WorldWideScience

Sample records for ni-c interface observed

  1. Near-Curie magnetic anomaly at the Ni/C interface observed by Electron Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Loris; Matteucci, Giorgio; Schofield, Marvin A

    2010-01-01

    We analyze with electron holography carried out in a transmission electron microscope the near-Curie behavior of magnetism at the edge of a Nickel thin film coated with Carbon. In-situ experiments with finely controlled variations of the sample temperature reveal an anomaly in the ferromagnetic...

  2. Extended phase diagram of R NiC2 family: Linear scaling of the Peierls temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Marta; Strychalska-Nowak, Judyta; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Kolincio, Kamil K.

    2018-01-01

    Physical properties for the late-lanthanide-based R NiC2 (R =Dy , Ho, Er, and Tm) ternary compounds are reported. All the compounds show antiferromagnetic ground state with the Néel temperature ranging from 3.4 K for HoNiC2 to 8.5 K for ErNiC2. The results of the transport and galvanomagnetic properties confirm a charge density wave state at and above room temperature with transition temperatures TCDW=284 , 335, 366, and 394 K for DyNiC2, HoNiC2, ErNiC2, and TmNiC2, respectively. The Peierls temperature TCDW scales linearly with the unit cell volume. A similar linear dependence has been observed for the temperature of the lock-in transition T1 as well. Beyond the intersection point of the trend lines, the lock-in transition is no longer observed. In this Rapid Communication we demonstrate an extended phase diagram for the R NiC2 family.

  3. Synthesis and microstructure characterization of the Ni/C60 composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacik, J.; Havranek, V.; Subrt, J.; Bakardjieva, S.; Naramoto, H.; Narumi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Structural variability of the Ni/C 60 thin film composites was observed after ion irradiation and/or thermal annealing. Annealing of the irradiated Ni/C 60 /Ni multilayers led to micrometer-large rod-type particles, annealing of the non-irradiated specimens resulted in truncated rectangular footprints. Micrometer-large spherical or dodecahedral Ni droplets were synthesized by annealing of the non-irradiated Ni+C 60 mixtures. The structural variation of the Ni/C 60 systems points out the complex physiochemical processes incited by elevated temperatures. First insight on the microstructural evolution of the Ni/C 60 composites after ion irradiation and/or thermal annealing is presented in this paper (Authors)

  4. Modeling Heliospheric Interface: Observational and Theoretical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelov, N.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Borovikov, S.; Zank, G.

    2008-12-01

    Observational data provided by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft ahead of the heliospheric termination shock (TS) and in the heliosheath require considerate reassessment of theoretical models of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the magnetized interstellar medium (LISM). Contemporary models, although sophisticated enough to take into account kinetic processes accompanying charge exchange between ions and atoms and address the coupling of the interstellar and interplanetary magnetic fields (ISMF and IMF) at the heliospheric interface, are still unable to analyze the effect of non-thermal pick-up ions (PUI's) in the heliosheath. The presence of PUI's undermines the assumption of a Maxwellian distribution of the SW ions. We discuss the ways to improve physical models in this respect. The TS asymmetry observed by Voyagers can be attributed to the combination of 3D, time- dependent behavior of the SW and by the action of the ISMF. It is clear, however, that the ISMF alone can account for the TS asymmetry of about 10 AU only if it is unexpectedly strong (greater than 4 microgauss). We analyze the consequences of such magnetic fields for the neutral hydrogen deflection in the inner heliosphere from its original direction in the unperturbed LISM. We also discuss the conditions for the 2-3 kHz radio emission, which is believed to be generated in the outer heliosheath beyond the heliopause, and analyze possible location of radio emission sources under the assumption of strong magnetic field. The quality of the physical model becomes crucial when we need to address modern observational and theoretical challenges. We compare the plasma, neutral particle, and magnetic field distributions obtained with our MHD-kinetic and 5-fluid models. The transport of neutral particles is treated kinetically in the former and by a multiple neutral-fluid approach in the latter. We also investigate the distribution of magnetic field in the inner heliosheath for large angles between the Sun

  5. The Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network (SIZONet) Local Observations Interface, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network Local Observations Interface allows access to observations of sea ice, weather, and wildlife collected since 2006 by...

  6. Maintenance Effectiveness and Target Observation System and its ERP Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, Han Seong; Kim, Gi Yong; Seo, Mi Ro; Jeong, Hun Jong; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Sung Yull

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance effectiveness and target observation system (MENTOS) is a maintenance rule (MR) implementation software for plant personnel to collect, edit, store, and analyze all information required for the MR implementation. Potential users and the developers of MENTOS have decided that MENTOS is implemented in the ERP system of KHNP. This article describes MENTOS briefly and introduces the ERP interface of MENTOS

  7. Bimetallic Ag–Ni/C particles as cathode catalyst in AFCs (alkaline fuel cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xingjuan; Zhang, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    AFCs (alkaline fuel cells) is one of the promising fuel cells, due to their low working temperature and less corrosive environment. However, decreasing the catalyst cost and improving its performance are still the challenges in its application. Transition metal as the catalyst for AFCs not only can reduce its cost, but also has great electro-catalytic efficiency. In this paper, Carbon supported Ag–Ni bimetallic catalysts with differential Ag/Ni atomic ratios were prepared by chemically reducing silver and nickel salts. Ag 3 Ni/C shows the relatively higher ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) activity among the differential Ag/Ni bimetallic particles. In order to improve the activity and stability, the catalysts were heat-treated at the temperature of 500 °C. The results indicate that the limiting current density has been improved greatly for Ag 3 Ni/C-500 °C, which is as high as 2.5× that of Ag/C. The microstructure investigation show that the non-equilibrium state of Ag–Ni alloy by heat treatment is confirmed by HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy) images, and Ag(111) surfaces are decreased in XRD pattern, which results in the ORR activity improved and overpotential decreased. Heat treatment also has contributed to Ag–Ni/C electrochemistry stability in some degree. - Highlights: • Ag–Ni/C is applied as cathode catalyst for AFCs (alkaline fuel cells). • Ag 3 Ni/C-500 °C shows the best performance. • Non-equilibrium state of Ag–Ni alloy by heat treatment is observed. • The decreased Ag(111) surfaces are favor to improve the catalyst activity

  8. Observation of Andreev bound states at spin-active interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Detlef; Wolf, Michael Johannes [KIT, Institut fuer Nanotechnologie (Germany); Huebler, Florian [KIT, Institut fuer Nanotechnologie (Germany); KIT, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [KIT, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (Germany); KIT, Physikalisches Institut (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We report on high-resolution differential conductance experiments on nanoscale superconductor/ferromagnet tunnel junctions with ultra-thin oxide tunnel barriers. We observe subgap conductance features which are symmetric with respect to bias, and shift according to the Zeeman energy with an applied magnetic field. These features can be explained by resonant transport via Andreev bound states induced by spin-active scattering at the interface. From the energy and the Zeeman shift of the bound states, both the magnitude and sign of the spin-dependent interfacial phase shifts between spin-up and spin-down electrons can be determined. These results contribute to the microscopic insight into the triplet proximity effect at spin-active interfaces.

  9. Two Solar Tornadoes Observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zihao; Tian, Hui; Peter, Hardi; Su, Yang; Samanta, Tanmoy; Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Yajie

    2018-01-01

    The barbs or legs of some prominences show an apparent motion of rotation, which are often termed solar tornadoes. It is under debate whether the apparent motion is a real rotating motion, or caused by oscillations or counter-streaming flows. We present analysis results from spectroscopic observations of two tornadoes by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. Each tornado was observed for more than 2.5 hr. Doppler velocities are derived through a single Gaussian fit to the Mg II k 2796 Å and Si IV 1393 Å line profiles. We find coherent and stable redshifts and blueshifts adjacent to each other across the tornado axes, which appears to favor the interpretation of these tornadoes as rotating cool plasmas with temperatures of 104 K–105 K. This interpretation is further supported by simultaneous observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, which reveal periodic motions of dark structures in the tornadoes. Our results demonstrate that spectroscopic observations can provide key information to disentangle different physical processes in solar prominences.

  10. CALCUL DU SPECTRE DE REFLEXION DU MULTICOUCHE Ni/C DANS LE DOMAINE DES RAYONS X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A MEDDOUR

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Le pouvoir réflecteur d’un dioptre quelconque dans le domaine des rayons X est trop faible, mais il est toujours possible de choisir des systèmes pouvant présenter un pic de réflexion d’intensité importante autour d’une incidence caractéristique du matériau. Ce dernier est un multicouche, composé de deux couches déposées en sandwich.                 Nous avons élaboré un programme qui permet de calculer la réflexion d’un tel matériau en suivant la méthode d’Abelès dans laquelle une couche mince est représentée par une matrice carrée contenant toutes les informations nécessaires pour le calcul de la réflexion. Ce programme tient compte aussi des rugosités aux interfaces du multicouche, vue leur importante influence sur l’intensité du pic apparaissant sur le spectre de réflexion.                 L’application du programme au multicouche Ni/C a montré  l’existence d’un pic centré autour de 31.32°. Son intensité est sensible au nombre de périodes dans le multicouche, aux épaisseurs des couches minces de Ni et de C et à la taille des rugosités des interfaces Ni/C et C/Ni.

  11. The constitution of the ternary system Ti-Ni-C; Die Konstitution des Dreistoffes Ti-Ni-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, J.C.; Du, Y. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    The system Ti-Ni-C was completely re-examined taking a new approach applying XRD, DTA, SEM-EDX and light microscopy, for elaboration of a complete thermodynamic description of the system. The carbon solubility in the binary Ti-Ni compounds is of significance only in the Ti{sub 2}Ni phase, and was found to be 4 at% at 900 C. The thermodynamic description thus achieved enables precise determination of the solubilities of Ti and C in solid or liquid nickel. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das System Ti-Ni-C wurde mittels XRD, DTA, SEM-EDX und Lichtmikroskopie umfassend neu untersucht mit dem Ziel, eine komplette thermodynamische Beschreibung zu ermoeglichen. Die Kohlenstoffloeslichkeit in den binaeren Ti-Ni Verbindungen ist nur fuer die Phase Ti{sub 2}Ni signifikant. Bei 900 C betrug sie 4 at% C. Die erarbeitete thermodynamische Beschreibung erlaubt eine praezise Darstellung der Ti- und C-Loeslichkeiten in festem und fluessigem Nickel. (orig.)

  12. Observing cassette culture: user interface implications for digital music libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Toal, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Many people keep their collections of music on cassette tape even if they rarely listen to them. Images of these collections can be found online on photo sharing websites. What can we learn from such collections and what might they tell us about designing interfaces for new digital music libraries? The author conducts an online ethnographic study of over two hundred cassette tape collections, and over sixty participants with the aim of guiding future design of music collections. The author pr...

  13. Preparation of Ni-C Ultrafine Composite from Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Rabah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work depicts the preparation of Ni-C ultrafine composite from used engine oil. The used oil was emulsified with detergent loaded with Ni (OH2. The loaded emulsion was sprayed on electric plasma generated between two C electrodes to a DC main 28 V and 70-80 A. The purged Ni-doped carbon fume was trapped on a polymer film moistened with synthetic adhesive to fix the trapped smoke. Characterization of the deposit was made using SEM. XRD examined the crystal morphology. Carbon density in the cloud was calculated. The average size and thickness of the deposited composite is 120-160 nm. Aliphatic hydrocarbons readily decompose to gaseous products. Solid carbon smoke originates from aromatic compounds. Plasma heat blasts the oil in short time to decompose in one step.

  14. Observation of carbon growth and interface structures in methanol solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Kimio

    2015-11-01

    In the deposition of carbon on the surface of a tungsten tip in methanol solution by electrolysis, the growth structure of the carbon films, the interface state, and the dissolution of carbon atoms into the tungsten matrix of the substrate have been investigated with the atomic events by field ion microscopy (FIM). The carbon films preferentially condense on the W{111} plane. The interfacial reaction at the carbon atom-tungsten substrate interface is vigorous and the carbon atoms also readily dissolve into the substrate matrix to form a tungsten-carbon complex. The reaction depth of the deposited carbon depends on the magnitude of electrolytic current and the treatment duration in the methanol solution. In this work, the resolution depth of carbon was found to be approximately 270 atomic layers below the top layer of the tungsten substrate by a field evaporation technique. In the case of a low electrolytic current, the tungsten substrate surface is entirely covered with carbon atoms having a pseudomorphic structure. The field-electron emission characteristics were also evaluated for various coverages of the carbon film formed on the substrate.

  15. Horizontal shear wave scattering from a nonwelded interface observed by magnetic resonance elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, S; Hamhaber, U; Braun, J; Sack, I

    2007-01-01

    A method based on magnetic resonance elastography is presented that allows measuring the weldedness of interfaces between soft tissue layers. The technique exploits the dependence of shear wave scattering at elastic interfaces on the frequency of vibration. Experiments were performed on gel phantoms including differently welded interfaces. Plane wave excitation parallel to the planar interface with corresponding motion sensitization enabled the observation of only shear-horizontal (SH) wave scattering. Spatio-temporal filtering was applied to calculate scattering coefficients from the amplitudes of the incident, transmitted and reflected SH-waves in the vicinity of the interface. The results illustrate that acoustic wave scattering in soft tissues is largely dependent on the connectivity of interfaces, which is potentially interesting for imaging tissue mechanics in medicine and biology

  16. Experimental observations of the chemistry of the SiO2/Si interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunthaner, F. J.; Maserjian, J.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in silicon surface preparation prior to thermal oxidation are shown to leave a signature by altering the final SiO2/Si interface structure. Surface analytical techniques, including XPS, static SIMS, ion milling, and newly developed wet-chemical profiling procedures are used to obtain detailed information on the chemical structure of the interface. The oxides are shown to be essentially SiO2 down to a narrow transitional interface layer (3-7 A). A number of discrete chemical species are observed in this interface layer, including different silicon bonds (e.g., C-, OH-, H-) and a range of oxidation states of silicon (0 to +4). The effect of surface preparation and the observed chemical species are correlated with oxide growth rate, surface-state density, and flatband shifts after irradiation.

  17. In situ observation of Ag-Cu-Ti liquid alloy/solid oxide interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, O.V. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, 3 Krzhyzhanovsky Street, Kiev 142, 03680 (Ukraine)], E-mail: avdu@ukr.net; Krasovskyy, V.P. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, 3 Krzhyzhanovsky Street, Kiev 142, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2008-11-15

    In situ investigation methods are a very interesting means for understanding high-temperature interface processes. A method of direct observation of the interactions between transparent materials (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2}) and metal melts was elaborated. For the Ag-36.65 at.%Cu-8.15 at.%Ti/sapphire system, the formation of a dark compound at the interface was observed to occur at high temperature. This result does not confirm the conclusion of a neutron spectroscopy study which indicated that titanium oxides form at the interface only during solidification of the alloy. Interactions of the same alloy with SiO{sub 2} and CaF{sub 2} were also considered.

  18. Elucidating the Mechanisms Driving the Aging of Porous Hollow PtNi/C Nanoparticles by Means of COadsStripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asset, Tristan; Chattot, Raphael; Drnec, Jakub; Bordet, Pierre; Job, Nathalie; Maillard, Frederic; Dubau, Laetitia

    2017-08-02

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of Pt-alloy electrocatalysts depends on (i) the strain/ligand effects induced by the non-noble metal (3d-transition metal or a rare-earth element) alloyed to Pt, (ii) the orientation of the catalytic surfaces, and (iii) the density of structural defects (SDs) (e.g., vacancies, voids, interconnections). These SDs influence the "generalized" coordination number of Pt atoms, the Pt-alloy lattice parameter, and thus the adsorption strength of the ORR intermediates (O*, OH*, OOH*). Here, we discuss a set of parameters derived from CO ads stripping measurements and the Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, aiming to show how the leaching of the non-noble metal and the density of SDs influence the ORR activity of porous hollow PtNi/C nanoparticles (PH-PtNi/C NPs). PH-PtNi/C NPs were aged at T = 353 K in an Ar-saturated 0.1 M HClO 4 electrolyte during 20 000 potential cycles between E = 0.6 and 1.0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, with an intermediate characterization after 5000 cycles. The losses in the ORR specific activity were attributed to the dissolution of Ni atoms (modifying strain/ligand effects) and to the increase of the crystallite size (d XRD ), resulting in a diminution of the density of grain boundaries. In agreement with the Gibbs-Thompson equation, the electrocatalysts that presented larger crystallites (d XRD > 3 nm) were far more stable than the ones with the smallest crystallites (d XRD < 2 nm). We also observed that performing intermediate characterizations (in an O 2 -saturated electrolyte) results in activity losses for the ORR.

  19. Sealing Capability and SEM Observation of the Implant-Abutment Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Fabio C; Coelho, Paulo G; Bonfante, Gerson; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Silva, Nelson R F A; Suzuki, Marcelo; Silva, Thelma Lopes; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the sealing capability of external hexagon implant systems and assess the marginal fit, two groups (n = 10 each) were employed: SIN (Sistema de Implantes Nacional, Brazil) and Osseotite, (Biomet 3i, USA). Sealing capability was determined by placing 0.7 μL of 1% acid-red solution in the implant wells before the torque of their respective abutments. Specimens were then placed into 2.5 mL vials filled with 1.3 mL of distilled water with the implant-abutment interface submerged. Three samples of 100 μL water were collected at previously determinate times. The absorbance was measured with a spectrophotometer, and the data were analyzed by Two-way ANOVA (P implant-abutment interface of both groups. Gaps in the implant-abutment interface were observed along with leakage increased at the 144 hrs evaluation period.

  20. Dentin bonding performance and interface observation of an MMA-based restorative material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Junichi; Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2016-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bonding performance and dentin interface acid resistance using a 4-META/MMA-TBB based restorative material (BF) compared to a conventional 4-META/MMA-TBB resin cement (SB), and the effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) addition to the materials. Dentin surfaces were treated with 10% citric acid-3% ferric chloride (10-3) or 4-META containing self-etching primer (TP), followed by application of BF or SB polymer powders with or without NaF, to evaluate microtensile bond strength (µTBS) in six experimental groups; 10-3/SB, 10-3/BF, TP/SB, TP/BF, TP/SB/NaF and TP/BF/NaF. SEM observation of the resin-dentin interface was performed after acid-base challenge to evaluate interfacial dentin resistance to acid attack. TP/BF showed highest µTBS, while NaF polymers decreased µTBS. TP/BF showed funnel-shaped erosion at the interface, however, NaF polymers improved acid resistance of interface. In conclusion, BF demonstrated high µTBSs and low acid-resistance at the interface. NaF addition enhanced acid resistance but decreased µTBS.

  1. Graphical User Interface for an Observing Control System for the UK Infrared Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M.; Bridger, A.; Wright, G. S.; Adamson, A. J.; Currie, M. J.; Economou, F.

    A Graphical user interface for the observing control system of UK Infrared Telescope has been developed as a part of the ORAC (Observatory Reduction and Acquisition Control) Project. We analyzed and designed the system using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) with the CASE tool Rational Rose 98. The system has been implemented in a modular way with Java packages using Swing and RMI. This system is component-based with pluggability. Object orientation concepts and UML notations have been applied throughout the development.

  2. All-electron ab initio investigations of the electronic states of the NiC molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Irene; Gingerich, Karl. A.

    1999-01-01

    The low-lying electronic states of NiC are investigated by all-electron ab initio multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculations including relativistic corrections. The electronic structure of NiC is interpreted as perturbed antiferromagnetic couplings of the localized angular...... with new experimental data by Brugh and Morse. D-e is determined as 2.76 eV, and D-0 as 2.70 eV. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Direct observation of interface and nanoscale compositional modulation in ternary III-As heterostructure nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Sriram; Scheu, Christina [Department of Chemistry and Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Butenandstr 5-13(E), 81377 München (Germany); Madsen, Morten H.; Krogstrup, Peter; Johnson, Erik [Nano-Science Center and Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Schmid, Herbert [INM-Leibniz Institute for New Materials, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2013-08-05

    Straight, axial InAs nanowire with multiple segments of Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As was grown. High resolution X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping reveals the distribution of group III atoms at the axial interfaces and at the sidewalls. Significant Ga enrichment, accompanied by a structural change is observed at the Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As/InAs interfaces and a higher Ga concentration for the early grown Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As segments. The elemental map and EDS line profile infer Ga enrichment at the facet junctions between the sidewalls. The relative chemical potentials of ternary alloys and the thermodynamic driving force for liquid to solid transition explains the growth mechanisms behind the enrichment.

  4. In situ observation of a hydrogel-glass interface during sliding friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsurou; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Ahmed, Jamil; Kamita, Gen; Yashima, Shintaro; Furukawa, Yuichiro; Ota, Yuko; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-08-14

    Direct observation of hydrogel contact with a solid surface in water is indispensable for understanding the friction, lubrication, and adhesion of hydrogels under water. However, this is a difficult task since the refractive index of hydrogels is very close to that of water. In this paper, we present a novel method to in situ observe the macroscopic contact of hydrogels with a solid surface based on the principle of critical refraction. This method was applied to investigate the sliding friction of a polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel with glass by using a strain-controlled parallel-plate rheometer. The study revealed that when the compressive pressure is not very high, the hydrogel forms a heterogeneous contact with the glass, and a macro-scale water drop is trapped at the soft interface. The pre-trapped water spreads over the interface to decrease the contact area with the increase in sliding velocity, which dramatically reduces the friction of the hydrogel. The study also revealed that this heterogeneous contact is the reason for the poor reproducibility of hydrogel friction that has been often observed in previous studies. Under the condition of homogeneous full contact, the molecular origin of hydrogel friction in water is discussed. This study highlights the importance of direct interfacial observation to reveal the friction mechanism of hydrogels.

  5. Interface observation of heat-treated Co/Mo{sub 2}C multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yanyan; Le Guen, Karine; André, Jean-Michel [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Mény, Christian; Ulhaq, Corinne [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 CNRS-Université De Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Galtayries, Anouk [PSL, Research University, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, CNRS – Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); Zhu, Jingtao; Wang, Zhanshan [Institute of Precision Optical Engineering, Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jonnard, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.jonnard@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Interface modification of a series of periodic Co/Mo{sub 2}C multilayers as a function of the annealing temperature up to 600 °C. • Complementary techniques to characterize the stack interfaces: ToF-SIMS, NMR, XRD, TEM. • Periodical structure of Co/Mo{sub 2}C and formation of an oxide layer at both air/stack and stack/substrate interfaces. • Intermixing phenomenon of Co and C atoms for the as-deposited sample, and after annealing above 300 °C, Co and C atoms separate from their mixed regions. • Calculation of the Co–C, Co–Mo and Mo–C mixing enthalpy using Miedema's model confirms the demixing of Co and C atoms above 300 °C. - Abstract: We study the interface evolution of a series of periodic Co/Mo{sub 2}C multilayers as a function of the annealing temperature up to 600 °C. Different complementary techniques are implemented to get information on the phenomenon taking place at the interfaces of the stack. The periodical structure of Co/Mo{sub 2}C multilayer is proven by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiles which demonstrate the formation of an oxide layer at both air/stack and stack/substrate interfaces. From Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, we observed the intermixing phenomenon of Co and C atoms for the as-deposited sample, and then at annealing temperature above 300 °C Co and C atoms separate from their mixed regions. Comparison of NMR results between Co/Mo{sub 2}C and Co/C references confirms this phenomenon. This is in agreement with X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements. Furthermore the calculation of the Co–C, Co–Mo and Mo–C mixing enthalpy using Miedema's model gives a proof of the demixing of Co and C atoms present within the stacks above 300 °C. From the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, we found the presence of some crystallites within the as-deposited sample as well as the mainly amorphous nature of all layers

  6. TEM observation on phase separation and interfaces of laser surface alloyed high-entropy alloy coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhaobing; Cui, Xiufang; Jin, Guo; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yang; Dong, Meiling

    2017-12-01

    Phase separation is a common phenomenon in traditional alloys. Under the condition of appropriate undercooling, the segregation phenomenon can be also found in blue-chip high-entropy alloys (HEAs). In this work, the phase separation behavior and interfacial investigation of laser surface alloyed HEA coating with high content Ti were studied principally by transmission electron microscopy. The results show that crystal structure and elementary composition on both sides of the interface of coating/substrate are quite different, and the interfaces between different phases are incoherent or semi-coherent boundarys, resolved by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. In the interface of (Co, Ni)Ti 2 phase/β-Ti phase, there is angle of 80° between BCC〈100〉 and FCC〈201〉. An interesting 'island' structure, that β-Ti phases are embraced by (Co, Ni)Ti 2 compounds in the BCC matrix, was observed definitely, which is attributed to the combined action of Ti segregation and inter-attraction of Ti and other elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Friction of elastomer-on-glass system and direct observation of its frictional interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Sugiura, Jun-ichi; Hirano, Motohisa; Nitta, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    We performed a study on the static friction of PDMS elastomers with well-defined surface topography sliding over glass. An experimental setup for simultaneous measurements of friction force and direct observations of frictional interface has been developed. The static friction force was nearly proportional to normal load. The static friction force was independent of stick time. The simultaneous measurements revealed that the static friction force was proportional to the total area of contact. The coefficient was nearly independent of the surface topography of PDMS elastomers

  8. Environmental SEM and dye penetration observation on resin-tooth interface using different light curing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takako; Morigami, Makoto; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was the effects of different light curing methods on marginal sealing and resin composite adaptation to the cavity wall using the dye penetration test and environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. Cylindrical cavities were prepared on cervical regions. The teeth were restored with Clearfil Liner Bond 2 V adhesive and filled with Clearfil Photo Bright or Palfique Estelite resin composites. These resins were cured with a conventional light-curing method or a slow-start curing method. After thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the dye penetration test to evaluate marginal sealing and adaptation of the resin composites to the cavity walls. These resin-tooth interfaces were then observed using environmental SEM. The light-cured resin composite, which exhibited increased contrast ratios during polymerization, suggests high compensation for polymerization stress using the slow-start curing method. There was a high correlation between dye penetration test and environmental SEM observation.

  9. [Bonding interfaces of three kinds of cements and root canal dentin: a scanning electron microscope observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Lei, Hui-yun; Xu, Guo-fu; Liang, Xiao-peng; Li, Ji-jia

    2010-04-01

    To compare the bonding properties of three kinds of cements by observing the bonding inteffaces of cements and root canal dentin. 15 extracted mandibular premolars were divided into 3 groups, and were cemented by Rely X luting, Panavia F and Paracore 5 mL, respectively. Each tooth was sectioned into two parts and the dentin-cement interfaces at the coronal, middle and apical parts of the fiber post were oberved by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The length of hybrid layer was also recorded. Hybrid layer was not clearly found in group one, which could be seen on the dentin-cement interfaces of group two and three. Resin tags and lateral adhesives were also observed in group three. From the apical to the coronal part, microgaps seemed gradually smaller in group one, while the hybrid layer became thicker in both group two and three. The total-etch resin cement bounds tightly with dentin, and owns a more superior bonding property than self-etch resin cement and resin modified glass ionomer cement.

  10. Operando observation of the gold-electrolyte interface in Li-O2 batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittleson, Forrest S; Ryu, Won-Hee; Taylor, André D

    2014-11-12

    Observing the cathode interface in Li-O2 batteries during cycling is necessary to improve our understanding of discharge product formation and evolution in practical cells. In this work a gold electrode surface is monitored by operando surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy during typical discharge and charge cycling. During discharge, we observe the precipitation of stable and reversible lithium superoxide (LiO2), in contrast to reports that suggest it is a mere intermediate in the formation of lithium peroxide (Li(2)O2). Some LiO2 is further reduced to Li(2)O2 producing a coating of insulating discharge products that renders the gold electrode inactive. Upon charging, a superficial layer of these species (∼ 1 nm) are preferentially oxidized at low overpotentials (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is also used to distinguish between LiO2 and Li(2)O2 products using frequency-dependent responses and to correlate their reduction and oxidation potentials to the accepted mechanism of Li(2)O2 formation. These operando and in situ studies of the oxygen electrode interface, coupled with ex situ characterization, illustrate that the composition of discharge products and their proximity to the catalytic surface are important factors in the reversibility of Li-O2 cells.

  11. Visual observation of gas hydrates nucleation and growth at a water - organic liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoporev, Andrey S.; Semenov, Anton P.; Medvedev, Vladimir I.; Sizikov, Artem A.; Gushchin, Pavel A.; Vinokurov, Vladimir A.; Manakov, Andrey Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Visual observation of nucleation sites of methane and methane-ethane-propane hydrates and their further growth in water - organic liquid - gas systems with/without surfactants was carried out. Sapphire Rocking Cell RCS6 with transparent sapphire cells was used. The experiments were conducted at the supercooling ΔTsub = 20.2 °C. Decane, toluene and crude oils were used as organics. Gas hydrate nucleation occurred on water - metal - gas and water - sapphire - organic liquid three-phase contact lines. At the initial stage of growth hydrate crystals rapidly covered the water - gas or water - organics interfaces (depending on the nucleation site). Further hydrate phase accrete on cell walls (sapphire surface) and into the organics volume. At this stage, growth was accompanied by water «drawing out» from under initial hydrate film formed at water - organic interface. Apparently, it takes place due to water capillary inflow in the reaction zone. It was shown that the hydrate crystal morphology depends on the organic phase composition. In the case of water-in-decane emulsion relay hydrate crystallization was observed in the whole sample, originating most likely due to the hydrate crystal intergrowth through decane. Contacts of such crystals with adjacent water droplets result in rapid hydrate crystallization on this droplet.

  12. Kinetics of Ni:C Thin Film Composition Formation at Different Temperatures and Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas KAIRAITIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work analysis considering Ni:C thin films growth on thermaly oxidized Si substrate by proposed kinetic model is presented. Model is built considering experimental results where microstructure evolution as a function of the substrate temperature and metal content of Ni:C nanocomposite films grown by hyperthermal ion deposition is investigated. The proposed kinetic model is based on the rate equations and includes processes of adsorption, surface segregation, diffusion, chemical reactions of constituents. The experimental depth profile curves were fitted by using proposed model. The obtained results show a good agreement with experiment taking into account concentration dependent diffusion. It is shown by modeling that with the increase of substrate temperature the process of nickel surface segregation becomes most important. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5234

  13. Structure and Dynamics of Cool Flare Loops Observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuła, K.; Berlicki, A. [Astronomical Institute, University of Wrocław, Kopernika 11, 51–622 Wrocław (Poland); Heinzel, P.; Liu, W., E-mail: mikula@astro.uni.wroc.pl [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2017-08-10

    Flare loops were well observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) during the gradual phase of two solar flares on 2014 March 29 and 2015 June 22. Cool flare loops are visible in various spectral lines formed at chromospheric and transition-region temperatures and exhibit large downflows which correspond to the standard scenario. The principal aim of this work is to analyze the structure and dynamics of cool flare loops observed in Mg ii lines. Synthetic profiles of the Mg ii h line are computed using the classical cloud model and assuming a uniform background intensity. In this paper, we study novel IRIS NUV observations of such loops in Mg ii h and k lines and also show the behavior of hotter lines detected in the FUV channel. We obtained the spatial evolution of the velocities: near the loop top, the flow velocities are small and they are increasing toward the loop legs. Moreover, from slit-jaw image (SJI) movies, we observe some plasma upflows into the loops, which are also detectable in Mg ii spectra. The brightness of the loops systematically decreases with increasing flow velocity, and we ascribe this to the effect of Doppler dimming, which works for Mg ii lines. Emission profiles of Mg ii were found to be extremely broad, and we explain this through the large unresolved non-thermal motions.

  14. Direct methanol fuel cells: Pt-Ni/C binary electrocatalysts; Celulas a combutivel de metanol direto: eletrocatalisadores binarios de Pt-Ni/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Jose Ricardo Cezar; Antolini, Ermete; Santos, Ana Maria dos; Gonzalez, Ernesto Rafael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: salgado@iqsc.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells use platinum alloys as more efficient catalysts than platinum. In the case of binary alloys, the second metal affects several properties of platinum, like the interatomic distance, the electronic density and the capacity of forming oxygenated species at lower potentials. In this work, Pt-Ni catalysts supported on high surface area carbon (Pt-Ni/C) were prepared and characterized, and tested as catalysts in the anode and the cathode in direct methanol fuel cells. In both cases the performance of the material was better than that of Pt/C, and comparing the two situations it was better when the material was used in the cathode. The improved performance in the cathode was attributed to the nickel that forms a true alloy with platinum, while the better performance in the anode was attributed to the presence of nickel oxides. (author)

  15. Tangible User Interface and Mu Rhythm Suppression: The Effect of User Interface on the Brain Activity in Its Operator and Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Isoda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The intuitiveness of tangible user interface (TUI is not only for its operator. It is quite possible that this type of user interface (UI can also have an effect on the experience and learning of observers who are just watching the operator using it. To understand the possible effect of TUI, the present study focused on the mu rhythm suppression in the sensorimotor area reflecting execution and observation of action, and investigated the brain activity both in its operator and observer. In the observer experiment, the effect of TUI on its observers was demonstrated through the brain activity. Although the effect of the grasping action itself was uncertain, the unpredictability of the result of the action seemed to have some effect on the mirror neuron system (MNS-related brain activity. In the operator experiment, in spite of the same grasping action, the brain activity was activated in the sensorimotor area when UI functions were included (TUI. Such activation of the brain activity was not found with a graphical user interface (GUI that has UI functions without grasping action. These results suggest that the MNS-related brain activity is involved in the effect of TUI, indicating the possibility of UI evaluation based on brain activity.

  16. Basic concepts and development of an all-purpose computer interface for ROC/FROC observer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Hara, Takeshi; Abe, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we initially investigated various aspects of requirements for a computer interface employed in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and free-response ROC (FROC) observer studies which involve digital images and ratings obtained by observers (radiologists). Secondly, by taking into account these aspects, an all-purpose computer interface utilized for these observer performance studies was developed. Basically, the observer studies can be classified into three paradigms, such as one rating for one case without an identification of a signal location, one rating for one case with an identification of a signal location, and multiple ratings for one case with identification of signal locations. For these paradigms, display modes on the computer interface can be used for single/multiple views of a static image, continuous viewing with cascade images (i.e., CT, MRI), and dynamic viewing of movies (i.e., DSA, ultrasound). Various functions on these display modes, which include windowing (contrast/level), magnifications, and annotations, are needed to be selected by an experimenter corresponding to the purpose of the research. In addition, the rules of judgment for distinguishing between true positives and false positives are an important factor for estimating diagnostic accuracy in an observer study. We developed a computer interface which runs on a Windows operating system by taking into account all aspects required for various observer studies. This computer interface requires experimenters to have sufficient knowledge about ROC/FROC observer studies, but allows its use for any purpose of the observer studies. This computer interface will be distributed publicly in the near future.

  17. Osseointegration of zirconia implants: an SEM observation of the bone-implant interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naujoks Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The successful use of zirconia ceramics in orthopedic surgery led to a demand for dental zirconium-based implant systems. Because of its excellent biomechanical characteristics, biocompatibility, and bright tooth-like color, zirconia (zirconium dioxide, ZrO2 has the potential to become a substitute for titanium as dental implant material. The present study aimed at investigating the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surface at an ultrastructural level. Methods A total of 24 zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and 24 titanium implants all of similar shape and surface structure were inserted into the tibia of 12 Göttinger minipigs. Block biopsies were harvested 1 week, 4 weeks or 12 weeks (four animals each after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis was performed at the bone implant interface. Results Remarkable bone attachment was already seen after 1 week which increased further to intimate bone contact after 4 weeks, observed on both zirconia and titanium implant surfaces. After 12 weeks, osseointegration without interposition of an interfacial layer was detected. At the ultrastructural level, there was no obvious difference between the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and titanium implants with a similar surface topography. Conclusion The results of this study indicate similar osseointegration of zirconia and titanium implants at the ultrastructural level.

  18. Observation of interface dependent spin polarized photocurrents in InAs/GaSb superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan, E-mail: liyuan12@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Wu, Qing; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yonghai, E-mail: yhchen@semi.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing (China); Niu, Zhichuan; Xiang, Wei; Hao, Hongyue [The State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing (China)

    2015-05-11

    In this letter, we investigated the spin polarized photocurrents excited by mid-infrared radiation and near-infrared radiation, respectively, in InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with different kinds of interfaces. By periodically varying the polarization state of the radiation, we analyzed Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents, which present different features depending on the interface types and excitation conditions. Under mid-infrared excitation, the ratio of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents of the superlattice with InSb-like interface is obviously larger than that of the superlattice with GaAs-like interface, the ratio of the superlattice with alternate interface is in the middle. Whereas under near-infrared excitation, the ratios of the three superlattices are nearly the same. Further researches reveal the synactic effects of interface dependent strain and asymmetric interface potential on the spin splitting. Besides, the polarized Raman spectroscopies of these structures were also analyzed.

  19. Observation of interface dependent spin polarized photocurrents in InAs/GaSb superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Wu, Qing; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yonghai; Niu, Zhichuan; Xiang, Wei; Hao, Hongyue

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we investigated the spin polarized photocurrents excited by mid-infrared radiation and near-infrared radiation, respectively, in InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with different kinds of interfaces. By periodically varying the polarization state of the radiation, we analyzed Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents, which present different features depending on the interface types and excitation conditions. Under mid-infrared excitation, the ratio of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents of the superlattice with InSb-like interface is obviously larger than that of the superlattice with GaAs-like interface, the ratio of the superlattice with alternate interface is in the middle. Whereas under near-infrared excitation, the ratios of the three superlattices are nearly the same. Further researches reveal the synactic effects of interface dependent strain and asymmetric interface potential on the spin splitting. Besides, the polarized Raman spectroscopies of these structures were also analyzed

  20. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrumentation interface control document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) defines the specific details of the complete accomodation information between the Earth Observing System (EOS) PM Spacecraft and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A)Instrument. This is the first submittal of the ICN: it will be updated periodically throughout the life of the program. The next update is planned prior to Critical Design Review (CDR).

  1. Facile solid-state synthesis of Ni@C nanosheet-assembled hierarchical network for high-performance lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jinghe; Li, Qiyun; Zeng, Pan; Meng, Yulin; Zhang, Xiukui; Wu, Ping; Zhou, Yiming

    2017-08-01

    Micro/nano-architectured transition-metal@C hybrids possess unique structural and compositional features toward lithium storage, and are thus expected to manifest ideal anodic performances in advanced lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we propose a facile and scalable solid-state coordination and subsequent pyrolysis route for the formation of a novel type of micro/nano-architectured transition-metal@C hybrid (i.e., Ni@C nanosheet-assembled hierarchical network, Ni@C network). Moreover, this coordination-pyrolysis route has also been applied for the construction of bare carbon network using zinc salts instead of nickel salts as precursors. When applied as potential anodic materials in LIBs, the Ni@C network exhibits Ni-content-dependent electrochemical performances, and the partially-etched Ni@C network manifests markedly enhanced Li-storage performances in terms of specific capacities, cycle life, and rate capability than the pristine Ni@C network and carbon network. The proposed solid-state coordination and pyrolysis strategy would open up new opportunities for constructing micro/nano-architectured transition-metal@C hybrids as advanced anode materials for LIBs.

  2. Medication Reconciliation During Hospitalization and in Hospital-Home Interface: An Observational Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Elisabetta; Giannelli, Alessandro; Toccafondi, Giulio; Baroni, Monica; Tonazzini, Sara; Alduini, Stefania; Biagini, Stefania; Gini, Rosa; Bellandi, Tommaso; Emdin, Michele

    2017-03-22

    Medication errors are one of the leading causes of patient harms. Medication reconciliation is a fundamental process that to be effective, it should be embraced during each single care transition. Our objectives were to investigate current medication reconciliation practices in the 2 Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio hospitals and comprehensively assess the quality of medication reconciliation practices between inpatient and outpatient care by analyzing the medication patterns 6 months before admission, during hospitalization, and 9 months after discharge for a selected group of patients with cardiovascular diseases. A retrospective observational study was conducted in the Cardiothoracic Department of the Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio hospitals. Medication history was reviewed for all the patients admitted from and discharged to the community, from January to March 2013. Patients were excluded if they had less than 4 drugs or less than 2 drugs for cardiovascular system in their prescription list at admission or if they died during follow-up. We selected 714 patients, and we obtained the clinical charts and all drug prescriptions collected during patients' hospitalization by the electronic clinical recording system. We also analyzed the list of prescriptions of this sample of patients, from 6 months before admission to 9 months after discharge, extracted from the regional prescription registry. In the resulting sample, prescriptions were analyzed to assess unintentional discrepancies. The study included 298 patients (mean age, 71.2 years), according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among 14,573 prescriptions analyzed, we found 4363 discrepancies (14.6 discrepancies per patient). Among these discrepancies, 1310 were classified as unintentional (4.4 discrepancies per patient). Among unintentional discrepancies, only 63 (4.8%) took place during hospitalization. Although at the hospital-home interface, 33.1% of unintentional discrepancies were

  3. In Situ Atomic-Scale Observation of Droplet Coalescence Driven Nucleation and Growth at Liquid/Solid Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Wang, Zhongchang; Deepak, Francis Leonard

    2017-06-27

    Unraveling dynamical processes of liquid droplets at liquid/solid interfaces and the interfacial ordering is critical to understanding solidification, liquid-phase epitaxial growth, wetting, liquid-phase joining, crystal growth, and lubrication processes, all of which are linked to different important applications in material science. In this work, we observe direct in situ atomic-scale behavior of Bi droplets segregated on SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 by using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy and demonstrate ordered interface and surface structures for the droplets on the oxide at the atomic scale and unravel a nucleation mechanism involving droplet coalescence at the liquid/solid interface. We identify a critical diameter of the formed nanocrystal in stabilizing the crystalline phase and reveal lattice-induced fast crystallization of the droplet at the initial stage of the coalescence of the nanocrystal with the droplet. Further sequential observations show the stepped coalescence and growth mechanism of the nanocrystals at the atomic scale. These results offer insights into the dynamic process at liquid/solid interfaces, which may have implications for many functionalities of materials and their applications.

