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Sample records for ni okeru saiteki

  1. Study on the optimal control of the ground thermal storage system in the greenhouse. Part 4; Onshitsu ni okeru taiyo energy dochu chikunetsu system ni okeru saiteki seigyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M. [Sanko Air Conditioning Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakahara, N. [Kanagawa University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Three types of weight in both energy saving and optimum room temperature environment were changed to obtain the optimal control solution of the ground thermal storage system in a greenhouse. The relation diagram between the optimal solution of a performance function, and the state constraints and control function constraints was created in consideration of the energy term in a control function value area and the room temperature environment. As a result, the whole image of the performance function could be grasped in consideration of the energy term with inequality constraints and the room temperature environmental term in this study. The rate of a weighting factor in the performance function significantly influences the optimal solution. The influence on the optimal solution also changes when the optimal room temperature schedule differs. The influence that three types of rising algorithm exert on the convergence and converging speed was investigated. Superiority or inferiority occurs according to the space properties of a performance function. A zigzag method is most disadvantageous. The constraints can be converged to the optimal solution using an SUMT outer point method irrespective of the initial value. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Improvement of magnetic properties of Fe-50mass%Ni in MIM process; MIM process ni okeru Fe-50mass%Ni no jiki tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Fujita, S. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Fujita, M.; Ninomiya, R. [Mitsuikinzoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-15

    Metal injection molding (MIM) process is hoped to be one of processing for required to more complicated parts of magnetic components. In this study, the effect of different types of powders (prealloyed and mixed elemental powders) on the magnetic properties of permalloy (Fe-50mass%Ni) through the MIM technique was investigated. Approximately 94% of theoretical density was obtained by using the prealloyed powder, and the retained carbon and oxygen contents were controlled to be low. On the other hand, 96% of theoretical density was obtained by using the mixed elemental powder, but the magnetic properties were inferior to that of prealloyed powder's because of high retained oxygen content. By using the carbonyl Fe powder with high carbon, the retained oxygen and carbon content could be controlled to be low, resulting in the improved magnetic properties. (author)

  3. Effects of solvent and catalysts on the hydrogenolysis of alkylnaphthalenes; Alkylnaphthalene no suisoka bunkai ni okeru yobai to shokubai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamura, S. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Catalytic effects of metal and carbon materials, which promote hydrogen transfer from hydrogen donor solvents, are investigated during hydrogenolysis of benzyl-1-methylnaphthalenes (BMN) selected as a hydrogen acceptor. For the isomer distribution of BMN after the reaction, almost the same molecular ratio before the reaction was obtained independent of the presence of catalysts. Selectivity of position during the addition of hydrogen atoms from tetralin was not found. For the reaction of BMN in tetralin, 1-methylnaphthalene and toluene were obtained as products, but the formation of benzylnaphthalene was not found. As for the nuclear hydride of BMN, the trace amount formation was confirmed by gas chromatography. For the hydrogen transfer from tetralin progressed catalytically, it was found that the nuclear of naphthalene can not be hydrogenated easily. This was considered to be due to the obstruction of hydrogen transfer from tetralin by the strong adsorption of BMN on the Ni surface. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Characterization of the various catalyst for solvent hydrogenation at 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru kakushu yozai suisoka shokubai no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakebayashi, H.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Performance of various catalysts for hydrogenation of recycle solvent was evaluated for the operation of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU). Distillate between 220 and 538{degree}C derived from the liquefaction of Tanito Harum coal was used as recycle solvent. Deactivation behaviors of catalysts were compared using a prediction equation of catalyst life, by which aromatic carbon index (fa) after hydrogenation can be determined from the fa of recycle oil before hydrogenation, reaction temperature, and total hydrogenation time. Total hydrogenation time satisfying the {Delta}fa, 0.05 before and after hydrogenation were 8,000, 4,000, and 2,000 hours for NiMo-based catalysts C, A, and B, respectively. Catalyst C showed the longest life. Used catalysts were also characterized. The catalyst C showed larger mean pore size than those of the others, which resulted in the longer life due to the delay of pore blockage. From measurements by XPS and EPMA, relative atomic concentration of carbon increased remarkably after the use for all of catalysts, which was considered to be due to the adhesion of hydrocarbons. Increase of metal atoms, such as Fe and Cr, was also observed due to the contamination of entrainment residues. Deactivation of catalysts was caused by the adhesion of hydrocarbons, and metallic compounds, such as Fe and Cr. 3 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Detection of vehicle crossing path at intersection; Mitoshi no yoi kosaten ni okeru deaigashira jiko ni tsuite (Ibarakiken ni okeru jiko tahatsu zone no tokucho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K.; Uchida, N.; Katayama, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An investigation was excuted to understand the actual state of accidents happened at intersections where there were no constructive obstacles in field of view. First, the aspects of fatal accidents are described under the basis of the data published by the police of Ibaraki prefecture. Then it is shown that there are at least 336 intersections where the accidents happened in the last two years. It is also clarified that many dangerous zones were located in line along rivers. The authors stress that it is urgent to inform the existence of dangerous zones to prevent the accidents. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Gravitational observation in central Hokkaido; Hokkaido chuobu ni okeru juryoku sokutei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Y.; Makino, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    To compile a base map of gravity in Hokkaido, gravity was measured in central Hokkaido where gravity data are absent. Gravity anomaly was made clear in this region. Survey area was 87 km in the east-west and 224 km in the north-south. A topographic map with a scale of 25,000:1 was initially used for determining location and altitude of gravity measuring points. Since the GPS survey was found to be very useful for gravitational observation in the region of Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake in 1995, the GPS has been used in this survey from 1996. Based on new measurements at 2,148 points in addition to existing points, Bouguer anomaly map was made, and density distribution of surface layer of the crust was estimated. As a result, the gravity anomaly pattern in the north-south direction and gravity anomaly in basins and volcanoes were made clear. Quantitative analysis is to be conducted using these gravity data. Using these gravity data, the density distribution of surface layer of the crust was estimated. This distribution agreed well with the geological map in this region. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Study on the time-domain electromagnetic responses; TDEM ho ni okeru denji oto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, K.; Endo, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With an objective to perform three-dimensional analysis with high accuracy in using the electromagnetic exploration method, characteristics in electromagnetic response were analyzed, and conditions for acquiring necessary data were discussed. The discussion defined a parameter called `response anomaly` which uses response from media to standardize response only from substances with abnormal resistivity. The receivers were located uniformly on the same plane, and the response anomaly was derived from electromagnetic response from each of the three horizontal and vertical components at each receiving point, which was expressed as a contour map. The parameter for the abnormal body was consisted of location and resistivity contrast with media. Discussions using the contour map were given on the response when these factors for the parameter were varied. As a result, it was found that the response anomaly appears in the form that reflects the abnormal body, and the response anomaly of the horizontal component is superior in terms of being large. It was also referred that, as a requirement for the abnormal body which gives larger impact from the electromagnetic response, the abnormal body should have lower resistivity than that in the media, and resistivity contrast with the media should be greater. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Optimal operation by dynamic programming in a solar/electric hot-water system; Taiyonetsu/denryoku kyuto system no doteki keikakuho ni yoru saiteki un`yo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edo, S.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    With regard to utilization of a solar/electric hot-water system, a discussion was given by using a dynamic programming method on operation of a system which minimizes power charge. The discussed system is an installation in a welfare facility accommodating 100 persons, where solar heat is stored in a heat storage tank from a heat collector, and utilized for hot water supply. If the solar heat is insufficient for required hot water quantity, the water is heated by using an electric heater. The discussion compared the system operation using the dynamic programming method with the following two systems: the operation method 1, which does not utilize insolation forecast and the operation method 2, in which insolation forecast is utilized and late-night electric power is utilized for heating water in shortage. As a result of the calculation, the operation using the dynamic programming method conducts heat storage by utilizing the late-night power even if insolation is sufficient in winter in order to suppress heating by utilizing late-night power for days with less insolation. Thus, suppression is given on excessive utilization of day-time power and on rise in annual maximum power demand. It was found that the present system reduces power consumption by 37.7% when compared with the operation method 1, and 22.7% when compared even with the operation method 2. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. High resolution CSMT method for shallow structure; Senjo ochi ni okeru kobunkaino denjiho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inazaki, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Y.

