo/Al2O3 hydrotreatment catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovetskij, Yu.I.; Lunin, V.V.; Miroshnichenko, I.I.

    1993-01-01

    A study was made on reasons of radiation-thermal damage by 2.0 MeV accelerated electron beams of surface and active metal phases of Al, Ni, Mo base hydrodesulfurization catalysts. Data of diffusion reflection electron spectra for coked industrial and model systems after radiation-thermal treatment are presented. 14 refs., 2 figs

  3. Gradient microstructure and microhardness in a nitrided 18CrNiMo7-6 gear steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R.; Wu, G. L.; Zhang, X.; Fu, W. T.; Huang, X.

    2017-07-01

    A commercial gear steel (18CrNiMo7-6) containing a tempered martensite structure was nitrided using a pressurized gas nitriding process under a pressure of 5 atm at 530 °C for 5 hours. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the nitrided sample were characterized by Vickers hardness measurements, X-ray diffraction, and backscatter electron imaging in a scanning electron microscope. A micro-hardness gradient was identified over a distance of 500 μm with hardness values of 900 HV at the top surface and 300 HV in the core. This micro-hardness gradient corresponds to a gradient in the microstructure that changes from a nitride compound layer at the top surface (∼ 20 μm thick) to a diffusion zone with a decreasing nitrogen concentration and precipitate density with distance from the surface, finally reaching the core matrix layer with a recovered martensite structure.

  4. Effect of Grain Boundary Character Distribution on the Impact Toughness of 410NiMo Weld Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Divya, M.; Das, Chitta Ranjan; Chowdhury, Sandip Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Grain boundary character distributions in 410NiMo weld metal were studied in the as-welded, first-stage, and second-stage postweld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions, and these were correlated with the Charpy-V impact toughness values of the material. The high impact toughness values in the weld...... metal in the as-welded and first-stage PWHT conditions compared to that in the second-stage condition are attributed to the higher fraction of low-energy I pound boundaries. A higher volume fraction of retained austenite and coarser martensite after second-stage PWHT accompanied by the formation...... in the impact toughness. In addition to this, grain refinement during 4-hour PWHT in the second stage also increased the toughness of the weld metal....

  5. Deactivation of Ni-MoS2 by bio-oil impurities during hydrodeoxygenation of phenol and octanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Gardini, Diego; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad

    2016-01-01

    The stability of Ni-MoS2/ZrO2 toward water, potassium, and chlorine containing compounds during hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of a mixture of phenol and 1-octanol was investigated in a high pressure gas and liquid continuous flow fixed bed setup at 280 °C and 100 bar. To maintain the stability...... of the catalyst, sufficient co-feeding of a sulfur source was necessary to avoid oxidation of the sulfide phase by oxygen replacement of the edge sulfur atoms in the MoS2 structure. However, the addition of sulfur to the feed gas resulted in the formation of sulfur containing compounds, mainly thiols, in the oil...... impregnated on the catalyst in a stoichiometric ratio relative to the active metal. This deactivation was a result of adsorption of potassium on the edge vacancy sites of the MoS2 slabs....

  6. Crevice-corrosion kinetics on titanium and a Ti-Ni-Mo alloy in chloride solutions at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, P.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an electrochemical investigation of the crevice-corrosion kinetics on titanium and a dilute Ti-Ni-Mo alloy (0.8% Ni, 0.3% Mo), in concentrated chloride solutions at 150 0 C, are presented. The current-time transients, obtained on creviced electrodes under both potentiostatic and galvanic (coupling to a large area of uncreviced titanium) conditions, are interpreted in terms of crevice acidification leading to the formation of an active-passive cell, maintained by iR gradient in the electrolyte. The passivating effect of the Ni and Mo additions on the crevice corrosion of titanium are described, together with the results of an electrochemical study, carried out in bulk acid chloride solutions, that were used to substantiate a proposed mechanism of crevice passivation. (author)

  7. 3D Modelling of Flash Formation in Linear Friction Welded 30CrNiMo8 Steel Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Effertz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Linear friction welding (LFW is a solid-state welding process that has been thoroughly investigated for chain welding in recent years in order to replace the currently in use Flash Butt Welding (FBW process. Modelling has proven to be an indispensable tool in LFW, thus providing necessary insight to the process, regardless of its final application. This article describes a 3D model developed in the commercial software DEFORM to study the LFW process of 30CrNiMo8 high strength steel in the Hero chain. Hence, a weakly coupled thermal and mechanical model were used, by means of the process experimental input such as displacement histories. The flash morphology and intervening mechanisms were analyzed. A thermal evaluation of different regions in the studied geometry was considered, and a correlation of the modeled and experimental width of the extrusion zone was established.

  8. Metallographical investigations on cavitation erosion of the steel X 2 CrNiMoN 22 5 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.; Goecke, A.

    1989-01-01

    The development of erosion-resistant material, however, presupposes a precise knowledge of the mechanism and progress of the destruction. For this reason, cavitation erosion was studied in this investigation using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultra-microhardness tests (UMHT) - as well as gravimetry. A Cr-Ni-Mo steel with a ferritic-austenitic structure was investigated. This material was selected to provide information about the possible interaction between the phases within such a structure and about the damage mechanism of the individual phases. The experimental material was modified by a heat treatment to precipitate the σ-phase so that a three-phase model material could be obtained as well as the two-phase alloy. (orig./MM) [de

  9. Effect of various heat treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of 34CrNiMo6 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Azim, M.E.; Ghoneim, M.M.; Nasreldin, A.M.; Soliman, S.

    1997-01-01

    Three different austenitization treatments were applied to high strength 34CrNiMo6 steel: conventional austenitization (CAT), high temperature austenitization (HTA) and duplex treatment (DT). It was found that DT structure has finer prior austenite grain size (30 μm) than those of HTA (200 μm) and CAT (70 μm) structures. DT and HTA structures have coarser lath size for martensite than CAT structure. DT results in higher room temperature impact toughness than HTA and CAT structures and shifts the ductile-brittle transition to lower temperatures by 14 K and 32 K in comparison with HTA and CAT structures, respectively. However, DT structure has intermediate values of room temperature yield stress and ultimate tensile strength between those of CAT and HTA structures. When this steel was tempered at 300 and 400 C it underwent tempered martensite embrittlement associated with intergranular fracture. (orig.)

  10. Novel Alkyd-Type Coating Resins Produced Using Cationic Polymerization [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Bret; Kalita, Harjyoti; Alam, Samim; Jayasooriyamu, Anurad; Fernando, Shashi; Samanata, Satyabrata; Bahr, James; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Sibi, Mukund; Vold, Jessica; Ulven, Chad

    2014-04-07

    Novel, partially bio-based poly(vinyl ether) copolymers derived from soybean oil and cyclohexyl vinyl ether (CHVE) were produced by cationic polymerization and investigated for application as alkyd-type surface coatings. Compared to conventional alkyd resins, which are produced by high temperature melt condensation polymerization, the poly(vinyl ether)s provide several advantages. These advantages include miler, more energy efficient polymer synthesis, elimination of issues associated with gelation during polymer synthesis, production of polymers with well-defined composition and relatively narrow molecular weight distribution, and elimination of film formation and physical property issues associated with entrained monomers, dimers, trimmers, etc. The results of the studied showed that the thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of the coatings produced from these novel polymers varied considerable as a function of polymer composition and cure temperature. Overall, the results suggest a good potential for these novel copolymers to be used for coatings cured by autoxidation.

  11. Hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodesulphurization of heavy gas oil using NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst containing phosphorous : experimental and kinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, D.; Dalai, A.K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2005-10-01

    Oil sand bitumens and their derived products contain high levels of nitrogen and sulfur compounds which cause the formation of SOx and NOx in the atmosphere. These compounds also deactivate the catalysts used in fluid catalytic cracking and hydrocracking. This study focused on finding a better catalyst to efficiently remove sulphur and nitrogen from oil sand-derived heavy gas oils. The NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst with phosphorous (P) was used in a trickle-bed reactor under a range of temperature and pressure conditions to study the reactivity of vacuum, atmospheric and hydrocracked heavy gas oils produced from Athabasca bitumen. The concentration of phosphorous was maintained at 2.7 wt per cent, while the hydrogen flow rate and catalyst weight were maintained constant at 50 mL/min and 4 g respectively. An ANOVA analysis of experimental data was performed to optimize the process conditions for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodesulphurization (HDS) reactions. Kinetic studies for HDN and HDS reactions were studied within the temperature range of 340 to 400 degrees C using the power law model and the Langmuir-Hinshelhood model. It was shown that HDN and HDS of heavy gas oil follows first order kinetics. The activation energies for HDN and HDS reactions from the power law and Langmuir-Hinshelhood models were 94 and 96 kJ/mol and 113 and 137 kJ/mol, respectively. It was concluded that nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide adsorption have a significant influence on HDN and HDS reactions. 32 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. The corrosion resistance of 140MXC, 530AS and 560AS coatings produced by thermal spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Alexis López Covaleda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three commercial materials were deposited using electric arc thermal spraying: 140MXC (with Fe, W, Cr, Nb, 530AS (AISI 1015 steel and 560AS (AISI 420 steel on AISI 4340 steel. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the best strategy for improving a coating-substrate system’s corrosion resistance, using the following combinations: homogeneous single coatings, bilayers consisting of 530AS or 560AS under 140MXC and 140MXC + 530AS and 140MXC + 560AS coatings deposited simultaneously. The coatings were characterised using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance was evaluated through potentiodynamic polarisation and hardness by using the Vickers test. Corrosion resistance depends on the amount of microstructure defects, the deposition strategy and the alloy elements. However, corrosion resistance was similar in single coatings of 140MXC and bilayers, having -630 V corrosion potential and 708 nA corrosion current. The details and corrosion mechanism of the coatings so produced are described in this paper.

  13. Stainless steel coatings produced through atmospheric plasma spraying study of in flight powder behavior and coating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denoirjean, A.; Denoirjean, P.; Fauchais, P.; Labbe, J.C.; Khan, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Stainless Steel coatings deposited through Atmospheric Plasma Spraying over mild steel surface present an interest from commercial point of view, especially for the applications where corrosion resistance or inertness towards severe environment is required. Atmospheric Plasma Spraying is fast and relatively less expensive choice as compared to Vacuum Plasma Spraying, the only limitation being the extremely reactive nature of metallic powders used. A study of the behaviour of metallic powders within an Atmospheric Plasma Jet is presented in view of better understanding and eventual improvement in coating properties. Metallic powder particles show very interesting features when individual particles are collected after passing them through a DC Blown Arc Thermal Plasma Jet under Atmospheric Pressure. The spraying was carried out under air which makes the significance of these results even more interesting from the industrial point of view. Proper control of Spraying Parameters can help produce Stainless Steel coatings of reasonably low porosity and a typical lamellar microstructure. The results of SEM, AFM and XRD are discussed. A strange oxidation phenomenon under highly non equilibrium conditions is observed. (author)

  14. Beryllium coating produced by evaporation-condensation method and some their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepekin, G.I.; Anisimov, A.B.; Chernikov, A.S.; Mozherinn, S.I.; Pirogov, A.A. [SRI SIA Lutch., Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The method of vacuum evaporation-condensation for deposition of beryllium coatings on metal substrates, considered in the paper, side by side with a plasma-spray method is attractive fon ITER application. In particular this technique may be useful for repair the surface of eroded tiles which is operated in a strong magnetic field. The possibility of deposition of beryllium coatings with the rate of layer growth 0.1-0.2 mm/h is shown. The compatibility of beryllium coating with copper or stainless steel substrate is provided due to intermediate barrier. The results of examination of microstructure, microhardness, porosity, thermal and physical properties and stability under thermal cycling of beryllium materials are presented. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of condensed beryllium are approximately the same as for industrial grade material produced by powder mettalurgy technique. However, the condensed beryllium has higher purity (up to 99.9-99.99 % wt.). (author)

  15. TiC Reinforcement Composite Coating Produced Using Graphite of the Cast Iron by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a TiC-reinforced composite coating was produced to improve the wear resistance of a pearlite matrix grey iron using a pre-placed Ti powder by laser cladding. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffractometer (XRD, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS confirmed that the coating was composed of TiC particles and two kinds of α-Fe phase. The fine TiC particles were only a few microns in size and uniformly distributed on the matrix phase in the composite coating. The microstructure characteristic of the composite coating resulted in the microhardness rising to about 1000 HV0.3 (China GB/T 4342-1991 and the wear resistance significantly increased relative to the substrate. In addition, the fine and homogeneous solidification microstructure without graphite phase in the transition zone led to a good metallurgical bonding and transition between the coating and the substrate. It was of great significance for the cast iron to modify the surface and repair surface defects or surface damage.

  16. TiC Reinforcement Composite Coating Produced Using Graphite of the Cast Iron by Laser Cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhui; Qu, Weicheng; Su, Yu

    2016-09-30

    In this study, a TiC-reinforced composite coating was produced to improve the wear resistance of a pearlite matrix grey iron using a pre-placed Ti powder by laser cladding. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed that the coating was composed of TiC particles and two kinds of α -Fe phase. The fine TiC particles were only a few microns in size and uniformly distributed on the matrix phase in the composite coating. The microstructure characteristic of the composite coating resulted in the microhardness rising to about 1000 HV0.3 (China GB/T 4342-1991) and the wear resistance significantly increased relative to the substrate. In addition, the fine and homogeneous solidification microstructure without graphite phase in the transition zone led to a good metallurgical bonding and transition between the coating and the substrate. It was of great significance for the cast iron to modify the surface and repair surface defects or surface damage.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance of graphene decorated with 1D NiMoO4.nH2O nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasis; Giri, Soumen; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2013-10-01

    One-dimensional NiMoO4.nH2O nanorods and their graphene based hybrid composite with good electrochemical properties have been synthesized by a cost effective hydrothermal procedure. The formation of the mixed metal oxide and the composite was confirmed by XRD, XPS and Raman analyses. The morphological characterizations were carried out using FESEM and TEM analyses. The materials were subjected to electrochemical characterization through cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies with 6 M KOH as the supporting electrolyte. For NiMoO4.nH2O, a maximum specific capacitance of 161 F g-1 was obtained at 5 A g-1 current density, accompanied with an energy density of 4.53 W h kg-1 at a steady power delivery rate of 1125 W kg-1. The high utility of the pseudocapacitive NiMoO4.nH2O was achieved in its graphene based composite, which exhibited a high specific capacitance of 367 F g-1 at 5 A g-1 current density and a high energy density of 10.32 W h kg-1 at a power density of 1125 W kg-1 accompanied with long term cyclic stability.One-dimensional NiMoO4.nH2O nanorods and their graphene based hybrid composite with good electrochemical properties have been synthesized by a cost effective hydrothermal procedure. The formation of the mixed metal oxide and the composite was confirmed by XRD, XPS and Raman analyses. The morphological characterizations were carried out using FESEM and TEM analyses. The materials were subjected to electrochemical characterization through cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies with 6 M KOH as the supporting electrolyte. For NiMoO4.nH2O, a maximum specific capacitance of 161 F g-1 was obtained at 5 A g-1 current density, accompanied with an energy density of 4.53 W h kg-1 at a steady power delivery rate of 1125 W kg-1. The high utility of the pseudocapacitive NiMoO4.nH2O was achieved in its graphene

  18. The use of nitrogen to improve the corrosion resistance of FeCrNiMo alloys for the chemical process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearns, J.R.; Deverell, H.E.

    1987-06-01

    The addition of 0.1 to 0.25 wt% nitrogen to austenitic alloys has been shown to enhance resistance to localized corrosion in oxidizing chloride and reducing acid solutions. Further tests of FeCrNiMo alloys assess the effects of nitrogen additions on: mechanical properties, chloride and caustic stress corrosion cracking resistance, passivation characteristics, and general corrosion rates in various acid, alkali, and salt solutions pertinent to the chemical process industries. The precipitation of chromium-rich secondary phases was retarded by solid solution additions of 0.1 to 0.25 wt% nitrogen. The corrosion resistance of FeCrNiMoN alloys in the welded condition was improved by using shield-gas mixtures of argon and 2.5 to 5.0 wt% nitrogen.

  19. Deoxygenation of palm kernel oil to jet fuel-like hydrocarbons using Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itthibenchapong, Vorranutch; Srifa, Atthapon; Kaewmeesri, Rungnapa; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3 catalysts synthesized using thiourea solution processing. • The Ni-MoS_2 showed semi-amorphous crystallinity with crystallite size of 5–10 nm. • The Ni K-edge XANES and EXAFS indicated the Ni substitution in MoS_2 structure. • A high yield of jet fuel-like hydrocarbon (>90%) from the palm kernel oil feedstock. • The HDO pathway was highly selective, while the DCO_2 and DCO pathways were minor. - Abstract: In the current study, palm kernel oil was used as a renewable feedstock for production of jet fuel-like hydrocarbons via the deoxygenation over the Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3 catalyst. The dominant C12 fatty acid content in palm kernel oil makes it promising for jet fuel application. Synthesized by a liquid processing method with thiourea organosulfur agent, the catalyst revealed MoS_2 structure with low stacking, while Ni substitution in the MoS_2 structure and interaction with the Al_2O_3 support were determined based on the Ni K-edge XANES and EXAFS results. A high hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activity, which as the major pathway in the deoxygenation, was observed upon application of a H_2 pressure of 30–50 bar over Ni-MoS_2/γ-Al_2O_3. The optimum product yield of approximately 92% was obtained mainly from the HDO pathway (∼60%) with 58% selectivity to C10–C12 jet fuel hydrocarbons. The flow property of the jet fuel-like hydrocarbons was more desirable than those obtained from palm olein oil-derived fuel.

  20. Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of 50Cr5NiMoV steel for forged backup roll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, X.Y.; Zhang, X.J.; Fu, L.C.; Yang, H.B.; Yang, K.; Zhu, L., E-mail: zl508@126.com

    2016-11-20

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of forged 50Cr5NiMoV steel backup roll were evaluated in this study. The microstructure characteristics from surface to center along radial direction of the backup roll were carefully observed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the chemical composition, hardness, tensile property, impact and fracture toughness in different position of the backup roll were also examined. The results indicate that the finely precipitated carbides at different matrix during heat treatment process strongly influence mechanical properties of the backup roll. Especially, the spheroidized pearlite at the inner regions which consists of large globular or rod-like M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and a little of small globular M{sub 23}C{sub 6} possesses much better toughness and fracture resistance properties than those of the lamellar pearlite with lamellar M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and a little of globular M{sub 7}C{sub 3}.

  1. Experimental and Thermodynamic Study of Selected in-Situ Composites from the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-C System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczerzak K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to synthesize and characterize the selected in-situ composites from the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-C system, additionally strengthened by intermetallic compounds. The project of the alloys was supported by thermodynamic simulations using Calculation of Phase Diagram approach via Thermo-Calc. Selected alloys were synthesized in an arc furnace in a high purity argon atmosphere using a suction casting unit. The studies involved a range of experimental techniques to characterize the alloys in the as-cast state, including optical emission spectrometry, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction and microhardness tests. These experimental studies were compared with the Thermo-Calc data and high resolution dilatometry. The results of investigations presented in this paper showed that there is a possibility to introduce intermetallic compounds, such as χ and σ, through modification of the chemical composition of the alloy with respect to Nieq and Creq. It was found that the place of intermetallic compounds precipitation strongly depends on matrix nature. Results presented in this paper may be successfully used to build a systematic knowledge about the group of alloys with a high volume fraction of complex carbides, and high physicochemical properties, additionally strengthened by intermetallic compounds.

  2. Mean Stress Effect on the Axial Fatigue Strength of DIN 34CrNiMo6 Quenched and Tempered Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pallarés-Santasmartas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study consists of a theoretical and experimental investigation of the effect of axial mean stresses on the high cycle fatigue behaviour of DIN 34CrNiMo6 high strength steel in quenched and tempered conditions. The axial S-N curves under 4 different stresses ratios were obtained. Experimental results show that increasing the value of the tension mean stresses gradually reduces the axial stress amplitude the material can withstand without failure. Moreover, the compressive mean stresses show a beneficial effect in terms of the axial fatigue strength, resulting in a non-symmetrical Haigh diagram. A historic review of the axial mean stress effect is presented, showing the shape of the Haigh diagrams for ductile metals and presenting the most-known empirical and physical theories. The results for this steel are compared with the physical theories of Findley based on the critical plane; the Froustey’s and Marin’s methods, based on energetic theories; and the Crossland invariants method based on the Gough’s theory of fatigue damage. Taking into account the experimental results, a physical fatigue function based on energetic considerations is proposed. Its application to the fatigue case with mean stresses can be interpreted in terms of a balance of elastic energies of distortion and volume change. Macro-analyses of specimen fracture appearance were conducted in order to obtain the fracture characteristics for different mean stress values.

  3. Study of Effect of Quenching Deformation Influenced by 17CrNiMo6 Gear Shaft of Carburization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zirui; Yu, Shenjun; Xu, Jinwu

    The 17CrNiMo6 steel is mainly used for the gear shaft of large modulus in many fields of heavy industry such as mining, transit, hoist, forging and so on[1]. The size of addendum circle and common normal line is changed a lot beyond the tolerance because of the long time of carburizing process and the out-of-step structural stress and thermal stress during the quenching process. And thus the posterior grinding efficiency and quality are influenced. In the paper comparison and analysis of the deformation affected by solid and hollow gear shafts were done and the methods of simulation and practice were both used. The results are as follows: the deformation of gear shaft was small before and after carburizing while that of gear shaft was large before and after quenching because of different cooling velocity, structure and hardness of each position. And the deformation of hollow was much smaller than that of solid. Therefore, if the hollow gear shaft is used, the waste of material will be decreased, and finishing cost will be reduced, and thus the technology of heat treatment will be optimized.

  4. Spatial decoupling of light absorption and catalytic activity of Ni-Mo-loaded high-aspect-ratio silicon microwire photocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijselaar, Wouter; Westerik, Pieter; Veerbeek, Janneke; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Berenschot, Erwin; Tas, Niels R.; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2018-03-01

    A solar-driven photoelectrochemical cell provides a promising approach to enable the large-scale conversion and storage of solar energy, but requires the use of Earth-abundant materials. Earth-abundant catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction, for example nickel-molybdenum (Ni-Mo), are generally opaque and require high mass loading to obtain high catalytic activity, which in turn leads to parasitic light absorption for the underlying photoabsorber (for example silicon), thus limiting production of hydrogen. Here, we show the fabrication of a highly efficient photocathode by spatially and functionally decoupling light absorption and catalytic activity. Varying the fraction of catalyst coverage over the microwires, and the pitch between the microwires, makes it possible to deconvolute the contributions of catalytic activity and light absorption to the overall device performance. This approach provided a silicon microwire photocathode that exhibited a near-ideal short-circuit photocurrent density of 35.5 mA cm-2, a photovoltage of 495 mV and a fill factor of 62% under AM 1.5G illumination, resulting in an ideal regenerative cell efficiency of 10.8%.

  5. HDO of guaiacol over NiMo catalyst supported on activated carbon derived from castor de-oiled cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ospina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical activation methods were used to prepare two different activated carbons (ACs from castor de-oiled cake. H2O/CO2 mixture was used as the physical activating agent, and for chemical activation potassium carbonate (K2CO3 was used. For both materials, textural and chemical properties were characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal programmed reduction (TPR, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The ACs were used as supports for NiMo sulfide catalysts, which were prepared by wetness impregnation and in-situ sulfided for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol (GUA as a model compound of bio-oil. The HDO reaction was carried out in a typical batch reactor at 5 MPa of H2 and 350 °C. Under the same test conditions, commercial catalysts were also tested in the reaction. Although the commercial catalysts displayed higher GUA conversion, the prepared catalysts showed higher activity and non-oxygenated and saturated products yield.

  6. Processing of spent NiMo and CoMo/Al2O3 catalysts via fusion with KHSO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busnardo, Roberto Giovanini; Busnardo, Natalia Giovanini; Salvato, Gustavo Nascimento; Afonso, Julio Carlos

    2007-01-01

    This work describes a route for processing spent commercial hydrorefining (HDR) catalysts (CoMo and NiMo/Al 2 O 3 ), containing support additives, for recovering active phase and support components. Samples were used as catalysts in diesel hydrotreaters. They had neither been submitted to mechanical stresses nor overheating while under operation. The route is based on fusion of samples with KHSO 4 . Four experimental parameters were optimized: reaction time, sample/flux mass ratio, temperature, and sample physical characteristics (ground/non-ground). After fusion, the solid was dissolved in water (90-100 deg. C); the insoluble matter presented low crystallization. Several phases were identified: silicates, spinel-like compounds and aluminosilicates. Cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and aluminum were recovered by conventional precipitation techniques or selective solvent-extraction procedures, with at least 85 wt.% yield. Final liquid colorless effluents are obtained as neutral solutions of alkali sulfates or chlorides and a water insoluble solid after fusion, which can be either sent to industrial dumps or co-processed. Fusion with KHSO 4 was shown to be applicable to the catalysts of the present study, and the optimized experimental parameters are much less drastic than the conventional pyrometallurgical routes proposed in the literature

  7. Physics properties of TiO_2 films produced by dip-coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teloeken, A.C.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Tabarelli, A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of titanium dioxide (TiO_2) as a photocatalyst to produce hydrogen has been of great interest because of their chemical stability, low cost and non-toxicity. TiO_2 occurs in three different crystal forms: rutile, anatase and brokita. Among these, the anatase phase generally exhibits the best photocatalytic behavior, while the rutile phase is the most stable. Among the various techniques of deposition, dip-coating technique produces films with good photocatalytic properties, using simple and inexpensive equipment. In this work TiO_2 films were obtained by dip-coating. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, profilometry, contact angle measurements and photocurrent. The microstructure and physical properties were evaluated in relation of the temperature and the addition of an additive. (author)

  8. Three-dimensional TiO2 nanowire@NiMoO4 ultrathin nanosheet core-shell arrays for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minglei; Bu, Yi; Lv, Xiaowei; Jiang, Xingxing; Wang, Lichuan; Dai, Sirui; Wang, Mingkui; Shen, Yan

    2018-03-01

    This study reports a general and rational two-step hydrothermal strategy to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 nanowire@NiMoO4 ultrathin nanosheet core-shell arrays (TNAs-NMO) as additives-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The TNAs-NMO electrode delivers a reversible capacity of up to 446.6 mA h g-1 over 120 cycles at the current density of 0.2 A g-1 and a high rate capacity of 234.2 mA h g-1 at 2.0 A g-1. Impressively, the capacity retention efficiency is 74.7% after 2500 cycles at the high rate of 2.0 A g-1. In addition, the full cell consisting of TNAs-NMO anode and LCO cathode can afford a specific energy of up to 220.3 W h kg-1 (based on the entire mass of both electrodes). The high electrochemical performance of the TNAs-NMO electrode is ascribed to its 3D core-shell nanowire array architecture, in which the TiO2 nanowire arrays (TNAs) and the ultrathin NiMoO4 nanosheets exhibit strong synergistic effects. The TNAs maintain mechanical integrity of the electrode and the ultrathin NiMoO4 nanosheets contribute to high capacity and favorable electronic conductivity.

  9. ESTUDIO DE LA ESTABILIDAD ESTRUCTURAL DE ÓXIDOS MIXTOS Zn-Al TIPO HIDROTALCITA EN PRECURSORES CATALÍTICOS CoNiMo FRENTE HDS DE TIOFENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The oil industry is one of the main sources responsible for atmospheric emissions such as: CO, CO2, SO2, NOX, hydrocarbons and suspended particles, which seeks to mitigate environmental pollution from its refineries using some processes, such as hydrotreatment (HDT. The heart of the HDT is the catalysts used, depending on the catalytic support and the metals used during its formulation. Therefore, this research focused on studying the structural stability of mixed Zn-Al type hydrotalcite (HT oxides in catalysts CoNiMo versus thiophene HDS at a calcination temperature of 450 ° C. Initially, the catalytic support HT was synthesized at varying Zn-Al ratios of 0,00 to 1, 00Al, once the optimal range of HT (0,00-0,33Al was obtained, the catalytic precursors CoMo / NiMo, through two stages of calcination, the first is impregnated the support type hydrotalcite (HT without calcining with the metals CoNi and CoMo, after impregnating with these metals is calcined once only; While in the second stage the solids are calcined before impregnation and after impregnation with the aforementioned metals. The obtained results show an excellent performance for the catalysts with double calcination stage, being CoMo precursors more effective than NiMo; this can be justified by the physicochemical characteristics of the phases of the metals involved and their coordination vacancies.

  10. Optimization of Ni-Based WC/Co/Cr Composite Coatings Produced by Multilayer Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Angelastro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a surface coating technique, laser cladding (LC has been developed for improving wear, corrosion, and fatigue properties of mechanical components. The main advantage of this process is the capability of introducing hard particles such as SiC, TiC, and WC as reinforcements in the metallic matrix such as Ni-based alloy, Co-based alloy, and Fe-based alloy to form ceramic-metal composite coatings, which have very high hardness and good wear resistance. In this paper, Ni-based alloy (Colmonoy 227-F and Tungsten Carbides/Cobalt/Chromium (WC/Co/Cr composite coatings were fabricated by the multilayer laser cladding technique (MLC. An optimization procedure was implemented to obtain the combination of process parameters that minimizes the porosity and produces good adhesion to a stainless steel substrate. The optimization procedure was worked out with a mathematical model that was supported by an experimental analysis, which studied the shape of the clad track generated by melting coaxially fed powders with a laser. Microstructural and microhardness analysis completed the set of test performed on the coatings.

  11. Corrosion resistance of Cu-Al coatings produced by thermal spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela Dimaté Castellanos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many components in the shipbuilding industry are made of copper-based alloys. These pieces tend to break due to corrosion generated by a marine environment; such components can be salvaged through surface engineering, through deposition of suitable coatings. This paper studied the influence of three surface preparation methods involving phosphor bronze substrates concerning the corrosion resistance of commercial coatings having Al-Cu +11% Fe chemical composition. The surface was prepared using three methods: sand blasting, shot blasting and metal polishing with an abrasive disk (with and without a base layer. The deposited coatings were micro-structurally characterised by x-ray diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical test electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Surfaces prepared by sandblasting showed the best resistance to corrosion, so these systems could be a viable alternative for salvaging certain parts in the marine industry. The corrosion mechanisms for the coatings produced are discussed in this research.

  12. Electrodeposition of Ni-Mo nanoparticles for the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction; Electrodepositacion de nanoparticulas de Ni-Mo para la electrocatalisis de la reaccion de evolucion de hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videa, M.; Crespo, D.; Casillas, G.; Zavala, G. [Tecnologico de Monterrey Campus Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mail: mvidea@eitesm.mx

    2009-09-15

    This work reports on the generation of nickel- molybdenum deposits from the application of direct current in an electrolytic bath composed of a basic solution of NiSO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H5O7. The working electrodes used were 1mm diameter vitreous carbon discs and carbon felt. The catalytic activity of the deposits was evaluated with cyclic voltamperometry in a 0.72M solution of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Deposits were generated on the vitreous carbon discs, which showed catalytic activity for the HER. Deposits were obtained with better properties, showing a pulse of 200 mA/cm{sup 2}. The 42 mA/cm{sup 2} pulse experiments with varying durations showed that their catalytic capacities are better than expected, in spite of the use of small quantities of charge obtained with 90 ms and 300s. Low activity was observed in the absence of MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in the electrolytic bath during the electrodeposition process, indicating the importance of the presence of Mo to the catalytic activity. The deposits were inspected using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Though the electrodeposition on carbon felt is possible, the experiments were not reproducible because control over the active area of the electrode is difficult to achieve. NiMo nanoparticles on carbon filter fibers can be obtained using pulses with sufficient intensity and duration. [Spanish] En este trabajo se reporta la generacion de depositos de niquel-molibdeno mediante la aplicacion de corriente directa en un bano electrolitico compuesto por una solucion basica de NiSO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} y Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H5O7. Se utilizaron como electrodos de trabajo discos de carbon vitreo de 1mm de diametro y fieltro de carbono. La actividad catalitica de los depositos fue evaluada mediante voltamperometria ciclica en una solucion 0.72M de H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Sobre los electrodos de carbon vitreo se generaron depositos que mostraron actividad catalitica para la REH. Depositos con mejores propiedades

  13. HDN and HDS of different gas oils derived from Athabasca bitumen over phosphorus-doped NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaramurthy, V.; Dalai, A.K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. S7N 5A9 (Canada); Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Edmonton Research Centre, Edmonton, Alta. T6N 1H4 (Canada)

    2006-10-26

    A series of phosphorous-doped {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Ni-Mo bimetallic carbide catalysts (PNiMo{sub 2}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with 0-4.5wt.% Ni, 13wt.% Mo and 2.5wt.% P were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, pulsed CO chemisorption, surface area measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), DRIFT spectroscopy of CO adsorption and H{sub 2} temperature programmed reduction. XRD indicated the formation of pure {beta}-Mo{sub 2}C phase in these catalysts, whereas the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure of C K-edge confirmed the formation of carbidic carbons. DRIFT spectra of adsorbed CO revealed that Ni or P addition to Mo{sub 2}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst not only increases the number of surface Mo sites, but also promotes the reducibility of Mo. The partial sulfidation of Mo{sub 2}C phase in the presence of H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} gas mixture at 370{sup o}C was evidenced by DRIFTS of adsorbed CO. The HDN and HDS activities of these PNiMo{sub 2}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were performed in a trickle bed reactor using light gas oil (LGO) and heavy gas oil (HGO) derived from Athabasca bitumen at 8.8MPa and compared with the unpromoted Mo carbide (Mo{sub 2}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), P doped Mo carbide (PMo{sub 2}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Ni promoted Mo carbide (NiMo{sub 2}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The P doped Ni-Mo bimetallic carbide catalysts showed enhanced HDN activity compared to the Mo{sub 2}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiMo{sub 2}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and PMo{sub 2}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. The maximum N and S conversions, respectively, were obtained over PNiMo{sub 2}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiMo{sub 2}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts containing 2.5wt.% Ni. (author)

  14. Characterization of hard coatings produced by laser cladding using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, J.A.; Amado, J.M.; Tobar, M.J.; Mateo, M.P.; Yañez, A.; Nicolas, G., E-mail: gines@udc.es

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Chemical mapping and profiling by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of coatings produced by laser cladding. • Production of laser clads using tungsten carbide (WC) and nickel based matrix (NiCrBSi) powders. • Calibration by LIBS of hardfacing alloys with different WC concentrations. - Abstract: Protective coatings with a high abrasive wear resistance can be obtained from powders by laser cladding technique, in order to extend the service life of some industrial components. In this work, laser clad layers of self-fluxing NiCrBSi alloy powder mixed with WC powder have been produced on stainless steel substrates of austenitic type (AISI 304) in a first step and then chemically characterized by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. With the suitable laser processing parameters (mainly output power, beam scan speed and flow rate) and powders mixture proportions between WC ceramics and NiCrBSi alloys, dense pore free layers have been obtained on single tracks and on large areas with overlapped tracks. The results achieved by LIBS technique and applied for the first time to the analysis of laser clads provided the chemical composition of the tungsten carbides in metal alloy matrix. Different measurement modes (multiple point analyses, depth profiles and chemical maps) have been employed, demonstrating the usefulness of LIBS technique for the characterization of laser clads based on hardfacing alloys. The behavior of hardness can be explained by LIBS maps which evidenced the partial dilution of some WC spheres in the coating.

  15. On the corrosion testing of weldments of high alloyed CrNiMo-stainless steels and NiCrMo-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, G.; Voigt, C.; Werner, H.

    1997-01-01

    Weldments of high-alloyed CrNiMo stainless steels and NiCrMo alloys can be more susceptible to localized corrosion than the solution annealed basic material owing to segregations and precipitations in the heat affected zone, the high temperature zone and/or in the weld. To investigate these differences the FeCl 3 -test (10% FeCl 3 . 6aq), the test ''green death'' (11.5% H 2 SO 4 , 1.2% HCl, 1% CuCl 2 , 1% FeCl 3 ) as well as chronopotentiostatic tests in artificial sea water or in 3% NaCl-solution are used. In particular for testing the highest alloyed materials a CaCl 2 -test was developed (4.5 M CaCl 2 , chronopotentiostatic test in duration of 8 to 10 hours at + 200 mV (SCE)), which can be carried out to a temperature of 115 C at atmospheric pressure. The aggressivity increases in the range FeCl 3 -test, ''green death''-test, CaCl 2 -test. Matching and graduated over-alloyed weldments (TIG, heat input of 7 and 15.5 kJ/cm) of materials 1.4529, 1.4562, 2.4856, 2.4819 (german materials No.) are comparingly examined in various tests, of materials 1.4406, 1.4539, 1.4439 and 1.4563 (german materials No.) only matching weldments in the FeCl 3 -test. In strongly oxidizing media only a highly over-alloyed performed weldment (filler material 2.4607, german material No.) produces the best corrosion behaviour, measured as the critical temperatures of localized corrosion. Measurements of critical current densities of passivation can be used for investigations of corrosion behaviour of weldments, too. Critical current densities of passivation are showing a tendency to inverse proportion to the critical temperatures of localized corrosion. Suitable electrolytes are among others 0.2 M H 2 SO 4 + 1 M NaCl + 10 -3 % KSCN, N 2 -bubbled, 25 to 60 C and xM H 2 SO 4 + 4 M NaCl + 10 -3 % KSCN (x = 0.05 to 1), 25 C, in contact with air. An influence of heat input at the welding is indicated in the test of localized corrosion, but it is only small. It is sometimes more clearly shown at

  16. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking of Athabasca bitumen derived heavy gas oils using NiMo catalyst supported on titania modified alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, D.; Bakhshi, N.N.; Dalai, A.K.; Adjaye, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories]|[Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Different NiMo catalysts supported on titania modified Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were synthesized and characterized in an effort to study the hydrodenitrigenation (HDN) and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of different gas oils derived from Athabasca bitumen. The Al{sub x}O{sub 3} supports were modified by incorporating up to 9 wt per cent titanium (Ti). All modified supports as well as fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, pore volume and pore diameter, XRD, TPR, TPD and SEM. A trickle-bed reactor using 3 different gas oils from the Athabasca bitumen was used to test the initial activity of these catalysts. The 3 oils were light gas oil (LGO), heavy gas oil (HGO) and blended gas oil having 50 per cent LGO and 50 per cent HGO. The study showed that nitrogen conversion increased for all the gas oils when Ti was incorporated into the alumina. With an increase in Ti concentrations from 0 to 6 wt per cent, nitrogen conversion increased from 57-69.5 wt per cent, 75-80.2 wt per cent, 83-91.5 wt per cent and for LGO, HGO and blended, respectively. Nearly 86 wt per cent sulphur conversion was obtained for all Ti concentrations for LGO, while HGO and blended sulphur conversions were in the range of 96-97 wt per cent. Detailed hydrotreating and hydrocracking of HGO was then performed using the 6 wt per cent Ti modified catalyst because it achieved the maximum nitrogen conversion. This paper also presented the temperature, pressure and liquid hourly space velocity for this catalyst along with the maximum nitrogen and sulphur conversions. Results were compared with those of commercial catalysts. tabs., figs.