  4. Non-classical austenite-martensite interfaces observed in single crystals of Cu-Al-Ni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 11 (2009), s. 793-807 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200100627; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/09/P164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape memory alloy s * martensitic microstructure * non-classical interfaces * crossing twins Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.935, year: 2009 http://www.informaworld.com

  5. Pt–Ni/C catalysts using different carbon supports for the cathode of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2012-01-01

    20 wt.% PtNi/C catalysts were prepared using a chemical reduction method, with Vulcan XC-72 conducting furnace black and graphene as the carbon support, respectively, and compared to commercial BASF 20 wt.% Pt/C (using Vulcan XC-72 carbon as support). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical performance of the PtNi/C catalysts was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, and by steady-state measurements. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the PtNi nanocatalysts exhibited improved activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on graphene compared with those on Vulcan XC-72 carbon, and graphene could potentially provide much higher durability than XC-72. This suggests that graphene is a more effective catalyst support than Vulcan XC-72 carbon. -- Highlights: ► PtNi/C catalysts were prepared on C = Vulcan XC-72 carbon black and graphene. ► The PtNi/C exhibited enhanced catalytic activity compared to Pt/XC-72. ► The performance of PtNi/Graphene is higher than that of PtNi/XC-72. ► Graphene could potentially provide much higher durability than XC-72.

  6. Nano-scale observations of interface between lichen and basaltic rock: Pseudomorphic growth of amorphous silica on augite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T.; Kyono, A.; Kebukawa, Y.; Takagi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, lichens as the earliest colonizers of terrestrial habitats are recognized to accelerate the mineral degradation at the interface between lichens and surface rocks. Much interest has been therefore devoted in recent years to the weathering induced by the lichen colonization. Here, we report nano-scale observations of the interface between lichens and basaltic rock by TEM and STXM techniques. Some samples of basaltic rocks totally covered by lichens were collected from the 1986 lava flows on the northwest part of Izu-Oshima volcano, Japan. To prepare specimens for the nano-scale observation, we utilized the focused ion beam (FIB) system. The microstructure and local chemistry of the specimens were thoroughly investigated by TEM equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Chemical components and chemical heterogeneity at the interface were observed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at Advanced Light Source branch line 5.3.2.2. The collected rocks were classified into the augite-pigeonite-bronzite basalt including 6 to 8% plagioclase phenocrysts. The lichens adhering to the rocks were mainly Stereocaulon vesuvianum, fruticose lichen, which are widespread over the study area. The metabolites of the Stereocaulon vesuvianum exhibited a mean pH of 4.5 and dominance by acids. The STEM-EDX observations revealed that the interface between augite and the lichen was completely covered with amorphous silica multilayer with a thickness of less than 1 µm. Ca L-edge XANES spectra of the augite showed that the energy profile of the absorption edge at 349 eV was varied with the depth from the surface, indicating that the M2 site coordination accommodating Ca2+ undergoes significant change in shape as a function of distance from the surface. This behavior results from the fact that the M2 site is more distorted and more flexible in the C2/c clinopyroxene phase. Taking into consideration that the S. vesuvianum can produce acidic organic compounds

  7. Anti-Invar properties and magnetic order in fcc Fe-Ni-C alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadutov, V.M., E-mail: nadvl@imp.kiev.ua [G.V. Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics of the N.A.S. of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kosintsev, S.G.; Svystunov, Ye.O. [G.V. Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics of the N.A.S. of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, R.; Eckerlebe, H. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany); Ericsson, T.; Annersten, H. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Anti-Invar effect was revealed in the fcc Fe-25.3%Ni-0.73%C (wt%) alloy, which demonstrates high values of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) (15-21)x10{sup -6} K{sup -1} accompanied by almost temperature-insensitive behavior in temperature range of 122-525 K. Alloying with carbon considerably expanded the low temperature range of anti-Invar behavior in fcc Fe-Ni-based alloy. The Curie temperature of the alloy T{sub C}=195 K was determined on measurements of temperature dependences of magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization. The Moessbauer and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on the fcc Fe-25.3%Ni-(0.73-0.78)%C alloys with the varying temperatures below and above the Curie point and in external magnetic field of 1.5-5 T were conducted. Low value of the Debye temperature {Theta}{sub D}=180 K was estimated using the temperature dependence of the integral intensity of Moessbauer spectra for specified temperature range. The inequality B{sub eff}=(0.7-0.9)B{sub ext} was obtained in external field Moessbauer measurement that points to antiferromagnetically coupled Fe atoms, which have a tendency to align their spins perpendicular to B{sub ext}. Nano length scale magnetic inhomogeneities nearby and far above T{sub C} were revealed, which assumed that it is caused by mixed antiferromagnetically and ferromagnetically coupled Fe atom spins. The anti-Invar behavior of Fe-Ni-C alloy is explained in terms of evolution of magnetic order with changing temperature resulting from thermally varied interspin interaction and decreasing stiffness of interatomic bond. - Highlights: > Anti-Invar effect was revealed in the fcc Fe-25.3%Ni-0.73%C (wt%) alloy. > Carbon expanded the temperature range of anti-Invar behavior in Fe-Ni-based alloy. > Moessbauer data point to mixed interspin interaction and low the Dedye temperature. > The SANS experiments reveal nano length scale magnetic inhomogeneities {<=}6 nm. > Anti-Invar behavior of Fe-Ni-C alloy explained by

  8. Field observations of turbulent dissipation rate profiles immediately below the air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Liao, Qian

    2016-06-01

    Near surface profiles of turbulence immediately below the air-water interface were measured with a free-floating Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system on Lake Michigan. The surface-following configuration allowed the system to measure the statistics of the aqueous-side turbulence in the topmost layer immediately below the water surface (z≈0˜15 cm, z points downward with 0 at the interface). Profiles of turbulent dissipation rate (ɛ) were investigated under a variety of wind and wave conditions. Various methods were applied to estimate the dissipation rate. Results suggest that these methods yield consistent dissipation rate profiles with reasonable scattering. In general, the dissipation rate decreases from the water surface following a power law relation in the top layer, ɛ˜z-0.7, i.e., the slope of the decrease was lower than that predicted by the wall turbulence theory, and the dissipation was considerably higher in the top layer for cases with higher wave ages. The measured dissipation rate profiles collapse when they were normalized with the wave speed, wave height, water-side friction velocity, and the wave age. This scaling suggests that the enhanced turbulence may be attributed to the additional source of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) at the "skin layer" (likely due to micro-breaking), and its downward transport in the water column.

  9. Microscopic observation of lateral diffusion at Si-SiO 2 interface by photoelectron emission microscopy using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, N.; Baba, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Shimoyama, I.; Honda, M.

    2011-11-01

    The lateral surface diffusion at Si-SiO2 interface has been observed at nanometer scale using photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) combined with synchrotron soft X-ray excitation. The samples investigated were Si-SiOx micro-patterns prepared by O2+ ion implantation in Si (0 0 1) wafer using a mask. The lateral spacial resolution of the PEEM system was about 41 nm. The brightness of each spot in the PEEM images changed depending on the photon energy around the Si K-edge, in proportion to the X-ray absorption intensity of the corresponding valence states. It was found that the lateral diffusion occurs by 400-450 °C lower temperature than that reported for the longitudinal diffusion at the Si-SiO2 interface. It was also found that no intermediate valence states such as SiO (Si2+) exist at the Si-SiO2 interface during the diffusion. The observed differences between lateral and longitudinal diffusion are interpreted by the sublimated property of silicon monoxide (SiO).

  10. Glucose- and Cellulose-Derived Ni/C-SO3H Catalysts for Liquid Phase Phenol Hydrodeoxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasakov, Stanislav; Zhao, Chen; Barath, Eszter; Chase, Zizwe A.; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Vjunov, Aleksei; Shi, Hui; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-01-19

    Sulfonated carbons were explored as functionalized supports for Ni nanoparticles to hydrodeoxygenate (HDO) phenol. Both hexadecane and water were used as solvents. The dual-functional Ni catalysts supported on sulfonated carbon (Ni/C-SO3H) showed high rates for phenol hydrodeoxygenation in liquid hexadecane, but not in water. Glucose and cellulose were precursors to the carbon supports. Changes in the carbons resulting from sulfonation of the carbons resulted in variations of carbon sheet structures, morphologies and the surface concentrations of acid sites. While the C-SO3H supports were active for cyclohexanol dehydration in hexadecane and water, Ni/C-SO3H only catalyzed the reduction of phenol to cyclohexanol in water. The state of 3 – 5 nm grafted Ni particles was analyzed by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the metallic Ni was rapidly formed in situ without detectable leaching to the aqueous phase, suggesting that just the acid functions on Ni/C-SO3H are inhibited in presence of water. Using in situ IR spectroscopy, it was shown that even in hexadecane, phenol HDO is limited by the dehydration step. Thus, phenol HDO catalysis was further improved by physically admixing C-SO3H with the Ni/C-SO3H catalyst to balance the two catalytic functions. The minimum addition of 7 wt.% C-SO3H to the most active of the Ni/C-SO3H catalysts enabled nearly quantitative conversion of phenol and the highest selectivity (90%) towards cyclohexane in 6 h, at temperatures as low as 473 K, suggesting that the proximity to Ni limits the acid properties of the support.

  11. Continuous Microfluidics (Ecology-on-a-Chip) Experiments for Long Term Observation of Bacteria at Liquid-Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Michael; White, Andrew; Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2017-11-01

    A microfluidic bioassay incorporating a peristaltic pump and chemostat capable of continuously culturing a bacterial suspension through a microchannel for an extended period of time relevant to ecological processes is presented. A single crude oil droplet is dispensed on-chip and subsequently pinned to the top and bottom surfaces of the microchannel to establish a vertical curved oil-water interface to observe bacteria without boundary interference. The accumulation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), microbial film formation, and aggregation is provided by DIC microscopy with an EMCCD camera at an interval of 30 sec. Cell-interface interactions such as cell translational and angular motilities as well as encountering, attachment, detachment to the interface are obtained by a high speed camera at 1000 fps with a sampling interval of 10 min. Experiments on Pseudomonas sp. (P62) and isolated EPS suspensions from Sagitulla Stelleta and Roseobacter show rapid formation of bacterial aggregates including EPS streamers stretching tens of drop diameters long. These results provide crucial insights into environmentally relevant processes such as the initiation of marine oil snow, an alternative mode of biodegradation to conventional bioconsumption. Funded by GoMRI, NSF, ARO.

  12. In situ observation of a hydrogel-glass interface during sliding friction

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Tetsurou; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Ahmed, Jamil; Kamita, Gen; Yashima, Shintaro; Furukawa, Yuichiro; Ota, Yuko; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-01-01

    Direct observation of hydrogel contact with a solid surface in water is indispensable for understanding the friction, lubrication, and adhesion of hydrogels under water. However, this is a difficult task since the refractive index of hydrogels is very close to that of water. In this paper, we present a novel method to in situ observe the macroscopic contact of hydrogels with a solid surface based on the principle of critical refraction. This method was applied to investigate the sliding frict...

  13. Anti-Invar properties and magnetic order in fcc Fe-Ni-C alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadutov, V. M.; Kosintsev, S. G.; Svystunov, Ye. O.; Garamus, V. M.; Willumeit, R.; Eckerlebe, H.; Ericsson, T.; Annersten, H.

    2011-11-01

    Anti-Invar effect was revealed in the fcc Fe-25.3%Ni-0.73%C (wt%) alloy, which demonstrates high values of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) (15-21)×10 -6 K -1 accompanied by almost temperature-insensitive behavior in temperature range of 122-525 K. Alloying with carbon considerably expanded the low temperature range of anti-Invar behavior in fcc Fe-Ni-based alloy. The Curie temperature of the alloy TC=195 K was determined on measurements of temperature dependences of magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization. The Mössbauer and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on the fcc Fe-25.3%Ni-(0.73-0.78)%C alloys with the varying temperatures below and above the Curie point and in external magnetic field of 1.5-5 T were conducted. Low value of the Debye temperature ΘD=180 K was estimated using the temperature dependence of the integral intensity of Mössbauer spectra for specified temperature range. The inequality Beff=(0.7-0.9) Bext was obtained in external field Mössbauer measurement that points to antiferromagnetically coupled Fe atoms, which have a tendency to align their spins perpendicular to Bext. Nano length scale magnetic inhomogeneities nearby and far above TC were revealed, which assumed that it is caused by mixed antiferromagnetically and ferromagnetically coupled Fe atom spins. The anti-Invar behavior of Fe-Ni-C alloy is explained in terms of evolution of magnetic order with changing temperature resulting from thermally varied interspin interaction and decreasing stiffness of interatomic bond.

  14. Small-angle neutron scattering in F.C.C. Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-C alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadutov, V.M.; Svystunov, Y.O. [G.V. Kurdyumov Inst. for Metal Physics of the N.A.S. of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, R. [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering was studied in Invar Fe-Ni-C alloys in comparison with the Fe-Ni alloy. Moessbauer measurement was carried out to indicate magnetic structure. The nonlinear SANS curves were analysed using a power law function and the Porod approximation and interpreted in terms of aggregates characterized by smooth surfaces or fractal properties. The size and shape of the inhomogeneities were estimated by using the Indirect Fourier Transformation analysis. (orig.)

  15. Real-Time Dynamic Observation of Micro-Friction on the Contact Interface of Friction Lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dekun; Chen, Kai; Guo, Yongbo

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the microscopic friction mechanism based on in situ microscopic observation in order to record the deformation and contact situation of friction lining during the frictional process. The results show that friction coefficient increased with the shear deformation and energy loss of the surfacee, respectively. Furthermore, the friction mechanism mainly included adhesive friction in the high-pressure and high-speed conditions, whereas hysteresis friction was in the low-pressure and low-speed conditions. The mixed-friction mechanism was in the period when the working conditions varied from high pressure and speed to low pressure and speed. PMID:29498677

  16. Method of observation of low density interface states by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under bias and passivation by cyanide ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H.; Sakurai, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Kubota, T.; Maida, O.; Takahashi, M.

    2006-08-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements under bias can observe low density interface states for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diodes with low densities. This method can give energy distribution of interface states for ultrathin insulating layers for which electrical measurements cannot be performed due to a high density leakage current. During the XPS measurements, a bias voltage is applied to the rear semiconductor surface with respect to the ˜3 nm-thick front platinum layer connected to the ground, and the bias voltage changes the occupation of interface states. Charges accumulated in the interface states shift semiconductor core levels at the interface, and thus the analysis of the bias-induced shifts of the semiconductor core levels measured as a function of the bias voltage gives energy distribution of interface states. In the case of Si-based MOS diodes, the energy distribution and density of interface states strongly depend on the atomic density of silicon dioxide (SiO 2) layers and the interfacial roughness, respectively. All the observed interface state spectra possess peaked-structures, indicating that they are due to defect states. An interface state peak near the Si midgap is attributable to isolated Si dangling bonds at the interface, while those above and below the midgap to Si dangling bonds interacting weakly with Si or oxygen atoms in the SiO 2 layers. A method of the elimination of interface states and defect states in Si using cyanide solutions has been developed. The cyanide method simply involves the immersion of Si in KCN solutions. Due to the high Si-CN bond energy of ˜4.5 eV, the bonds are not ruptured at 800 °C and upon irradiation. The cyanide treatment results in the improvement of the electrical characteristics of MOS diodes and solar cells.

  17. Non-Maxwellian Analysis of the Transition-region Line Profiles Observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Dzifčáková, Elena [Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Polito, Vanessa; Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zanna, Giulio Del, E-mail: dudik@asu.cas.cz [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, CMS, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-10

    We investigate the nature of the spectral line profiles for transition-region (TR) ions observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) . In this context, we analyzed an active-region observation performed by IRIS in its 1400 Å spectral window. The TR lines are found to exhibit significant wings in their spectral profiles, which can be well fitted with a non-Maxwellian κ distribution. The fit with a κ distribution can perform better than a double-Gaussian fit, especially for the strongest line, Si iv 1402.8 Å. Typical values of κ found are about 2, occurring in a majority of spatial pixels where the TR lines are symmetric, i.e., the fit can be performed. Furthermore, all five spectral lines studied (from Si iv, O iv, and S iv) appear to have the same full-width at half-maximum irrespective of whether the line is an allowed or an intercombination transition. A similar value of κ is obtained for the electron distribution by the fitting of the line intensities relative to Si iv 1402.8 Å, if photospheric abundances are assumed. The κ distributions, however, do not remove the presence of non-thermal broadening. Instead, they actually increase the non-thermal width. This is because, for κ distributions, TR ions are formed at lower temperatures. The large observed non-thermal width lowers the opacity of the Si iv line sufficiently enough for this line to become optically thin.

  18. Agglomeration of Non-metallic Inclusions at Steel/Ar Interface: In- Situ Observation Experiments and Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wangzhong; Dogan, Neslihan; Coley, Kenneth S.

    2017-10-01

    Better understanding of agglomeration behavior of nonmetallic inclusions in the steelmaking process is important to control the cleanliness of the steel. In this work, a revision on the Paunov simplified model has been made according to the original Kralchevsky-Paunov model. Thus, this model has been applied to quantitatively calculate the attractive capillary force on inclusions agglomerating at the liquid steel/gas interface. Moreover, the agglomeration behavior of Al2O3 inclusions at a low carbon steel/Ar interface has been observed in situ by high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The velocity and acceleration of inclusions and attractive forces between Al2O3 inclusions of various sizes were calculated based on the CLSM video. The results calculated using the revised model offered a reasonable fit with the present experimental data for different inclusion sizes. Moreover, a quantitative comparison was made between calculations using the equivalent radius of a circle and those using the effective radius. It was found that the calculated capillary force using equivalent radius offered a better fit with the present experimental data because of the inclusion characteristics. Comparing these results with other studies in the literature allowed the authors to conclude that when applied in capillary force calculations, the equivalent radius is more suitable for inclusions with large size and irregular shape, and the effective radius is more appropriate for inclusions with small size or a large shape factor. Using this model, the effect of inclusion size on attractive capillary force has been investigated, demonstrating that larger inclusions are more strongly attracted.

  19. Synthesis of Pd–Ni/C bimetallic materials and their application in non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazici Hilal Celik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, carbon based bimetallic materials (Pd-Ni/C were synthesized by polyol method in order to increase the hydrogen peroxide reduction catalytic activity of Pd using Ni metal. Hydrogen peroxide reduction and sensing properties of the prepared catalysts were measured by electrochemical methods. As a result, we have established that the addition of Ni at different ratios to Pd has a considerable electrocatalytic effect on H2O2 reduction. This work provides a simple route for preparation of Pd-Ni catalysts to create a very active and sensible electrochemical sensor for H2O2 sensing.

  20. Polyamorphic Transformations in Fe-Ni-C Liquids: Implications for Chemical Evolution of Terrestrial Planets: Fe-Ni-C liquid structural change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Xiaojing [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu HI USA; Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu HI USA; Chen, Bin [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu HI USA; Wang, Jianwei [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LA USA; Kono, Yoshio [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne IL USA; Zhu, Feng [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI USA

    2017-12-01

    During the formation of the Earth's core, the segregation of metallic liquids from silicate mantle should have left behind evident geochemical imprints on both the mantle and the core. Some distinctive geochemical signatures of the mantle-derived rocks likely own their origin to the metal-silicate differentiation of the primitive Earth, setting our planet apart from undifferentiated meteorites as well as terrestrial planets or moons isotopically and compositionally. Understanding the chemical evolution of terrestrial planetary bodies requires knowledge on properties of both liquid iron alloys and silicates equilibrating under physicochemical conditions pertinent to the deep magma ocean. Here we report experimental and computational results on the pressure-induced structural evolution of iron-nickel liquids alloyed with carbon. Our X-ray diffraction experiments up to 7.3 gigapascals (GPa) demonstrate that Fe-Ni (Fe90Ni10) liquids alloyed with 3 and 5 wt % carbon undergo a polyamorphic liquid structure transition at approximately 5 GPa. Corroborating the experimental observations, our first-principles molecular dynamic calculations reveal that the structural transitions result from the marked prevalence of three-atom face-sharing polyhedral connections in the liquids at >5 GPa. The structure and polyamorphic transitions of liquid iron-nickel-carbon alloys govern their physical and chemical properties and may thus cast fresh light on the chemical evolution of terrestrial planets and moons.

  1. Comparison of two observational methods, scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopies, in the adhesive interface analysis of endodontic sealers to root dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Maybell; Chain, Marcelo Carvalho; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes; da Fonseca Roberti Garcia, Lucas; Alves, Ana Maria Hecke; Teixeira, Cleonice Silveira

    2018-01-17

    To compare the accuracy of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) during the analysis of the adhesive interface integrity and intratubular penetration of root canal sealers to radicular dentine. Twenty roots of human maxillary incisors were prepared and distributed into two groups (n = 10), followed by filling with gutta-percha and Endofill (G1) or AH Plus (G2). After 7 days, roots were sectioned and analyzed under CLSM and SEM. Score systems were used to evaluate the adhesive interface integrity (0-4) and sealer intratubular penetration (0-3). Data were submitted to Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and Kendall correlation statistical tests (α = 5%). In the adhesive interface analysis, CLSM was similar (P = 0.157) to SEM for Endofill; however, the results were different for AH Plus (P = 0.029). Intratubular penetration had significant difference between observational methods for both sealers (P < 0.0001). Correlation analysis between SEM and CLSM for adhesive interface was moderate for Endofill and low for AH Plus. Intratubular penetration was low for both sealers. SEM and CLSM analysis had similar results when sealers were compared, with a more homogeneous adhesive interface, and greater intratubular penetration for AH Plus. Comparison between observational methods demonstrated low positive correlation for adhesive interface and intratubular penetration analysis. A proper interface formed between sealer and dentine is very important for final quality of root canal filling. Observational methods which allow an accurate analysis of this interface must be selected to assess such features.

  2. Propagating wave in active region-loops, located over the solar disk observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Hou, Y. J.; Zhang, J.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: We aim to ascertain the physical parameters of a propagating wave over the solar disk detected by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Methods: Using imaging data from the IRIS and the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO), we tracked bright spots to determine the parameters of a propagating transverse wave in active region (AR) loops triggered by activation of a filament. Deriving the Doppler velocity of Si IV line from spectral observations of IRIS, we have determined the rotating directions of active region loops which are relevant to the wave. Results: On 2015 December 19, a filament was located on the polarity inversion line of the NOAA AR 12470. The filament was activated and then caused a C1.1 two-ribbon flare. Between the flare ribbons, two rotation motions of a set of bright loops were observed to appear in turn with opposite directions. Following the end of the second rotation, a propagating wave and an associated transverse oscillation were detected in these bright loops. In 1400 Å channel, there was bright material flowing along the loops in a wave-like manner, with a period of 128 s and a mean amplitude of 880 km. For the transverse oscillation, we tracked a given loop and determine the transverse positions of the tracking loop in a limited longitudinal range. In both of 1400 Å and 171 Å channels, approximately four periods are distinguished during the transverse oscillation. The mean period of the oscillation is estimated as 143 s and the displacement amplitude as between 1370 km and 690 km. We interpret these oscillations as a propagating kink wave and obtain its speed of 1400 km s-1. Conclusions: Our observations reveal that a flare associated with filament activation could trigger a kink propagating wave in active region loops over the solar disk. Movies associated to Figs. 1-4 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  3. Observation of band bending of metal/high-k Si capacitor with high energy x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and its application to interface dipole measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushima, K.; Okamoto, K.; Tachi, K.; Song, J.; Sato, S.; Kawanago, T.; Tsutsui, K.; Sugii, N.; Ahmet, P.; Hattori, T.; Iwai, H.

    2008-11-01

    Band bendings of Si substrates have been observed using hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. With a capability of collecting photoelectrons generated as deep as 40 nm, the binding energy shift in a core level caused by the potential profile at the surface of the substrate results in a spectrum broadening. The broadening is found to be significant when heavily doped substrates are used owing to its steep potential profile. The surface potential of the substrate can be obtained by deconvolution of the spectrum. This method has been applied to observe the band bending profile of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with high-k gate dielectrics. By comparing the band bending profiles of heavily-doped n+- and p+-Si substrates, the interface dipoles presented at interfaces can be estimated. In the case of W gated La2O3/La-silicate capacitor, an interface dipole to shift the potential of -0.45 V has been estimated at La-silicate/Si interface, which effectively reduces the apparent work function of W. On the other hand, an interface dipole of 0.03-0.07 V has been found to exist at Hf-silicate/SiO2 interface for W gated HfO2/Hf-silicate/SiO2 capacitor.

  4. Long-Term Stability Evaluation of a Sn-Doped Ni-C Eutectic Cell Suitable for Radiation Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R. N.; Machin, G.

    2017-07-01

    Metal carbon eutectic cells (high-temperature fixed points, HTFPs) (Machin in AIP Conf Proc 1552:305, 2013) are being considered for use as reliable high-temperature references for non-contact thermometry above the copper point (1084.62°C). Recent studies have demonstrated the concept of using doped metal carbon eutectic cells as artefacts suitable for temperature scale comparisons (Teixeira et al. in AIP Conf Proc 1552:363, 2013; Teixeira et al. in Int J Thermophys 35:467-474, 2014; Machin et al. in Int J Thermophys 36:327-335, 2015). When using such artefacts, the participating institutes do not know the realization temperature of the doped HTFP cell, because it has been modified by the addition of a selected dopant at a definite concentration. The use of such fixed points can critically evaluate the real measurement capability of the institutes in any comparison. The pyrometry laboratory of Inmetro developed a set of doped Ni-C eutectic cells in 2012 and 2013. This paper describes the long-term stability of a Sn-doped Ni-C cell constructed in 2012, which accumulated more than 220 h above 1300°C amounting to more than 50 cycles of melts and freezes. The cell remained stable, well within the measurement uncertainty, throughout the evaluation period demonstrating the utility of such cells for scale comparison purposes.

  5. The Influence of Pt Atomic Ratio in the Activity PtNi/C Nanocatalysts for the PEMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenen Rusnaeni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pt-Ni/C alloy nanocatalysts synthesized by polyol method with different atomic ratio are investigated to enhance activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR for fuel cell applications. Prepared catalysts are characterized by various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. XRD analysis shows that all prepared catalysts with different atomic ratio exhibit face centered cubic and have smaller lattice parameters than pure Pt catalyst. The mean particle size of the catalysts are between 4.3 to 6.3 nm. Cyclic voltammograms with scan rate 5 mV s-1 at 25oC obtain range the electrochemical active surface (EAS between 40 to 164 cm2/mgPt, mass activity (MA and specific activity (SA of nanocatalysts PtNi/C in the potential range 900 mV versus RHE between 3.61 to 8.42 mA/mgPt, and 0.05 to 0.09.

  6. Thermodynamic investigations of the Mn-Ni-C-N quarternary alloys by solid-state galvanic cell technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Lidong; Aune, Ragnhild; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2005-01-01

    In view of the important applications of carbides and nitrides of transition metals in the hard materials industries, the thermodynamic activities of manganese in Mn-Ni-C-N alloys have been studied by solid-state galvanic cell technique with CaF 2 as the solid electrolyte. The phase compositions and microstructure of various alloys have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nitrogen was introduced into the alloy by equilibrating with N 2 gas. It was established during the experiments that the solubility of nitrogen in the alloys was affected by the carbon content. A (Mn,Ni) 4 (N,C) nitride was formed during the nitriding procedure in the alloys. The electromotive force (EMF) measurements were carried out in the temperature range 940-1127 K in order to determine the activities of Mn in the alloys. The activities of manganese were calculated and compared with those of the corresponding Mn-Ni-C ternary alloys

  7. OBSERVATIONS OF SUBARCSECOND BRIGHT DOTS IN THE TRANSITION REGION ABOVE SUNSPOTS WITH THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, H.; Weber, M.; Testa, P.; DeLuca, E.; Golub, L.; Schanche, N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kleint, L. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstr. 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Peter, H., E-mail: hui.tian@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Observations with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed numerous sub-arcsecond bright dots in the transition region above sunspots. These bright dots are seen in the 1400 Å and 1330 Å slit-jaw images. They are clearly present in all sunspots we investigated, mostly in the penumbrae, but also occasionally in some umbrae and light bridges. The bright dots in the penumbrae typically appear slightly elongated, with the two dimensions being 300-600 km and 250-450 km, respectively. The long sides of these dots are often nearly parallel to the bright filamentary structures in the penumbrae but sometimes clearly deviate from the radial direction. Their lifetimes are mostly less than one minute, although some dots last for a few minutes or even longer. Their intensities are often a few times stronger than the intensities of the surrounding environment in the slit-jaw images. About half of the bright dots show apparent movement with speeds of ∼10-40 km s{sup –1} in the radial direction. Spectra of a few bright dots were obtained and the Si IV 1402.77 Å line profiles in these dots are significantly broadened. The line intensity can be enhanced by one to two orders of magnitude. Some relatively bright and long-lasting dots are also observed in several passbands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and they appear to be located at the bases of loop-like structures. Many of these bright dots are likely associated with small-scale energy release events at the transition region footpoints of magnetic loops.

  8. High-resolution observations of the shock wave behavior for sunspot oscillations with the interface region imaging spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, H.; DeLuca, E.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Golub, L.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Weber, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, B.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Kleint, L.; Cheung, M.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wuelser, J. P. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. ADBS, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V., E-mail: hui.tian@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); and others

    2014-05-10

    We present the first results of sunspot oscillations from observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. The strongly nonlinear oscillation is identified in both the slit-jaw images and the spectra of several emission lines formed in the transition region and chromosphere. We first apply a single Gaussian fit to the profiles of the Mg II 2796.35 Å, C II 1335.71 Å, and Si IV 1393.76 Å lines in the sunspot. The intensity change is ∼30%. The Doppler shift oscillation reveals a sawtooth pattern with an amplitude of ∼10 km s{sup –1} in Si IV. The Si IV oscillation lags those of C II and Mg II by ∼6 and ∼25 s, respectively. The line width suddenly increases as the Doppler shift changes from redshift to blueshift. However, we demonstrate that this increase is caused by the superposition of two emission components. We then perform detailed analysis of the line profiles at a few selected locations on the slit. The temporal evolution of the line core is dominated by the following behavior: a rapid excursion to the blue side, accompanied by an intensity increase, followed by a linear decrease of the velocity to the red side. The maximum intensity slightly lags the maximum blueshift in Si IV, whereas the intensity enhancement slightly precedes the maximum blueshift in Mg II. We find a positive correlation between the maximum velocity and deceleration, a result that is consistent with numerical simulations of upward propagating magnetoacoustic shock waves.

  9. Effect of Ni Core Structure on the Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Ni/C in Methanol Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Wang, Rongfang; Wang, Hui; Liao, Shijun; Key, Julian; Linkov, Vladimir; Ji, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C), were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA). While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous)/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells. PMID:28811402

  10. Effect of Ni Core Structure on the Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Ni/C in Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Linkov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C, were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA. While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells.

  11. The Staffordshire arthritis, musculoskeletal, and back assessment (SAMBA) study: a prospective observational study of patient outcome following referral to a primary-secondary care musculoskeletal interface service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Edward; Zwierska, Irena; Dawes, Peter; Hider, Samantha L; Jordan, Kelvin P; Packham, Jon; Stevenson, Kay; Hay, Elaine

    2010-04-08

    Recent healthcare policy has shifted the management of musculoskeletal conditions in the UK away from secondary care towards Clinical Assessment and Treatment Services at the primary-secondary care interface. However, little is known about the outcome of patients with musculoskeletal conditions referred from primary care to Clinical Assessment and Treatment Services or how best to identify those patients at high risk of poor outcome in this setting. We describe the protocol for a twelve-month prospective observational study which aims to describe the outcome of patients referred to musculoskeletal and back pain services at the primary-secondary care interface and to develop simple prognostic measures to guide clinical prioritisation and triage. All patients referred over a twelve-month period from primary care to musculoskeletal and back pain clinics in the primary-secondary care interface Clinical Assessment and Treatment Service in North Staffordshire will be mailed a postal questionnaire prior to their consultation. This will collect information on quality of life, general health, anxiety and depression, pain, healthcare utilisation including medication use, occupational characteristics, and socio-demographics. At the consultation in the interface clinic, the clinical diagnosis, investigations requested, and clinical interventions will be recorded. Follow-up data for the twelve-month period subsequent to recruitment will be collected via mailed follow-up questionnaires at 6 and 12 months, and review of medical records. This twelve-month prospective observational study of patients referred to a musculoskeletal Clinical Assessment and Treatment Service will assess the management and outcome of musculoskeletal care at the primary-secondary care interface as proposed in the Musculoskeletal Services Framework.

  12. The Staffordshire Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Back Assessment (SAMBA Study: a prospective observational study of patient outcome following referral to a primary-secondary care musculoskeletal interface service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Kelvin P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent healthcare policy has shifted the management of musculoskeletal conditions in the UK away from secondary care towards Clinical Assessment and Treatment Services at the primary-secondary care interface. However, little is known about the outcome of patients with musculoskeletal conditions referred from primary care to Clinical Assessment and Treatment Services or how best to identify those patients at high risk of poor outcome in this setting. We describe the protocol for a twelve-month prospective observational study which aims to describe the outcome of patients referred to musculoskeletal and back pain services at the primary-secondary care interface and to develop simple prognostic measures to guide clinical prioritisation and triage. Methods/Design All patients referred over a twelve-month period from primary care to musculoskeletal and back pain clinics in the primary-secondary care interface Clinical Assessment and Treatment Service in North Staffordshire will be mailed a postal questionnaire prior to their consultation. This will collect information on quality of life, general health, anxiety and depression, pain, healthcare utilisation including medication use, occupational characteristics, and socio-demographics. At the consultation in the interface clinic, the clinical diagnosis, investigations requested, and clinical interventions will be recorded. Follow-up data for the twelve-month period subsequent to recruitment will be collected via mailed follow-up questionnaires at 6 and 12 months, and review of medical records. Discussion This twelve-month prospective observational study of patients referred to a musculoskeletal Clinical Assessment and Treatment Service will assess the management and outcome of musculoskeletal care at the primary-secondary care interface as proposed in the Musculoskeletal Services Framework.

  13. MMS observations of guide field reconnection at the interface between colliding reconnection jets inside flux rope-like structures at the magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oieroset, M.; Phan, T.; Haggerty, C. C.; Shay, M.; Eastwood, J. P.; Gershman, D. J.; Drake, J. F.; Fujimoto, M.; Ergun, R.; Mozer, F.; Oka, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Wang, S.; Chen, L. J.; Swisdak, M.; Pollock, C. J.; Dorelli, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Lavraud, B.; Kacem, I.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Saito, Y.; Avanov, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Strangeway, R. J.; Schwartz, S. J.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Malakit, K.

    2017-12-01

    The formation and evolution of magnetic flux ropes is of critical importance for a number of collisionless plasma phenomena. At the dayside magnetopause flux rope-like structures can form between two X-lines. The two X-lines produce converging plasma jets. At the interface between the colliding jets a compressed current sheet can form, which in turn can undergo reconnection. We present MMS observations of the exhaust and diffusion region of such reconnection.

  14. Polyamorphic Transformations in Fe-Ni-C Liquids: Implications for Chemical Evolution of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiaojing; Chen, Bin; Wang, Jianwei; Kono, Yoshio; Zhu, Feng

    2017-12-01

    During the formation of the Earth's core, the segregation of metallic liquids from silicate mantle should have left behind evident geochemical imprints on both the mantle and the core. Some distinctive geochemical signatures of the mantle-derived rocks likely own their origin to the metal-silicate differentiation of the primitive Earth, setting our planet apart from undifferentiated meteorites as well as terrestrial planets or moons isotopically and compositionally. Understanding the chemical evolution of terrestrial planetary bodies requires knowledge on properties of both liquid iron alloys and silicates equilibrating under physicochemical conditions pertinent to the deep magma ocean. Here we report experimental and computational results on the pressure-induced structural evolution of iron-nickel liquids alloyed with carbon. Our X-ray diffraction experiments up to 7.3 gigapascals (GPa) demonstrate that Fe-Ni (Fe90Ni10) liquids alloyed with 3 and 5 wt % carbon undergo a polyamorphic liquid structure transition at approximately 5 GPa. Corroborating the experimental observations, our first-principles molecular dynamic calculations reveal that the structural transitions result from the marked prevalence of three-atom face-sharing polyhedral connections in the liquids at >5 GPa. The structure and polyamorphic transitions of liquid iron-nickel-carbon alloys govern their physical and chemical properties and may thus cast fresh light on the chemical evolution of terrestrial planets and moons.

  15. The Observation of the Structure of M23C6/γ Coherent Interface in the 100Mn13 High Carbon High Manganese Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenfeng; Ding, Zhimin; Liang, Bo

    2018-01-01

    The M23C6 carbides precipitate along the austenite grain boundary in the 100Mn13 high carbon high manganese steel after 1323 K (1050 °C) solution treatment and subsequent 748 K (475 °C) aging treatment. The grain boundary M23C6 carbides not only spread along the grain boundary and into the incoherent austenite grain, but also grow slowly into the coherent austenite grain. On the basis of the research with optical microscope, a further investigation for the M23C6/γ coherent interface was carried out by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that the grain boundary M23C6 carbides have orientation relationships with only one of the adjacent austenite grains in the same planes: (\\bar{1}1\\bar{1})_{M_{2 3}}{C}_{ 6} } / (\\bar{1}1\\bar{1})_{γ } , (\\bar{1}11)_{M}_{ 2 3} {C}_{ 6} } //(\\bar{1}11)_{γ } ,[ 1 10]_{{{M}_{ 2 3} {C}_{ 6} }} //[ 1 10]_{γ } . The flat M23C6/γ coherent interface lies on the low indexed crystal planes {111}. Moreover, in M23C6/γ coherent interface, there are embossments which stretch into the coherent austenite grain γ. Dislocations distribute in the embossments and coherent interface frontier. According to the experimental observation, the paper suggests that the embossments can promote the M23C6/γ coherent interface move. Besides, the present work has analyzed chemical composition of experimental material and the crystal structures of austenite and M23C6, which indicates that the transformation can be completed through a little diffusion for C atoms and a simple variant for austenite unit cell.

  16. The Observation of the Structure of M23C6/ γ Coherent Interface in the 100Mn13 High Carbon High Manganese Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenfeng; Ding, Zhimin; Liang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The M23C6 carbides precipitate along the austenite grain boundary in the 100Mn13 high carbon high manganese steel after 1323 K (1050 °C) solution treatment and subsequent 748 K (475 °C) aging treatment. The grain boundary M23C6 carbides not only spread along the grain boundary and into the incoherent austenite grain, but also grow slowly into the coherent austenite grain. On the basis of the research with optical microscope, a further investigation for the M23C6/ γ coherent interface was carried out by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that the grain boundary M23C6 carbides have orientation relationships with only one of the adjacent austenite grains in the same planes: (\\bar{1}1\\bar{1})_{{{M}_{ 2 3} {C}_{ 6} }} //(\\bar{1}1\\bar{1})_{γ } , (\\bar{1}11)_{{{M}_{ 2 3} {C}_{ 6} }} //(\\bar{1}11)_{γ } ,[ 1 10]_{{{M}_{ 2 3} {C}_{ 6} }} //[ 1 10]_{γ } . The flat M23C6/ γ coherent interface lies on the low indexed crystal planes {111}. Moreover, in M23C6/ γ coherent interface, there are embossments which stretch into the coherent austenite grain γ. Dislocations distribute in the embossments and coherent interface frontier. According to the experimental observation, the paper suggests that the embossments can promote the M23C6/ γ coherent interface move. Besides, the present work has analyzed chemical composition of experimental material and the crystal structures of austenite and M23C6, which indicates that the transformation can be completed through a little diffusion for C atoms and a simple variant for austenite unit cell.

  17. Direct observation of reactant-product interfaces formed in natural weathering of exsolved, defective amphibole to smectite: Evidence for episodic, isovolumetric reactions involving structural inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Jillian F.; Barker, William W.

    1994-03-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) were employed to characterize grain boundary structures in naturally weathered amphibole. Our observations provide insights into the submicroscopic mineralogic controls on transport of solutions to and from reaction sites. Finely exsolved amphibole (anthophyllite/gedrite) in outcropping, slightly weathered gedrite gneiss transforms isovolumetrically to smectite. Stacking faults and exsolution lamellar boundaries focus weathering reactions, whereas chain width defects decrease the susceptibility of the surrounding amphibole to alteration. Relatively Al-poor anthophyllite lamellae alter slightly more readily than those of Al-rich gedrite. Large quantites of Mg, Fe, Si, and Al are removed from reaction sites. However, smectite compositions directly reflect limited redistribution of elements incorporated into clay products. Topotactic relationships between products and reactants and interface structures suggest that smectite formation requires only partial depolymerization of amphibole structural units. Up to one-third of the amphibole I-beams may be directly inherited by smectite. Grain boundary structures within smectite mimic current amphibole-smectite interfaces and may represent previous reaction fronts. Such interfaces may be the result of episodic reaction, possibly attributable to the balance between rates of consumption of water by reactions and resupply by dewatering of larger fractures (which are themselves episodically supplied by rainfall). In this coherent, slightly weathered rock, transport of solution to and from reaction sites is restricted to diffusion along semi-coherent, subnanometer-wide grain boundaries and smectite interlayers. This contrasts with weathering grains within a soil, more deeply weathered rock, or laboratory mineral dissolution experiments, where a much larger volume of solution is in contact with weathering surfaces. We suggest

  18. Motor-related brain activity during action observation: a neural substrate for electrocorticographic brain-computer interfaces after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Collinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After spinal cord injury (SCI, motor commands from the brain are unable to reach peripheral nerves and muscles below the level of the lesion. Action observation, in which a person observes someone else performing an action, has been used to augment traditional rehabilitation paradigms. Similarly, action observation can be used to derive the relationship between brain activity and movement kinematics for a motor-based brain-computer interface (BCI even when the user cannot generate overt movements. BCIs use brain signals to control external devices to replace functions that have been lost due to SCI or other motor impairment. Previous studies have reported congruent motor cortical activity during observed and overt movements using magnetoencephalography (MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Recent single-unit studies using intracortical microelectrodes also demonstrated that a large number of motor cortical neurons had similar firing rate patterns between overt and observed movements. Given the increasing interest in electrocorticography (ECoG-based BCIs, our goal was to identify whether action observation-related cortical activity could be recorded using ECoG during grasping tasks. Specifically, we aimed to identify congruent neural activity during observed and executed movements in both the sensorimotor rhythm (10-40 Hz and the high-gamma band (65-115 Hz which contains significant movement-related information. We observed significant motor-related high-gamma band activity during action observation in both able-bodied individuals and one participant with a complete C4 SCI. Furthermore, in able-bodied participants, both the low and high frequency bands demonstrated congruent activity between action execution and observation. Our results suggest that action observation could be an effective and critical procedure for deriving the mapping from ECoG signals to intended movement for an ECoG-based BCI system for individuals with

  19. Investigation on the Synergistic Complexation of Ni(II with 1,10-Phenanthroline and Dithizone at Hexane-Water Interface Using Centrifugal Liquid Membrane-Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoki Yulizar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex formation of Ni(II and 1,10-phenanthroline (C12H8N2/Phen with the addition of dithizone (C13H12N4S/HDz at the hexane-water interface has been studied by direct measurement spectrophotometry using the centrifugal liquid membrane (CLM method. Ni(II ion with Phen formed a cationic complex of Ni(C12H8N222+ or NiPhen22+. That complex dissolved in the aqueous phase and had two UV absorption spectrum maxima wavelengths, max 270 and 292 nm. Observation of complex formation was performed variations of pH and ligand concentration. The pH caused protonation that affected the amount of the formed complex. With the variations of ligand concentrations, the greater was the concentration of ligands the greater was the formed complex. Based on the Batch method, the HDz ligand addition into the NiPhen22+ cationic complex produced ion association complex of Ni(C13H11N4S2(C12H8N2 or NiDz2Phen at max 403 nm, and is extracted in the organic phase. Measurement results using CLM method showed that NiDz2Phen complex was formed at hexane-water interface with max 523 nm. Comparison of Phen with HDz ligand concentrations affected the initial formation rate of NiDz2Phen complex. The greater concentration of Phen ligand increased the initial rate of formation for synergistic complex. The obtained data using CLM method indicated that the synergistic complex formation rate constant of NiDz2Phen at the interface, k was 0.30 s-1.