    1997-10-22

    Electromagnetic exploration methods and seismic reflection methods are conducted for the study of applicability of geophysical exploration to shallow layer geological survey. In the study, four north-south traverse lines are set in 400mtimes200m grassland. Tensor type CSMT methods are employed, a CSMT method using 96kHz-1kHz artificial magnetic fields and an MT method using 1kHz-10kHz natural magnetic fields, for the determination of resistivity distribution in the ground. Distributed in the site are a surface layer composed of gravel-containing sand and silt, andesitic fractured lava, and massive andesite, and the exploration reaches several tens of meters below the surface. The results of CSMT measurements are found to be in agreement with reflection profiles acquired simultaneously with these CSMT measurements. It is found, furthermore, that CSMT profiles help identify reflection waveforms in a domain where reflection is obscure. It is also found that electromagnetic methods are effective in fault logging because they are very sensitive to porosity, or the amount of pore water, which is higher in a domain with subsurface cracks than in the neighborhood without cracks. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  10. Mechatronization of rotating machines in plant; Plant ni okeru kaiten kikai no mechatronics ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, H. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-10-01

    This paper introduces mechatronization of rotating machines in a plant, with application examples of electronic governors as the main subject. For centrifugal compressors, design and fabrication of anti surging control system have become possible by using a programmable logic controller (PLC) and a distributed control system (DCS) with fine scanning time. An electronic governor for turbine control has been added with a function to control amount of power generated by a motive force recovery device in a flowing catalytic cracking equipment by means of an expander inlet valve. This has made possible to operate the motive force recovery device automatically even under a low load operation. With an electronic governor to control supply and receipt amount of steam to and from an existing plant, the governor valve opening angles were so controlled that actual steam header pressure matches the setting, whereas the steam has become possible to be utilized without waste under normal operation. Operation of a comprehensive compressor/turbine monitoring system on DCS, operation of centrifugal compressors of two casings by using electromagnetic bearings, and motor speed control with use of an inverter heve also become possible. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Contamination measuring technology in ULSI processes. ULSI process ni okeru contamination keisoku hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, A. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Lab.)

    1990-08-10

    In order to maintain reliability, performance and yield of large scale integrated circuits (LSI) at high level, heretofore the control of fine particles of impurities has mostly been done, and the size of the fine particle has been 1/10 of the minimum workable dimension of a device. However, in the present times that the minimum workable dimension of LSI has become less than 1 {mu} m, it becomes important to control heavy metal and impurities of molecular size in addition to the fine particles of impurities as used to be, and in order to achieve this, it is necessary to detect the existence of these impurities with high precision. In this article, these measurement evaluation techniques are put in order from the standpoint of a LSI processing engineer, and a rough explanation is given to the measurements of contamination on a wafer (the analytical method of extract and the total reflexion fluorescence X-ray method) as the methods of contamination measurement of heavy metal and molecules, the contamination measurement in the clean air, and the contamination measurement in high purity gas. In addition, with regard to the particulate contamination measurement, the particle measurement in gas and in fluid is introduced. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Subjects of the energy industry under yen appreciation; Endakaka ni okeru energy sangyo no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This paper studied effects of yen appreciation on the Japanese economy and changes in energy demand when assuming the medium-term yen appreciation trend, and subjects in the energy industry. The paper also refers to the trend of the Asian material industry largely influencing the energy supply/demand, the risk hedge problem of the exchange, and international cooperation and business development of the energy industry. The energy industry is extremely high in public interest and is rice of the industry. Therefore, the development of the business has focused on the domestic market. However, such a recognition is forced to be changed by waves of the worldwide deregulation. Discussions on foreign/domestic price differences caused by high yen and a series of deregulation policy in the energy industry affected thereby may be concrete signs. The subject in the energy industry under the yen appreciation is that the energy industry will be close to common sense in general industrial circles and change to an industry which is strong and internationally competitive enough to brave the exchange variation. 101 refs., 104 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Moored observation of the Indonesia throughflow; Indonesia tsuka ryuiki ni okeru keiryu kansoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashino, Y. [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Watanabe, H.; Yamaguchi, H. [Sanyo Techno Marine Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan); Herunadi, B.; Hartoyo, D.