  17. Comparison of P-containing {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Ni-Mo bimetallic carbide, nitride and sulfide catalysts for HDN and HDS of gas oils derived from Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaramurthy, V.; Dalai, A.K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Edmonton Research Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-09-01

    Phosphorus containing {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported bimetallic Ni-Mo carbide, nitride and sulfide catalysts have been synthesized from an oxide precursor containing 12.73wt.% Mo, 2.54wt.% Ni and 2.38wt.% P and characterized by elemental analysis, pulsed CO chemisorption, surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed reduction and DRIFT spectroscopy of CO adsorption. DRIFT spectroscopy of adsorbed CO on activated catalysts showed that carbide and nitride catalysts have surface exposed sites of Mo{sup o+} (0Ni-Mo carbide, nitride and sulfide catalysts were compared against commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in a trickle bed reactor using light gas oil and heavy gas oil derived from Athabasca bitumen in the temperature range 340-370 and 375-400{sup o}C respectively at 8.8MPa. The gradual transformation of Ni-Mo carbide and nitride phases into Ni-Mo sulfide phases was observed during precoking period, and the formed Ni-Mo sulfide phases enhanced the HDN and HDS activities of carbide and nitride catalysts. The {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Ni-Mo bimetallic sulfide catalyst was found to be more active for HDN and HDS of light gas oil and heavy gas oil than the corresponding carbide and nitride catalysts on the basis of unit weight. (author)

  18. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coatings produced by Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Matthew; Singh, Jogender; Todd, Judith; Copley, Steven; Wolfe, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) produced by Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) are primarily applied to critical hot section turbine components. EB-PVD TBC for turbine applications exhibit a complicated structure of porous ceramic columns separated by voids that offers mechanical compliance. Currently there are no standard evaluation methods for evaluating EB-PVD TBC structure quantitatively. This paper proposes a metallographic method for preparing samples and evaluating techniques to quantitatively measure structure. TBC samples were produced and evaluated with the proposed metallographic technique and digital image analysis for columnar grain size and relative intercolumnar porosity. Incorporation of the proposed evaluation technique will increase knowledge of the relation between processing parameters and material properties by incorporating a structural link. Application of this evaluation method will directly benefit areas of quality control, microstructural model development, and reduced development time for process scaling

  19. Technology development and production of elongated shell for reactor vessel active zone of WWER-TOI project from steel 15Cr2NiMoVN class 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklyaev, S.Eh.; Titova, T.I.; Ratushev, D.V.; Shul'gan, N.A.; Eroshkin, S.B.; Durynin, V.A.; Efimov, S.V.; Dub, V.S.; Kulikov, A.P.; Romashkin, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Production process for the elongated shell blank of the active zone of the reactor pressure vessel made from steel 15Cr2NiMoVN Class 1 with finished sizes Dext=4.655 mm, Dint=4.240 mm, H=4.910 mm (height for heat treatment – 5.750 mm) is presented. For the first time in Russia in production site of OMZ-Special steel LLC a unique elongated shell blank of the reactor vessel active zone was made from ingot 420.0 t for WWER-TOI project fully meeting the specified requirements in terms of metallurgical quality and set of service properties [ru

  20. Microstructure and tribological property of nanocrystalline Co–W alloy coating produced by dual-pulse electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Fenghua; Huang Ping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The nanocrystalline Co–W alloy coating were produced by dual-pulse electrodeposition from aqueous bath with cobalt sulfate and sodium tungstate. ► The correlation between the electrodeposition condition, the microstructure and alloy composition, and the hardness and tribological properties of electrodeposited Co–W alloy coatings were established. ► By careful control of the electrodeposition condition and the bath composition, the Co–W alloy coating excellent performance of microhardness and tribological properties, can exhibit excellent performances of microhardness and tribological properties. - Abstract: The nanocrystalline Co–W alloy coatings were produced by dual-pulse electrodeposition from aqueous bath with cobalt sulfate and sodium tungstate (Na 2 WO 4 ). Influence of the current density and Na 2 WO 4 concentration in bath on the microstructure, morphology and hardness of the Co–W alloy coatings were investigated using an X-ray diffraction, a scanning electronic microscope and a Vickers hardness tester, respectively. In addition, the friction and wear properties of the Co–W alloy coating electrodeposited under different condition were evaluated with a ball-on-disk UMT-3MT tribometer. The correlation between the electrodeposition condition, the microstructure and alloy composition, and the hardness and tribological properties of the deposited Co–W alloy coatings were discussed in detail. The results showed that the microhardness of the deposited Co–W alloy coating was significantly affected by its average grain size, W content and crystal orientation. Smaller grain size, higher W content and strong hcp (1 0 0) orientation favor the improvement of the hardness for Co–W alloy coatings. The deposited Co–W alloy coating could obtain the maximum microhardness over 1000 kgf mm −2 by careful control of the electrodeposition conditions. The tribological properties of the electrodeposited Co–W alloy coating were greatly

  1. Structure and coke preventing characteristics of Ca-Ni-Mo/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalyst for hydrogenation of brown coal liquid bottoms. Kattan ekikaabura suisokayo Ca-Ni-Mo/Al sub 2 O sub 3 shokubai no kozo to tansoshitsu seisei yokusei sayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T. (Cosmo Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kaneko, T.; Kageyama, Y. (Mitsubishi Kasei Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research Center); Kawai, S. (Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    Operating a 50 t/d fixed bed pilot plant, hydroprocessing of de-ashed coal liquid bottoms (DAO) derived from Victorial Brown coal liquefaction has been carried out in Australia using a newly developed Ca-Ni-Mo/Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} catalyst. This catalyst has a great advantage compared with conventional molybdenum catalysts in that there is less coke formation using this catalyst as indicated by 5,000 h runs in a 0.1 t/d bench scale plant. In this paper, the catalyst active center and the role of Ca in the Ca-Ni-Mo/Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} catalyst were analyzed using Raman, TPS-XPS, EXAFS and AES methods. Molybdenum is loaded as CaMoO {sub 4} and X-ray diffraction data. But the oxide is changed to MoS {sub 2} after sulfiding treatment. Data of the Mo-S bond obtained from EXAFS analysis indicated that MoS {sub 2} has a tendency to pile up on the Ca-Ni-Mo/Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} catalyst. 20 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Hydrotreating of heavy gas oil derived from Athabasca bitumen using NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst containing boron and phosphorus : effects of process conditions on the product selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, D.; Dalai, A.K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the depletion of conventional oil reserves, there has been much interest in modifying the hydrotreating process for upgrading tar sands and shale oils for producing transportation fuels. Oil sand bitumens and their derived products have a high level of nitrogen which deactivates the catalysts used in fluid catalytic cracking and hydrocracking. A better catalyst is needed to efficiently remove nitrogen from oil sand-derived gas oils. In this study, a trickle-bed reactor containing NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with boron and phosphorous was used to remove the sulfur and nitrogen from heavy gas oils derived from Athabasca bitumen. The operating conditions of the reactor in terms of temperature and pressure were described. Sulfur and nitrogen conversion was found to increase substantially with the boron catalysts. Gasoline selectivity also increased with an increase in temperature. However, a change in operating conditions did not significantly affect the net content of the gas oil fraction. This study also compared the results of using either the boron or phosphorous catalyst.

  3. Hydrodeoxygenation of methyl esters on sulphided NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senol, O.I; Viljava, T.R.; Krause, A.O.I. [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 Hut (Finland)

    2005-02-28

    Wood-derived bio-oil contains high amounts of compounds with different oxygen-containing functional groups that must be removed to improve the fuel characteristics. Elimination of oxygen from carboxylic groups was studied with model compounds, methyl heptanoate and methyl hexanoate, on sulphided NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in a flow reactor. Catalyst performances and reaction schemes were addressed. Aliphatic methyl esters produced hydrocarbons via three main paths: The first path gave alcohols followed by dehydration to hydrocarbons. Deesterification yielded an alcohol and a carboxylic acid in the second path. Carboxylic acid was further converted to hydrocarbons either directly or with an alcohol intermediate. Decarboxylation of the esters led to hydrocarbons in the third path. No oxygen-containing compounds were detected at complete conversions. However, the product distributions changed with time, even at complete conversions, indicating that both catalysts deactivated under the studied conditions.

  4. Characterization of hard coatings produced by laser cladding using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, J. A.; Amado, J. M.; Tobar, M. J.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.; Nicolas, G.

    2015-05-01

    Protective coatings with a high abrasive wear resistance can be obtained from powders by laser cladding technique, in order to extend the service life of some industrial components. In this work, laser clad layers of self-fluxing NiCrBSi alloy powder mixed with WC powder have been produced on stainless steel substrates of austenitic type (AISI 304) in a first step and then chemically characterized by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. With the suitable laser processing parameters (mainly output power, beam scan speed and flow rate) and powders mixture proportions between WC ceramics and NiCrBSi alloys, dense pore free layers have been obtained on single tracks and on large areas with overlapped tracks. The results achieved by LIBS technique and applied for the first time to the analysis of laser clads provided the chemical composition of the tungsten carbides in metal alloy matrix. Different measurement modes (multiple point analyses, depth profiles and chemical maps) have been employed, demonstrating the usefulness of LIBS technique for the characterization of laser clads based on hardfacing alloys. The behavior of hardness can be explained by LIBS maps which evidenced the partial dilution of some WC spheres in the coating.

  5. Study of 13Cr-4Ni-(Mo (F6NM Steel Grade Heat Treatment for Maximum Hardness Control in Industrial Heats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Sanctis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The standard NACE MR0175 (ISO 15156 requires a maximum hardness value of 23 HRC for 13Cr-4Ni-(Mo steel grade for sour service, requiring a double tempering heat treatment at temperature in the range 648–691 °C for the first tempering and 593–621 °C for the second tempering. Difficulties in limiting alloy hardness after the tempering of forged mechanical components (F6NM are often faced. Variables affecting the thermal behavior of 13Cr-4Ni-(Mo during single and double tempering treatments have been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM observations, X-ray diffraction measurements, dilatometry, and thermo-mechanical simulations. It has been found that relatively low Ac1 temperatures in this alloy induce the formation of austenite phase above 600 °C during tempering, and that the formed, reverted austenite tends to be unstable upon cooling, thus contributing to the increase of final hardness via transformation to virgin martensite. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the Ac1 temperature as much as possible to allow the tempering of martensite at the temperature range required by NACE without the detrimental formation of virgin martensite upon final cooling. Attempts to do so have been carried out by reducing both carbon (<0.02% C and nitrogen (<100 ppm levels. Results obtained herein show final hardness below NACE limits without an unacceptable loss of mechanical strength.

  6. Construction of Core-Shell NiMoO4@Ni-Co-S Nanorods as Advanced Electrodes for High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Yan, Dan; Luo, Xin; Gao, Wenjia; Huang, Guanjie; Han, Ziwu; Zeng, Yan; Zhu, Zhihong

    2018-02-07

    In this work, hierarchical core-shell NiMoO 4 @Ni-Co-S nanorods were first successfully grown on nickel foam by a facile two-step method to fabricate a bind-free electrode. The well-aligned electrode wrapped by Ni-Co-S nanosheets displays excellent nanostructural properties and outstanding electrochemical performance, owing to the synergistic effects of both nickel molybdenum oxides and nickel cobalt sulfides. The prepared core-shell nanorods in a three-electrode cell yielded a high specific capacitance of 2.27 F cm -2 (1892 F g -1 ) at a current density of 5 mA cm -2 and retained 91.7% of the specific capacitance even after 6000 cycles. Their electrochemical performance was further investigated for their use as positive electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors. Notably, the energy density of the asymmetric supercapacitor device reached 2.45 mWh cm -3 at a power density of 0.131 W cm -3 , and still retained a remarkable 80.3% of the specific capacitance after 3500 cycles. There is great potential for the electrode composed of the core-shell NiMoO 4 @Ni-Co-S nanorods for use in an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor device.

  7. Scalable synthesis of NiMoO4 microspheres with numerous empty nanovoids as an advanced anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Sung; Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan

    2018-03-01

    Closely in line with advances in next-generation energy storage materials, anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high capacity and long cycle life have been widely explored. As part of the current effort, nickel molybdate (NiMoO4) microspheres with empty nanovoids are synthesized via spray drying process and subsequent one-step calcination in air. Dextrin in the atomized droplet is phase segregated during the spray drying process and calcined in air atmosphere, resulting in numerous empty nanovoids well-distributed within a microsphere. The empty nanovoids alleviate volume expansion during cycling, shorten lithium-ion diffusion length, and facilitate contact between electrode and electrolyte materials. Along with the high discharge capacity of NiMoO4 material, as high as 1240 mA h g-1 for the 2nd cycle at a high current density of 1 A g-1, uniquity of the structure enables longer cycle life and higher quality performances. The discharge capacity corresponding to the 500th cycle is 1020 mA h g-1 and the capacity retention calculated from the 2nd cycle is 82%. In addition, a discharge capacity of 413 mA g-1 is obtained at an extremely high current density of 10 A g-1.

  8. Composite superconducting wires produced by rapid coating in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O metal oxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozav, A.D.; Konopko, L.A.; Leoporda, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    Method for producing superconducting composite wires by dip coating of copper wires in metal-oxide BiSrCaCu 2 O x melt is developed. The thickness of the coating is regulated by the change of dip rate, melt viscosity and by the number of passages through the melt. Wire annealing at 700-800 deg C leads to the production of two phases, one of them being superconducting with T c =80K

  9. Evaluating impacts of organizational intelligence in creating competitive strategy in companies producing powder coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Nasiri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizational intelligence (OI plays an important role on creating competitive strategy. This paper measure the effect of OI differentiation through value chain of organizational activities. The proposed study is applied in companies, which are active in the field of producing powder coating. Literature and background of research was reviewed to compile theoretical framework of the research model and after conducting library studies and performing exploratory interviews, important factors influencing OI on various sectors of the organization were extracted. In the same direction, these components were assessed through survey research and questionnaire tool. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling is implemented to study the effects of various factors and the validity of relationship among components was confirmed through a conceptual model.

  10. Interfacial reaction in cast WC particulate reinforced titanium metal matrix composites coating produced by laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejian; Hu, Peipei; Min, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Laser injection of ceramic particle was conducted to produce particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Cast WC particle (WCp) was used as injection reinforcement to avoid excessive release of carbon atoms into the melt pool. The interfaces and boundaries between WC and Ti matrix were investigated by electron microscopy study. Compared with single crystal WCp, cast WCp was an appropriate solution to control the reaction products (TiC) in the matrix and the total amount of reaction products was significantly reduced. Irregular-shape reaction layers were formed around cast WCp. The reaction layers consist of a W2C layer and a mixed layer of W and TiC. Such reaction layers are effective in load transfer under an external load.

  11. Trace- and rare-earth element geochemistry and Pb-Pb dating of black shales and intercalated Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores in Lower Cambrian strata, Yangtze Platform, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chen, Yong-Quan; Ling, Hong-Fei; Yang, Jing-Hong; Feng, Hong-Zhen; Ni, Pei

    2006-08-01

    The Lower Cambrian black shale sequence of the Niutitang Formation in the Yangtze Platform, South China, hosts an extreme metal-enriched sulfide ore bed that shows >10,000 times enrichment in Mo, Ni, Se, Re, Os, As, Hg, and Sb and >1,000 times enrichment in Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd, when compared to average upper continental crust. We report in this paper trace- and rare-earth-element concentrations and Pb-Pb isotope dating for the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores and their host black shales. Both the sulfide ores and their host black shales show similar trace-element distribution patterns with pronounced depletion in Th, Nb, Hf, Zr, and Ti, and extreme enrichment in U, Ni, Mo, and V compared to average upper crust. The high-field-strength elements, such as Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sc, Th, rare-earth elements, Rb, and Ga, show significant inter-element correlations and may have been derived mainly from terrigenous sources. The redox sensitive elements, such as V, Ni, Mo, U, and Mn; base metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb; and Sr and Ba may have been derived from mixing of seawater and venting hydrothermal sources. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns, positive Eu and Y anomalies, and high Y/Ho ratios for the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores are also suggestive for their submarine hydrothermal-exhalative origin. A stepwise acid-leaching Pb-Pb isotope analytical technique has been employed for the Niutitang black shales and the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores, and two Pb-Pb isochron ages have been obtained for the black shales (531±24 Ma) and for the Ni-Mo-PGE-Au sulfide ores (521±54 Ma), respectively, which are identical and overlap within uncertainty, and are in good agreement with previously obtained ages for presumed age-equivalent strata.

  12. Relative Importance of Various Sources of Defect-Producing Hydrogen Introduced into Steel During Application of Vitreous Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dwight G; Mason, Mary A; Harrison, William N

    1953-01-01

    When porcelain enamels or vitreous-type ceramic coatings are applied to ferrous metals, there is believed to be an evolution of hydrogen gas both during and after the firing operation. At elevated temperatures rapid evolution may result in blistering while if hydrogen becomes trapped in the steel during the rapid cooling following the firing operation gas pressures may be generated at the coating-metal interface and flakes of the coating literally blown off the metal. To determine experimentally the relative importance of the principal sources of the hydrogen causing the defects, a procedure was devised in which heavy hydrogen (deuterium) was substituted in turn for regular hydrogen in each of five possible hydrogen-producing operations in the coating process. The findings of the study were as follows: (1) the principal source of the defect-producing hydrogen was the dissolved water present in the enamel frit that was incorporated into the coating. (2) the acid pickling, the milling water, the chemically combined water in the clay, and the quenching water were all minor sources of defect-producing hydrogen under the test conditions used. Confirming experiments showed that fishscaling could be eliminated by using a water-free coating.

  13. Molybdenum plasma spray powder, process for producing said powder, and coating made therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferty, W.D.; Cheney, R.F.; Pierce, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma spray powders of molybdenum particles containing 0.5 to 15 weight percent oxygen and obtained by reacting molybdenum particles with oxygen or oxides in a plasma, form plasma spray coatings exhibiting hardness comparable to flame sprayed coatings formed from molybdenum wire and plasma coatings of molybdenum powders. Such oxygen rich molybdenum powders may be used to form wear resistant coatings, such as for piston rings. (author)

  14. miR-488 determines coat pigmentation by down-regulating the pigment-producing gene pro-opiomelanocortin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Ma, S; Xue, L; Li, Y; Wang, J; He, X; Zhu, Z; Dong, C

    2016-10-31

    Coat color is a key economic trait in wool- and fur-producing animals. Coat color is controlled by complex mechanisms. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a gene involved in pigment formation. Previous studies suggested that miR-488 might target the POMC mRNA. This study aimed to determine whether miR-488 could affect coat color by regulating POMC and to explore the regulatory roles of miR-488 on coat color in mammals. A dual fluorescence report vector containing the 3'-UTR of POMC was built to determine whether miR-488 could post-transcriptionally regulate POMC expression. Then, a eukaryotic vector expressing miR-488 was built and transfected into mouse keratinocytes to confirm the regulatory mechanism in vitro. Compared with gray mice, the expression of POMC mRNA was 3.36-fold higher in black mice and 1.29-fold higher in brown mice. The results showed that miR-488 could control mice coat color by combining with the 3'-UTR seed sequence of POMC mRNA to achieve the degradation of POMC mRNA, therefore playing a role in POMC expression. This study revealed the roles of miR-488 in animal coat color and enriches our knowledge about the determination of coat color in mammals.

  15. Automated coating procedures to produce poly(ethylene glycol) brushes in fused-silica capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nicklas N.; Østergaard, Jesper; Petersen, Nickolaj J.

    2017-01-01

    . Flexible and reliable approaches for preventing unwanted protein adsorption in separation science are thus in high demand. We therefore present new coating approaches based on an automated in-capillary surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization process (covalent coating) as well...... as by electrostatically adsorbing a pre-synthesized polymer leading to functionalized molecular brushes. The electroosmotic flow was measured following each step of the covalent coating procedure providing a detailed characterization and quality control. Both approaches resulted in good fouling resistance against...

  16. Influence of H2O and H2S on the Composition, Activity, and Stability of Sulfided Mo, CoMo, and NiMo Supported on MgAl2O4 for Hydrodeoxygenation of Ethylene Glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabros, Trine Marie Hartmann; Gaur, Abhijeet; Pintos, Delfina Garcia

    2018-01-01

    In this work, density functional theory (DFT), catalytic activity tests, and in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed to gain detailed insights into the activity and stability of MoS2, Ni-MoS2, and Co-MoS2 catalysts used for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of ethylene glycol upon...

  17. The effect of radiation-thermal treatment on the physicochemical properties of the Ni-Mo/Al2O3 hydrotreatment catalyst. II. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra of surface compounds after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovetskii, Yu.I.; Miroshinichenko, I.I.; Lunin, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation-thermal damage of the surface and the active metal phases of hydrodesulfurization Ni-Mo/Al 2 O 3 catalysts by a fast electron beam of up to 2.0 MeV energy was studied. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra of the industrial and model coked systems after radiation-thermal treatment were measured. 14 refs., 2 figs

  18. Developing of complex for hot plastic deformation modeling of steel type 20-30CrNiMoV for heavy forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dub Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of heavy forging of bars weighing more then 235 tons for such products as rotors made of steel type 20-30CrNiMoV is a critical independent work, failure to perform which entails high costs related to repeated production (in case of defective product and untimely launch of production plants. One of the frequent causes of a defective product is the impossibility of ultrasonic testing in the barrel-gate zones on the rotor workpiece, which is due to the microstructure of the metal, namely the grain size. Determing the stages of deformation process wich causes such defects in structure is the main goal of this work.

  19. Effects of torsional deformation on the microstructures and mechanical properties of a CoCrFeNiMo0.15 high-entropy alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenqian; Guo, Lin; Liu, Bin; Ni, Song; Liu, Yong; Song, Min

    2017-12-01

    The effects of torsional deformation on the microstructures and mechanical properties of a CoCrFeNiMo0.15 high-entropy alloy have been investigated. The torsional deformation generates a gradient microstructure distribution due to the gradient torsional strain. Both dislocation activity and deformation twinning dominated the torsional deformation process. With increasing the torsional equivalent strain, the microstructural evolution can be described as follows: (1) formation of pile-up dislocations parallel to the trace of {1 1 1}-type slip planes; (2) formation of Taylor lattices; (3) formation of highly dense dislocation walls; (3) formation of microbands and deformation twins. The extremely high deformation strain (strained to fracture) results in the activation of wavy slip. The tensile strength is very sensitive to the torsional deformation, and increases significantly with increasing the torsional angle.

  20. Glycosaminoglycan-resistant and pH-sensitive lipid-coated DNA complexes produced by detergent removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Julia; Hyvönen, Zanna; Subrizi, Astrid; Bunjes, Heike; Urtti, Arto

    2008-10-21

    Cationic polymers are efficient gene delivery vectors in in vitro conditions, but these carriers can fail in vivo due to interactions with extracellular polyanions, i.e. glycosaminoglycans (GAG). The aim of this study was to develop a stable gene delivery vector that is activated at the acidic endosomal pH. Cationic DNA/PEI complexes were coated by 1,2-dioleylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS) (3:2 mol/mol) using two coating methods: detergent removal and mixing with liposomes prepared by ethanol injection. Only detergent removal produced lipid-coated DNA complexes that were stable against GAGs, but were membrane active at low pH towards endosome mimicking liposomes. In relation to the low cellular uptake of the coated complexes, their transfection efficacy was relatively high. PEGylation of the coated complexes increased their cellular uptake but reduced the pH-sensitivity. Detergent removal was thus a superior method for the production of stable, but acid activatable, lipid-coated DNA complexes.

  1. The study of tribological and corrosion behavior of plasma nitrided 34CrNiMo6 steel under hot and cold wall conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniee, A.; Mahboubi, F.; Soleimani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 34CrNiMo6 steel was plasma nitrided under hot and cold wall conditions. • The amount of ε phase in hot wall condition was more than that of cold wall condition. • Wear resistance of hot wall nitrided samples was more than cold wall treated ones. • Hot wall nitriding provides better corrosion behavior than cold wall nitriding. - Abstract: This paper reports on a comparative study of tribological and corrosion behavior of plasma nitrided 34CrNiMo6 low alloy steel under modern hot wall condition and conventional cold wall condition. Plasma nitriding was carried out at 500 °C and 550 °C with a 25% N 2 + 75% H 2 gas mixture for 8 h. The wall temperature of the chamber in hot wall condition was set to 400 °C. The treated specimens were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness and surface roughness techniques. The wear test was performed by pin-on-disc method. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were also used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the samples. The results demonstrated that in both nitriding conditions, wear and corrosion resistance of the treated samples decrease with increasing temperature from 500 °C to 550 °C. Moreover, nitriding under hot wall condition at the same temperature provided slightly better tribological and corrosion behavior in comparison with cold wall condition. In consequence, the lowest friction coefficient, and highest wear and corrosion resistance were found on the sample treated under hot wall condition at 500 °C, which had the maximum surface hardness and ε-Fe 2–3 N phase

  2. Hydrotreatment of solvolytically liquefied lignocellulosic biomass over NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst: Reaction mechanism, hydrodeoxygenation kinetics and mass transfer model based on FTIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilc, M.; Likozar, B.; Levec, J.

    2014-01-01

    Raw residual wood biomass, containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, was liquefied at low temperature by ultrasound-assisted solvolysis and acidolysis by glycerol, diethylene glycol and p-toluenesulfonic acid. Liquefied biomass was consequently upgraded by hydrotreatment utilizing heterogeneous catalysis over NiMo/Al 2 O 3 bifunctional catalyst. Effects of temperature (200−350 °C), heating rate (2.5–10.0 K min −1 ), hydrogen/nitrogen pressure (2−8 MPa), mixing (250−1000 min −1 ), hydrogen donor solvent (tetralin) and catalyst contents on deoxygenation were established. Reactions of liquefaction products, such as levulinic acid, were quantified based on their functional groups by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whereas catalyst was examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Chemical kinetics of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), decarbonylation and decarboxylation were determined by originally developed lumped model, based on reaction mechanisms and pathways, while the external mass transfer resistance proved to be negligible under the applied hydrodynamic conditions. The presence of hydrocracking reactions was confirmed by a decrease in product viscosity, and the upgrade for energetic or fuel applications by measurements of calorific value. - Highlights: • Liquefaction of waste lignocellulosic biomass with glycerol at low temperature. • Hydrotreatment, hydrocracking and hydrodeoxygenation of liquefied waste biomass. • Deoxygenation using heterogeneous catalysis over NiMo/Al 2 O 3 bifunctional catalyst. • Proposal of reaction mechanism; chemical kinetics and mass transfer considerations. • Effect of temperature, heating rate, pressure, mixing, solvent and catalyst content

  3. Porous worm-like NiMoO4 coaxially decorated electrospun carbon nanofiber as binder-free electrodes for high performance supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaodong; Li, Xiao; Yang, Tao; Wang, Kai; Wang, Hongbao; Song, Yan; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui

    2018-03-01

    The peculiar architectures consisting of electrospun carbon nanofibers coaxially decorated by porous worm-like NiMoO4 were successfully fabricated for the first time to address the poor cycling stability and inferior rate capability of the state-of-the-art NiMoO4-based electrodes caused by the insufficient structural stability, dense structure and low conductivity. The porous worm-like structure endows the electrode high capacitance/capacity due to large effective specific surface area and short electron/ion diffusion channels. Moreover, the robust integrated electrode with sufficient internal spaces can self-accommodate volume variation during charge/discharge processes, which is beneficial to the structural stability and integrity. By the virtue of rational design of the architecture, the hybrid electrode delivered high specific capacitance (1088.5 F g-1 at 1 A g-1), good rate capability (860.3 F g-1 at 20 A g-1) and long lifespan with a capacitance retention of 73.9% after 5000 cycles when used as supercapacitor electrode. For lithium-ion battery application, the electrode exhibited a high reversible capacity of 1132.1 mAh g-1 at 0.5 A g-1. Notably, 689.7 mAh g-1 can be achieved even after 150 continuous cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1. In the view of their outstanding electrochemical performance and the cost-effective fabrication process, the integrated nanostructure shows great promising applications in energy storage.

  4. A novel technique for producing antibody-coated microprobes using a thiol-terminal silane and a heterobifunctional crosslinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, V H; Helke, C J

    1997-02-01

    Antibody-coated microprobes are used to measure neuropeptide release in the central nervous system. Although they are not quantitative, they provide the most precise spatial resolution of the location of in vivo release of any currently available method. Previous methods of coating antibody microprobes are difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, using these methods we were unable to produce evenly coated antibody microprobes. This paper describes a novel method for the production of antibody microprobes using thiol-terminal silanes and the heterobifunctional crosslinker, 4-(4-N-maleimidophenyl)butyric acid hydrazide HCl 1/2 dioxane (MPBH). Following silation, glass micropipettes are incubated with antibody to substance P (SP) that has been conjugated to MPBH. This method results in a dense, even coating of antibody without decreasing the biological activity of the antibody. Additionally, this method takes considerably less time than previously described methods without sacrificing the use of antibody microprobes as micropipettes. The sensitivity of the microprobes for SP is in the picomolar range, and there is a linear correlation between the log of SP concentration (M) and B/B0 (r2 = 0.98). The microprobes are stable for up to 3 weeks when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer with 50 mM NaCl (pH 7.4) at 5 degrees C. Finally, insertion into the exposed spinal cord of an anesthetized rat for 15 min produces no damage to the antibody coating.

  5. The erosion performance of particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings produced by co-deposition cold gas dynamic spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on the erosion performance of three particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings, co-deposited with an aluminium binder via cold-gas dynamic spraying. The deposition of ceramic particles is difficult to achieve with typical cold spray techniques due to the absence of particle deformation. This issue has been overcome in the present study by simultaneously spraying the reinforcing particles with a ductile metallic binder which has led to an increased level of ceramic/cermet particles deposited on the substrate with thick (>400 μm) coatings produced. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the erosion performance of the co-deposited coatings within a slurry environment. The study also incorporated standard metallographic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of reinforcing particles within the aluminium matrix. All coatings exhibited poorer erosion performance than the uncoated material, both in terms of volume loss and mass loss. The Al2O3 reinforced coating sustained the greatest amount of damage following exposure to the slurry and recorded the greatest volume loss (approx. 2.8 mm3) out of all of the examined coatings. Despite the poor erosion performance, the WC-CoCr reinforced coating demonstrated a considerable hardness increase over the as-received AA5083 (approx. 400%) and also exhibited the smallest free space length between adjacent particles. The findings of this study reveal that the removal of the AA5083 matrix by the impinging silicon carbide particles acts as the primary wear mechanism leading to the degradation of the coating. Analysis of the wear scar has demonstrated that the damage to the soft matrix alloy takes the form of ploughing and scoring which subsequently exposes carbide/oxide particles to the impinging slurry.

  6. Structure, properties and applications of TiN coatings produced by sputter ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickerby, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The potential beneficial effects that wear-resistant coatings have on engineering surfaces depends upon their ability to remain adherent with the treated component. This paper concentrates on the process of sputter ion plating, a simple dc glow discharge sputtering system operating in soft vacuum, and relates the properties of titanium nitride coatings to the degree of ion polishing (substrate bias) which is utilised during deposition. Substrate bias was identified as the most important system parameter since it allowed for some stress relaxation within the coating via its influence on porosity levels in the coating microstructure. The influence that this has on coating adhesion is discussed. The internal stress is a combination of intrinsic growth stresses and thermal mismatch stresses with the latter tending to dominate as substrate bias is increased. In addition to substrate bias, the role that titanium interlayers and substrate cleaning play in improving the adhesion of titanium nitride coatings is discussed, and the potential benefits highlighted. In the last part of the paper some applications of titanium nitride coating are described -it will be shown that increase in component life is by no means the only criterion which should be considered when judging the success, or otherwise, of a coated component. (author)

  7. Magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite formation on (Ti,Mg)N coatings produced by cathodic arc PVD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Sakip; Kok, Fatma Nese; Kazmanli, Kursat; Urgen, Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    In this study, formation of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite (Ca10-xMgx(PO4)6(OH)2) on (Ti,Mg)N and TiN coating surfaces were investigated. The (Ti1-x,Mgx)N (x=0.064) coatings were deposited on titanium substrates by using cathodic arc physical vapor deposition technique. TiN coated grade 2 titanium substrates were used as reference to understand the role of magnesium on hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. The HA formation experiments was carried out in simulated body fluids (SBF) with three different concentrations (1X SBF, 5X SBF and 5X SBF without magnesium ions) at 37 °C. The coatings and hydroxyapatite films formed were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR Spectroscopy techniques. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses and XRD investigations of the coatings indicated that magnesium was incorporated in the TiN structure rather than forming a separate phase. The comparison between the TiN and (Ti, Mg)N coatings showed that the presence of magnesium in TiN structure facilitated magnesium substituted HA formation on the surface. The (Ti,Mg)N coatings can potentially be used to accelerate the HA formation in vivo conditions without any prior hydroxyapatite coating procedure. © 2013.

  8. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  9. Microstructure Characterization of WCCo-Mo Based Coatings Produced Using High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Islak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been carried out in order to investigate the microstructural properties of WCCo-Mo composite coatings deposited onto a SAE 4140 steel substrate by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF thermal spray. For this purpose, the Mo quantity added to the WCCo was changed as 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt. % percents. The coatings are compared in terms of their phase composition, microstructure and hardness. Phase compound and microstructure of coating layers were examined using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. XRD results showed that WCCo-Mo composite coatings were mainly composed of WC, W2C, Co3W3C, Mo2C, MoO2, Mo and Co phases. The average hardness of the coatings increased with increasing Mo content.

  10. Hydroxyapatite coatings produced on commercially pure titanium by micro-arc oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Wang Yingjun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ning Chengyun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Nan Kaihui [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Han Yong [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2007-09-15

    A porous hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium was prepared by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolytic solution containing calcium acetate and {beta}-glycerol phosphate disodium salt pentahydrate ({beta}-GP). The thickness, phase, composition morphology and biocompatibility of the oxide coating were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS) and cell culture. The thickness of the MAO film was about 20 {mu}m, and the coating was porous and uneven without any apparent interface to the titanium substrates. The result of XRD showed that the porous coating was made up of HA film. The favorable osteoblast cell affinity gives HA film good biocompatibility. HA coatings are expected to have significant uses for medical applications such as dental implants and artificial bone joints.

  11. Hydroxyapatite coatings produced on commercially pure titanium by micro-arc oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Wang, Yingjun; Ning, Chengyun; Nan, Kaihui; Han, Yong

    2007-09-01

    A porous hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium was prepared by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolytic solution containing calcium acetate and beta-glycerol phosphate disodium salt pentahydrate (beta-GP). The thickness, phase, composition morphology and biocompatibility of the oxide coating were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS) and cell culture. The thickness of the MAO film was about 20 microm, and the coating was porous and uneven without any apparent interface to the titanium substrates. The result of XRD showed that the porous coating was made up of HA film. The favorable osteoblast cell affinity gives HA film good biocompatibility. HA coatings are expected to have significant uses for medical applications such as dental implants and artificial bone joints.