  20. Development of in-situ observation system of dynamic contact interface between dies and materials during microforming operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Tetsuhide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of diamond like carbon (DLC films are reported in several microforming processes, in view of its great tribological performance owe to the low friction and the high chemical stability. However, due to its high internal residual stress, the film properties with the low adhesion strength and the high wear rate under severe tribological conditions are still remain as technical issues. However, since the dynamic variation of the contact state cannot be observed during the forming operation, it is difficult to recognize the origin and the influential tribological factors of tool life for DLC coated microforming die. Therefore, the appropriate DLC film properties for the contact state in microforming operation have not been clarified. To observe the dynamic variation of the contact state during the microforming operation, present study developed a novel microforming die assembly installed the in-situ observation system with silica glass die and high speed recording camera. By using this system, the dynamic delamination behaviour of DLC films during the progressive micro-bending process was successfully demonstrated. The influential factors for the durability of DLC coated microdies were discussed.

  1. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  2. A REVIEW OF HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN ISSUES OBSERVED DURING ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL AND DIGITAL-TO-DIGITAL MIGRATIONS IN U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.

    2017-05-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is developing a scientific basis through targeted research and development (R&D) to support the U.S. nuclear power plant (NPP) fleet in extending their existing licensing period and ensuring their long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. Over the last several years, human factors engineering (HFE) professionals at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have supported the LWRS Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway across several U.S. commercial NPPs in analog-to-digital migrations (i.e., turbine control systems) and digital-to-digital migrations (i.e., Safety Parameter Display System). These efforts have included in-depth human factors evaluation of proposed human-system interface (HSI) design concepts against established U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) design guidelines from NUREG-0700, Rev 2 to inform subsequent HSI design prior to transitioning into Verification and Validation. This paper discusses some of the overarching design issues observed from these past HFE evaluations. In addition, this work presents some observed challenges such as common tradeoffs utilities are likely to face when introducing new HSI technologies into NPP hybrid control rooms. The primary purpose of this work is to distill these observed design issues into general HSI design guidance that industry can use in early stages of HSI design.

  3. Soft Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalkowski, Ireneusz

    1997-01-01

    This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)

  4. Response of Land-Sea Interface in Xiamen Bay to Extreme Weather Events Observed with the Ecological Dynamic Buoy Array, a Multifunctional Sensors System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Hong, H.; Pan, W.; Zhang, C.

    2016-12-01

    Recent climate observations suggest that global climate change may result in an increase of extreme weather events (such as tropical cyclones, intense precipitation i.e. heavy rains) in frequency and/or intensity in certain world regions. Subtropical coastal regions are often densely populated areas experiencing rapid development and widespread changes to the aquatic environment. The biogeochemical and ecological responses of coastal systems to extreme weather events are of increasing concern. Enhanced river nutrients input following rain storms has been linked to the ecological responses at land-sea interface. These land-sea interactions can be studied using multifunctional sensors systems. In our study, the Ecological Dynamic Buoy Array, a monitoring system with multiple sensors, was deployed in Xiamen Bay for near real time measurements of different parameters. The Ecological Dynamic Buoy Array is a deep water net cage which functions in long-term synchronous observation of dynamic ecological characteristics with the support of an aerograph, water-watch, LOBO (Land/Ocean Biogeochemical Observatory), ADCP, CTD chain system, YSI vertical profiler, flow cytometer, sea surface camera, and "communication box". The study showed that rain storms during multiple typhoons resulted in greater fluctuations of salinity, N concentration, and other water environmental conditions, which might have been connected with algal blooms (so-called red tide) in Xiamen Bay.

  5. Análisis mecánico y tribológico de los recubrimientos fe-cr-ni-c y ni-al-mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE E. MUÑOZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo de investigación se evaluaron dos recubrimientos aplicados por medio de la técnica de rociado térmico por combustión, la aleación: Ni=89%, Al = 5,5%, Mo=5,5% y la aleación Fe=81,8%, Cr=16%, Ni=2%, C=0,2. La preparación superficial de las probetas se realizó usando chorro de arena. Se realizaron pruebas de resistencia al cortante, adherencia, desgaste abrasivo, desgaste por deslizamiento y flexión en cuatro puntos. El recubrimiento Fe-Cr-Ni-C presentó menor pérdida de masa, tanto para desgaste abrasivo como para el desgaste por deslizamiento. La multicapa presentó una mayor porosidad en el recubrimiento Ni-Al- Mo usado como capa base y la capa exterior de Fe-Cr-Ni-C presentó mayor cantidad de partículas no fundidas y óxidos. La falla ocurrida en el ensayo de adherencia para las probetas con recubrimiento multicapa fue de característica adhesiva y cohesiva. El esfuerzo en el que se presenta la fisura por flexión en el recubrimiento multicapa disminuyó con el aumento del espesor

  6. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  7. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  8. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  9. Numerical Modeling and In-Situ Observations of the Dynamics of the Solid/Liquid Interface Morphology During Directional Solidification of Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, Peter A.; Kaukler, W. F.

    1999-01-01

    The departure from interface planarity and the subsequent evolution to a periodic array of cells or dendrites is a fundamental process that characterizes most microstructures in solidified alloys. The growing demand for high quality alloys and semiconductor crystals requires a precise methodology to predict and subsequently control both the interface morphology and the distribution of impurities, additives, and phases in the grown crystal. Apart from its practical significance, the study of morphological evolution has also been viewed as a means to unearth a general paradigm for pattern formation in nature. A previously developed 2D numerical model for the solid/liquid interface tracking has been further refined and used to simulate the time-evolution of the perturbations on the interface. The dynamics of the local growth velocity, interface undercooling and solute concentration at the interface has been theoretically predicted by means of the numerical model for Al-Cu and Pb-Sn alloys. The model shows that perturbations with a wavelengths, lambda greater than a critical wavelength lambda(sub c) continue to grow in time whereas perturbations with lambda < lambda(sub c) cease to propagate. The model further predicts that under certain conditions perturbation can also propagate along the interface. Comparison of these predictions with existing theories of pattern formation and experimental results will be discussed.

  10. The NOD3 software package: A graphical user interface-supported reduction package for single-dish radio continuum and polarisation observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Peter; Krause, Marita; Beck, Rainer; Schmidt, Philip

    2017-10-01

    Context. The venerable NOD2 data reduction software package for single-dish radio continuum observations, which was developed for use at the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope, has been successfully applied over many decades. Modern computing facilities, however, call for a new design. Aims: We aim to develop an interactive software tool with a graphical user interface for the reduction of single-dish radio continuum maps. We make a special effort to reduce the distortions along the scanning direction (scanning effects) by combining maps scanned in orthogonal directions or dual- or multiple-horn observations that need to be processed in a restoration procedure. The package should also process polarisation data and offer the possibility to include special tasks written by the individual user. Methods: Based on the ideas of the NOD2 package we developed NOD3, which includes all necessary tasks from the raw maps to the final maps in total intensity and linear polarisation. Furthermore, plot routines and several methods for map analysis are available. The NOD3 package is written in Python, which allows the extension of the package via additional tasks. The required data format for the input maps is FITS. Results: The NOD3 package is a sophisticated tool to process and analyse maps from single-dish observations that are affected by scanning effects from clouds, receiver instabilities, or radio-frequency interference. The "basket-weaving" tool combines orthogonally scanned maps into a final map that is almost free of scanning effects. The new restoration tool for dual-beam observations reduces the noise by a factor of about two compared to the NOD2 version. Combining single-dish with interferometer data in the map plane ensures the full recovery of the total flux density. Conclusions: This software package is available under the open source license GPL for free use at other single-dish radio telescopes of the astronomical community. The NOD3 package is designed to be

  11. Fixed point Open Ocean Observatory network (FixO3): Multidisciplinary observations from the air-sea interface to the deep seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampitt, Richard; Cristini, Luisa

    2014-05-01

    The Fixed point Open Ocean Observatory network (FixO3) seeks to integrate the 23 European open ocean fixed point observatories and to improve access to these key installations for the broader community. These will provide multidisciplinary observations in all parts of the oceans from the air-sea interface to the deep seafloor. Coordinated by the National Oceanography Centre, UK, FixO3 builds on the significant advances achieved through the previous Europe-funded FP7 programmes EuroSITES, ESONET and CARBOOCEAN. Started in September 2013 with a budget of 7 Million Euros over 4 years the project has 29 partners drawn from academia, research institutions and SME's. In addition 12 international experts from a wide range of disciplines comprise an Advisory Board. On behalf of the FixO3 Consortium, we present the programme that will be achieved through the activities of 12 Work Packages: 1. Coordination activities to integrate and harmonise the current procedures and processes. Strong links will be fostered with the wider community across academia, industry, policy and the general public through outreach, knowledge exchange and training. 2. Support actions to offer a) free access to observatory infrastructures to those who do not have such access, and b) free and open data services and products. 3. Joint research activities to innovate and enhance the current capability for multidisciplinary in situ ocean observation. Support actions include Transnational Access (TNA) to FixO3 infrastructure, meaning that European organizations can apply to free-of-charge access to the observatories for research and testing in two international calls during the project lifetime. The first call for TNA opens in summer 2014. More information can be found on FixO3 website (www.fixo3.eu/). Open ocean observation is currently a high priority for European marine and maritime activities. FixO3 will provide important data on environmental products and services to address the Marine Strategy

  12. Changes in Electroencephalography Complexity using a Brain Computer Interface-Motor Observation Training in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Fuzzy Approximate Entropy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Entropy-based algorithms have been suggested as robust estimators of electroencephalography (EEG predictability or regularity. This study aimed to examine possible disturbances in EEG complexity as a means to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic stroke, before and after a brain computer interface (BCI-motor observation intervention. Eleven chronic stroke subjects and nine unimpaired subjects were recruited to examine the differences in their EEG complexity. The BCI-motor observation intervention was designed to promote functional recovery of the hand in stroke subjects. Fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn, a novel entropy-based algorithm designed to evaluate complexity in physiological systems, was applied to assess the EEG signals acquired from unimpaired subjects and stroke subjects, both before and after training. The results showed that stroke subjects had significantly lower EEG fApEn than unimpaired subjects (p < 0.05 in the motor cortex area of the brain (C3, C4, FC3, FC4, CP3, and CP4 in both hemispheres before training. After training, motor function of the paretic upper limb, assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Limb (FMA-UL, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT improved significantly (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the EEG fApEn in stroke subjects increased considerably in the central area of the contralesional hemisphere after training (p < 0.05. A significant correlation was noted between clinical scales (FMA-UL, ARAT, and WMFT and EEG fApEn in C3/C4 in the contralesional hemisphere (p < 0.05. This finding suggests that the increase in EEG fApEn could be an estimator of the variance in upper limb motor function improvement. In summary, fApEn can be used to identify abnormal EEG complexity in chronic stroke, when used with BCI-motor observation training. Moreover, these findings based on the fApEn of EEG signals also expand the existing interpretation of training-induced functional

  13. Organic interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, W.A.; Tempelman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the consequences for product designers resulting from the replacement of traditional interfaces by responsive materials. Part 1 presents a theoretical framework regarding a new paradigm for man-machine interfacing. Part 2 provides an analysis of the opportunities offered by new

  14. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  15. Moessbauer analysis and magnetic properties of Invar Fe-Ni-C and Fe-Ni-Mn-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadutov, V. M.; Svystunov, Ye. O.; Kosintsev, S. G.; Tatarenko, V. A.

    2006-01-01

    The saturation magnetization and the hyperfine magnetic field of different f.c.c. Fe-Ni based alloys containing nearby 29 at .% Ni were studied as a function of temperature and for different Carbon and Manganese contents. We have observed abnormal behaviors that are explained in terms of mixed exchange interactions between atomic spins: J NiNi (r i ) FeFe (r i ) > 0, J NiFe (r i ) < 0.

  16. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  17. Effect of ageing temperature after tensile pre deformation on shape memory effect and precipitation process of Cr23C6 carbide in a FeMnSiCrNiC alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.Z.; Li, N.; Wen, Y.H.; Peng, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Precipitation process of Cr 23 C 6 particles depends on diffusion capacity of Cr atom. → Directional segregation of carbon atom can act as aligned Cr 23 C 6 in improving SME. → Ageing temperature and ageing time greatly affect precipitation process of Cr 23 C 6 . → NbC carbides in a FeMnSiCrNiNbC alloy are prone to dispersively precipitate. - Abstract: Researches showed that the shape memory effect (SME) of FeMnSiCrNiC alloys can be remarkably improved through aligned Cr 23 C 6 particles or carbon atom segregation inside grains. To further study on influencing factors in improving SME and aligned precipitation process of Cr 23 C 6 carbide in a FeMnSiCrNiC alloy, effect of ageing temperature after tensile pre deformation on shape memory effect and precipitation process of Cr 23 C 6 carbide in a FeMnSiCrNiC alloy was studied. The results showed that aligned precipitation of Cr 23 C 6 carbide in a FeMnSiCrNiC alloy mainly depends on diffusion capacity and directional segregation of carbon and chromium atoms, namely on ageing temperature, ageing time and the amount of tensile pre deformation.

  18. Interface Anywhere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current paradigms for crew interfaces to the systems that require control are constrained by decades old technologies which require the crew to be physically near an...

  19. Manufacturing Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering.

  20. A new observational approach to investigate the heliospheric interstellar wind interface - The study of extreme and far ultraviolet resonantly scattered solar radiation from neon, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Stuart; Fahr, Hans J.

    1990-01-01

    One of the outstanding uncertainties in the understanding of the heliosphere concerns the character of the interaction between the outflowing solar wind and the interstellar medium. A new possibility for obtaining information on this topic is suggested. The cosmically abundant elements neon, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen will be affected differently at their interface passage depending upon the character of this region. Consequently, the distribution of these atoms and their ions will vary within the inner heliosphere. The study of resonantly scattered solar radiation from these species will then provide information on the nature of the interface. A preliminary evaluation of this approach has been carried out, and the results are encouraging. The relevant lines to be studied are in the extreme and far ulraviolet. The existing data in these bands are reviewed; unfortunately, past instrumentation has had insufficient resolution and sensitivity to provide useful information. The capabilities of future approved missions with capabilities in this area are evaluated.

  1. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  2. Interface Realisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    to the development of illusionistic realism within computer graphics and games. The article compares the pragmatic realism of HCI with aesthetic notions of realism in the computer game Max Payne (illusionistic realism), the artist Jodi's game modifications (media realism), and Adrian Ward's software art work......This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly...

  3. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  4. SOFC interface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse; West, Keld

    come from channels formed along the interface, i.e. an elongation of the triple phase boundary. Based on the assumption of a formation of interfacial reaction zones (i.e. pores) which are only stable in the presence of a local current, a model describing the hysteresis observed is developed. Fig...

  5. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop......"Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...

  6. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes...

  7. [Scanning electron microscopy observation of the growth of osteoblasts on Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn modified by micro-arc oxidation and alkali-heat treatment and implant-bone interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Liu, Hong-Chen; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Li, Shu-Jun; Yang, Rui

    2011-01-01

    To observe the efficacy of micro-arc oxidation and alkali-heat treatment (MAH) on Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448). Disks (diameter of 14.5 mm, thickness of 1 mm) and cylinders (diameter of 3 mm, height of 10 mm) were fabricated from Ti2448 alloy. Samples were divided into three groups: polished (Ti2448), micro-arc oxidation(MAO-Ti2448), micro-arc oxidation and alkali-heat treatment (MAH-Ti2448). MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells were cultured on the disks and cell morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) aftre 3 days. The cylinder samples were implanted in the tibia of dogs and implant-bone interface was observed with SEM after 3 months. A rough and porous structure was shown in both MAO and MAH group. The MC3T3-E1 cells on the MAH-Ti2448 discs spread fully in intimate contact with the underlying coarse surface through active cytoskeletal extentions. Osseointegration was formed in the implant-bone interface in MAH samples. MAH treatment can provide a more advantageous Ti2448 surface to osteoblastic cells than MAO treatment does, and the former can improve the implant-bone integration.

  8. Interface Screenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2015-01-01

    In Wim Wenders' film Until the End of the World (1991), three different diagrams for the visual integration of bodies are presented: 1) GPS tracking and mapping in a landscape, 2) video recordings layered with the memory perception of these recordings, and 3) data-created images from dreams...... and memories. From a transvisual perspective, the question is whether or not these (by now realized) diagrammatic modes involving the body in ubiquitous global media can be analysed in terms of the affects and events created in concrete interfaces. The examples used are filmic as felt sensations...

  9. Observer variation factor on advanced method for accurate, robust, and efficient spectral fitting of java based magnetic resonance user interface for MRS data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Suk Jun [Dept. of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Man [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Gimcheon University, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was examined the measurement error factor on AMARES of jMRUI method for magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) quantitative analysis by skilled and unskilled observer method and identified the reason of independent observers. The Point-resolved spectroscopy sequence was used to acquired magnetic resonance spectroscopy data of 10 weeks male Sprague-Dawley rat liver. The methylene protons ((-CH2-)n) of 1.3 ppm and water proton (H2O) of 4.7 ppm ratio was calculated by LCModel software for using the reference data. The seven unskilled observers were calculated total lipid (methylene/water) using the jMRUI AMARES technique twice every 1 week, and we conducted interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistical analysis by SPSS software. The inter-observer reliability (ICC) of Cronbach's alpha value was less than 0.1. The average value of seven observer's total lipid (0.096±0.038) was 50% higher than LCModel reference value. The jMRUI AMARES analysis method is need to minimize the presence of the residual metabolite by identified metabolite MRS profile in order to obtain the same results as the LCModel.

  10. Magnetic nanofilms of nickel prepared at the liquid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, Neenu; Rao, C.N.R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Formation of nickel thinfims at the organic-aqueous interface at room temperature. → Thickness of nanofilm is ∼20 nm. → Ni nanofilms exhibit superparamagnetic behavior. → Thicker Ni films are obtained at a higher temperature (60 o C). -- Abstract: Thin films of metallic nickel with a thickness of the order of 20 nm have been prepared at the organic-aqueous interface at room temperature by the reaction of nickel cupferronate [Ni(C 6 H 5 N 2 O 2 ) 2 ] in toluene medium and sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) in aqueous medium. The films were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Thicker Ni films could be prepared by carrying out the reaction at the interface at 60 o C. The Ni nanofilms exhibit superparamagnetic behavior.

  11. Novel transport phenomena at complex oxide interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, H.

    2013-01-01

    Novel electronic and magnetic phases are being observed at interfaces between insulating, non-magnetic oxide compounds, with the most notable example being the interface between SrTiO3 and LaAlO3. The basic properties of these interfaces will be discussed, as well as prospects for applications and

  12. Using Remote Sensing and Field Observations of Colored Dissolved Organic Material (CDOM) to Improve Understanding of Carbon Dynamics at the Land-Ocean Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, L.; Tzortziou, M.; Gilerson, A.; Foster, R.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) and its colored component, (CDOM) are sensitive indicators of environmental pollution, nutrient enrichment, water quality and plays a key role in a broad range of processes and climate-related biogeochemical cycles in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Because of its strong influence on how ocean color is viewed, CDOM can provide an invaluable optical tool for coastal zone environmental assessment and from space. There is a continuous cycle of sources and sinks of CDOM from terrestrial sources to the wetlands to the estuaries and to the ocean waters. Terrestrial inputs from natural processes, anthropogenic activities, exchanges with the atmosphere, rich biodiversity and high primary productivity, physical, photochemical and microbial processes affect not only the amount but also the quality and optical signature of CDOM in near-shore waters. In this study, new measurements are presented of the optical characteristics of CDOM collected from the Chesapeake Bay estuarine environment. Measured parameters include absorption spectra, estimated spectral slopes, slope ratios, DOC-specific CDOM absorption as well as 3D CDOM fluorescence emission-excitation matrices. Such results will provide insight of the measured CDOM in this complex environment and the complex process that affect CDOM quality and amount during transport to the estuary and coastal ocean. New field campaigns will be conducted in August and September in the Chesapeake Bay estuary and the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to collect more samples for analysis of CDOM dynamics and link field observations and measurements to satellite ocean color retrievals of estuarine biogeochemical processes. In addition, advanced satellite CDOM data distribution and usage is discussed as it has considerable operational value and practical application beyond the scientific community and research. Keywords: CDOM, carbon dynamics, estuaries, coastal ecosystems, optical properties, satellite applications

  13. Competitive adsorption of strontium and fulvic acid at the muscovite-solution interface observed with resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Park, Changyong; Fenter, Paul; Sturchio, Neil C.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2010-03-01

    Molecular-scale distributions of Sr 2+ and fulvic acid (FA) adsorbed on the muscovite (0 0 1) surface were investigated using in situ specular X-ray reflectivity (XR) and resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity (RAXR). The total amount of Sr 2+ adsorbed from a 1 × 10 -2 mol/kg SrCl 2 and 100 mg/kg Elliott Soil Fulvic Acid II (ESFA II) solution at pH 5.5 compensated 81 ± 5% of the muscovite surface charge, less than previously measured (118 ± 5%) in an ESFA II-free solution with the same Sr concentration and pH. Inner-sphere (IS) and outer-sphere (OS) Sr 2+ constituted 87% of the total adsorbed species in IS:OS proportions of 19:81 compared to 42:58 in the solution without FA, suggesting that adsorbed FA competes with the IS Sr 2+ for surface sites. The coverage of both IS and OS Sr 2+ decreased even more in a pH 3.5 solution containing the same concentration of FA and 0.5 × 10 -2 mol/kg Sr(NO 3) 2, whereas a significant amount of Sr 2+ accumulated farther from the surface in the FA layer. The amount of Sr 2+ incorporated in the ˜10 Å thick FA layer decreased by 79% with decreasing FA concentration (100 → 1 mg/kg) and increasing Sr 2+ concentration (0.5 × 10 -2 → 1 × 10 -2 mol/kg) and pH (3.5 → 3.6). These results indicate not only that adsorbed FA molecules (and perhaps also H 3O +) displace Sr 2+ near the muscovite surface, but also that the sorbed FA film provides binding sites for additional Sr 2+ away from the surface. When a muscovite crystal pre-coated with FA after reaction in a 100 mg/kg ESFA II solution for 50 h was subsequently reacted with a 0.5 × 10 -2 mol/kg Sr(NO 3) 2 and 100 mg/kg ESFA II solution at pH 3.7, a significant fraction of Sr 2+ was distributed in the outer part of the FA film similar to that observed on fresh muscovite reacted at pH 3.5 with a pre-mixed Sr-FA solution at the same concentrations. However, this Sr 2+ sorbed in the pre-adsorbed organic film was more widely distributed and had a lower coverage, suggesting that

  14. Interface-Based Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Alfaro, Luca; Henzinger, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    .... Interface automata support incremental design and independent implementability. Incremental design means that the compatibility checking of interfaces can proceed for partial system descriptions, without knowing the interfaces of all components...

  15. The chain structure of [Ni(C4H2O4(C12H8N2(H2O]n with different types of fumarate bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Uhrinová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using modified solvothermal conditions (longer cooling time, beside previously characterized dark-green crystals of [Ni(C4H2O4(C12H8N2] (main product, a few light-green crystals of the polymeric title compound, catena-poly[[aqua(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′nickel(II]-μ-fumarato-κ2O:O′-[aqua(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′nickel(II]-μ-fumarato-κ4O,O′:O′′,O′′′], [Ni(C4H2O4(C12H8N2(H2O]n were isolated. Its crystal structure is made up from zigzag chains, propagating in [001], in which the Ni2+ ions are linked alternatively by μ2-fumarato and bis-chelating fumarato bridging ligands. The Ni2+ ion is coordinated in a deformed octahedral geometry by one chelating 1,10-phenanthroline ligand, one aqua ligand in a cis position with regard to both N-donor atoms and by two different fumarato ligands, each residing with its central C=C bond on an inversion centre, occupying the remaining coordination sites in a fac fashion. The chains thus formed are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions between the aromatic rings of the phenanthroline ligands with a shortest ring centroid separation of 3.4787 (10 Å.

  16. AFSC/FMA/Current Observer Data Interface

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishery regulators and industry require near real time fishery statistics formatted appropriately for their software to record and process. This project is the...

  17. Superconductivity at disordered interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The increase of the superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c) due to the tunneling of conduction electrons into negative-u centers at a disordered metal-semiconductor interface is calculated. The strong dependence of the experimental increase of Tsub(c) on the Fermi energy of the metal is accounted for by the polaronic reduction of the tunneling matrix elements. The latter reduction is dynamically suppressed by the decreasing lifetime of the localized state as Esub(F) increases. The theoretical enhancement is sufficiently strong to explain the increase of Tsub(c) observed in eutectic alloys. (author)

  18. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  19. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2015-01-01

    Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortc......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...... shape-changing interfaces be used for, (b) which parts of the design space are not well understood, and (c) why studying user experience with shape-changing interfaces is important....

  20. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  1. Garbage collector interface

    OpenAIRE

    Ive, Anders; Blomdell, Anders; Ekman, Torbjörn; Henriksson, Roger; Nilsson, Anders; Nilsson, Klas; Robertz, Sven

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the presented garbage collector interface is to provide a universal interface for many different implementations of garbage collectors. This is to simplify the integration and exchange of garbage collectors, but also to support incremental, non-conservative, and thread safe implementations. Due to the complexity of the interface, it is aimed at code generators and preprocessors. Experiences from ongoing implementations indicate that the garbage collector interface successfully ...

  2. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  3. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...

  4. Kinetics of protein unfolding at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yohko F

    2012-01-01

    The conformation of protein molecules is determined by a balance of various forces, including van der Waals attraction, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, and conformational entropy. When protein molecules encounter an interface, they are often adsorbed on the interface. The conformation of an adsorbed protein molecule strongly depends on the interaction between the protein and the interface. Recent time-resolved investigations have revealed that protein conformation changes during the adsorption process due to the protein-protein interaction increasing with increasing interface coverage. External conditions also affect the protein conformation. This review considers recent dynamic observations of protein adsorption at various interfaces and their implications for the kinetics of protein unfolding at interfaces. (topical review)

  5. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  6. Beyond DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course in tuberculosis' control: interfacing and sharing needs Más allá del DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course en el control de la tuberculosis: medio que promueve la comunicación y la identificación de las necesidades Além da DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course no controle da tuberculose: interface e compartilhamento de necessidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Idaly Muñoz Sanchez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes meanings that health workers attribute to DOTS and points out alternatives that contribute to its performance. After the Research Ethics Committee approved the project, a semi-structured interview was applied to 15 health workers from the central region of the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil between August and December 2004. This study used hermeneutic-dialectic reference and the theory of social determinants of the health-disease process. DOTS contributes to treatment adherence and promotes interfacing in encounters and conversations between workers and users at the institutional and territorial levels, which permits identifying health needs and implementing appropriate interventions. One of the main challenges to its implementation is to become a space that enables grasping, decoding and reconstructing meanings in relation to the health-disease process including the treatment and life projects of patients with tuberculosis.El presente estudio buscó analizar los significados que los trabajadores de la salud presentan sobre la estrategia en el control de la tuberculosis, y apuntar alternativas que contribuyan para su desempeño. Después de la aprobación del proyecto por el Comité de Ética en Investigación, fueron entrevistados 15 trabajadores de la salud del Submunicipio de la Sé, de la Secretaría de Salud del Municipio de Sao Paulo, de agosto a diciembre de 2004, por medio de un guión semiestructurado. El estudio fue conducido bajo el marco de la hermenéutica dialéctica y la teoría de la determinación social del proceso salud enfermedad. La DOTS contribuye para la adhesión al tratamiento, promueve la comunicación de encuentros y conversa entre trabajadores y usuarios, en el ámbito institucional y territorial, lo que posibilita la identificación de las necesidades de salud y el encaminamiento para intervenciones apropiadas. Uno de los desafíos de su implementación es concretizarse como espacio que permita

  7. Microconical interface fitting and interface grasping tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L. (Inventor); Wightman, William D. (Inventor); Johnston, Alistair P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A small and light weight microconical interface fitting may be attached to the surface of a space vehicle or equipment to provide an attachment device for an astronaut or robot to capture the space vehicle or equipment. The microconical interface fitting of the present invention has an axisymmetrical conical body having a base portion with a torque reaction surface for preventing rotation of the interface grasping tool; a cavitated, sunken or hollowed out intermediate locking portion which has a cavity shaped for receiving the latches of the grasping tool and an upper guiding portion for guiding the grasping tool into axial alignment with the microconical interface fitting. The capture is accomplished with an interface grasping tool. The grasping tool comprises an outer sleeve with a handle attached, an inner sleeve which may be raised and lowered within the outer sleeve with a plurality of latches supported at the lower end and a cam to raise and lower the inner sleeve. When the inner sleeve is at its lowest position, the latches form the largest diameter opening for surrounding the microconical fitting and the latches form the smallest diameter or a locking, grasping position when raised to the highest position within the outer sleeve. The inner sleeve may be at an intermediate, capture position which permits the latches to be biased outwardly when contacting the microconical fitting under very low forces to grasp the fitting and permits capture (soft docking) without exact alignment of the fitting and the tool.

  8. Universal computer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dheere, RFBM

    1988-01-01

    Presents a survey of the latest developments in the field of the universal computer interface, resulting from a study of the world patent literature. Illustrating the state of the art today, the book ranges from basic interface structure, through parameters and common characteristics, to the most important industrial bus realizations. Recent technical enhancements are also included, with special emphasis devoted to the universal interface adapter circuit. Comprehensively indexed.

  9. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory and Complete Active Space Second Order Perturbation Theory. Bond Dissociation Energies of FeC, NiC, FeS, NiS, FeSe, and NiSe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkas, Kamal; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G

    2017-12-07

    We investigate the performance of multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT) and complete active space second-order perturbation theory for computing the bond dissociation energies of the diatomic molecules FeC, NiC, FeS, NiS, FeSe, and NiSe, for which accurate experimental data have become recently available [Matthew, D. J.; Tieu, E.; Morse, M. D. J. Chem. Phys. 2017, 146, 144310-144320]. We use three correlated participating orbital (CPO) schemes (nominal, moderate, and extended) to define the active spaces, and we consider both the complete active space (CAS) and the separated-pair (SP) schemes to specify the configurations included for a given active space. We found that the moderate SP-PDFT scheme with the tPBE on-top density functional has the smallest mean unsigned error (MUE) of the methods considered. This level of theory provides a balanced treatment of the static and dynamic correlation energies for the studied systems. This is encouraging because the method is low in cost even for much more complicated systems.

  10. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  11. Human-computer interface design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowser, S.E.

    1995-04-01

    Modern military forces assume that computer-based information is reliable, timely, available, usable, and shared. The importance of computer-based information is based on the assumption that {open_quotes}shared situation awareness, coupled with the ability to conduct continuous operations, will allow information age armies to observe, decide, and act faster, more correctly and more precisely than their enemies.{close_quotes} (Sullivan and Dubik 1994). Human-Computer Interface (HCI) design standardization is critical to the realization of the previously stated assumptions. Given that a key factor of a high-performance, high-reliability system is an easy-to-use, effective design of the interface between the hardware, software, and the user, it follows logically that the interface between the computer and the military user is critical to the success of the information-age military. The proliferation of computer technology has resulted in the development of an extensive variety of computer-based systems and the implementation of varying HCI styles on these systems. To accommodate the continued growth in computer-based systems, minimize HCI diversity, and improve system performance and reliability, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is continuing to adopt interface standards for developing computer-based systems.

  12. Icinga Monitoring System Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Neculae, Alina Georgiana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a web interface that would be used by the Icinga monitoring system to manage the CMS online cluster, in the experimental site. The interface would allow users to visualize the information in a compressed and intuitive way, as well as modify the information of each individual object and edit the relationships between classes.

  13. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  14. Interface, a dispersed architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Past and current specification techniques use timing diagrams and written text to describe the phenomenology of an interface. This paper treats an interface as the architecture of a number of processes, which are dispersed over the related system parts and the message path. This approach yields a

  15. Verden som interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07......Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07...

  16. Interface or Interlace?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Wamberg, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Departing from an analysis of the computer's indeterminate location between medium and machine, this paper problematises the idea of a clear-cut interface in complex computing, especially Augmented Reality. The idea and pratice of the interface is derived from the medium as a representational...

  17. Interfaces in evolutionary games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotev, Sergei; Malyutin, Aleksandr; Burovski, Evgeni; Shchur, Lev

    2018-01-01

    We investigate geometrical aspects of a spatial evolutionary game. The game is based on the Prisoner’s dilemma. We analyze the geometrical structure of the space distribution of cooperators and defectors in the steady-state regime of evolution. We develop algorithm for the identification of the interfaces between clusters of cooperators and defectors, and measure fractal properties of the interfaces.

  18. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  19. Structure and properties of interfaces in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnell, D.; Ruehle, M.; Chowdhry, U.

    1995-01-01

    The motivation for the symposium was the observation that interfaces in crystallographically and compositionally complex systems often dictate the performance and reliability of devices that utilize functional ceramics. The current level of understanding of interface-property relations in silicon-based devices required over 30 years of intensive research. Similar issues influence the relationship between atomic bonding at interfaces and properties in functional ceramic systems. The current understanding of these complex interfaces does not allow correlation between atomic structure and interface properties, in spite of their importance to a number of emerging technologies (wireless communications, radar-based positioning systems, sensors, etc.). The objective of this symposium was to focus attention on these fundamental issues by featuring recent theoretical and experimental work from various disciplines that impact the understanding of interface chemistry, structure, and properties. The emphasis was on relating properties of surfaces and interfaces to structure through an understanding of atomic level phenomena. Interfaces of interest include metal/ceramic, ceramic/ceramic, ceramic/vapor, etc., in electronic, magnetic, optical, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric applications. Sixty one papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  20. New DOMS interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeki; Niwa, Kimio

    1984-01-01

    In Nagoya University, the computerized on-line microscope for emulsion analysis for cosmic ray research has been developed since 1973. In the past, the emulsion analysis with microscopes was based on specifically trained observation capability. However, it is indispensable to improve the analysis speed and objectivity by the automation with a computer. The emulsion analysis system in Nagoya University completed in 1978 is composed of more than one DOMS (digitized on-line microscope) which is a Chiyoda microscope with a DC motor and a linear encoder and large and medium size precise stages produced by Mitaka Koki Co. The system is linked with a host computer through controllers. Each measuring terminal operates as an intelligent terminal connected with a serial line. A new DOMS interface is newly designed by standardizing the above controllers, and intended to make the same programs easy to use for the purpose of equalizing the quality of data. Design work premised on the assumption that users can set up systems by combining necessary modules depending on their purposes by packing hardware into modules for every function, following the CAMAC concept. In this report, the total system configuration, crate controller, motor drive, position counter, display, graphic video RAM and ROM writer are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Embedded silicon nanocrystal interface structure and strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry; Hegde, G. M.; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2018-01-01

    The structure of nanocrystal-matrix interface and strain in embedded nanocrystals are studied using large-scale atomistic simulations, with the examples of Si nanocrystal embedded in amorphous matrix of SiO2. Photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric matrix like SiO2 and Si3N4 are promising for Si-based optical devices. The nanocrystal-matrix interface plays a crucial role in understanding its optical and electrical properties. Nanocrystals with diameters varying from 2.17 to 4.56 nm are studied. A detailed quantitative analysis of the variation of Si/SiO2 interface structure and strain distribution with nanocrystal diameter is reported. A linear variation of the interface width with nanocrystal diameter is observed with thinner interfaces for larger nanocrystals. Local deformation analysis reveals that the smaller nanocrystals are highly strained, whereas the strain in the larger ones shifts to the interface. This is in accordance with observed increase in total percentage of defect states in the interface from 39 to 70 % for diameter increasing from 2.17 to 4.56 nm. Moreover, based on the atomic arrangements at the interface, optically active defects like Pb centres, E centres and non-bridging oxygen centres are identified and a dominance of Pb centres is observed for all the nanocrystals. The detailed structural characterization-related investigations using the proposed simulation approach will find useful application in designing system-level response of embedded nanocrystals and also to correlate various experimental observations.

  2. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  3. The computer graphics interface

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrugge Chauveau, Karla; Niles Reed, Theodore; Shepherd, B

    2014-01-01

    The Computer Graphics Interface provides a concise discussion of computer graphics interface (CGI) standards. The title is comprised of seven chapters that cover the concepts of the CGI standard. Figures and examples are also included. The first chapter provides a general overview of CGI; this chapter covers graphics standards, functional specifications, and syntactic interfaces. Next, the book discusses the basic concepts of CGI, such as inquiry, profiles, and registration. The third chapter covers the CGI concepts and functions, while the fourth chapter deals with the concept of graphic obje

  4. The interface effect

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces are back, or perhaps they never left. The familiar Socratic conceit from the Phaedrus, of communication as the process of writing directly on the soul of the other, has returned to center stage in today's discussions of culture and media. Indeed Western thought has long construed media as a grand choice between two kinds of interfaces. Following the optimistic path, media seamlessly interface self and other in a transparent and immediate connection. But, following the pessimistic path, media are the obstacles to direct communion, disintegrating self and other into misunderstanding

  5. Ionic Structure at Dielectric Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yufei

    interfaces using molecular dynamics(MD) simulations and compared it with liquid state theory result. We explore the effects of high electrolyte concentrations, multivalent ions, and dielectric contrasts on the ionic distributions. We observe the presence of non-monotonous ionic density profiles leading to structure deformation in the fluid which is attributed to the competition between electrostatic and steric (entropic) interactions. We find that thermal forces that arise from symmetry breaking at the interfaces can have a profound effect on the ionic structure and can oftentimes overwhelm the influence of dielectric discontinuity. The combined effect of ionic correlations and inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity significantly changes the character of effective interaction between two interfaces. We show that, in concentrated electrolytes with confinement, it is imperative to take into account the finite-size of the ions as well as proper description of electrostatic interactions in heterogeneous media, which is not fully fulfilled by Poisson-Boltzmann based approaches. The effect of electric field at interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions is studied as well. The classical Poisson-Boltzmann theory has been widely used to describe the corresponding ionic distribution, even though it neglects the polarization and ion correlations typical of these charged systems. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we provide an enhanced description of an oil-water interface in the presence of an electric field without needing any adjustable parameter, including realistic ionic sizes, ion correlations, and image charges. Our data agree with experimental measurements of excess surface tension for a wide range of electrolyte concentrations of LiCl and TBATPB (tetrabutylammonium-tetraphenylborate), contrasting with the result of the classical non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. More importantly, we show that the size-asymmetry between small Li+ and large Cl- ions can significantly

  6. Dispersive transport across interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Brian; Adler, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Experiments demonstrating asymmetrical dispersive transport of a conservative tracer across interfaces between different porous materials have recently been performed. Here, this phenomenon is studied numerically on the pore scale. The flow field is derived by solving the Stokes equation. The dispersive transport is simulated by a large number of particles undergoing random walks under the simultaneous action of convection and diffusion. Two main two-dimensional configurations are studied; each consists of two segments (called coarse and fine) with the same structure, porosity, and length along the main flow, but different characteristic solid/pore sizes. One structure consists of two channels containing cavities of different sizes, and the second of square "grains" of different sizes. At time t=0, a large number of particles is injected (as a pulse) around a given cross-section. The corresponding breakthrough curves (BTCs) are registered as functions of time at six different cross sections. Calculations are made twice; in the first case (CtoF), particles are injected in the coarse side and are transported towards the fine one; in the second one (FtoC), the opposite case is studied. These calculations are performed for various Péclet numbers (Pe). Comparison of the resulting BTCs shows features that are similar to experimental observations, but with qualitative and quantitative differences. The influences of the medium, of the injection and observation planes, and of Pe are detailed and discussed. A BTC for pulse injection can be characterized by its maximum M(t_M) and the time tM at which it occurs. The observed differences for channels bounded by cavities are very small. However for the granular structures, M(t_M) is always larger for FtoC than for CtoF ; tM depends on all the parameters, namely Pe, the size ratio between the large and small grains, the injection and the observation planes. The numerical results are systematically compared with solutions of one

  7. Atomistic calculations of interface elastic properties in noncoherent metallic bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Changwen; Jun, Sukky; Kouris, Demitris A.; Kim, Sung Youb

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes theoretical and computational studies associated with the interface elastic properties of noncoherent metallic bicrystals. Analytical forms of interface energy, interface stresses, and interface elastic constants are derived in terms of interatomic potential functions. Embedded-atom method potentials are then incorporated into the model to compute these excess thermodynamics variables, using energy minimization in a parallel computing environment. The proposed model is validated by calculating surface thermodynamic variables and comparing them with preexisting data. Next, the interface elastic properties of several fcc-fcc bicrystals are computed. The excess energies and stresses of interfaces are smaller than those on free surfaces of the same crystal orientations. In addition, no negative values of interface stresses are observed. Current results can be applied to various heterogeneous materials where interfaces assume a prominent role in the systems' mechanical behavior

  8. Scalable coherent interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H.; Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs

  9. Natural gesture interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubtsev, Illya

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the implementation of the system of interaction with virtual objects based on gestures. The paper describes the common problems of interaction with virtual objects, specific requirements for the interfaces for virtual and augmented reality.

  10. Pattern formation at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Giulio; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Applying modern nonlinear stability theory to problems of continuous media mechanics in the presence of interfaces, this text is relevant to materials science, chemical engineering, and heat transfer technologies, as well as to reaction-diffusion systems.