    1998-10-16

    This paper partially reports the observation in the southern part of the Philippine Sea of the Indonesian throughflow that JAMSTEC performed jointly with the Applied Agency of Indonesian Engineering Evaluation. From February 1994 to June 1995, two mooring systems were established between the Talaud Island and Morotai Islands to examine the ocean variability of the Indonesian throughflow. As a result, a strong northwestward flow (that carries the mixed sea water of intermediate water in the North Pacific and high salt water in the South Pacific) of which the maximum flow velocity reaches 60 m/s in the southern mooring system with the water depth of 300 to 700 m was observed in each winter of 1994 and 1995. A westward flow that carries the South Pacific water toward the Maluku Sea in summer was observed in the southern mooring system. In both mooring systems, oscillation was detected at intervals of approximately 50 days. 36 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography; Hiteiko tomography ni okeru konaisui no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Theoretical discussions were given on the effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography. The discussions performed incorporation of earth resistance as a method to consider borehole diameters in an FEM calculation using wire elements. The numerical experiment conducted a simulation on the following two objects: resistivity tomography in a horizontal multi-layer structure consisted of layers with resistivity ranging from 10 to 10000 ohm-m, and a model with a slanted low resistivity band existing in a background of 5000 ohm-m. As a result of the discussions, it was made clear that the effect of the boreholes can be corrected by giving earth resistance between the wire elements and natural ground. An improved potential calculating program indicated that the effect of the fluid-filled boreholes in the resistivity tomography generates false images with high resistivity along the bores if the resistivity has high contrast. Incorporating the wire elements into an inverse analysis model reduces the false images and improves the accuracy. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  17. Source inversion in the full-wave tomography; Full wave tomography ni okeru source inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, T. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    In order to consider effects of characteristics of a vibration source in the full-wave tomography (FWT), a study has been performed on a method to invert vibration source parameters together with V(p)/V(s) distribution. The study has expanded an analysis method which uses as the basic the gradient method invented by Tarantola and the partial space method invented by Sambridge, and conducted numerical experiments. The experiment No. 1 has performed inversion of only the vibration source parameters, and the experiment No. 2 has executed simultaneous inversion of the V(p)/V(s) distribution and the vibration source parameters. The result of the discussions revealed that and effective analytical procedure would be as follows: in order to predict maximum stress, the average vibration source parameters and the property parameters are first inverted simultaneously; in order to estimate each vibration source parameter at a high accuracy, the property parameters are fixed, and each vibration source parameter is inverted individually; and the derived vibration source parameters are fixed, and the property parameters are again inverted from the initial values. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Human physiology and psychology in space flight; Uchu hiko ni okeru ningen no seiri to shinri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)

  19. Fluid power education in Taiyo Ltd; Taiyo Tekko (kabu) ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraok, Y. [Taiyo Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Taiyo Ltd. is a corporation mainly in business of production and sales of industrial machines and facilities, centered by hydraulic/pneumatic devices and assembling machines. The company's products cover individual devices and assemblies, such as pneumatic devices, hydraulic elevator devices, automatic assembling machines for power trains of vehicle engines, and semiconducting wafer transfer machines, centered by industrial standard hydraulic cylinders, special cylinders, and pneumatic cylinders. Education of technical employees is based on OJT at each section. We are worried for the future that essentially no lectures are given to students for hydraulics and pneumatics at colleges and special schools. It seems that students learn basic and professional subjects from the beginning without grasping how they are useful until they start experiments for graduation theses, merely attending lectures for obtaining units for graduation. However, there are still many colleges carrying out concrete researches which surprise students (or make them wonder). It will be an effective way to provide students with concrete themes as soon as they enter colleges, and make them attend basic and professional lectures to pursue these themes. (NEDO)

  20. Earthquake ground motion research in Sapporo city; Sapporoshi ni okeru jishindo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasatani, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City established in May 1996 has inaugurated collection of information on ground structures and observations of strong earthquakes in Sapporo City. The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City has carried out geological investigations, electric logging and PS logging to date in three boring holes each with a depth of about 100 m, 200 m and 600 m. According to the result of the logging in the new Ishikari Bay port (600-m deep hole), the S-wave velocity has increased slowly as it starts from the ground surface to greater depths, but showed no noticeable velocity boundaries in this range of the depth. The Sapporo municipal office has drilled three observation wells (500-m deep) for the purpose of determining focal points of microtremors directly under the city area. Hole-bottom observation has been inaugurated since the beginning of this year. According to comparison of the results of loggings at great depths, a depth at which the S-wave velocity reaches about 700 m/s becomes greater toward the sea area. The result of calculations on amplification characteristics of the SH wave on rock beds revealed that a seismic wave of about 0.5 Hz is amplified by a little more than two times. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University; Nihon Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, M. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University. Department of Mechanical Engineering of Faculty of Production Engineering has been holding up the educational aims of bringing up engineers and researchers who have ability and intelligence to cope with internationalization and contribute to society, and of bringing about creativity, among others. Control equipment is an optional subject for the sophomore class in the second semester, and is centered by mechatronics, including hydraulic and pneumatic control systems and equipment. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, control engineering, system controlling, hydraulic machines, robotics and automobile engineering. The drill course includes disassembling and assembling gear pumps, drills on pneumatic devices, system behavior and mechatronics, experiments on fan and hydraulic control circuits and on servo mechanisms, and machinery designs and drawings. Seminars are led by full-time or part-time lecturers for the themes related to hydraulic power. Many students are interested in hydraulic and pneumatic themes for their graduation theses, because of their relations with control, environments, energy saving and so on. We are now in the age of composite technologies, and hydraulic power basics are prerequisite for engineers, and important for education of students. (NEDO)