  12. Hydroxyapatite coatings produced on commercially pure titanium by micro-arc oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Wang Yingjun; Ning Chengyun; Nan Kaihui; Han Yong

    2007-01-01

    A porous hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium was prepared by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolytic solution containing calcium acetate and β-glycerol phosphate disodium salt pentahydrate (β-GP). The thickness, phase, composition morphology and biocompatibility of the oxide coating were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS) and cell culture. The thickness of the MAO film was about 20 μm, and the coating was porous and uneven without any apparent interface to the titanium substrates. The result of XRD showed that the porous coating was made up of HA film. The favorable osteoblast cell affinity gives HA film good biocompatibility. HA coatings are expected to have significant uses for medical applications such as dental implants and artificial bone joints

  13. Magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite formation on (Ti,Mg)N coatings produced by cathodic arc PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onder, Sakip; Kok, Fatma Nese; Kazmanli, Kursat; Urgen, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    In this study, formation of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite (Ca 10−x Mg x (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ) on (Ti,Mg)N and TiN coating surfaces were investigated. The (Ti 1−x ,Mg x )N (x = 0.064) coatings were deposited on titanium substrates by using cathodic arc physical vapor deposition technique. TiN coated grade 2 titanium substrates were used as reference to understand the role of magnesium on hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. The HA formation experiments was carried out in simulated body fluids (SBF) with three different concentrations (1X SBF, 5X SBF and 5X SBF without magnesium ions) at 37 °C. The coatings and hydroxyapatite films formed were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR Spectroscopy techniques. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses and XRD investigations of the coatings indicated that magnesium was incorporated in the TiN structure rather than forming a separate phase. The comparison between the TiN and (Ti, Mg)N coatings showed that the presence of magnesium in TiN structure facilitated magnesium substituted HA formation on the surface. The (Ti,Mg)N coatings can potentially be used to accelerate the HA formation in vivo conditions without any prior hydroxyapatite coating procedure. - Highlights: • Mg incorporated in (Ti,Mg)N coating structure and did not form a separate phase • Mg dissolution in SBF solution facilitated Mg-substituted hydroxyapatite formation • (Ti,Mg)N acted as Mg-source for Mg-substituted hydroxyapatite formation in SBF

  14. Microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Hastelloy C22 coating produced by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qin-Ying; Zhang, Yang-Fei; Bai, Shu-Lin; Liu, Zong-De

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hastelloy C22 coatings were prepared by diode laser cladding technique. ► Higher laser speed resulted in smaller grain size. ► Size-effect played the key role in the hardness measurements by different ways. ► Coating with higher laser scanning speed displayed higher nano-scratch resistance. ► Small grain size was beneficial for improvement of coating corrosion resistance. -- Abstract: The Hastelloy C22 coatings H1 and H2 were prepared by laser cladding technique with laser scanning speeds of 6 and 12 mm/s, respectively. Their microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance were investigated. The microstructures and phase compositions were studied by metallurgical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. The hardness and scratch resistance were measured by micro-hardness and nanoindentation tests. The polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were tested by electrochemical workstation. Planar, cellular and dendritic solidifications were observed in the coating cross-sections. The coatings metallurgically well-bonded with the substrate are mainly composed of primary phase γ-nickel with solution of Fe, W, Cr and grain boundary precipitate of Mo 6 Ni 6 C. The hardness and corrosion resistance of steel substrate are significantly improved by laser cladding Hastelloy C22 coating. Coating H2 shows higher micro-hardness than that of H1 by 34% and it also exhibits better corrosion resistance. The results indicate that the increase of laser scanning speed improves the microstuctures, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Hastelloy C22 coating

  15. Carbon coated Fe, Co and Ni Nanoparticles produced by high pressure CVD and their potential for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gendy, A.A.; Ibrahim, E.M.M.; Khavrus, V.; Krupskaya, Y.; Leonhardt, A.; Klingeler, R.; Buechner, B. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fe rate at C, Co rate at C and Ni rate at C nanocapsules have been produced by high pressure chemical vapour deposition (HPCVD). Scanning electron microscopy images prove that most of the particles are coated with carbon. High resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging confirms that these particles have a broad size distribution and a core/shell structure. In addition, individual nanoparticles are found inside a carbon capsule as well as several particles together in one shell. X-ray diffraction confirms the phases and allows calculating the average particle size from the width of the peaks. Our magnetisation studies confirm that the coated particles are ferromagnetic up to 400 K. AC magnetic heating studies have been performed which imply the potential of carbon coated nanomagnets for applications in hyperthermia therapies.

  16. Assembly of an Oxalate Decarboxylase Produced under σK Control into the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Teresa; Steil, Leif; Martins, Lígia O.; Völker, Uwe; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2004-01-01

    Over 30 polypeptides are synthesized at various times during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, and they are assembled at the surface of the developing spore to form a multilayer protein structure called the coat. The coat consists of three main layers, an amorphous undercoat close to the underlying spore cortex peptidoglycan, a lamellar inner layer, and an electron-dense striated outer layer. The product of the B. subtilis oxdD gene was previously shown to have oxalate decarboxylase activity when it was produced in Escherichia coli and to be a spore constituent. In this study, we found that OxdD specifically associates with the spore coat structure, and in this paper we describe regulation of its synthesis and assembly. We found that transcription of oxdD is induced during sporulation as a monocistronic unit under the control of σK and is negatively regulated by GerE. We also found that localization of a functional OxdD-green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the surface of the developing spore depends on the SafA morphogenetic protein, which localizes at the interface between the spore cortex and coat layers. OxdD-GFP localizes around the developing spore in a cotE mutant, which does not assemble the spore outer coat layer, but it does not persist in spores produced by the mutant. Together, the data suggest that OxdD-GFP is targeted to the interior layers of the coat. Additionally, we found that expression of a multicopy allele of oxdD resulted in production of spores with increased levels of OxdD that were able to degrade oxalate but were sensitive to lysozyme. PMID:14973022

  17. Synthesis and characterization of carbon coated nanoparticles produced by a continuous low-pressure plasma process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, Vineet; Neergat, Manoj [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Energy Science and Engineering (India); Bhandarkar, Upendra, E-mail: bhandarkar@iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Mechanical Engineering (India)

    2011-09-15

    Core-shell nanoparticles coated with carbon have been synthesized in a single chamber using a continuous and entirely low-pressure plasma-based process. Nanoparticles are formed in an argon plasma using iron pentacarbonyl Fe(CO){sub 5} as a precursor. These particles are trapped in a pure argon plasma by shutting off the precursor and then coated with carbon by passing acetylene along with argon as the main background gas. Characterization of the particles was carried out using TEM for morphology, XPS for elemental composition and PPMS for magnetic properties. Iron nanoparticles obtained were a mixture of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. TEM analysis shows an average size of 7-14 nm for uncoated particles and 15-24 nm for coated particles. The effect of the carbon coating on magnetic properties of the nanoparticles is studied in detail.

  18. A MICROPOROUS COATING OR STRUCTURE AND A PROCESS FOR PRODUCING IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A microporous coating or structure is established as a thin metallic layer by deposition of one or more alloys on a metallic substrate, each of said alloys consisting of two or more phases, one of which can be selectively dissolved in a solution that will not significantly attack the other phase...... or phases. Such microporous coatings or structures are useful in the production of various product types, such as fuel cells, catalysts, microfilters, heat exchangers, micro-components and heat transfer devices....

  19. Measurement of Turbulent Skin Friction Drag Coefficients Produced by Distributed Surface Roughness of Pristine Marine Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafiryadis, Frederik; Meyer, Knud Erik; Gökhan Ergin, F.

    drag coefficients as well as roughness Reynolds numbers for the various marine coatings across the range of Rex by fitting of the van Driest profile. The results demonstrate sound agreement with the present ITTC method for determining skin friction coefficients for practically smooth surfaces at low...... Reynolds numbers compared to normal operation mode for the antifouling coatings. Thus, better estimates for skin friction of rough hulls can be realised using the proposed method to optimise preliminary vessel design....

  20. Effect of Boron on Microstructure and Microhardness Properties of Mo-Si-B Based Coatings Produced Via TIG Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islak S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Mo-Si-B based coatings were produced using tungsten inert gas (TIG process on the medium carbon steel because the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of these alloys are particularly favourable for high-temperature structural applications. It is aimed to investigate of microstructure and microhardness properties of Mo-Si-B based coatings. Optical microscopy (OM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to characterize the microstructures of Mo-Si-B based coatings. The XRD results showed that microstructure of Mo–Si–B coating consists of α-Mo, α-Fe, Mo2B, Mo3Si and Mo5SiB2 phases. It was reported that the grains in the microstructure were finer with increasing amounts of boron which caused to occur phase precipitations in the grain boundary. Besides, the average microhardness of coatings changed between 735 HV0.3 and 1140 HV0.3 depending on boron content.

  1. Sol-gel coatings: An alternative route for producing planar optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey-Garcia, F.; Gomez-Reino, C. [Unidad Asociada de Optica and Microoptica GRIN (CSIC-ICMA), Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Universitaria de Optica e Optometria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Flores-Arias, M.T., E-mail: maite.flores@usc.es [Unidad Asociada de Optica and Microoptica GRIN (CSIC-ICMA), Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Universitaria de Optica e Optometria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); De La Fuente, G.F., E-mail: xerman@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), Maria de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Duran, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Castro, Y., E-mail: castro@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-09-01

    Inorganic and hybrid planar waveguides with different compositions (silica-titania, methacrylate-silica-cerium oxide, zirconia-cerium oxide and silica-zirconia) have been obtained by sol-gel synthesis followed by dip-coating. Soda-lime glass slides and conventional commercial window glass were used as substrates. The thickness and refractive index of the coatings were determined by profilometry and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Waveguide efficiency was measured at ca. 70.8% with a He-Ne laser beam, coupled with an optical microscope objective into and out of the waveguiding layer via a double prism configuration. Thicknesses between 150 and 2000 nm, along with refractive index values ranging between 1.45 and {approx} 1.99 ({lambda} = 633 nm) were obtained depending on the sol composition and the dip-coating conditions. This wide range of values allows designing multilayered guides that can be used in a variety of applications.

  2. Sol-gel coatings: An alternative route for producing planar optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey-Garcia, F.; Gomez-Reino, C.; Flores-Arias, M.T.; De La Fuente, G.F.; Duran, A.; Castro, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic and hybrid planar waveguides with different compositions (silica-titania, methacrylate-silica-cerium oxide, zirconia-cerium oxide and silica-zirconia) have been obtained by sol-gel synthesis followed by dip-coating. Soda-lime glass slides and conventional commercial window glass were used as substrates. The thickness and refractive index of the coatings were determined by profilometry and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Waveguide efficiency was measured at ca. 70.8% with a He-Ne laser beam, coupled with an optical microscope objective into and out of the waveguiding layer via a double prism configuration. Thicknesses between 150 and 2000 nm, along with refractive index values ranging between 1.45 and ∼ 1.99 (λ = 633 nm) were obtained depending on the sol composition and the dip-coating conditions. This wide range of values allows designing multilayered guides that can be used in a variety of applications.

  3. Decreased Bacterial Attachment and Protein Adsorption to Coatings Produced by Low Enegy Plasma Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.E.; Kingshott, Peter; Benter, M.

    .figure) .and E. coli grown on uncoated silicone compared to PP-PVP coated silicone (right figure). Results from the flow chamber analysis shows PP-PVP to be very good at preventing E. coli colonization during prolonged growth in flow chamber. At this point other surfaces and bacteria remains to be tested...... adsorption and bacteria attachment/colonization. This is emphasized by the fact that long dwelling urinary catheters, which is a typical silicone medical device, causes 5% per day incidence of urinary tract infection [1,2]. A demand therefore exists for surface modifications providing the silicone material......-coated crystals were then treated with one of the plasma polymerized coatings. Adsorption of fibrinogen, human serum albumin or immunoglobulin G was measured using a QCM-D instrument [5] (model E4, Q-Sense AB, Vastra Frolunda, Sweden) using a solution of 50llg/1 protein in PBS buffer. Results and Discussion: Our...

  4. Lubricated sliding wear behaviour of Ni-P-W multilayered alloy coatings produced by pulse plating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagopoulos, C. N.; Papachristos, V. D.; Christoffersen, Lasse

    2000-01-01

    The lubricated sliding wear behaviour of Ni-P-W multilayered alloy coatings sliding against hardened steel discs was studied, in a pin-on-disc set-up. The multilayered coatings had been deposited on mild steel pins by pulse plating and they consisted of ternary Ni-P-W layers of high and low W con...... lubrication regimes. The wear mechanisms in each lubrication regime were studied and in mixed lubrication regime, the effect of normal load and sliding speed on wear volume and friction coefficient was also studied. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved....

  5. Use of gamma-irradiation technology in combination with edible coating to produce shelf-stable foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouattara, B.; Sabato, S.F.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-01-01

    This research was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of low-dose gamma-irradiation combined with edible coatings to produce shelf-stable foods. Three types of commercially distributed food products were investigated: precooked shrimps, ready to cook pizzas, and fresh strawberries. Samples were coated with various formulations of protein-based solutions and irradiated at total doses between 0 and 3 kGy. Samples were stored at 4 deg. C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth. Sensorial analysis was also performed using a nine-point hedonic scale to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics (odor, taste and appearance). The results showed significant (p≤0.05) combined effect of gamma-irradiation and coating on microbial growth (APCs and Pseudomonas putida). The shelf-life extension periods ranged from 3 to 10 days for shrimps and from 7 to 20 days for pizzas, compared to uncoated/unirradiated products. No significant (p>0.05) detrimental effect of gamma-irradiation on sensorial characteristics (odor, taste, appearance) was observed. In strawberries, coating with irradiated protein solutions resulted in significant reduction of the percentage of mold contamination

  6. Thick metallic coatings produced by coaxial and side laser cladding : Processing and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelík, V.; De Hosson, J.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Cobalt and iron-based, defect-free coatings with thicknesses from 1 to 3.3. mm were created by a laser cladding process on different steel substrates. Extensive laser cladding experiments with a gradual change of laser power were used to study relations between main processing parameters and

  7. Oxidative regeneration of Ni-Mo-gamma-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts used for hydrotreatment of coal-derived oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Yuji; Furimsky, Edward; Sato, Toshio; Shimada, Hiromichi; Matsubayashi, Nobuyuki; Nishijima, Akio

    1986-10-23

    In order to easily find the oxidative reaction characteristics of carbonaceous materials and sulfur deposited on the catalysts used for hydrogenation, oxidative regeneration behavior as studied with a fixed bed reactor, and the surfaces of the spent catalysts were analyzed by XPS to find the changes in form of active metals and sulfur on the catalysts. Ni-Mo-gamma-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts were used for hydrotreatment of primary coal-derived oil from Morwell coal. The spent catalysts were extracted by THF, dried and crushed into 100-200 mesh powder. The relation between catalyst regeneration temperature and CO/sub 2/ or SO/sub 2/, the relation between generated gas compositions and temperature in regeneration, and the activation energy of carbon and sulfur in the catalysts for oxidative reaction were indicated with data. As a result, it was found that a part of the active metals turned to sulfates by hydrotreatment and the residual sulfur existed in form of sulfate. ( 6 figs, 2 tabs, 4 refs )

  8. Ab Initio Study of the Electronic Structure, Elastic Properties, Magnetic Feature and Thermodynamic Properties of the Ba2NiMoO6 Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluque Toro, C. E.; Mosquera Polo, A. S.; Gil Rebaza, A. V.; Landínez Téllez, D. A.; Roa-Rojas, J.

    2018-04-01

    We report first-principles calculations of the elastic properties, electronic structure and magnetic behavior performed over the Ba2NiMoO6 double perovskite. Calculations are carried out through the full-potential linear augmented plane-wave method within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) with exchange and correlation effects in the Generalized Gradient and Local Density Approximations, including spin polarization. The elastic properties calculated are bulk modulus (B), the elastic constants (C 11, C 12 and C 44), the Zener anisotropy factor (A), the isotropic shear modulus (G), the Young modulus (Y) and the Poisson ratio (υ). Structural parameters, total energies and cohesive properties of the perovskite are studied by means of minimization of internal parameters with the Murnaghan equation, where the structural parameters are in good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, we have explored different antiferromagnetic configurations in order to describe the magnetic ground state of this compound. The pressure and temperature dependence of specific heat, thermal expansion coefficient, Debye temperature and Grüneisen parameter were calculated by DFT from the state equation using the quasi-harmonic model of Debye. A specific heat behavior C V ≈ C P was found at temperatures below T = 400 K, with Dulong-Petit limit values, which is higher than those, reported for simple perovskites.

  9. Catalytic hydroprocessing of simulated coal tars. 1. Activity of a sulphided Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst for the hydroconversion of model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemberton, J.L.; Touzeyidio, M.; Guisnet, M. (Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique CNRS, Poitiers (France))

    1989-09-15

    The conversion of tars from coal pyrolysis into light aromatics, such as BTX (benzene-toluene-xylenes) and naphthalene, requires the hydrocracking of heavy polyaromatics in the presence of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds. The hydroconversion of phenanthrene, which occurs through bifunctional catalysis, was chosen as a model reaction. It was carried out over a sulphided Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst (Ketjen 153) in the presence of carbazole and 1-naphthol. Carbazole poisons slightly through coking both the hydrogenating and the acid sites of the catalyst. 1-Naphthol has a more significant deactivating effect: the hydrogenating sites of the catalyst are poisoned by the water eliminated from 1-naphthol and the acid sites by coke generated by 1-naphthol. Lastly, the hydrogenating activity of the catalyst is not substantially affected in the presence of carbazole and 1-naphthol, but its cracking activity is much reduced, making it impossible for the catalyst to achieve the hydrocracking of phenanthrene into into light aromatics. 5 figs, 21 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and performance of NiMo catalysts supported on titania modified alumina for the hydroprocessing of different gas oils derived from Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, D.; Bakhshi, N.N.; Dalai, A.K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reactor Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Sask. (Canada); Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton Research Center, No. 9421, 17th Avenue, Edmonton, Alta. (Canada)

    2007-03-08

    In this work, a series of NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was prepared using different Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supports modified by titania (0-9 wt%). All modified supports and fresh catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, pore volume and pore diameter measurement, TPR, TPD, XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy analyses. The initial activity of these catalysts were tested in a trickle-bed reactor using three different gas oils such as light gas oil (LGO), blended gas oil (blended: 50% LGO and 50% HGO) and heavy gas oil (HGO), all derived from Athabasca bitumen. Little structural change in alumina was observed with the incorporation of titania. XRD analysis showed the well dispersion of Ni and Mo on the support. Titania in alumina increased the formation of polymolybdenum oxide on the catalyst as evident from TPR and Raman analyses. Weak-intermediate-strong acid sites on the catalyst were observed at all titania concentrations. The Lewis and Bronsted acidity on the catalyst surface increased with the increase in titania concentration from 0 to 9 wt%. Nitrogen conversion increased from 57 to 71 wt%, from 83 to 93 wt% and from 75 to 80 wt% for LGO, blended and HGO, respectively and also sulfur conversion of LGO increased from 86 to 92 wt% when titania concentration was increased from 0 to 9 wt%. For blended and HGO, sulfur conversion was in the range 96-99 wt% at all titania concentrations. (author)

  11. The effects of Ni, Mo, Ti and Si on the mechanical properties of Cr free Mn steel (Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuon, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    The FeMnAlC alloys may hold potential as Cr-free replacements for high strategic material iron base superalloys, but little is known about their intermediate temperature (650 C to 870 C) mechanical properties. The effects of alloying elements on the mechanical properties of model FeMnAlC alloys were studied. Results showed that modified FeMnAlC alloys had promising short term, intermediate temperature properties but had relatively poor stress rupture lives at 172 MPa and 788 C. Room temperature and 788 C tensile strength of FeMnAlC alloys were better than common cast stainless steels. Changes in room temperature tensile and 788 C tensile strength and ductility, and 788 C stress rupture life were correlated with changes in Ni, Mo, Ti, and Si levels due to alloying effects on interstitial carbon levels and carbide morphology. Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C had a very poor stress rupture life at 172 MPa and 788 C. Addition of carbide-forming elements improved the stress rupture life

  12. The causes of relaxation- and hot cracking in the heat-affected zone of 22 NiMoCr 37 and 20 MnMoNi 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellhammer, W.

    1977-01-01

    Non-destructive and metallographic investigations with a view to relaxation cracking and hot cracking were carried out in 53 component-specific welds with wall thicknesses of 40 to 360 mm and 21 experimental welds with wall thicknesses of 140 to 275 mm of high-temperature, fine-grained structural steel 22 NiMoCr 37 as well as in 27 component-specific welds of high-strength, fine-grained structural steel 20 MnMoNi 55. Non-destructive tests and conventional metallographic analyses by means of transverse structure micrography were unable to give a sufficiently accurate picture of the two types of cracks in the micro- and millimeter range, a 'volumetric' method was employed (tangential structure micrography with stepwise abrasion) which permitted semi-automatic and fast evaluation. The experimental results showed the selective influence of several elements and led to the development of a method to evaluate the cumulative effect of the chemical elements on relaxation cracking and hot cracking by addition of the selective influence. The method gives quantitative data on material optimisation with regard to the reduction of brittle and crack-prone states and confirms the findings of welding simulation tests. (orig./IHOE) 891 IHOE/orig.- 892 HIS [de

  13. Flow behavior and microstructures of powder metallurgical CrFeCoNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy during high temperature deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiawen [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: binliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Yan [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Cao, Yuankui; Li, Tianchen; Zhou, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-03-24

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) refine grains of high entropy alloys (HEAs) and significant improve the mechanical property of HEAs, but the effect of high melting point element molybdenum (Mo) on high temperature deformation behavior has not been fully understood. In the present study, flow behavior and microstructures of powder metallurgical CrFeCoNiMo{sub 0.2} HEA were investigated by hot compression tests performed at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1100 °C with strain rates from 10{sup −3} to 1 s{sup −1}. The Arrhenius constitutive equation with strain-dependent material constants was used for modeling and prediction of flow stress. It was found that at 700 °C, the dynamic recovery is the dominant softening mechanism, whilst with the increase in compression testing temperature, the DRX becomes the dominant mechanism of softening. In the present HEA, the addition of Mo results in the high activation energy (463 kJ mol{sup −1}) and the phase separation during hot deformation. The formation of Mo-rich σ phase particles pins grain boundary migration during DRX, and therefore refines the size of recrystallized grains.

  14. Influencia de la temperatura en el hidrotratamiento de aceite crudo de palma usando catalizadores comerciales tipo NiMo/γ-Al 2 O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Guzmán Castillo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Catalizadores bimetálicos comerciales NiMo/γ-Al2O3 fueron utilizados para el hidroprocesamiento de aceite crudo de palma (ACP en una unidad de planta piloto, a presión de 90MPa, velocidad espacial de 2h-1 y temperatura entre 413-533K. Los resultados experimentales muestran que la distribución de productos está fuertemente controlada por la temperatura de reacción mostrando que a una temperatura entre 473 y 533K, se incrementa la cantidad de ésteres cerosos presentes en el producto final, modificando propiedades tales como penetración y punto de fusión, las cuales también fueron evaluadas. Los rendimientos obtenidos y la variación en las propiedades del producto final se atribuyeron a la proporción de reacciones de saturación de triglicéridos (TG, hidrogenólisis de TG, saturación de ácidos grasos, saturación de alcoholes grasos y esterificación, entre otras.

  15. Influencia de la temperatura en el hidrotratamiento de aceite crudo de palma usando catalizadores comerciales tipo NiMo/γ-Al 2 O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Guzmán Castillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalizadores bimetálicos comerciales NiMo/γ-Al2O3 fueron utilizados para el hidroprocesamiento de aceite crudo de palma (ACP en una unidad de planta piloto, a presión de 90MPa, velocidad espacial de 2h-1 y temperatura entre 413-533K. Los resultados experimentales muestran que la distribución de productos está fuertemente controlada por la temperatura de reacción mostrando que a una temperatura entre 473 y 533K, se incrementa la cantidad de ésteres cerosos presentes en el producto final, modificando propiedades tales como penetración y punto de fusión, las cuales también fueron evaluadas. Los rendimientos obtenidos y la variación en las propiedades del producto final se atribuyeron a la proporción de reacciones de saturación de triglicéridos (TG, hidrogenólisis de TG, saturación de ácidos grasos, saturación de alcoholes grasos y esterificación, entre otras.

  16. [Studies on the tolerance of the organism to X 5 CrNiMo 18.10 steel (Königsee). II. Light microscopic studies of the surrounding tissue of metal implants (X 5 CrNiMo 18.10 steel) in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhndorf, H; Drössler, K; Stiehl, P

    1977-06-01

    The tissue around X 5 CrNiMo 18.10-steel implantates with different surfaces was examined in 72 guinea-pigs. Aside from controls, these animals were preoperatively sensibilized against chromium and nickel. The results can be summarized since the histologic findings showed no different peculiarities. The authors describe an intussusception of the implantate in connective tissue which evidently depends on time and surface. Further the spreading of alien material in the surrounding of the implantate, and morphologic findings are reported. The morphologic evidences are described and discussed in detail, since they are interpreted as signs of cell-mediated immune reactions. The presence of lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, histiocytes (mostly carrying alien material), and granulocytes, as well as proliferations at the arterioles suggest an overlapping of immune reactions.

  17. Multilayer Ti-Cr-N Coatings Produced by the Vacuum-Arc Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunchenko, Yu.V.; Kunchenko, V.V.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Kartmazov, G.N.; Andreev, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    A possibility is demonstrated for nanolayer TiN x /CrN x coating formation by the method of vacuum-arc deposition on the substrate, which being rotated around the 'Bulat'-type chamber axis intercepts sequentially the plasma flows generated by three evaporators. The model for calculating the coating deposition rate (thickness) was used to determine the geometrical parameters that provide the formation of layer structures in the nanometer range. The variations of phase-structure characteristics, compression microstresses (σ) microhardness (H v ) of the coating formed have been investigated as functions of nitrogen pressure (P N =0.001...1.0 Pa), bias voltage (U=-100...-300 V) and condensation temperature (T C =330...750 degree C) at focusing magnetic field strength H F =0; 35 and 100 Oe. The mentioned field strengths were responsible for the ion current densities (j∼5,8...10 and ≥15 mA/cm 2 ). A nonmonotonic behaviour of H v as a function of condensation temperature and of vacuum annealing temperature has been established. The maximum H v values (∼35...37 GPa) were observed in the 450...500 degree C range

  18. Abrasive wear of WC-NiMoCrFeCo thermally sprayed coatings in dependence on different types of abrasive sands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašparová, M.; Zahálka, F.; Houdková, Š.; Ctibor, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2010), s. 75-85 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : WC-Hastelloy * abrasive wear * Al2O3 sand * SiO2 sand * braun size * abrasive efficiency Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.471, year: 2010 http://kovmat.sav.sk/abstract.php?rr=48&cc=1&ss=73

  19. Compositions of corrosion-resistant Fe-based amorphous metals suitable for producing thermal spray coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C; Wong, Frank M.G.; Haslam, Jeffery J; Ji, Xiaoyan; Day, Sumner D; Blue, Craig A; Rivard, John D.K.; Aprigliano, Louis F; Kohler, Leslie K; Bayles, Robert; Lemieux, Edward J; Yang, Nancy; Perepezko, John H; Kaufman, Larry; Heuer, Arthur; Lavernia, Enrique J

    2013-09-03

    A method of coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains manganese (1 to 3 atomic %), yttrium (0.1 to 10 atomic %), and silicon (0.3 to 3.1 atomic %) in the range of composition given in parentheses; and that contains the following elements in the specified range of composition given in parentheses: chromium (15 to 20 atomic %), molybdenum (2 to 15 atomic %), tungsten (1 to 3 atomic %), boron (5 to 16 atomic %), carbon (3 to 16 atomic %), and the balance iron; and applying said amorphous metal to the surface by a spray.

  20. Microporous Ti implant compact coated with hydroxyapatite produced by electro-discharge-sintering and electrostatic-spray-deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Y J; Kim, Y H; Jo, Y H; Seong, J G; Chang, S Y; Van Tyne, C J; Lee, W H

    2014-11-01

    A single pulse of 1.5 kJ/0.7 g of atomized spherical Ti powder from 300 μF capacitor was applied to produce the porous-surfaced Ti implant compact by electro-discharge-sintering (EDS). A solid core surrounded by porous layer was self-consolidated by a discharge in the middle of the compact in 122 μsec. Average pore size, porosity, and compressive yield strength of EDS Ti compact were estimated to be about 68.2 μm, 25.5%, and 266.4 MPa, respectively. Coatings with hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the Ti compact were conducted by electrostatic-spray-deposition (ESD) method. As-deposited HAp coating was in the form of porous structure and consisted of HAp particles which were uniformly distributed on the Ti porous structure. By heat-treatment at 700 degrees C, HAp particles were agglomerated each other and melted to form a highly smooth and homogeneous HAp thin film consisted of equiaxed nano-scaled grains. Porous-surfaced Ti implant compacts coated with highly crystalline apatite phase were successfully obtained by using the EDS and ESD techniques.

  1. The Properties of Binary and Ternary Ti Based Coatings Produced by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Mandes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of the multicomponent thin films (binary: Ti-C; Ti-Ag and ternary: Ti-C-Ag; Ti-C-Al were fabricated by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA technology in order to study the wear resistance and the anticorrosion properties. The effects of Ti amount on the microstructure, tribological and morphological properties were subsequently investigated. TVA is an original deposition method using a combination of anodic arc and electron gun systems for the growth of films. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM and a transmission electron microscope (TEM accompanied by selected area electron diffraction (SAED. Tribological properties were studied by a ball-on-disc tribometer in the dry regime and the wettability was assessed by measuring the contact angle with the See System apparatus. Wear Rate results indicate an improved sliding wear behavior for Ti-C-Ag: 1.31 × 10−7 mm3/N m (F = 2 N compared to Ti-C-Al coating wear rate: 4.24 × 10−7 mm3/N m. On the other hand, by increasing the normal load to 3 N an increase to the wear rate was observed for Ti-C-Ag: 2.58 × 10−5 mm3 compared to 2.33 × 10−6 mm3 for Ti-C-Al coating.

  2. Tribological coatings for complex mechanical elements produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition of metal dichalcogenide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzoni, C.; Buttery, M.; Hampson, M. R.; Roberts, E. W.; Ducati, C.; Lenardi, C.; Cavaliere, F.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fullerene-like MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of fluid and solid lubricants. Metal dichalcogenide films have a very low friction coefficient in vacuum, therefore they have mostly been used as solid lubricants in space and vacuum applications. Unfortunately, their use is significantly hampered by the fact that in the presence of humidity, oxygen and moisture, the low-friction properties of these materials rapidly degrade due to oxidation. The use of closed-cage MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles may eliminate this problem, although the fabrication of lubricant thin films starting from dichalcogenide nanoparticles is, to date, a difficult task. Here we demonstrate the use of supersonic cluster beam deposition for the coating of complex mechanical elements (angular contact ball bearings) with nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 thin films. We report structural and tribological characterization of the coatings in view of the optimization of tribological performances for aerospace applications.

  3. Experimental setup for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for fusion plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Sachin Singh; Sharma, Uttam; Choudhary, K.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Ghosh, J.; Sharma, Jayshree

    2013-01-01

    Plasma wall interaction (PWI) in fusion grade machines puts stringent demands on the choice of materials in terms of high heat load handling capabilities and low sputtering yields. Choice of suitable material still remains a challenge and open topic of research for the PWI community. Carbon fibre composites (CFC), Beryllium (Be), and Tungsten (W) are now being considered as first runners for the first wall components of future fusion machines. Tungsten is considered to be one of the suitable materials for the job because of its superior properties than carbon like low physical sputtering yield and high sputter energy threshold, high melting point, fairly high re-crystallization temperature, low fuel retention capabilities, low chemical sputtering with hydrogen and its isotopes and most importantly the reparability with various plasma techniques both ex-situ and in-situ. Plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition is considered among various techniques as the most preferable technique for fabricating tungsten coated graphite tiles to be used as tokamak first wall and target components. These coated tiles are more favourable compared to pure tungsten due to their light weight and easier machining. A system has been designed, fabricated and installed at SVITS, Indore for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) technique for Fusion plasma applications. The system contains a vacuum chamber, a turbo-molecular pump, two electrodes, vacuum gauges, mass analyzer, mass flow controllers and a RF power supply for producing the plasma using hydrogen gas. The graphite tiles will be put on one of the electrodes and WF6 gas will be inserted in a controlled manner in the hydrogen plasma to achieve the tungsten-coating with WF6 dissociation. The system is integrated at SVITS, Indore and a vacuum of the order of 3*10 -6 is achieved and glow discharge plasma has been created to test all the sub-systems. The system design with

  4. Bone ingrowth potential of electron beam and selective laser melting produced trabecular-like implant surfaces with and without a biomimetic coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemond, J E; Hannink, G; Verdonschot, N; Buma, P

    2013-03-01

    The bone ingrowth potential of trabecular-like implant surfaces produced by either selective laser melting (SLM) or electron beam melting (EBM), with or without a biomimetic calciumphosphate coating, was examined in goats. For histological analysis and histomorphometry of bone ingrowth depth and bone implant contact specimens were implanted in the femoral condyle of goats. For mechanical push out tests to analyse mechanical implant fixation specimens were implanted in the iliac crest. The follow up periods were 4 (7 goats) and 15 weeks (7 goats). Both the SLM and EBM produced trabecular-like structures showed a variable bone ingrowth after 4 weeks. After 15 weeks good bone ingrowth was found in both implant types. Irrespective to the follow up period, and the presence of a coating, no histological differences in tissue reaction around SLM and EBM produced specimens was found. Histological no coating was detected at 4 and 15 weeks follow up. At both follow up periods the mechanical push out strength at the bone implant interface was significantly lower for the coated SLM specimens compared to the uncoated SLM specimens. The expected better ingrowth characteristics and mechanical fixation strength induced by the coating were not found. The lower mechanical strength of the coated specimens produced by SLM is a remarkable result, which might be influenced by the gross morphology of the specimens or the coating characteristics, indicating that further research is necessary.

  5. Magnetic properties of carbon-coated, ferromagnetic nanoparticles produced by a carbon-arc method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsman, E. M.; Sutton, R.; Bortz, E.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Midelfort, K.; Williams, J.; Smith, P.; McHenry, M. E.; Majetich, S. A.; Artman, J. O.; De Graef, M.; Staley, S. W.

    1994-05-01

    The Krätschmer-Huffman carbon-arc method of preparing fullerenes has been used to generate carbon-coated transition metal (TM) and TM-carbide nanocrystallites. The magnetic nanocrystallites were extracted from the soot with a magnetic gradient field technique. For TM=Co the majority of nanocrystals exist as nominally spherical particles, 0.5-5 nm in radius. Hysteretic and temperature-dependent magnetic response, in randomly and magnetically aligned powder samples frozen in epoxy, correspond to fine particle magnetism associated with monodomain TM particles. The magnetization exhibits a unique functional dependence on H/T, and hysteresis below a blocking temperature TB. Below TB, the temperature dependence of the coercivity can be expressed as Hc=Hc0[1-(T/TB)1/2], where Hc0 is the 0 K coercivity.

  6. Superparamagnetism in carbon-coated Co particles produced by the Kratschmer carbon arc process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, M. E.; Majetich, S. A.; Artman, J. O.; Degraef, M.; Staley, S. W.

    1994-04-01

    A process based on the Kratschmer-Huffman carbon arc method of preparing fullerenes has been used to generate carbon-coated cobalt and cobalt carbide nanocrystallites. Magnetic nanocrystallites are extracted from the soot with a gradient field technique. For Co/C composites, structural characterization by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of a fcc Co phase, graphite, and a minority Co2C phase. The majority of Co nanocrystals exists as nominally spherical particles, 0.5-5 nm in radius. Hysteretic and temperature-dependent magnetic response, in randomly and magnetically aligned powder samples frozen in epoxy reveals fine-particle magnetism associated with monodomain Co particles. The magnetization exhibits a unique functional dependence on H/T, and hysteresis below a blocking temperature, TB~=160 K. Below TB, the temperature dependence of the coercivity is given by Hc=Hci[1-(T/TB)1/2], with Hci~=450 Oe.

  7. Brittleness, microcracking and crack propagation in stress-relief annealing of welded low-alloyed NiMoCr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.Y.

    1976-01-01

    It in possible to produce the essentially corresponding microstructural states as well as micro or macro crack formation by simulation welding of the coarse grain zone of welded seams and to analyze the conditions for brittleness and crack formation. The metallurgical procedures in the heat affected zone of a welded joint are described. It could be seen from metallographic polished specimens that the crack formation can persue the triple point theory as well as the carity theory. The heating and relaxing process was analyzed on a model and the latter described by the pure relaxation test, relaxation test according to Murray and time-fracture test. The time-fracture test was mainly applied to investigate a possible decrease in toughness and crack formation because it normally does not work in relaxation tests - contrary to the component - to produce crack formation. In order to determine how long it takes for the first micro cracks to occur at a defined stress in short time-fracture testing, metallographic specimens were prepared as well as notched bar impact beneting tests performed. There is a distinct dependence between lasting expansion in the short time-fracture test, notched bar impact strength and the number of cracks; the notched bar impact strength decreases with increasing microcracking (increasing permanent expansion). One must note here that the microstructure can still carry full load although its toughness value has decreased. The maximum brittleness state of the materials depends on time and temperature. (orig.) [de

  8. Whole blood treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light: quality assessment of all blood components produced by the buffy coat method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Peter; Culibrk, Brankica; Karwal, Simrath; Serrano, Katherine; Levin, Elena; Bu, Daniel; Bhakta, Varsha; Sheffield, William P; Goodrich, Raymond P; Devine, Dana V

    2015-04-01

    Pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies are currently licensed for use with platelet (PLT) and plasma components. Treatment of whole blood (WB) would be of benefit to the blood banking community by saving time and costs compared to individual component treatment. However, no paired, pool-and-split study directly assessing the impact of WB PI on the subsequently produced components has yet been reported. In a "pool-and-split" study, WB either was treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light or was kept untreated as control. The buffy coat (BC) method produced plasma, PLT, and red blood cell (RBC) components. PLT units arising from the untreated WB study arm were treated with riboflavin and UV light on day of production and compared to PLT concentrates (PCs) produced from the treated WB units. A panel of common in vitro variables for the three types of components was used to monitor quality throughout their respective storage periods. PCs derived from the WB PI treatment were of significantly better quality than treated PLT components for most variables. RBCs produced from the WB treatment deteriorated earlier during storage than untreated units. Plasma components showed a 3% to 44% loss in activity for several clotting factors. Treatment of WB with riboflavin and UV before production of components by the BC method shows a negative impact on all three blood components. PLT units produced from PI-treated WB exhibited less damage compared to PLT component treatment. © 2014 AABB.