  11. Interface Anywhere Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To illustrate the viability of this technology, a prototype Natural User Interface (NUI) was developed as a proof-of-concept for system control.  Gesture and...

  12. Determination of mode-I cohesive strength for interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J. B.; Thouless, M. D.; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    The cohesive strength is one of the governing parameters controlling crack deflection at interfaces, but measuring its magnitude is challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel approach to determine the mode-I cohesive strength of an interface by using a 4-point single-edge-notch beam...... specimen. The test specimen is made of a glue cast onto a unidirectional, glass-fiber laminate. A crack is cut in the glue, orthogonal to the interface, which creates a high normal stress across the glue/laminate interface during loading. It is observed that a new crack can be initiated along the interface...... in response to this stress, before the main crack starts to grow. Observations using 2D digital-image correlation showed that an ''apparent" strain across the interface initially increases linearly with the applied load, but becomes nonlinear upon the initiation of the interface crack. The cohesive strength...

  13. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic and mechan...... these interfaces and interfaced compartments and processes. Climate, sea-level, oceanographic currents and hydrological processes are all affected, while anthropogenic changes are often intense in the geographic settings corresponding to such interfaces.......The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic...... and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  14. Lectures on random interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Funaki, Tadahisa

    2016-01-01

    Interfaces are created to separate two distinct phases in a situation in which phase coexistence occurs. This book discusses randomly fluctuating interfaces in several different settings and from several points of view: discrete/continuum, microscopic/macroscopic, and static/dynamic theories. The following four topics in particular are dealt with in the book. Assuming that the interface is represented as a height function measured from a fixed-reference discretized hyperplane, the system is governed by the Hamiltonian of gradient of the height functions. This is a kind of effective interface model called ∇φ-interface model. The scaling limits are studied for Gaussian (or non-Gaussian) random fields with a pinning effect under a situation in which the rate functional of the corresponding large deviation principle has non-unique minimizers. Young diagrams determine decreasing interfaces, and their dynamics are introduced. The large-scale behavior of such dynamics is studied from the points of view of the hyd...

  15. Interface high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-12-01

    Cuprate high-temperature superconductors consist of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) substructures: CuO2 superconducting layers and charge reservoir layers. The superconductivity is realized by charge transfer from the charge reservoir layers into the superconducting layers without chemical dopants and defects being introduced into the latter, similar to modulation-doping in the semiconductor superlattices of AlGaAs/GaAs. Inspired by this scheme, we have been searching for high-temperature superconductivity in ultra-thin films of superconductors epitaxially grown on semiconductor/oxide substrates since 2008. We have observed interface-enhanced superconductivity in both conventional and unconventional superconducting films, including single atomic layer films of Pb and In on Si substrates and single unit cell (UC) films of FeSe on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with a superconducting gap of ∼20 meV in 1UC-FeSe/STO has stimulated tremendous interest in the superconductivity community, for it opens a new avenue for both raising superconducting transition temperature and understanding the pairing mechanism of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review mainly the experimental progress on interface-enhanced superconductivity in the three systems mentioned above with emphasis on 1UC-FeSe/STO, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport experiments. We discuss the roles of interfaces and a possible pairing mechanism inferred from these studies.

  16. Machine Learning in Proof General: Interfacing Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Komendantskaya, Ekaterina; Heras, Jónathan; Grov, Gudmund

    2012-01-01

    We present ML4PG - a machine learning extension for Proof General. It allows users to gather proof statistics related to shapes of goals, sequences of applied tactics, and proof tree structures from the libraries of interactive higher-order proofs written in Coq and SSReflect. The gathered data is clustered using the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms available in MATLAB and Weka. ML4PG provides automated interfacing between Proof General and MATLAB/Weka. The results of clustering a...

  17. Machine Learning in Proof General: Interfacing Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Komendantskaya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present ML4PG - a machine learning extension for Proof General. It allows users to gather proof statistics related to shapes of goals, sequences of applied tactics, and proof tree structures from the libraries of interactive higher-order proofs written in Coq and SSReflect. The gathered data is clustered using the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms available in MATLAB and Weka. ML4PG provides automated interfacing between Proof General and MATLAB/Weka. The results of clustering are used by ML4PG to provide proof hints in the process of interactive proof development.

  18. Interface stress in Au/Ni multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweitz, K.O.; Böttiger, J.; Chevallier, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of intermixing on the apparent interface stress is studied in -textured dc-magnetron sputtered Au/Ni multilayers by use of two methods commonly used for determining interface stress. The method using profilometry and in-plane x-ray diffraction does not take intermixing...... into account and yields an apparent interface stress of -8.46 +/- 0.99 J m(-2). However, observed discrepancies between model calculations and measured high-angle x-ray diffractograms indicate intermixing, and by use of the profilometry and sin(2) psi method the real interface stress value of -2.69 +/- 0.43 J...... m(-2) is found. This method also reveals a significant and systematic change of the stress-free lattice parameter of both constituents as a function of modulation period which is shown to account for the difference between the two findings. The method using in-plane diffraction is thus shown...

  19. Metawidgets in the multimodal interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattner, M.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Glinert, E.P.; Jorge, J.A.; Ormsby, G.R. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    We analyze two intertwined and fundamental issues concerning computer-to-human communication in the multimodal interfaces: the interplay between sound and graphics, and the role of object persistence. Our observations lead us to introduce metawidgets as abstract entities capable of manifesting themselves to users as image, as sound, or as various combinations and/or sequences of the two media. We show examples of metawidgets in action, and discuss mechanisms for choosing among alternative media for metawidget instantiation. Finally, we describe a couple of experimental microworlds we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  20. 2009 Observer Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Lincicome, Alexis; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2010-01-01

    The USA‐National Phenology Network (USA‐NPN) seeks to engage volunteer observers in collecting phenological observations of plants and animals using consistent standards and to contribute their observations to a national data repository. In March 2009, the National Coordinating Office staff implemented an online monitoring program for 213 plant species. In this pilot year of the program, 547 observers reported phenology observations on one or more plants via the online interface.

  1. Structural and functional analysis of multi-interface domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    Full Text Available A multi-interface domain is a domain that can shape multiple and distinctive binding sites to contact with many other domains, forming a hub in domain-domain interaction networks. The functions played by the multiple interfaces are usually different, but there is no strict bijection between the functions and interfaces as some subsets of the interfaces play the same function. This work applies graph theory and algorithms to discover fingerprints for the multiple interfaces of a domain and to establish associations between the interfaces and functions, based on a huge set of multi-interface proteins from PDB. We found that about 40% of proteins have the multi-interface property, however the involved multi-interface domains account for only a tiny fraction (1.8% of the total number of domains. The interfaces of these domains are distinguishable in terms of their fingerprints, indicating the functional specificity of the multiple interfaces in a domain. Furthermore, we observed that both cooperative and distinctive structural patterns, which will be useful for protein engineering, exist in the multiple interfaces of a domain.

  2. Environmental materials and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig

  3. High resolution electron microscopy of misfit dislocations at metal-oxide interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, HB; Kooi, BJ; Vellinga, WP; De Hosson, JTM; Lejcek, P; Paidar,

    1999-01-01

    Misfit dislocations at metal-oxide interfaces are studied using HRTEM. By observing misfit dislocations the bonding across the metal-oxide interface can be studied. This is done for two cases, a parallel Cu-MgO {111} interface and tilted interfaces in Pd-ZnO and Ag-ZnO. From the Cu-MgO micrographs

  4. Interfacing Sensors To Micro Controllers

    KAUST Repository

    Norain, Mohamed

    2018-01-15

    This lecture will cover the most common interface and interface techniques between sensors and microcontrollers. The presentation will introduce the pros and cons of each interface type including analogue, digital and serial output sensors. It will also cover the basic required electronics knowledge to help you in selecting and designing your next sensor to microcontroller interface.

  5. High-bandwidth memory interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chulwoo; Song, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in memory interface design at both the architecture and circuit levels. Coverage includes signal integrity and testing, TSV interface, high-speed serial interface including equalization, ODT, pre-emphasis, wide I/O interface including crosstalk, skew cancellation, and clock generation and distribution. Trends for further bandwidth enhancement are also covered.   • Enables readers with minimal background in memory design to understand the basics of high-bandwidth memory interface design; • Presents state-of-the-art techniques for memory interface design; • Covers memory interface design at both the circuit level and system architecture level.

  6. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history at large have been sparse. However, a small spate of publications appeared recently, so a reasonable number of papers are available. Hence this work-in-progress paints a portrait of the current history of user interfaces at large. The paper first describes a theoretical framework recruited from...... history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism...

  7. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic and mechan......The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic...... these interfaces and interfaced compartments and processes. Climate, sea-level, oceanographic currents and hydrological processes are all affected, while anthropogenic changes are often intense in the geographic settings corresponding to such interfaces....

  8. Catalytic interface erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, H.; Cohen, E.G.D.

    1995-01-01

    We study interface erosion processes: catalytic erosions. We present two cases. (1) The erosion of a completely occupied lattice by one single moving particle starting from somewhere inside the lattice, considering deterministic as well as probabilistic erosion rules. In the latter case, the eroded regions appear to have interfaces with continuously tunable fractal dimensions. (2) The kinetic roughening of an initially flat surface, where ballistic or diffusion-limited particles, which remain intact themselves, erode the surface coming from the outside, using the same erosion rules as in (1). Many features resembling realistic interfaces, for example, islands and inlets, are generated. The dependence of the surface width on the system size is due to both the erosion mechanism and the way particles move before reaching the surface

  9. Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex human-machine systems is proposed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, knowledge taxonomy of cognitive control. The basic goal of EID is twofold: first, not to force processing....... Three prescriptive design principles are suggested to achieve this objective, each directed at supporting a particular level of cognitive control. Theoretical foundations of the framework are laid out. Particular attention is paid to presenting a coherent deductive argument justifying the principles...... of other approaches to interface design indicates that EID has a unique and significant contribution to make. Third, the results of an initial empirical evaluation also provide some preliminary support for the EID framework. Some issues for future research are outlined....

  10. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...

  11. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition is a technique to separate the design of a complex system into smaller sub-models, which improves scalability and team development. In the shared-variable decomposition approach for Event-B sub-models share external variables and communicate through external events which cannot...... be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  12. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    (1) a user study with a prototype of an elastic, deformable display, and (2) a user study of deformable interfaces for performing music. The first study reports a guessability study with an elastic, deformable display where 17 participants suggested fitting gestures for 29 tasks, including navigation...... use deformable interfaces to perform electronic music. First, we invited musicians with different backgrounds (e.g., performers, DJs, instrument builders) to three workshops, where we made them explore 10 deformable objects and generate ideas on how to use those to perform music. Then, we implemented...... sensors in the five preferred objects and programmed them for controlling sounds with computer software. Finally, we ran a performance study where six musicians performed music with deformable interfaces at their studios. Results from the performance study show that musicians systematically map...

  13. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  14. Urban water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  15. Refraction interface radiography; Refraktions-Interface-Radiographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Manfred P.; Kupsch, Andreas; Lange, Axel; Mueller, Bernd R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich 8.5. ' Mikro-ZfP'

    2013-07-01

    Nano-scale structures and interfaces are more and more coming to determine the function of modern materials and components. This calls for methods for their nondestructive characterisation with adapted spatial resolution, a task for which x-ray refraction techniques are well suited on account of their wavelength range. The resulting small-angle scattering causes high local intensity levels which can exceed that of the primary radiation as a result of shift and focussing effects. The predominance of refraction intensity over that of total reflection can be demonstrated using monochromatic synchrotron radiation on homogeneous samples of simple geometry (plates or cylinders). The refraction effect can be used with incidence angles up to a few degrees. Scattering angles are typically in the range of arc seconds to arc minutes.

  16. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed

  17. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory

  18. ICTS of MOS Interface States Enhanced by Gold Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Haruhiko; Niu, Hirohiko; Kishino, Seigô

    1991-07-01

    An enhancement of interface states of Si MOS diode by gold diffusion is observed by the isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy (ICTS) measurement. The observed ICTS spectra are identified as the interface states with the help of numerical simulation. Although the gold diffusion is accompanied by thermal annealing, the effect of the thermal annealing on the interface states is eliminated with the use of an extra annealing at a low temperature in a nitrogen ambient. It is also ascertained that the interface states enhanced by the gold diffusion increase as the density of diffused gold increases.

  19. Adsorption of sub-micron amphiphilic dumbbells to fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Lucio; Samudrala, Niveditha; Dufresne, Eric R

    2014-05-13

    We investigate the adsorption of submicrometer bulk-synthesized polymer dumbbells to oil-water interfaces using freeze-fracture, shadow-casting (FreSCa) cryo-scanning electron microscopy. We find that the dumbbells are amphiphilic and adsorb to the interface with a preferred orientation. Most particles adsorb in a tilted configuration, with the polar and apolar lobes intersecting the interface and pointing toward the water and oil, respectively. Some particles adsorb with only one lobe attached to the interface. Moreover, we find that each lobe has a preferred angle of contact with the interface, identical in all observed configurations. A simple geometrical calculation using these contact angles accurately predicts the dominant configuration of particles at the interface. This calculation provides insight into how the shape and composition of dumbbells can be tuned to stand upright and pack efficiently on curved interfaces.

  20. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  1. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  2. Source interface for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    This interface is part of the ALICE detector data link (DDL), which transmits data at 100 Mbytes/sec from the detectors to a host computer. A total of 400 DDLs will be installed on ALICE. These silicon devices have been developed especially for use in the high radiation levels produced in detector environments.

  3. Interface transfer of equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashton, I.J.

    1989-04-01

    This article details the interface transfer of heavy-duty face equipment from 5's to 6's face in the Great Row Seam at Silverdale Colliery, British Coal, Western Area. The salvaged face was roofbolted using leg-mounted Wombat drilling rigs. All heavy-duty equipment was transported by FSV's. 5 figs.

  4. Quantitative AES at Interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Hofmann, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2011), s. 241-246 ISSN 1341-1756 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/0369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : quantitative AES * interfaces * grain boundaries * fracture surfaces Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  5. Workflow User Interfaces Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vanderdonckt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una colección de patrones de diseño de interfaces de usuario para sistemas de información para el flujo de trabajo; la colección incluye cuarenta y tres patrones clasificados en siete categorías identificados a partir de la lógica del ciclo de vida de la tarea sobre la base de la oferta y la asignación de tareas a los responsables de realizarlas (i. e. recursos humanos durante el flujo de trabajo. Cada patrón de la interfaz de usuario de flujo de trabajo (WUIP, por sus siglas en inglés se caracteriza por las propiedades expresadas en el lenguaje PLML para expresar patrones y complementado por otros atributos y modelos que se adjuntan a dicho modelo: la interfaz de usuario abstracta y el modelo de tareas correspondiente. Estos modelos se especifican en un lenguaje de descripción de interfaces de usuario. Todos los WUIPs se almacenan en una biblioteca y se pueden recuperar a través de un editor de flujo de trabajo que vincula a cada patrón de asignación de trabajo a su WUIP correspondiente.A collection of user interface design patterns for workflow information systems is presented that contains forty three resource patterns classified in seven categories. These categories and their corresponding patterns have been logically identified from the task life cycle based on offering and allocation operations. Each Workflow User Interface Pattern (WUIP is characterized by properties expressed in the PLML markup language for expressing patterns and augmented by additional attributes and models attached to the pattern: the abstract user interface and the corresponding task model. These models are specified in a User Interface Description Language. All WUIPs are stored in a library and can be retrieved within a workflow editor that links each workflow pattern to its corresponding WUIP, thus giving rise to a user interface for each workflow pattern.

  6. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  7. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  8. Easy-to-use interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, D O; Blattner, M M; Tong, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future

  9. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  10. Software Interfaces: On The Impact of Interface Design Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeen, Hani; Shata, Osama; Erradi, Abdelkarim

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces are recognized as an important mechanism to define contracts governing interactions between semi-independent software modules. Well-designed interfaces significantly reduce software complexity and ease maintainability by fostering modularization, hiding implementation details and minimizing the impact caused by changes in the software implementation. However, designing good interfaces is not a trivial task. The presence of interface design defects often yield increased development ...

  11. Interface Properties in Extruded FRC-Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    reinforced cementitious material extruded by the developed process. It is further more shown that the fiber-matrix bond is highly dependent on the relative slip at the interface and a bond-slip relationship is suggested for the extruded material. The observed very high fiber-matrix bond is explained...

  12. More playful user interfaces: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we embed recent research advances in creating playful user interfaces in a historical context. We have observations on spending leisure time, in particular predictions from previous decades and views expressed in Science Fiction novels. We confront these views and predictions with

  13. Modelling of planar interface elastic behaviour: Application to grain boundaries in polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelebart, L.

    2010-01-01

    In polycrystalline elastic simulations, grain boundaries can be considered as volume inter-phases or as elastic interfaces assuming a displacement jump across the interface. Such an interface description does not account for the in-plane deformation of the interface and Poisson effects cannot be reproduced. The purpose of this Note is to provide an enriched description of the elastic interface which takes into account such effects. When considering a multilayer material, the interphase description and the enriched interface description yield identical homogenized behaviour while quite important discrepancies can be observed with the classical interface description. (author)

  14. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    to conceptualize space as more than the physical container for human activity. I do this by investigating space as interface. Based on a theory of space and place set forth by Tuan (Tuan, 1977), and informed by an explorative research approach, I make the distinction between space and place as a Euclidian space...... with actual use (Hallnäs et al. 2006). The challenge thus becomes understanding space as the interface, and further how intentions can be induced into the design of space in ways that point towards the dimensions of place, when interpreted in actual use situations. By designing and exploring a range......This Ph.D. dissertation takes its offset in the migration of technology and computing power into our physical environment. The consequence of this movement, termed ubiquitous computing (Wieser, 1991), is a new relationship between humans, technology and spaces. In this new context, I seek...

  15. Study of metallic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job, Bernard

    1973-01-01

    In the first part, the diffusion of the radiotracer 59 Fe along the artificially silver-iron interface has been investigated for 500 4 exp - 41200/RT. These values are compared with the values of surface and grain boundary diffusion of silver and iron. In the second part we have extended mass-transport methods (scratch smoothing and grain boundary grooving) to solid-solid interface. These methods lead to a value of Di* δ γi (Di* δ is the effective diffusion parameter and γi the interfacial energy). Knowing the value of γi = 4000 ergs /cm 2 from the equilibrium angle method we have deducted the value of Di*δ. (author) [fr

  16. Politics at the interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannabiran, Gobinaath; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2010-01-01

    At the birth of participatory design, there was a strong political consciousness surrounding the design of new technology, the design process in particular, establishing a rich set of methods and tools for user-centered design. Today, the term design has extended its scope of concern beyond...... the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis. This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface....... By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing...

  17. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  18. At the Knowledge Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Buono, Anthony; Poulfelt, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    researchers. The paper addresses this challenge in terms of moving across this interface, developing the abilities and proficiency for co-creating research that meets the needs of academics and practitioners. The competency drivers behind strengthening research-practice impact are examined within the context......-produced research projects. Based on this analysis, the implications for research-oriented consulting and our interventions with a view to developing co-created academic- and practice-oriented impact are discussed...

  19. Microsystem Interfaces for Space

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Microsystem interfaces to the macroscopic surroundings and within the microsystems themselves are formidable challenges that this thesis makes an effort to overcome, specifically for enabling a spacecraft based entirely on microsystems. The NanoSpace-1 nanospacecraft is a full-fledged satellite design with mass below 10 kg. The high performance with respect to mass is enabled by a massive implementation of microsystem technology – the entire spacecraft structure is built from square silicon p...

  20. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-02-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

  1. An Approach to Interface Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Hald, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    Presents a novel interface synthesis approach based on a one-sided interface description. Whereas most other approaches consider interface synthesis as optimizing a channel to existing client/server modules, we consider the interface synthesis as part of the client/server module synthesis (which...... may contain the re-use of existing modules). The interface synthesis approach describes the basic transformations needed to transform the server interface description into an interface description on the client side of the communication medium. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a point......-to-point communication, but is applicable to synthesis of a multiple client/server environment. The interface description is based on a formalization of communication events....

  2. Avalanche dynamics of elastic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doussal, Pierre; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Slowly driven elastic interfaces, such as domain walls in dirty magnets, contact lines wetting a nonhomogeneous substrate, or cracks in brittle disordered material proceed via intermittent motion, called avalanches. Here we develop a field-theoretic treatment to calculate, from first principles, the space-time statistics of instantaneous velocities within an avalanche. For elastic interfaces at (or above) their (internal) upper critical dimension d≥d(uc) (d(uc)=2,4 respectively for long-ranged and short-ranged elasticity) we show that the field theory for the center of mass reduces to the motion of a point particle in a random-force landscape, which is itself a random walk [Alessandro, Beatrice, Bertotti, and Montorsi (ABBM) model]. Furthermore, the full spatial dependence of the velocity correlations is described by the Brownian-force model (BFM) where each point of the interface sees an independent Brownian-force landscape. Both ABBM and BFM can be solved exactly in any dimension d (for monotonous driving) by summing tree graphs, equivalent to solving a (nonlinear) instanton equation. We focus on the limit of slow uniform driving. This tree approximation is the mean-field theory (MFT) for realistic interfaces in short-ranged disorder, up to the renormalization of two parameters at d=d(uc). We calculate a number of observables of direct experimental interest: Both for the center of mass, and for a given Fourier mode q, we obtain various correlations and probability distribution functions (PDF's) of the velocity inside an avalanche, as well as the avalanche shape and its fluctuations (second shape). Within MFT we find that velocity correlations at nonzero q are asymmetric under time reversal. Next we calculate, beyond MFT, i.e., including loop corrections, the one-time PDF of the center-of-mass velocity u[over ·] for dimension delasticity) and a=1-4/9(2-d)+... (long-ranged elasticity). We show how the dynamical theory recovers the avalanche-size distribution

  3. Photovoltaics module interface: General purpose primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerio, J.

    1985-01-01

    The interfacial chemistry established between ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and the aluminized back surface of commercial solar cells was observed experimentally. The technique employed is called Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, with the infrared signal being reflected back from the aluminum surface through the EVA film. Reflection infrared (IR) spectra are given and attention is drawn to the specific IR peak at 1080/cm which forms on hydrolytic aging of the EVA/aluminum system. With this fundamental finding, and the workable experimental techniques, candidate silane coupling agents are employed at the interface, and their effects on eliminating or slowing hydrolytic aging of the EVA/aluminum interface are monitored.

  4. Interface Input/Output Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Building on the theory of interface automata by de Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch’s I/O, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit separation of assumptions...... a method for solving systems of relativized behavioral inequalities as used in our setup and draw a formal correspondence between our work and interface automata....

  5. Progress report (interface segment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: 1. Presentations and status reports. T. Fukahori (JAEA) reported on the plans for the www interface layout. Discussions included which functions were needed for new RIPL-3 web pages. The results are summarized in next section. 2. Layout of the interfaces and retrieval tools and web. RIPL-3 home page will include some description about RIPL-3 and link to the Technical report in pdf-format. The web page for 'mass' segment contains same contents as RIPL-2 except the removal of the information about ground state deformation. The abundance data will be replaced by data from the new BNL wallet card (2005 version). The Q-value calculation tool will be also improved. The 'Nuclear Matter Density' will be renamed 'Nucleon Density Distribution'. 'Levels' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved from 'optical' segment and given the name 'deformation'. 'Resonances' segment will be same as before - may be replaced with the new Mughabghab tables. 'Optical' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved to 'optical' segment and given the name 'deformation'. The optical model calculation with ECIS and OPTMAN will be considered and double-folding calculation tool will possibly be provided. 'Densities' segment will be same as before, and the plotting programs will be checked. The 3-7 sets of combination of GC, BSFG, GSFM with/without enhancement factors will be given. 'Gamma' segment will be same as before, with addition of MLO and theoretical GDR calculation. 'Fission' segment will be same as before, and 'Exp.' will be renamed. New barrier evaluations will be added, for example, transition (2+) states. The fission spectrum calculation tool (codes and inputs) may be added. The fundamental format will be kept as before. For new items such as deformed 'nucleon density distribution', double-folding potential, evaluated fission barrier (extension into 3 or more) and fission

  6. Cooperative Microsystems and Neural Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-04

    Syst Rehab Engin 16: 453-472 (2008) Targeted Reinnervation FINE Approved For Public Release, Distribution Unlimited Peripheral Nerve Microsystems...Outline • Signaling in the Nervous System - Signal sources of cortex and peripheral nerve • Clinically Useful Neural Interfaces • Cortical Recording...Arrays • Peripheral Nerve Interfaces • Challenges and Opportunities for Microsystems in New Neural Interfaces Approved For Public Release

  7. An interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2013-09-01

    This report describes an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop an interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence. Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. microfluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. A transient aqueous bridge forms between approaching drops prior to pinch-off. This observation applies to many types of fluids, but neither theory nor experiments have been able to offer a satisfactory explanation. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. This is a computationally challenging problem that involves tracking a moving interface and solving complex multi-physics and multi-scale dynamics, which are beyond the capabilities of most state-of-the-art simulations. An interface-tracking model for electro-coalescence can provide a new perspective to a variety of applications in which interfacial physics are coupled with electrodynamics, including electro-osmosis, fabrication of microelectronics, fuel atomization, oil dehydration, nuclear waste reprocessing and solution separation for chemical detectors. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for the electrohydrodynamics of two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface.

  8. Electrostatic effects at interfaces and adhesion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorang, G.; Langeron, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Electrostatic effects are usually observed at the interface of thin aluminium films deposited on polypropylene substrates during depth profiling analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Charging build up is characterized by energy shifts of Auger spectra towards higher kinetic energies. These insulating layers (10 to 20 nm) are partially or totally eliminated when the polymer is, prior to the metallization process, submitted either to low pressure (argon, nitrogen or ammoniac) plasma or to inert ion etching treatments. A lowering of oxygen and alumina contents at interfaces and an improved adhesion behavior were simultaneously noted. With Al deposits performed in UHV conditions onto a sputter cleaned substrate: a graphitic-like layer was probably created which ensures the complete removal of the electric charges during analysis at the Al/'polymer' interface, where a direct chemical bonding Al-C was displayed by AES. (Author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  9. Analysing organic transistors based on interface approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yuto; Mori, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent characteristics of organic transistors are analysed thoroughly using interface approximation. In contrast to amorphous silicon transistors, it is characteristic of organic transistors that the accumulation layer is concentrated on the first monolayer, and it is appropriate to consider interface charge rather than band bending. On the basis of this model, observed characteristics of hexamethylenetetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF) and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) transistors with various surface treatments are analysed, and the trap distribution is extracted. In turn, starting from a simple exponential distribution, we can reproduce the temperature-dependent transistor characteristics as well as the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy, so we can investigate various aspects of organic transistors self-consistently under the interface approximation. Small deviation from such an ideal transistor operation is discussed assuming the presence of an energetically discrete trap level, which leads to a hump in the transfer characteristics. The contact resistance is estimated by measuring the transfer characteristics up to the linear region

  10. Transport processes at fluidic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reusken, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    There are several physico-chemical processes that determine the behavior of multiphase fluid systems – e.g., the fluid dynamics in the different phases and the dynamics of the interface(s), mass transport between the fluids, adsorption effects at the interface, and transport of surfactants on the interface – and result in heterogeneous interface properties. In general, these processes are strongly coupled and local properties of the interface play a crucial role. A thorough understanding of the behavior of such complex flow problems must be based on physically sound mathematical models, which especially account for the local processes at the interface. This book presents recent findings on the rigorous derivation and mathematical analysis of such models and on the development of numerical methods for direct numerical simulations. Validation results are based on specifically designed experiments using high-resolution experimental techniques. A special feature of this book is its focus on an interdisciplina...

  11. Interfacing with the Night

    OpenAIRE

    Mclean, Alex; Parkinson, Adam

    2014-01-01

    In  this  paper,  the  authors  consider  the  interfaces  between academia and dance music. Dance music and club culture are, we argue, important to computer music and the live performance of electronic music, but there are many different difficulties encountered when trying to present electronic dance music within academic contexts. The authors draw upon their experiences as promoters, performers, researchers and audience members to discuss these difficulties and how and why we might negoti...

  12. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS and NASTRAN computer codes were successfully integrated. The enhanced NESSUS code will use NASTRAN for the structural Analysis and NESSUS for the probabilistic analysis. Any quantities in the NASTRAN bulk data input can be random variables. Any NASTRAN result that is written to the output2 file can be returned to NESSUS as the finite element result. The interfacing between NESSUS and NASTRAN is handled automatically by NESSUS. NESSUS and NASTRAN can be run on different machines using the remote host option.

  13. Bubble and drop interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miller

    2011-01-01

    The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec

  14. Brain-computer interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A computer-implemented method of providing an interface between a user and a processing unit, the method comprising : presenting one or more stimuli to a user, each stimulus varying at a respective stimulation frequency, each stimulation frequency being associated with a respective user......-selectable input; receiving at least one signal indicative of brain activity of the user; and determining, from the received signal, which of the one or more stimuli the user attends to and selecting the user-selectable input associated with the stimulation frequency of the determined stimuli as being a user...

  15. A model for the origin of solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundhausen, A.J.; Burlaga, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    The basic variations in solar wind properties that have been observed at 'stream interfaces' near 1 AU are explained by a gas dynamic model in which a radially propagating stream, produced by a temperature variation in the solar envelope, steepens nonlinearly while moving through interplanetary space. The region thus identified with the stream interface separates the ambient solar wind from the fresh hot material originally in the stream. However, the interface regions given by the present model are thicker than most stream interfaces observed in the solar wind, a fact suggesting that some additional physical process may be important in determining that thickness. Variations in the density, speed, or Alfven pressure alone appear not to produce streams with such an interface

  16. 1-Dimensional Analysis of Ultrasound at Closed Interface of Solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, H.

    2014-06-01

    As a first step to investigate mechanism of nonlinear ultrasonic generation at closed cracks, computer simulation for ultrasonic propagation in 1 -dimensional solid including closed interface was examined using Improved-FDM. Fundamental calculation model which described interaction between open / closure motion of the interface and ultrasonic stress was developed. In the model, compression stress is distributed over the entire solid, as motive force for closure of the interface. The interface is exhibited by the small region, and its open / closure are determined using calculated strain of the region. As a result, motion of the interface causing generation of saw-tooth like displacement waveform was observed. Amplitude modulation of displacement waveform was also observed, and it indicated possibility that small fluctuation of open / closure timing caused the modulation of the amplitude.

  17. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism...... in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...

  18. Electron refraction at lateral atomic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Fattah, Z. M.; Kher-Elden, M. A.; Yassin, O.; El-Okr, M. M.; Ortega, J. E.; García de Abajo, F. J.

    2017-11-01

    We present theoretical simulations of electron refraction at the lateral atomic interface between a "homogeneous" Cu(111) surface and the "nanostructured" one-monolayer (ML) Ag/Cu(111) dislocation lattice. Calculations are performed for electron binding energies barely below the 1 ML Ag/Cu(111) M ¯ -point gap (binding energy EB = 53 meV, below the Fermi level) and slightly above its Γ ¯ -point energy (EB = 160 meV), both characterized by isotropic/circular constant energy surfaces. Using plane-wave-expansion and boundary-element methods, we show that electron refraction occurs at the interface, the Snell law is obeyed, and a total internal reflection occurs beyond the critical angle. Additionally, a weak negative refraction is observed for EB = 53 meV electron energy at beam incidence higher than the critical angle. Such an interesting observation stems from the interface phase-matching and momentum conservation with the umklapp bands at the second Brillouin zone of the dislocation lattice. The present analysis is not restricted to our Cu-Ag/Cu model system but can be readily extended to technologically relevant interfaces with spin-polarized, highly featured, and anisotropic constant energy contours, such as those characteristic for Rashba systems and topological insulators.

  19. Architectures and Functional Coverage of Protein-Protein Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbag, Nurcan; Gursoy, Attila; Guney, Emre; Nussinov, Ruth; Keskin, Ozlem

    2008-01-01

    The diverse range of cellular functions is performed by a limited number of protein folds existing in nature. One may similarly expect that cellular functional diversity would be covered by a limited number of protein-protein interface architectures. Here, we present 8205 interface clusters, each representing unique interface architecture. This dataset of protein-protein interfaces is analyzed and compared with older datasets. We observe that the number of both biological and crystal interfaces increase significantly compared to the number of PDB entries. Further, we find that the number of distinct interface architectures grows at a much faster rate than the number of folds and is yet to level off. We further analyze the growth trend of the functional coverage by constructing functional interaction networks from interfaces. The functional coverage is also found to steadily increase. Interestingly, we also observe that despite the diversity of interface architectures, some are more favorable and frequently used, and of particular interest, those are the ones which are also preferred in single chains. PMID:18620705

  20. Human-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  1. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    This Ph.D. dissertation takes its offset in the migration of technology and computing power into our physical environment. The consequence of this movement, termed ubiquitous computing (Wieser, 1991), is a new relationship between humans, technology and spaces. In this new context, I seek...... to conceptualize space as more than the physical container for human activity. I do this by investigating space as interface. Based on a theory of space and place set forth by Tuan (Tuan, 1977), and informed by an explorative research approach, I make the distinction between space and place as a Euclidian space...... and a Phenomenological experienced place. In this perspective, place is created by humans as they appropriate space in investing it with emotions and memories and hereby making it meaningful. Space consists of formable physical and digital space, whereas place is made up by four dimensions relating to personal, physical...

  2. Embodiment and Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Andreas Lindegaard; Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses – based on neurological and phenomenological theory - how the human embodiment supports and constrains the interaction between players and video games. It analyses embodied interaction with the specific hardware/software configuration of the Nintendo Wii and Wii Tennis as well...... as other game system configurations. The article argues that playing video games may provide experiences of extended embodiment where players may experience ownership of both actions and virtual bodies related to the represented game world. The article shows how ownership may be related to differences...... of the player as patient, i.e. being the object of another agent’s actions.  Keywords: Video games, embodiment, interface, agency, action, control, cognition  ...

  3. Curriculum at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This Symposium presents curriculum design and content issues in a Scandinavian business school at its Centenary. The aim is an exploration of an educational institution at the interface of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) within the historical trends of the European Union. We hope...... this step will empirically document how the goals of the European Higher Education Area are functionally linked with the entrepreneurial sensibilities of administration, faculty, and administrative staff during the concrete operations of work. The series of presentations are framed between trans......-cultural epistemological foundations in insight-based critical realism and inquiry into how the institutional entrepreneurs – the program directors – negotiate opportunities, risks, and tensions in curriculum and program implementation. Detailed case presentations take up curriculum effort to successfully engage issues...

  4. APST interfaces in LINCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    APST is an acronym for the four highest of the seven layers of the LINCS hierarchy of communication protocols: (from high to low) Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport. Routines in each but the lowest of these APST layers can utilize the facilities of any lower APST layer (normally, but not necessarily, the immediately next lower layer) by invoking various primitives (macros that in most cases are subroutine calls) defining the upper interface of the lower layer. So there are three APST interfaces: Presentation layer, used by the Application layer; Session layer, normally used by the Presentation layer; and Transport layer, normally used by the Session layer. Logically, each end of a stream (unidirectional sequence of transmitted information) is handled by three modules, one module each for the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers, and each of these modules deals with only that one end of that one stream. The internal workings of the layers, particularly the Transport layer, do not necessarily exhibit this same modularization; for example, the two oppositely directed streams between the same two ends (constituting an association) may interact within a layer. However, such interaction is an implementational detail of no direct interest to those utilizing the layer. The present document does not describe implementation, nor does it discuss in any detail how the modules employ packet headings and data formats to communicate with their partner modules at the other end of a stream. There being one logical module per end of stream is a characteristic only of the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers. An Application layer module usually manages several streams, orchestrating them to achieve some desired purpose. The modules of the layers (Network, Link, and Physical) below the APST layers each handle many streams, multiplexing them through the nodes and channels of the network to transmit them from their origins to their destinations.

  5. Acid chat: gestural interface design

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan, Ali Oytun; Gokhan, Ali Oytun

    2005-01-01

    AcidChat is an experimental design project that aims to create an innovative computer software interface for Internet chat software using today's well known technologies; Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Freehand and digital photography. The aim of the project is to create new understandings of interface and it's usage, by adding new conceptions to chat based interfaces which creates a totally new look at the computer software and application. One of the key features is to add a gestural approach ...

  6. Magnetism at the V/Gd interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouketo, L; M'Passi-Mabiala, B; Binggeli, N

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations into the magnetic properties of V/Gd bilayers have shown that vanadium, which is nonmagnetic in the bulk, can acquire a magnetic moment in such systems. We have performed ab initio pseudopotential calculations to examine the magnetic behavior of V(110)/Gd(0001) bilayers for V layers with thicknesses up to 4 monolayers (ML). We considered both abrupt and atomic intermixed V/Gd interfaces. In both cases, the magnetic moment of the V layer is found to align antiparallel to the moment of the Gd layer, consistent with the experimental observation. However, the magnitude of the V moment at the abrupt interface is considerably smaller than the moments reported experimentally. In the presence of atomic intermixing, instead, substantially larger V moments are found, closer to the experimentally reported moments. On the basis of the calculated atomic and spin resolved density of states, we discuss the possible mechanism responsible for the observed Gd-V antiferromagnetic coupling.

  7. Playful User Interfaces. Interfaces that Invite Social and Physical Interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2014-01-01

    This book is about user interfaces to applications that can be considered as ‘playful’. The interfaces to such applications should be ‘playful’ as well. The application should be fun, and interacting with such an application should, of course, be fun as well. Maybe more. Why not expect that the

  8. Multimodal human-machine interface based on a brain-computer interface and an electrooculography interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iáñez, Eduardo; Ùbeda, Andrés; Azorín, José M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a multimodal interface that combines a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) with an electrooculography (EOG) interface. The non-invasive spontaneous BCI registers the electrical brain activity through surface electrodes. The EOG interface detects the eye movements through electrodes placed on the face around the eyes. Both kind of signals are registered together and processed to obtain the mental task that the user is thinking and the eye movement performed by the user. Both commands (mental task and eye movement) are combined in order to move a dot in a graphic user interface (GUI). Several experimental tests have been made where the users perform a trajectory to get closer to some targets. To perform the trajectory the user moves the dot in a plane with the EOG interface and using the BCI the dot changes its height.

  9. Total internal reflection effect on gyrotropic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushchenko, Alexander G.; Glushchenko, Eugene P.; Zhukov, Sergey V.

    2018-02-01

    This article considers the physical features of total internal reflection at gyrotropic and isotropic interfaces for two cases: electrical gyrotropy (plasma) and magnetic gyrotropy (ferrite). It is shown that the plasma magnetization may lead to the formation of the total internal reflection effect, which does not occur in isotropic plasma. The threshold values of the magnetic field, which are necessary for the total internal reflection effect, are determined. The total internal reflection effect on a ferrite-dielectric interface for waves emanating from different angles is observed in various frequency ranges and magnetization fields. The study points out the possibility of changing the total internal reflection angle value in large limits due to a change in the external magnetic field magnitude. The calculation results of the total internal reflection angle dependence on the external magnetic field magnitude are presented. The formulas are elaborated for calculating the total internal reflection angles of different interfaces for gyrotropic and isotropic media. The generalized formulas are defined for calculating the Doppler effect in the gyrotropic media. The study demonstrates how the velocity of the media interface affects the limiting angle of total internal refection.

  10. Requirements Document for Development of a Livermore Tomography Tools Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetho, I. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-09

    In this document, we outline an exercise performed at LLNL to evaluate the user interface deficits of a LLNL-developed CT reconstruction software package, Livermore Tomography Tools (LTT). We observe that a difficult-to-use command line interface and the lack of support functions compound to generate a bottleneck in the CT reconstruction process when input parameters to key functions are not well known. Through the exercise of systems engineering best practices, we generate key performance parameters for a LTT interface refresh, and specify a combination of back-end (“test-mode” functions) and front-end (graphical user interface visualization and command scripting tools) solutions to LTT’s poor user interface that aim to mitigate issues and lower costs associated with CT reconstruction using LTT. Key functional and non-functional requirements and risk mitigation strategies for the solution are outlined and discussed.

  11. Direct observation of ionic structure at solid-liquid interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siretanu, Igor; Ebeling, Daniel; Andersson, Martin Peter

    2014-01-01

    adsorption of the mono- and divalent ions that are common in natural environments to heterogeneous gibbsite/silica surfaces in contact with aqueous electrolytes. Complemented by density functional theory, our experiments produce a detailed picture of the formation of surface phases by templated adsorption...

  12. Playful Interfaces: Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  13. Det æstetiske interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Afhandlingen undersøger computerspillet historisk, teoretisk og analytisk i relation til en interfaceproblematik. Computerspil ses som et fremtrædende eksempel på det æstetiske interface – et interface baseret på sanseoplevelse i stedet for pragmatisk anvendelse. Afhandlingen består af to indbyrd...

  14. GRAPHIC INTERFACES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PANA,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using effective the method of calculating Fitness for Service requires the achievement of graphical interfaces. This paper presents an example of such interfaces, made with Visual Basic program and used in the evaluation of pipelines in a research contract [4

  15. Modeling soft interface dominated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The two main continuum frameworks used for modeling the dynamics of soft multiphase systems are the Gibbs dividing surface model, and the diffuse interface model. In the former the interface is modeled as a two dimensional surface, and excess properties such as a surface density, or surface energy

  16. Human-machine interface upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropik, M.; Matejka, K.; Sklenka, L.; Chab, V.

    2002-01-01

    The article describes a new human-machine interface that was installed at the VR-1 training reactor. The human-machine interface upgrade was completed in the summer 2001. The interface was designed with respect to functional, ergonomic and aesthetic requirements. The interface is based on a personal computer equipped with two displays. One display enables alphanumeric communication between the reactor operator and the nuclear reactor I and C. The second display is a graphical one. It presents the status of the reactor, principal parameters (as power, period), control rods positions, course of the reactor power. Furthermore, it is possible to set parameters, to show the active core configuration, to perform reactivity calculations, etc. The software for the new human-machine interface was produced with the InTouch developing tool of the Wonder-Ware Company. It is possible to switch the language of the interface between Czech and English because of many foreign students and visitors to the reactor. Microcomputer based communication units with proper software were developed to connect the new human-machine interface with the present reactor I and C. The new human-machine interface at the VR-1 training reactor improves the comfort and safety of the reactor utilisation, facilitates experiments and training, and provides better support for foreign visitors. (orig.)