  3. Survey of Joint Implementation activities in China; Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is a large task for Japan to positively promote the Joint Implementation activities related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Rapid increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases, especially CO2, is predicted in China with remarkable economic growth and population of 1.2 billion. It is essential to promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. In this survey, framework, organization, problems and tasks were investigated to effectively promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. Construction of framework for the real Joint Implementation activities has been proposed. Current problems for promoting the Joint Implementation activities in China are that the distinct guideline for the Joint Implementation is not established in the government, that the receiving system including receiving, planning and arranging sections is not established, and that the burden problems for the costs of project evaluation, data acquisition, monitoring, and verification are not solved. 5 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Reliability of soldered joints for automotive electronic devices; Denso buhin ni okeru handa setsugo no shinraisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, T.; Mukaibo, N.; Ando, K.; Moriyama, M. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Concerning the tin and lead eutectic solder, we have evaluated the reliability of three factors of intermetallic compound layer, creep and vibration which cause solder degradation. First, the stress factor was extracted from investigating the mechanism of degradation, and the best acceleration test method was fixed. Next, the acceleration test was executed to find the stress dependency and the tendency of solder degradation was modeled numerically. While the environmental stress frequency was obtained and they were put together by using a minor method, which enabled us to predict the life span of solder on the market with precision. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Refraction experiment in the Kobe-Hanshin area; Kobe Hanshin kan ni okeru kussetsuho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koketsu, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    The refraction experiments were conducted to investigate the underground structures reaching the basement by analyzing the results of the artificial earthquakes the explosion earthquake research group produced in City of Kobe and the Hanshin District on December 12 to 15, 1995. Considering that noise level can exceed 1 mkine in an urban area even in the mid-night, the courses of traverse were drawn focusing on Points S2 through S4 and U1. The earthquake waves from Points S2 through S4 are generally low in amplitude. However, the major components of the signals have a dominant frequency exceeding 10Hz, which makes them distinguishable from urban noise having a lower frequency, contrary to the previous indication that such a low-amplitude wave might not be distinguishable. On the other hand, the signals from the explosion at Point 4 in Awaji Island cannot be distinguished in the urban area, even on the nearby course of traverse D. At present, the analytical group is organized to read various phases running and analyze the P-velocity structures. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Load averaging system for co-generation plant; Jikayo hatsuden setsubi ni okeru fuka heijunka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-30

    MAZDA Motor Corp. planed the construction of a 20.5MW co-generation plant in 1991 for responding to an increase in power demand due to expansion of the Hofu factory. On introduction of this co-generation plant, it was decided that the basic system would adopt the following. (1) A circulating fluidized bed boiler which can be operated by burning multiple kinds of fuels with minimum environmental pollution. (2) A heat accumulation system which can be operated through reception of a constant power from electric power company despite a sudden and wide range change in power demand. (3) A circulating-water exchange heat recovery system which recovers exhaust heat of the turbine plant as the hot water to be utilized for heating and air-conditioning of the factory mainly in winter. Power demand in MAZDA`s Hofu factory changes 15% per minute within a maximum range from 20MW to 8MW. This change is difficult to be followed even by an oil burning boiler excellent in load follow-up. The circulating Fluidized bed boiler employed this time is lower in the follow-up performance than the oil boiler. For the newly schemed plant, however, load averaging system named a heat accumulation system capable of responding fully to the above change has been developed. This co-generation plant satisfied the official inspection before commercial operation according the Ministerial Ordinance in 1993. Since then, with regard to the rapid load following, which was one of the initial targets, operation is now performed steadily. This paper introduces an outline of the system and operation conditions. 10 refs.

  8. Prospect of concrete technology; Kenchiku ni okeru korekarano konkurito gijutsu no tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tadahiko [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-10

    The privatization of state-owned companies, the abolition of the protectionism to domestic industries and the market liberalization, deregulation to the economic activities or movement to abolition of regulation were concretely made a start. Moreover, the reform of the social life was also requested with an increasing of international global environmental preservation. These reform influences in the construction industry have been affected and could not ignored in consideration of the development in the 21st century. In this paper, the summary of reform in development, construction industry; especially the correspondence in the construction industry and the relation to concrete technology from now were described. Especially, concerning establishment of concrete technology, it was given as the construction of the safe and comfortable space, highly production technical development, countermeasures to resource-saving and environmental preservation, search of new concrete materials, development of the renewal technology and correspondence to large project. (NEDO)

  9. Drying unit in warm pure water pulling up system. Onjunsui hikiage hoshiki ni okeru kanso sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibano, Y. (Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-26

    This invention provides a means of drying which retains an object to be cleaned/dried, prevents the building up of water at the contact part of a retainer, dries the whole body of the object to be cleaned/dried and prevents the stains. In other words, in the invention, after the cleaning of such simple-shaped objects as a lense, optical disc, liquid crystal panel and a solar cell, which have relatively smooth surfaces, they are dipped in warm pure water set on the retaining tools of up/down jigs for drying, and then pulled slowly upwards and the objects are dried utilizing the surface tension of water. A means of water drop removal is placed in a space between the contacting part of the retaining tool in the elevator jig and the surface of the objects to be cleaned. 5 figs.