  9. Microstructural studies and wear assessments of Ti/TiC surface composite coatings on commercial pure Ti produced by titanium cored wires and TIG process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfared, A., E-mail: amirmonfared25@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H.; Asgari, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) process and titanium cored wires filled with micro size TiC particles were employed to produce surface composite coatings on commercial pure Ti substrate for wear resistance improvement. Wire drawing process was utilized to produce several cored wires from titanium strips and titanium carbide powders. Subsequently, these cored wires were melted and coated on commercial pure Ti using TIG process. This procedure was repeated at different current intensities and welding travel speeds. Composite coating tracks were found to be affected by TIG heat input. The microstructural studies using optical and scanning electron microscopy supported by X-ray diffraction showed that the surface composite coatings consisted of {alpha} Prime -Ti, spherical and dendritic TiC particles. Also, greater volume fractions of TiC particles in the coatings were found at lower heat input. A maximum microhardness value of about 1100 HV was measured which is more than 7 times higher than the substrate material. Pin-on-disk wear tests exhibited a better performance of the surface composite coatings than the untreated material which was attributed to the presence of TiC particles in the microstructure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti/TiC composite coatings were produced on the CP-Ti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium cored wire and TIG process were employed for production of the coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing heat input, increased the volume fraction of TiC in the coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum microhardness obtained in the lowest heat input. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wear resistance of the coatings improved due to the formation of TiC particles.

  10. A Simple Method to Functionalize the Surface of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Produced TiO2 Coatings for Growing Hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Huan-Ping; Yang, Chia-Jung; Lin, Jia-Fu; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Lu, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 coatings with porous surfaces were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation. • Simple pre-immersion in K 2 HPO 4 could functionalize the surfaces of the TiO 2 . • Such pre-immersion enhanced substantially the growth of hydroxyapatite in SBF. • Growth mechanisms of hydroxyapatite via the pre-immersion have been proposed. • MTT assay shows great osteoblast-like cell activity on the obtained hydroxyapatite. - Abstract: Conventionally, hydrothermal treatment was often used to modify the TiO 2 surface prior to the growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) that is one of the most important implant biomaterials. In this work, a simple pre-immersion of the obtained TiO 2 in a weak base, instead of the conventionally high pressure-temperature hydrothermal pre-treatment, was conducted prior to the growth of HA. Firstly, anatase TiO 2 coatings with porous surfaces were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation with optimized processing parameters. X-ray diffraction patterns and field-emission microscopy reveal that the anatase TiO 2 films with porous surfaces were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation. Subsequently, the films were pre-immersed in 0.1–2 M K 2 HPO 4 solutions for only 10 min. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the −OH functional groups were generated after such pre-immersion, which could enhance significantly the growth of a single phase of HA in simulated body fluid (SBF). Growth mechanisms of HA via the pre-immersion treatment and soaking in SBF have been proposed. Moreover, the proliferation rate and attachment of the MG-63 osteoblast cells were greatly enhanced on the obtained HA compared to that without the immersion pre-treatment from the MTT assay and morphology analyses. This simple immersion pre-treatment evidently provides an easy route for the growth of HA and has great potential for biomedical applications.

  11. Physical and chemical characterization of Ag-doped Ti coatings produced by magnetron sputtering of modular targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Tobias; Warmuth, Franziska; Werner, Ewald; Hertl, Cornelia; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe; Moseke, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Silver-doped Ti films were produced using a single magnetron sputtering source equipped with a titanium target containing implemented silver modules under variation of bias voltage and substrate temperature. The Ti(Ag) films were characterized regarding their morphology, contact angle, phase composition, silver content and distribution as well as the elution of Ag + ions into cell media. SEM and AFM pictures showed that substrate heating during film deposition supported the formation of even and dense surface layers with small roughness values, an effect that could even be enforced, when a substrate bias voltage was applied instead. The deposition of both Ti and Ag was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. ICP-MS and EDX showed a clear correlation between the applied sputtering parameters and the silver content of the coatings. Surface-sensitive XPS measurements revealed that higher substrate temperatures led to an accumulation of Ag in the near-surface region, while the application of a bias voltage had the opposite effect. Additional elution measurements using ICP-MS showed that the release kinetics depended on the amount of silver located at the film surface and hence could be tailored by variation of the sputter parameters. - Highlights: • Modular targets were used to deposit Ti(Ag) films. • Ag-content is adjustable by bias voltage, sputtering power and substrate temperature. • Coating parameters significantly change film morphology and roughness. • A critical parameter for Ag release is the fraction of silver on the film surface

  12. Microstructure and microhardness characterization of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-SiC coatings produced by the plasma transferred arc method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islak, Serkan [Kastamonu Univ. (Turkey). Cide Rifat Ilgaz Vocational High School; Eski, Oezkan [Kastamonu Univ. (Turkey). Kastamonu Vocational High School; Buytoz, Soner [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Karagoez, Muzaffer [Bartin Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Stokes, Joseph [Dublin City Univ. (Ireland). School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the coatings made of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} and SiC powder manufactured on AISI 304 stainless steel applied by the plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding process. SiC content in the produced coated layer was varied between 0-100 wt. % and the effect of SiC concentration on the microstructure and hardness of the coating was measured experimentally. SEM analyses revealed that the composite coatings had a homogeneous, nonporous, and crack-free microstructure. Dendrites and interdendrite eutectics formed on the coating layer, subject to the temperature gradient and the solidification ratio. There was a significant increase in the hardness of coating layers with the effect of the {gamma}-(Fe,Ni), Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}, Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}, Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, Cr{sub 3}Si, CrSi{sub 2}, Fe{sub 0.64}Ni{sub 0.36}, CFe{sub 15.1}, C-(Fe,Cr)-Si phases formed in the microstructure. In comparison to the substrate, the microhardness of the coatings produced by PTA were 2.5-3.5 times harder. (orig.)

  13. Effect of complexing agents and pH on microstructure and tribological properties of Co-W coatings produced by double pulse electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Fenghua; Liu Cansen; Huang Ping

    2012-01-01

    The Co-W coatings were produced by double pulse electrodeposition from aqueous bath with cobalt sulphate and sodium tungstate. Effect of complexing agent and pH value in the plating bath on the microstructure, morphology and hardness of the electrodeposited Co-W coatings were investigated using an X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a Vickers hardness tester, respectively. The friction and wear properties of the Co-W coatings deposited from different baths were evaluated with a ball-on-disk UMT-3MT tribometer. The correlation among the electrodepositing condition that varied with the complexing agent or pH value, the microstructure and the tribological properties of the deposited Co-W coatings were discussed. The results show that the complexing agent and pH value significantly affect the microstructure and tribological properties of the electrodeposited Co-W coatings. The sodium citrate is the best complexing agent to improve the tribological properties of the electrodeposited Co-W coatings at pH 6.0, followed by the sodium gluconate. The Co-W coatings electrodeposited from the near neutral bath can obtain better tribological properties than those deposited from strong acid or strong alkaline bath. The differences of the tribological properties for Co-W coatings from different baths were attributed to their different hardness, crystal structure and morphological characterizations, which can be optimized by the electrodepositing condition, i.e., the complexing agent and pH value in bath.

  14. A series of NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts containing boron and phosphorus. Part 2. Hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodesulfurization using heavy gas oil derived from Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, D.; Dalai, A.K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reactor Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada) SK S7N 5C9; Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton Research Center (Canada)

    2004-04-08

    The hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity of a series of NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst containing boron (B) and phosphorus (P) were tested in a trickle bed reactor using heavy gas oil derived from Athabasca bitumen. Detailed characterization of these catalysts is given in Part I of this paper. Addition of B and P caused the formation of extremely strong acid sites on the catalyst and enhanced its HDN activity. The total (TN), basic (BN) and non-basic nitrogen (NBN) conversions increased from 61.9 to 78.0wt.%, from 78.9 to 93.0wt.% and from 52.8 to 70.0wt.%, respectively, with the increase in B concentration from 0 to 1.7wt.% to NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Similarly, TN, BN and NBN conversions increased from 61.9 to 78.4wt.%, from 78.9 to 91.0wt.%, and from 52.8 to 71.6wt.% with the addition of 2.7wt.% P. Though the addition of B and P to NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst did not show any significant effect on S conversion, the HDN and HDS activities of the catalyst containing 1.7wt.% B and the one containing 2.7wt.% P are comparable to those of a commercial catalyst. The activity over extended period indicated that catalysts L and K were more stable (lower deactivation rate) in terms of nitrogen removal activity than catalyst B (reference catalyst). On the other hand, the stability for sulfur removal was comparable with catalyst B. Selected catalysts after use were characterized using BET surface area, TPR, TPD and SEM techniques which were correlated further with their activities.

  15. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of composite galvanic Ni with carbon nanomaterials and PVD Mo coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovich, V.B.; Chayeuski, V.V.; Zhdanok, S.A.; Barkovskaya, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Double layer coatings Ni – Mo were obtained by electrolytic deposition of galvanic Ni and following arc PVD deposition of molybdenum. The ion plating coatings Mo on Ni foil and composition electrolytic Ni coatings with carbon nanomaterials (CNM) deposited on mild steel has been also investigated. Composite galvanic Ni coatings with CNM and ion plating coatings Mo contain separately obtained cubic α-Mo phase as well as fragmentary solid solution Mo in Ni. Such coatings exclude hydrogenation of Ni foundation in alkaline solution and possess enlarged electrocatalytic properties while emitting hydrogen and oxygen. Availability of carbon based nanomaterials in combined coatings is cause of an active absorption hydrogen after cathodic polarization. A formation on the surface layer of nanostructure solid solution (Ni, Mo) after compression plasma flows treatment with fixed parameters of patterns Mo/Ni/ mild steel take place. (authors)

  16. Imidazole, a New Tunable Reagent for Producing Nanocellulose, Part I: Xylan-Coated CNCs and CNFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Mao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Imidazole is reported to be an effective reactant for the production of nanocellulose from hardwood pulp. The morphologies and surface properties of the nanocellulose can be simply tailored according to the water content in the imidazole system: with pure imidazole, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs in a yield of 10 wt % can be produced. With 25 wt % of water in imidazole, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs are obtained in 20 wt % yield. Both nanocelluloses exhibit crystallinity indices in the order of 70%. Interestingly, they retain the original xylan from the pulp with ca. 9–10 wt % of residual xylan content.

  17. Effect of shot peening on the residual stress and mechanical behaviour of low-temperature and high-temperature annealed martensitic gear steel 18CrNiMo7-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, R.; Zhang, X.; Mallipeddi, D.

    2017-01-01

    A martensitic gear steel (18CrNiMo7-6) was annealed at 180 degrees C for 2h and at similar to 750 degrees C for 1h to design two different starting microstructures for shot peening. One maintains the original as-transformed martensite while the other contains irregular-shaped sorbite together...... with ferrite. These two materials were shot peened using two different peening conditions. The softer sorbite + ferrite microstructure was shot peened using 0.6 mm conditioned cut steel shots at an average speed of 25 m/s in a conventional shot peening machine, while the harder tempered martensite steel...

  18. High-Temperature Tolerance in Multi-Scale Cermet Solar-Selective Absorbing Coatings Prepared by Laser Cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xuming; Wei, Qian; Zhou, Jianxin; Ma, Huiyang

    2018-06-19

    In order to achieve cermet-based solar absorber coatings with long-term thermal stability at high temperatures, a novel single-layer, multi-scale TiC-Ni/Mo cermet coating was first prepared using laser cladding technology in atmosphere. The results show that the optical properties of the cermet coatings using laser cladding were much better than the preplaced coating. In addition, the thermal stability of the optical properties for the laser cladding coating were excellent after annealing at 650 °C for 200 h. The solar absorptance and thermal emittance of multi-scale cermet coating were 85% and 4.7% at 650 °C. The results show that multi-scale cermet materials are more suitable for solar-selective absorbing coating. In addition, laser cladding is a new technology that can be used for the preparation of spectrally-selective coatings.

  19. High-Temperature Tolerance in Multi-Scale Cermet Solar-Selective Absorbing Coatings Prepared by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuming Pang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve cermet-based solar absorber coatings with long-term thermal stability at high temperatures, a novel single-layer, multi-scale TiC-Ni/Mo cermet coating was first prepared using laser cladding technology in atmosphere. The results show that the optical properties of the cermet coatings using laser cladding were much better than the preplaced coating. In addition, the thermal stability of the optical properties for the laser cladding coating were excellent after annealing at 650 °C for 200 h. The solar absorptance and thermal emittance of multi-scale cermet coating were 85% and 4.7% at 650 °C. The results show that multi-scale cermet materials are more suitable for solar-selective absorbing coating. In addition, laser cladding is a new technology that can be used for the preparation of spectrally-selective coatings.

  20. Data on the optimized sulphate electrolyte zinc rich coating produced through in-situ variation of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayomi, Ojo Sunday Isaac

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a comprehensive effect of particle loading and optimised process parameter on the developed zinc electrolyte was presented. The depositions were performed between 10-30 min at a stirring rate of 200 rpm at room temperature of 30 °C. The effect of coating difference on the properties and interfacial surface was acquired, at a voltage interval between 0.6 and 1.0 V for the coating duration. The framework of bath condition as it influences the coating thickness was put into consideration. Hence, the electrodeposition data for coating thickness, and coating per unit area at constant distance between the anode and cathode with depth of immersion were acquired. The weight gained under varying coating parameter were acquired and could be used for designing and given typical direction to multifunctional performance of developed multifacetal coatings in surface engineering application.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of MgF2 coatings by chemical conversion on magnesium alloys for producing biodegradable orthopedic implants of temporary use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, P Y; Jaimes, K J; Parada, N J; Viejo, F; Hernández-Barrios, C A; Aparicio, M; Coy, A E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the synthesis of biodegradable MgF 2 coatings by chemical conversion on the commercial Elektron 21 and AZ91D magnesium alloys, in aqueous HF solutions for different concentrations and temperatures. The chemical composition and morphology of the coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the other hand, their corrosion behavior was evaluated by gravimetric and electrochemical measurements in Hank's solution at 37°C for different immersion times. The experimental results revealed that chemical conversion in HF produced MgF 2 coatings which corrosion resistance was enhanced by increasing the HF concentration. Further, the microstructure and composition of the base alloy played a key role on the growth and degradation mechanisms of the MgF 2 coatings

  2. Comparison of product selectivity during hydroprocessing of bitumen derived gas oil in the presence of NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst containing boron and phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Ferdous; A.K. Dalai; J. Adjaye [University of Saskatchewan, SK (Canada). Catalysis and Chemical Reactor Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-15

    A detailed experimental study was performed in a trickle-bed reactor using bitumen derived gas oil. The objective of this work was to compare the activity of NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst containing boron or phosphorus for the hydrotreating and mild hydrocracking of bitumen derived gas oil. Experiments were performed at the temperature and LHSV of 340-420{sup o}C and 0.5-2 h{sup -1}, respectively, using NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts containing 1.7 wt% boron or 2.7 wt% phosphorus. In the temperature range of 340-390{sup o}C, higher nitrogen conversion was observed from boron containing catalyst than that from phosphorus containing catalyst whereas in the same temperature range, phosphorus containing catalyst gave higher relative removal of sulfur than boron containing catalyst. Phosphorus containing catalyst showed excellent hydrocracking and mild hydrocracking activities at all operating conditions. Higher naphtha yield and selectivity were obtained using phosphorus containing catalyst at all operating conditions. Maximum gasoline selectivity of {approximately}45 wt% was obtained at the temperature, pressure, and LHSV of 400{sup o}C, 9.4 MPa and 0.5 h{sup -1}, respectively, using catalyst containing 2.7 wt% phosphorus. 40 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Liquid phase interaction in TiC0,5N0,5-TiNi-Mo and TiC0,5N0,5-TiNi-Ti-Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarova, L.Kh; Grigorov, I.G.; Zajnulin, Yu.G.

    1998-01-01

    Using the methods of X ray diffraction analysis, electron microscopy and X ray spectrum microanalysis a study was made into specific features of phase and structure formation in alloys TiC 0,5 N 0,5 -TiNi-Mo and TiC 0,5 N 0,5 -TiNi-Mo in the presence of a liquid phase at temperatures of 1380-1600 deg C. It is revealed that the physical and chemical processes taking place during the liquid-phase sintering result in the formation of a three-phase alloy consisting of nonstoichiometric titanium carbonitride TiC 0.5-x N 0.5-x , a molybdenum base solid solution of titanium, nickel and carbon Mo(Ti, Ni, C) and one of two intermetallic compounds, either TiNi or Ni 3 Ti. Metallic element concentration in individual phase constituents of the alloy is determined by means of X ray spectrum microanalysis

  4. Influence of the reuse of the electrolytic solution on the properties of hydroxyapatite coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation of grade 4 titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Cesar A.; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Cruz, Nilson Cristino, E-mail: cesar.augustoa@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a process able to produce oxide coatings on light metals, such as Al, Ti, V, Mg, Ta and Nb. In this technique, the application of a voltage, in the range of hundreds of volts, between the sample and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte solution produces electrical fields intense enough to breakdown the insulating oxide layer on the sample surface giving rise to micro electric sparks[1]. These micro-arcs can locally melt the substrate alloying it with elements in the electrolyte solution [2]. In this work PEO has been used to produce coatings with high concentration of hydroxyapatite on Grade 4 titanium disks. The treatments were performed in a 1 liter stainless steel tank. The tank wall was used as the cathode and the coatings were produced during 120 s using calcium acetate and sodium glycerophosphate water solutions as electrolyte. The samples were biased with 480 V pulses with frequency and duty cycle of 100 Hz and 60%, respectively. Using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction it has been evaluated the influence of the number of reuses of the solution on the coating properties. The coating produced contains around 85% of HA and it has not been observed any significant changes in their properties when the same solution was reused up to 5 times. [1] A.L. Yerokhin, X. Nie, A. Leyland, A. Matthews, Surf. Coat. Technol. 130 (2000) 195 206. [2] C. A. Antonio, N. C. Cruz, et al. Materials Research. 17(6) 2014; 1427-1433. (author)

  5. TEM Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Transition Zone Between Steel Tube and An Inconel 625 Weld Overlay Coating Produced by CMT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmus-Górnikowska M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and chemical composition of the transition zone between 16Mo3 steel and Inconel 625 weld overlay coating produced by the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT method. Investigations were primarily carried out through transmission electron microscopy (TEM on thin foils prepared by FIB (Focus Ion Beam.

  6. Bone ingrowth potential of electron beam and selective laser melting produced trabecular-like implant surfaces with and without a biomimetic coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, J.E.; Hannink, G.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Buma, P.

    2013-01-01

    The bone ingrowth potential of trabecular-like implant surfaces produced by either selective laser melting (SLM) or electron beam melting (EBM), with or without a biomimetic calciumphosphate coating, was examined in goats. For histological analysis and histomorphometry of bone ingrowth depth and

  7. High-Performance Epoxy-Resin-Bonded Magnets Produced from the Sm2Fe17Nx Powders Coated by Copper and Zinc Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenji; Machida, Ken-ichi; Adachi, Gin-ya

    2001-04-01

    Fine powders of Sm2Fe17Nx coated with copper metal reduced from CuCl2 and/or zinc metal subsequently derived by photo-decomposition of diethylzinc [Zn(C2H5)2] were prepared, and their magnetic properties were characterized in addition to those of epoxy-resin-bonded magnets produced from the coated powders (Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx, Zn/Sm2Fe17Nx and Zn/Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx). The remanence (Br) and maximum energy product [(\\mathit{BH})max] of double metal-coated Zn/Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx powders were maintained at higher levels than those of single Zn metal-coated Sm2Fe17Nx ones (Zn/Sm2Fe17Nx) even after heat treatment at 673 K since the oxidation resistance and thermal stability were effectively improved by formation of the thick and uniform protection layer on the surface of Sm2Fe17Nx particles. Moreover, the epoxy-resin-bonded magnets produced from the Zn/Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx powders possessed good corrosion resistance in air at 393 K which it resulted in the smaller thermal irreversible flux loss than that of uncoated and single Zn metal-coated Sm2Fe17Nx powders in the temperature range of above 393 K.

  8. Porous SiO2/HAp Coatings on Cp-Titanium Grade 1 Surfaces Produced by Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalewicz T.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous hydroxyapatite doped SiO2 coatings were electrophoretically deposited (EPD on commercially pure titanium. The influence of EPD parameters on coatings quality was investigated. Microstructural observation was done using transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffractometry.

  9. High-performance characteristics of the bonded magnets produced from the Sm2 Fe17 Nx powder stabilized by photo-induced zinc metal coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, K.; Izumi, H.; Shiomi, A.; Iguchi, M.; Adachi, G.

    1996-01-01

    Finely and uniformly ground powders of Sm 2 Fe 17 N x were stabilized by surface-coating with the zinc metal produced from Zn (C 2 H 5 ) 2 . The epoxy resin-bonded magnets produced from the Zn/Sm 2 Fe 17 N x composite powder provided high-performance permanent magnetic characteristics: (BH)max=∼ 176 kJm -3 . (author)

  10. Nanocomposited coatings produced by laser-assisted process to prevent silicone hydogels from protein fouling and bacterial contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Guobang; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanocomposited-coating was deposited on silicone hydrogel by using the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) process. The ZnO–PEG nanocomposited coating reduces over 50% protein absorption on silicone hydrogel, and can inhibit the bacterial growth efficiently. - Highlights: • We developed a nanocomposited coating to prevent silicone hydrogel from biofouling. • Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation can deposit inorganic–organic nanomaterials. • The designed nanocomposited coating reduces protein absorption by over 50%. • The designed nanocomposited coating shows significant antimicrobial efficiency. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles incorporating with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were deposited together on the surface of silicone hydrogel through matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). In this process, frozen nanocomposites (ZnO–PEG) in isopropanol were irradiated under a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm for 1 h. Our results indicate that the MAPLE process is able to maintain the chemical backbone of polymer and prevent the nanocomposite coating from contamination. The ZnO–PEG nanocomposited coating reduces over 50% protein absorption on silicone hydrogel. The cytotoxicity study shows that the ZnO–PEG nanocomposites deposited on silicone hydrogels do not impose the toxic effect on mouse NIH/3T3 cells. In addition, MAPLE-deposited ZnO–PEG nanocomposites can inhibit the bacterial growth significantly.

  11. Electron beam irradiating process for rendering rough or topographically irregular surface substrates smooth; and coated substrates produced thereby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure involves a novel process for instantaneous electron-beam curing of very thin low viscosity, solventless coating upon rough, irregular or textured surfaces of a substrate such as paper or the like. Through rather critical timing and energy adjustment procedures, the coating firmly adheres to the surface before the coating can conform to the roughness or texture contour or substantially penetrate into the surface. By this method a solidified very smooth outer surface is provided for the substrate that is particularly used for metalization and other finished layerings. (author)

  12. Microstructure and functional properties of the TiNi- and CuAl-based SMA thin films and coats produced by PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomytsev, V.; Musienko, R.; Nevdacha, V.; Panarin, V.; Pasko, A.; Cesari, E.; Segui, C.; Humbeeck, J. van

    2000-01-01

    The TiNi- and CuAl-based shape memory alloy thin films and wear/corrosion resistant surface coats have been produced by the ion-plasma deposition method with an arc dispersion of the cathode/target. This technique was widely used for production of the coats from a sprayed pure metal or a single-phase alloy. We have offered to use this process for dispersion of the heterophase alloys like shape memory alloys. The arguments for choosing of this technique are discussed with respect to creation of the conditions for preservation not only chemical composition, but also phase structure of an alloy in a covering, thus the shape memory/superelastic effects to be kept in a coat. (orig.)

  13. A spectroscopic and microstructural study of oxide coatings produced on a Ti–6Al–4V alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, R.O.; Nie, X.; Northwood, D.O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PEO (plasma electrolytic oxidation) for production of oxide coatings on a Ti–6Al–4V alloy. ► Two different current modes namely pulsed unipolar and bipolar was used. ► Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to characterize the PEO plasma. ► This is the first attempt to characterize spectroscopically the PEO plasma of Ti and its alloys. ► The discharge behavior effect on the formation and structure of the coating was determined. - Abstract: In this study, we have used PEO (plasma electrolytic oxidation) for the production of oxide coatings on a Ti–6Al–4V alloy at two different current modes, namely pulsed unipolar and bipolar. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible and near UV band (280–800 nm) was used to characterize the PEO plasma. The emission spectra were recorded and the plasma temperature profile versus processing time was constructed using a line intensity ratios method. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the process parameters, including current mode and pulse duration time, on the plasma characteristics, surface morphology and microstructure and corrosion resistance of oxides grown on Ti–6Al–4V by PEO process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the coating microstructure, morphology and phase composition. The corrosion resistance of the coated and uncoated samples was examined by potentiodynamic polarization in a 3.5% NaCl solution. It was found that the plasma temperature profiles are significantly influenced by changing the current mode from unipolar to bipolar. The strongest discharges that are initiated at the interface between the substrate and the coating can be reduced or eliminated by using a bipolar current mode. This produces a thinner, denser and more corrosion-resistant coating.

  14. Improved mechanical properties of Ni-rich Ni3Al coatings produced by EB-PVD for repairing single crystal blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yong Sun; Yan-Ling Pei; Shu-Suo Li; Hu Zhang; Sheng-Kai Gong

    2017-01-01

    Active control of turbine blade tip clearance for aircraft engine continues to be a concern in engine operation,because turbine blades are subjected to wear and therefore cause an increasing tip clearance between the rotating blades and the shroud and also reduce the engine efficiency.In this work,a Ni-rich Ni3Al coating with γ'/γtwo-phase microstructure was deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD),which worked as repairing the worn blade tips of single crystal blades.Nb molten pool was used to increase the molten pool temperature and thus to enhance the deposition rate.The microstructures and mechanical properties can be modified by the deposition temperatures and the following heat treatments.All coatings consist of γ'and γ phases.At deposition temperature of 600 ℃,a dense microstructure can be achieved to produce a coating with grain size of ~ 1 μm and microhardness of ~HV 477.After being heated for 4 h at a temperature of 1,100 ℃,the coatings have a more uniform microstructure,and microhardness maintains at a high level of ~ HV 292.Effect of Hf and Zr on EB-PVD Ni3Al repair coating will be further investigated.

  15. Microstructure and abrasive wear properties of M(Cr,Fe7C3 carbides reinforced high-chromium carbon coating produced by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner BUYTOZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, high-chromium ferrochromium carbon hypereutectic alloy powder was coated on AISI 4340 steel by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process. The coating layers were analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Depending on the gas tungsten arc welding pa-rameters, either hypoeutectic or hypereutectic microstructures were produced. Wear tests of the coatings were carried out on a pin-on-disc apparatus as function of contact load. Wear rates of the all coating layers were decreased as a function of the loading. The improvement of abrasive wear resistance of the coating layer could be attributed to the high hardness of the hypereutectic M7C3 carbides in the microstruc-ture. As a result, the microstructure of surface layers, hardness and abrasive wear behaviours showed different characteristics due to the gas tungsten arc welding parameters.

  16. The creep and stress-rupture behaviour under internal pressure of tubes made from austenitic stainless steel X8 CrNiMoNb 1616 (Material No. 1.4981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, L.; Polifka, F.; Kempe, H.

    1979-05-01

    Creep and stress rupture tests have been performed at 600, 650, 700 and 750 0 C on tubes made from three different heats from the austenitic stainless steel X8 CrNiMoNb 1616 (Material No. 1.4981). The tubes were loaded by internal pressure and the tangential (hoop) creep strain was measured continuously. The results are presented in form of creep curves, stress-time to rupture curves and curves for a creep limit. The average and minimum creep rates as a function of the applied stress have been evaluated and are described with a creep law analogous to Norton's creep law. An interpolation and extrapolation of the stress-rupture-strength and the creep strength are possible using the time-temperature-parameter-plot after Larson and Miller. (orig.) [de

  17. Catalytic hydroprocessing of simulated coal tars. 2. Effect of acid catalysts on the hydroconversion of model compounds on a sulphided Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemberton, J.L.; Touzeyidio, M.; Guisnet, M. (Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique CNRS, Poitiers (France))

    1989-09-15

    Acid catalysts were added to sulphided Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst in order to obtain a higher hydrocracking activity. The hydroconversion of phenanthrene, alone or in the presence of carbazole and/or 1-naphthol, was chosen as a model reaction. The presence of acid catalysts greatly increases the conversion of phenanthrene and allows significant amounts of light products to be obtained. In the presence of carbazole or of 1-naphthol, acid catalysts create a small increase in phenanthrene conversion, but light products are no longer obtained as the acid sites are poisoned either by adsorption of ammonia from carbazole decomposition, or by extensive coke deposition generated from 1-naphthol. In the presence of carbazole and 1-naphthol, there is no longer any effect of the acid catalysts on the hydroconversion of phenanthrene, owing to complete inhibition of the acid sites. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. TiO2-SiO2 Coatings with a Low Content of AuNPs for Producing Self-Cleaning Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Luna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The high pollution levels in our cities are producing a significant increase of dust on buildings. An application of photoactive coatings on building materials can produce buildings with self-cleaning surfaces. In this study, we have developed a simple sol-gel route for producing Au-TiO2/SiO2 photocatalysts with application on buildings. The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs improved the TiO2 photoactivity under solar radiation because they promoted absorption in the visible range. We varied the content of AuNPs in the sols under study, in order to investigate their effect on self-cleaning properties. The sols obtained were sprayed on a common building stone, producing coatings which adhere firmly to the stone and preserve their aesthetic qualities. We studied the decolourization efficiency of the photocatalysts under study against methylene blue and against soot (a real staining agent for buildings. Finally, we established that the coating with an intermediate Au content presented the best self-cleaning performance, due to the role played by its structure and texture on its photoactivity.

  19. Gold nanoparticles: BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) coating and X-ray irradiation produce variable-spectrum photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kuo-Hao [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Lai, Sheng-Feng [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yan-Cheng; Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Ong, Edwin B.L. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Tan, Hui-Ru [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Physics Department, National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore); Yang, C.S. [Center for Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Margaritondo, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Hwu, Y., E-mail: phhwu@sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-15

    We show that by using different x-ray irradiation times of BSA-coated Au nanoparticles (NPs) we can change their ultraviolet-stimulated photoluminescence and shift the spectral weight over the visible spectral range. This is due to the interplay of two emission bands, one due to BSA and the other related to gold. The emission properties did not change with time over a period of several months. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) coated with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) are synthesized by x-ray irradiation. • BSA coated AuNPs with ∼1 nm size show strong photoluminescence in red by UV excitation. • The blue photoluminescence of BSA increase with x-ray irradiation. • Increase x-ray irradiation time during the synthesis shift the color of the colloid from red to blue.

  20. Gold nanoparticles: BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) coating and X-ray irradiation produce variable-spectrum photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kuo-Hao; Lai, Sheng-Feng; Lin, Yan-Cheng; Chou, Wu-Ching; Ong, Edwin B.L.; Tan, Hui-Ru; Tok, Eng Soon; Yang, C.S.; Margaritondo, G.; Hwu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We show that by using different x-ray irradiation times of BSA-coated Au nanoparticles (NPs) we can change their ultraviolet-stimulated photoluminescence and shift the spectral weight over the visible spectral range. This is due to the interplay of two emission bands, one due to BSA and the other related to gold. The emission properties did not change with time over a period of several months. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) coated with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) are synthesized by x-ray irradiation. • BSA coated AuNPs with ∼1 nm size show strong photoluminescence in red by UV excitation. • The blue photoluminescence of BSA increase with x-ray irradiation. • Increase x-ray irradiation time during the synthesis shift the color of the colloid from red to blue

  1. Effect of Nano-crystalline Ceramic Coats Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on Corrosion Behavior of AA5083 Aluminum Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayananth, T.; Muthupandi, V.; Rao, S. R. Koteswara

    2010-01-01

    High specific strength offered by aluminum and magnesium alloys makes them desirable in modern transportation industries. Often the restrictions imposed on the usage of these alloys are due to their poor tribological and corrosion properties. However, their corrosion properties can be further enhanced by synthesizing ceramic coating on the substrate through Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process. In this study, nano-crystalline alumina coatings were formed on the surface of AA5083 aluminum alloy test coupons using PEO process in aqueous alkali-silicate electrolyte with and without addition of sodium aluminate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the crystallite size varied between 38 and 46 nm and α- and γ- alumina were the dominant phases present in the coatings. Corrosion studies by potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl revealed that the electrolyte composition has an influence on the corrosion resistance of nano-crystalline oxide layer formed.

  2. Phase composition and tribological properties of Ti-Al coatings produced on pure Ti by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Baogang; Zhou Jiansong; Zhang Shitang; Zhou Huidi; Pu Yuping; Chen Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    Ti-Al coatings with ∼14.7, 18.1, 25.2 and 29.7 at.% Al contents were fabricated on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding. The laser cladding Ti-Al coatings were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that with the increase of Al content, the diffraction peaks shifted gradually to higher 2θ values. The laser cladding Ti-Al coatings with 14.7 and 18.1 at.% Al were composed of α-Ti and α 2 -Ti 3 Al phases, while those with 25.2 and 29.7 at.% Al were composed of α 2 -Ti 3 Al phase. With the increase of Al content, the cross-sectional hardness increased, while the fracture toughness decreased. For the laser cladding Ti-Al coatings, when the Al content was ≤18.1 at.%, the wear mechanism was adhesive wear and abrasive wear; while when the Al content ≥25.2 at.%, the wear mechanism was adhesive wear, abrasive wear and microfracture. With the increase of Al content, the wear rate of laser cladding Ti-Al coatings decreased under 1 N normal load, while the wear rate firstly decreased and then increased under a normal load of 3 N. Due to its optimized combination of high hardness and high fracture toughness, the laser cladding Ti-Al coating with 18.1 at.% Al showed the best anti-wear properties at higher normal load

  3. Phase composition and tribological properties of Ti-Al coatings produced on pure Ti by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Baogang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Jiansong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Shitang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Huidi [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Pu Yuping [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen Jianmin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: chenjm@lzb.ac.cn

    2007-10-15

    Ti-Al coatings with {approx}14.7, 18.1, 25.2 and 29.7 at.% Al contents were fabricated on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding. The laser cladding Ti-Al coatings were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that with the increase of Al content, the diffraction peaks shifted gradually to higher 2{theta} values. The laser cladding Ti-Al coatings with 14.7 and 18.1 at.% Al were composed of {alpha}-Ti and {alpha}{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al phases, while those with 25.2 and 29.7 at.% Al were composed of {alpha}{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al phase. With the increase of Al content, the cross-sectional hardness increased, while the fracture toughness decreased. For the laser cladding Ti-Al coatings, when the Al content was {<=}18.1 at.%, the wear mechanism was adhesive wear and abrasive wear; while when the Al content {>=}25.2 at.%, the wear mechanism was adhesive wear, abrasive wear and microfracture. With the increase of Al content, the wear rate of laser cladding Ti-Al coatings decreased under 1 N normal load, while the wear rate firstly decreased and then increased under a normal load of 3 N. Due to its optimized combination of high hardness and high fracture toughness, the laser cladding Ti-Al coating with 18.1 at.% Al showed the best anti-wear properties at higher normal load.

  4. Corrosion resistance of Al-based coatings in flowing Pb–15.7Li produced by aluminum electrodeposition from ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Erik Wulf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steels are intended to serve as structural materials in different blanket designs, e.g. HCLL, DCLL and WCLL. In these designs the material is supposed to be in direct contact with the flowing liquid breeder material Pb–15.7Li at an operating temperature of up to 550°C. These conditions will lead to severe corrosion attack of the steel and high corrosion rates of up to 400µm per year are reported in the literature. To avoid or reduce corrosion Al-based corrosion barriers were developed in the last years by using electrochemical techniques to deposit aluminum. Until now two processes have been developed. The first one, so called ECA process, is based on volatile toluene electrolytes. Long-term corrosion experiments on these coatings indicated reduced corrosion rates compared to bare Eurofer steel in flowing Pb–15.7Li. However, these Fe–Al scales showed inhomogeneous corrosion attack of the corrosion barrier itself. In this study the improved ECX process was applied to produce Al-based coatings. The short-term corrosion behavior of such barrier coatings was analyzed for up to 4000h by diameter measurements and metallographic examinations. The investigation revealed uniform corrosion in comparison to inhomogeneous attack in case of ECA coated samples and reduced corrosion rates of around 20µm/a even for low exposure times of 4000h.

  5. Two level undercut-profile substrate-based filamentary coated conductors produced using metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea R.; Sundaram, Aarthi; Hazelton, Drew W.

    2018-01-01

    The two level undercut-profile substrate (2LUPS) has been introduced as a concept for subdividing rare-earth-Ba$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{7}$ (REBCO) coated conductors (CC) into narrow filaments which reduces the AC losses and improves field stability for DC magnets. The 2LUPS consists of two levels...

  6. A novel anti-frictional multiphase layer produced by plasma nitriding of PVD titanium coated ZL205A aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Yao, J. W.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhu, Y. D.; Guo, J. H.; Wang, Y.; Fu, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Yan, M. F.

    2018-02-01

    The heat treatment (consisting of solid solution and aging), is integrated with the nitriding process of titanium coated ZL205A aluminum alloy to improve the surface and matrix mechanical properties simultaneously. Two-step duplex treatment is adopted to prepare the gradient multiphase layer on a magnesium-free ZL205A aluminum-copper based alloy. Firstly, pure titanium film is deposited on the aluminum alloy substrate using magnetron sputtering. Secondly, the Ti-coated specimen is nitrided at the solid solution temperature of the substrate alloying elements in a gas mixture of N2 and H2 and aged at 175 °C. The microstructure evolution, microhardness as well as the wear resistance of obtained multiphase layers are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), microhardness tester and pin-on-disc tribometer. The multiphase layer, dominated by TiN0.3 or Al3Ti, is prepared with significantly increased layer depth after duplex treatment. The surface hardness of multiphase layer is remarkably improved from 23.7HV to 457HV. The core matrix hardness is also increased to 65HV after aging. The wear rate of the multiphase layer decreases about 55.22% and 49.28% in comparison with the aged and Ti coated specimens, respectively. The predominant wear mechanism for the multiphase layer is abrasive and oxidation, but severe adhesive wear for the aged and Ti coated specimens.