  17. Preface (to Playful User Interfaces)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2014-01-01

    This book is about user interfaces to applications that can be considered as ‘playful’. The interfaces to such applications should be ‘playful’ as well. The application should be fun, and interacting with such an application should, of course, be fun as well. Maybe more. Why not expect that the

  18. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  19. 'Fly Like This': Natural Language Interface for UAV Mission Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, Meghan; Meszaros, Erica L.; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing presence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in everyday environments, the user base of these powerful and potentially intelligent machines is expanding beyond exclusively highly trained vehicle operators to include non-expert system users. Scientists seeking to augment costly and often inflexible methods of data collection historically used are turning towards lower cost and reconfigurable UAVs. These new users require more intuitive and natural methods for UAV mission planning. This paper explores two natural language interfaces - gesture and speech - for UAV flight path generation through individual user studies. Subjects who participated in the user studies also used a mouse-based interface for a baseline comparison. Each interface allowed the user to build flight paths from a library of twelve individual trajectory segments. Individual user studies evaluated performance, efficacy, and ease-of-use of each interface using background surveys, subjective questionnaires, and observations on time and correctness. Analysis indicates that natural language interfaces are promising alternatives to traditional interfaces. The user study data collected on the efficacy and potential of each interface will be used to inform future intuitive UAV interface design for non-expert users.

  20. Ecological Interface Design for Anaesthesia Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Watson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The operating theatre is a noisy place with many uninformative and redundant alarms. Using data from a recent observational study, we demonstrate that anaesthetists actively respond to only 3.4% of all audible alarms. We outline a range of possible solutions to the alarm problem. Ecological Interface Design (EID helps to outline the requirements for an information environment for anaesthetists and to indicate the possible benefits of continuous auditory signals. Our observational data are then "reworked" to give an indication of possible benefits of a continuous auditory display. Finally we indicate steps we are taking to test these ideas empirically

  1. Tunable nanoparticle arrays at charged interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sunita; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Fukuto, Masafumi; Gang, Oleg

    2014-10-28

    Structurally tunable two-dimensional (2D) arrays of nanoscale objects are important for modulating functional responses of thin films. We demonstrate that such tunable and ordered nanoparticles (NP) arrays can be assembled at charged air-water interfaces from nanoparticles coated with polyelectrolyte chains, DNA. The electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged nonhybridizing DNA-coated gold NPs and a positively charged lipid layer at the interface facilitates the formation of a 2D hexagonally closed packed (HCP) nanoparticle lattice. We observed about 4-fold change of the monolayer nanoparticle density by varying the ionic strength of the subphase. The tunable NP arrays retain their structure reasonably well when transferred to a solid support. The influence of particle's DNA corona and lipid layer composition on the salt-induced in-plane and normal structural evolution of NP arrays was studied in detail using a combination of synchrotron-based in situ surface scattering methods, grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GISAXS), and X-ray reflectivity (XRR). Comparative analysis of the interparticle distances as a function of ionic strength reveals the difference between the studied 2D nanoparticle arrays and analogous bulk polyelectrolyte star polymers systems, typically described by Daoud-Cotton model and power law scaling. The observed behavior of the 2D nanoparticle array manifests a nonuniform deformation of the nanoparticle DNA corona due to its electrostatically induced confinement at the lipid interface. The present study provides insight on the interfacial properties of the NPs coated with charged soft shells.

  2. Physics, mathematics and numerics of particle adsorption on fluid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Markus; Pavliotis, Grigorios A.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2012-11-01

    We study two arbitrary immiscible fuids where one phase contains small particles of the size of the interface and smaller. We primarily focus on charge-free particles with wetting characteristics described by the contact angle formed at the interface between the two phases and the particles. Based on the experimental observation that particles are adsorbed on the interface to reduce the interfacial energy and hence the surface tension as well, we formulate a free-energy functional that accounts for these physical effects. Using elements from calculus of variations and formal gradient flow theory, we derive partial differential equations describing the location of the interface and the density of the particles in the fluid phases. Via numerical experiments we analyse the time evolution of the surface tension, the particle concentration, and the free energy over time and reflect basic experimentally observed phenomena.

  3. Transient behavior of interface state continuum at InP insulator-semiconductor interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.; Masuda, H.; He, L.; Luo, J.K.; Sawada, T.; Ohno, H.

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the drain current drift mechanism in InP MISFETs, an isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy (ICTS) study of the interface state continuum is made on the anodic Al 2 O 3 /native oxide/ InP MIS system. Capture behavior is temperature-independent, non-exponential and extremely slow, whereas emission behavior is temperature- and bias- dependent, and is much faster. The observed behavior is explained quantitatively by the disorder induced gap state (DIGS) model, where states are distributed both in energy and in space. By comparing the transient behavior of interface states with the observed drift behavior of MISFETs, it is concluded that the electron capture by the DIGS continuum is responsible for the drain current drift of MISFETs. This led to a complete computer simulation of the observed current drift behavior

  4. Polymers at Surfaces and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsige, Mesfin

    2015-03-01

    Interfaces between solids, liquids, and gases play an important role in a wide range of practical applications and have been a subject of scientific interest since Poisson showed in 1831 that the order parameter of liquids near interfaces must deviate considerably from its bulk value. In particular, polymers at surfaces and interfaces have been a subject of extensive theoretical, experimental and computational studies for a long time due to their use in many diverse applications ranging from antifouling coatings to flexible electronic devices. Understanding the structure and thermodynamic properties of polymers at surfaces and interfaces is thus an area of fundamental and current technological interest. Although encouraging experimental progress has been made over the years in understanding the molecular structure of polymers in contact with various environments, selectively probing their structure and dynamics at surfaces and interfaces has been extremely difficult. Computer simulations, especially molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, have proven over the years to be an invaluable tool in providing molecular details at interfaces that are usually lacking in the experimental data. In this talk, I'll give an overview of some previous simulation efforts to understand the structure and dynamics of polymers at surfaces and buried interfaces. I will conclude by presenting our current and ongoing work on combining ab initio calculations and MD simulations with Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Spectroscopy to study polymer surfaces. This approach demonstrates the future role of MD in surface science. Work supported by NSF (DMR0847580 and DMR1410290) and Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society.

  5. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  6. Chandra Source Catalog: User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, Ian N.; Rots, Arnold H.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is intended to be the definitive catalog of all X-ray sources detected by Chandra. For each source, the CSC provides positions and multi-band fluxes, as well as derived spatial, spectral, and temporal source properties. Full-field and source region data products are also available, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra. The Chandra X-ray Center CSC website (http://cxc.harvard.edu/csc/) is the place to visit for high-level descriptions of each source property and data product included in the catalog, along with other useful information, such as step-by-step catalog tutorials, answers to FAQs, and a thorough summary of the catalog statistical characterization. Eight categories of detailed catalog documents may be accessed from the navigation bar on most of the 50+ CSC pages; these categories are: About the Catalog, Creating the Catalog, Using the Catalog, Catalog Columns, Column Descriptions, Documents, Conferences, and Useful Links. There are also prominent links to CSCview, the CSC data access GUI, and related help documentation, as well as a tutorial for using the new CSC/Google Earth interface. Catalog source properties are presented in seven scientific categories, within two table views: the Master Source and Source Observations tables. Each X-ray source has one ``master source'' entry and one or more ``source observation'' entries, the details of which are documented on the CSC ``Catalog Columns'' pages. The master source properties represent the best estimates of the properties of a source; these are extensively described on the following pages of the website: Position and Position Errors, Source Flags, Source Extent and Errors, Source Fluxes, Source Significance, Spectral Properties, and Source Variability. The eight tutorials (``threads'') available on the website serve as a collective guide for accessing, understanding, and manipulating the source properties and data products provided by the catalog.

  7. Through the Interface - a human activity approach to user interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    In providing a theoretical framework for understanding human- computer interaction as well as design of user interfaces, this book combines elements of anthropology, psychology, cognitive science, software engineering, and computer science. The framework examines the everyday work practices of us...

  8. Playful user interfaces interfaces that invite social and physical interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book is about user interfaces to applications that have been designed for social and physical interaction. The interfaces are ‘playful’, that is, users feel challenged to engage in social and physical interaction because that will be fun. The topics that will be present in this book are interactive playgrounds, urban games using mobiles, sensor-equipped environments for playing, child-computer interaction, tangible game interfaces, interactive tabletop technology and applications, full-body interaction, exertion games, persuasion, engagement, evaluation, and user experience. Readers of the book will not only get a survey of state-of-the-art research in these areas, but the chapters in this book will also provide a vision of the future where playful interfaces will be ubiquitous, that is, present and integrated in home, office, recreational, sports and urban environments, emphasizing that in the future in these environments game elements will be integrated and welcomed.

  9. Accelerator-TEM interface facility and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuansheng; Li Ming; He Jun; Yang Zheng; Zhou Lin; Wang Zesong; Guo Liping; Jiang Changzhong; Yang Shibo; Fu Dejun; Fan Xiangjun; Liu Jiarui; Lee J C

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator-TEM interface facility has been established at Wuhan University in 2008. The system consists of an H800 TEM linked to a 200 kV ion implanter and a 2 x 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. Nitrogen ions at 115 keV were successfully transported from the implanter into the TEM chamber through the interface system, and the ion currents measured at the entrance of the TEM column were between 20 and 180 nA. Structural evolution caused by ion irradiation in Si, GaAs, nanocrystal Ag was observed in situ. The in situ observation showed that the critical implantation dose for amorphization of Si is 10 14 cm -2 . The nuclear material C276 samples implanted with 115 keV Ar + was also studied, and dislocation loops sized at 3-12 nm were clearly observed after implantation to doses of over 1 x 10 15 cm -2 . The density of the loops increased with the dose. Evolution to polycrystalline and amorphous structures were observed at 5 x l0 15 cm -2 and 3 x 10 16 cm -2 , respectively. An in situ RBS/C chamber was installed on the transport line of the accelerator-TEM interface system. This enables in situ measurement of composition and location of the implanted species in lattice of the samples. In addition, a 50 kV low-energy gaseous ion generator was installed close to the TEM chamber, which facilitates in situ TEM observation of helium bubbles formed in helium-implanted materials. (authors)

  10. Buckling of particle-laden interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassuga, Theo D; Rothstein, Jonathan P

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we investigate the buckling of an oil-water interface populated by micron-sized latex particles using a Langmuir trough. In this work, we extend results of buckling of particle-laden interfaces from the millimeter down to the submicron range while investigating the effect of a different capillary length on the resulting wavelength. The experimental data is compared to the existing theoretical framework. An unexpected deviation from the prediction of theory of the dominant wavelength of buckling is observed for particles smaller than one micron. Those observations suggest that there is a transition to a new buckling regime involving the formation of trilayers below one micron. For the first time in particle rafts, cascading of the dominant wavelength similar to that observed in thin polymer films is reported. In addition a series of transitions between wavelengths not observed in thin films is observed within the same particle raft. Lastly, the effect of compression history on the macroscopic arrangement of particles is investigated, along with its effect on the buckling wavelength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydroxyl radical reactivity at the air-ice interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Kahan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl radicals are important oxidants in the atmosphere and in natural waters. They are also expected to be important in snow and ice, but their reactivity has not been widely studied in frozen aqueous solution. We have developed a spectroscopic probe to monitor the formation and reactions of hydroxyl radicals in situ. Hydroxyl radicals are produced in aqueous solution via the photolysis of nitrite, nitrate, and hydrogen peroxide, and react rapidly with benzene to form phenol. Similar phenol formation rates were observed in aqueous solution and bulk ice. However, no reaction was observed at air-ice interfaces, or when bulk ice samples were crushed prior to photolysis to increase their surface area. We also monitored the heterogeneous reaction between benzene present at air-water and air-ice interfaces with gas-phase OH produced from HONO photolysis. Rapid phenol formation was observed on water surfaces, but no reaction was observed at the surface of ice. Under the same conditions, we observed rapid loss of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH anthracene at air-water interfaces, but no loss was observed at air-ice interfaces. Our results suggest that the reactivity of hydroxyl radicals toward aromatic organics is similar in bulk ice samples and in aqueous solution, but is significantly suppressed in the quasi-liquid layer (QLL that exists at air-ice interfaces.

  12. The molecule-metal interface

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Norbert; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen

    2013-01-01

    Reviewing recent progress in the fundamental understanding of the molecule-metal interface, this useful addition to the literature focuses on experimental studies and introduces the latest analytical techniques as applied to this interface.The first part covers basic theory and initial principle studies, while the second part introduces readers to photoemission, STM, and synchrotron techniques to examine the atomic structure of the interfaces. The third part presents photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution UV photoelectron spectroscopy and electron spin resonance to study the electroni

  13. Molecular characterization of composite interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was applied to elucidate the molecular structures of the glass/matrix interface. The various interfaces and interphases were studied. It is found that the structure of the silane in a treating solution is important in determining the structure of the silane on glass fibers, influences the macroscopic properties of composites. The amount of silane on glass fibers, the state of hydrogen bonding, orientation, copolymerization of the organicfunctionality with the matrix, curing of the silane, and effect of water on the interface were investigated. It is shown that the molecular approach is useful to interpret and predict physicomechanical properties of composites

  14. Search-User Interface Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Max

    2011-01-01

    Search User Interfaces (SUIs) represent the gateway between people who have a task to complete, and the repositories of information and data stored around the world. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are many communities who have a vested interest in the way SUIs are designed. There are people who study how humans search for information, and people who study how humans use computers. There are people who study good user interface design, and people who design aesthetically pleasing user interfaces. There are also people who curate and manage valuable information resources, and people who desi

  15. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described [fr

  16. Designing end-user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, N

    1988-01-01

    Designing End-User Interfaces: State of the Art Report focuses on the field of human/computer interaction (HCI) that reviews the design of end-user interfaces.This compilation is divided into two parts. Part I examines specific aspects of the problem in HCI that range from basic definitions of the problem, evaluation of how to look at the problem domain, and fundamental work aimed at introducing human factors into all aspects of the design cycle. Part II consists of six main topics-definition of the problem, psychological and social factors, principles of interface design, computer intelligenc

  17. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  18. Molecular dynamic simulation of the atomic structure of aluminum solid–liquid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men, H; Fan, Z

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was used to investigate the equilibrium atomic arrangement at aluminum solid–liquid (S/L) interfaces with {111}, {110} and {100} orientations. The simulation results reveal that the aluminum S/L interfaces are diffuse for all the orientations, and extend up to 7 atomic layers. Within the diffuse interfaces there exists substantial atomic ordering, which is manifested by atomic layering perpendicular to the interface and in-plane atomic ordering parallel to the interface. Atomic layering can be quantified by the atomic density profile (ρ(z)) while the in-plane atomic ordering can be described by the in-plane ordering parameter (S(z)). The detailed MD simulation suggests that atomic layering at the interface always occurs within 7 atomic layers independent of the interface orientation while the in-plane ordering is highly dependent on the interface orientations, with the {111} interface being less diffuse than the {100} and {110} interfaces. This study demonstrates clearly that the physical origin of the diffuse interface is atomic layering and in-plane atomic ordering at the S/L interfaces. It is suggested that the difference in atomic layering and in-plane ordering at the S/L interface with different orientations is responsible for the observed growth anisotropy. (papers)

  19. Optoelectronics Interfaces for Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Neamtu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue interface is galvanicseparation between the signal part and the power board.Standards in the field have increased continuouslyelectro-security requirements on the rigidity of thedielectric and insulation resistance. Recommendations forclassical solutions require the use of galvanic separationoptoelectronics devices. Interfacing with a PC or DSP -controller is a target of interposition optical signals viathe power hardware commands.

  20. Fluid mechanics of environmental interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gualtieri, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Fluid Mechanics of Environmental Interfaces describes the concept of the environmental interface, defined as a surface between two either abiotic or biotic systems. These are in relative motion and exchange mass, heat and momentum through biophysical and/or chemical processes. These processes are fluctuating temporally and spatially.The book will be of interest to graduate students, PhD students as well as researchers in environmental sciences, civil engineering and environmental engineering, (geo)physics and applied mathematics.

  1. On migration of primary/peritectic interface during interrupted directional solidification of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-01-01

    The migration of the primary/peritectic interface in local isothermal condition is observed in dendritic structure of Sn?Ni peritectic alloy after experiencing interrupted directional solidification. It was observed that this migration of primary Ni3Sn2/peritectic Ni3Sn4 interface towards the primary Ni3Sn2 phase was accompanied by migration of liquid film located at this interface. The migration velocity of this interface was confirmed to be much faster than that of peritectic transformation...

  2. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, F.

    1983-01-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered. (Author) [pt

  3. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eCopenhagen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped, where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  4. Science at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorr Cetina, K.

    2004-01-01

    the stakes against those who might want to enter. Laboratory sciences interface nature in a peculiar way: by barring real natural objects from entering the lab and by substituting for them reconfigured versions of these objects to work with in research. These supplemental versions of natural objects do refer back to natural processes or conditions, but at the same time they are also autonomous new objects and processes with differential qualities and reproductive powers within laboratory contexts. Laboratory sciences have the disadvantage that their products must be freshly contextualized when they leave the lab to reenter natural environments. In the natural sciences, re-contextualization is often accomplished by transferring some of the conditions that obtained in the lab onto the natural environment. Re-contextualization in the natural sciences may also just be a metaphor for a long chain of processes, involving specialized disciplines, by which some natural scientific results are used to create technologies which are then used in practice - a process that often fails, involves political strategies of persuasion and other complications. Contextualization involves adaptation not only to new laboratory external physical environments but also to the social world. One direction of social science research maintains that a form of (re) contextualization of a much larger scope and impact is evident today in contemporary societies, affecting in tendency all sciences and technological fields. This assessment is encapsulated in the idea that we have progressed from Mode 1 science and technology to a Mode 2 situation where knowledge is generated in the context of application and implication. (author)

  5. A generalized mechanical model for suture interfaces of arbitrary geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaning; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary C.

    2013-04-01

    Suture interfaces with a triangular wave form commonly found in nature have recently been shown to exhibit exceptional mechanical behavior, where geometric parameters such as amplitude, frequency, and hierarchy can be used to nonlinearly tailor and amplify mechanical properties. In this study, using the principle of complementary virtual work, we formulate a generalized, composite mechanical model for arbitrarily-shaped interdigitating suture interfaces in order to more broadly investigate the influence of wave-form geometry on load transmission, deformation mechanisms, anisotropy, and stiffness, strength, and toughness of the suture interface for tensile and shear loading conditions. The application of this suture interface model is exemplified for the case of the general trapezoidal wave-form. Expressions for the in-plane stiffness, strength and fracture toughness and failure mechanisms are derived as nonlinear functions of shape factor β (which characterizes the general trapezoidal shape as triangular, trapezoidal, rectangular or anti-trapezoidal), the wavelength/amplitude ratio, the interface width/wavelength ratio, and the stiffness and strength ratios of the skeletal/interfacial phases. These results provide guidelines for choosing and tailoring interface geometry to optimize the mechanical performance in resisting different loads. The presented model provides insights into the relation between the mechanical function and the morphological diversity of suture interface geometries observed in natural systems.

  6. Revealing the interface in polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarano, Mauro; Maupin, Paul H; Sung, Li-Piin; Gilman, Jeffrey W; McCarthy, Edward D; Kim, Yeon S; Fox, Douglas M

    2011-04-26

    The morphological characterization of polymer nanocomposites over multiple length scales is a fundamental challenge. Here, we report a technique for high-throughput monitoring of interface and dispersion in polymer nanocomposites based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), fluorescently labeled with 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl)-aminofluorescein (FL) and dispersed into polyethylene (PE) doped with Coumarin 30 (C30), is used as a model system to assess the ability of FRET to evaluate the effect of processing on NFC dispersion in PE. The level of energy transfer and its standard deviation, measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), are exploited to monitor the extent of interface formation and composite homogeneity, respectively. FRET algorithms are used to generate color-coded images for a real-space observation of energy transfer efficiency. These images reveal interface formation at a nanoscale while probing a macroscale area that is large enough to be representative of the entire sample. The unique ability of this technique to simultaneously provide orientation/spatial information at a macroscale and nanoscale features, encoded in the FRET signal, provides a new powerful tool for structure-property-processing investigation in polymer nanocomposites.

  7. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Sapunov, M

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  8. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  9. Molecular Design of Branched and Binary Molecules at Ordered Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genson, Kirsten Larson [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This study examined five different branched molecular architectures to discern the effect of design on the ability of molecules to form ordered structures at interfaces. Photochromic monodendrons formed kinked packing structures at the air-water interface due to the cross-sectional area mismatch created by varying number of alkyl tails and the hydrophilic polar head group. The lower generations formed orthorhombic unit cell with long range ordering despite the alkyl tails tilted to a large degree. Favorable interactions between liquid crystalline terminal groups and the underlying substrate were observed to compel a flexible carbosilane dendrimer core to form a compressed elliptical conformation which packed stagger within lamellae domains with limited short range ordering. A twelve arm binary star polymer was observed to form two dimensional micelles at the air-water interface attributed to the higher polystyrene block composition. Linear rod-coil molecules formed a multitude of packing structures at the air-water interface due to the varying composition. Tree-like rod-coil molecules demonstrated the ability to form one-dimensional structures at the air-water interface and at the air-solvent interface caused by the preferential ordering of the rigid rod cores. The role of molecular architecture and composition was examined and the influence chemically competing fragments was shown to exert on the packing structure. The amphiphilic balance of the different molecular series exhibited control on the ordering behavior at the air-water interface and within bulk structures. The shell nature and tail type was determined to dictate the preferential ordering structure and molecular reorganization at interfaces with the core nature effect secondary.

  10. Repartition of ultrasonic energies at the interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, M.; Bourdarios, M.; Lepoutre, M.

    1983-06-01

    Energy repartition of ultrasonic waves at the interfaces is studied as a function of incidence angle of the acoustic beam in immersion testing. For each interface type mathematical relations give the ratio of incident energy and energy of the wave reemitted by the interface. As an example curves for the interfaces water-uranium are given [fr

  11. Control by personal computer and Interface 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book consists of three chapters. The first chapter deals with basic knowledge of micro computer control which are computer system, micro computer system, control of the micro computer and control system for calculator. The second chapter describes Interface about basic knowledge such as 8255 parallel interface, 6821 parallel interface, parallel interface of personal computer, reading BCD code in parallel interface, IEEE-488 interface, RS-232C interface and transmit data in personal computer and a measuring instrument. The third chapter includes control experiment by micro computer, experiment by eight bit computer and control experiment by machine code and BASIC.

  12. Multi-robot control interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  13. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  14. Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    2006-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook covers the major developments in surface sciences of recent decades, from experimental tricks and basic techniques to the latest experimental methods and theoretical understanding. It is unique in its attempt to treat the physics of surfaces, thin films and interfaces, surface chemistry, thermodynamics, statistical physics and the physics of the solid/electrolyte interface in an integral manner, rather than in separate compartments. The Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces is designed as a handbook for the researcher as well as a study-text for graduate students in physics or chemistry with special interest in the surface sciences, material science, or the nanosciences. The experienced researcher, professional or academic teacher will appreciate the opportunity to share many insights and ideas that have grown out of the author's long experience. Readers will likewise appreciate the wide range of topics treated, each supported by extensive references. Graduate students will benefit f...

  15. Interface control scheme for computer high-speed interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Control scheme is general and performs for multiplexed and dedicated channels as well as for data-bus interfaces. Control comprises two 64-pin, dual in-line packages, each of which holds custom large-scale integrated array built with silicon-on-sapphire complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  16. Interface language for diagnostic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The neutron multichannel collimator diagnostic on TFTR is run with the help of a keyboard-entered interface language. The language allows the user to interact with the real-time control and data analysis systems in a consistent and efficient manner. It uses a vocabulary that can be abbreviated into one character commands which the proficient user may concatenate into command words. This allows the user to progress quickly from a novice to an expert operating mode. A similar type interface language could be applied to many interactive applications accepting keyboard inputs

  17. Polymers and biopolymers at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. R.; Geoghegan, M.

    2018-03-01

    This review updates recent progress in the understanding of the behaviour of polymers at surfaces and interfaces, highlighting examples in the areas of wetting, dewetting, crystallization, and ‘smart’ materials. Recent developments in analysis tools have yielded a large increase in the study of biological systems, and some of these will also be discussed, focussing on areas where surfaces are important. These areas include molecular binding events and protein adsorption as well as the mapping of the surfaces of cells. Important techniques commonly used for the analysis of surfaces and interfaces are discussed separately to aid the understanding of their application.

  18. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  19. The interface at the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2011-01-01

    In the development of and discourses around interfaces there has always been a strong urge to bypass representation and ‘jack’ directly in to the human brain, consciousness, perceptions and feelings. In her article ”The interface at the skin” Lone Koefoed Hansen looks at how two contemporary...... computing is the newest example of a technological development implicitly or explicitly aiming at manifesting two utopian parameters of communication: immediacy and instantaneity. Though utopian, this manifestation has served as a way to brand Philips “as a highly innovative and remarkable company”....

  20. Interfacing robotics with plutonium fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Interfacing robotic systems with nuclear fuel fabrication processes resulted in a number of interfacing challenges. The system not only interfaces with the fuel process, but must also interface with nuclear containment, radiation control boundaries, criticality control restrictions, and numerous other safety systems required in a fuel fabrication plant. The robotic system must be designed to allow operator interface during maintenance and recovery from an upset as well as normal operations

  1. Accelerator-tem interface facility and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; He Jun; Yang Zheng; Zhou Lin; Liu Chuansheng; Guo Liping; Jiang Changzhong; Yang Shibo; Fu Dejun; Fan Xiangjun; Liu Jiarui; Lee, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator-TEM interface facility has been established at Wuhan University. The system consists of an H800 TEM linked to a 200 kV ion implanter and a 2 x 1.7 MV tandetron accelerator. Measures were taken to isolate the TEM from mechanical vibration transmitted from the ion beam lines and good resolution was maintained with the TEM machine when operated under high zoom modes during the ion implantation. Nitrogen ions at 115 keV were successfully transported from the implanter into the TEM chamber through the interface system, and the ion currents measured at the entrance of the TEM column were between 20 and 180 nA. Structural evolution caused by ion irradiation in Si, GaAs, nanocrystal Ag were observed in situ. The TEM sample could be tilted by 52 degree and for low energy ion irradiation, real time observation was realized. The in situ observation showed that the critical implant dose for amorphization of Si is 2 x 10 14 cm -2 and it became fully amorphized at 3 x 10 15 cm -2 . Amorphization of GaAs started at 1 x 10 14 cm -2 , whereas for nanocrystal Ag, the starting dose was 6 x 10 14 cm -2 . The nuclear material C276 samples implanted with 115 keV Ar+ was also studied and dislocation loops with sizes of 3-12 nm were clearly observed after implantation to doses higher than 1 x 10 15 cm -2 . The density of the loops increased with the increase in the implant dose and evolution to polycrystalline and amorphous structures were observed at 5 x 10 15 cm -2 and 3 x 10 16 cm -2 , respectively. An in situ RBS/C chamber has been installed on the transport line of the accelerator-TEM interface system. This makes it possible to in situ measure composition and location of impurities in the lattice of the implanted samples. In addition, a 50 kV low-energy gaseous ion generator was installed close to the TEM chamber, which facilitates in situ TEM observation of helium bubbles formed in materials by helium implantation. (authors)

  2. Interfacing real-time information with OILMAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, E.; Jayko, K.; Spaulding, M.

    1993-01-01

    OILMAP is a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based oil spill response system applicable to oil spill contingency planning and real-time response for any location in the world. OILMAP has a graphic user interface and was designed in a modular framework so that different spill models could be incorporated into the system, as well as a suite of sophisticated data management tools, without increasing the complexity of the user interface. The basic OILMAP configuration contains a surface trajectory model intended for rapid, first-order estimates of spill movement. A variety of additional models are available within the OILMAP shell to address issues such as weathering, cleanup activities, and probabilities of oiling. A simplified geographic information system (GIS) allows display and manipulation of point, line, and area data geographically referenced to the spill domain. The GIS can import raster data so that images collected by satellite and aerial photography may be displayed. Several new capabilities have been implemented for OILMAP that allow real-time data to be integrated. These features include linking with the OILTRACKER free-floating buoys via a global positioning system, linking of hydrodynamic data from the Ocean Data and Information Network, the Harvard ocean forecasting system, and SeaSonde radar, and the capability of importing spill observations from any remotely sensed data. A further link between OILMAP's GIS and spill models has been developed which allows model predictions to be corrected to observed oil locations while the model runs. 13 refs., 6 figs

  3. Thermodynamic stabilization of precipitates through interface segregation: Chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadambi, Sourabh B.; Patala, Srikanth

    2017-09-01

    Precipitation hardening, which relies on a high density of intermetallic precipitates, is a commonly utilized technique for strengthening structural alloys. At high temperatures, however, the precipitates often coarsen to reduce the excess energy of the interface, resulting in a significant reduction in the strengthening achieved. In certain ternary alloys, secondary solute segregation to the interface has been observed to result in the formation of a high density of nanosized precipitates that provide enhanced strength and are resistant to coarsening. To understand the chemical effects involved, and to identify such segregating systems, we develop a thermodynamic model using the framework of the regular nanocrystalline solution model. For various global compositions, temperatures, and thermodynamic parameters, we evaluate equilibrium configurations of a Mg-Sn-Zn alloy by minimizing the Gibbs free energy function with respect to region-specific (bulk solid solution, interface, and precipitate) concentrations and sizes. The results show that Mg2Sn precipitates can be stabilized to nanoscale sizes through Zn segregation to the Mg /Mg2Sn interface, and the precipitates can be stabilized against coarsening at high temperatures through strong Mg-Zn interface interaction. Together with the inclusion of elastic strain energy effects, kinetic contributions, and the input of computationally informed interface parameters in the future, the model is expected to provide a more realistic prediction of segregation and precipitate stabilization in ternary alloys of structural importance.

  4. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  5. Embodied agents in de interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, M.J.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2001-01-01

    Steeds meer zien we het gebruik van mensachtige, geanimeerde figuren in interfaces en andere software applicaties, niet alleen in onderzoeksprojecten maar ook in commerciële software. Een voorbeeld dat bijna iedereen wel kent (en waar velen wel wat op aan te merken hebben) is de ‘office assistant’

  6. Control system oriented human interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, P.; Jacobson, V.; Kilgore, R.; Rondeau, D.

    1976-11-01

    The on-line control system interface for magnet beam steering and focusing in the Bevalac is described. An Aydin model 5205B display generator was chosen. This display generator will allow the computer to completely rewrite a monitor screen in less than 50 ms and is also capable of controlling a color monitor

  7. Interface engineering for organic electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong; Yip, Hin-Lap; Jen, Alex K.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Huang, Fei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology Guangzhou (China)

    2010-05-10

    The field of organic electronics has been developed vastly in the past two decades due to its promise for low cost, lightweight, mechanical flexibility, versatility of chemical design and synthesis, and ease of processing. The performance and lifetime of these devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaics (OPVs), and field-effect transistors (OFETs), are critically dependent on the properties of both active materials and their interfaces. Interfacial properties can be controlled ranging from simple wettability or adhesion between different materials to direct modifications of the electronic structure of the materials. In this Feature Article, the strategies of utilizing surfactant-modified cathodes, hole-transporting buffer layers, and self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified anodes are highlighted. In addition to enabling the production of high-efficiency OLEDs, control of interfaces in both conventional and inverted polymer solar cells is shown to enhance their efficiency and stability; and the tailoring of source-drain electrode-semiconductor interfaces, dielectric-semiconductor interfaces, and ultrathin dielectrics is shown to allow for high-performance OFETs. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Spelling Correction in User Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-20

    we have concluded that there are considerable benefits and few obstacles to providing a spelling corrector in almost any interactie user interface. Key...the ACAI 23, 12 (December 1980), 676-687. 8. John F. Reiser (ed.). SAIL Manual. Stanford University Computer Science Department, 1976. 9. Warren

  9. A Portable Natural Language Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    and that would integrate graphics, mouse deixis , and natural language. Although the project was originally intended to last several years, it has been...planning program, an expert system used to plan air attack missions for the Air Force. This interface combined English with graphics and mouse deixis

  10. Adhesive forces at bimetallic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.; Nafari, N.; Ziesche, P.; Kaschner, H.R.

    1987-03-01

    Force concepts in condensed systems have progressed significantly in recent years. In the context of bimetallic interfaces we consider the Pauli-Hellman-Feynman theorem, use it to check the variational calculations of interfacial energies and estimate the force constants. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Web OPAC Interfaces: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, B. Ramesh; O'Brien, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of Web-based online public access catalogs (OPACs) focuses on a review of six Web OPAC interfaces in use in academic libraries in the United Kingdom. Presents a checklist and guidelines of important features and functions that are currently available, including search strategies, access points, display, links, and layout. (Author/LRW)

  12. Interface design for digital courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, Huib; Kester, Liesbeth; Hummel, Hans; Nadolski, Rob

    2005-01-01

    This text should be referred to as: Tabbers, H., Kester, L., Hummel, H. G. K., & Nadolski, R. J. (2003). Interface design for digital courses. In W. Jochems, J. van Merriënboer, & R. Koper (Eds). Integrated e-learning: implications for pedagogy, technology & organisation (pp. 100-111). London:

  13. Usability of Nomadic User Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, W.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, a number of research activities have been performed to enable user interfaces and the underlying user activities to be migrated from one device to another. We call this “Nomadic User Interfaces”. The primary goal of these research activities has been to develop the

  14. Wheel/rail interface optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shevtsov, I.Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, wheel/rail interface optimisation, and particularly the problems of wheel and rail profile design are considered. The research task pursued by this thesis engenders investigation of a range of problems. First, geometric properties of contact between wheel and rail are investigated.

  15. An Object -Based VRML Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Shinji; Suzaki, Kenichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    This paper proposes an object-based VRML interface that can reduce the burden of both users and developers. In order to automatically generate the object menu, a new VRML node type that defines the names of objects in a scene graph is introduced together with the methods for real-time control of an active viewpoint node.

  16. The steel–concrete interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angst, Ueli M.; Geiker, Mette Rica; Michel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Although the steel–concrete interface (SCI) is widely recognized to influence the durability of reinforced concrete, a systematic overview and detailed documentation of the various aspects of the SCI are lacking. In this paper, we compiled a comprehensive list of possible local characteristics...

  17. Emotional Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Molina, G.; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus; Tsoneva, T.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Heylen, D.K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Research in brain-computer interface (BCI) has significantly increased during the last few years. Additionally to their initial role as assisting devices for the physically challenged, BCIs are now proposed for a wider range of applications. As any human-machine interaction system, BCIs can benefit

  18. Robust Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.

    2011-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables direct communication from the brain to devices, bypassing the traditional pathway of peripheral nerves and muscles. Current BCIs aimed at patients require that the user invests weeks, or even months, to learn the skill to intentionally modify their brain

  19. Monitoring and Control Interface Based on Virtual Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo F. Escobar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a toolbox based on a monitoring and control interface (MCI is presented and applied in a heat exchanger. The MCI was programed in order to realize sensor fault detection and isolation and fault tolerance using virtual sensors. The virtual sensors were designed from model-based high-gain observers. To develop the control task, different kinds of control laws were included in the monitoring and control interface. These control laws are PID, MPC and a non-linear model-based control law. The MCI helps to maintain the heat exchanger under operation, even if a temperature outlet sensor fault occurs; in the case of outlet temperature sensor failure, the MCI will display an alarm. The monitoring and control interface is used as a practical tool to support electronic engineering students with heat transfer and control concepts to be applied in a double-pipe heat exchanger pilot plant. The method aims to teach the students through the observation and manipulation of the main variables of the process and by the interaction with the monitoring and control interface (MCI developed in LabVIEW©. The MCI provides the electronic engineering students with the knowledge of heat exchanger behavior, since the interface is provided with a thermodynamic model that approximates the temperatures and the physical properties of the fluid (density and heat capacity. An advantage of the interface is the easy manipulation of the actuator for an automatic or manual operation. Another advantage of the monitoring and control interface is that all algorithms can be manipulated and modified by the users.

  20. Universal morphologies of fluid interfaces deformed by the radiation pressure of acoustic or electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, N; Chraïbi, H; Wunenburger, R; Delville, J-P; Brasselet, E

    2012-12-14

    We unveil the generation of universal morphologies of fluid interfaces by radiation pressure regardless of the nature of the wave, whether acoustic or optical. Experimental observations reveal interface deformations endowed with steplike features that are shown to result from the interplay between the wave propagation and the shape of the interface. The results are supported by numerical simulations and a quantitative interpretation based on the waveguiding properties of the field is provided.

  1. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-12-15

    Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the

  2. UNIVERSAL INTERFACE TO MULTIPLE OPERATIONS SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1986-01-01

    Alternative ways to provide access to operations systems that maintain, test, and configure complex telephone networks are being explored. It is suggested that a universal interface that provides simultaneous access to multiple operations systems that execute in different hardware and software...... environments, can be provided by an architecture that is based on the separation of presentation issues from application issues and on a modular interface management system that consists of a virtual user interface, physical user interface, and interface agent. The interface functionality that is needed...

  3. ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa da Silva Alan W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like GROMACS, CHARMM and CNS. It is written in the Python programming language and was developed as a tool for interfacing with other Python based applications such as the CCPN software suite (for NMR data analysis and ARIA (for structure calculations from NMR data. ACPYPE is open source code, under GNU GPL v3, and is available as a stand-alone application at http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype and as a web portal application at http://webapps.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype. Findings We verified the topologies generated by ACPYPE in three ways: by comparing with default AMBER topologies for standard amino acids; by generating and verifying topologies for a large set of ligands from the PDB; and by recalculating the structures for 5 protein–ligand complexes from the PDB. Conclusions ACPYPE is a tool that simplifies the automatic generation of topology and parameters in different formats for different molecular mechanics programmes, including calculation of partial charges, while being object oriented for integration with other applications.

  4. ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa da Silva, Alan W; Vranken, Wim F

    2012-07-23

    ACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE) is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like GROMACS, CHARMM and CNS. It is written in the Python programming language and was developed as a tool for interfacing with other Python based applications such as the CCPN software suite (for NMR data analysis) and ARIA (for structure calculations from NMR data). ACPYPE is open source code, under GNU GPL v3, and is available as a stand-alone application at http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype and as a web portal application at http://webapps.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype. We verified the topologies generated by ACPYPE in three ways: by comparing with default AMBER topologies for standard amino acids; by generating and verifying topologies for a large set of ligands from the PDB; and by recalculating the structures for 5 protein-ligand complexes from the PDB. ACPYPE is a tool that simplifies the automatic generation of topology and parameters in different formats for different molecular mechanics programmes, including calculation of partial charges, while being object oriented for integration with other applications.

  5. Evaluation of navigation interfaces in virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Daniel R.

    2014-02-01

    When users are immersed in cave-like virtual reality systems, navigational interfaces have to be used when the size of the virtual environment becomes larger than the physical extent of the cave floor. However, using navigation interfaces, physically static users experience self-motion (visually-induced vection). As a consequence, sensorial incoherence between vision (indicating self-motion) and other proprioceptive inputs (indicating immobility) can make them feel dizzy and disoriented. We tested, in two experimental studies, different locomotion interfaces. The objective was twofold: testing spatial learning and cybersickness. In a first experiment, using first-person navigation with a flystick ®, we tested the effect of sensorial aids, a spatialized sound or guiding arrows on the ground, attracting the user toward the goal of the navigation task. Results revealed that sensorial aids tended to impact negatively spatial learning. Moreover, subjects reported significant levels of cybersickness. In a second experiment, we tested whether such negative effects could be due to poorly controlled rotational motion during simulated self-motion. Subjects used a gamepad, in which rotational and translational displacements were independently controlled by two joysticks. Furthermore, we tested first- versus third-person navigation. No significant difference was observed between these two conditions. Overall, cybersickness tended to be lower, as compared to experiment 1, but the difference was not significant. Future research should evaluate further the hypothesis of the role of passively perceived optical flow in cybersickness, but manipulating the virtual environment'sperrot structure. It also seems that video-gaming experience might be involved in the user's sensitivity to cybersickness.

  6. Defect Engineering and Interface Phenomena in Tin Oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Albar, Arwa

    2017-04-05

    The advance in transparent electronics requires high-performance transparent conducting oxide materials. The microscopic properties of these materials are sensitive to the presence of defects and interfaces and thus fundamental understanding is required for materials engineering. In this thesis, first principles density functional theory is used to investigate the possibility of tuning the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of tin oxide by means of defects and interfaces. Our aim is to reveal unique properties and the parameters to control them as well as to explain the origin of unique phenomena in oxide materials. The stability of native defect in tin monoxide (SnO) under strain is investigated using formation energy calculations. We find that the conductivity (which is controlled by native defects) can be switched from p-type to either n-type or undoped semiconducting by means of applied pressure. We then target inducing magnetism in SnO by 3d transition metal doping. We propose that V doping is efficient to realize spin polarization at high temperature. We discuss different tin oxide interfaces. Metallic states are found to form at the SnO/SnO2 interface with electronic properties that depend on the interface terminations. The origin of these states is explained in terms of charge transfer caused by chemical bonding and band alignment. For the SnO/SnO2 heterostructure, we observe the formation of a two dimensional hole gas at the interface, which is surprising as it cannot be explained by the standard polar catastrophe model. Thus, we propose a charge density discontinuity model to explain our results. The model can be generalized to other polar-polar interfaces. Motivated by technological applications, the electronic and structural properties of the MgO (100)/SnO2 (110) interface are investigated. Depending on the interface termination, we observe the formation of a two dimensional electron gas or spin polarized hole gas. Aiming to identify further

  7. Influence of interface properties on fracture behaviour of concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An attempt has been made in this paper to study the interface and its influence on the behaviour of concrete using sandwich, and direct rock-mortar compact specimens under mode I and mode II loading effects. 3. Research significance. The stress–strain response in high strength concrete has been observed to be linear up ...

  8. Modeling charge transfer at organic donor-acceptor semiconductor interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cakir, Deniz; Bokdam, Menno; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Fahlman, M.; Brocks, G.