  10. Industrialization, urbanization and demographic change in England; Igirisu ni okeru kogyoka toshika to jinko mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, M. [Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Economics

    1994-12-15

    In order to study the effects of progress in industrialization and urbanization on societies and economy, analyses were performed on the northern England in the period of the Industrial Revolution. The rapid expansion of the city of Leeds in the 1780`s and on had brought about the increase in employment opportunities in the suburban farming villages, as well as drop in matrimonial age in agricultural and coal mine workers, and the rapid population increase. Housing conditions for those workers who had flown into the city from agricultural villages in a large number were of very poor quality, and their living standard was low. More than half of the patients visiting the charity hospital in Leeds City came from the urban area, with industrial accidents such as injuries in young workers noticed remarkably high. Many women were included in them, from which the progress in mechanization of the textile industry in Leeds and its surrounding areas can well be imagined. The attributes of households, families, and population were divided into diverse structures and hierarchies, according to the residential construction form and work income earner rates in family constituting members were also various. The development urbanization and industrialization had given diversified effects on households, families, population, and life cycles in city dwellers through changes in housing environments. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  11. Magnetic prospecting in Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb; Kaibukiyama kofun ni okeru zenjiryoku sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1996-10-01

    Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb located in Kumeda, Kishiwada City, Osaka has a square shape in the front and an orbicular shape in the rear, which was considered to be made in the 4th century. This ancient tomb has a total length about 135 m, a diameter of orbicular shape in the rear about 82 m, and a height about 9 m, which is a symbolical existence of the Kumeda ancient tombs. Stone chamber and stone casket made of Sanbagawa crystalline schist or rhyolitic-andesitic tuff are expected in this tomb. Magnetic prospecting in this study is accompanied with this survey. A differential type proton magnetometer was used for the measurements, which were conducted using meshes with 1 m edges. A pair of distinct positive and negative magnetic anomalies were observed in the center of orbicular shape in the rear. This coincides with a location of main body buried, which is archaeologically estimated. The magnetic anomaly might be caused by the article buried in the tomb, such as ironware, based on the measurement of magnetic intensity. From the calculated values of magnetic anomaly using a model, the buried article with magnetic anomaly was considered to have a size with length of 1 m, width of 0.1 m, and height of 0.2m. The negative magnetic anomaly could not be explained only by this. It is necessary to consider the other reasons. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Detailed seismic intensity in Morioka area; Moriokashi ni okeru shosai shindo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Settai, H. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamada, T. [Obayashi Road Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To reveal a seismic intensity distribution in individual areas, a large-scale detailed seismic intensity survey was conducted in Morioka City through questionnaire, as to the Hokkaido Toho-oki (HE) earthquake occurred on October 4, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 4 at Morioka, and the Sanriku Haruka-oki (SH) earthquake occurred on December 28, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 5 at Morioka. A relationship was also examined between the seismic intensity distribution and the properties of shallow basement in Morioka City. The range of seismic intensity was from 2.9 to 4.6 and the difference was 1.7 in the case of HE earthquake, and the range was from 3.1 to 5.0 and the difference was 1.9 in the case of SH earthquake. There were large differences in the seismic intensity at individual points. Morioka City has different geological structures in individual areas. There were differences in the S-wave velocity in the surface layer ranging from 150 to 600 m/sec, which were measured using a plate hammering seismic source at 76 areas in Morioka City. These properties of surface layers were in harmony with the seismic intensity distribution obtained from the questionnaire. For the observation of short frequency microtremors at about 490 points in the city, areas with large amplitudes, mean maximum amplitudes of vertical motion components more than 0.1 mkine were distributed in north-western region and a part of southern region. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area; Hanshin chiiki ni okeru bido no kihon tokusei nitsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Suzuki, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Seo, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To increase general understandings of fundamental characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area, microtremors have been observed at Sumiyoshi River-side, Rokko Island, and Nishinomiya. Relations were discussed among the stability of predominant period, successive fluctuation and meteorological conditions. For the analysis, cosine-type taper was conducted before and after 10% of the observed records, and Fourier spectrum was calculated by smoothing using Parzen window with a band width 0.3 Hz. Geometrical mean of two components was used as a horizontal component. At the observation points except Sumiyoshi River-side, predominance in the short period side was not distinct, and was not stable due to the successive fluctuation of predominant period. However, there was less successive fluctuation of spectrum ratio between different two points in the band with period more than 1 sec. Since there was a close correlation between the successive fluctuation in this band and the wind velocity or air pressure, the microtremors in this band was affected by a single vibration source. Ground characteristics could be illustrated by the averages of ratio against base points of moving observation. 14 refs.

  14. Array TDEM survey at the Yufuin fault; Yufuin danso ni okeru array shiki TDEM tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, Y.; Fukuda, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Science; Jomori, N. [Chiba Electric Research Institute Co., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The array arrangement of receivers was studied to improve the resolution of LOTEM (long offset transient electromagnetics) survey. To eliminate the effect of underground structure from a source to a receiving point, continuous array arrangement from a source site is desirable. The survey at the Yufuin fault was carried out by arranging TEM receivers at intervals of 100m from the source. Since the synchronization between transmitting and receiving points by high-precision clock is essential, an amplifier for a flux gate magnetometer capable of measuring at four points at the same time was used. In the south plateau of the Yufuin basin, a relatively high resistivity stratum more than several tens ohm m exists at depth less than several hundreds meter, and a low resistivity stratum less than 10 ohm m exists under that. Those boundary depth increases toward the north up to 950m, and the depth subsequently decreases toward the north until the low resistivity stratum disappears. In addition, the uniform stratum of 1000m deep continues toward the north. Such precise resistivity structure around the fault was obtained by dense arrangement of measuring points. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Effect of fall wind on wind power generation; Furyoku hatsuden ni okeru dashikaze no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, H. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Wind conditions in Arakawa Town, Niigata Prefecture, were surveyed by anemometers and anemoscopes installed at 3 different points, and the data are analyzed to develop the prediction model for investigating possibility of introduction of wind mills there. Outlined herein is power generated by fall wind by comparing predicted power availability with the actual results. In order to investigate possibility of power generation by fall wind, the wind conditions and power availability are simulated using the observed wind condition data. Predicted wind velocity involves a large error at a point where frequency of prevailing wind direction is high, and direction in which average wind velocity is high coincides with direction in which land is slanted at a high slope. Fall wind occurs locally for geographical reasons. Location of the wind mill must be carefully considered, because it is complex, although potentially gives a larger quantity of power. A wind mill of 400kW can produce power of around 600MWh annually, when it is located at the suited site confirmed by the wind condition analysis results. 6 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Dissipative structure of mechanically stimulated reaction; Kikaiteki reiki hanno ni okeru san`itsu kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-20