  7. HIGH TEMPERATURE EROSION WEAR OF CERMET PARTICLES REINFORCED SELF-FLUXING ALLOY MATRIX HVOF SPRAYED COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Surzhenkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the resistance of high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF sprayed TiC-NiMo and Cr3C2-Ni cermet particles reinforced NiCrSiB self-fluxing alloy matrix coatings to high temperature erosion wear is studied. Microstructure of the coatings was examined by SEM, phase composition was determined by XRD. A four-channel centrifugal particle accelerator was applied to study the high temperature erosion wear of the coatings. The impact angles were 30 and 90 degrees, initial particle velocity was 50 m/s, temperature of the test - 650 degrees. Volume wear of the coatings was calculated and compared to the respective values of the reference materials. Wear mechanisms were studied by SEM.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7617

  8. The analysis of impact of irregularity in radionuclide coating of scaffold on the distribution of absorbed dose produced by grid of microsources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nerosin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of irregularity in radionuclide coating of scaffold on the distribution of absorbed dose produced by grid of microsources was analyzed. On engineering software MATHCAD the program for calculation of absorbed dose produced by grid of microsources was created. To verify this algorithm the calculation model for MCNP code was established and represented the area consisted of soft biological tissue or any other tissue in which the grid of microsources was incorporated. Using the developed system the value of possible systematic irregular coating of radioactivity on the microsource’s core was analyzed. The distribution of activity along the surface of microsource was simulated to create distribution of absorbed dose rate corresponding to experimental data on radiation injury. The obtained model of microsource with irregular distribution of activity was compared to conventional microsource with core coated regularly along the entire area of the silver stem by main dosimetry characteristics. The results showed that even for extremely irregular distribution of activity the distribution of dose rate produced by microsource in the tumor area was not substantially different from dose-rate field obtained for microsource with regularly coated activity. The differences in dose rates (up to 10% in areas which were the nearest to the center of the grid were significantly lower than its decline from center to periphery of the grid. For spatial distribution of absorbed dose for specific configuration of microsource set and tracing of curves of equal level by selected cut-off the program SEEDPLAN was developed. The developed program represents precisely enough the spatial distribution of selected configuration set of microsources using results of calculation data for absorbed dose around the single microsource as basic data and may be used for optimal planning of brachytherapy with microsources. 

  9. A new titanium based alloy Ti-27Nb-13Zr produced by powder metallurgy with biomimetic coating for use as a biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Marcio W D; Ágreda, Carola G; Bressiani, Ana H A; Bressiani, José C

    2016-06-01

    Titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical applications due to their excellent properties such as high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Titanium alloys with alloying elements such as Nb and Zr are biocompatible and have Young's modulus close to that of human bone. To increase the bioactivity of titanium alloy surfaces is used chemical treatment with NaOH followed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The purpose of this study was to produce the alloy Ti-27Nb-13Zr with low Young's modulus by powder metallurgy using powders produced by the HDH process. The formation of biomimetic coatings on samples immersed in SBF for 3, 7, 11 and 15 days was evaluated. Characterization of the coating was performed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and scanning electron microscope. The microstructure and composition of the alloy were determined using SEM and XRD, while the mechanical properties were evaluated by determining the elastic modulus and the Vickers microhardness. The sintered alloys were composed of α and β phases, equiaxed grains and with density around 97.8% of its theoretical density. The Vickers microhardness and elasticity modulus of the alloy were determined and their values indicate that this alloy can be used as a biomaterial. Analysis of the coating revealed the presence of calcium phosphate layers on samples immersed for >3 days in the SBF solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Nitrided Layer on The Properties of Carbon Coatings Produced on X105CrMo17 Steel Under DC Glow-Discharge Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BOROWSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, machine components, which come in contact with each other, are made of steel. Common steel types include 100Cr6 and X105CrMo17 are widely used in rolling bearings, which are subjected to high static loads. However, more and more sophisticated structural applications require increasingly better performance from steel. The most popular methods for improving the properties of steel is carburisation or nitriding. Unfortunately, when very high surface properties of steel are required, this treatment may be insufficient. Improvement of tribological properties can be achieved by increasing the hardness of the surface, reducing roughness or reducing the coefficient of friction. The formation of composite layers on steel, consisting of a hard nitride diffusion layer and an external carbon coating with a low coefficient of friction, seems to be a prospect with significant potential. The article describes composite layers produced on X105CrMo17 steel and defines their morphology, surface roughness and their functional properties such as: resistance to friction-induced wear, coefficient of friction and corrosion resistance. The layers have been formed at a temperature of 370°C in successive processes of: nitriding in low-temperature plasma followed by deposition of a carbon coating under DC glow-discharge conditions. An evaluation was also made of the impact of the nitrided layers on the properties and morphology of the carbon coatings formed by comparing them to coatings formed on non-nitrided X105CrMo17 steel substrates. A study of the surface topography, adhesion, resistance to friction-induced wear and corrosion shows the significant importance of the substrate type the carbon coatings are formed on.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7532

  11. Rear surface light emission measurements from laser-produced shock waves in clear and Al-coated polystyrene targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, E. A.; Deniz, A. V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Stamper, J. A.; Obenschain, S. P.; Lehecka, T.; Mostovych, A. N.; Seely, J.

    1999-08-01

    The Nike KrF laser, with its very uniform focal distributions, has been used at intensities near 10 14 W/cm 2 to launch shock waves in polystyrene targets. The rear surface visible light emission differed between clear polystyrene (CH) targets and targets with a thin (125 nm) Al coating on the rear side. The uncoated CH targets showed a relatively slowly rising emission followed by a sudden fall when the shock emerges, while the Al-coated targets showed a rapid rise in emission when the shock emerges followed by a slower fall, allowing an unambiguous determination of the time the shock arrived at the rear surface. A half-aluminized target allowed us to observe this difference in a single shot. The brightness temperature of both the aluminized targets and the non-aluminized targets was slightly below but close to rear surface temperature predictions of a hydrodynamic code. A discussion of preheat effects is given.

  12. Enrichment Of Volcanogenic Trace Elements, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mo And Zr In A Continuous Subsurface Eagle Ford Core In South Texas And Origin Of The Oceanic Anoxic Event II At The Cenomanian-Turonian (C/T) Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, D.; Basu, A. R.; Loocke, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Eagle Ford Formation containing the Cenomanian-Turonian (C/T) boundary continues to be studied globally not only for its economic potential and analog for `frack-able' unconventional organic-rich formations, but it is of particular interest to researchers because it was deposited across the C/T boundary recording an Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE2). OAEs are short lived episodes (matter into the sedimentary record remains enigmatic. Geochemical and geochronological analysis of a subsurface 300ft long continuous core of the Eagle Ford Formation of South Texas shows evidence for volcanism throughout. This is confirmed by multiple thin intermittent bentonite beds. The whole rock black shale (marl) shows elevated concentrations of volcanogenic trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mo and Zn) throughout the core. By sampling bentonite bed zircons near the inferred C/T boundary, U-Pb age of 93.2 ±1.7 Ma for the Eagle Ford is established. Using this horizon, the onset of OAE2 is constrained and well-correlated with the positive δ13C excursion. For the trace element analysis, the core was sampled at 10ft intervals for ICP-MS. The analytical results show significantly increased volcanogenic trace metal input correlating with increased Total Organic Carbon and positive δ13C values at the C/T dated zircon horizon. OAE2, defined by the positive δ13C excursion, was found to span over an interval of 85ft. With a definitive constraint for OAE2 established, this well-defined interval was analyzed at a much higher resolution using ED-XRF. The core was then sampled at 6' intervals throughout the C/T boundary at OAE2. The high-resolution sampling of the core shows 80-99% increase in abundance of Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mo, Zn over the average Post Australian Archean Shale(PAAS), representative of average continental crust. These volcanogenic-rich intervals reach peak values before the onset of OAE2 and at the maximum values for the positive δ13C isotope excursion directly after the 93.2 ±1

  13. Photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with various MWCNT counter electrode structures produced by different coating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munkhbayar, B.; Hwang, Seunghwa; Kim, Junhyo; Bae, Kangyoul; Ji, Myoungkuk; Chung, Hanshik; Jeong, Hyomin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalyst on tube surface was removed and the tube caps were opened by purification. ► Highest peak of UV-light absorption was achieved in the purified and ground MWCNTs solution. ► The particles uniformly distributed on glass substrate by spin coating method. ► Highest photoelectric efficiency of DSSCs with MWCNTs counter electrode was achieved 4.94%. - Abstract: We report the successful application of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as electrocatalysts for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To improve the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs, upgrade the quality of MWCNT structure and obtain an optimum deposition approach regarding a counter electrode, the present study was investigated. Three different MWCNT structures, raw, purified and purified and ground, were investigated as platinum (Pt) alternatives for counter electrodes in DSSCs. The counter electrodes were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by two different techniques: spin coating from fluid-type MWCNTs and screen printing from paste-type MWCNTs. By utilizing a spin-coating technique, a DSSC that was fabricated with a purified and ground MWCNT counter electrode achieved an overall photovoltaic efficiency of 4.94%. This photovoltaic performance is comparable to that of a DSSC using a conventional “Pt” counter electrode fabricated under the same conditions. We found that the grinding method is powerful for increasing specific surface area and porosity. With this technique, macropores can be transformed into mesopores, thereby reducing the agglomeration of the MWCNTs, and with an additional modification, an increased DSSC photovoltaic efficiency results.

  14. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  15. Coating Nanoparticles with Plant-Produced Transferrin-Hydrophobin Fusion Protein Enhances Their Uptake in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Lauri J.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Makila, Ermei M.

    2017-01-01

    can be expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants as a fusion with Trichoderma reesei hydrophobins HFBI, HFBII, or HFBIV. Transferrin-HFBIV was further expressed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells. Both partners of the fusion protein retained their functionality; the hydrophobin moiety enabled migration...... to a surfactant phase in an aqueous two-phase system, and the transferrin moiety was able to reversibly bind iron. Coating porous silicon nanoparticles with the fusion protein resulted in uptake of the nanoparticles in human cancer cells. This study provides a proof-of concept for the functionalization...

  16. The Role of SiO2 Gas in the Operation of Anti-Corrosion Coating Produced by PVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Zarchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined theSiO2 gas present in the coatings used in corrosion industry.These layers have been created by physical vapor deposition (PVD, with an appropriate performance. Sublimation of SiO2is used to protect PVD aluminum flakes from water corrosionand to generate highly porous SiO2 flakes with holes in the nanometer range. SiOx/Al/SiOx sandwiches were made as well as Ag loaded porous SiO2 as antimicrobial filler.

  17. The Bioactivity and Photocatalytic Properties of Titania Nanotube Coatings Produced with the Use of the Low-Potential Anodization of Ti6Al4V Alloy Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Aleksandra; Kozak, Wiesław; Sadowska, Beata; Więckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Szubka, Magdalena; Talik, Ewa; Pleth Nielsen, Lars; Piszczek, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Titania nanotube (TNT) coatings were produced using low-potential anodic oxidation of Ti6Al4V substrates in the potential range 3–20 V. They were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The wettability was estimated by measuring the contact angle when applying water droplets. The bioactivity of the TNT coatings was established on the basis of the biointegration assay (L929 murine fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation) and antibacterial tests against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213). The photocatalytic efficiency of the TNT films was studied by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. Among the studied coatings, the TiO2 nanotubes obtained with the use of 5 V potential (TNT5) were found to be the most appropriate for medical applications. The TNT5 sample possessed antibiofilm properties without enriching it by additional antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, it was characterized by optimal biocompatibility, performing better than pure Ti6Al4V alloy. Moreover, the same sample was the most photocatalytically active and exhibited the potential for the sterilization of implants with the use of UV light and for other environmental applications. PMID:28933732

  18. The Bioactivity and Photocatalytic Properties of Titania Nanotube Coatings Produced with the Use of the Low-Potential Anodization of Ti6Al4V Alloy Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Aleksandra; Topolski, Adrian; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław; Sadowska, Beata; Więckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Szubka, Magdalena; Talik, Ewa; Pleth Nielsen, Lars; Piszczek, Piotr

    2017-07-26

    Titania nanotube (TNT) coatings were produced using low-potential anodic oxidation of Ti6Al4V substrates in the potential range 3-20 V. They were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The wettability was estimated by measuring the contact angle when applying water droplets. The bioactivity of the TNT coatings was established on the basis of the biointegration assay (L929 murine fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation) and antibacterial tests against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213). The photocatalytic efficiency of the TNT films was studied by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. Among the studied coatings, the TiO₂ nanotubes obtained with the use of 5 V potential (TNT5) were found to be the most appropriate for medical applications. The TNT5 sample possessed antibiofilm properties without enriching it by additional antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, it was characterized by optimal biocompatibility, performing better than pure Ti6Al4V alloy. Moreover, the same sample was the most photocatalytically active and exhibited the potential for the sterilization of implants with the use of UV light and for other environmental applications.

  19. Residual stress, mechanical and microstructure properties of multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN coating produced by R.F Magnetron discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaouina, B., E-mail: b.bouaouina@gmail.com [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Besnard, A. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech—LaBoMaP, 71250 Cluny (France); Abaidia, S.E. [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Haid, F. [CDTA, Plasma discharges Group, Baba hassen, Algers (Algeria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Depositing of crystallized molybdenum nitride and chromium nitride multilayer at room temperature. • Correlation between stress measurement and the shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N. • Studied the effect of the bi-layer thickness on the mechanical properties. - Abstract: We have investigated the effect of the period thickness of the multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN deposited on Si substrate produced by reactive magnetron sputtering. Mo{sub 2}N presents a face centered cubic structure and CrN an orthorhombic one. The residual stress of the coatings was determined by the measurement of the substrate curvature. The microstructure of the multilayer was investigated from the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (cross section images). The residual stresses resulting from the deposition of the different bi-layer thickness were measured and correlated to the structural properties of the coating as well as the nanoindentation analysis of the coating. The stresses are compressive and tensile for the individual Mo{sub 2}N and CrN layer respectively. The result shows that an increase of the multilayer coatings Mo{sub 2}N/CrN thicknesses induce an increase of the hardness and the elastic modulus, in the other hand the tensile stress increases. The shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N at high angle which means the reduction of the residual stress is in good agreement with the residual stresses measurements.

  20. The photoelectrocatalytic activity, long term stability and corrosion performance of NiMo deposited titanium oxide nano-tubes for hydrogen production in alkaline medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Mehmet Erman; Mert, Başak Doğru; Kardaş, Gülfeza; Yazıcı, Birgül

    2017-11-01

    In this study, titanium oxide nano-tubes are doped with Ni and Mo particles with various chemical compositions, in order to put forth the efficiency of single and binary coatings on hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in 1 M KOH. The characterization was achieved by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The water wettability characteristics of electrode surfaces were investigated using contact angle. The long-term catalyst stability and corrosion performance were determined by current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, photoelectrochemical behavior was determined via linear sweep voltammetry. Results showed that, nano-structured Ni and Mo deposited titanium oxide nano-tubes decrease the hydrogen over potential and increase HER efficiency, it is stable over 168 h electrolysis and it exhibits higher corrosion performance.

  1. A review of producing hard coatings by means of duplex treatments using an electroplated coating–thermochemical treatment combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Cifuentes Aya

    2011-09-01

    Direct deposition by physical vapour deposition (PVD, used for obtaining chromium nitride films on steel substrates, is limited by high production costs, the low thickness obtained and low resistance to corrosion due to the presence of micro pores. Some studies have combined an electroplated chromium with thermochemical treatments made in a controlled atmosphere or vacuum furnaces or by plasma. This kind of duplex treatment allows compounds such as CrxN, CrxCyN and CrxCy to be obtained from chemical and micro structural transformation of chromium with nitrogen and/or carbon, the sealing of cracks in the coating and increasing the magnitude of properties like hardness and density, improving wear and abrasion and corrosion resistance.

  2. A new titanium based alloy Ti–27Nb–13Zr produced by powder metallurgy with biomimetic coating for use as a biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Marcio W.D., E-mail: mwdmendes@ipen.com; Ágreda, Carola G.; Bressiani, Ana H.A.; Bressiani, José C.

    2016-06-01

    Titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical applications due to their excellent properties such as high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Titanium alloys with alloying elements such as Nb and Zr are biocompatible and have Young's modulus close to that of human bone. To increase the bioactivity of titanium alloy surfaces is used chemical treatment with NaOH followed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The purpose of this study was to produce the alloy Ti–27Nb–13Zr with low Young's modulus by powder metallurgy using powders produced by the HDH process. The formation of biomimetic coatings on samples immersed in SBF for 3, 7, 11 and 15 days was evaluated. Characterization of the coating was performed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and scanning electron microscope. The microstructure and composition of the alloy were determined using SEM and XRD, while the mechanical properties were evaluated by determining the elastic modulus and the Vickers microhardness. The sintered alloys were composed of α and β phases, equiaxed grains and with density around 97.8% of its theoretical density. The Vickers microhardness and elasticity modulus of the alloy were determined and their values indicate that this alloy can be used as a biomaterial. Analysis of the coating revealed the presence of calcium phosphate layers on samples immersed for > 3 days in the SBF solution. - Highlights: • The alloy is classified as α + β and the milling time influences the formation of these phases. • Dissolution of Nb is related to the mechanical properties of the alloy. • It's possible to form apatite on all samples immersed in SBF from 3 days. • The alloy can be used in orthopedic applications or in dental applications.

  3. Electrochemical characterization of V{sub x}Nb{sub y}C{sub z}/Bi{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub z} coatings produced through thermo-reactive diffusion and the sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro H, S. A.; Alfonso, J. E.; Olaya, J. J., E-mail: jealfonso@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales y Superficies, AA-14490 Bogota (Colombia)

    2016-11-01

    We present and experimental study of the structural evolution of a bilayer V{sub x}Nb{sub y}C{sub z}/Bi{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub z} coating produced via thermo-reactive diffusion (TRD) and the RF sputtering process on D-2 steel substrate. The TRD treatments were carried out in a molten mixture consisting of borax, ferro-niobium, ferro-vanadium, and aluminum, at 1313 K for 3 hours, using a resistance-heating furnace. Bi{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub z} coatings were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering on TRD coatings, in order to carry out a study of the corrosion behavior of this compound. The crystallographic structure of the coatings was determined via X-ray diffraction, the corrosion resistance was analyzed through the potentiodynamic polarization test (Tafel Extrapolation) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis (EIS). X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the ternary coating (VNbC{sub 2}) was preferentially oriented along the [200] direction with a cubic-centered face structure, and the Bi{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub z} coatings were amorphous. The electrochemical studies showed that the resistance corrosion of the coatings increased with respect to the bare substrate, and that polarization resistance in the bilayer coatings increased with respect to the ternary coatings, suggesting that the titanate has anti corrosive barrier effects. (Author)

  4. All-atom force field for molecular dynamics simulations on organotransition metal solids and liquids. Application to M(CO)(n) (M = Cr, Fe, Ni, Mo, Ru, or W) compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Carlos E S; Canongia Lopes, José N; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E

    2013-10-31

    A previously developed OPLS-based all-atom force field for organometallic compounds was extended to a series of first-, second-, and third-row transition metals based on the study of M(CO)(n) (M = Cr, Fe, Ni, Mo, Ru, or W) complexes. For materials that are solid at ambient temperature and pressure (M = Cr, Mo, W) the validation of the force field was based on reported structural data and on the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation at 298.15 K, experimentally determined by Calvet-drop microcalorimetry using samples corresponding to a specific and well-characterized crystalline phase: Δ(sub)H(m)° = 72.6 ± 0.3 kJ·mol(–1) for Cr(CO)(6), 73.4 ± 0.3 kJ·mol(–1) for Mo(CO)(6), and 77.8 ± 0.3 kJ·mol(–1) for W(CO)(6). For liquids, where problems of polymorphism or phase mixtures are absent, critically analyzed literature data were used. The force field was able to reproduce the volumetric properties of the test set (density and unit cell volume) with an average deviations smaller than 2% and the experimentally determined enthalpies of sublimation and vaporization with an accuracy better than 2.3 kJ·mol(–1). The Lennard-Jones (12-6) potential function parameters used to calculate the repulsive and dispersion contributions of the metals within the framework of the force field were found to be transferable between chromium, iron, and nickel (first row) and between molybdenum and ruthenium (second row).

  5. Quaternary Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}M{sub 1}/C (M=Ni, Mo, or W) catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Ki Rak; Kang, Kweon Ho; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyung Joon [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); McGinn, Paul J. [University of Notre Dame, Indiana (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Quaternary Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}M{sub 1}/C (M=Ni, Mo, or W) catalysts were investigated for the methanol electro-oxidation reaction (MOR). Electrocatalytic activities of the quaternary catalysts for CO electro-oxidation were studied via CO stripping experiments, and the Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}Ni{sub 1}/C and Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}W{sub 1}/C catalysts exhibited lowered on-set potential compared to that of a commercial PtRu/C catalyst. MOR activities of the quaternary catalysts were determined by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) experiments, and the Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}W{sub 1}/C catalyst outperformed the commercial PtRu/C catalyst by 170 and 150% for the mass and specific activities, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to analyze surface oxidation states of constituent atoms, and it was identified that the structure of the synthesized catalysts are close to a nano-composite of Pt and constituent metal hydroxides and oxides. In addition, the XPS results suggested that the bi-functional mechanism accounts for the improved performance of the Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}Ni{sub 1}/C and Pt{sub 2}Ru{sub 1} Fe{sub 1}W{sub 1}/C catalysts.

  6. Effect of adhesive properties of buffy coat on the quality of blood components produced with Top & Top and Top & Bottom bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerelli, Eugenio; Nocera, Martina; Di Bartolomeo, Erminia; Panzani, Paola; Baricchi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The Transfusion Medicine Unit of Reggio Emilia currently collects whole blood using conventional quadruple Fresenius Top & Top bags. In this study, new Fresenius Top & Bottom bags were assessed and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational requirements. Twenty-one whole blood units were collected with both the new and the traditional bags, and then separated. Quality control data were evaluated and compared in order to estimate yield and quality of final blood components obtained with the two systems. We collected other bags, not included in the ordinary quality control programme, for comparison of platelet concentrates produced by pools of buffy coat. Compared to the traditional system, the whole blood units processed with Top & Bottom bags yielded larger plasma volumes (+5.7%) and a similar amount of concentrated red blood cells, but with a much lower contamination of lymphocytes (-61.5%) and platelets (-86.6%). Consequently, the pooled platelets contained less plasma (-26.3%) and were significantly richer in platelets (+17.9%). This study investigated the effect of centrifugation on the adhesiveness of the buffy coat to the bag used for whole blood collection. We analysed the mechanism by which this undesirable phenomenon affects the quality of packed red blood cells in two types of bags. We also documented the incomparability of measurements on platelet concentrates performed with different principles of cell counting: this vexing problem has important implications for biomedical research and for the establishment of universal product standards. Our results support the conclusion that the Top & Bottom bags produce components of higher quality than our usual system, while having equal operational efficiency. Use of the new bags could result in an important quality improvement in blood components manufacturing.

  7. Microstructural study of metal-metal composites elaborated by interdiffusion between pure nickel and devitrified Fe-Ni-Mo-B glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratovondrahona, E.; Bouquet, G.; Portier, R.

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that amorphous metallic alloys are able to give rise to microcrystallized structures when submitted to the effect of temperature, i.e. when devitrification takes place. These microstructures are particularly interesting for various applications. Materials produced from devitrified amorphous phase generally exhibit good mechanical properties, but are accompanied by some brittleness. In order to avoid this disadvantage, the authors tried to elaborate a composite material resulting from diffusion heat treatments carried out on alternate stackings of amorphous alloys and pure metal sheets. The idea is that by choosing discerning metallic glass and an appropriate diffusion heat treatment temperature, it might be possible to obtain mechanically hard phases, such as metallic borides, and disperse these compounds in the pure metallic matrix to be reinforced. Here, the authors only present the microstructural results of this study, although some preliminary mechanical tests have been preformed

  8. Low Conductive Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced by Ion Beam Assisted EB-PVD with Controlled Porosity, Microstructure Refinement and Alloying Additions for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Douglas E.; Singh, Jogender

    2005-01-01

    Various advanced Hafnia-based thermal barrier coatings (TBC) were applied on nickel-based superalloy coupons by electron beam physical vapor deposition. In addition, microstructural modifications to the coating material were made in an effort to reduce the thermal conductivity of the coating materials. Various processing parameters and coating system modifications were made in order to deposit the alloyed TBC with the desired microstructure and thus coating performance, some of which include applying coatings at substrate temperatures of 1150 C on both PtAl and CoNiCrAlY bond coated samples, as well as using 8YSZ as a bond layer. In addition, various characterization techniques including thermal cyclic tests, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity measurements were performed. Although the coating microstructure was never fully optimized due to funding being cut short, significant reductions in thermal conductivity were accomplished through both chemistry changes (composition) and microstructural modifications.

  9. MICROSTRUCTURE AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE COATINGS PRODUCED BY LASER CLADDING OF Ti-6Al-4V WITH GRAPHITE AND SILICON MIXED POWDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. TIAN; C. Z. CHEN; D. Y. WANG; Q. H. HUO; T. Q. LEI

    2005-01-01

    Composite coatings are fabricated by laser cladding of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V with graphite and silicon mixed powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) indicate that the coatings mainly consist of pre-eutectic TiC and eutectic Ti5Si3 compounds. Test results show that the coatings exhibit a higher microhardness and a lower friction coefficient compared with the as-received sample. EPMA micrographs show that the compounds' morphology in the top zone of the coat...

  10. Improving tribological properties of (Zn–Ni)/nano Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite coatings produced by ultrasonic assisted pulse plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataie, Sayed Alireza, E-mail: ataie_s_alireza@metaleng.iust.ac.ir; Zakeri, Alireza

    2016-07-25

    In this study pulse electroplating was used to deposit the composite coating of (Zn–Ni) strengthened by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles on mild steel plate. The effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fraction and ultrasonic irradiation on the properties of the composite coating was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques were employed to characterize the morphology and composition of the coating. Topography and surface roughness were investigated by atomic force microscopy. Also in order to evaluate the mechanical properties of the coating micro hardness and wear tests were conducted. It was found that coating hardness was increased from 538 HV to 750 HV and friction coefficient was decreased from 0.588 to 0.392. Results revealed that tribological properties of coating could be improved significantly by using suitable ultrasonic intensity simultaneously with pulse plating. - Highlights: • SEM indicated on the elimination of cracks and pores when ultrasounds were used. • XRD result showed nano sized grains of Zn–Ni matrix was developed in this research. • Simultaneous pulse plating and ultrasonic conditions improved the properties of the coating. • A (Zn–Ni)/nano alumina uniform composite coating for especial applications was developed. • Micro hardness and wear behavior of the coating was modified by intensifying the ultrasound.

  11. The effect of zinc bath temperature on the morphology, texture and corrosion behaviour of industrially produced hot-dip galvanized coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bakhtiari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to identify the influence of zinc bath temperature on the morphology, texture and corrosion behavior of hot-dip galvanized coatings. Hot-dip galvanized samples were prepared at temperature in the range of 450-480 °C in steps of 10 °C, which is the conventional galvanizing temperature range in the galvanizing industries. The morphology of coatings was examined with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The composition of the coating layers was determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS analysis. The texture of the coatings was evaluated using X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behavior was performed using salt spray cabinet test and Tafel extrapolation test. From the experimental results, it was found that increasing the zinc bath temperature affects the morphology of the galvanized coatings provoking the appearance of cracks in the coating structure. These cracks prevent formation of a compact structure. In addition, it was concluded that (00.2 basal plane texture component was weakened by increasing the zinc bath temperature and, conversely, appearance of (10.1 prism component, (20.1 high angle pyramidal component and low angle component prevailed. Besides, coatings with strong (00.2 texture component and weaker (20.1 components have better corrosion resistance than the coatings with weak (00.2 and strong (20.1 texture components. Furthermore, corrosion resistance of the galvanized coatings was decreased by increasing the zinc bath temperature.

  12. Application of sol gel spin coated yttria-stabilized zirconia layers for the improvement of solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Lars [University of British Columbia, Department of Materials Engineering, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1W5 (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1W5 (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Tang, Zhaolin; Burgess, Alan [Northwest Mettech Corp., 467 Mountain Hwy, North Vancouver, British Columbia, V7J 2L3 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Due to its high thermal stability and purely oxide ionic conductivity, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the most commonly used electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Standard electrolyte fabrication techniques for planar SOFCs involve wet ceramic techniques such as tape-casting or screen printing, requiring sintering steps at temperatures above 1300 C. Plasma spraying (PS) may provide a more rapid and cost efficient method to produce SOFCs without sintering. High-temperature sintering requires long processing times and can lead to oxidation of metal alloys used as mechanical supports, or to detrimental interreactions between the electrolyte and adjacent electrode layers. This study investigates the use of spin coated sol gel derived YSZ precursor solutions to fill the pores present in plasma sprayed YSZ layers, and to enhance the surface area for reaction at the electrolyte-cathode interface, without the use of high-temperature firing steps. The effects of different plasma conditions and sol concentrations and solid loadings on the gas permeability and fuel cell performance have been investigated. (author)

  13. Mass-producible method for preparation of a carbon-coated graphite@plasma nano-silicon@carbon composite with enhanced performance as lithium ion battery anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hedong; Wang, Zhoulu; Hou, Xianhua; Fu, Lijun; Wang, Shaofeng; Hu, Xiaoqiao; Qin, Haiqing; Wu, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-coated core-shell structure artificial graphite@plasma nano-silicon@carbon (AG@PNSi@C) composite, applying as lithium ion battery anode material, has been prepared via spray drying method. The plasma nano-silicon (<100 nm), which contained amorphous silicon, was synthesized by radio frequency induction plasma system with the high temperatures processing capability and high quench rates. The artificial graphite in the composite acts as the core which supports the particle and provides electroconductivity, while PNSi attached on the surface of the core, enhances the specific capacity of the composite. The as prepared composite shows superior performance as anode in lithium-ion batteries, regarding to the initial Coulombic efficiency and cycle life. The initial Coulombic efficiency of AG@PNSi@C electrode is 81.0% with a discharge capacity of 553 mAh g −1 and a recharge capacity of 448 mAh g −1 . During cycling, AG@PNSi@C exhibits excellent performance with a very low capacity fading that the discharge capacity maintains 498.2 mAh g −1 and 449.4 mAh g −1 after 250 cycles and 500 cycles. AG@PNSi@C also shows enhanced resistance against high current density. Besides the remarkable electrochemical performances, the facile and mass-producible synthesis process makes the AG@PNSi@C composite very promising for its application in lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghoorn, M.M.A.; Roosen-Melsen, D.A.; Riet, J.F.J. de; Sabik, S.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Yakimets, I.; Buskens, P.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) are used to lower the reflection of light on the surface of a substrate. Here, we demonstrate that the two main drawbacks of moth eye-structured ARCs-i.e., the lack of suitable coating materials and a process for large area, high volume applications-can be largely

  15. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  16. Effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition on oil and gas storage tap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.L. Anawe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex zinc multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition is studied. The degradation behaviour in term of wear and chemical corrosion activities were considered as a major factor in service. The wear mass loss was carried out with the help of reciprocating tester. The electrochemical corrosion characteristics were investigated using linear polarization technique in 3.5% simulated sodium chloride media. The outcome of the analysis shows that the developed coating was seen to provide a sound anti wear characteristics in its multidoped state. The corrosion resistance properties were observed to be massive compared to the binary based sample. It is expected that this characteristic will impact on the performance life span of storage tap in oil and gas. Keywords: Zn-SnO2-SiO2, Nanocomposite, Electrodeposition, Coatings and corrosion resistance

  17. AUTOCATALYTIC REDUCTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BORON-CONTAINING COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Covaliov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research results of the plating conditions, chemical composition and properties of Ni-B coatings and Ni-Re-B, Ni-Mo-B and Ni-W-B alloys are given. It was shown that introduction of alloying elements (Re, Мо and W in the composition of Ni-containing coatings modifies the catalytic activity of the alloys’ surface, with regard to the parallel reactions of dimethylamino-borane (DMAB heterogeneous hydrolysis, Ni reduction and evolving of the molecular hydrogen. It was found that with the increase in concentration of alloying element, boron content in the coatings is decreased to the trace amounts. The effect of alloys composition on hydrogen evolving overvoltage was studied. Due to the low overvoltage of hydrogen evolving (HE on the alloy Ni-Re-B surface (11 at.% Re, it can be used as electrode for hydrogen generation from water in the electrolytic cell with novel design and improved technical-economic indicators.

  18. Effect of Y2O3 Content on Microstructure of Gradient Bioceramic Composite Coating Produced by Wide-Band Laser Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qibin; Zou Jianglong; Zheng Min; Dong Chuang

    2005-01-01

    To eliminate thermal stress and cracks in the process of laser cladding, a kind of bioceramic coating with gradient compositional design was prepared on the surface of Ti alloy by using wide-band laser cladding. And effect of Y2O3 content on gradient bioceramic composite coating was studied. The experimental results indicate that adding rare earth can refine grain. Different rare earth contents affect formation of HA and β-TCP in bioceramic coating. When the content of rare earth ranges from 0.4% to 0.6%, the active extent of rare earth in synthesizing HA and β-TCP is the best, which indicates that "monosodium glutamate" effect of rare earth plays a dominant role. However, when rare earth content is up to 0.8%, the amount of synthesizing HA and β-TCP in coating conversely goes down, which demonstrates that rare earth gradually losts its catalysis in manufacturing HA and β-TCP.

  19. Effect of corrosion protective coatings on compressor blades affected by different erosive exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happle, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    It was the task of this dissertation to examine and to classify the inorganically bonded aluminum coatings with regard to their suitability as a coating for compressor blades for stationary gas turbines and aerojet engines. Industrial aluminum coatings bonded inorganically were used for the tests. Comparative examinations were done with diffusion-deposited aluminum layers as well as with aluminum layers precipitated electrolytically, and with modified inorganically bonded aluminum coatings (with additional TiN protective coating). The examination program was subdivided into two main tasks: Suitability tests and examination of corrosion fatigue. The suitability tests covered corrosion examinations (with salt spray and intermittent immersion tests), electrochemically controlled corrosion assessments (pitting corrosion behavior) and erosion assessments (erosive and abrasive wear tests). Experimental material was mainly the commercial compressor blade steel X20Cr13, and sample tests were carried out with the higher-strength steel X10CrNiMoV12 2 2. For the practical examination of the erosion resistance of the aluminum coatings, it was required to develop an erosion testing method. It was designed as an erosive and abrasive wear testing method with solid-face fluidized bed. The testing method makes it possible to pre-set all relevant quantities which influence the erosive and abrasive wear. (orig./MM) [de

  20. Enhancement in the Tribological and Mechanical Properties of Electroless Nickel-Nanodiamond Coatings Plated on Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Karaguiozova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A technology to improve the tribological and mechanical surface properties of iron alloys is developed based on the electroless nickel plating. The technology combines sol-gel and electroless deposition technique. Novel nanocomposite coatings are obtained consisting of Nickel-phosphorus-nanodiamond (Ni-P-ND. The ND sol is added directly to the electroless Ni-P solution. A suitable surfactant is added to achieve well-dispersed ND particles in the electroless solution to facilitate their embodiment and equal distribution in the coating. Substrates of steel 17CrNiMo6 and spheroidal graphite cast irons are used for the manufacture of the iron alloys specimens. The surface morphology and microstructure observation performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical metallography confirms the influence of ND particles on the coating structure. The structural phase investigation by X Ray analysis indicates a transformation of the amorphous phase to a crystalline one such as Ni, Ni3P after coatings' heat treatment. The microhardness investigation by Knoop Method and wear resistance measurement in accordance with the Polish Standard PN-83/H-04302 of Ni-P and Ni-P-ND composite coatings are evaluated and compared with each other. The increase in the value of hardness and wear resistance of Ni-P composite coatings in the presence of ND particles and after heat treatment is obtained.

  1. Failure analysis of thermally cycled columnar thermal barrier coatings produced by high-velocity-air fuel and axial-suspension-plasma spraying: A design perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ganvir, A.; Vaidhyanathan, V.; Markocsan, N.; Gupta, M.; Pala, Zdeněk; Lukáč, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2018), s. 3161-3172 ISSN 0272-8842 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings * Axial Suspension Plasma spraying * Thermal Cyclic Fatigue * High Velocity Air Fuel Spraying Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884217325403

  2. Electrochemical and wear behavior of niobium-vanadium carbide coatings produced on AISI H13 tool steel through thermo-reactive deposition/diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo Nieto, Fabio Enrique; Olaya Flores, Jhon Jairo; Alfonso Orjuela, Jose Edgar

    2016-01-01

    We deposited of niobium-vanadium carbide coatings on tool steel AISI H13 using the thermo-reactive substrates deposition/diffusion (TRD) technique. The carbides were obtained using salt baths composed of molten borax, ferroniobium, vanadium and aluminum, by heating this mixture at 1020°C for 4 hours. The coatings were characterized morphologically via electron microscopy scanning (SEM), the chemical surface composition was determined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX); the crystal structure was analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD), the mechanical properties of the coatings were evaluated using nano-indentation, The tribological properties of the coatings obtained were determined using a Pin-on-disk tribometer and the electrochemical behavior was studied through potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the hardness of the coated steel increased four times with respect to uncoated steel, and the electrochemical test established that the corrosion current is lower by one order of magnitude for coated steel

  3. Tribological behavior at elevated temperature of multilayer TiCN/TiC/TiN hard coatings produced by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Mingdong; Xu Xuebo; Zhang Haijun; Liu Xiaoping; Tian Linhai; Zeng Zhaoxin; Song Yubin

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer hard coatings of TiCN/TiC/TiN on high speed steel substrates were deposited using a chemical vapor deposition system. Evaluations of microstructure, wear morphology of coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. Friction coefficient and wear rates of coatings were investigated using ball-on-disk tester sliding against a WC ball at a constant load of 20 N. Tribological behavior of the coatings at room and elevated temperature were discussed. Different changing tendency of friction coefficient were observed from ball-on-disc experiments. Results showed that the friction coefficient of coatings increased gradually to a highest value, then to a relatively constant value at room temperature dry sliding wear. The friction coefficient exhibited a reverse variation tendency at temperature of 550 °C. It got a higher value at the first sliding friction cycles. Then the value of friction coefficient decreased, suffered irregular oscillations and kept a relatively lower value with increasing sliding time. Reasons of the variation of friction coefficient with sliding time and wear mechanism were analyzed and discussed at room and elevated temperatures, respectively.