    2012-01-01

    We develop an integer charge transfer model for the potential steps observed at interfaces between donor and acceptor molecular semiconductors. The potential step can be expressed as the difference between the Fermi energy pinning levels of electrons on the acceptor material and holes on the donor

  9. Command Interface ASIC - Analog Interface ASIC Chip Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Baldes; Jaffe, Burton; Burke, Gary; Lung, Gerald; Pixler, Gregory; Plummer, Joe; Katanyoutanant,, Sunant; Whitaker, William

    2003-01-01

    A command interface application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and an analog interface ASIC have been developed as a chip set for remote actuation and monitoring of a collection of switches, which can be used to control generic loads, pyrotechnic devices, and valves in a high-radiation environment. The command interface ASIC (CIA) can be used alone or in combination with the analog interface ASIC (AIA). Designed primarily for incorporation into spacecraft control systems, they are also suitable for use in high-radiation terrestrial environments (e.g., in nuclear power plants and facilities that process radioactive materials). The primary role of the CIA within a spacecraft or other power system is to provide a reconfigurable means of regulating the power bus, actuating all valves, firing all pyrotechnic devices, and controlling the switching of power to all switchable loads. The CIA is a mixed-signal (analog and digital) ASIC that includes an embedded microcontroller with supporting fault-tolerant switch control and monitoring circuitry that is capable of connecting to a redundant set of interintegrated circuit (I(sup 2)C) buses. Commands and telemetry requests are communicated to the CIA. Adherence to the I(sup 2)C bus standard helps to reduce development costs by facilitating the use of previously developed, commercially available components. The AIA is a mixed-signal ASIC that includes the analog circuitry needed to connect the CIA to a custom higher powered version of the I(sup 2)C bus. The higher-powered version is designed to enable operation with bus cables longer than those contemplated in the I(sup 2)C standard. If there are multiple higher-power I(sup 2)C-like buses, then there must an AIA between the CIA and each such bus. The AIA includes two identical interface blocks: one for the side-A I(sup 2)C clock and data buses and the other for the side B buses. All the AIAs on each side are powered from a common power converter module (PCM). Sides A and B

  10. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    kulturhistoriske udviklingsfaser. Den tegner også et billede af, hvordan interfacet forandrer vores musikkultur, og hvordan de digitale kunstværker udfordrer vores økonomi og jura. Interfacet er vor tids drøm om gennemsigtighed, om at nå ind bag formidlingen. Det er dog også andet og mere end funktionel teknologi...

  11. Is structural interface standardization beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombert, W. E.

    1983-11-01

    Factors applicable to fixed angle, large field and fixed angle, large building flat plate photovoltaic (PV) generator arrays are discussed in the context of standardization. It is concluded that structural interface standardization may be highly desirable in any one major project, but not at this time in the overall PV industry. Attempts to mandate such standardization will act as a deterrent to long-range improvements. In specific projects, structural standardization should be defined at the largest practical interface, leaving the maximum possible freedom to the module and array manufacturer. There is a corollary area, however, where detailed standards would benefit the industry; the matter of Standard Practices. Work being done towards definition of acceptable/desirable practices in materials, finishes, fastening and locking methods, grounding techniques, lightning protection, etc., and in handling the environmental ranges, should be continued.

  12. Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, David [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Murphy, Catherine [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Martin, Lane [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-10-21

    Our research program on Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces advanced understanding of the mesoscale science of heat conduction. At the length and time scales of atoms and atomic motions, energy is transported by interactions between single-particle and collective excitations. At macroscopic scales, entropy, temperature, and heat are the governing concepts. Key gaps in fundamental knowledge appear at the transitions between these two regimes. The transport of thermal energy at interfaces plays a pivotal role in these scientific issues. Measurements of heat transport with ultrafast time resolution are needed because picoseconds are the fundamental scales where the lack of equilibrium between various thermal excitations becomes a important factor in the transport physics. A critical aspect of our work has been the development of experimental methods and model systems that enabled more precise and sensitive investigations of nanoscale thermal transport.

  13. Brookhaven fastbus/unibus interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenson, G.; Bauernfeind, J.; Larsen, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    A typical high energy physics experiment requires both a high speed data acquisition and processing system, for data collection and reduction; and a general purpose computer to handle further reduction, bookkeeping and mass storage. Broad differences in architecture, format or technology, will often exist between these two systems, and interface design can become a formidable task. The PDP-11 series minicomputer is widely used in physics research, and the Brookhaven FASTBUS is the only standard high speed data acquisition system which is fully implemented in a current high energy physics experiment. This paper will describe the design and operation of an interface between these two systems. The major issues are elucidated by a preliminary discussion on the basic principles of Bus Systems, and their application to Brookhaven FASTBUS and UNIBUS

  14. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marco; Öttinger, Hans Christian; Savin, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Interfacial thermodynamics has deep ramifications in understanding the boundary conditions of transport theories. We present a formulation of local equilibrium for interfaces that extends the thermodynamics of the "dividing surface," as introduced by Gibbs, to nonequilibrium settings such as evaporation or condensation. By identifying the precise position of the dividing surface in the interfacial region with a gauge degree of freedom, we exploit gauge-invariance requirements to consistently define the intensive variables for the interface. The model is verified under stringent conditions by employing high-precision nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of a coexisting vapor-liquid Lennard-Jones fluid. We conclude that the interfacial temperature is determined using the surface tension as a "thermometer," and it can be significantly different from the temperatures of the adjacent phases. Our findings lay foundations for nonequilibrium interfacial thermodynamics.

  15. Interfaces in ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.

    Internal interfaces in all-ceramic dispersion fuels (such as these for HTGRs) are discussed for two classes: BeO-based dispersions, and coated particles for graphite-based fuels. The following points are made: (1) The strength of a two-phase dispersion is controlled by the weaker dispersed phase bonded to the matrix. (2) Differential expansion between two phases can be controlled by an intermediate buffer zone of low density. (3) A thin ceramic coating should be in compression. (4) Chemical reaction between coating and substrate and mass transfer in service should be minimized. The problems of the nuclear fuel designer are to develop coatings for fission product retention, and to produce radiation-resistant interfaces. 44 references, 18 figures

  16. Soft matter at aqueous interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the science of interfaces between an aqueous phase and a solid, another liquid or a gaseous phase, starting from the basic physical chemistry all the way to state-of-the-art research developments. Both experimental and theoretical methods are treated thanks to the contributions of a distinguished list of authors who are all active researchers in their respective fields. The properties of these interfaces are crucial for a wide variety of processes, products and biological systems and functions, such as the formulation of personal care and food products, paints and coatings, microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip applications, cell membranes, and lung surfactants. Accordingly, research and expertise on the subject are spread over a broad range of academic disciplines and industrial laboratories. This book brings together knowledge from these different places with the aim of fostering education, collaborations and research progress.

  17. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    content (99.8% Ni and 99.995% Ni) were used to examine the impact of impurities on the polarisation resistance and contact area morphology. The electropolished nickel wires were pressed against a polished 8 mol% YSZ surface. Extensive structural changes from a flat interface to a hill and valley structure...... between polarised and non-polarised samples. With pure nickel wires, however, the microstructures depended on the polarisation/non-polarisation conditions. At non-polarised conditions a hill and valley type structure was found. Anodic polarisation produced an up to 1 μm thick interface layer consisting...... of nano-sized YSZ particles with some Ni present. At cathodic polarisation both a granulated structure and a hill and valley structure resembling the structure of non-polarised samples were found. Small impurity ridges were surrounding the contact areas on non-polarised and cathodically polarised samples...

  18. Towards personalized adaptive user interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Vlaho; Fukuda, Shuchi; Yanagisawa, Hideyoshi

    2002-01-01

    An approach towards standardization of the general rules for synthesis and design of man machine interfaces that include dynamic adaptive behavior is presented. The link between the personality type (Myers-Briggs or Kersey Temperament sorter) and the personal preferences of the users (Kansei) for the purpose of building Graphical User Interface (GU]) was investigated. The rules for a personalized el-notional GUI based on the subjective preferences of the users were defined. The results were tested on a modified TETRIS game that displayed background characters capable of emotional response. When the system responded to a user in a manner that is customized to his or her preferences, the reaction time was smaller and the information transfer was faster. Usability testing methods were used and it was shown that development of pleasant cartoon face GUI based on the users inborn personality tendencies was feasible. (Author)

  19. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  20. Tightness of voter model interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sturm, A.; Swart, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2008), s. 165-174 ISSN 1083-589X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/06/1323; GA ČR GA201/07/0237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long range voter model * swapping voter model * interface tightness * exclusion process Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.392, year: 2008 http://www.emis.de/journals/EJP-ECP/_ejpecp/index.html

  1. The Interface Theory of Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Singh, Manish; Prakash, Chetan

    2015-12-01

    Perception is a product of evolution. Our perceptual systems, like our limbs and livers, have been shaped by natural selection. The effects of selection on perception can be studied using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms. To this end, we define and classify perceptual strategies and allow them to compete in evolutionary games in a variety of worlds with a variety of fitness functions. We find that veridical perceptions--strategies tuned to the true structure of the world--are routinely dominated by nonveridical strategies tuned to fitness. Veridical perceptions escape extinction only if fitness varies monotonically with truth. Thus, a perceptual strategy favored by selection is best thought of not as a window on truth but as akin to a windows interface of a PC. Just as the color and shape of an icon for a text file do not entail that the text file itself has a color or shape, so also our perceptions of space-time and objects do not entail (by the Invention of Space-Time Theorem) that objective reality has the structure of space-time and objects. An interface serves to guide useful actions, not to resemble truth. Indeed, an interface hides the truth; for someone editing a paper or photo, seeing transistors and firmware is an irrelevant hindrance. For the perceptions of H. sapiens, space-time is the desktop and physical objects are the icons. Our perceptions of space-time and objects have been shaped by natural selection to hide the truth and guide adaptive behaviors. Perception is an adaptive interface.

  2. Field interface module software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtier, H.

    1982-01-01

    The software for the field interface module (FIM) is designed to fully optimize the hardware capabilities of the FIM. Software routines exist which enable the FIM to monitor data, control components, communicate with an uplink computer, and perform real-time and local self-diagnostics. The FIM program is not dependent upon any particular uplink computer and is adaptable to various applications with a miniumum of modifications.

  3. Surface Waves on Metamaterials Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    2016-01-01

    We analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at the interface between isotropic medium and effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectrics layers. This configuration can host various types of surface waves and therefore can serve as a rich...... platform for applications of surface photonics. Most of these surface waves are directional and as such their propagation can be effectively controlled by changing wavelength or material parameters tuning....

  4. Working with Elthar; AN Intelligent Music Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, Bradford Glenn

    Elthar is a computer music interface designed to function with incomplete or inexact specifications of parameters. Elthar's natural language interpreter translates user requests into a command format for the activation of various signal processing algorithms in the CMIX digital synthesis environment. If the user does not supply all of the required parameters for a given algorithm, Elthar consults a large probabilistic knowledge-base for the needed values. This knowledge-base is compiled and maintained by the Elthar program through observations of how the algorithms are employed by the user. Elthar is also capable of learning descriptive attributes and creating new data through a unique analogy mechanism. The choice of input influences Elthar's selection of signal-processing parameters, allowing Elthar to draw upon different operational features for different types of sounds. The goal of this effort was to create an interface that could model musical "collaborations". This paper discusses the structure of the Elthar program and the author's experience in working with Elthar to create the piece There's no place like Home.

  5. Regenerative scaffold electrodes for peripheral nerve interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Isaac P; Mukhatyar, Vivek J; Srinivasan, Akhil; Bentley, John T; Andreasen, Dinal S; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

    2013-07-01

    Advances in neural interfacing technology are required to enable natural, thought-driven control of a prosthetic limb. Here, we describe a regenerative electrode design in which a polymer-based thin-film electrode array is integrated within a thin-film sheet of aligned nanofibers, such that axons regenerating from a transected peripheral nerve are topographically guided across the electrode recording sites. Cultures of dorsal root ganglia were used to explore design parameters leading to cellular migration and neurite extension across the nanofiber/electrode array boundary. Regenerative scaffold electrodes (RSEs) were subsequently fabricated and implanted across rat tibial nerve gaps to evaluate device recording capabilities and influence on nerve regeneration. In 20 of these animals, regeneration was compared between a conventional nerve gap model and an amputation model. Characteristic shaping of regenerated nerve morphology around the embedded electrode array was observed in both groups, and regenerated axon profile counts were similar at the eight week end point. Implanted RSEs recorded evoked neural activity in all of these cases, and also in separate implantations lasting up to five months. These results demonstrate that nanofiber-based topographic cues within a regenerative electrode can influence nerve regeneration, to the potential benefit of a peripheral nerve interface suitable for limb amputees.

  6. Interface roughness in Mo/Si multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelcu, I.; Kruijs, R.W.E. van de; Yakshin, A.E.; Tichelaar, F.; Zoethout, E.; Louis, E.; Enkisch, H.; Muellender, S.; Bijkerk, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present a study of surface roughness development at the molybdenum-on-silicon and silicon-on-molybdenum interfaces in Mo/Si multilayers as employed in Extreme UV lithography. Thin Mo/Si multilayers, with layer thicknesses of 3-5 nm, were deposited using electron beam evaporation. The effect of ion treatment on the surface roughness was studied by X-ray reflectometry and transmission electron microscopy. Without ion treatment we observed build up of correlated roughness. The roughness development is shown here to depend strongly on the thickness of the crystalline Mo layer. Independent of the Mo ratio in a period, we show that a minimal amount of ion treatment is required to smoothen the multilayer roughness, which is also confirmed by EUV reflectivity measurements. At high ion energies the layers become smoother due to a larger ion penetration depth. The higher penetration depth is also shown to initiate additional interdiffusion and structural changes at buried interfaces

  7. Hybridization and Modification of the Ni/C60 Composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacík, Jiří; Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Naramoto, H.

    CP1099, CP1099 (2009), s. 553-556 ISSN 1551-7616. [CAARI 2008, 20th International Conference on the Application. 10.08.2009-15.08.2009, Dallas Forth-Worth] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200480702; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400100701; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Fullerene * Nickel * Composite materials * Phase separation Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials http://proceedings.aip.org/proceedings/confproceed/1099.js

  8. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  9. User acquaintance with mobile interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrler, Frederic; Walesa, Magali; Sarrey, Evelyne; Wipfli, Rolf; Lovis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Handheld technology finds slowly its place in the healthcare world. Some clinicians already use intensively dedicated mobile applications to consult clinical references. However, handheld technology hasn't still broadly embraced to the core of the healthcare business, the hospitals. The weak penetration of handheld technology in the hospitals can be partly explained by the caution of stakeholders that must be convinced about the efficiency of these tools before going forward. In a domain where temporal constraints are increasingly strong, caregivers cannot loose time on playing with gadgets. All users are not comfortable with tactile manipulations and the lack of dedicated peripheral complicates entering data for novices. Stakeholders must be convinced that caregivers will be able to master handheld devices. In this paper, we make the assumption that the proper design of an interface may influence users' performances to record information. We are also interested to find out whether users increase their efficiency when using handheld tools repeatedly. To answer these questions, we have set up a field study to compare users' performances on three different user interfaces while recording vital signs. Some user interfaces were familiar to users, and others were totally innovative. Results showed that users' familiarity with smartphone influences their performances and that users improve their performances by repeating a task.

  10. MEDIA : MEDoc Interface for AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alingery, P.; Soubrié, E.; Auchère, F.; Bocchialini, K.; Boignard, J. P.; Buchlin, E.; Malappert, J. C.; Parenti, S.

    2013-03-01

    MEDOC, the space solar data center at Orsay (http://www.ias.u-psud.fr/medoc) is now providing a new web access to the AIA/SDO level 1 images. This interface has the advantage of being simple, intuitive, very stable and fast. The full resolution 4k x 4k AIA level 1 images archived at MEDOC are downloaded from upstream DRMS nodes with a 1 minute cadence at all wavelengths. The dataset will be kept online on a redundant archive for the whole SDO mission duration. The FITS files are accessible via an user friendly web interface (http://medoc-sdo.ias.u-psud.fr) that allows users to request data by selecting a date range, the desired wavelengths and a sampling rate (choosing a cadence from 1 minute to 1 day). For each file, users can preview the image (using the Helioviewer tool) or display the header information before downloading the FITS files (with or without Rice-compression). This web interface was built using Sitools2, a tool developed by CNES, the French space agency, and supports most browsers. For more advanced users, a Search/Get Python module is also available at http://sdo.ias.u-psud.fr/python. The users can use it to build more complex yet more powerful queries. We encourage everyone in Europe and beyond to use these new services!

  11. Fluid mechanics of environmental interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gualtieri, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Preface Preface of the first editionBiographies of the authors Part one - Preliminaries1. Environmental fluid mechanics: Current issues and future outlook B. Cushman-Roisin, C. Gualtieri & D.T. MihailovicPart two - Processes at atmospheric interfaces2. Point source atmospheric diffusionB. Rajkovic, I. Arsenic & Z. Grsic3. Air-sea interaction V. Djurdjevic & B. Rajkovic4. Modelling of flux exchanges between heterogeneous surfaces and atmosphere D.T. Mihailovic & D. Kapor5. Desert dust uptake-transport and deposition mechanisms - impacts of dust on radiation, clouds and precipitation G. Kallos, P. Katsafados & C. SpyrouPart three - Processes at water interfaces6. Gas-transfer at unsheared free-surfaces C. Gualtieri & G. Pulci Doria7. Advective diffusion of air bubbles in turbulent water flows H. Chanson8. Exchanges at the bed sediments-water column interface F.A. Bombardelli & P.A. Moreno9. Surface water and streambed sediment interaction: The hyporheic exchange D. Tonina10. Environm...

  12. Bubble bursting at an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun; Sajjad, Kumayl; Anand, Sushant; Fezzaa, Kamel

    2017-11-01

    Bubble bursting is crucial to understanding the life span of bubbles at an interface and more importantly the nature of interaction between the bulk liquid and the outside environment from the point of view of chemical and biological material transport. The dynamics of the bubble as it rises from inside the liquid bulk to its disappearance on the interface after bursting is an intriguing process, many aspects of which are still being explored. In our study, we make detailed high speed imaging measurements to examine carefully the hole initiation and growth in bursting bubbles that unearth some interesting features of the process. Previous analyses available in literature are revisited based on our novel experimental visualizations. Using a combination of experiments and theory we investigate the role of various forces during the rupturing process. This work aims to further our current knowledge of bubble dynamics at an interface with an aim of predicting better the bubble evolution from its growth to its eventual integration with the liquid bulk.

  13. New amorphous interface for precipitate nitrides in steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    According to classical theories precipitate interfaces are described by their degree of coherency with the matrix, which affects their strengthening contribution. Investigations of nitride precipitate interfaces in 12% Cr steels with transmission electron microscopy have shown the nitrides...... to be enveloped in an amorphous shell a few nm thick, thus leaving them without any coherency with the matrix. The amorphous nature of the shells could be ascertained with high resolution microscopy and dark field techniques. When extracted from the ferrite matrix the amorphous shells were observed to crystallize...

  14. Frictional processes of bimaterial interfaces at seismic slip rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passelegue, F. X.; Fabbri, O.; Leclère, H.; Spagnuolo, E.; Di Toro, G.

    2017-12-01

    Large subduction earthquakes ruptures propagate from crustal rock toward the sea floor along frictional interfaces of different lythologies. Up to now, frictional processes of rocks were mainly investigated along single material experimental faults. Here, we present the results of high velocity friction experiments coupled with high frequency acoustic monitoring system on biomaterial interfaces including gabbro, pyroxenite and serpentinized peridotite (>95%), following a recent field investigation highlighting bimaterial contacts in the Corsica ophiolitic nappe. We first studied the frictional processes of single materials which result in a mechanical behaviour comparable to previous studies. Both gabbro and pyroxenite exhibit two weakening stages. The first one corresponds to flash heating and the second stage occurs concomitantly with complete melting of the interface. In the case of serpentinite, only one weakening stage is observed, after a weakening slip distance of only few centimeters. We then conducted bimaterial experiments. The two couples tested were gabbro/pyroxenite and gabbro/serpentinite, as observed along natural fault zones (Corsica, France). In the case of gabbro/serpentinite, we observe that frictional processes are controlled by serpentinite. Mechanical curves replicate the behaviour of single serpentinite friction experiments. We observe that few melting occurs, and that the product of experiments consists in fine grained cataclasite, as observed in the field. The case of gabbro/pyroxenite is more complicated. The first weakening is controlled by the lithology of the sample installed on the static part of the rotary apparatus. However, the second weakening is controlled by the gabbro and mechanical curves are identical than those obtained in the case of single gabbro experiments. Supported by microstructural analysis and acoustic activity, our results suggest that frictional processes of bimaterial interfaces are controlled by the material

  15. Interface study of fiber reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacios, A.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In a composite material that uses fibers as reinforcement, the breakage of the matrix is produced jointly with the separation of the fiber from the matrix. The mechanical behavior of the interface describes how fibers can work stabilizing the cracking process. The interface is the medium that puts the fiber on load, being the mechanical behavior of the interface and the strength of the fiber two important parameters to consider to characterize the general behavior of the composite. The present work studies the effect of several parameters on the behavior of the interface. Those parameters are the type of fiber, its geometry and dimension and the modified matrix and loading rate. An experimental technique was designed to allow testing the same set-up for pull-out tests in a quasistatic machine and Charpy pendulum. Modifications of the matrix by adding a mineral admixture improve the behavior of the interface as much as a 100%. It has been observed that combining the two actions, an improved matrix with crimped fibers, the type of failure can be modified. In this new type of failure, the fiber breaks consequently toughness decreases. Other parameters, as the loading rate and inclination of the fiber also affect the behavior of the interface.

    En un material compuesto que utiliza fibras como refuerzo, la rotura de la matriz se produce conjuntamente con la separación de la fibra de la matriz, por lo que el comportamiento mecánico de la interfase describe hasta que punto las fibras pueden trabajar como estabilizadores en el proceso defisuración. La interfase es el medio que pone en carga a la fibra y, por ello, la resistencia mecánica de la interfase y de la fibra son dos parámetros importantes a considerar para caracterizar el comportamiento general del composite. Este trabajo investiga el efecto de la variación del tipo de fibra, geometría y dimensión de las mismas y las modificaciones de la matriz y la velocidad de desplazamiento

  16. Terahertz emission from ultrafast spin and charge currents at a Rashba interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qi; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Zhang, Wei; Pearson, John E.; Schaller, Richard; Wen, Haidan; Hoffmann, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: We demonstrate the efficient single-cycle THz emission from a Rashba interface, i.e., Ag/Bi, in a spintronic heterostructure. Different from the previously reported inversed spin Hall effect mechanism in bulk systems, the observed ultrafast spin-to-charge conversion in a 2D Rashba interface is due to the inversed Rashba-Edelstein effect.

  17. Atomic modifications by synchrotron radiation at the calcite-ethanol interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasarín, I. S.; Bovet, Nicolas Emile; Glyvradal, Magni

    2012-01-01

    -mineral interfaces where the polar OH group, as present in ethanol, plays a key role in their molecular structure and bonding. Also, the chemical evolution observed in the interface provides new insight into the behavior of some complex organic molecules involved in biomineralization processes....

  18. Time-resolved electrochemical measurement device for microscopic liquid interface during droplet formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuyama, Mao; Yoshida, Yumi; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Hibara, Akihide

    An electrochemical measurement system with a high-speed camera for observation of dynamic behavior of ionic molecules at a water-in-oil interface during microfluidic droplet formation is described. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the system, a liquid interface between 1 M sodium chloride

  19. Refactoring Fat Interfaces Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.; Raemaekers, S.; Pinzger, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the violation of the Interface Segregation Principle (ISP) is critical for maintaining and evolving software systems. Fat interfaces (i.e., interfaces violating the ISP) change more frequently and degrade the quality of the components coupled to them. According to the

  20. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  1. Topology Optimization using an Explicit Interface Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Bærentzen, J. Andreas

    Current methods for topology optimization primarily represent the interface between solid and void implicitly on fixed grids. In contrast, shape optimization methods represent the interface explicitly, but do not allow for any topological changes to the structure. Using an explicit interface repr...

  2. Si nanoparticle interfaces in Si/SiO solar cell materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, S.; Kujala, J.; Tuomisto, F.

    2013-01-01

    Novel solar cell materials consisting of Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers have been studied using positron annihilation spectroscopy in Doppler broadening mode and photoluminescence. Two positron-trapping interface states are observed after high temperature annealing at 1100 °C. One...... of the states is attributed to the (SiO2/Si bulk) interface and the other to the interface between the Si nanoparticles and SiO2. A small reduction in positron trapping into these states is observed after annealing the samples in N2 atmosphere with 5% H2. Enhanced photoluminescence is also observed from...... the samples following this annealing step....

  3. Bionic intrafascicular interfaces for recording and stimulating peripheral nerve fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ranu; Abbas, James J; Kuntaegowdanahalli, Sathyakumar; Thota, Anil K

    2018-01-01

    The network of peripheral nerves presents extraordinary potential for modulating and/or monitoring the functioning of internal organs or the brain. The degree to which these pathways can be used to influence or observe neural activity patterns will depend greatly on the quality and specificity of the bionic interface. The anatomical organization, which consists of multiple nerve fibers clustered into fascicles within a nerve bundle, presents opportunities and challenges that may necessitate insertion of electrodes into individual fascicles to achieve the specificity that may be required for many clinical applications. This manuscript reviews the current state-of-the-art in bionic intrafascicular interfaces, presents specific concerns for stimulation and recording, describes key implementation considerations and discusses challenges for future designs of bionic intrafascicular interfaces.

  4. Measurements of interface fracture properties of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkenazi, D.; Bank-Sills, L.; Travitzky, N.; Eliasi, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this investigation, interface Fracture properties are measured. To this end, glass/epoxy Brazilian disk specimens are studied. In order to calibrate the specimen, a numerical procedure is used. The finite element method is employed to derive stress intensity factors as a function of loading angle and crack length. By means of the weight friction method together with finite elements, a correction to the stress intensity factors for residual thermal stresses is obtained. These are combined to determine the critical interface energy release rate as a function of phase angle Tom the measured load and crack length at Fracture. A series of tests on a glass/epoxy material pair were carried out. It may be observed from the results that the residual thermal stresses resulting from the material mismatch greatly affect the interface toughness values

  5. Target acquisition with UAVs: vigilance displays and advanced cuing interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Daniel V; Warm, Joel S; Nelson, W Todd; Bolia, Robert S; Schumsky, Donald A; Corcoran, Kevin J

    2005-01-01

    Vigilance and threat detection are critical human factors considerations in the control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Utilizing a vigilance task in which threat detections (critical signals) led observers to perform a subsequent manual target acquisition task, this study provides information that might have important implications for both of these considerations in the design of future UAV systems. A sensory display format resulted in more threat detections, fewer false alarms, and faster target acquisition times and imposed a lighter workload than did a cognitive display format. Additionally, advanced visual, spatial-audio, and haptic cuing interfaces enhanced acquisition performance over no cuing in the target acquisition phase of the task, and they did so to a similar degree. Thus, in terms of potential applications, this research suggests that a sensory format may be the best display format for threat detection by future UAV operators, that advanced cuing interfaces may prove useful in future UAV systems, and that these interfaces are functionally interchangeable.

  6. Science at the interface : grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Follstaedt, David Martin; Knapp, James Arthur; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Hattar, Khalid M.; Clark, Blythe B.; Olmsted, David L.; Medlin, Douglas L.

    2009-09-01

    Interfaces are a critical determinant of the full range of materials properties, especially at the nanoscale. Computational and experimental methods developed a comprehensive understanding of nanograin evolution based on a fundamental understanding of internal interfaces in nanocrystalline nickel. It has recently been shown that nanocrystals with a bi-modal grain-size distribution possess a unique combination of high-strength, ductility and wear-resistance. We performed a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the structure and motion of internal interfaces in nanograined metal and the resulting grain evolution. The properties of grain boundaries are computed for an unprecedented range of boundaries. The presence of roughening transitions in grain boundaries is explored and related to dramatic changes in boundary mobility. Experimental observations show that abnormal grain growth in nanograined materials is unlike conventional scale material in both the level of defects and the formation of unfavored phases. Molecular dynamics simulations address the origins of some of these phenomena.

  7. X-ray investigation of Nb/O interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delheusy, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers and the future International Linear Collider project are based on the performance of niobium superconducting rf cavities for efficient particle acceleration. A remarkable increase of the rf accelerating field is usually achieved by low-temperature annealing of the cavities (T 2 O 5 , NbO 2 and NbO, from the surface to the interface. It reduces progressively upon heating from Nb 2 O 5 to NbO 2 at low temperatures, and to NbO at 300 C. The Nb(110)/NbO(111) interface presents a Nishiyama-Wassermann epitaxial orientation relationship. The depth-distribution of interstitial oxygen has been established indicating that most of the oxygen is located in the direct vicinity of the oxide/niobium interface. No evidence of oxygen depletion below the oxide layer has been observed for the low temperature thermal treatments and surface preparations investigated in this study. (orig.)

  8. Acid-base chemistry of frustrated water at protein interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Water molecules at a protein interface are often frustrated in hydrogen-bonding opportunities due to subnanoscale confinement. As shown, this condition makes them behave as a general base that may titrate side-chain ammonium and guanidinium cations. Frustration-based chemistry is captured by a quantum mechanical treatment of proton transference and shown to remove same-charge uncompensated anticontacts at the interface found in the crystallographic record and in other spectroscopic information on the aqueous interface. Such observations are untenable within classical arguments, as hydronium is a stronger acid than ammonium or guanidinium. Frustration enables a directed Grotthuss mechanism for proton transference stabilizing same-charge anticontacts. © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. RISA: Remote Interface for Science Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C.; Ibarra, A.; de La Calle, I.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.; Tapiador, D.

    2008-08-01

    The Scientific Analysis System (SAS) is the package for interactive and pipeline data reduction of all XMM-Newton data. Freely distributed by ESA to run under many different operating systems, the SAS has been used by almost every one of the 1600 refereed scientific publications obtained so far from the mission. We are developing RISA, the Remote Interface for Science Analysis, which makes it possible to run SAS through fully configurable web service workflows, enabling observers to access and analyse data making use of all of the existing SAS functionalities, without any installation/download of software/data. The workflows run primarily but not exclusively on the ESAC Grid, which offers scalable processing resources, directly connected to the XMM-Newton Science Archive. A first project internal version of RISA was issued in May 2007, a public release is expected already within this year.

  10. Extremal-point densities of interface fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toroczkai, Z.; Korniss, G.; Das Sarma, S.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce and investigate the stochastic dynamics of the density of local extrema (minima and maxima) of nonequilibrium surface fluctuations. We give a number of analytic results for interface fluctuations described by linear Langevin equations, and for on-lattice, solid-on-solid surface-growth models. We show that, in spite of the nonuniversal character of the quantities studied, their behavior against the variation of the microscopic length scales can present generic features, characteristic of the macroscopic observables of the system. The quantities investigated here provide us with tools that give an unorthodox approach to the dynamics of surface morphologies: a statistical analysis from the short-wavelength end of the Fourier decomposition spectrum. In addition to surface-growth applications, our results can be used to solve the asymptotic scalability problem of massively parallel algorithms for discrete-event simulations, which are extensively used in Monte Carlo simulations on parallel architectures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Integrated global digital image correlation for interface delamination characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Hoefnagels, Johan P.M.

    2013-07-23

    Interfacial delamination is a key reliability challenge in composites and micro-electronic systems due to (high-density) integration of dissimilar materials. Predictive finite element models are used to minimize delamination failures during design, but require accurate interface models to capture (irreversible) crack initiation and propagation behavior observed in experiments. Therefore, an Integrated Global Digital Image Correlation (I-GDIC) strategy is developed for accurate determination of mechanical interface behavior from in-situ delamination experiments. Recently, a novel miniature delamination setup was presented that enables in-situ microscopic characterization of interface delamination while sensitively measuring global load-displacement curves for all mode mixities. Nevertheless, extraction of detailed mechanical interface behavior from measured images is challenging, because deformations are tiny and measurement noise large. Therefore, an advanced I-GDIC methodology is developed which correlates the image patterns by only deforming the images using kinematically-admissible \\'eigenmodes\\' that correspond to the few parameters controlling the interface tractions in an analytic description of the crack tip deformation field, thereby greatly enhancing accuracy and robustness. This method is validated on virtual delamination experiments, simulated using a recently developed self-adaptive cohesive zone (CZ) finite element framework. © The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2014.

  12. Modelling biological invasions: Individual to population scales at interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Belmonte-Beitia, J.

    2013-10-01

    Extracting the population level behaviour of biological systems from that of the individual is critical in understanding dynamics across multiple scales and thus has been the subject of numerous investigations. Here, the influence of spatial heterogeneity in such contexts is explored for interfaces with a separation of the length scales characterising the individual and the interface, a situation that can arise in applications involving cellular modelling. As an illustrative example, we consider cell movement between white and grey matter in the brain which may be relevant in considering the invasive dynamics of glioma. We show that while one can safely neglect intrinsic noise, at least when considering glioma cell invasion, profound differences in population behaviours emerge in the presence of interfaces with only subtle alterations in the dynamics at the individual level. Transport driven by local cell sensing generates predictions of cell accumulations along interfaces where cell motility changes. This behaviour is not predicted with the commonly used Fickian diffusion transport model, but can be extracted from preliminary observations of specific cell lines in recent, novel, cryo-imaging. Consequently, these findings suggest a need to consider the impact of individual behaviour, spatial heterogeneity and especially interfaces in experimental and modelling frameworks of cellular dynamics, for instance in the characterisation of glioma cell motility. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Direct experimental determination of the atomic structure at internal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, N.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Pennycook, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A crucial first step in understanding the effect that internal interfaces have on the properties of materials is the ability to determine the atomic structure at the interface. As interfaces can contain atomic disorder, dislocations, segregated impurities and interphases, sensitivity to all of these features is essential for complete experimental characterization. By combining Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), the ability to probe the structure, bonding and composition at interfaces with the necessary atomic resolution has been obtained. Experimental conditions can be controlled to provide, simultaneously, both incoherent imaging and spectroscopy. This enables interface structures observed in the image to be interpreted intuitively and the bonding in a specified atomic column to be probed directly by EELS. The bonding and structure information can then be correlated using bond-valence sum analysis to produce structural models. This technique is demonstrated for 25{degrees}, 36{degrees} and 67{degrees} symmetric and 45{degrees} and 25{degrees} asymmetric [001] tilt grain boundaries in SrTiO{sub 3} The structures of both types of boundary were found to contain partially occupied columns in the boundary plane. From these experimental results, a series of structural units were identified which could be combined, using continuity of gain boundary structure principles, to construct all [001] tilt boundaries in SrTiO{sub 3}. Using these models, the ability of this technique to address the issues of vacancies and dopant segregation at grain boundaries in electroceramics is discussed.

  14. Surface and interface effects in VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1985-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 10: Surface and Interface Effects in VLSI provides the advances made in the science of semiconductor surface and interface as they relate to electronics. This volume aims to provide a better understanding and control of surface and interface related properties. The book begins with an introductory chapter on the intimate link between interfaces and devices. The book is then divided into two parts. The first part covers the chemical and geometric structures of prototypical VLSI interfaces. Subjects detailed include, the technologically most import

  15. Observing With NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Simon J.; Dussault, M. E.; Sienkiewicz, F. F.; Deutsch, F. S.; Reinfeld, E. L.; Gould, R. R.

    2009-01-01

    Observing With NASA (OWN) is a new NASA-funded e-learning project developed by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in partnership with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). The project will allow users to make their OWN astronomical observations and compare their images and data with that of NASA's orbiting telescopes and space probes. OWN will provide NASA's education and public outreach audiences with universal access to the CfA's MicroObservatory online network of robotic educational telescopes. Project staff are developing a customized online interface, curricular support materials, and professional development tutorials for both classroom and informal educators. OWN has the capacity to serve hundreds of thousands of student and public users during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy and beyond.

  16. A model of interface states and charges at the Si-SiO2 interface: Its predictions and comparison with experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; White, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    We develop a model for states and charges at the Si-SiO2 interface based on the expected existence at this interface of threefold coordinated Si atoms, strained Si-Si bonds, etc. The associated electronic states are studied by using a generalized bond orbital approximation (supplemented in some cases by multiband cluster Bethe lattice calculations), where the various configurations ofinterest are allowed to relax in order to minimize the energy of the system. It is shown that the reconstructing character of interface states so obtained has a number of interesting experimental implications, and in particular it is found that by including reconstruction effects one is able to understand and in some cases correlate many different experimental results. Among others, these include some observed metal-oxide-semiconductor device instabilities, the dependence of the interface density of states on the conductivity type of the semiconductor substrate, and the amphoteric character of interface states.

  17. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk

  18. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  19. Interface losses in multimaterial resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, L.G.; Amato, B.; Larsen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    vibrational modes to achieve a total of more than 3000 experimental points that allow us to quantify the contribution of surface and volume intrinsic (material related) losses in MEMS resonators. We conclude that the losses in the interface between silicon nitride and aluminum is a very important contributor......We present an extensive study shedding light on the role of surface and bulk losses in micromechanical resonators. We fabricate thin silicon nitride membranes of different sizes and we coat them with different thicknesses of metal. We later characterize the 81 lowest out-of-plane flexural...

  20. Some Economics of User Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hal R. Varian

    1994-01-01

    I examine the incentives for software providers to design appropriate user interfaces. There are two sorts of costs involved when one uses software: the fixed cost of learning to use a piece of software and the the variable cost of operating the software. For example menu driven software is easy to learn, but tedious to operate. I show that a monopoly provider of software generally invests the ``right'' amount of resources in making the software easy to learn, but too little in making it easy...

  1. Interface between Context and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Cong; Wang, Daojuan; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explores how to consider contextual factors in the development of paradigm theory by focusing on the application and development of agency theory in a cross context. Specifically, the interface between agency theory and context is established from two aspects. On one hand......, the application and development of agency theory in both developed and emerging economies are examined from the perspectives of principal-agent conflicts (PAC) and principal-principal conflicts (PPC), respectively. On the other hand, a model of contextualization theory is created from the perspectives of PAC...

  2. Praxis input/output interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, R.E.; Evans, A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This document is intended as an introduction to the use of RMS facilities via Praxis (this interface hereafter called Praxis-RMS). It is presumed that the reader is familiar with Praxis conventions as well as with RMS use (at the MACRO level). Since Praxis-RMS was designed to be functionally equivalent to MACRO-RMS, the explanations follow the pattern of the DEC MACRO-RMS documentation (particularly the programmer's reference manual). A complete list of the procedures that make up Praxis-RMS appears at the end of this document (with parameters), along with the constants (grouped by type) that can be used as actual parameters

  3. Interface-læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interface-læring er den læringsoplevelse, der kan opstå i grænsefladen mellem to væsensforskellige læringsmiljøer, når de mødes og griber ind i hinanden. Et gymnasium og et museum er eksempler på to sådanne læringsmiljøer. Artiklen præsenterer nogle af de væsentligste resultater fra min ph.d. afh...

  4. The relationship between perceived usability of a beautiful interface and of an ugly interface

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Naitullah; Syed.Mohammed, Mahamood Ur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the perceived usability of a beautiful interface and of an ugly interface is analyzed in this study. This study correlates the visual aesthetics of the website with perceived usability. This research is performed to know the significance of visual aesthetics on perceived usability. A website is designed with two interfaces. One interface is designed by following design guidelines with respect to usability and the other interface is designed without following guideline...

  5. Statistics of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface in a spatially developing mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2014-06-02

    The thin interface separating the inner turbulent region from the outer irrotational fluid is analysed in a direct numerical simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer. A vorticity threshold is defined to detect the interface separating the turbulent from the non-turbulent regions of the flow, and to calculate statistics conditioned on the distance from this interface. The conditional statistics for velocity are in remarkable agreement with the results for other free shear flows available in the literature, such as turbulent jets and wakes. In addition, an analysis of the passive scalar field in the vicinity of the interface is presented. It is shown that the scalar has a jump at the interface, even stronger than that observed for velocity. The strong jump for the scalar has been observed before in the case of high Schmidt number (Sc). In the present study, such a strong jump is observed for a scalar with Sc ≈ 1. Conditional statistics of kinetic energy and scalar dissipation are presented. While the kinetic energy dissipation has its maximum far from the interface, the scalar dissipation is characterised by a strong peak very close to the interface. Finally, it is shown that the geometric features of the interfaces correlate with relatively large scale structures as visualised by low-pressure isosurfaces. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  6. Experiments on the Richtmyer--Meshkov instability: Small-scale perturbations on a plane interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouillette, M.; Sturtevant, B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the results of measurements of the ''visual thickness,'' obtained from flow visualization experiments by the schlieren method, of initially plane interfaces between two gases under impulsive accelerations. It is found that when such interfaces are processed by just one incident shock wave of strength of order M s =1.5, their thickness increases slowly and they require observation over extended times; their growth rates are found to slow down with time, in agreement with simple theoretical arguments. The observed growth rates of thin interfaces formed by plastic membranes have been found to be substantially smaller than that reported by previous investigators. Also, thick, diffusively smoothed interfaces initially grow much more slowly than the discontinuous ones do. In these experiments, it is found that wall vortices formed by shock wave/boundary-layer interaction at the interface grow much more rapidly than the shock-processed interfaces in the bulk of the fluid. These wall structures can reduce the apparent growth of interfaces by vorticity-induced strain and impair the observation of the relevant interface phenomena

  7. Interface traps and dangling-bond defects in (100)Ge/HfO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'ev, V. V.; Fedorenko, Y. G.; Stesmans, A.

    2005-07-01

    Combined electrical and electron spin resonance analysis reveals dramatic differences in the interface defect properties of the (100)Ge/GeOxNy/HfO2 and (100)Ge/GeO2 interfaces from the seemingly similar interfaces of (100)Si with the HfO2 and SiO2. No dangling bond centers associated with Ge crystal surface atoms are detected. Only paramagnetic defects in the near-interfacial Ge oxide or Ge (oxy)nitride layers are observed. In contrast to the amphoteric traps related to the dangling bonds (Pb-type centers) commonly observed at the silicon/insulator interfaces, the major component of the Ge/insulator interface trap spectrum comes from slow acceptor states which show no correlation with paramagnetic centers and are resistant to passivation by hydrogen.

  8. Microstructural modifications in an explosively welded Ti/Ti clad material: I. Bonding interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, M.; Chiba, A.; Imamura, K. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)); Minato, H.; Shudo, J. (Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan) Daido Special Steel Corp., Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-03-01

    Microstructural modifications of the bonding interface in an explosively welded Ti/Ti clad material using the preset angle standoff configuration with various flyer plate speeds have been studied. Explosive welding was completed at flyer plate speed over 420 m/s. The wavelength and amplitude of the wavy interface increased with increasing flyer plate speed up to 1060 m/s. The planar interface was obtained at flyer plate speed of 1150 m/s. The trace of melting was observed at the bonding interface in the present experimental conditions. It is concluded that the melting layer is responsible for the bonding of explosively welded Ti/Ti clad materials. An anomaly hardening zone was formed at the bonding interface in the clad material welded at flyer plate speed of 1150 m/s. The origin of the observed anomalous hardening has also been discussed.