    Recently various studies have been conducted concerning the state changes of materials obtained through mechanical alloying (MA) or mechano-chemical (MC) processing. What is noticeable is the quasi-steady state of almost all the materials obtained through various processes including MA and MC, and that the super cooling, supersaturating and high residue distortion realized under unbalanced conditions have not been clarified. In other words, the tracing capability to the external binding conditions is low. In this report, the appearance of the high temperature phase and high pressure phase obtained through MA or MC processing, the forming of amorphous, the mesomerism of the amorphous materials, the interesting phenomena generated by combination between the mechanical disturbance and chemical reactions were discussed with concrete examples, and a steady dissipative organization theory was approached from the viewpoint of dissipative structure development which is equal to the forming process of the quasi-steady phase. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Annual energy review-1996; 1996 nen ni okeru juyona energy kankei jiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-20

    This paper reviews the important items concerned with energy in 1996. Primary energy supply sums to 529times10{sup 13}kcal increasing by 2.4% over last year. The growth rates of demand over last year are 2.5% in industry use, 3.7% in transport use, 3.7% in home use, and 1.3% in business use. On R & D trend of use technologies of energy resources, the following are described: (1) Petroleum: resource exploitation, transport, stock, refining, and petrochemistry, (2) Coal: resource exploitation, coal structure and property, processing, transport, liquefaction, gasification, carbonization, tar industry, carbon industry, and coal ash utilization, (3) Natural gas: resource exploitation, transport, storage, and conversion technology, (4) Natural energy: hydraulic, solar, geothermal, wind power, oceanic and biomass energies, and (5) Others: waste resources, hydrogen and alcohol. On R & D trend of energy conversion technology, combustion theory, boiler, engine, thermal energy system, and high-efficiency power generation technology are described. Environmental problems and their protective technologies are also described

  18. Investigations on steel slag re-utilization in developing countries; Hatten tojokoku ni okeru tekko slag sairiyo ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to promote steel slag re-utilization in developing countries, a possibility was presented for technical cooperation to India, Indonesia and Thailand upon putting the status of slag utilization in Japan into order. Blast furnace slag produced in Japan (having a re-utilization rate of 95%) is re-utilized and processed as cement aggregates and road beds, and converter slag as civil engineering materials and ores. Steel making slag (having a re-utilization rate of 80%) is re-utilized as road, processing and civil engineering materials. Since the steel making slag faces intensifying competition with ash made by incinerating construction and general wastes, it is important to improve its price competitiveness or mixed utilization with other materials. Re-utilization has not advanced to a recognizable level in developing countries because of having no difficulty for availability of lands for wastes. However, growth of full-scale steel industries and elevation in tendency of environment preservation now urge increase in the slag re-utilization rate. Required to achieve the goal would include wider use of re-utilization technologies, quality control on slag, joint use of facilities to produce re-utilization products, and governmental assistance on burdens of transportation cost. Assistance from Japan is expected to help meet these requirements. 25 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. Measurement of organic carbon quantity at chemoautorophic bacterium; Kagaku dokuritsu eiyo saikin ni okeru yuki tansoryo no sokutei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, I.; Kato, K.; Nozaki, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurokawa, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Described herein is the method for analyzing quantity of organic carbon synthesized by chemoautotrophic bacterium. It is based on the combustion-infrared spectroscopy, which is normally adopted for quantitative analysis of organic carbon. The problems involved in the measurement of organic compounds synthesized by iron-oxidizing bacteria are noise by culture medium components, aging of gas analyzer and contamination with organic compounds from a silicon plug. The measures taken in this study against these problems include comparison of the results with a medium containing iron-oxidizing bacteria with those with a medium free of these bacteria, calibration with the standard solution for each measurement, and replacement of a silicone plug by a silicon cap. Organic carbon is measured by a TOC-5000 analyzer equipped with an automatic sample feeder ASI-5000. Biomass density is determined by the MPN method. It is confirmed that organic carbon quantity is almost in proportion to biomass density, a phenomenon which can be used to determine organic carbon quantity. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. On noise, traffic and factory vibrations in Akita city; Akitashi ni okeru soon oyobi kotsu kojo shindo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M.; Kikuchi, T.; Morino, T.; Sannohe, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education