  4. Detection and control of as-produced pyrocarbon permeability in biso-coated high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.; Thiele, B.A.; Lackey, W.J.; Morgan, C.S.

    1980-05-01

    About 60 Biso-coated particle batches with coatings deposited in either 0.13- or 0.24-m dia coaters were studied in this work. These batches were carefully characterized for permeability by neon-helium intrusion, long-term chlorination followed by radiography, and fission gas release. These methods of permeability measurement were compared and correlated with deposition conditions as well as pyrocarbon properties. The results from several irradiation tests were also used to evaluate the validity of the permeability measurements. The neon-helium and long-term chlorination techniques correlated very clearly. Coatings with neon-to-helium ratios below 0.3 were gastight by the chlorination procedure, whereas those with ratios above 0.4 were permeable. The fission gas release technique was unable to distinguish between slightly permeable coatings and gastight ones. Therefore, neon-helium and long-term chlorination procedures are preferred over the fission gas release technique. Results from several irradiation tests verified that coatings with neon-to-helium ratios below 0.3 were gastight, whereas those with ratios above about 0.4 were permeable. 10 figures, 2 tables

  5. Tribological properties of B{sub 4}C-TiB{sub 2}-TiC-Ni cermet coating produced by HVOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiei, Mahdi [Islamic Azad Univ., Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Depr. of Materials Engineering; Shamanian, Morteza; Salehi, Mehdi [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Depr. of Materials Engineering; Mostaan, Hossein [Arak Univ., Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    2017-08-15

    In this study, B{sub 4}C-TiB{sub 2}-TiC-Ni coating was sprayed on the surface of 4130 steel by high velocity oxy-fuel torch. The tribological behavior of samples was studied by ball on disk wear testing. Structural evolution of the coating was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry. The microstructure of the coating, wear track and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. Elemental analysis of the wear track was done by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was found that a cermet coating containing B{sub 4}C, TiB{sub 2}, TiC and Ni phases with good bonding to the 4130 steel substrate with no sign of any cracking or pores was formed. The wear mechanism of the composite coating was delamination. The friction coefficient of samples was decreased with increasing load because of higher frictional heat and creation of more oxide islands.

  6. Microstructure and corrosion performance of steam-based conversion coatings produced in the presence of TiO2 particles on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    The steam-based conversion coatings containing TiO2 particleswere prepared using a two-step process comprising of spin coating of particles onto an aluminiumsubstrate followed by a high-pressure steam treatment. Process has resulted in the formation of aluminium oxide layer (~1.3 μm thick) embedded...... to the coatings without TiO2 particles, while the shift in thepitting potential was a function of the steam treatment time and degree of particle incorporation into the oxide....... with TiO2 particles. The electrochemical measurements showthe beneficial effect of TiO2 particles in the oxide layer by exhibiting lowestanodic and cathodic activities, and reduced pit depth. The presence of TiO2 particles shifts the corrosion potentialvalues to positive side (noble side) when compared...

  7. Coated Aerogel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  8. Influence of powder particle injection velocity on the microstructure of Al-12Si/SiCp coatings produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anandkumar, R.; Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of powder particle injection velocity on the microstructure of coatings consisting of an Al-Si matrix reinforced with SiC particles prepared by laser cladding from mixtures of powders of Al-12 wt.% Si alloy and SiC was investigated both experimentally and by modeling. At low injection

  9. Method for producing evaporation inhibiting coating for protection of silicon--germanium and silicon--molybdenum alloys at high temperatures in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    A method is given for protecting Si--Ge and Si-- Mo alloys for use in thermocouples. The alloys are coated with silicon to inhibit the evaporation of the alloys at high tempenatures in a vacuum. Specific means and methods are provided. (5 fig) (Official Gazette)

  10. Microstructure and wear resistance of Al2O3-M7C3/Fe composite coatings produced by laser controlled reactive synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Luo, Zhen; Li, Yang; Yan, Fuyu; Duan, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Based on the principle of thermite reaction of Al and Fe2O3 powders, the Al2O3 ceramic reinforced Fe-based composite coatings were fabricated on a steel substrate by laser controlled reactive synthesis and cladding. The effects of different additions of thermite reactants on the phase transition, microstructure evolution, microhardness and wear resistance of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Vickers microhardness and block-on-ring wear test, respectively. The results show that Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide are in situ synthesized via the laser controlled reactive synthesis. The Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbides prefer to distribute along the γ-Fe phase boundary continuously, which separates the γ-Fe matrix and is beneficial to the grain refinement. With the increase of thermite reactants, the amount of Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide in the composite coatings increases gradually. Moreover the cladding layer changes from dendritic structure to columnar structure and martensite structure in the heat affected zone becomes coarse. The increased thermite reactants improve the microhardness and wear resistance of the in situ composite coatings obviously and enhance the hardness of the heat affected zone, which should be ascribed to the grain refinement, ceramic and carbide precipitation and solid solution strengthening.

  11. Deoxygenation of Vegetable Oils over Sulfided Ni, Mo and NiMo Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubička, D.; Kaluža, Luděk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 372, č. 2 (2010), s. 199-208 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA3/074 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : deoxygenation * hydrodeoxygenation * biofuels Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2010

  12. Corrosive sliding wear behavior of laser clad Mo2Ni3Si/NiSi intermetallic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.D.; Wang, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Many ternary metal silicides such as W 2 Ni 3 Si, Ti 2 Ni 3 Si and Mo 2 Ni 3 Si with the topologically closed-packed (TCP) hP12 MgZn 2 type Laves phase crystal structure are expected to have outstanding wear and corrosion resistance due to their inherent high hardness and sluggish temperature dependence and strong atomic bonds. In this paper, Mo 2 Ni 3 Si/NiSi intermetallic coating was fabricated on substrate of an austenitic stainless steel AISI321 by laser cladding using Ni-Mo-Si elemental alloy powders. Microstructure of the coating was characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). Wear resistance of the coating is evaluated under corrosive sliding wear test condition. Influence of corrosion solutions on the wear resistance of the coating was studied and the wear mechanism was discussed based on observations of worn surface morphology. Results showed that the laser clad Mo 2 Ni 3 Si/NiSi composite coating have a fine microstructure of Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendrites and the interdendritic Mo 2 Ni 3 Si/NiSi eutectics. The coating has excellent corrosive wear resistance compared with austenitic stainless steel AISI321 under acid, alkaline and saline corrosive environments

  13. Effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition on oil and gas storage tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawe, P. A. L.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Ayoola, A. A.; Popoola, A. P. I.

    2018-06-01

    The effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex zinc multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition is studied. The degradation behaviour in term of wear and chemical corrosion activities were considered as a major factor in service. The wear mass loss was carried out with the help of reciprocating tester. The electrochemical corrosion characteristics were investigated using linear polarization technique in 3.5% simulated sodium chloride media. The outcome of the analysis shows that the developed coating was seen to provide a sound anti wear characteristics in its multidoped state. The corrosion resistance properties were observed to be massive compared to the binary based sample. It is expected that this characteristic will impact on the performance life span of storage tap in oil and gas.

  14. Investigation of Mixed-Type Craters and the Role of Bifluoride Additives to Produce Zirconia-Toughened Alumina-Based PEO Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur Rehman, Zeeshan; Shin, Seong Hun; Ahmad, Tanveer; Koo, Bon Heun

    2018-05-01

    Al2O3-ZrO2 composite ceramic coatings were prepared on Al6061 aluminum alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation in Na3PO4-K2ZrF6-Na2SiF6-based alkaline electrolyte. Optimum processing time for the coating formation was found to be 50 min. Cross section and surface morphology of the coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscope. From the phase and elemental composition analysis, the presence of m-ZrO2 and t-ZrO2 phases was confirmed. It was further observed that the peak intensities of t-ZrO2 and α-Al2O3 phases increased with processing time, which was attributed to the enhanced crystallinity caused by the efficient sintering conditions. Corrosion properties were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results showed high improvement in corrosion rate with minimum recorded value 0.25 mmy (mm/year) and corrosion current 0.15 × 10-6 A/cm2.

  15. Lead-Free Sn-Ce-O Composite Coating on Cu Produced by Pulse Electrodeposition from an Aqueous Acidic Sulfate Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-10-01

    Pulse-electrodeposited Sn-Ce-O composite solder coatings were synthesized on a Cu substrate from an aqueous acidic solution containing stannous sulfate (SnSO4·3H2O), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and Triton X-100 as an additive. The codeposition was achieved by adding nano-cerium oxide powder in varying concentrations from 5 g/L to 20 g/L into the electrolytic bath. Microstructural characterization was carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The XRD analysis showed that the deposits consist mainly of tetragonal β (Sn) with reduced cerium oxide species. The composite coatings thus obtained exhibit a smaller grain size, possess higher microhardness, and a lower melting point than the monolithic Sn coating. The electrical resistivity of the developed composites increases, however, but lies within the permissible limits for current lead-free solder applications. Also, an optimum balance of properties in terms of microhardness, adhesion, melting point and resistivity can be obtained with 0.9 wt.% cerium oxide in the Sn matrix, which enables potential applications in solder joints and packaging.

  16. Effect of surfactant concentration in the electrolyte on the tribological properties of nickel-tungsten carbide composite coatings produced by pulse electro co-deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, Muhammet, E-mail: kartal@sakarya.edu.tr [Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Department, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Uysal, Mehmet [Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Department, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Gul, Harun [Duzce University, Gumusova Vocational School, 81850 Duzce (Turkey); Alp, Ahmet; Akbulut, Hatem [Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Department, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Effect of surfactant concentration on the co-deposited WC was investigated. • In the Ni matrix significantly high hardness was achieved by WC co-deposition. • Optimum surfactant resulted in obtaining superior wear resistance in the Ni. • Friction coefficient was decreased by WC co-deposition in the Ni matrix. - Abstract: A nickel plating bath containing WC particles was used to obtain hard and wear-resistant particle reinforced Ni/WC MMCs on steel surfaces for anti-wear applications. Copper substrates were used for electro co-deposition of Ni matrix/WC with the particle size of <1 μm tungsten carbide reinforcements. The influence of surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) concentration on particle distribution, microhardness and wear resistance of composite coatings has been studied. The nickel films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the surfactant on the zeta potential, co-deposition and distribution of WC particles in the nickel matrix, as well as the tribological properties of composite coatings were also investigated. The tribological behaviors of the electrodeposited WC composite coatings sliding against M50 steel ball (Ø 10 mm) were examined on a CSM Instrument. All friction and wear tests were performed without lubrication at room temperature and in the ambient air (relative humidity 55–65%).

  17. Effect of surfactant concentration in the electrolyte on the tribological properties of nickel-tungsten carbide composite coatings produced by pulse electro co-deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Muhammet; Uysal, Mehmet; Gul, Harun; Alp, Ahmet; Akbulut, Hatem

    2015-11-01

    A nickel plating bath containing WC particles was used to obtain hard and wear-resistant particle reinforced Ni/WC MMCs on steel surfaces for anti-wear applications. Copper substrates were used for electro co-deposition of Ni matrix/WC with the particle size of <1 μm tungsten carbide reinforcements. The influence of surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) concentration on particle distribution, microhardness and wear resistance of composite coatings has been studied. The nickel films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the surfactant on the zeta potential, co-deposition and distribution of WC particles in the nickel matrix, as well as the tribological properties of composite coatings were also investigated. The tribological behaviors of the electrodeposited WC composite coatings sliding against M50 steel ball (Ø 10 mm) were examined on a CSM Instrument. All friction and wear tests were performed without lubrication at room temperature and in the ambient air (relative humidity 55-65%).

  18. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  19. Study of radioactivity diffusion for bitumen-coated blocks produced by an industrial coating plant; Etude de la diffusion de la radioactivite de blocs d'enrobes bitumineux en provenance d'un atelier d'enrobage industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J; Lefillatre, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    The solidification by bitumen of chemical coprecipitation sludges from the Marcoule waste treatment station has been studied in the laboratory and has led to the construction of an industrial coating plant. The quality of the coated material obtained has been controlled by the lixiviation test carried out with ordinary water and with sea-water on 45 ml laboratory samples and on industrial coated blocks of 150 litres. Tests on blocks of such a size have necessitated the installation of three special tanks. Two, each of 2000 litres capacity, contain ordinary and sea-water which was continuously recycled at a rate of 2.5 cm/hr and renewed periodically. In the third tank having a capacity of 11000 litres, the coated block was buried in earth and sprinkled with ordinary water with a view to studying the migration of radioelements in soil. The results of these tests confirm those obtained during the laboratory experiments. (authors) [French] La solidification par le bitume des boues de coprecipitation chimique de la station de traitement des effluents du Centre de Marcoule, etudiee en laboratoire, a conduit a la realisation d'une installation industrielle d'enrobage. La qualite de l'enrobe obtenu a ete controlee par le test de lixiviation qui a ete effectue en eau ordinaire et en eau de mer sur des echantillons de laboratoire de 45 ml et sur des blocs d'enrobe industriel de 150 litres. L'experimentation sur des blocs de telles dimensions a necessite l'installation de 3 cuves speciales. Deux, d'une capacite de 2000 litres, contiennent de l'eau ordinaire et de l'eau de mer recyclees en permanence a une vitesse de 2.5 cm/h et renouvelees periodiquement. Dans la 3eme cuve d'une capacite de 11000 litres, le bloc d'enrobe a ete enfoui dans de la terre et asperge d'eau ordinaire afin d'etudier la migration des radioelements dans le sol. Les resultats de ces essais confirment ceux obtenus au cours des tests de laboratoire. (auteurs)

  20. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  1. Application of a Coated Film Catalyst Layer Model to a High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Low Catalyst Loading Produced by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Myles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model is presented that correlates to previously obtained experimental overpotential data for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC. The goal is to reinforce the understanding of the performance of the cell from a modeling perspective. The HT-PEMFC membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs were constructed utilizing an 85 wt. % phosphoric acid doped Advent TPS® membranes for the electrolyte and gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs manufactured by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology (RSDT. MEAs with varying ratios of PTFE binder to carbon support material (I/C ratio were manufactured and their performance at various operating temperatures was recorded. The semi-empirical model derivation was based on the coated film catalyst layer approach and was calibrated to the experimental data by a least squares method. The behavior of important physical parameters as a function of I/C ratio and operating temperature were explored.

  2. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  3. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinlong, Lv, E-mail: ljlbuaa@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  4. Incidence of Lettuce mosaic virus in lettuce and its detection by polyclonal antibodies produced against recombinant coat protein expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prachi; Sharma, Susheel; Singh, Jasvir; Saha, Swati; Baranwal, V K

    2016-04-01

    Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus of family Potyviridae, causes mosaic disease in lettuce has recently been identified in India. The virus is seed borne and secondary infection occurs through aphids. To ensure virus freedom in seeds it is important to develop diagnostic tools, for serological methods the production of polyclonal antibodies is a prerequisite. The coat protein (CP) gene of LMV was amplified, cloned and expressed using pET-28a vector in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 competent cells. The LMV CP was expressed as a fusion protein containing a fragment of the E. coli His tag. The LMV CP/His protein reacted positively with a commercial antiserum against LMV in an immunoblot assay. Polyclonal antibodies purified from serum of rabbits immunized with the fusion protein gave positive results when LMV infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was tested at 1:1000 dilution in PTA-ELISA. These were used for specific detection of LMV in screening lettuce accessions. The efficacy of the raised polyclonal antiserum was high and it can be utilized in quarantine and clean seed production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Charged-particle coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Crane, J.K.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 μm) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized

  6. Process to minimize cracking of pyrolytic carbon coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Sease, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon-coated microspheroids useful as fuels in nuclear reactors are produced with a low percentage of cracked coatings and are imparted increased strength and mechanical stability characteristics by annealing immediately after the carbon coating processes.

  7. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Methods for using atomic layer deposition to produce a film for solid state electrolytes and protective electrode coatings for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Meng, Xiangbo

    2018-03-13

    A method for using atomic layer deposition to produce a film configured for use in an anode, cathode, or solid state electrolyte of a lithium-ion battery or a lithium-sulfur battery. The method includes repeating a cycle for a predetermined number of times in an inert atmosphere. The cycle includes exposing a substrate to a first precursor, purging the substrate with inert gas, exposing the substrate to a second precursor, and purging the substrate with inert gas. The film is a metal sulfide.

  9. XPS-nanocharacterization of organic layers electrochemically grafted on the surface of SnO_2 thin films to produce a new hybrid material coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, R.; Dragoé, D.; Barthés-Labrousse, M.G.; Chaussé, A.; Andrieux, M.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. SnO_2 thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates and an organic layer made of carboxyphenyl moieties is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. XPS characterizations are carried out to assess the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting. Display Omitted - Highlights: • An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. • SnO_2 thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates. • An organic layer is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. • The efficiency of the grafting is accurately assessed by XPS. • Three electrochemical grafting models are proposed. - Abstract: This work presents the synthesis and the characterization of hybrid material thin films obtained by the combination of two processes. The electrochemical grafting of organic layers made of carboxyphenyl moieties is carried out from the reduction of a diazonium salt on tin dioxide (SnO_2) thin films previously deposited on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since the MOCVD experimental parameters impact the crystal growth of the SnO_2 layer (i.e. its morphology and its texturation), various electrochemical grafting models can occur, producing different hybrid materials. In order to evidence the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting of the carboxyphenyl moieties, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the first nanometers in depth of the synthesized hybrid material layer. Then three electrochemical grafting models are proposed.

  10. XPS-nanocharacterization of organic layers electrochemically grafted on the surface of SnO{sub 2} thin films to produce a new hybrid material coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, R., E-mail: richarddrevet@yahoo.fr [Univ. Paris Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, Bât. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne, LAMBE, CNRS-CEA UMR 8587, Boulevard François Mitterrand, 91025 Evry Cedex (France); Dragoé, D.; Barthés-Labrousse, M.G. [Univ. Paris Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, Bât. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Chaussé, A. [Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne, LAMBE, CNRS-CEA UMR 8587, Boulevard François Mitterrand, 91025 Evry Cedex (France); Andrieux, M. [Univ. Paris Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, Bât. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. SnO{sub 2} thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates and an organic layer made of carboxyphenyl moieties is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. XPS characterizations are carried out to assess the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting. Display Omitted - Highlights: • An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. • SnO{sub 2} thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates. • An organic layer is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. • The efficiency of the grafting is accurately assessed by XPS. • Three electrochemical grafting models are proposed. - Abstract: This work presents the synthesis and the characterization of hybrid material thin films obtained by the combination of two processes. The electrochemical grafting of organic layers made of carboxyphenyl moieties is carried out from the reduction of a diazonium salt on tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films previously deposited on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since the MOCVD experimental parameters impact the crystal growth of the SnO{sub 2} layer (i.e. its morphology and its texturation), various electrochemical grafting models can occur, producing different hybrid materials. In order to evidence the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting of the carboxyphenyl moieties, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the first nanometers in depth of the synthesized hybrid material layer. Then three electrochemical grafting models are proposed.

  11. Effect of V addition on the hardness, adherence and friction coefficient of VC coatings produced by thermo-reactive diffusion deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Alejandro Orjuela-Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se produjeron recubrimientos de carburo de vanadio (VC sobre sustratos de acero AISI H13 y acero AISI D2 mediante deposito termoreactiva/ difusión (TRD con el fin de evaluar sus propiedades mecánicas como una función del contenido de vanadio. Los recubrimientos se producen con diferentes porcentajes de concentración de ferrovanadio. La composición química de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante fluorescencia de rayos X (XRF, la estructura cristalina se analizó utilizando difracción de rayos X (XRD, la morfología se caracterizó usando microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM, la dureza se midió a través de nanoindentaciòn, y las propiedades tribológicas mediante la prueba de bola sobre disco. El análisis XRF indicó que los recubrimientos crecidos en acero D2 disminuyó el porcentaje atómico de vanadio cuando el recubrimiento se produce con 20% de ferrovanadio. El análisis XRD estableció que los recubrimientos eran policristalinos, con una estructura cúbica. Las imágenes de SEM revelaron que los recubrimientos crecidos en acero D2 eran más compactos que los crecidos en el acero H13. Finalmente, las pruebas de desgaste establecieron que el coeficiente de fricción disminuyó con un aumento de vanadio en el recubrimiento.

  12. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  13. Coated foams, preparation, uses and articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-10-21

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  14. Wear resistance of Fe-Nb-Cr-W, Nb, AISI 1020 and AISI 420 coatings produced by thermal spray wire arc; Resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos Fe-Nb-Cr-W, Nb, AISI 1020 y AISI 420 producidos por proyeccion termica por arco electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Covaleda, E. A.; Mercado-Veladia, J. L.; Olaya-Florez, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    The commercial materials 140MXC (with iron, tungsten, chrome, niobium), 530AS (AISI 1015 steel) and 560AS (AISI 420 steel) on AISI 4340 steel were deposited using thermal spray with arc. The aim of work was to evaluate the best strategy abrasive wear resistance of the system coating-substrate using the following combinations: (1) homogeneous coatings and (2) coatings depositing simultaneously 140MXC + 530AS and 140MXC + 560AS. The coatings microstructure was characterized using Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Laser con focal microscopy. The wear resistance was evaluated through dry sand rubber wheel test (DSRW). We found that the wear resistance depends on the quantity of defects and the mechanical properties like hardness. For example, the softer coatings have the biggest wear rates and the failure mode was characterized by plastic deformation caused by particles indentation, and the other hand the failure mode at the harder materials was grooving. The details and wear mechanism of the coatings produced are described in this investigation. (Author)

  15. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  16. Controlled reactions between chromia and coating on alloy surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren

    1996-01-01

    An electrically conducting Sr-doped lanthanum chromite (LSC) coating has been produced by reacting a coating of fine particles of La oxide and Sr oxide with chromia formed as an external scale on a metallic alloy. In addition to the formation of LSC the coating also resulted in much reduced...... buckling of the underlying chromia layer compared with a non-coated alloy....

  17. Nanophase hardfaced coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisgen, U.; Stein, L.; Balashov, B.; Geffers, C. [RWTH Aachen University (Germany). ISF - Welding and Joining Institute

    2009-08-15

    This paper demonstrates the possibility of producing iron or chromium-based nanophase hardfaced coatings by means of common arc welding methods (TIG, PTA). The appropriate composition of the alloys to be deposited allows to control the structural properties and thus also the coating properties of the weld metal. Specific variations of the alloying elements allow also the realisation of a nanostructured solidification of the carbides and borides with cooling rates that are common for arc surfacing processes. The hardfaced coatings, which had been thus produced, showed phase dimensions of approximately 100-300 nm. Based on the results it is established that the influence of the surfacing parameters and of the coating thickness and thus the influence of the heat control on the nanostructuring process is, compared with the influence of the alloy composition, of secondary importance. The generation of nanoscale structures in hardfaced coatings allows the improvement of mechanical properties, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. Potential applications for these types of hardfaced coatings lie, in particular, in the field of cutting tools that are exposed to corrosion and wear. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Diese Arbeit demonstriert die Moeglichkeit zur Herstellung Eisen- und Chrom-basierter nanophasiger Hartauftragschweissschichten mithilfe ueblicher Lichtbogenschweissverfahren (WIG-, Plasma-Pulver-Auftragschweissen - PPA). Eine geeignete Zusammensetzung der aufzutragenden Legierungen ermoeglicht es, die Gefuegeeigenschaften und damit die Schichteigenschaften des Schweissgutes zu kontrollieren. Gezielte Variationen der Legierungselemente erlauben die Realisierung einer nanostrukturierten Erstarrung der Karbide und Boride bei fuer Lichtbogen-Auftragschweissprozessen ueblichen Abkuehlgeschwindigkeiten. In den so erzeugten Hartschichten werden Phasengroessen von ca. 100-300 nm erreicht. Auf Basis der gewonnenen Ergebnisse kann

  18. Quality of Coated Particles : Physical - Mechanical Characterization of Polymeric Film Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perfetti, G.

    2012-01-01

    All coated particle producers, when applying the coating layer(s) would like to know precisely what is the best coating system to use in order to answer customer’s requests. It is, therefore, of very high relevance for many industries, to have a clear understanding of what are the parameters I need

  19. Phase transformation in a Ni-Mo-Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymek, S.; Wrobel, M.; Blicharski, M.; Dollar, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives a characteristic of a nickel-based superalloy containing 25 wt.% Mo and 8 wt.% Cr with particular attention to the influence of a thermochemical and heat treatment on phase transformations. The applied heat treatments are comprised of soaking temperature 1100 o C followed by aging at 650 o C at three conditions: conventional aging for 72 hours, prolonged aging for 4000 hours and prolonged aging for 4000 hours followed by cold working and subsequent aging for 1000 hours. The conventional aging led to the formation of lenticular precipitates of the dispersed metastable Ni 2 (Mo,Cr) phase. The aging for 4000 hours brought about coarsening of the ordered domains without changing their crystallographic and ordering characteristics. The plastic deformation preceded the further aging for 1000 hours accelerated the decomposition of the Ni 2 (Mo,Cr) phase on the mixture of the Ni 3 Mo and Ni 4 Mo-based phases. (author)

  20. Ferromagnetic resonance in a Ni-Mo superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechan, M.J.; Salamon, M.B.; Schuller, I.K.

    1985-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements, at room temperature and at 4.2 K, have been made on a layered Ni (249 A)-Mo(83 A) superlattice. We have examined the resonance position as a function of the angle between the film normal and the applied field. The measured g value agrees with that of bulk Ni, but the magnetization is lower than that obtained for bulk Ni and also for this sample using both light scattering and direct measurement techniques. This low magnetization contrasts with FMR measurements on compositionally modulated Ni-Cu samples, where the magnetization was reported to be greater than that of bulk Ni. We show that a reduced value of the magnetization is consistent with perpendicular uniaxial anisotropy. When the applied field is less than 20 0 from the surface normal, additional lines appear that move to higher fields than the main resonance. These lines are consistent with the existence of nonuniform regions of distinct magnetization. An observed resonance, which is suggestive of a spin-wave mode, is discussed

  1. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  2. The Comparison of Co, Ni, Mo, CoMo and NiMo Sulfided Catalysts in Rapeseed Oil Hydrodeoxygenation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Kubička, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 1 (2017), s. 333-341 ISSN 1878-5190 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-22490S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : triolein hydrodeoxygenation scheme * rapeseed oil * sulfide catalysts Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  3. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  4. Laser-assisted coating of TI6AL4V substrate with Zinc

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, NM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Laser coating is an advanced coating technology used for improving the surface properties of metal components. The coatings produced are thick, dense, and crack-free with continuous non-porous microstructures having uniform composition which results...

  5. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  6. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C; Ziegele, H; Leyland, A; Matthews, A

    2002-01-01

    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, t...

  7. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  8. Nanocomposite Coatings: Preparation, Characterization, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Nguyen-Tri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of nanofillers into the organic coatings might enhance their barrier performance, by decreasing the porosity and zigzagging the diffusion path for deleterious species. Thus, the coatings containing nanofillers are expected to have significant barrier properties for corrosion protection and reduce the trend for the coating to blister or delaminate. On the other hand, high hardness could be obtained for metallic coatings by producing the hard nanocrystalline phases within a metallic matrix. This article presents a review on recent development of nanocomposite coatings, providing an overview of nanocomposite coatings in various aspects dealing with the classification, preparative method, the nanocomposite coating properties, and characterization methods. It covers potential applications in areas such as the anticorrosion, antiwear, superhydrophobic area, self-cleaning, antifouling/antibacterial area, and electronics. Finally, conclusion and future trends will be also reported.

  9. Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J

    2010-03-01

    Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe alloy coated mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Agathocleous, P.E.; Giannakopoulos, K.I.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc alloy coatings containing various amounts of Fe were deposited by electrodeposition technique on a mild steel substrate. The concentration of Fe in the produced alloy coatings ranged from 0 to 14 wt.%, whereas the thickness of the coatings was about 50 μm. Structural and metallurgical characterization of the produced coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. This study aims in investigating the mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe coated mild steel specimens, as no research investigation concerning the tensile behaviour of Zn alloy coated ferrous alloys has been reported in the past. The experimental results indicated that the ultimate tensile strength of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was lower than the bare mild steel. In addition, the ductility of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was found to decrease significantly with increasing Fe content in the coating.

  11. Electron beam-cured coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Naoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The method for hardening coatings by the irradiation with electron beams is reviewed. The report is divided into seven parts, namely 1) general description and characteristics of electron beam-cured coating, 2) radiation sources of curing, 3) hardening conditions and reaction behaviour, 4) uses and advantages, 5) latest trends of the industry, 6) practice in the field of construction materials, and 7) economy. The primary characteristics of the electron beam hardening is that graft reaction takes place between base resin and coating to produce strong adhesive coating without any pretreatment. A variety of base resins are developed. High class esters of acrylic acid monomers and methacrylic acid monomers are mainly used as dilutants recently. At present, scanning type accelerators are used, but the practical application of the system producing electron beam of curtain type is expected. The dose rate dependence, the repetitive irradiation and the irradiation atmosphere are briefly described. The filed patent applications on the electron beam hardening were analyzed by the officer of Japan Patent Agency. The production lines for coatings by the electron beam hardening in the world are listed. In the electron beam-cured coating, fifty percent of given energy is consumed effectively for the electron beam hardening, and the solvents discharged from ovens and polluting atmosphere are not used, because the paints of high solid type is used. The running costs of the electron beam process are one sixth of the thermal oven process. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos de bronce al aluminio producidos con técnica de proyección térmica//Wear resistance of aluminum bronze coatings produced by thermal spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Carolina Cárdenas-Feria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la resistencia al desgaste adhesivo de recubrimientos de bronce al aluminio depositados con la técnica de proyección térmica por llama sobre bronce fosforado SAE 62. Los recubrimientos fueron fabricados variando las presiones parciales de los gases de combustión, oxígeno y acetileno. El material utilizado fue caracterizado estructuralmente mediante difracción de rayosX (X-ray diffraction, XRD y el estudio morfológico mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (Scanning electron microscopy, SEM. La resistencia al desgaste adhesivo de los recubrimientos se determinó por medio del ensayo de bola sobre disco, utilizando como bola una esférica de acero 100Cr6. Los resultados obtenidos permiten establecer que los recubrimientos proyectados con una presión de oxigeno de 78 psi y una presión de acetileno de 8 psi presentan la mejor resistencia al desgaste en comparación a los tratamientos producidos. El modo de falla de desgaste en los recubrimientos producidos es discutido en esta investigación.Palabras clave: desgaste abrasivo y adhesivo,  proyección térmica,  recubrimientos.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractWe studied the adhesive wear resistance of aluminum bronze coatings deposited by thermal spray on phosphor bronze SAE 62 substrates. The coatings were deposited by varying the partial pressures of the combustion gases: oxygen and acetylene. The structural characterization was made through X-ray diffraction (XRD and the morphological analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The adhesive wear resistance of the coatings was determined by the bole on disc test using a spherical ball made of steel 100Cr6 and with a diameter of 6 mm. The results obtained show that the coating projected with an oxygen pressure of 78 psi and an acetylene pressure of 8 psi have the better wear resistance compared with the substrate and the others treatments deposited

  13. Tough ceramic coatings: Carbon nanotube reinforced silica sol-gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A. J.; Rico, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Rams, J.

    2010-08-01

    Silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes were produced via sol-gel route using two mixing techniques of the sol-gel precursors, mechanical and ultrasonic mixing, and dip-coating as deposition process on magnesium alloy substrates. Effective incorporation and distribution of 0.1 wt.% of carbon nanotubes in the amorphous silica matrix of the coatings were achieved using both techniques. Fabrication procedure determines the morphological aspects of the coating. Only mechanical mixing process produced coatings dense and free of defects. Nanoindentation technique was used to examine the influence of the fabrication process in the mechanical features of the final coatings, i.e. indentation fracture toughness, Young's modulus and hardness. A maximum toughening effect of about 24% was achieved in silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes produced by the mechanical mixing route. Scanning electron microscopy investigation revealed that the toughening of these reinforced coatings was mainly due to bridging effect of the reinforcement.

  14. Bioactivity of Gradient Rare Earths Bioceramic Coating Produced by Wide-Band Laser Cladding%宽带激光熔覆梯度稀土生物陶瓷涂层的生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 汪震

    2012-01-01

    To decrease thermal crack and to raise bonding strength between substrate and bioceramic coating during laser cladding, a kind of gradient rare earths bioceramics coating is designed. And the rare earth active gradient bioceramic coating with HA and β-TCP on Ti allloy was prepared by using wide-band laser cladding technique. The surface morphologies and microstructure were analyzed by OM, SEM and XRD; the bioceramic coating was immersed in SBF to examine its bioactivity ; and the corrosion resistance of bioceramic was examed by the Electrochemical Analyzer. Results show that the rare earth active bioceramic gradient coatings which have excellent chemical metallurgy bonding at the interface consists of substrate, alloying layer and bioceramic coating. When content of Nd2O3 is up to 0.6wt.%, the amount of HA+β — TCP catalyzed during wide-band laser cladding becomes largest. Bioactivity and corrosion resistance of bioceramic coating is dependent on the amount of HA + β—TCP catalyzed. The largest amount of apatite formed on the surface of gradient bioceramic coating is complied with 0.6wt.% Nd2O3. At the same time, the corrosion resistence is best.%为了减少激光熔覆过程中基材与生物陶瓷涂层之间的热裂纹,提高涂层与基材的结合强度,设计了一种梯度稀土生物陶瓷涂层,采用宽带激光熔覆技术,在TC4钛合金表面制备了含HA+β-TCP活性相的稀土活性梯度生物陶瓷复合涂层.利用SEM、XRD分析手段对涂层形貌、相组成进行了研究;通过模拟体液(SBF)浸泡实验(浸泡7、14 d)考察了生物陶瓷涂层的生物活性;利用电化学分析仪测试了生物活性陶瓷涂层的耐腐蚀性.结果表明,当稀土氧化物Nd2O3添加量为w(Nd2O3) =0.6%时,宽带激光熔覆过程中催化合成HA +3-TCP活性相的数量最多,具有优异的表面形貌;当稀土氧化物Nd2O3添加量为w(Nd2O3)=0.6%时,梯度稀土生物陶瓷涂层在SBF中浸泡不同时间点后表面沉

  15. Effect of heat input on microstructure, wear and friction behavior of (wt.-%) 50FeCrC-20FeW-30FeB coating on AISI 1020 produced by using PTA welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Cihan; Gürgenç, Turan

    2018-01-01

    In this study, AISI 1020 steel surface was coated in different heat inputs with (wt.-%) 50FeCrC-20FeW-30FeB powder mixture by using plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding method. The microstructure of the coated samples were investigated by using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS). The hardness was measured with micro hardness test device. The dry sliding wear and friction coefficient properties were determined using a block-on-disk type wear test device. Wear tests were performed at 19.62 N, 39.24 N, 58.86 N load and the sliding distance of 900 m. The results were shown that different microstructures formed due to the heat input change. The highest average micro hardness value was measured at 1217 HV on sample coated with low heat input. It was determined that the wear resistance decreased with increasing heat input.

  16. Method for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles, device for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yung Y

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for dispersing particles within a reaction field, the method comprising confining the particles to the reaction field using a standing wave. The invention also provides a system for coating particles, the system comprising a reaction zone; a means for producing fluidized particles within the reaction zone; a fluid to produce a standing wave within the reaction zone; and a means for introducing coating moieties to the reaction zone. The invention also provides a method for coating particles, the method comprising fluidizing the particles, subjecting the particles to a standing wave; and contacting the subjected particles with a coating moiety.

  17. Study of ion plating parameters, coating structure, and corrosion protection for aluminum coatings on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egert, C.M.; Scott, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    A study of ion-plating parameters (primarily deposition rate and substrate bias voltage), coating structure, and the corrosion protection provided by aluminum coatings on uranium is presented. Ion plating at low temperatures yields a variety of aluminum coating structures on uranium. For example, aluminum coatings produced at high deposition rates and low substrate bias voltages are columnar with voids between columns, as expected for high-rate vapor deposition at low temperatures. On the other hand, low deposition rate and high bias voltage produce a modified coating with a dense, noncolumnar structure. These results are not in agreement with other studies that have found no relationship between deposition rate and coating structure in ion plating. This discrepancy is probably due to the high deposition rates used in these studies. An accelerated, water vapor corrosion test indicates that the columnar aluminum coatings provide some corrosion protection despite their porous nature; however, the dense noncolumnar coatings provide significantly greater protection. These results indicate that ion-plated aluminum coatings produced at low deposition rates and high substrate bias voltages creates dense coating structures that are most effective in protecting uranium from corrosion

  18. Cermet coatings for magnetic fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.; Whitley, J.B.; McDonald, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Cermet coatings consisting of SiC particles in an aluminum matrix were produced by a low pressure chamber plasma spray process. Properties of these coatings are being investigated to evaluate their suitability for use in the next generation of magnetic confinement fusion reactors. Although this preliminary study has focused primarily upon SiC-Al cermets, the deposition process can be adapted to other ceramic-metal combinations. Potential applications for cermet coatings in magnetic fusion devices are presented along with experimental results from thermal tests of candidate coatings. (Auth.)