  9. Highly strained AlAs-type interfaces in InAs/AlSb heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallet, M., E-mail: maxime.vallet@cemes.fr; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Gatel, C.; Nicolai, J.; Ponchet, A. [CEMES CNRS-UPR 8011, Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza, Toulouse (France); Claveau, Y.; Combe, N. [CEMES CNRS-UPR 8011, Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Magen, C. [Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza, Toulouse (France); Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA)—ARAID and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Teissier, R.; Baranov, A. N. [Institute of Electronics and Systems, UMR 5214 CNRS – University of Montpellier, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2016-05-23

    Spontaneously formed Al-As type interfaces of the InAs/AlSb system grown by molecular beam epitaxy for quantum cascade lasers were investigated by atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Experimental strain profiles were compared to those coming from a model structure. High negative out-of-plane strains with the same order of magnitude as perfect Al-As interfaces were observed. The effects of the geometrical phase analysis used for strain determination were evidenced and discussed in the case of abrupt and huge variations of both atomic composition and bond length as observed in these interfaces. Intensity profiles performed on the same images confirmed that changes of chemical composition are the source of high strain fields at interfaces. The results show that spontaneously assembled interfaces are not perfect but extend over 2 or 3 monolayers.

  10. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Nicolas-Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices.

  11. The blanket interface to TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.; Naruse, Y.; Yoshida, H.

    1988-01-01

    The requirements of tritium technology are centered in three main areas, (1) fuel processing, (2) breeder tritium extraction, and (3) tritium containment. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) now in operation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is dedicated to developing and demonstrating the tritium technology for fuel processing and containment. TSTA is the only fusion fuel processing facility that can operate in a continuous closed-loop mode. The tritium throughput of TSTA is 1000 g/d. However, TSTA does not have a blanket interface system. The authors have initiated a study to define a Breeder Blanket Interface (BBIO) for TSTA. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. Various methods of tritium recovery from liquid lithium were assessed: yttrium gettering, permeation windows, and molten salt extraction. The authors' evaluation concluded that the best method was molten salt extraction

  12. Interface-based software testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ahmad Rais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Software quality is determined by assessing the characteristics that specify how it should work, which are verified through testing. If it were possible to touch, see, or measure software, it would be easier to analyze and prove its quality. Unfortunately, software is an intangible asset, which makes testing complex. This is especially true when software quality is not a question of particular functions that can be tested through a graphical user interface. The primary objective of software architecture is to design quality of software through modeling and visualization. There are many methods and standards that define how to control and manage quality. However, many IT software development projects still fail due to the difficulties involved in measuring, controlling, and managing software quality. Software quality failure factors are numerous. Examples include beginning to test software too late in the development process, or failing properly to understand, or design, the software architecture and the software component structure. The goal of this article is to provide an interface-based software testing technique that better measures software quality, automates software quality testing, encourages early testing, and increases the software’s overall testability

  13. Graphical User Interface in Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwilt, Ian

    This essay discusses the use of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) as a site of creative practice. By creatively repositioning the GUI as a work of art it is possible to challenge our understanding and expectations of the conventional computer interface wherein the icons and navigational architecture of the GUI no longer function as a technological tool. These artistic recontextualizations are often used to question our engagement with technology and to highlight the pivotal place that the domestic computer has taken in our everyday social, cultural and (increasingly), creative domains. Through these works the media specificity of the screen-based GUI can broken by dramatic changes in scale, form and configuration. This can be seen through the work of new media artists who have re-imagined the GUI in a number of creative forms both, within the digital, as image, animation, net and interactive art, and in the analogue, as print, painting, sculpture, installation and performative event. Furthermore as a creative work, the GUI can also be utilized as a visual way-finder to explore the relationship between the dynamic potentials of the digital and the concretized qualities of the material artifact.

  14. Room temperature cryogenic test interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, S. M.; Davidson, A.; Moskowitz, P. A.; Sai-Halasz, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    This interface permits the testing of high speed semiconductor devices (room-temperature chips) by a Josephson junction sampling device (cryogenic chip) without intolerable loss of resolution. The interface comprises a quartz pass-through plug which includes a planar transmission line interconnecting a first chip station, where the cryogenic chip is mounted, and a second chip station, where the semiconductor chip to be tested is temporarily mounted. The pass-through plug has a cemented long half-cylindrical portion and short half-cylindrical portion. The long portion carries the planar transmission line, the ends of which form the first and second chip mounting stations. The short portion completes the cylinder with the long portion for part of its length, where a seal can be achieved, but does not extend over the chip mounting stations. Sealing is by epoxy cement. The pass-through plug is sealed in place in a flange mounted to the chamber wall. The first chip station, with the cryogenic chip attached, extends into the liquid helium reservoir. The second chip station is in the room temperature environment required for semiconductor operation. Proper semiconductor operating temperature is achieved by a heater wire and control thermocouple in the vicinity of each other and the second chip mounting station. Thermal isolation is maintained by vacuum and seals. Connections for power and control, for test result signals, for temperature control and heating, and for vacuum complete the test apparatus

  15. Interface-based software integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ahmad Rais

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise architecture frameworks define the goals of enterprise architecture in order to make business processes and IT operations more effective, and to reduce the risk of future investments. These enterprise architecture frameworks offer different architecture development methods that help in building enterprise architecture. In practice, the larger organizations become, the larger their enterprise architecture and IT become. This leads to an increasingly complex system of enterprise architecture development and maintenance. Application software architecture is one type of architecture that, along with business architecture, data architecture and technology architecture, composes enterprise architecture. From the perspective of integration, enterprise architecture can be considered a system of interaction between multiple examples of application software. Therefore, effective software integration is a very important basis for the future success of the enterprise architecture in question. This article will provide interface-based integration practice in order to help simplify the process of building such a software integration system. The main goal of interface-based software integration is to solve problems that may arise with software integration requirements and developing software integration architecture.

  16. Culture, Interface Design, and Design Methods for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Pyo

    Aesthetic differences and similarities among cultures are obviously one of the very important issues in cultural design. However, ever since products became knowledge-supporting tools, the visible elements of products have become more universal so that the invisible parts of products such as interface and interaction are getting more important. Therefore, the cultural design should be extended to the invisible elements of culture like people's conceptual models beyond material and phenomenal culture. This chapter aims to explain how we address the invisible cultural elements in interface design and design methods by exploring the users' cognitive styles and communication patterns in different cultures. Regarding cultural interface design, we examined users' conceptual models while interacting with mobile phone and website interfaces, and observed cultural difference in performing tasks and viewing patterns, which appeared to agree with cultural cognitive styles known as Holistic thoughts vs. Analytic thoughts. Regarding design methods for culture, we explored how to localize design methods such as focus group interview and generative session for specific cultural groups, and the results of comparative experiments revealed cultural difference on participants' behaviors and performance in each design method and led us to suggest how to conduct them in East Asian culture. Mobile Observation Analyzer and Wi-Pro, user research tools we invented to capture user behaviors and needs especially in their mobile context, were also introduced.

  17. Touch-based interfaces for interacting with 3D content in public exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachet, Martin; de la Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Laviole, Jérémy; Cohé, Aurélie; Cursan, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    A museum exhibition on the Lascaux caves provides the opportunity to experiment with touch-based interfaces manipulating 3D virtual objects. The researchers targeted three tasks: observing rare objects, reassembling object fragments, and reproducing artwork.

  18. Observations Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    of different sexes or racial /ethnic groups interact and in a respectful manner? Are groups inclusive or exclusive? Be particularly observant of...translating your observations consider the emotions, prejudices , values, and physical condition of those exhibiting the behaviors and the

  19. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  20. Monoclonal Antibody Interfaces: Dilatation Mechanics and Bubble Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Aadithya; Shieh, Ian C; Leiske, Danielle L; Fuller, Gerald G

    2018-01-16

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are proteins that uniquely identify targets within the body, making them well-suited for therapeutic applications. However, these amphiphilic molecules readily adsorb onto air-solution interfaces where they tend to aggregate. We investigated two mAbs with different propensities to aggregate at air-solution interfaces. The understanding of the interfacial rheological behavior of the two mAbs is crucial in determining their aggregation tendency. In this work, we performed interfacial stress relaxation studies under compressive step strain using a custom-built dilatational rheometer. The dilatational relaxation modulus was determined for these viscoelastic interfaces. The initial value and the equilibrated value of relaxation modulus were larger in magnitude for the mAb with a higher tendency to aggregate in response to interfacial stress. We also performed single-bubble coalescence experiments using a custom-built dynamic fluid-film interferometer (DFI). The bubble coalescence times also correlated to the mAbs aggregation propensity and interfacial viscoelasticity. To study the influence of surfactants in mAb formulations, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was chosen as a model surfactant. In the mixed mAb/PEG system, we observed that the higher aggregating mAb coadsorbed with PEG and formed domains at the interface. In contrast, for the other mAb, PEG entirely covered the interface at the concentrations studied. We studied the mobility of the interfaces, which was manifested by the presence or the lack of Marangoni stresses. These dynamics were strongly correlated with the interfacial viscoelasticity of the mAbs. The influence of competitive destabilization in affecting the bubble coalescence times for the mixed mAb/PEG systems was also studied.

  1. Geometrical properties of turbulent premixed flames and other corrugated interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesset, F.; Maurice, G.; Halter, F.; Mazellier, N.; Chauveau, C.; Gökalp, I.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the geometrical properties of turbulent flame fronts and other interfaces. Toward that end, we use an original tool based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which is applied to the interface spatial coordinates. The focus is mainly on the degree of roughness of the flame front, which is quantified through the scale dependence of its coverage arclength. POD is first validated by comparing with the caliper technique. Fractal characteristics are extracted in an unambiguous fashion using a parametric expression which appears to be impressively well suited for representing Richardson plots. Then it is shown that, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated here, the scale-by-scale contribution to the arclength does not comply with scale similarity, irrespectively of the type of similarity which is invoked. The finite ratios between large and small scales, referred to as finite Reynolds number effects, are likely to explain this observation. In this context, the Reynolds number that ought to be achieved for a proper inertial range to be discernible, and for scale similarity to be likely to apply, is calculated. Fractal characteristics of flame folding are compared to available predictions. It is confirmed that the inner cutoff satisfactorily correlates with the Kolmogorov scale while the outer cutoff appears to be proportional to the integral length scale. However, the scaling for the fractal dimension is much less obvious. It is argued that much higher Reynolds numbers have to be reached for drawing firm statements about the evolution (or constancy) of the fractal dimension with respect to flame and flow parameters. Finally, a heuristic phenomenology of corrugated interfaces is highlighted. The degree of generality of the latter phenomenology is confirmed by comparing the folding of different interfaces including a turbulent-nonturbulent interface, a liquid jet destabilized by a surrounding air jet, a cavitating flow, and an isoscalar

  2. Investigating magnetic proximity effects at ferrite/Pt interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, M.; Mattana, R.; Moussy, J.-B.; Ollefs, K.; Collin, S.; Deranlot, C.; Anane, A.; Cros, V.; Petroff, F.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.

    2017-11-01

    Spintronic devices based on pure spin currents have drawn a lot of attention during the last few years for low energy device design. One approach to generate pure spin currents is to combine a metallic or insulating ferromagnetic layer with a non-magnetic metallic layer with a large spin-orbit coupling. A recent controversy has arisen in the possible role of magnetic proximity effects at ferromagnetic/non-magnetic interfaces, which can hamper the understanding of pure spin current generation mechanisms. While magnetic proximity effects have been frequently observed at ferromagnetic metal/non-magnetic interfaces, there are only a few studies on ferromagnetic insulator/non-magnetic interfaces. Regarding the use of ferromagnetic insulators, the focus has been mainly on yttrium iron garnet (YIG). However, investigation of induced magnetic moments at YIG/Pt interfaces has engendered contradictory results. Here, we propose to study insulating ferrites for which electronic and magnetic properties can be modulated. Magnetic proximity effects have been investigated at MnFe2O4/Pt, CoFe2O4/Pt, and NiFe2O4/Pt interfaces by X-ray circular magnetic dichroism (XMCD) measurements at the Pt L3 edge. Although hybridization with Pt seems to be different among the ferrites, we do not detect any XMCD signal as the signature of an induced magnetism in Pt. We have then studied the Fe3O4 ferrite below and above the Verwey transition temperature. No XMCD signal has been measured in the insulating or conducting phase of Fe3O4. This suggests that the absence of magnetic proximity effects at ferrite/Pt interfaces is not linked to the insulating character or not of the ferrites.

  3. The Interfacial Thermal Conductance of Epitaxial Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ning

    -silicon), interfaces with varying levels of disorder (epitaxial and non-epitaxial). The ITC values of silicides-silicon interfaces observed in this study are higher than those of other metallic interfaces to Si found in literature. Most surprisingly, it is experimentally found that ITC values are independent of interfacial quality and substrate orientation. Computationally, it is found that the non-equilibrium atomistic Green's Function technique (NEGF), which is specically designed to simulate coherent elastic phonon transport across interfaces, significantly underpredicts ITC values for CoSi2-Si interfaces, suggesting that energy transport does not occur purely by coherent transmission of phonons, even for epitaxial interfaces. In contrast, the Diffuse Mismatch Model closely mimics the experimentally observed ITC values for CoSi 2-Si, NiSi-Si and TiSi2-Si interfaces, and only slightly overestimating the same for PtSi-Si interfaces. Furthermore, the results also show that ITC is independent of degenerate doping up to doping levels of ≈1 x 1019 cm-3, indicating there is no significant direct electronic transport or transport effects which depend on long-range metal-semiconductor band alignment. Then, I study the effect of phonon band structure on ITC through measurements of epitaxial NiAl1-xGax-GaAs interfaces for varying levels of alloy composition, which independently tunes the mass of the metal's heavy atom without much affect on the lattice structure or interatomic force constants. The ITC values are found to linearly increase with increasing Ga content, consistent with the disappearance of a phonon band gap in NiAl 1-xGax films with increasing Ga content, which enhances the phonon transmission coefficients due to a better density of states overlap between the two (NiAl1-xGax, GaAs) materials. Finally, I study a unique subset of epitaxial rocksalt interfaces between the Group IV metal nitrides (TiN, ZrN, and HfN) to MgO substrates as well as ScN layers. Prior to the currrent

  4. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  5. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  6. A topological quantum optics interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sabyasachi; Karasahin, Aziz; Flower, Christopher; Cai, Tao; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Hafezi, Mohammad; Waks, Edo

    2018-02-09

    The application of topology in optics has led to a new paradigm in developing photonic devices with robust properties against disorder. Although considerable progress on topological phenomena has been achieved in the classical domain, the realization of strong light-matter coupling in the quantum domain remains unexplored. We demonstrate a strong interface between single quantum emitters and topological photonic states. Our approach creates robust counterpropagating edge states at the boundary of two distinct topological photonic crystals. We demonstrate the chiral emission of a quantum emitter into these modes and establish their robustness against sharp bends. This approach may enable the development of quantum optics devices with built-in protection, with potential applications in quantum simulation and sensing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Electronic Interfacing with Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James T.

    The direct interfacing of living cells with inorganic electronic materials, components or systems has led to the development of two broad categories of devices that can (1) transduce biochemical signals generated by biological components into electrical signals and (2) transduce electronically generated signals into biochemical signals. The first category of devices permits the monitoring of living cells, the second, enables control of cellular processes. This review will survey this exciting area with emphasis on the fundamental issues and obstacles faced by researchers. Devices and applications that use both prokaryotic (microbial) and eukaryotic (mammalian) cells will be covered. Individual devices described include microbial biofuel cells that produce electricity, bioelectrical reactors that enable electronic control of cellular metabolism, living cell biosensors for the detection of chemicals and devices that permit monitoring and control of mammalian physiology.

  8. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  9. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  10. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffland, Douglas R [Livermore, CA

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.

  11. Surfaces and interfaces of electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Brillson, Leonard J

    2012-01-01

    An advanced level textbook covering geometric, chemical, and electronic structure of electronic materials, and their applications to devices based on semiconductor surfaces, metal-semiconductor interfaces, and semiconductor heterojunctions. Starting with the fundamentals of electrical measurements on semiconductor interfaces, it then describes the importance of controlling macroscopic electrical properties by atomic-scale techniques. Subsequent chapters present the wide range of surface and interface techniques available to characterize electronic, optical, chemical, and structural propertie

  12. Tengi Interfaces for Tracing between Heterogeneous Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    , typically general programming languages, provide an interface description mechanism able to specify software com- ponent boundaries. Unfortunately, these interface mechanisms can not express relations for components containing heterogeneous artifacts. We introduce Tengi, a tool that allows...... for the definition of software components containing heterogeneous artifacts. Tengi interfaces link components containing different textual and visual software development artifacts ranging from high-level specification documents to low-level implementation documents. We formally define and implement Tengi...... interfaces, a component algebra and operations on them and present a case study demonstrating Tengi’s capabilities....

  13. A Theoretical Framework for Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    of the task require. The EID approach extends the concept of direct manipulation inter-faces by taking into account the added complications introduced by complex systems. In this paper, we describe the development of the framework, its theoretical foundations, and examples of its application to various work......A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex systems is de-scribed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), suggests a set of principles for designing interfaces in a way that supports the funda-mental properties of human cognition. The basis of EID is the skills...

  14. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  15. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs

  16. On Building a Search Interface Discovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakov, Denis

    A huge portion of the Web known as the deep Web is accessible via search interfaces to myriads of databases on the Web. While relatively good approaches for querying the contents of web databases have been recently proposed, one cannot fully utilize them having most search interfaces unlocated. Thus, the automatic recognition of search interfaces to online databases is crucial for any application accessing the deep Web. This paper describes the architecture of the I-Crawler, a system for finding and classifying search interfaces. The I-Crawler is intentionally designed to be used in the deep web characterization surveys and for constructing directories of deep web resources.

  17. An interface energy density-based theory considering the coherent interface effect in nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin; Chen, Shaohua; Fang, Daining

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the coherent interface effect conveniently and feasibly in nanomaterials, a continuum theory is proposed that is based on the concept of the interface free energy density, which is a dominant factor affecting the mechanical properties of the coherent interface in materials of all scales. The effect of the residual strain caused by self-relaxation and the lattice misfit of nanomaterials, as well as that due to the interface deformation induced by an external load on the interface free energy density is considered. In contrast to the existing theories, the stress discontinuity at the interface is characterized by the interface free energy density through an interface-induced traction. As a result, the interface elastic constant introduced in previous theories, which is not easy to determine precisely, is avoided in the present theory. Only the surface energy density of the bulk materials forming the interface, the relaxation parameter induced by surface relaxation, and the mismatch parameter for forming a coherent interface between the two surfaces are involved. All the related parameters are far easier to determine than the interface elastic constants. The effective bulk and shear moduli of a nanoparticle-reinforced nanocomposite are predicted using the proposed theory. Closed-form solutions are achieved, demonstrating the feasibility and convenience of the proposed model for predicting the interface effect in nanomaterials.

  18. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Léna, Pierre; Lebrun, François; Mignard, François; Pelat, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This is the updated, widely revised, restructured and expanded third edition of Léna et al.'s successful work Observational Astrophysics. It presents a synthesis on tools and methods of observational astrophysics of the early 21st century. Written specifically for astrophysicists and graduate students, this textbook focuses on fundamental and sometimes practical limitations on the ultimate performance that an astronomical system may reach, rather than presenting particular systems in detail. In little more than a decade there has been extraordinary progress in imaging and detection technologies, in the fields of adaptive optics, optical interferometry, in the sub-millimetre waveband, observation of neutrinos, discovery of exoplanets, to name but a few examples. The work deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. And it also presents the ambitious concepts behind space missions aimed for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spec...

  19. Observable supertranslations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Porrati, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We show that large gauge transformations in asymptotically flat spacetime can be implemented by sandwiching a shell containing the ingoing hard particles between two finite-width shells of soft gauge excitations. Integration of the graviton Dirac bracket implies that our observable soft degrees of freedom obey the algebra imposed by Strominger et al. on unobservable boundary degrees of freedom. Thus, we provide both a derivation and an observable realization of this algebra. We recently showed that soft charges fail to constrain the hard scattering problem, and so cannot be relevant to the black hole information paradox. By expressing the Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra in terms of observable quantities, the present work shows that this conclusion was not an artifact of working with strictly zero frequency soft modes. The conservation laws associated with asymptotic symmetries are seen to arise physically from free propagation of infrared modes.

  20. Crystal interface and high-resolution electron microscopy—the best partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ichinose

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several contributions of HRTEM on the interface science are reviewed in chronological order. The first contribution of HRTEM is the observation of gold (113Σ°11 boundary, giving experimental proof of the CSL model. An observation of the asymmetric (112Σ°3 boundary follows. A SiC grain boundary is effectively assessed not by the density of CSL point but the number of dangling bonds in the boundary. A ZnO/Pd interface provides an example that a misfit dislocation does not necessarily accommodate the lattice mismatch. Segregated interface shows characteristic HRTEM image contrast, suggesting change in atomic bonding. An atomic height step in the semiconductor hetero interface is observed by the Chemical Lattice Image technique. In the diamond grain boundary a dangling bond may not elevate the boundary energy, being contradictory of the least dangling bond rule. Super-high resolution of the HVHRTEM enable us to determine atomic species in the grain boundary. Combined use of HRTEM and EELSE allows us to discuss the correlation between atomic structure and nature of the corresponding interface. It is not exaggeration to say that modern interface science does not exist witout HRTEM. On the other hand, many complicated interfaces found by HRTEM remained as unaswered questions. An innovative structural model is requested to appear on the scene.

  1. Interface Everywhere: Further Development of a Gesture and Voice Commanding Interface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Natural User Interface (NUI) is a term used to describe a number of technologies such as speech recognition, multi-touch, and kinetic interfaces. Gesture and voice...

  2. Snap-off in constricted capillary with elastic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, P.; Alvarado, V.; Carvalho, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Snap-off of bubbles and drops in constricted capillaries occurs in many different situations, from bio-fluid to multiphase flow in porous media. The breakup process has been extensively analyzed both by theory and experiments, but most work has been limited to pure interfaces, at which the surface stress is isotropic and fully defined by the interfacial tension and interface curvature. Complex interfaces may present viscous and elastic behavior leading to a complex stress state that may change the dynamics of the interface deformation and breakup. We extend the available asymptotic model based on lubrication approximation to include elastic interfacial stress. Drop breakup time is determined as a function of the capillary geometry and liquid properties, including the interfacial elastic modulus. Results show that the interfacial elasticity has a stabilizing effect by slowing down the growth of the liquid collar, leading to a larger break-up time. This stabilizing effect has been observed experimentally in different, but related flows [Alvarado et al., "Interfacial visco-elasticity of crude oil-brine: An alternative EOR mechanism in smart waterflooding," in SPE-169127 Improved Oil Recovery Symposium (Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2014)].

  3. Crustal fingering: solidification on a viscously unstable interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Porter, Mark; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the formation of gas hydrates in seafloor sediments, here we study the volumetric expansion of a less viscous gas pocket into a more viscous liquid when the gas-liquid interfaces readily solidify due to hydrate formation. We first present a high-pressure microfluidic experiment to study the depressurization-controlled expansion of a Xenon gas pocket in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. The evolution of the pocket is controlled by three processes: (1) volumetric expansion of the gas; (2) rupturing of existing hydrate films on the gas-liquid interface; and (3) formation of new hydrate films. These result in gas fingering leading to a complex labyrinth pattern. To reproduce these observations, we propose a phase-field model that describes the formation of hydrate shell on viscously unstable interfaces. We design the free energy of the three-phase system to rigorously account for interfacial effects, gas compressibility and phase transitions. We model the hydrate shell as a highly viscous fluid with shear-thinning rheology to reproduce shell-rupturing behavior. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model, which illustrate the emergence of complex crustal fingering patterns as a result of gas expansion dynamics modulated by hydrate growth at the interface.

  4. Geophysical characterisation of the groundwater-surface water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, P. J.; Chambers, J. E.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Binley, A.

    2017-11-01

    Interactions between groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) have important implications for water quantity, water quality, and ecological health. The subsurface region proximal to SW bodies, the GW-SW interface, is crucial as it actively regulates the transfer of nutrients, contaminants, and water between GW systems and SW environments. However, geological, hydrological, and biogeochemical heterogeneity in the GW-SW interface makes it difficult to characterise with direct observations. Over the past two decades geophysics has been increasingly used to characterise spatial and temporal variability throughout the GW-SW interface. Geophysics is a powerful tool in evaluating structural heterogeneity, revealing zones of GW discharge, and monitoring hydrological processes. Geophysics should be used alongside traditional hydrological and biogeochemical methods to provide additional information about the subsurface. Further integration of commonly used geophysical techniques, and adoption of emerging techniques, has the potential to improve understanding of the properties and processes of the GW-SW interface, and ultimately the implications for water quality and environmental health.

  5. Hypoxia interface behavior of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, L. A.; Moss, A.

    2016-02-01

    The ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi is most widely known as a destructive invasive species of the Black and Caspian seas. Ctenophores are also found endemically in oceans worldwide, where their low oxygen tolerances allow many of them to use hypoxic zones to escape predation and hunt disabled prey. Ctenophores have also been observed in the wild and laboratory conditions associating with the interface of hypoxic and normoxic waters, allowing them to feed on the organisms found there. In order to test the ability of M. leidyi to find oxygen interfaces, a 10 cm diameter X 60 cm tall cylindrical tank was designed with a sharp oxycline (animals introduced to the tank under oxycline conditions increased their time spent at the interface by over nearly five-fold versus those in a fully normoxic or hypoxic water. These preliminary results would indicate that M. leidyi preferentially associates with the interfaces of hypoxic zones. As human effects such as overfishing, nutrient enrichment of coastal waters, and invasive introduction continue to rise, the complex interactions of these animals and hypoxic zones will become increasingly important to planktonic and pelagic ecosystems worldwide.

  6. Polar catastrophe at the MgO(100)/SnO2(110) interface

    KAUST Repository

    Albar, Arwa

    2016-11-14

    First principles calculations, based on density functional theory, are used to investigate the structural and electronic properties of the epitaxial MgO(100)/SnO2(110) interface of wide band gap insulators. Depending on the interface termination, nonmagnetic metallic and half-metallic interface states are observed. The formation of these states is explained by a polar catastrophe model for nonpolar-polar interfaces. Strong lattice distortions and buckling develop in SnO2, which influence the interface properties as the charge discontinuity is partially screened. Already a single unit cell of SnO2 is sufficient to drive the polar catastrophe scenario. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Effects of furnace temperature profile on the interface shape during Bridgman crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, K.; Duval, W. M. B.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of asymmetry in furnace temperature profile and pulling velocity on the crystal interface shape are demonstrated while neglecting the latent heat of solidification. It is concluded that the furnace temperature profile may be varied in order to influence the interface shape of the crystal. An exact thermal analysis is performed on the Bridgman technique by including the latent heat of solidification as a source term. The exact temperature field is obtained for the case of a flat melt-crystal interface. The earlier observation regarding the influence of furnace temperature profile on the crystal interface shape is confirmed and a criterion for a flat crystal interface is obtained. Various furnace temperature profiles are selected and their corresponding results are presented.

  8. Observational cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Some sixty years after the development of relativistic cosmology by Einstein and his colleagues, observations are finally beginning to have an important impact on our views of the Universe. The available evidence seems to support one of the simplest cosmological models, the hot Big Bang model. The aim of this paper is to assess the observational support for certain assumptions underlying the hot Big Bang model. These are that the Universe is isobaric and homogeneous on a large scale; that it is expanding from an initial state of high density and temperature; and that the proper theory to describe the dynamics of the Universe is unmodified General Relativity. The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation and recent observations of the abundance of light elements, in particular, support these assumptions. Also examined here are the data bearing on the related questions of the geometry and the future of the Universe (is it ever-expanding, or fated to recollapse). Finally, some difficulties and faults of the standard model are discussed, particularly various aspects of the 'initial condition' problem. It appears that the simplest Big Bang cosmological model calls for a highly specific set of initial conditions to produce the presently observed properties of the Universe. (Auth.)

  9. The Chandra Source Catalog 2.0: Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Zografou, Panagoula; Tibbetts, Michael; Allen, Christopher E.; Anderson, Craig S.; Budynkiewicz, Jamie A.; Burke, Douglas; Chen, Judy C.; Civano, Francesca Maria; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Ian N.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Graessle, Dale E.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; Houck, John C.; Lauer, Jennifer L.; Laurino, Omar; Lee, Nicholas P.; Martínez-Galarza, Rafael; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph; McLaughlin, Warren; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nguyen, Dan T.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Paxson, Charles; Plummer, David A.; Primini, Francis Anthony; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Van Stone, David W.

    2018-01-01

    Easy-to-use, powerful public interfaces to access the wealth of information contained in any modern, complex astronomical catalog are fundamental to encourage its usage. In this poster,I present the public interfaces of the second Chandra Source Catalog (CSC2). CSC2 is the most comprehensive catalog of X-ray sources detected by Chandra, thanks to the inclusion of Chandra observations public through the end of 2014 and to methodological advancements. CSC2 provides measured properties for a large number of sources that sample the X-ray sky at fainter levels than the previous versions of the CSC, thanks to the stacking of single overlapping observations within 1’ before source detection. Sources from stacks are then crossmatched, if multiple stacks cover the same area of the sky, to create a list of unique, optimal CSC2 sources. The properties of sources detected in each single stack and each single observation are also measured. The layered structure of the CSC2 catalog is mirrored in the organization of the CSC2 database, consisting of three tables containing all properties for the unique stacked sources (“Master Source”), single stack sources (“Stack Source”) and sources in any single observation (“Observation Source”). These tables contain estimates of the position, flags, extent, significances, fluxes, spectral properties and variability (and associated errors) for all classes of sources. The CSC2 also includes source region and full-field data products for all master sources, stack sources and observation sources: images, photon event lists, light curves and spectra.CSCview, the main interface to the CSC2 source properties and data products, is a GUI tool that allows to build queries based on the values of all properties contained in CSC2 tables, query the catalog, inspect the returned table of source properties, browse and download the associated data products. I will also introduce the suite of command-line interfaces to CSC2 that can be used in

  10. Flare Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  11. Characteristics of gradient-interface-structured ZnCdSSe quantum dots with modified interface and its application to quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da-Woon; Kim, Jae-Yup; Seo, Han Wook; Lim, Kyoung-Mook; Ko, Min Jae; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Bum Sung

    2018-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are attractive materials for application in photovoltaics, LEDs, displays, and bio devices owing to their unique properties. In this study, we synthesized gradient-interface-structured ZnCdSSe QDs and modified the interface based on a thermodynamic simulation to investigate its optical and physical properties. In addition, the interface was modified by increasing the molar concentration of Se. QDs at the modified interface were applied to QD-sensitized solar cells, which showed a 25.5% increase in photoelectric conversion efficiency owing to the reduced electron confinement effect. The increase seems to be caused by the excited electrons being relatively easily transferred to the level of TiO2 owing to the reduced electron confinement effect. Consequently, the electron confinement effect was observed to be reduced by increasing the ZnSe (or Zn1-xCdxSe)-rich phase at the interface. This means that, based on the thermodynamic simulation, the interface between the core QDs and the surface of the QDs can be controlled. The improvement of optical and electronic properties by controlling interfaces and surfaces during the synthesis of QDs, as reported in this work, can be useful for many applications beyond solar cells.

  12. Interfacing superconducting qubits and single optical photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Sumanta; Faez, Sanli; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient light-matter interface at optical frequencies between a superconducting qubit and a single photon. The desired interface is based on a hybrid architecture composed of an organic molecule embedded inside an optical waveguide and electrically coupled to a superconducting qubit

  13. An introduction to the COLIN optimization interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, William Eugene

    2003-03-01

    We describe COLIN, a Common Optimization Library INterface for C++. COLIN provides C++ template classes that define a generic interface for both optimization problems and optimization solvers. COLIN is specifically designed to facilitate the development of hybrid optimizers, for which one optimizer calls another to solve an optimization subproblem. We illustrate the capabilities of COLIN with an example of a memetic genetic programming solver.

  14. Learning Analytics for Natural User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Maldonado, Roberto; Shum, Simon Buckingham; Schneider, Bertrand; Charleer, Sven; Klerkx, Joris; Duval, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The continuous advancement of natural user interfaces (NUIs) allows for the development\tof novel and creative ways to support collocated collaborative work in a wide range of areas, including teaching and learning. The use of NUIs, such as those based on interactive multi-touch surfaces and tangible user interfaces (TUIs), can offer unique…

  15. Gestures in an Intelligent User Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus; Shao, Ling; Shan, Caifeng; Luo, Jiebo; Etoh, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we investigated which hand gestures are intuitive to control a large display multimedia interface from a user’s perspective. Over the course of two sequential user evaluations we defined a simple gesture set that allows users to fully control a large display multimedia interface,

  16. A Smart Material Interfaces Learning Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minuto, A.; Pittarello, Fabio; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience held with a class of primary school children who were introduced to a novel class of resources, named smart materials, and the interfaces built with them (Smart Material Interfaces). The pupils were guided along a multidisciplinary educational path in which

  17. Modeling the electrified solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Skulason, Egill; Björketun, Mårten

    2008-01-01

    A detailed atomistic model based on density functional theory calculations is presented of the charged solid-electrolyte interface. Having protons solvated in a water bilayer outside a Pt(111) slab with excess electrons, we show how the interface capacitance is well described and how the work...

  18. Core-shell particles at fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchcic, C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of particles as stabilizers for foams and emulsions. Applying hard particles for stabilization of fluid interface is referred to as Pickering stabilization. By using hard particles instead of surfactants and polymers, fluid interfaces can be effectively

  19. Photonics surface waves on metamaterials interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Bogdanov, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2017-01-01

    A surface wave (SW) in optics is a light wave, which is supported at an interface of two dissimilar media and propagates along the interface with its field amplitude exponentially decaying away from the boundary. The research on surface waves has been flourishing in last few decades thanks to the...

  20. Coded Schemes for Asymmetric Wireless Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, André; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    system with full duplex interfaces. Our second goal is to understand the practical implications of these results by designing a protocol for file transmissions, implement it in Android smart phones, and measure its performance when combining various interfaces, including, Bluetooth, WiFi, and 3G cellular...

  1. A Systems Design Course Emphasizing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental course where students develop a (small) system focusing on the interfaces between different components of the system. The components are developed independently of each other using web based documentation and focusing on techniques for modeling and analysis...... of interfaces. These techniques are supported by prototype tools...

  2. Graphic Interface for LCP2 Optimization Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolae, Taropa Laurentiu; Gaunholt, Hans

    1998-01-01

    This report provides information about the software interface that is programmed for the Optimization Program LCP2. The first part is about the general description of the program followed by a guide for using the interface. The last chapters contain a discussion about problems or futute extensions...

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel project interface control plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This implementation process philosophy is in keeping with the ongoing reengineering of the WHC Controlled Manuals to achieve interface control within the SNF Project. This plan applies to all SNF Project sub-project to sub-project, and sub-project to exteranl (both on and off the Hanford Site) interfaces

  4. User Interface Design for Dynamic Geometry Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Ulrich; Dohrmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe long-standing user interface issues with Dynamic Geometry Software and common approaches to address them. We describe first prototypes of multi-touch-capable DGS. We also give some hints on the educational benefits of proper user interface design.

  5. An Architectural Experience for Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of human-computer interface design was brought to the foreground with the emergence of the personal computer, the increasing complexity of electronic systems, and the need to accommodate the human operator in these systems. With each new technological generation discovering the interface design problems of its own technologies, initial…

  6. Advanced Stellar Compass, CHAMP, Interface Control Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    The German government research establishment "GeoForschungsZentrum" developed under a contract to the German government a microsatellite named "Champ". The Space Instrumentation Group has made a Interface Control Document for the CHAMP, witch describes the Star Imager, the electrical interface...

  7. Peptide segments in protein-protein interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2006-09-06

    Sep 6, 2006 ... a living organism – namely, in cellular architecture, signal transduction, biosynthetic and degradation pathways and their regulations, immune response etc. ..... a linear classification scheme. 80% of the homodimeric interfaces lie above the line shown in figure 7 and 91% of the crystal interfaces lie below it.

  8. Characterisation of interfaces in nanocrystalline palladium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Characterisation of interfaces in nanocrystalline palladium. 49. Interface structures in nanocrystalline materials have been the subject of research from the very beginning. The first indication that the structure of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline materials was different was from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of Zhu et al ...

  9. A phase transition for competition interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, P.A.; Martin, J.B.; Pimentel, L.P.R.

    2009-01-01

    We study the competition interface between two growing clusters in a growth model associated to last-passage percolation. When the initial unoccupied set is approximately a cone, we show that this interface has an asymptotic direction with probability 1. The behavior of this direction depends on the

  10. Interface failure by cavity growth to coalescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2000-01-01

    For a thin metal layer between ceramics ductile failure by the growth of voids along one of the interfaces is studied numerically. An axisymmetric cell model is used to represent an array of uniformly distributed hemispherical interface voids. The bonding to the ceramics gives rise to highly...

  11. Interface Yang-Mills, supersymmetry, and Janus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hoker, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Estes, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gutperle, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: gutperle@physics.ucla.edu

    2006-10-02

    We consider theories consisting of a planar interface with N=4 super-Yang-Mills on either side and varying gauge coupling across the interface. The interface does not carry any independent degrees of freedom, but is allowed to support local gauge invariant operators, included with independent interface couplings. In general, both conformal symmetry and supersymmetry will be broken, but for special arrangements of the interface couplings, these symmetries may be restored. We provide a systematic classification of all allowed interface supersymmetries. We find new theories preserving eight and four Poincare supersymmetries, which get extended to sixteen and eight supersymmetries in the conformal limit, respectively with SU(2)xSU(2), SO(2)xSU(2) internal symmetry. The Lagrangians for these theories are explicitly constructed. We also recover the theory with two Poincare supersymmetries and SU(3) internal symmetry proposed earlier as a candidate CFT dual to super-Janus. Since our new interface theories have only operators from the supergravity multiplet turned on, dual supergravity solutions are expected to exist. We speculate on the possible relation between the interface theory with maximal supersymmetry and the near-horizon limit of the D3-D5 system.

  12. XML Interfaces to the Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven); C Foster

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe internet of things is predicated on tiny, cheap, lower power computers being embedded in devices everywhere. However such tiny devices by definition have very little memory and computing power available to support user interfaces or extended servers, and so the user interface

  13. Two-wire Interface for Digital Microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2003-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  14. Two-Wire interface for digital microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2005-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  15. Structural damage at the Si/SiO2 interface resulting from electron injection in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikawa, R. E.; Lenahan, P. M.

    1985-03-01

    With electron spin resonance, we have observed structural changes in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures resulting from the photoemisson of electrons from the silicon into the oxide. A trivalent silicon defect at the Si/SiO2 interface, termed Pb, is shown to be responsible for the interface states induced by electron injection. We find that these Pb centers are amphoteric interface state defects.

  16. Design and Realization of Universal Data Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woo Kim

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available KARI studied data interface of Space Applications for developing Space Experimental Instrument in International Space Station, designed, and manufactured the UDIS (International Sapce Station Universal Data Interface simulator according to requirements of the data interface. This paper explains the design and implementation of UDIS for space application. UDIS is the instrument which simulate to interface the data from ISS to experiment module, payload and habitation module and use the development of a experiment system in the space. This simulator will be used to the GSE (Ground Support Equipment for test of experiment system. By realization of the simulator, we ensure data interface skills for a manned-space data communication system.

  17. [Interfaces in outpatient and inpatient rheumatological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E

    2014-08-01

    In healthcare the term interface describes the communication and the sharing of responsibilities between different aspects of medical care und the different professional groups in medicine. It enables cooperation without conflicts and can contribute to an improvement of healthcare and reduce healthcare costs. The postgraduate professional education, medical guidelines and therapy recommendations are an important basis for the definition of interfaces. The definition of such an interface between different healthcare groups is essential for the implementation of selective contracts with health insurance companies. An appropriate health care interface between general practitioners and rheumatologists has been defined as well as between hospital and ambulant rheumatology treatment. The division of responsibilities between orthopedists and rheumatologists is still under discussion. A proposal for such an interface from the point of view of rheumatology is presented.

  18. Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

  19. Potential Interface Issues in Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This publication is an output of a series of meetings to identify and evaluate issues and opportunities associated with interfaces in the back end of the fuel cycle (BEFC) and to describe effective management approaches based on the experience of Member States. During the meetings, participants from Member States and other international organizations shared and evaluated the main interfaces and potential interface issues among the spent fuel storage, transport, reprocessing and disposal of the BEFC, and also reviewed the national approaches to addressing these issues. The aim of this publication is to provide an approach to identify the interfaces in the BEFC as well as the potential issues that should be addressed. It also aims at responding to the solutions Member States most often find to be effective and, in some cases, were adjusted or revisited to reach the fixed target. Most of the interfaces and issues are country specific, as evidenced by the variety and diversity of examples provided in this publication

  20. Analysis of the interface tracking errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerne, G.; Tiselj, I.; Petelin, S.

    2001-01-01

    An important limitation of the interface-tracking algorithm is the grid density, which determines the space scale of the surface tracking. In this paper the analysis of the interface tracking errors, which occur in a dispersed flow, is performed for the VOF interface tracking method. A few simple two-fluid tests are proposed for the investigation of the interface tracking errors and their grid dependence. When the grid density becomes too coarse to follow the interface changes, the errors can be reduced either by using denser nodalization or by switching to the two-fluid model during the simulation. Both solutions are analyzed and compared on a simple vortex-flow test.(author)

  1. Development of the User Interface for AIR-Spec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Alcala, E.; Guth, G.; Fedeler, S.; Samra, J.; Cheimets, P.; DeLuca, E.; Golub, L.