    1996-05-01

    Noise and vibration were measured in Akita City. In 1994, noise and traffic-caused vibration were measured along the trunk lines and other roads across the entire Akita City area. In 1995, the effort centered on the Ibarashima manufacturing quarters, the important source of noise and vibration in Akita city. The general-purpose noise meter LA-220S was used to measure noise and the vibration level meter VR-5100 was used to measure vibration. The results of noise measurement carried out at 122 points in Akita City indicated that the noise level was high along Route 7, Route 13, and the southern line belonging to the newly built national highway, marking the highest of approximately 74dB. As compared with the measurement made in 1968, the value was higher by 3-13dB. A roughly similar trend was seen in vibration. The noise level measurement of 1995 accomplished at 100 points in the vicinity of Ibarashima district indicated that the factories were responsible for high levels of noise and vibration. It was found that the levels lowered in proportion to the increase in the distance from the factories. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Study on an optimum ratio of PV output energy to WG output energy in PV/WG hybrid system; Taiyoko/furyoku hybrid hatsuden system no saiteki yoryohi ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S. [Kandenko Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A photovoltaic power (PV) and wind generated power (WG) are an unlimited clean energy source, yet their output is unstable depending on the fluctuation of weather conditions such as solar radiation and wind velocity. Consequently, a large-scale power storage equipment is necessitated leading to a high cost especially in an independent system. As a solution, a method is available in which PV and WG are combined so that the effect may be utilized for stabilizing the output of a system as a whole, at a site where a fluctuation pattern is different between photovoltaic energy and wind energy. In building a hybrid system by PV and WG, sites with such supplementary effect existing were selected from the viewpoint of stabilizing the fluctuation of the power generation in the long run; and then, an examination was made on the optimum PV capacity ratio (%Ppo) in each site. As a result, it revealed that the %Ppo had great bearing on a ratio of PV energy fluctuation to WG, which was converted to a numerical formula. A comparatively simple examination by means of meteorological data also indicated that the share ratio was possibly optimized between the quantities of PV and WG energy. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 3D seismic survey in Honjo, Akita. Problems and struggles in acquisition and processing; Akitaken Honjo koku ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa. Genba sagyo to data shori ni okeru mondaiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imahori, S.; Kotera, Y.; Nakanishi, T. [Japan Energy Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Honjo mining area where investigations are conducted is hilly and has a complicated terrain with gas pipes buried in the ground just under the access road disabling the proper positioning of shock-generating large excavators or vibrators. Auger`s shallow hole shooting method is used in this survey to execute blastings at 639 points. In this method using charge depths of 4m, different from the conventional method using deeper charge depths (20-25m), surface waves prevail in the shot records giving rise to a new problem of removing them in the stage of data processing. The 2D filter that is a powerful tool in 2D data processing is not available in a 3D-survey where the tracing intervals are irregular in the shot records. In the effort of this time, a window length as a parameter in the direction of time is specified, and the F-X dip filtering method is employed in which any event that linearly continues beyond a certain number of traces in the said window is eliminated as a linear noise. It is recommended that the weighting function be changed in the direction of space since surface wave velocities are different at different locations. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Consideration on characteristics of faults distributed at around Fujigawa river mouth; Fujigawa kako shuhen ni okeru danso kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashita, A.; Misawa, Y. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    From the sonic prospecting on the ground, it was confirmed that faults distributed in the inner part of Suruga Bay extend near the Fujigawa river mouth. While, faults in the sea bottom were found by the sonic prospecting using a single air-gun. However, continuity of faults running from the land to the sea has not been reported. This paper describes the continuity of Fujigawa fault system running from the land to the sea around Fujigawa river mouth along the subduction zone of Philippine Sea Plate using single air-gun seismic reflection records. Locations of the faults can be expressed as fracture information of linearment obtained from the satellite remote sensing images, which agreed well with those found by the Active Fault Research Association. As a result of the image processing, they agreed distinctly with the topography of Fujigawa fault system. Thus, much more accurate analysis can be performed by comparing the regional information by the remote sensing with the sonic seismic reflection profiles. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Polymer-based matrix composites in general industries. Ippan sangyo bun'ya ni okeru kobunshiki fukugo zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmochi, K. (National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-02-15

    This paper summarizes the course of development of polymer-based matrix composites (PMC) begun in the 1950's, their future problems, and prospects. Because of PMC being a petroleum product, the changing period before and after the first and second oil crises (1974-1983) has seen even a negative growth from the declined product price out of increased material cost. However, the materials have been continuing expansion in such applications year after year for two decades since then as plant, marine vessel, and housing materials. The course of their development to date has included such proliferation impeding factors as unproved reliability, high production cost, and legal regulations because of being new materials. However, the ardent technical development efforts having produced a number of products including hybrid FRP, particularly the fundamental technology development studies sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, have improved properties and reliability and contributed largely to expanding practical applications. Sought in different functions expected in PMC in the future would be application of bionic designs, transfer from functional quality to sensitive quality, and development of material recycling techniques. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Hydrogenolysis reactions characteristics of deashed coal under low temperature; Teionka ni okeru dakkai shoritan no suisoka bunkai hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal liquefaction, the effect of inorganic minerals on liquefaction reactivity and the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment on organic molecular structure of coals were studied by demineralization of low-rank coals in HCl or HF solution. In experiment, Taiheiyo coal specimen was deashed in HCl solution at 25-70{degree}C for 6 hours while agitating, and in addition, deashed in HF solution. Hydrogenolysis of the deashed coal specimen was conducted using tetralin or methylnaphthalene as solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 1.96MPa at reaction temperature of 693K for 60min. The experimental results are as follows. The ash content of Taiheiyo coal hardly offers catalysis in hydrogenolysis reaction. Carboxyl group increases in demineralization of coal because of breakage of bridged bonds. Organic structure of coal changes by demineralization in dense HF solution. Change in organic structure of coal by demineralization in dense HF solution is dependent on treatment temperature. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Studies on reactivity of coal surfaces at low temperature; Teion ni okeru sekitan hyomen no hannosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn reactivity of coal at its surface, surfaces of oxidized coal samples were investigated. Miike coal was oxidized by using {sup 18}O2 in a closed loop system. As the reaction progresses, proportion of CO2 including isotopes increased rapidly as a result of oxidation of CO sites existing in the coal and the newly generated C{sup 18}O sites. The oxidizing reaction progressed via oxygen adsorbing sites generated near the surface, and oxygen containing groups. An FT-IR analysis estimated the depth of the oxidized layer to be 10{mu}m or less from particle surface. The oxidized coal was pulverized to see its surface condition. Functional groups introduced by the oxidation enter into the vicinity of the surface in a form to desorb as CO. CO2 is trapped in inner pores. The coal surface was observed by using an atomic force microscope. No observable openings in the pore structure were discerned on the surface before the oxidation, and the structure agrees with a closed pore model. Surface image oxidized in-situ by oxygen for one hour had slight roundness, which led to a supposition of structural change, and changes in the functional group and adsorption species. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Change of unit skeletons during an artificial coalification; Jinko sekitanka katei ni okeru tan`i kokkaku kozo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y.; Hayamizu, K. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to obtain knowledge about formation and growth of condensed ring structure in a coalification process, discussions were given on product skeleton structure by using hydrogenation and hydrocracking of heated cellulose. In underwater heating of cellulose, reaction of dehydration has occurred at 200{degree}C or lower, that of decarbonation at 250{degree}C or higher, and that of demethanizing at 300{degree}C, resulting in production of a dark-brown coal-like substance. The substance has lower H/C value and higher O/C value than coal. As the underwater heating temperature rises, the hydrogenation reactivity of the heated substance decreases, and so does the ratio of conversion into toluene solubles. These phenomena are related to strength of cross-linking bond between unit skeleton structures. A substance heated at an underwater heating temperature of 200{degree}C turns toluene-soluble almost completely even during the hydrogenation reaction (350{degree}C for 2 hours), but the soluble product decreases at underwater heating temperatures of 250 and 300{degree}C. However, soluble product of more than 90% was obtained when hydrocracking (at 425{degree}C for one hour) was performed. The toluene-soluble product in the heated substance is only 50% when the underwater heating temperature reaches 350{degree}C even if the hydrocracking is carried out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Application of compliance/force control to industrial robots; Sangyoyo robot ni okeru compliance/chikaraseigyo no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuragawa, T.; Ioi, K.; Noro, O.; Nagata, O.; Kubota, N.; Ogimoto, K.; Kataoka, M. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-20