  19. Effect of coating parameters on the microstructure of cerium oxide conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Benedict Y.; Edington, Joe; O' Keefe, Matthew J

    2003-11-25

    The microstructure and morphology of cerium oxide conversion coatings prepared under different deposition conditions were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The coatings were formed by a spontaneous reaction between a water-based solution containing CeCl{sub 3} and aluminum alloy 7075-T6 substrates. Microstructural characterization was performed to determine the crystallinity of the coatings and to obtain a better understanding of the deposition parameters on coating microstructure. The results of TEM imaging and electron diffraction analysis indicated that the as-deposited coating was composed of nanocrystalline particles of a previously unreported cerium compound. The particles of the coatings produced using glycerol as an additive were found to be much finer than those of the coatings prepared in the absence of glycerol. This indicates that glycerol may act as a grain refiner and/or growth inhibitor during coating deposition. After deposition, the coated panels were treated for 5 min in a phosphate sealing solution. The sealing treatment converted the as-deposited coating into hydrated cerium phosphate. Panels coated from solutions containing no glycerol followed by phosphate sealing performed poorly in salt fog tests. With glycerol addition, the corrosion resistance of the coatings that were phosphate sealed improved considerably, achieving an average passing rate of 85%.

  20. Electron beam treatments of electrophoretic ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Riccardis, M.F.; Carbone, D.; Piscopiello, E.; Antisari, M. Vittori

    2008-01-01

    In this work a method to densify ceramic coating obtained by electrophoresis and to improve its adhesion to the substrate is proposed. It consists in irradiating the coating surface by electron beam (EB). Alumina and alumina-zirconia coatings were deposited on stainless steel substrates and treated by low power EB. SEM, XRD and TEM characterizations demonstrated that the sintering occurred. Moreover, it is shown that on alumina-zirconia coating the EB irradiation produced a composite material consisting principally of tetragonal zirconia particles immersed in an amorphous alumina matrix. The adhesion stress of EB treated coating was estimated by stud pull test and it was found to be comparable to that of plasma-sprayed coatings

  1. Recobrimentos de poli (tereftalato de etileno depositados em aço por aspersão térmica a partir de pós obtidos em diferentes condições de moagem Thermally sprayed coated carbon steel produced using PET powder obtained in different grinding conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tavares Duarte

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados recobrimentos de poli(tereftalato de etileno, PET, depositados em aço carbono através da técnica de aspersão térmica à combustão, e produzidos a partir de pós oriundos de processos de moagem, em moinho de bolas e de facas, de garrafas de PET pós-consumo. Algumas condições de moagem foram testadas, tendo-se obtido pós com diferentes características morfológicas. As características morfológicas dos pós e dos recobrimentos foram avaliadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica, tendo-se observado que o recobrimento apresentava bolhas, provavelmente devido à degradação do polímero. Além disto, os recobrimentos produzidos, bem como as amostras de pó, foram caracterizados por espectroscopia na região do infravermelho, por calorimetria exploratória diferencial e através da determinação de viscosidade intrínseca em solução. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que é possível a produção de aço carbono recoberto com PET através da técnica de aspersão térmica, sendo que o grau de degradação, a morfologia e a distribuição granulométrica dos pós utilizados influenciaram significativamente as características e propriedades dos recobrimentos formados.The main purpose of this work was to study the production of a thermal spray coated poly(ethyleneterephthalate steel. Poly(ethylene terephthalate coatings were made of a thin grinding waste produced by a PET recycling company, and of a PET powder, which was obtained by grinding post-consumer beverage bottles. Some grinding conditions, using a ceramic ball mill, were studied. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM and optical microscopy (OM were used in the study of powder and coating morphologies, and this analysis showed that PET coating presents bubbles due to polymer degradation. PET powder and coating characteristics were investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and measurements of intrinsic viscosity. It was observed that

  2. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Quanchao [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Yunnan Copper Smelting and Processing Complex, Yunnan Copper (Group) CO., LTD., Kunming 650102 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Peng, Jinghui [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Xu, Lei, E-mail: xulei_kmust@aliyun.com [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Srinivasakannan, C. [Chemical Engineering Department, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); and others

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  3. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Quanchao; Peng, Jinghui; Xu, Lei; Srinivasakannan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  4. Plasma processed coating of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Crane, J.K.; Illige, J.D.; Hatcher, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion targets have been deposited in an inductively coupled discharge device by plasma polymerization. Two feed gases were used: perfluoro-2-butene, which produced a fluorocarbon coating (CF 1 3 ) with a density of 1.8 g/cc, and trans-2-butene which produced a hydrocarbon coating (CH 1 3 ) with a density of 1.0 g/cc. Uniform pin-hole free films have been deposited to a thickness of up to 30 μm of fluorocarbon and up to 110 μm of hydrocarbon. The effect of process variables on surface smoothness has been investigated. The basic defect in the coating has been found to result from shadowing by a small surface irregularity in an anisotropic coating flux

  5. Laser cladding of wear resistant metal matrix composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, A.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    2004-01-01

    A number of coatings with wear-resistant properties as well as with a low friction coefficient are produced by laser cladding. The structure of these coatings is determined by required performance and realized as metal matrix composite (MMC), where solid lubricant serves as a ductile matrix (e.g. CuSn), reinforced by appropriate ceramic phase (e.g. WC/Co). One of the engineered coating with functionally graded material (FGM) structure has a dry friction coefficient 0.12. Coatings were produced by coaxial injection of powder blend into the zone of laser beam action. Metallographic and tribological examinations were carried out confirming the advanced performance of engineered coatings

  6. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  7. Optimization of the deposition process of corrosion resistant Stellite 6 coatings produced by laser cladding; Optimizacion del proceso de aporte de recubrimientos anticorrosion de Stellite 6 producidos mediante plaqueado laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicario, I.; Soriano, C.; Sanz, C.; Bayon, R.; Leunda, J.

    2009-07-01

    Laser cladding is one of the most efficient surface treatment technologies in the industry. It uses a laser heat source to deposit a thin layer of a desired material on a moving substrate, whose properties have to be improved, achieving a metallurgical bonding between them with low heat affected zone and low dilution, compared to other conventional technologies such as PTA, TIG welding or thermal Spraying. In this sense, it is remarkable that there are 3 main application fields for laser cladding technology: restoration of refurbishment of damaged parts, surface coating against corrosion or wear, and rapid proto typing. the present work described a study of the optimization of the laser cladding of Co based coatings (Diamalloy 4060NS) on medium carbon steel C45 (AISI 1945). After laser treatment, the surface of the substrate materials is improved in terms of resistance against corrosion; this confirmed in the analysis performed afterwards. it is also shown that the corrosion barrier properties have direct correlation with the laser cladding variables. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.; Halsey, W.G.; Jameson, G.T.; Wittmayer, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres

  9. Oxidation study of Ta–Zr coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Chen, Sin-Min

    2013-02-01

    Refractory metal alloy coatings, such as Mo–Ru and Ta–Ru coatings, have been developed to protect glass molding dies. Forming intermetallic compounds in the coatings inhibits grain growth in high temperature environments when mass producing optical components. After annealing in oxygen containing atmospheres, a surface roughening of the Mo–Ru coatings and a soft oxide layer on the Ta–Ru coatings have been observed in our previous works. Oxidation resistance becomes critical in high-temperature applications. In this study, Ta–Zr coatings were deposited with a Ti interlayer on silicon wafers using direct current magnetron sputtering at 400 °C. The as-deposited Ta–Zr coatings possessed nanocrystallite or amorphous states, depending on the chemical compositions. The annealing treatments were conducted at 600 °C under atmospheres of 50 ppm O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} or 1% O{sub 2}–Ar, respectively. After the annealing treatment, this study investigated variations in crystalline structure, hardness, surface roughness, and chemical composition profiles. Preferential oxidation of Zr in the Ta–Zr coatings was verified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the microstructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: ►The as-deposited Ta-rich Ta–Zr coatings revealed an amorphous structure. ►The Zr-rich coatings presented a crystalline β-Zr phase and an amorphous matrix. ►Zr oxidized preferentially as Ta–Zr coatings annealed at 600 °C. ►The hardness of coatings revealed a parabolic relationship with the oxygen content. ►A protective oxide scale formed on the surface of the crystallized Zr-rich coatings.

  10. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  11. Coating material composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Ozeki, Takao; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo; Maeda, Yutaka.

    1969-01-01

    A coating material composition is provided which can easily be cross-linked by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams and ultraviolet light, using a mixture of a prepolymer (a) with an addition reaction product (b). Such compositions have coating properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resins. The prepolymer (a) is produced by primarily reacting at least 0.1 mol of saturated cyclocarboxylic acid anhydrides and/or alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acid anhydrides by addition reaction with one mol of hydroxyl radicals of a basic polymer having a molecular weight of 1,000 to 100,000, the basic polymer being obtained from 1%-40% of a hydroxyl radical containing vinyl monomer and at least 30% of (meth)acrylate monomer. One mol of the sum of hydroxyl radicals and carboxyl radicals of the primary reaction product undergoes a secondary addition reaction with at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer to form the prepolymer(a). The addition reaction product(b) is produced by reacting an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The coating material composition contains a majority of a mixture consisting of 10%-90% of (a) and 90%-10% of (b) above by weight. Four examples of the production of basic polymers, seven examples of the production of prepolymers, seven examples of the production of oligomers, and five examples of applications are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Corrosion-resistant coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, D.M.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    SiC-based heat exchangers have been identified as the prime candidate material for use as heat exchangers in advanced combined cycle power plants. Unfortunately, hot corrosion of the SiC-based materials created by alkali metal salts present in the combustion gases dictates the need for corrosion-resistant coatings. The well-documented corrosion resistance of CS-50 combined with its low (and tailorable) coefficient of thermal expansion and low modulus makes CS-50 an ideal candidate for this application. Coatings produced by gelcasting and traditional particulate processing have been evaluated.

  13. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2002-01-01

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  14. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  15. Novel coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    An acrylic coating composition rapidly hardenable by irradiating with ionizing radiations or light beams is given using hydroxyl group-containing vinyl monomers, polycarboxylic acid anhydrides, epoxy group-containing vinyl monomers and an organic solvent having a boiling point of at least 120 0 C. The process comprises the steps of first and second reactions. The first reaction takes place between one mol of a hydroxyl group of a basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of polycarboxylic acid anhydride, wherein the basic polymer has a molecular weight ranging from 5,000 to 100,000 and consists of 1-40% by weight of vinyl monomer containing hydroxyl group, at least 30% of (meth)acrylic monomer and other vinyl monomers if required. The second reaction takes place between one mol of hydroxyl plus a carboxyl group of the thus obtained basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy group-containing vinyl monomer to produce a prepolymer. The prepolymer is mixed with a solvent such as ethyl benzene to produce the coating material. The electron beam accelerator energy level may be 0.1-2.0 MeV. In light beam polymerization, benzoin is particularly utilized as an intensifying substance. In one example, a basic polymer is produced by reacting 39 parts of styrene, 37 parts of ethyl acrylate, 24 parts of 2-hydroxyl ethyl acrylate, 4 parts of dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate and others. A prepolymer is produced by reacting this basic polymer with 30 parts of glycidyl acrylate and others. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. Silver doped hydroxyapatite coatings by sacrificial anode deposition under magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, S; Rautray, T R

    2017-09-13

    Uniform distribution of silver (Ag) in the hydroxyapatite (HA) coated Ti surface has been a concern for which an attempt has been made to dope Ag in HA coating with and without magnetic field. Cathodic deposition technique was employed to coat Ag incorporated hydroxyapatite coating using a sacrificial silver anode method by using NdFeB bar magnets producing 12 Tesla magnetic field. While uniform deposition of Ag was observed in the coatings under magnetic field, dense coating was evident in the coating without magnetic field conditions. Uniformly distributed Ag incorporated HA in the present study has potential to fight microorganism while providing osseoconduction properties of the composite coating.

  17. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  18. Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, H; Virtanen, S; Boccaccini, A R

    2012-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers research carried out in the field of degradable coatings on Mg and Mg alloys for biomedical applications. Several coating methods are discussed, which can be divided, based on the specific processing techniques used, into conversion and deposition coatings. The literature review revealed that in most cases coatings increase the corrosion resistance of Mg and Mg alloys. The critical factors determining coating performance, such as corrosion rate, surface chemistry, adhesion and coating morphology, are identified and discussed. The analysis of the literature showed that many studies have focused on calcium phosphate coatings produced either using conversion or deposition methods which were developed for orthopaedic applications. However, the control of phases and the formation of cracks still appear unsatisfactory. More research and development is needed in the case of biodegradable organic based coatings to generate reproducible and relevant data. In addition to biocompatibility, the mechanical properties of the coatings are also relevant, and the development of appropriate methods to study the corrosion process in detail and in the long term remains an important area of research. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Davis, F. J.; Mitchell, G. R.; Robinson, E.

    2009-08-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  20. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S; Mitchell, G R; Robinson, E; Davis, F J

    2009-01-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  1. Thermal stability of double-ceramic-layer thermal barrier coatings with various coating thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hui; Zhong Xinghua; Li Jiayan; Zhang Yanfei; Meng Jian; Cao Xueqiang

    2006-01-01

    Double-ceramic-layer (DCL) coatings with various thickness ratios composed of YSZ (6-8 wt.% Y 2 O 3 + ZrO 2 ) and lanthanum zirconate (LZ, La 2 Zr 2 O 7 ) were produced by the atmospheric plasma spraying. Chemical stability of LZ in contact with YSZ in DCL coatings was investigated by calcining powder blends at different temperatures. No obvious reaction was observed when the calcination temperature was lower than 1250 deg. C, implying that LZ and YSZ had good chemical applicability for producing DCL coating. The thermal cycling test indicate that the cycling lives of the DCL coatings are strongly dependent on the thickness ratio of LZ and YSZ, and the coatings with YSZ thickness between 150 and 200 μm have even longer lives than the single-layer YSZ coating. When the YSZ layer is thinner than 100 μm, the DCL coatings failed in the LZ layer close to the interface of YSZ layer and LZ layer. For the coatings with the YSZ thickness above 150 μm, the failure mainly occurs at the interface of the YSZ layer and the bond coat

  2. Analytical Modeling of Hard-Coating Cantilever Composite Plate considering the Material Nonlinearity of Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the material nonlinearity of hard coating, the coated structure produces the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of variable stiffness and damping, which make the modeling of hard-coating composite structure become a challenging task. In this study, the polynomial was adopted to characterize this material nonlinearity and an analytical modeling method was developed for the hard-coating composite plate. Firstly, to relate the hard-coating material parameters obtained by test and the analytical model, the expression of equivalent strain of composite plate was derived. Then, the analytical model of hard-coating composite plate was created by energy method considering the material nonlinearity of hard coating. Next, using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate and a specific calculation procedure was also proposed. Finally, a cantilever plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 hard coating was chosen as study case; the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate were calculated using the proposed method. The calculation results were compared with the experiment and general linear calculation, and the correctness of the created model was verified. The study shows the proposed method can still maintain an acceptable precision when the material nonlinearity of hard coating is stronger.

  3. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2014-01-01

    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over...... the critical angle of Ni is needed one has used Ni58 or Ni/Ti multilayer coatings. Ni has one of the highest neutron scattering density but it also has a fairly high absorption cross section for cold and thermal neutrons and when a neutron is absorbed it emits a lot of gamma rays, some with energies above 9 Me...... of diamond coatings to show the potential for using these coatings in neutron guides....

  4. Vanadium carbide coatings: deposition process and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, A.; Borisov, Y.; Shavlovsky, E.; Mits, I.; Castermans, L.; Jongbloed, R.

    2001-01-01

    Vanadium carbide coatings on carbon and alloyed steels were produced by the method of diffusion saturation from the borax melt. Thickness of the vanadium carbide layer was 5-15 μm, depending upon the steel grade and diffusion saturation parameters. Microhardness was 20000-28000 MPa and wear resistance of the coatings under conditions of end face friction without lubrication against a mating body of WC-2Co was 15-20 times as high as that of boride coatings. Vanadium carbide coatings can operate in air at a temperature of up to 400 o C. They improve fatigue strength of carbon steels and decrease the rate of corrosion in sea and fresh water and in acid solutions. The use of vanadium carbide coatings for hardening of various types of tools, including cutting tools, allows their service life to be extended by a factor of 3 to 30. (author)

  5. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  6. Development of Bioactive Ceramic Coating on Titanium Alloy substrate for Biomedical Application Using Dip Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmawi, R.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Mustafa, N.; Noranai, Z.

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive apatite, such as hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA), [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility and tissue bioactivity properties. Its bioactivity provides direct bonding to the bone tissue. Because of its similarity in chemical composition to the inorganic matrix of bone, HA is widely used as implant materials for bone. Unfortunately, because of its poor mechanical properties,. this bioactive material is not suitable for load bearing applications. In this study, by the assistance of dip-coating technique, HA coatings were deposited on titanium alloy substrates by employing hydrothermal derived HA powder. The produced coatings then were oven-dried at 130°C for 1 hour and calcined at various temperature over the range of 200-800°C for 1 hour. XRD measurement showed that HA was the only phase present in the coatings. However coatings calcined at 800°C comprised a mixture of HA and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). FTIR measurement showed the existence of hydroxyl, phosphate, and carbonate bands. PO4 - band became sharper and narrower with the increased of calcination temperature. FESEM observation showed that the coating is polycrystalline with individual particles of nano to submicron size and has an average particle size of 35 nm. The thickness of the coating are direcly propotional with the viscosity of coating slurry. It was shown that the more viscous coating slurry would produce a thicker ceramic coating. Mechanical properties of the coating were measured in term of adhesion strength using a Micro Materials Nano Test microscratch testing machine. The result revealed that the coating had a good adhesion to the titanium alloy substrate.

  7. Effect of Dipping and Vacuum Impregnation Coating Techniques with Alginate Based Coating on Physical Quality Parameters of Cantaloupe Melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Parreidt, Tugce; Schmid, Markus; Müller, Kajetan

    2018-04-01

    Edible coating based on sodium alginate solution was applied to fresh-cut cantaloupe melon by dipping and vacuum impregnation coating methods. One aim of this work is to produce more technical information concerning these conventional and novel coating processes. For this purpose, the effect of various coating parameters (dipping time, draining time, time length of the vacuum period, vacuum pressure, atmospheric restoration time) with several levels on physical quality parameters (percentage of weight gain, color, and texture) of noncoated and coated samples were determined in order to define adequate coating process parameters to achieve a successful coating application. Additionally, the effects of dipping and vacuum impregnation processes were compared. Both processes improved the firmness of the melon pieces. However, vacuum impregnation application had higher firmness and weight gain results, and had significant effect (P coating technique and the parameters used significantly affect the physical quality characteristics of coated food products. The work presented produced more technical information concerning dipping and vacuum impregnation coating techniques, along with evaluating the effects of various coating parameters with several levels. The results revealed that vacuum impregnation technique is a successful coating method; however the effects should be carefully assessed for each product. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Microstructural investigation of phases and pinning properties in MBa2Cu3O7-x (M = Y and/or Gd) coated conductors produced by scale-up facilitie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hye-Jin; Moon, Han-Kyoul; Yoon, Seokhyun; Jo, William; Kim, Kunsu; Kim, Miyoung; Ko, Rock-Kil; Jo, Young-Sik; Ha, Dong-Woo

    2016-03-01

    To expedite the commercialization of coated conductors, a robust stacking architecture of the wires must be developed and the performance of the critical currents improved. More importantly, the manufacturability, or large-scale delivery, and the capability of sustaining production at a high rate must be considered. The products of three companies, American Superconductor, Superpower Inc., and SuNAM Co., Ltd, were selected because these companies have announced commercial-grade production lines and delivered a significant amounts of wires to the open market that meet the standards demanded by power devices. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to verify the structural properties and the phase formation in the wires, and transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to investigate the microstructure and composition of the conductors. In addition, Raman scattering spectroscopy was used for the analysis of the phase formation and for the elucidation of secondary phases in the superconducting layers. The field dependence of the critical current was also studied to compare the transport characteristics under relatively low and medium magnetic field at 77 K and 60 K. Pinning forces were obtained from the field dependence of transport properties and pinning characteristics were investigated. The theoretical and experimental analyses were combined together using the Dew-Hughes formula to extract the scaling exponents and estimate the irreversibility lines of the fields. The results showed that the three conductors possess pinning mechanisms that originate from core pinning with a surface pinning geometry. It is remarkable that the wires discussed in this paper exhibit very similar pinning characteristics even though they have different characteristics in terms of chemical composition, microstructure, stacking architectures, and distribution of parasitic phases.

  9. Next Generation Thermal Barrier Coatings for the Gas Turbine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Li, Xin-Hai; Tricoire, Aurélien; Dorfman, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the next generation of production ready air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a low conductivity and long lifetime. A number of coating architectures were produced using commercially available plasma spray guns. Modifications were made to powder chemistry, including high purity powders, dysprosia stabilized zirconia powders, and powders containing porosity formers. Agglomerated & sintered and homogenized oven spheroidized powder morphologies were used to attain beneficial microstructures. Dual layer coatings were produced using the two powders. Laser flash technique was used to evaluate the thermal conductivity of the coating systems from room temperature to 1200 °C. Tests were performed on as-sprayed samples and samples were heat treated for 100 h at 1150 °C. Thermal conductivity results were correlated to the coating microstructure using image analysis of porosity and cracks. The results show the influence of beneficial porosity on reducing the thermal conductivity of the produced coatings.

  10. Method and compositions for producting optically clear photocatalytic coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and compositions for producing a hydrophilic coating on a surface of a solid material. The method comprises a cleaning step and a coating step. The cleaning step may be preceded by an initial cleaning step and it may optionally be succeeded by a preconditioning...... step prior to the coating step. The cleaning step comprises cleaning and preconditioning a surface of a material by use of a first cleaning fluid composition comprising ceria (CeO2) particles. The coating step comprises treatment by use of a coating fluid composition comprising photocatalytically...

  11. Coating of ceramic powders by chemical vapor deposition techniques (CVD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, R.; Lux, B.

    1997-01-01

    New ceramic materials with selected advanced properties can be designed by coating of ceramic powders prior to sintering. By variation of the core and coating material a large number of various powders and ceramic materials can be produced. Powders which react with the binder phase during sintering can be coated with stable materials. Thermal expansion of the ceramic materials can be adjusted by varying the coating thickness (ratio core/layer). Electrical and wear resistant properties can be optimized for electrical contacts. A fluidized bed reactor will be designed which allow the deposition of various coatings on ceramic powders. (author)

  12. Nanocomposite tribological coatings with 'chameleon' surface adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodin, A.A.; Fitz, T.A.; Hu, J.J.; Zabinski, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Nanocomposite tribological coatings were designed to respond to changing environmental conditions by self-adjustment of their surface properties to maintain good tribological performance in any environment. These smart coatings have been dubbed 'chameleon' because, analogous to a chameleon changing its skin color to avoid predators, the coating changes its 'skin' chemistry and structure to avoid wear. The concept was originally developed using WC, diamondlike carbon, and WS 2 material combination for adaptation to a humid/dry environment cycling. In order to address temperature variation, nanocomposite coatings made of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in a gold matrix were developed with encapsulated nanosized reservoirs of MoS 2 and diamondlike carbon (DLC). Coatings were produced using a combination of laser ablation and magnetron sputtering. They were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Results were correlated with mechanical and tribological characterization. Coating hardness was evaluated using nanoindentation, while coating adhesion and toughness were estimated using scratch and Vickers indentation tests. Friction and wear endurance measurements of YSZ/Au/MoS 2 /DLC coatings against steel and Si 3 N 4 balls were performed at room temperature in controlled humidity air, dry nitrogen, and vacuum environments, as well as at 500 deg. C in air. Depending on the environment, coating friction surface changed its chemistry and structure between (i) graphitic carbon for sliding in humid air [coating friction coefficients (c.o.f. 0.10-0.15)], (ii) hexagonal MoS 2 for sliding in dry N 2 and vacuum (c.o.f. 0.02-0.05), and (iii) metallic Au for sliding in air at 500 deg. C (c.o.f. 0.10-0.20). The unique coating skin adaptation realized with YSZ/Au/MoS 2 /DLC and WC/DLC/WS composites proves a universal applicability of the chameleon design

  13. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  14. Stresses and Cracks in Surface Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    2000-01-01

    This extended abstract of the talk to be given at the Danish Metallurgical Society, Winter Meeting 1999, gives an outline of the areas of interest in current projects in wear and corrosion resistant coatings at Materials Technology, Technical University of Denmark (IPT, Materialeteknologi, DTU......). It also briefly describes our method of approach in analysing new coating / substrate combinations or new materials processing techniques for producing a given coating. We strive to combine, often in collaboration with others, a fundamental understanding of microstructure, mechanical properties...

  15. Coating with the aid of a plasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, D.; Reissmueller, L.

    1984-01-01

    Subject of the invention is the coating of sensitive semiconductor elements with the aid of a plasmatron in such a way that a layer of uniform chemical composition, adequate adhesion and resistance to following treatments results. This could be achieved by producing a first layer of about 10% of the thickness needed with low-energy ions. In the second coating step the layer is completed through ions of high energy

  16. Effect of coating density on oxidation resistance and Cr vaporization from solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talic, Belma; Falk-Windisch, Hannes; Venkatachalam, Vinothini

    2017-01-01

    •Protective action of dense and porous spinel coatings on Crofer 22 APU was compared. •Reduction and re-oxidation produces denser coatings than heat treating in air only. •Coating density has minor influence on oxidation resistance at 800 °C in air. •Dense coating resulted in three times lower Cr...... evaporation rate than porous coating....

  17. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot?

    OpenAIRE

    Rendo, Fernando; Iriondo, Mikel; Manzano, Carmen; Estonba, Andone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phe...

  18. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  19. Process for producing uranium carbide spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shennan, J.V.; Ford, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a method to produce UC spheroids which are filled into molded bodies of fire-proof material for fuel elements. The UC fuel particles are doubly coated: a first thin layer of pyrolytic carbon is coated at low temperature (1,200-1,400 0 C), a second layer of fire-proof material (e.g. SiC) is coated at a higher temperature (above 1,500 0 C) which holds back the fission products. The process is explained in more detail using an example. (GSCH) [de

  20. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  1. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  2. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  3. Fuel particle coating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Wagner, P.; Wahman, L.A.; White, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Development of coating on nuclear fuel particles for the High-Temperature Fuels Technology program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory included process studies for low-density porous and high-density isotropic carbon coats, and for ZrC and ''alloy'' C/ZrC coats. This report documents the data generated by these studies

  4. FABRICATION OF GAS-FILLED TUNGSTEN-COATED GLASS SHELLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A; BAUGH, W; STEINMAN, D.A.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Deuterium (D 2 ) filled glass shells coated with a high Z element are needed for high energy density (HED) experiments by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. They report here on our initial attempt to produce such shells. Glass shells made using the drop tower technique were coated with gold, palladium or tungsten, or a mixture of two of these elements. It was found that gold and palladium coatings did not stick well to the glass and resulted in poor or delaminated films. Tungsten coatings resulted in films suitable for these targets. Bouncing of shells during coating resulted in uniform tungsten coatings, but the surface of such coatings were filled with small nodules. Proper agitation of shells using a tapping technique resulted in smooth films with minimal particulate contamination. For coating rates of ∼ 0.15 (micro)m/hr coatings with ∼ 2 nm RMS surface finish could be deposited. The surface roughness of coatings at higher rates, 0.7 (micro)m/hr, was considerably worse (∼ 100 nm RMS). The columnar structure of the coatings allowed permeation filling of the tungsten coated glass shells with deuterium at 300 C

  5. Physically vapor deposited coatings on tools: performance and wear phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, W.; Fritsch, R.; Kammermeier, D.

    1991-01-01

    Coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) enhance the performance of tools for a broad variety of production processes. In addition to TiN, nowadays (Ti,Al)N and Ti(C,N) coated tools are available. This gives the opportunity to compare the performance of different coatings under identical machining conditions and to evaluate causes and phenomena of wear. TiN, (Ti,Al)N and Ti(C,N) coatings on high speed steel (HSS) show different performances in milling and turning of heat treated steel. The thermal and frictional properties of the coating materials affect the structure, the thickness and the flow of the chips, the contact area on the rake face and the tool life. Model tests show the influence of internal cooling and the thermal conductivity of coated HSS inserts. TiN and (Ti,Zr)N PVD coatings on cemented carbides were examined in interrupted turning and in milling of heat treated steel. Experimental results show a significant influence of typical time-temperature cycles of PVD and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coating processes on the physical data and on the performance of the substrates. PVD coatings increase tool life, especially towards lower cutting speeds into ranges which cannot be applied with CVD coatings. The reason for this is the superior toughness of the PVD coated carbide. The combination of tough, micrograin carbide and PVD coating even enables broaching of case hardened sliding gears at a cutting speed of 66 m min -1 . (orig.)

  6. Improving the packing density of calcium phosphate coating on a magnesium alloy for enhanced degradation resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M Bobby

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to improve the packing density of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating on a magnesium alloy by tailoring the coating solution for enhanced degradation resistance of the alloy for implant applications. An organic solvent, ethanol, was added to the coating solution to decrease the conductivity of the coating solution so that hydrogen bubble formation/bursting reduces during the CaP coating process. Experimental results confirmed that ethanol addition to the coating solution reduces the conductivity of the solution and also decreases the hydrogen evolution/bubble bursting. In vitro electrochemical experiments, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization showed that CaP coating produced in 30% (v/v) ethanol containing coating solution (3E) exhibits significantly higher degradation resistance (i.e., ~50% higher polarization resistance and ~60% lower corrosion current) than the aqueous solution coating. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the coatings revealed that the packing of 3E coating was denser than that of aqueous coating, which can be attributed to the lower hydrogen evolution in the former than in the latter. Further increase in the ethanol content in the coating solution was not beneficial; in fact, the coating produced in 70% (v/v) ethanol containing solution (7E) showed degradation resistance much inferior to that of the aqueous coating, which is due to low thickness of 7E coating. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Wrinkling of solidifying polymeric coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Soumendra Kumar

    2005-07-01

    In coatings, wrinkles are viewed as defects or as desired features for low gloss, and texture. In either case, discovering the origin of wrinkles and the conditions that lead to their formation is important. This research examines what wrinkling requires and proposes a mechanism to explain the observations. All curing wrinkling coatings contain multi-functional reactants. Upon curing, all develop a depth-wise gradient in solidification that result in a cross-linked elastic skin atop a viscous bottom layer. It is hypothesized that compressive stress develops in the skin when liquid below diffuses up into the skin. High enough compressive stress buckles the skin to produce wrinkles. The hypothesis is substantiated by experimental and theoretical evidences. Effects of various application and compositional parameters on wrinkle size in a liquid-applied acrylic coating and a powder-applied epoxy coating were examined. All three components, namely resin, cross-linker and catalyst blocked with at least equimolar volatile blocker, proved to be required for wrinkling. The wrinkling phenomenon was modeled with a theory that accounts for gradient generation, cross-linking reaction and skinning; predictions compared well with observations. Two-layer non-curing coatings that have a stiff elastic layer atop a complaint elastic bottom layer wrinkled when the top layer is compressed. The top layer was compressed by either moisture absorption or differential thermal expansion. Experimental observations compared well with predictions from a theory based on force balance in multilayer systems subjected to differential contraction or expansion. A model based on the Flory-Rehner free energy of a constrained cross-linked gel was constructed that predicts the compressive stress generated in a coating when it absorbs solvent. Linear stability analysis predicts that when a compressed elastic layer is attached atop a viscous layer, it is always unstable to buckles whose wavelength exceeds a

  8. Alternative waste form development - low-temperature pyrolytic carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Rusin, J.M.; Kidd, R.W.; Browning, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Although several chemical vapor deposition (CVD) - coated waste forms have been successfully produced, some major disadvantages associated with the high-temperature fluidized-bed CVD coating process exist. To overcome these disadvantages, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has initiated the development of a pyrolytic carbon CVD coating system to coat large waste-form particles at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500/degree/C. This relatively simple system has been used to coat kilogram quantities of simulated waste-glass marbles. Further development of this system could result in a viable process to coat bulk quantities of both glass and ceramic waste forms. This paper discusses various aspects of the development work, including coating techniques, parametric study, and coater equipment. 10 refs

  9. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  10. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  11. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  12. ALD Produced B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} Coatings on Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} Burnable Poison Nanoparticles and Carbonaceous TRISO Coating Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, Alan

    2012-11-26

    This project will demonstrate the feasibility of using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to apply ultrathin neutron-absorbing, corrosion-resistant layers consisting of ceramics, metals, or combinations thereof, on particles for enhanced nuclear fuel pellets. Current pellet coating technology utilizes chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in a fluidized bed reactor to deposit thick, porous layers of C (or PyC) and SiC. These graphitic/carbide materials degrade over time owing to fission product bombardment, active oxidation, thermal management issues, and long-term irradiation effects. ALD can be used to deposit potential ceramic barrier materials of interest, including ZrO{sub 2}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and TiO{sub 2}, or neutron-absorbing materials, namely B (in BN or B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Gd (in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}). This project consists of a two-pronged approach to integrate ALD into the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) fuel pellet manufacturing process:

  13. Calcium phosphate-based coatings on titanium and its alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, R; Seshadri, S K; Kwon, T Y; Kim, K H

    2008-04-01

    Use of titanium as biomaterial is possible because of its very favorable biocompatibility with living tissue. Titanium implants having calcium phosphate coatings on their surface show good fixation to the bone. This review covers briefly the requirements of typical biomaterials and narrowly focuses on the works on titanium. Calcium phosphate ceramics for use in implants are introduced and various methods of producing calcium phosphate coating on titanium substrates are elaborated. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of coating from the view point of process simplicity, cost-effectiveness, stability of the coatings, coating integration with the bone, cell behavior, and so forth are highlighted. Taking into account all these factors, the efficient method(s) of producing these coatings are indicated finally.

  14. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Bi, Q.; Ziegele, H.; Leyland, A.; Matthews, A.

    2002-01-01

    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, thicknesses, and surface roughnesses, by changing the N 2 flow rate, applying multilayering techniques and changing the substrate finish prior to coating. The microstructure of such coatings is investigated by various analytical techniques such as glancing angle x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which are also correlated with the corrosion performance of the coated steel. Both dc polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of Cr-N coated steel in a 0.5N NaCl solution. It has been found that the N 2 flow rate during reactive deposition strongly determines the microstructure of Cr-N coatings (due to the changing nitrogen content in the film) and can thus affect the corrosion resistance of coated systems. The surface finish of the steel substrate also affects the uniformity and coverage of PVD coatings; grooves and inclusions on the original substrate can raise the susceptibility of coated

  15. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...... of their suitability for use. An important aspect in the development of new VOC-compliant, high-performance anticorrosive coating systems is a thorough knowledge of the components in anticorrosive coatings, their interactions, their advantages and limitations, as well as a detailed knowledge on the failure modes......, and inhibitive coatings are outlined. In the past decades, several alternatives to organic solvent-borne coatings have reached the commercial market. This review also presents some of these technologies and discusses some of their advantages and limitations. Finally, some of the mechanisms leading to degradation...

  16. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  17. The adherence of aluminide coatings on MANET II stainless steel and their effect on its mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, T.; Fenici, P.; Kolbe, H.; Orecchia, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the production and testing of two different aluminide coatings on the surface of MANET II stainless steel. The coatings were produced by heat treatment of a pure aluminium layer (∼ 100 μm) which had been deposited by vacuum plasma spray. Series 1 coatings were produced by a single heat treatment (1023 K/2h) while series 2 coatings were produced by two consecutive heat treatments (1348 K/30 min, 1023 K/2h). Series 1 coatings were ∼ 120 μm thick, richer in aluminium and harder than series 2 coatings which formed two layers of ∼ 120 μm each. Due to their softer character, series 2 coatings exhibited a greater resistance to cracking under cyclic testing than series 1 coatings. Tensile tests of coated specimens indicated that the coating procedures did not degrade the mechanical properties of the bulk MANET II. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. High temperature oxidation behavior of hafnium modified NiAl bond coat in EB-PVD thermal barrier coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hongbo; Sun Lidong; Li Hefei [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Gong Shengkai [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: gongsk@buaa.edu.cn

    2008-06-30

    NiAl coatings doped with 0.5 at.% and 1.5 at.% Hf were produced by co-evaporation of NiAl and Hf ingots by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), respectively. The addition of 0.5 at.% Hf significantly improved the cyclic oxidation resistance of the NiAl coating. The TGO layer in the 1.5 at.% Hf doped NiAl coating is straight; while that in the 0.5 at.% Hf doped coating became undulated after thermal cycling. The doped NiAl thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) revealed improved thermal cycling lifetimes at 1423 K, compared to the undoped TBC. Failure of the 0.5 at.% Hf doped TBC occurred by cracking at the interface between YSZ topcoat and bond coat, while the 1.5 at.% Hf doped TBC cracked at the interface between bond coat and substrate.