    2016-12-01

    The airborne infrared spectrometer (AIR-Spec) is an imaging spectrometer that will observe the solar corona during the 2017 total solar eclipse. This eclipse will provide a unique opportunity to observe infrared emission lines in the corona. Five spectral lines are of particular interest because they may eventually be used to measure the coronal magnetic field. To avoid infrared absorption from atmospheric water vapor, AIR-Spec will be placed on an NSF Gulfstream aircraft flying above 14.9 km. AIR-Spec must be capable of taking stable images while the plane moves. The instrument includes an image stabilization system, which uses fiber-optic gyroscopes to determine platform rotation, GPS to calculate the ephemeris of the sun, and a voltage-driven mirror to correct the line of sight. An operator monitors a white light image of the eclipse and manually corrects for residual drift. The image stabilization calculation is performed by a programmable automatic controller (PAC), which interfaces with the gyroscopes and mirror controller. The operator interfaces with a separate computer, which acquires images and computes the solar ephemeris. To ensure image stabilization is successful, a human machine interface (HMI) was developed to allow connection between the client and PAC. In order to make control of the instruments user friendly during the short eclipse observation, a graphical user interface (GUI) was also created. The GUI's functionality includes turning image stabilization on and off, allowing the user to input information about the geometric setup, calculating the solar ephemeris, refining estimates of the initial aircraft attitude, and storing data from the PAC on the operator's computer. It also displays time, location, attitude, ephemeris, gyro rates and mirror angles.

  2. Bacteria interface interactions in Ecology-on-a-Chip by holographic microscopy and interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; White, Andrew; Jalali, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    To improve our remediation of oil spills into marine system, one must understand the fate of oil under complex physical, chemical and biological environments. It is found that various processes such as wind, wave, turbulence and currents break oil into suspensions of droplets, in which states consumption by microbial further degrade the oil. Our prior studies show that marine bacteria do not adopt biofilm life style at oil-water interface in comparison to those near a solid substrate. On the contrary, Extracellular Polymer Substance of oily microbial aggregates is easily formed around an oil droplet. This highlights complexities of cell oil interactions at a liquid-liquid interface. To investigate these mechanisms at oil water interface quantitative, we have developed a micro-bioassay consisting of continuous microfluidics with a substrate printed with oil droplet array, namely Ecology-on-a-Chip, and an integrated digital holographic microscopy (DHM) and interferometer (DHI). The oil-water interface can be maintained over days (>10 days), suitable for conducting long-term observations. 3D movements of bacteria are tracked by DHM, while the interface morphology are measured by DHI at 10nm. The system is applied to Pseudomonas sp. (PS62) near crude-water interface and Escherichia coli (AW405) at hexadecane-water interface subject to low surface tension. The 3D motility, attachment, detachment and dispersion of cells as well as motility induced interface change are discussed. Funded by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  3. First-principles investigation of the electronic states at perovskite and pyrite hetero-interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2012-09-01

    Oxide heterostructures are attracting huge interest in recent years due to the special functionalities of quasi two-dimensional quantum gases. In this thesis, the electronic states at the interface between perovskite oxides and pyrite compounds have been studied by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Optimization of the atomic positions are taken into account, which is considered very important at interfaces, as observed in the case of LaAlO3/SrTiO3. The creation of metallic states at the interfaces thus is explained in terms of charge transfer between the transition metal and oxygen atoms near the interface. It is observed that with typical thicknesses of at least 10-12 °A the gases still extend considerably in the third dimension, which essentially determines the magnitude of quantum mechanical effects. To overcome this problem, we propose incorporation of highly electronegative cations (such as Ag) in the oxides. A fundamental interest is also the thermodynamic stability of the interfaces due to the possibility of atomic intermixing in the interface region. Therefore, different cation intermixed configurations are taken into account for the interfaces aiming at the energetically stable state. The effect of O vacancies is also discussed for both polar and non-polar heterostructures. The interface metallicity is enhanced for the polar system with the creation of O vacancies, while the clean interface at the non-polar heterostructure exhibits an insulating state and becomes metallic in presence of O vacancy. The O vacancy formation energies are calculated and explained in terms of the increasing electronegativity and effective volume of A the side cation. Along with these, the electronic and magnetic properties of an interface between the ferromagnetic metal CoS2 and the non-magnetic semiconductor FeS2 is investigated. We find that this contact shows a metallic character. The CoS2 stays quasi half metallic at the interface, while the

  4. Understanding oxide interfaces: From microscopic imaging to electronic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilani, Shahal

    2014-03-01

    In the last decade, the advent of complex oxide interfaces has unleashed a wealth of new possibilities to create materials with unexpected functionalities. A notable example is the two-dimensional electron system formed at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (LAO/STO), which exhibits ferromagnetism, superconductivity, and a wide range of unique magneto-transport properties. A key challenge is to find the microscopic mechanisms that underlie these emergent phenomena. While there is a growing understanding that these phenomena might reflect rich structures at the micro-scale, experimental progress toward microscopic imaging of this system has been so far rather limited due to the buried nature of its interface. In this talk I will discuss our experiments that study this system on microscopic and macroscopic scales. Using a newly-developed nanotube-based scanning electrometer we image on the nanoscale the electrostatics and mechanics of this buried interface. We reveal the dynamics of structural domains in STO, their role in generating the contested anomalous piezoelectricity of this substrate, and their direct effects on the physics of the interface electrons. Using macroscopic magneto-transport experiments we demonstrate that a universal Lifshitz transition between the population of d-orbitals with different symmetries underlies many of the transport phenomena observed to date. We further show that the interactions between the itinerant electrons and localized spins leads to an unusual, gate-tunable magnetic phase diagram. These measurements highlight the unique physical settings that can be realized within this new class of low dimensional systems.

  5. MRI after patellofemoral replacement: the component-bone interface and rotational alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Thomas J; Figiel, Jens; Hähnlein, Ulrike; Timmesfeld, Nina; Schofer, Markus D; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Efe, Turgay

    2013-07-01

    In an earlier paper, it was shown that tailored magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for reproducible analysis of the preserved knee joint structures after patellofemoral replacement (PFR). This pilot study investigates to what degree MRI could produce reliable assessment of the implant-bone interface of femoral and patellar components and rotational alignment following PFR. MRI tailored for reduction of metallic artefacts was performed in seven patients who had undergone PFR. Two independent investigators evaluated the implant-bone interface at femoral and patellar components and the rotational alignment of the femoral component. They also assessed their degree of confidence in evaluation using a five-point scale. The inter-observer reliability was determined. Implant-induced MRI artefact was barely observed and there was no interference with component-bone interface evaluation. There was excellent inter-observer reliability, inter-observer agreement, and confidence for the implant-bone interface at femoral and patellar components and for rotational alignment. The applied score for the interface was found to be reliable. Tailored MRI allows reproducible analysis of the implant-bone interface and of rotational alignment of the femoral component in patients who have had PFR. It might prove helpful in the assessment of painful PFR.

  6. Crack Growth along Interfaces in Porous Ceramic Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Horsewell, Andy

    2001-01-01

    Crack growth along porous ceramic layers was studied experimentally. Double cantilever beam sandwich specimens were loaded with pure bending moments to obtain stable crack growth. The experiments were conducted in an environmental scanning electron microscope enabling in situ observations...... of various mechanisms associated with crack growth. The macroscopic fracture energy of the interface between dense lanthanum strontium chromite and a porous lanthanum strontium manganite was measured to lie in the range of 1.4-3.8 J/m(2). Several micromechanisms were observed ahead of, or in the wake of...

  7. Bluetooth as a Playful Public Art Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukoff, Maria N.

    This chapter investigates how the application of emergent communication technologies assisted in the design of playful art experience in a public place. Every Passing Moment (EPM), was a mobile public artwork that tracked and recorded any discoverable Bluetooth device to automatically seed a flower in a virtual garden projected onto an urban screen. The EPM was the first public art work to run blu_box, a custom-designed Bluetooth system for mobile telephony. The aim of blu_box was to build a system that supported playful interactions between the public and an urban screen, openly accessible to anyone with a Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone. This participatory engagement was observed in EPM on three levels, namely; unconscious, conscious, and dynamic play. Furthermore, this chapter highlights how sound and face-to-face communication proved imperative in the play dynamics of EPM. In conclusion, this chapter proposes ways in which the use of emergent communication technologies in public places, especially when interfaced with urban screening platforms, can construct playful city spaces for the public at large.

  8. Thermal coupling at aqueous and biomolecular interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenogina, Natalia B.

    Heat flow in the materials with nanoscopic features is dominated by thermal properties of the interfaces. While thermal properties of the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces are well studied, research of the thermal transport properties across soft (liquid-liquid) interfaces is very limited. Such interfaces are, however, plentiful in biological systems. In such systems the temperature control is of a great importance, because biochemical reactions, conformation of biomolecules as well as processes in biological cells and membranes have strong temperature sensitivity. The critical ingredient to temperature control in biological systems is the understanding of heat flow and thermal coupling across soft interfaces. To investigate heat transfer across biological and aqueous interfaces we chose to study a number of soft interfacial systems by means of molecular dynamic simulations. One of the interfaces under our investigation is the interface between protein (specifically green fluorescent protein) and water. Using this model we concentrated on the importance of vibrational frequency on coupling between water and proteins, and on significant differences between the roles of low and high frequency vibrations. Our thermal interfacial analysis allowed us to shed new light on to the issue of protein to water slaving, i.e., the concept of water controlling protein dynamics. Considering that the surface of the protein is composed of a complicated mixture of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, to systematically explore the role of interfacial interactions we studied less complicated models with homogenous interfaces whith interfacial chemistry that could be changed in a controlled manner. We demonstrated that thermal transport measurements can be used to probe interfacial environments and to quantify interfacial bonding strength. Such ability provides a unique opportunity to characterize a variety of interfaces, which can be difficult to achieve with more direct

  9. Viscoelastic properties of oil-water interfaces covered by bovine beta-casein tryptic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardet, J M; Debomy, L; Courthaudon, J L; Miclo, T L; Humbert, G; Gaillard, J L

    2000-11-01

    A combination of proteolysis and dilational rheology has been used to study the behavior of films of beta-casein (beta-CN) and of peptides spread at the oil-water interface. Identification of the peptides produced by trypsin hydrolysis of beta-CN in emulsion at 37 degrees C provided information on the structure of beta-CN adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Good interface properties were observed for beta-CN or its peptides, probably because of the amphipathic nature of beta-CN or a synergistic effect between hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides. Remarkable surface activity was found for the amphipathic peptide beta-CN (f114-169). Rheological studies had shown that interface films made with peptide fractions or with beta-CN were elastic rather than viscous. Film made with the purified peptide beta-CN (f114-169) was merely elastic at the triolein-water interface. A decrease of the viscoelastic modulus was observed for aging beta-CN film but not for aging peptide films; The beta-CN decrease was related to the flexibility of its structure. When the interface is increased by the dilation of an aqueous droplet plunged into oil, beta-CN may expose new polypeptide trains to cover the increased interface, unlike peptides with simpler structures.

  10. Interface Segregation and Nitrogen Measurement in Fe-Mn-N Steel by Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, Brian; Van Landeghem, Hugo P; Botton, Gianluigi A; Zurob, Hatem S

    2017-04-01

    Improved understanding of the interactions between solutes and the austenite/ferrite interface can benefit modeling of ferrite growth during austenite decomposition, as the transformation kinetic is significantly affected by solutes that influence interface mobility. Solute-interface interactions dominate solute segregation at the interface in binary systems, but in multi-component alloys, solute-solute interactions may also affect segregation. In this study, interface segregation in Fe-Mn-N is examined and compared with Fe-Mn-C, to reveal the extent to which C affects the segregation of Mn. Atom probe tomography (APT) is well-suited to analyze solute concentrations across the interface, as this technique combines high spatial resolution and compositional sensitivity. Measurements of Mn show that segregation is only observed for Fe-Mn-C. This demonstrates that Mn segregation is primarily driven by an affinity for C, which also segregates to the interface. However, the measurement of N in steels by APT may be affected by a variety of experimental factors. Therefore, in verifying the Fe-Mn-N result, systematic examination is conducted on the influence of pulsing method (voltage versus laser), sample preparation (ion milling versus electropolishing), and vacuum storage on the measured N concentration. Both laser pulsing and focused ion beam sample preparation are observed to decrease the apparent N concentration.

  11. Statistics of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface in a spatially evolving mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Cristancho, Juan

    2012-12-01

    The thin interface separating the inner turbulent region from the outer irrotational fluid is analyzed in a direct numerical simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer. A vorticity threshold is defined to detect the interface separating the turbulent from the non-turbulent regions of the flow, and to calculate statistics conditioned on the distance from this interface. Velocity and passive scalar statistics are computed and compared to the results of studies addressing other shear flows, such as turbulent jets and wakes. The conditional statistics for velocity are in remarkable agreement with the results for other types of free shear flow available in the literature. In addition, a detailed analysis of the passive scalar field (with Sc 1) in the vicinity of the interface is presented. The scalar has a jump at the interface, even stronger than that observed for velocity. The strong jump for the scalar has been observed before in the case of high Schmidt number, but it is a new result for Schmidt number of order one. Finally, the dissipation for the kinetic energy and the scalar are presented. While the kinetic energy dissipation has its maximum far from the interface, the scalar dissipation is characterized by a strong peak very close to the interface.

  12. Dislocation and Structural Studies at Metal-Metallic Glass Interface at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pradeep; Yedla, Natraj

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation deformation studies on the Al (metal)-Cu50Zr50 (metallic glass) model interface is carried out based on cohesive zone model. The interface is subjected to mode-I loading at a strain rate of 109 s-1 and temperature of 100 K. The dislocations reactions and evolution of dislocation densities during the deformation have been investigated. Atomic interactions between Al, Cu and Zr atoms are modeled using EAM (embedded atom method) potential, and a timestep of 0.002 ps is used for performing the MD simulations. A circular crack and rectangular notch are introduced at the interface to investigate the effect on the deformation behavior and fracture. Further, scale size effect is also investigated. The structural changes and evolution of dislocation density are also examined. It is found that the dominant deformation mechanism is by Shockley partial dislocation nucleation. Amorphization is observed in the Al regions close to the interface and occurs at a lower strain in the presence of a crack. The total dislocation density is found to be maximum after the first yield in both the perfect and defect interface models and is highest in the case of perfect interface with a density of 6.31 × 1017 m-2. In the perfect and circular crack defect interface models, it is observed that the fraction of Shockley partial dislocation density decreases, whereas that of strain rod dislocations increases with increase in strain.

  13. Les observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergounioux Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    jacents ? Au cours de cette table ronde, la question des observables sera interrogée en partant d’une réflexion concernant les études qui se fondent sur l’inventaire empirique des données pour construire leurs analyses (statistique lexicale, Labphon, corpus-guided linguistics, sociolinguistique variationniste, linguistique cognitive… et en allant jusqu’aux théories qui postulent l’existence de formalismes préalables dont les discours et les textes ratifieraient, par l’actualisation et la distribution de leurs occurrences, la pertinence épistémologique.

  14. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    spin operator changes sign with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as {Psi} {yields} e{sup i{theta}}{Psi}. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

  15. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  16. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  17. Innovative interfaces for Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The tangible interaction approach has, in recent years, become a promising alternative to tactile interaction for very young children. Children playing with Tangible User Interfaces (TUI are motivated by the novel and digital environment and benefit from the same values as conventional physical playing. Young children build their mental image of the world through action and motor responses and, with physical handling, they become conscious of reality. Within TUIs, digitally augmented surfaces (interactive blackboards and tabletops are becoming popular in educative environments. Tabletop devices are horizontal surfaces capable of supporting interaction and image feedback on their surface, and are especially interesting for reinforcing face-to-face social relations and group activities. However, most of current children-oriented applications for tabletops are based on tactile interaction, thus losing the benefits of physical playing. The paper describes our experiences building tangible tabletops, and designing tangible games and toys. In particular, we present NIKVision, a tabletop device intended to give leisure and fun while reinforcing physical manipulation and colocated gaming for 3-6 year old children. Several hybrid (physical/digital games based on the manipulation of passive and active toys have been developed for NIKVision. From our experience several useful lessons can be extracted. Among them, the necessity of bridging the gap between designers and developers making it easier the prototyping of tabletop games stands out. To tackle this difficulty a toolkit for the prototyping of tabletop games called ToyVision has been created. The toolkit supports designers to fully explore the physical feasibilities of the manipulation of physical playing pieces, while minimizing the technical difficulties of implementing tabletop games based on physical manipulation. This way, NIKVision and ToyVision are becoming powerful tools to develop innovative

  18. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-08-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  19. Using the safety/security interface to the security manager's advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Two aspects of the safety/security interface are discussed: (1) the personal safety of nuclear security officers; and (2) how the security manager can effectively deal with the safety/security interface in solving today's requirements yet supporting the overall mission of the facility. The basis of this presentation is the result of interviews, document analyses, and observations. The conclusion is that proper planning and communication between the players involved in the security/safety interface can benefit the two programs and help achieve overall system integration, ultimately contributing to the bottom line. This is especially important in today's cost conscious environment

  20. Invasive Intraneural Interfaces: Foreign Body Reaction Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Lotti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraneural interfaces are stimulation/registration devices designed to couple the peripheral nervous system (PNS with the environment. Over the last years, their use has increased in a wide range of applications, such as the control of a new generation of neural-interfaced prostheses. At present, the success of this technology is limited by an electrical impedance increase, due to an inflammatory response called foreign body reaction (FBR, which leads to the formation of a fibrotic tissue around the interface, eventually causing an inefficient transduction of the electrical signal. Based on recent developments in biomaterials and inflammatory/fibrotic pathologies, we explore and select the biological solutions that might be adopted in the neural interfaces FBR context: modifications of the interface surface, such as organic and synthetic coatings; the use of specific drugs or molecular biology tools to target the microenvironment around the interface; the development of bio-engineered-scaffold to reduce immune response and promote interface-tissue integration. By linking what we believe are the major crucial steps of the FBR process with related solutions, we point out the main issues that future research has to focus on: biocompatibility without losing signal conduction properties, good reproducible in vitro/in vivo models, drugs exhaustion and undesired side effects. The underlined pros and cons of proposed solutions show clearly the importance of a better understanding of all the molecular and cellular pathways involved and the need of a multi-target action based on a bio-engineered combination approach.

  1. The utility perspective on the transportation interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Describing interface between the transportation system and the operating plants, the author thinks there are really three, interrelated dimensions to the interface; the technical; physical interface; the business (i.e. economic) interface; and the institutional interface. A principal mission of the Nuclear Transportation Group is to help assure that these interfaces are smoothly bridged and that the resources of the utility industry are brought to bear to achieve this result. The physical interface is the most readily understood. The analysis must also consider the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) radiation exposure evaluation of the waste system design and operation. ALARA evaluations of the waste system design and operation. ALARA evaluations must be done on a systems basis to ensure that the effects of particular designs that may be beneficial in some aspects of the system do not adversely impact nuclear power plant workers or operations. Regardless of one's political persuasion or technical training, the author doesn't think there is any question that spent fuel must be moved, sooner or later, somewhere. It's in the best interests of all that those shipments be made safely, and economically, with the proper attention to doing it right and not needlessly wasting resources, including money

  2. Organic/metal interfaces. Electronic and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhm, Steffen

    2008-07-17

    This work addresses several important topics of the field of organic electronics. The focus lies on organic/metal interfaces, which exist in all organic electronic devices. Physical properties of such interfaces are crucial for device performance. Four main topics have been covered: (i) the impact of molecular orientation on the energy levels, (ii) energy level tuning with strong electron acceptors, (iii) the role of thermodynamic equilibrium at organic/ organic homo-interfaces and (iv) the correlation of interfacial electronic structure and bonding distance. To address these issues a broad experimental approach was necessary: mainly ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy was used, supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, metastable atom electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray standing waves, to examine vacuum sublimed thin films of conjugated organic molecules (COMs) in ultrahigh vacuum. (i) A novel approach is presented to explain the phenomenon that the ionization energy in molecular assemblies is orientation dependent. It is demonstrated that this is due to a macroscopic impact of intramolecular dipoles on the ionization energy in molecular assemblies. Furthermore, the correlation of molecular orientation and conformation has been studied in detail for COMs on various substrates. (ii) A new approach was developed to tune hole injection barriers ({delta}{sub h}) at organic/metal interfaces by adsorbing a (sub-) monolayer of an organic electron acceptor on the metal electrode. Charge transfer from the metal to the acceptor leads to a chemisorbed layer, which reduces {delta}{sub h} to the COM overlayer. This concept was tested with three acceptors and a lowering of {delta}{sub h} of up to 1.2 eV could be observed. (iii) A transition from vacuum-level alignment to molecular level pinning at the homo-interface between a lying monolayer and standing multilayers of a COM was observed, which depended on the amount of a pre-deposited acceptor. The

  3. On interfaces between cell populations with different mobilities

    KAUST Repository

    Lorenzi, Tommaso

    2016-11-18

    Partial differential equations describing the dynamics of cell population densities from a fluid mechanical perspective can model the growth of avascular tumours. In this framework, we consider a system of equations that describes the interaction between a population of dividing cells and a population of non-dividing cells. The two cell populations are characterised by different mobilities. We present the results of numerical simulations displaying two-dimensional spherical waves with sharp interfaces between dividing and non-dividing cells. Furthermore, we numerically observe how different ratios between the mobilities change the morphology of the interfaces, and lead to the emergence of finger-like patterns of invasion above a threshold. Motivated by these simulations, we study the existence of one-dimensional travelling wave solutions.

  4. Laser-sheet imaging of HE-driven interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.F.; Rightley, P.M.; Kinkead, S.; Martin, R.A.; Critchfield, R.; Sandoval, D.L.; Holmes, R.; Gorman, T.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors made substantial progress in developing the MILSI (Multiple Imaging of Laser-Sheet Illumination) technique for high explosive (HE)-driven fluid interfaces. They observed the instability, but have not yet measured the instability growth rate. They developed suitable sample containers and optical systems for studying the Rightmyer-Meshkov instability of perturbed water/bromoform interfaces and they successfully fielded the new MILSI diagnostic at two firing-site facilities. The problem continues to be of central importance to the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and weapons physics communities

  5. The magnetic map at the V/Co interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo-Cazares, T.A.; Meza-Aguilar, S.; Demangeat, C.

    2005-01-01

    Huttel et al. (Phys. Rev. B 68 (2003) 174405) using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism have depicted an induced magnetic moment for V atoms deposited on FCC Co(0 0 1). In the present communication, we discuss the onset of magnetic polarization of very thin V films atop Co(0 0 1) within classical density functional theory. Both local density approximation and gradient corrected approaches are used. For one V monolayer on Co(0 0 1), a ferromagnetic coupling is obtained whereas for thicker V slabs, an antiferromagnetic-like behavior is shown to be the ground state. It is clearly shown that the Co-induced polarization on V atoms is short-ranged and mainly limited to the Co-V interface. A very different magnetic behavior is observed when alloying at the V/Co interface is present

  6. Radiation Effects in Interfaces and Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairov, Alexander

    One of the key approaches to developing materials with greater radiation damage resistance is to introduce a large fraction of internal interfaces. Interfaces act as sinks for recombination of radiation-induced defects and as sites for accumulation of helium bubbles, thereby diverting them away from grain boundaries, where they can induce embrittlement. The beneficial role of interfaces in mitigating radiation damage has been demonstrated in nanoscale multilayered structures and in nanograined materials. Another more common example is oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFA) where a fine distribution of particles (clusters) of varying stoichiometries (e.g., Y2Ti2O7, Y2TiO 5, Y2O3, TiO2 and Y-Ti-O non-stoichiometric oxides) not only confer high creep strength, but also high radiation damage tolerance due to the large area of metal/oxide interfaces. However, the efficacy of these interfaces to act as defect sinks depends on their compositional and physical stability under radiation. With this background, this work focused on the stability of interfaces between Ti, TiO2, and Y2O 3 thin film deposited on Fe-12%Cr substrates after irradiation with 5MeV Ni+2 ions at various temperatures. TEM and STEM-EDS methods were used to understand the compositional changes at the interfaces. Additionally, accumulation of implanted helium at epitaxial and non-epitaxial Fe/Y 2O3 interfaces was also studied. Finally, the study was extended to study irradiation effects (up to 150 dpa) in novel Al2O 3 nanoceramic films with immediate potential applications as coatings for corrosion protection in the harsh high temperature environments of Gen IV reactors. This research is expected to have implications in the development of radiation damage tolerant nanostructured alloys for nuclear reactors while also expanding the scientific knowledge-base in the area of radiation stability of interfaces in solids and protective coatings.

  7. Molecule-induced interface states dominate charge transport in Si-alkyl-metal junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lam H; Gergel-Hackett, Nadine; Zangmeister, Christopher D; Hacker, Christina A; Richter, Curt A; Kushmerick, James G [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)], E-mail: james.kushmerick@nist.gov

    2008-09-17

    Semiconductor-molecule-metal junctions consisting of alkanethiol monolayers self-assembled on both p{sup +} and n{sup -} type highly doped Si(111) wires contacted with a 10 {mu}m Au wire in a crossed-wire geometry are examined. Low temperature transport measurements reveal that molecule-induced semiconductor interface states control charge transport across these systems. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy also highlights the strong contribution of the induced interface states to the observed charge transport.

  8. Molecule-induced interface states dominate charge transport in Si-alkyl-metal junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lam H; Gergel-Hackett, Nadine; Zangmeister, Christopher D; Hacker, Christina A; Richter, Curt A; Kushmerick, James G

    2008-09-17

    Semiconductor-molecule-metal junctions consisting of alkanethiol monolayers self-assembled on both p(+) and n(-) type highly doped Si(111) wires contacted with a 10 µm Au wire in a crossed-wire geometry are examined. Low temperature transport measurements reveal that molecule-induced semiconductor interface states control charge transport across these systems. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy also highlights the strong contribution of the induced interface states to the observed charge transport.

  9. Mixed mode fracture of dental interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbar, Nima; Yang, Yong; Soboyejo, Winston

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and computational study of mixed mode fracture in glass/cement and zirconia/cement interfaces that are relevant to dental restorations. The interfacial fracture is investigated using Brazil-nut specimens. The kinking in-and-out of the interface that occurs between glass/cement and zirconia/cement interfaces, is also shown to be consistent with predictions from a microstructure-based finite element model. The predictions later verified using focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy images

  10. 200 Area TEDF interface control document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.J.; Hildebrand, R.A.

    1994-11-15

    Because the TEDF does not have any treatment or retention capacity, strict control at the generator interface is essential to operate the TEDF in compliance with good engineering practices, Hanford site requirements, and the 216 Discharge Permit. The information in the Interface Control Document (ICD) forms the basis of understanding between all parties involved in the TEDF; DOE, WHC, and the generating facilities. The ICD defines the controlling document hierarchy; LEF, and generator responsibilities; monitoring and sampling requirements; and specifies the TEDF/Generator Interface points.

  11. Diffuse-Interface Methods in Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; McFadden, G. B.; Wheeler, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review the development of diffuse-interface models of hydrodynamics and their application to a wide variety of interfacial phenomena. The authors discuss the issues involved in formulating diffuse-interface models for single-component and binary fluids. Recent applications and computations using these models are discussed in each case. Further, the authors address issues including sharp-interface analyses that relate these models to the classical free-boundary problem, related computational approaches to describe interfacial phenomena, and related approaches describing fully-miscible fluids.

  12. PFP Interface identification and management planning guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of-this planning guide is to present the process used to identify, document, and control PFP Stabilization and Deactivation Project interfaces. Revisions to this document will include, as attachments, the most recent version of the Project Interface Management List. A preliminary Interface Management List is included in Appendix A. This document is intended be a Project owned management tool. As such, this document will periodically require revisions resulting from improvements of the information, processes, and techniques as now described. For most revisions that suggest improved processes, PFP management approval is all that will be required

  13. Mixed mode fracture of dental interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, Nima [Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM) and Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Princeton University (United States); Yang, Yong [Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM) and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Princeton University (United States); Soboyejo, Winston [Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM) and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Princeton University (United States)], E-mail: soboyejo@princeton.edu

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and computational study of mixed mode fracture in glass/cement and zirconia/cement interfaces that are relevant to dental restorations. The interfacial fracture is investigated using Brazil-nut specimens. The kinking in-and-out of the interface that occurs between glass/cement and zirconia/cement interfaces, is also shown to be consistent with predictions from a microstructure-based finite element model. The predictions later verified using focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy images.

  14. Concept of software interface for BCI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejda, Jaromir; Zak, Roman; Jasek, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology is intended to control external system by brain activity. One of main part of such system is software interface, which carries about clear communication between brain and either computer or additional devices connected to computer. This paper is organized as follows. Firstly, current knowledge about human brain is briefly summarized to points out its complexity. Secondly, there is described a concept of BCI system, which is then used to build an architecture of proposed software interface. Finally, there are mentioned disadvantages of sensing technology discovered during sensing part of our research.

  15. Skin interface pressure on the NATO litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Elizabeth J; Schmelz, Joseph O; Mazer, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    The NATO litter serves as a transport device and hospital bed during all types of operations. Little is known about the skin interface pressure on this litter. The purpose of this study was to determine whether various types of padding on the litter and body position affect the peak skin interface pressure and the total body area exposed to interface pressures above 30 mm Hg at different body areas. Thirty-two subjects participated. A repeated measures design was used. The surface effect was statistically significant for all peak pressure and surface area analyses (repeated-measures analysis of variance, p patients if feasible. Preventive measures (turning, elevating the heels) are still required.

  16. iPhone User Interface Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Banga, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Written in a cookbook style, this book offers solutions using a recipe based approach. Each recipe contains step-by-step instructions followed by an analysis of what was done in each task and other useful information. The cookbook approach means you can dive into whatever recipes you want in no particular order. The iPhone Interface Cookbook is written from the ground up for people who are new to iOS or application interface design in general. Each chapter discusses the reasoning and design strategy behind critical interface components, as well as how to best integrate each into any iPhone or

  17. A human activity approach to User Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    How can we understand why a bank teller has different needs for a user interface than those of casual users of a machine teller, or why a graphic designer needs a different user interface than a secretary? This article presents a framework for the design of user interfaces that originates from...... organized practice of the users and the material conditions for the activity, including the object of the activity). The standard view in these situations is to deduce an ultimate set of operations from an abstract use activity and apply these to design and analysis. This article argues that the user...

  18. Development of INFRA graphic user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y. S.; Lee, C. B.; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. K.

    2004-01-01

    GUI(Graphic User Interface) has been developed for high burnup fuel performance code INFRA. Based upon FORTRAN program language, INFRA was developed by COMPAQ Visual FORTRAN 6.5. Graphic user input and output interface have been developed by using Visual Basic and MDB which are the most widely used program language and database for windows application development. Various input parameters, which are required for INFRA calculation, can be input more conveniently by newly developed input interface. Without any additional data handling, INFRA calculation results can be investigated intuitively by 2D or 3D graphs on screen and animation function

  19. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-08-06

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces.

  20. Micro- and Nanotechnologies for Optical Neural Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanello, Ferruccio; Sileo, Leonardo; De Vittorio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In last decade, the possibility to optically interface with the mammalian brain in vivo has allowed unprecedented investigation of functional connectivity of neural circuitry. Together with new genetic and molecular techniques to optically trigger and monitor neural activity, a new generation of optical neural interfaces is being developed, mainly thanks to the exploitation of both bottom-up and top-down nanofabrication approaches. This review highlights the role of nanotechnologies for optical neural interfaces, with particular emphasis on new devices and methodologies for optogenetic control of neural activity and unconventional methods for detection and triggering of action potentials using optically-active colloidal nanoparticles. PMID:27013939

  1. LTE-advanced air interface technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xincheng

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities are at hand for professionals eager to learn and apply the latest theories and practices in air interface technologies. Written by experienced researchers and professionals, LTE-Advanced Air Interface Technology thoroughly covers the performance targets and technology components studied by 3GPP for LTE-Advanced. Besides being an explanatory text about LTE-Advanced air interface technology, this book exploits the technical details in the 3GPP specification, and explains the motivation and implication behind the specifications.After a general description of wireless cellular techno

  2. Quantitative interface models for simulating microstructure evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Z.; Wang, T.; Zhou, S.H.; Liu, Z.K.; Chen, L.Q.

    2004-01-01

    To quantitatively simulate microstructural evolution in real systems, we investigated three different interface models: a sharp-interface model implemented by the software DICTRA and two diffuse-interface models which use either physical order parameters or artificial order parameters. A particular example is considered, the diffusion-controlled growth of a γ ' precipitate in a supersaturated γ matrix in Ni-Al binary alloys. All three models use the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters from the same databases. The temporal evolution profiles of composition from different models are shown to agree with each other. The focus is on examining the advantages and disadvantages of each model as applied to microstructure evolution in alloys

  3. Metastable He deexcitation at semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, L.; Nannarone, S.

    2005-01-01

    A review is given of the application of metastable deexcitation spectroscopy (MDS) to the study of the interface formation between semiconductors and different materials. In particular we present an overview of the results obtained on nanostructured interfaces, where strain and reaction between the substrate and the overlayer atoms drive the growth mode and the morphology of the system. As prototypical examples we discuss the growth of CaF 2 on silicon and rare earths (Yb, Er) on silicon and gallium arsenide. The mechanisms and chemical reactions which bring to interface formation are examined on the basis of MDS results and their comparison with photoemission

  4. Analysis of the transient rotating cylinder apparatus for the measurement of liquid-liquid interface shear viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Westborg, H

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the transient rotating cylinder apparatus for the measurement of liquid-liquid interface viscosity is given. An analytical expression that allows the determination of the interfacial viscosity from observations of the interface movement is given. The expression is presented...... in tabular form for selected values of the physical parameters of the two phases, and suggestions for apparatus design are given....

  5. Cu-segregation at the Q'/α-Al interface in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Kenji; Teguri, Daisuke; Uetani, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tatsuo; Ikeno, Susumu

    2002-01-01

    Cu segregation was detected at the Q ' /α-Al interface in an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. By contrast, in a Cu-free Al-Mg-Si alloy no segregation was observed at the interface between the matrix and Type-C precipitate

  6. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Tuning the conductivity threshold and carrier density of two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces through interface engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Harsan Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG formed at the perovskite oxides heterostructures is of great interest because of its potential applications in oxides electronics and nanoscale multifunctional devices. A canonical example is the 2DEG at the interface between a polar oxide LaAlO3 (LAO and non-polar SrTiO3 (STO. Here, the LAO polar oxide can be regarded as the modulating or doping layer and is expected to define the electronic properties of 2DEG at the LAO/STO interface. However, to practically implement the 2DEG in electronics and device design, desired properties such as tunable 2D carrier density are necessary. Here, we report the tuning of conductivity threshold, carrier density and electronic properties of 2DEG in LAO/STO heterostructures by insertion of a La0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (LSTO layer of varying thicknesses, and thus modulating the amount of polarization of the oxide over layers. Our experimental result shows an enhancement of carrier density up to a value of about five times higher than that observed at the LAO/STO interface. A complete thickness dependent metal-insulator phase diagram is obtained by varying the thickness of LAO and LSTO providing an estimate for the critical thickness needed for the metallic phase. The observations are discussed in terms of electronic reconstruction induced by polar oxides.

  8. Can we totally ignore the effects interface scattering of seismic wave field during inversion processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Interface scattering of seismic wavefield is an important phenomenon which affects the phase and/or amplitude of seismic signal and hence the quality of final seismic image. Irregular interface which causes interface scattering are widespread in nature. Practical examples of such are the interfaces between under-compacted mobile shale and sand, salt body and sand, basalt flows etc. This has been known constitute major imagery problem in the past. The weathered zone is a well known scatterer in land seismic data, and it is known to be highly spatially irregular. To be able to understand this phenomenon better, seismic wavefield scattering from a statistically random rough interface in a multi-layered homogeneous medium is studied in 3-D. The influence of surface roughness on the incident wavefield is analyzed numerically by employing a finite difference operator in the acoustic domain. Since interface scattering in real practical sense is a 3-D phenomenon, we showed that the scattering response of a random rough interface is not the same in 3-D situations as compared with 2-D case as described in most earlier works. For a given interface roughness height in 3-D, it requires an interface of at least about three times higher to produce an equivalent phase scattering effect in 2-D situation. We also showed that the phase scattering is not negligible in 3-D when the scale of the surface roughness to the incident wavefield is 1/1 0 as is generally assumed. Based on observation from spectral analysis of synthetic and real seismic data, we showed that interface scattering principally results in de-phasing and frequency band-limiting of the incident wavefield, the frequency band-limiting properties being comparable to cases reported in the literature for absorption and thin layer filtering. This phenomenon should be critically considered when using amplitude and phase information of seismic signal during inversion process

  9. A Quadratic Spline based Interface (QUASI) reconstruction algorithm for accurate tracking of two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, S. V.; Das, Sarit K.; Sundararajan, T.

    2009-12-01

    A new Quadratic Spline based Interface (QUASI) reconstruction algorithm is presented which provides an accurate and continuous representation of the interface in a multiphase domain and facilitates the direct estimation of local interfacial curvature. The fluid interface in each of the mixed cells is represented by piecewise parabolic curves and an initial discontinuous PLIC approximation of the interface is progressively converted into a smooth quadratic spline made of these parabolic curves. The conversion is achieved by a sequence of predictor-corrector operations enforcing function ( C0) and derivative ( C1) continuity at the cell boundaries using simple analytical expressions for the continuity requirements. The efficacy and accuracy of the current algorithm has been demonstrated using standard test cases involving reconstruction of known static interface shapes and dynamically evolving interfaces in prescribed flow situations. These benchmark studies illustrate that the present algorithm performs excellently as compared to the other interface reconstruction methods available in literature. Quadratic rate of error reduction with respect to grid size has been observed in all the cases with curved interface shapes; only in situations where the interface geometry is primarily flat, the rate of convergence becomes linear with the mesh size. The flow algorithm implemented in the current work is designed to accurately balance the pressure gradients with the surface tension force at any location. As a consequence, it is able to minimize spurious flow currents arising from imperfect normal stress balance at the interface. This has been demonstrated through the standard test problem of an inviscid droplet placed in a quiescent medium. Finally, the direct curvature estimation ability of the current algorithm is illustrated through the coupled multiphase flow problem of a deformable air bubble rising through a column of water.

  10. Improvement of design of a surgical interface using an eye tracking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Barkana, Duygun; Açık, Alper; Duru, Dilek Goksel; Duru, Adil Deniz

    2014-05-07

    Surgical interfaces are used for helping surgeons in interpretation and quantification of the patient information, and for the presentation of an integrated workflow where all available data are combined to enable optimal treatments. Human factors research provides a systematic approach to design user interfaces with safety, accuracy, satisfaction and comfort. One of the human factors research called user-centered design approach is used to develop a surgical interface for kidney tumor cryoablation. An eye tracking device is used to obtain the best configuration of the developed surgical interface. Surgical interface for kidney tumor cryoablation has been developed considering the four phases of user-centered design approach, which are analysis, design, implementation and deployment. Possible configurations of the surgical interface, which comprise various combinations of menu-based command controls, visual display of multi-modal medical images, 2D and 3D models of the surgical environment, graphical or tabulated information, visual alerts, etc., has been developed. Experiments of a simulated cryoablation of a tumor task have been performed with surgeons to evaluate the proposed surgical interface. Fixation durations and number of fixations at informative regions of the surgical interface have been analyzed, and these data are used to modify the surgical interface. Eye movement data has shown that participants concentrated their attention on informative regions more when the number of displayed Computer Tomography (CT) images has been reduced. Additionally, the time required to complete the kidney tumor cryoablation task by the participants had been decreased with the reduced number of CT images. Furthermore, the fixation durations obtained after the revision of the surgical interface are very close to what is observed in visual search and natural scene perception studies suggesting more efficient and comfortable interaction with the surgical interface. The

  11. TMACS Test Procedure TP011: Panalarm Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seghers, R.; Washburn, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. The TMACS Test Plan (WHC-SD-WM-TP-148) is fulfilled when all Test Cases are approved. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Panalarm Interface functions

  12. Navigation with a passive brain based interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Werkhoven, P.J.; Thurlings, M.E.; Brouwer, A.-M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) for navigation. The system is based on detecting brain signals that are elicited by tactile stimulation on the torso indicating the desired direction.

  13. Legal Aspects of Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014) ISSN 1802-5951 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : brain-computer interface * human rights * right to privacy, Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://mujlt.law.muni.cz/index.php

  14. Human-machine Interface for Presentation Robot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Ondroušek, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2012), s. 17-21 ISSN 1897-8649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : human- robot interface * mobile robot * presentation robot Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics

  15. Haptic interface for vehicular touch screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Once the domain of purely physical controls such as knobs, : levers, buttons, and sliders, the vehicle dash is rapidly : transforming into a computer interface. This presents a : challenge for drivers, because the physics-based cues which : make trad...

  16. Proton storage ring: man/machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, R.F.; Clout, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The human interface of the Proton Storage Ring Control System at Los Alamos is described in some detail, together with the software environment in which operator interaction programs are written. Some examples of operator interaction programs are given

  17. Synchronization Interfaces for Improving Moodle Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Arya Sasmita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many universities have applied e-learning on more than one LMS (Learning Management System platforms such as Wordpress and Moodle. In addition, difficulties implementations in developing countries have occurred. Those are mainly caused by limitations and expensive of Internet infrastructure. Therefore to increase Moodle application as an e-learning system, the paper proposed two synchronization interfaces. The first interface is for Moodle and Wordpress. This assists teachers to migrate their learning material in their blog in Wordpress into Moodle. Second interface is for Moodle portable performing offline LMS and Moodle performing online LMS. Moodle portable was installed in teachers and students notebooks. Moodle itself was installed and run in e-learning server. The aim is to improve Moodle utilization in the class. The results showed satisfied outcomes. Students and teachers could employ the interfaces easily and secure as they have to login using student/teacher ID, course ID, username and password.

  18. Advanced Display Interface Technology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CMC proposes, along with our collaborator, Dr. Mica Endlsey of SA Technologies, to produce a framework from which an Adaptive User Interface (AUI) can be modeled and...

  19. Inflatable Module Seal Interface Development and Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a repeatable low permeable sealing interface evaluating O-ring, RTV bond and flowed RTV bond methods. Advanced Bladder materials (ArmorFlex, Nanoclay, etc)...

  20. Applying Cognitive Psychology to User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Sabeen; Durrani, Qaiser S.

    This paper explores some key aspects of cognitive psychology that may be mapped onto user interfaces. Major focus in existing user interface guidelines is on consistency, simplicity, feedback, system messages, display issues, navigation, colors, graphics, visibility and error prevention [8-10]. These guidelines are effective indesigning user interfaces. However, these guidelines do not handle the issues that may arise due to the innate structure of human brain and human limitations. For example, where to place graphics on the screen so that user can easily process them and what kind of background should be given on the screen according to the limitation of human motor system. In this paper we have collected some available guidelines from the area of cognitive psychology [1, 5, 7]. In addition, we have extracted few guidelines from theories and studies of cognitive psychology [3, 11] which may be mapped to user interfaces.