  19. Vacuum-plasma-sprayed silicon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Bancke, G.A.; Burchell, T.D.; Romanoski, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying produces well-bonded dense stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this study, silicon metal was deposited on graphite to study the feasibility of preventing corrosion and oxidation of graphite components for nuclear reactors. Operating parameters were varied in a Taguchi design of experiments to display the range of the plasma processing conditions and their effect on the measured coating characteristics. The coating attributes evaluated were thickness, porosity, microhardness and phase content. This paper discusses the influence of the processing parameters on as-sprayed coating qualities. The paper also discusses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere. The diffraction spectrum for a sample that experienced a 1600degC temperature cycle indicated that more than 99% of the coating transformed to β-SiC. The silicon coatings protected the graphite substrates from oxidation in one experiment. (orig.)

  20. Titanate nanotube coatings on biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beke, S., E-mail: szabolcs.beke@iit.it [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Kőrösi, L. [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632, Pécs (Hungary); Scarpellini, A. [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Anjum, F.; Brandi, F. [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    Rigid, biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were coated with titanate nanotubes (TNTs) by using a spin-coating method. TNTs were synthesized by a hydrothermal process at 150 °C under 4.7 bar ambient pressure. The biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. For scaffold coating, a stable ethanolic TNT sol was prepared by a simple colloid chemical route without the use of any binding compounds or additives. Scanning electron microscopy along with elemental analysis revealed that the scaffolds were homogenously coated by TNTs. The developed TNT coating can further improve the surface geometry of fabricated scaffolds, and therefore it can further increase the cell adhesion. Highlights: ► Biodegradable scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted UV laser photocuring. ► Titanate nanotube deposition was carried out without binding compounds or additives. ► The titanate nanotube coating can further improve the surface geometry of scaffolds. ► These reproducible platforms will be of high importance for biological applications.

  1. “m=1” coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Beaucour, J.

    For neutrons the critical angle of Ni is defined as m=1. If one needs a coating with reflectivity above m=1, people have traditionally used Ni58 or Ni-based multilayers. The reason to use Ni is the high neutron scattering density and the fact that it is easy to coat Ni using magnetron sputtering....... For a neutron guide the cost of shielding around the guide is a substantial part of the total cost of the guide. We are therefore looking at other materials than Ni for m=1 coatings. Both Be and diamond have the same or higher neutron scattering density than Ni, and have a much smaller absorption cross section....... Because of the lower absorption cross section, and because of fewer emitted gamma ray photons when a neutron is absorbed, these coatings are producing much less gamma radiation and therefore reduce the shielding costs. Be is frequently used in a wide range of science and technology applications. The only...

  2. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  3. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  4. Evolution of the Automotive Body Coating Process—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson K. Akafuah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, trial-and-error approaches, technique and technology advancements, and theoretical assessments. Because of advancements directed at understanding the how, why, when, and where of automobile coatings, the progress in controlling droplets and their deposition attributes, and the development of new technologies and paint chemistries, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of automobile coatings and coating technologies was considered to be of value to industrial practitioners and researchers. Overall, the critical performance factors driving the development and use of advanced automotive coatings and coating technologies are (a aesthetic characteristics; (b corrosion protection; (c mass production; (d cost and environmental requirements; and (e appearance and durability. Although the relative importance of each of these factors is debatable, the perfection of any one at the expense of another would be unacceptable. Hence, new developments in automotive coatings are described and discussed in the following review, and then related to improvements in production technologies and paints. Modern automotive coating procedures are also discussed in detail. Finally, an extrapolation into the future of automotive coating is offered with a view of the developments and technologies needed for an increasingly efficient and more sustainable coatings industry.

  5. On the interfacial degradation mechanisms of thermal barrier coating systems: Effects of bond coat composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, R.T., E-mail: WU.Rudder@nims.go.jp [International Center for Young Scientists, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Wang, X.; Atkinson, A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems based on an electron beam physical vapour deposited, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat and a substrate material of CMSX-4 superalloy were identically prepared to systematically study the behaviour of different bond coats. The three bond coat systems investigated included two {beta}-structured Pt-Al types and a {gamma}-{gamma}' type produced by Pt diffusion without aluminizing. Progressive evolution of stress in the thermally grown aluminium oxide (TGO) upon thermal cycling, and its relief by plastic deformation and fracture, were studied using luminescence spectroscopy. The TBCs with the LT Pt-Al bond coat failed by a rumpling mechanism that generated isolated cracks at the interface between the TGO and the YSZ. This reduced adhesion at this interface and the TBC delaminated when it could no longer resist the release of the stored elastic energy of the YSZ, which stiffened with time due to sintering. In contrast, the TBCs with Pt diffusion bond coats did not rumple, and the adhesion of interfaces in the coating did not obviously degrade. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms are strongly associated with differences in the high-temperature mechanical properties of the bond coats.

  6. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...... for these designs and present test results from coatings....

  7. Cellulose nanofibers use in coated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Finley

    Cellulose Nanofibers (CNF) are materials that can be obtained by the mechanical breakdown of natural fibers. CNF have the potential to be produced at low cost in a paper mill and may provide novel properties to paper, paper coatings, paints, or other products. However, suspensions have a complex rheology even at low solid contents. To be able to coat, pump, or mix CNF at moderate solids, it is critical to understand the rheology of these suspensions and how they flow in process equipment; current papers only report the rheology up to 6% solids. Few publications are available that describe the coating of CNF onto paper or the use of CNF as an additive into a paper coating. The rheology of CNF suspensions and coatings that contain CNF were characterized with parallel-disk geometry in a controlled stress rheometer. The steady shear viscosity, the complex viscosity, the storage modulus, and the yield stress were determined for the range of solids or concentrations (2.5-10.5%). CNF were coated onto paper with a laboratory rod coater, a size press and a high speed cylindrical laboratory coater (CLC). For each case, the coat weights were measures and the properties of the papers were characterized. CNF water base suspension was found to be a shear thinning with a power law index of around 0.1. Oscillatory tests showed a linear viscoelastic region at low strains and significant storage and loss moduli even at low solids. The Cox Merz rule does not hold for CNF suspensions or coating formulations that contain CNF with complex viscosities that are about 100 times larger than the steady shear viscosities. Paper coating formulations that contain CNF were found to have viscosities and storage and loss moduli that are over ten times larger than coatings that contain starch at similar solids. CNF suspensions were coated on papers with low amount transferred on paper either at high solids or high nip loadings. The amount transferred appears to be controlled by an interaction of

  8. Genetics of seed coat color in sesame ( Sesamum indicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed coat colour of sesame is commercially an important trait. Developing white seeded varieties with long lasting luster has received momentous attention in most of the major sesame producing countries including India. The present investigation centered on the genetic control of seed coat colour in sesame. No genetic ...

  9. Effects of laser radiation on surfaces and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is given of the principal aspects of laser-induced damage to polished optical surfaces and dielectric, thin-film, high-reflectivity and antireflective coatings. Methods for producing porous antireflective surfaces and coatings and their damage properties are also reviewed. Finally, new areas of basic research to solve current and future problems are addressed

  10. Improved coating and fixation methods for scanning electron microscope autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A simple apparatus for emulsion coating is described. The apparatus is inexpensive and easily assembled in a standard glass shop. Emulsion coating for scanning electron microscope autoradiography with this apparatus consistently yields uniform layers. When used in conjunction with newly described fixation methods, this new approach produces reliable autoradiographs of undamaged specimens

  11. Super-low friction behavior of nanostructured DLC composite coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Galvan, D.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    Advanced TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings have been produced via reactive deposition in a closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system (Hauzer HTC-1000). This work concentrates on a detailed mechanical and tribological characterization of the TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings, in particular

  12. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  13. Silica coatings on clarithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Marjan; Dmitrasinovic, Dorde; Planinsek, Odon; Salobir, Mateja; Srcic, Stane; Gaberscek, Miran; Jamnik, Janko

    2005-03-03

    Pre-crystallized clarithromycin (6-O-methylerythromycin A) particles were coated with silica from the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-ethanol-aqueous ammonia system. The coatings had a typical thickness of 100-150 nm and presented about 15 wt.% of the silica-drug composite material. The properties of the coatings depended on reactant concentration, temperature and mixing rate and, in particular, on the presence of a cationic surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride). In the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride the silica coatings slightly decreased the rate of pure clarithromycin dissolution.

  14. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion

  15. Analyses on Silicide Coating for LOCA Resistant Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweidan, Faris B.; Lee, You Ho; Ryu, Ho Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A particular focus of accident-tolerant fuel has been cladding due to the rapid high-temperature oxidation of zirconium-based cladding with the evolution of H2 when steam is a reactant. Some key features of the coated cladding include high-temperature resistance to oxidation, lower processing temperatures, and a high melting point of the coating. Zirconium alloys exhibit a reasonably high melting temperature, so a coating for the cladding is appealing if the coating increases the high-temperature resistance to oxidation. In this case, the cladding is protected from complete oxidation. The cladding coating involves the application of zirconium silicide onto Zr-based cladding. Zirconium silicide coating is expected to produce a glassy layer that becomes more protective at elevated temperature. For this reason, silicide coatings on cladding offer the potential for improved reliability at normal operating temperatures and at the higher transient temperatures encountered during accidents. Although ceramic coatings are brittle and may have weak points to be used as coating materials, several ceramic coatings were successful and showed adherent behavior and high resistance to oxidation. In this study, the oxidation behavior of zirconium silicide and its oxidation kinetics are analyzed. Zirconium silicide is a new suggested material to be used as coatings on existing Zr-based cladding alloys, the aim of this study is to evaluate if zirconium silicide is applicable to be used, so they can be more rapidly developed using existing cladding technology with some modifications. These silicide coatings are an attractive alternative to the use of coatings on zirconium claddings or to the lengthy development of monolithic ceramic or ceramic composite claddings and coatings.

  16. Analyses on Silicide Coating for LOCA Resistant Cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweidan, Faris B.; Lee, You Ho; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2015-01-01

    A particular focus of accident-tolerant fuel has been cladding due to the rapid high-temperature oxidation of zirconium-based cladding with the evolution of H2 when steam is a reactant. Some key features of the coated cladding include high-temperature resistance to oxidation, lower processing temperatures, and a high melting point of the coating. Zirconium alloys exhibit a reasonably high melting temperature, so a coating for the cladding is appealing if the coating increases the high-temperature resistance to oxidation. In this case, the cladding is protected from complete oxidation. The cladding coating involves the application of zirconium silicide onto Zr-based cladding. Zirconium silicide coating is expected to produce a glassy layer that becomes more protective at elevated temperature. For this reason, silicide coatings on cladding offer the potential for improved reliability at normal operating temperatures and at the higher transient temperatures encountered during accidents. Although ceramic coatings are brittle and may have weak points to be used as coating materials, several ceramic coatings were successful and showed adherent behavior and high resistance to oxidation. In this study, the oxidation behavior of zirconium silicide and its oxidation kinetics are analyzed. Zirconium silicide is a new suggested material to be used as coatings on existing Zr-based cladding alloys, the aim of this study is to evaluate if zirconium silicide is applicable to be used, so they can be more rapidly developed using existing cladding technology with some modifications. These silicide coatings are an attractive alternative to the use of coatings on zirconium claddings or to the lengthy development of monolithic ceramic or ceramic composite claddings and coatings

  17. SAPO-34 coated adsorbent heat exchanger for adsorption chillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freni, Angelo; Bonaccorsi, Lucio; Calabrese, Luigi; Caprì, Angela; Frazzica, Andrea; Sapienza, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    In this work, adsorbent coatings on aluminum surfaces were prepared by dip-coating method starting from a water suspension of SAPO-34 zeolite and a silane-based binder. Silane-zeolite coatings morphology and surface coverage grade were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Adhesive and mechanical properties were evaluated by peel, pull-off, impact and micro-hardness tests, confirming the good interaction between metal substrate, binder and zeolite. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of water vapour adsorption on the adsorbent coating were studied in the range T = 30–150 °C and pH 2 O = 11 mbar using a CAHN 2000 thermo-balance. It was found that, in the investigated conditions, the organic binder doesn't affect the water adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics of the original SAPO-34 zeolite. Subsequently, the zeolite coating was applied on a finned flat-tubes aluminum heat exchanger realizing a full-scale AdHEx with an uniform adsorbent coating 0.1 mm thick and a metal/adsorbent mass ratio = 6. The cooling capacity of the realized coated AdHEx was measured by a lab-scale adsorption chiller under realistic operating conditions for air conditioning applications. The coated AdHEx produced up to 675 W/kg ads specific cooling power with a cycle time of 5 min. Adsorption stability of the coated adsorber subjected to 600 sorption cycles was successfully verified. - Highlights: • Adsorbent coatings on aluminum surfaces were prepared by dip-coating method. • Silane-zeolite coatings morphology, and mechanical properties were studied. • The zeolite coating was applied on a finned flat-tubes aluminum heat exchanger. • The coated AdHEx was tested in a lab scale adsorption chiller

  18. Investigation of calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Idris Besar; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Mohamad Abd Razak; Hyzan Mohd Yusof

    1999-01-01

    Calcium phosphate is the main constituent of our bone and tooth minerals. The use of this bioactive material for coating implant such as artificial joint prosthesis, therefore, can promote biological fixation and enhance biocompatibility. Our initial work has been focused on the evaluation of experimental conditions of coating preparation and the effects of post-deposition calcium phosphate coatings on stainless steel substrates. The coating layers were produced by the precipitation technique and coatings were carried out in sol-gel by the dipping method. For comparison purposes a wet method was used to obtain a fine calcium phosphate ceramic powder for fabrication of microcrystal suspension used as a coating material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive microanalysis (EDS), energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterise the morphology, chemical composition and structure of the coatings. The results showed that the dip coating of stainless steel substrates using viscous solutions lead to the formation of porous calcium phosphate layers. These results suggested that fabrication of bioactive calcium phosphate coatings using this route offers significant advantages over the currently used methods due to considerably lower temperature process involved and may produce better result for substrates with complex shapes

  19. Development of tungsten coatings for the corrosion protection of alumina-based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.; Hafstrom, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A means of applying tungsten coatings to an alumina based ceramic is described. A slurry of pure tungsten was prepared and applied by brush coating or slip casting on the alumina-3 wt % Yt small crucible. The composite was fired and a very dense ceramic crucible with a crack free tungsten coating was produced

  20. Fault-tolerant epoxy-silane coating for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy AZ31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamaka, S.V.; Xue, H.B.; Meis, N.N.A.H.; Esteves, A.C.C.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a hybrid epoxy-silane coating was developed for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy AZ31. The average thickness of the film produced by dip-coating procedure was 14 µm. The adhesion strength of the epoxy-silane coating to the Mg substrate was evaluated by pull-off tests and was

  1. Application of aluminum diffusion coatings to mitigate the KCl-induced high-temperature corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiamehr, Saeed; Lomholt, T. N.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2017-01-01

    Pack cementation was used to produce Fe1−xAl and Fe2Al5 diffusion coatings on ferritic-martensitic steel P91 and a Ni2Al3 diffusion coating on pure nickel. The performance of diffusion coatings against high-temperature corrosion induced by potassium chloride (KCl) was evaluated by exposing...

  2. Physical properties of pyrolytically sprayed tin-doped indium oxide coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haitjema, H.; Elich, J.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of tin-doped indium oxide coatings obviously depend on a number of production parameters. This dependence has been studied to obtain a more general insight into the relationships between the various coating properties. The coatings have been produced by spray

  3. Material-Process-Performance Relationships for Roll-to-Roll Coated PEM Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, Scott; Neyerlin, K.C.; Stickel, Jonathan; Ulsh, Michael; More, Karren; Wood, David

    2017-04-26

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) coating is the most economical and highest throughput method for producing fuel cell electrodes. R2R coating encompasses many different methodologies to create uniform films on a moving web substrate. Here we explore two coating methods, gravure and slot die, to understand the impacts of each on film uniformity and performance.

  4. Coating of waste containing ceramic granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, W.; Kofler, O.

    1979-01-01

    Simulated high-level waste granules produced by fluidized-bed calcination were overcoated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with pyrocarbon and nickel in laboratory-scale experiments. Successful development enables pyrocrbon deposition at temperatures of 600 to 800 0 K. The coated granules have excellent properties for long-term waste storage

  5. Coatings for minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut fruit and vegetables are gaining increasing popularity and market share. Techniques to enhance stability of fresh cut produce are reviewed. Among these techniques, edibles coatings can provide protection against dehydration, microbial decay and decrease events related to physiological sene...

  6. Porous Structure Characterization in Titanium Coating for Surgical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Oliveira

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy techniques have been used to produce controlled porous structures, such as the porous coatings applied for dental and orthopedic surgical implants, which allow bony tissue ingrowth within the implant surface improving fixation. This work presents the processing and characterization of titanium porous coatings of different porosity levels, processed through powder metallurgy techniques. Pure titanium sponge powders were used for coating and Ti-6Al7Nb powder metallurgy rods were used as substrates. Characterization was made through quantitative metallographic image analysis using optical light microscope for coating porosity data and SEM analysis for evaluation of the coating/substrate interface integrity. The results allowed optimization of the processing parameters in order to obtain porous coatings that meet the requirements for use as implants.

  7. Decomposition of dual hydroxyapatite/fluoroapatite coatings on metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, M.; Evans, J.H.; Wentrup-Byrne, E.

    2000-01-01

    In order to prevent the formation of tricalcium phosphate (TCP), a relatively weak and rapidly biodegradable biomaterial, during sintering of hydroxyapatite (Hap) onto metal substrates, a novel two layer coating was applied. This was achieved by pre-coating the substrate with either Hap or fluorapatite (Fap) which preserved the purity of the Hap top coating. However, Fap is more stable thermally than Hap. The composition of Hap and Fap were determined by x-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. A scanning electron microscope was also used to characterise the surface morphologiy of the coatings. By using Fap the formation of TCP was totally prevented through out the coatings at a sintering temperature of 1050 deg C at which a relatively dense Hap outer coating was produced. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  8. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  9. Powder ink coatings in nuclear medicine and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, S.; Schlautek, H.

    1996-01-01

    Powder ink coatings are being used more and more frequently to protect the surfaces of movable objects of metal, such as machines, equipment, furniture, shelves, because this solvent-free coating technique, which produces almost no residues, helps to keep the environment clean. The white and grey baking coatings so far tested for decontaminability are presented in the article. Powder ink coatings of different shades and with different binders were tested for their ability to meet future standards. All systems under examination demonstrated excellent decontaminability before and after gamma exposure to 0.3 MGy. The same performance was obtained also after exposure to 3 MGy (ten times the level required for coatings in nuclear installations according to DIN 55991 Part 1), with the exception of one polyester metallic coating. After having been exposed to chemicals and decontamination solutions, all specimens showed only permissible discoloration. (orig.) [de

  10. Computational homogenisation for thermoviscoplasticity: application to thermally sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Rolf; Denzer, Ralf; Oppermann, Philip; Menzel, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Metal forming processes require wear-resistant tool surfaces in order to ensure a long life cycle of the expensive tools together with a constant high quality of the produced components. Thermal spraying is a relatively widely applied coating technique for the deposit of wear protection coatings. During these coating processes, heterogeneous coatings are deployed at high temperatures followed by quenching where residual stresses occur which strongly influence the performance of the coated tools. The objective of this article is to discuss and apply a thermo-mechanically coupled simulation framework which captures the heterogeneity of the deposited coating material. Therefore, a two-scale finite element framework for the solution of nonlinear thermo-mechanically coupled problems is elaborated and applied to the simulation of thermoviscoplastic material behaviour including nonlinear thermal softening in a geometrically linearised setting. The finite element framework and material model is demonstrated by means of numerical examples.

  11. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon-coated conductive Kevlar fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changsheng; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Hwang, Chi-Chau; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Conductive carbon material-coated Kevlar fibers were fabricated through layer-by-layer spray coating. Polyurethane was used as the interlayer between the Kevlar fiber and carbon materials to bind the carbon materials to the Kevlar fiber. Strongly adhering single-walled carbon nanotube coatings yielded a durable conductivity of 65 S/cm without significant mechanical degradation. In addition, the properties remained stable after bending or water washing cycles. The coated fibers were analyzed using scanning electron microcopy and a knot test. The as-produced fiber had a knot efficiency of 23%, which is more than four times higher than that of carbon fibers. The spray-coating of graphene nanoribbons onto Kevlar fibers was also investigated. These flexible coated-Kevlar fibers have the potential to be used for conductive wires in wearable electronics and battery-heated armors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Electrically Conductive and Protective Coating for Planar SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2017-12-04

    Ferritic stainless steels are preferred interconnect materials for intermediate temperature SOFCs because of their resistance to oxidation, high formability and low cost. However, their protective oxide layer produces Cr-containing volatile species at SOFC operating temperatures and conditions, which can cause cathode poisoning. Electrically conducting spinel coatings have been developed to prevent cathode poisoning and to maintain an electrically conductive pathway through SOFC stacks. However, this coating is not compatible with the formation of stable, hermetic seals between the interconnect frame component and the ceramic cell. Thus, a new aluminizing process has been developed by PNNL to enable durable sealing, prevent Cr evaporation, and maintain electrical insulation between stack repeat units. Hence, two different types of coating need to have stable operation of SOFC stacks. This paper will focus on the electrically conductive coating process. Moreover, an advanced coating process, compatible with a non-electrically conductive coating will be

  13. Stronger multilayer acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators with silicone gel coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; La, Thanh-Giang; Sheng-Wei Foong, Ervin; Shrestha, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) perform worst off than single-layer DEAs due to higher susceptibility to electro-thermal breakdown. This paper presents a hot-spot model to predict the electro-thermal breakdown field of DEAs and its dependence on thermal insulation. To inhibit the electrothermal breakdown, silicone gel coating was applied as barrier coating to multilayer acrylic DEA. The gel coating helps suppress the electro-thermally induced puncturing of DEA membrane at the hot spot. As a result, the gel-coated DEAs, in either a single layer or a multilayer stack, can produce 30% more isometric stress change as compared to those none-coated. These gel-coated acrylic DEAs show great potential to make stronger artificial muscles.

  14. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  15. Highly Damping Hard Coatings for Protection of Titanium Blades

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Movchan, Boris A; Ustinov, Anatolii I

    2005-01-01

    Sn-Cr-MgO system is used as an example to show the basic capability to produce by EBPVD protective metal-ceramic coatings with a high adhesion strength, high values of hardness and damping capacity...

  16. Superhydrophobic silica coating by dip coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadik, Satish A.; Parale, Vinayak; Vhatkara, Rajiv S.; Mahadik, Dinesh B.; Kavale, Mahendra S.; Wagh, Pratap B.; Gupta, Satish; Gurav, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a simple and low cost method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating surface on quartz substrates via sol-gel dip coating method at room temperature. Desired surface chemistry and texture growth for superhydrophobicity developed under double step sol–gel process at room temperature. The resultant superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement, differential thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) calorimetry and optical spectrometer. Coating shows the ultra high water contact angle about 168 ± 2° and water sliding angle 3 ± 1° and superoleophilic with petroleum oils. This approach allows a simple strategy for the fabrication process of superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic on same surfaces with high thermal stability of superhydrophobicity up to 560 °C. Thus, durability, special wettability and thermal stability of superhydrophobicity expand their application fields.

  17. Novel surface coating materials for endodontic dental implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, M.H.; Mortazavi, V.; Moosavi, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and produce novel coating materials in order to obtain two goals including; improvement of the corrosion behavior of metallic dental endodontic implant and the bone osteointegration simultaneously. Stainless steel 316L (SS) was used as a metallic substrate and a novel Hydroxyapatite/Titanium (HA/Ti) composite coating was prepared on it. Structural characterization techniques including XRD, SEM and EDX were utilized to investigate the microstructure and morphology of the coating. Electrochemical tests were performed in physiological solutions in order to determine and compare the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens as an indication of biocompatibility. Two types of endodontic implants including; SS with and without (HA/Ti) composite coating were prepared and subsequently implanted in the mandibular canine of 20 cats after completion of root canal treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, osteointegration evaluation and histopathological interpretation was carried out using SEM and optical microscopy. Results indicate that the novel HA/Ti composite coating improves the corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of SS endodontic dental implant. The clinical evaluation (in vivo test) results showed that there was significant difference in osteointegration between coated and uncoated endodontic dental implants and average bone osteointegration of coated implants were more than uncoated implants. The histopathological results and bone tissue response to the coated implants was acceptable and it was concluded that HA/Ti composite coated SS could be used as well as an endodontic dental implant. (author)

  18. Coated electroactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  19. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  20. Metallurgical coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer

  1. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  2. Unobtrusive graphene coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    The contact angle of water drops on substrates for which the wettability is dominated by van der Waals forces remains unchanged when the substrates are coated with a monolayer of graphene. Such 'wetting transparency' could lead to superior conducting and hydrophobic graphene-coated surfaces with

  3. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  4. Duplex aluminized coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Grisaffe, S. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    The surface of a metallic base system is initially coated with a metallic alloy layer that is ductile and oxidation resistant. An aluminide coating is then applied to the metallic alloy layer. The chemistry of the metallic alloy layer is such that the oxidation resistance of the subsequently aluminized outermost layer is not seriously degraded.

  5. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  6. Protective and decorative coatings produced by ion-plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radjabov, T.D.; Kamardin, A.I.; Pulatov, S.U.

    1996-01-01

    Vacuum device is worked out for the vacuum low temperature deposition of protective and decorative films and studied technical regimes of obtaining such films to target from the metal,plastics, ceramic and glass with thickness up to 10 mkm and square 1 m 2 /cycle. Vacuum device provide possibility to create films by means of magnetron with pressure 100-10 1 Pa to different targets and to conduct preliminary treatment of them by argon ion beam with 3-4 keV energy for the cleaning of surface. Protective films of Chrome, Titanium, Nitride of Titanium and stainless steel have shown high adhesion properties up to 300-400 kgs/sm and ensure stable protection of surface from air and chemical corrosion. Obtained films has good decorative and colour characteristics. (author). 2 figs

  7. Processing and properties of electrodeposited layered surface coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    Hard chromium, produced by conventional dir ect curl ent (DC) electrodeposition, cannot be deposited to thicknesses gl enter than about 5 mu m because of the buildup of processing stresses which cause channel cracks in the coating. Much thicker chromium coatings map be produced by depositing a la...... geometry is almost always analogous to bending, and fracture resistance is provided through deviation of the channel crack by weak interfaces, resulting in 'terrace cracking'....

  8. Radiation curable coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, R.D.; Carder, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention provides a low-toxicity diluent component for radiation curable coating compositions that contain an acrylyl or methacryly oligomer or resin component such as an acrylyl urethane oligomer. The low-toxicity diluent component of this invention is chosen from the group consisting of tetraethlorthosilicate and tetraethoxyethylorthosilicate. When the diluent component is used as described, benefits in addition to viscosity reduction, may be realized. Application characteristics of the uncured coatings composition, such as flowability, leveling, and smoothness are notably improved. Upon curing by exposure to actinic radiation, the coating composition forms a solid, non-tacky surface free of pits, fissures or other irregularities. While there is no readily apparent reactive mechanism by which the orthosilicate becomes chemically bonded to the cured coating, the presence of silicon in the cured coating has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. 12 drawing

  9. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  10. Effect of mixed pinning landscapes produced by 6 MeV oxygen irradiation on the resulting critical current densities Jc in 1.3 μm thick GdBa2Cu3O7-d coated conductors grown by co-evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkorn, N.; Suárez, S.; Pérez, P. D.; Troiani, H.; Granell, P.; Golmar, F.; Lee, Jae-Hun; Moon, S. H.

    2017-11-01

    We report the influence of crystalline defects introduced by 6 MeV 16O3+ irradiation on the critical current densities Jc and flux creep rates in 1.3 μm thick GdBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor produced by co-evaporation. Pristine films with pinning produced mainly by random nanoparticles with diameter close to 50 nm were irradiated with doses between 2 × 1013 cm-2 and 4 × 1014 cm-2. The irradiations were performed with the ion beam perpendicular to the surface of the samples. The Jc and the flux creep rates were analyzed for two magnetic field configurations: magnetic field applied parallel (H║c) and at 45° (H║45°) to the c-axis. The results show that at temperatures below 40 K the in-field Jc dependences can be significantly improved by irradiation. For doses of 1 × 1014 cm-2 the Jc values at μ0H = 5 T are doubled without affecting significantly the Jc at small fields. Analyzing the flux creep rates as function of the temperature in both magnetic field configurations, it can be observed that the irradiation suppresses the peak associated with double-kink relaxation and increases the flux creep rates at intermediate and high temperatures. Under 0.5 T, the flux relaxation for H‖c and H||45° in pristine films presents characteristic glassy exponents μ = 1.63 and μ = 1.45, respectively. For samples irradiated with 1 × 1014 cm-2, these values drop to μ = 1.45 and μ = 1.24, respectively

  11. Nanocomposite tribological coatings with "chameleon" surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodin, A. A.; Fitz, T. A.; Hu, J. J.; Zabinski, J. S.

    2002-07-01

    Nanocomposite tribological coatings were designed to respond to changing environmental conditions by self-adjustment of their surface properties to maintain good tribological performance in any environment. These smart coatings have been dubbed "chameleon" because, analogous to a chameleon changing its skin color to avoid predators, the coating changes its "skin" chemistry and structure to avoid wear. The concept was originally developed using WC, diamondlike carbon, and WS2 material combination for adaptation to a humid/dry environment cycling. In order to address temperature variation, nanocomposite coatings made of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in a gold matrix were developed with encapsulated nanosized reservoirs of MoS2 and diamondlike carbon (DLC). Coatings were produced using a combination of laser ablation and magnetron sputtering. They were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Results were correlated with mechanical and tribological characterization. Coating hardness was evaluated using nanoindentation, while coating adhesion and toughness were estimated using scratch and Vickers indentation tests. Friction and wear endurance measurements of YSZ/Au/MoS2/DLC coatings against steel and Si3N4 balls were performed at room temperature in controlled humidity air, dry nitrogen, and vacuum environments, as well as at 500 degC in air. Depending on the environment, coating friction surface changed its chemistry and structure between (i) graphitic carbon for sliding in humid air [coating friction coefficients (c.o.f. 0.10-0.15)], (ii) hexagonal MoS2 for sliding in dry N2 and vacuum (c.o.f. 0.02-0.05), and (iii) metallic Au for sliding in air at 500 degC (c.o.f. 0.10-0.20). The unique coating skin adaptation realized with YSZ/Au/MoS2/DLC and WC/DLC/WS composites proves a universal applicability of the chameleon design concept

  12. Coated fuel particles: requirements and status of fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huschka, H.; Vygen, P.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel cycle, design, and irradiation performance requirements impose restraints on the fabrication processes. Both kernel and coating fabrication processes are flexible enough to adapt to the needs of the various existing and proposed high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Extensive experience has demonstrated that fuel kernels with excellent sphericity and uniformity can be produced by wet chemical processes. Similarly experience has shown that the various multilayer coatings can be produced to fully meet design and specification requirements. Quality reliability of coated fuel particles is ensured by quality control and quality assurance programs operated by an aduiting system that includes licensing officials and the customer

  13. ASSESSMENT OF STRIPPABLE COATINGS FOR DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Strippable coatings are polymer mixtures, such as water-based organic polymers, that are applied to a surface by paintbrush, roller, or spray applicator. As the polymer reacts, it attracts, absorbs, and chemically binds the contaminants; then, during the curing process, it mechanically locks the contaminants into the polymer matrix. Incorporating fiber reinforcement (such as a cotton scrim) into the coating may enhance the strength of these coatings. Once the coating dries, it can be stripped manually from the surface, In the case of auto-release coatings, the mixture cracks, flakes, and is collected by vacuuming. The surface properties of these coatings may be modified by applying a thin top coat (e.g., polyvinyl alcohol), which may provide a smoother, less permeable surface that would become less severely contaminated. In such a duplex, the thicker basis layer provides the required mechanical properties (e.g., strength and abrasion resistance), while the top layer provides protection from contamination. Once the strippable coating is removed, the loose surface contamination is removed with the coating, producing a dry, hard, non-airborne waste product. The use of strippable coatings during D and D operations has proved a viable option. These coatings can be used in the following three functions: As a protective coating, when applied to an uncontaminated surface in an area where contamination is present, so that on its removal the surface remains uncontaminated; As a decontamination agent, when applied to a contaminated surface, so that on its removal a significant decontamination of loose particulate activity is achieved; and As a fixative or tie-down coating, when applied to a contaminated surface, so that any loose contamination is tied down, thus preventing the spread of contamination during subsequent handling

  14. Photonometers for coating and sputtering machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václavík J.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of photonometers (alternative name of optical monitor of a vacuum deposition process for coating and sputtering machines is based on photonometers produced by companies like SATIS or HV Dresden. Photometers were developed in the TOPTEC centre and its predecessor VOD (Optical Development Workshop of Institut of Plasma Physics AS CR for more than 10 years. The article describes current status of the technology and ideas which will be incorporated in next development steps. Hardware and software used on coating machines B63D, VNA600 and sputtering machine UPM810 is presented.

  15. Photonometers for coating and sputtering machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oupický, P.; Jareš, D.; Václavík, J.; Vápenka, D.

    2013-04-01

    The concept of photonometers (alternative name of optical monitor of a vacuum deposition process) for coating and sputtering machines is based on photonometers produced by companies like SATIS or HV Dresden. Photometers were developed in the TOPTEC centre and its predecessor VOD (Optical Development Workshop of Institut of Plasma Physics AS CR) for more than 10 years. The article describes current status of the technology and ideas which will be incorporated in next development steps. Hardware and software used on coating machines B63D, VNA600 and sputtering machine UPM810 is presented.

  16. Procedure for coating articles with pyrolytic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.C.; Allen, C.L.; Besenbruch, G.E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A method to coat articles with pyrolytic carbon is described which is particularly suitable for small nuclear fuel particles as one obtains a very homogeneous layer. The pyrolytic carbon is produced according to the invention by decomposing a hydrocarbon gas mixture composed of an inert gas share (20-65 Vol%) and a mixture of acetylene and propylene. It is favourable to have the hydrocarbon mixture contain between 50 and 55 Vol% acetylene. Variations on the known procedure are given. The coating of spherical thorium dioxide particles is mentioned as an example. (UWI) [de

  17. Structure and Corrosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Zn-Al Coatings on Ductile Iron Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonabi, Salar Fatoureh; Ashrafizadeh, Fakhreddin; Sanati, Alireza; Nahvi, Saied Mehran

    2018-02-01

    In this research, four coatings including pure zinc, pure aluminum, a double-layered coating of zinc and aluminum, and a coating produced by simultaneous deposition of zinc and aluminum were deposited on a cast iron substrate using electric arc-spraying technique. The coatings were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS map and spot analyses. Adhesion strength of the coatings was evaluated by three-point bending tests, where double-layered coating indicated the lowest bending angle among the specimens, with detection of cracks at the coating-substrate interface. Coatings produced by simultaneous deposition of zinc and aluminum possessed a relatively uniform distribution of both metals. In order to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coatings, cyclic polarization and salt spray tests were conducted. Accordingly, pure aluminum coating showed susceptibility to pitting corrosion and other coatings underwent uniform corrosion. For double-layered coating, SEM micrographs revealed zinc corrosion products as flaky particles in the pores formed by pitting on the surface, an indication of penetration of corrosion products from the lower layer (zinc) to the top layer (aluminum). All coatings experienced higher negative corrosion potentials than the iron substrate, indicative of their sacrificial behavior.

  18. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  19. Coatings to prevent frost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusada, Ricardo; Holberg, Stefan; Bennedsen, Jeanette Marianne Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    The ability of hydrophobic, organic–inorganic hybrid coatings to decelerate frost propagation was investigated. Compared to a bare aluminum surface, the coatings do not significantly reduce the freezing probability of supercooled water drops. On both surfaces, the probability for ice nucleation...... at temperatures just below 0°C, for example at −4°C, is low. Freezing of a single drop on aluminum leads, however, to instant freezing of the complete surface. On hydrophobic coatings, such a freezing drop is isolated; the frozen area grows slowly. At −4°C surface temperature in a +12°C/90% relative humidity...

  20. Determination of parameters for successful spray coating of silicon microneedle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Marie G; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Oliveira, Jorge C; Moore, Anne C; Crean, Abina M

    2011-08-30

    Coated microneedle patches have demonstrated potential for effective, minimally invasive, drug and vaccine delivery. To facilitate cost-effective, industrial-scale production of coated microneedle patches, a continuous coating method which utilises conventional pharmaceutical processes is an attractive prospect. Here, the potential of spray-coating silicon microneedle patches using a conventional film-coating process was evaluated and the key process parameters which impact on coating coalescence and weight were identified by employing a fractional factorial design to coat flat silicon patches. Processing parameters analysed included concentration of coating material, liquid input rate, duration of spraying, atomisation air pressure, gun-to-surface distance and air cap setting. Two film-coating materials were investigated; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). HPMC readily formed a film-coat on silicon when suitable spray coating parameter settings were determined. CMC films required the inclusion of a surfactant (1%, w/w Tween 80) to facilitate coalescence of the sprayed droplets on the silicon surface. Spray coating parameters identified by experimental design, successfully coated 280μm silicon microneedle arrays, producing an intact film-coat, which follows the contours of the microneedle array without occlusion of the microneedle shape. This study demonstrates a novel method of coating microneedle arrays with biocompatible polymers using a conventional film-coating process. It is the first study to indicate the thickness and roughness of coatings applied to microneedle arrays. The study also highlights the importance of identifying suitable processing parameters when film coating substrates of micron dimensions. The ability of a fractional factorial design to identify these critical parameters is also demonstrated. The polymer coatings applied in this study can potentially be drug loaded for intradermal drug and vaccine delivery