    This paper describes a position command type hybrid compliance/force control system as a method to constitute a control system when an inner force sense sensor was used as an outer field sensor in industrial robots. The paper also reports the result of applying the system to robots. The proposed position command system realizes compliance control and force control in each degree of freedom in the six degrees in a robot. Application of the system to an operating robot adopted a revolute joint position commanding configuration. The robot used in the test is a six-axial motor-driven robot, which can carry a weight of 10 kgf. The robot controller has the robot OS, the robot language processing board, the independent joint shaft PID servo board, and the inner force sensing servo board linked to the VME bus. A simulation has discussed the stable region in the targeted compliance and the response characteristics. The result of an application test of the system indicated that the force response follows the target values, and the pressing force is controlled. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method. Part 3. Migration; Gokusenso hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 3. Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S.; Muraoka, S.; Takahashi, T. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning the analysis of data obtained by the seismic reflection method, migration in the very shallow layer is discussed. When the dip angle of the reflection plane involved is disclosed by DMO conversion, the amount of migration (travelling sideways) can be calculated by use of simple geometrical formulas though on the presumption that the sector velocity is constant. Categorized into this technique are such methods as DMO conversion migration, direct dip migration, F-K method, and finite difference method. This means that waveforms are not damaged by migration processing although elongation occurs due to time base conversion. When it is taken into account that waveform distortion is generally grave in the migration related methods widely in use, this feature has to be said valuable in holding information on faults. This is especially advantageous in the very shallow layer because the amount of migration is proportionally larger when the level is deeper and, in addition, migration processing is useful when it is necessary to know more accurately the character of the fault plane. 8 figs.

  10. Application of membrane technology to food industry; Shokuhin kogyo bun'ya ni okeru maku riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, T.; Nakajima, M. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-08-05

    In the food industry, the membrane technologies are used practically for concentration of fruit juice and milk, etc. as reverse osmosis, for decolorization and desalination of liquid seasoning as nanofiltration, for bacteria elimination, etc. as micro-filtration, for recovery and purification of the protein as ultra-filtration, and for kitchen salt manufacturing and desalination as electrodialysis. In this paper, the state of utilization of membranes and the trend of recent research and development in the food industry are described. At first, a utilization of membranes in the dairy industry field, the fruit juice processing field, the alcoholic beverage field, the seasoning field, the honey purification field, the protein field and the fats and oils processing field are described. Next, as a film emulsification technology, a preparing process of W/O emulsion in which the pressurized water phase is penetrated through a hydrophobic membrane into the oil phase of the opposite side, and a preparing process of W/O emulsion in which the pressurized oil phase is penetrated through a hydrophilic film are described. The emulsification technology using the micro-channel made of the silicon chip, which is developed by the author is introduced. (NEDO)

  11. Shallow seismic reflection prospecting in Hachiro-kata reclaimed land; Hachirogata kantakuchi ni okeru senbu hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitsunezaki, C.; Fukutome, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Noda, K.; Sato, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College; Hayashi, H.; Ishii, E.; Yamanaka, Y.; Matsuno, K.; Mikuni, S. [Suncoh Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Along the Japan Sea coast in Akita Prefecture and in the vicinity, there exist active fault groups, such as the Kitayuri thrust fault group in the south and Noshiro thrust fault group in the north. It is estimated that there is another fault, running from Akita City located between the above-said two thrust fault groups into the Hachiro-kata reclaimed land, roughly connecting the two thrust fault groups. This third fault is supposed to be related to the hypocenter of Tencho Earthquake of 830, but its location and structural configuration are not known, and it is not known whether it is an active fault, either. Investigations are conducted using S- and P-waves. The greatest problem in the use of P-waves is that there exists a layer in which signal attenuation is high and transmission is anomalously slow. This problem is ascribed to the layer pore water rendered unsaturated though slightly by the inclusion of air bubbles, and is explained for the most part by the White model. A survey using S-waves is advantageous in that it does not experience no difficulty of this kind. In the P-wave cross section, a structure supposed to be an inversion layer is observed at a level deeper than 200m. In the case of the S-wave method, more details of the shallow structure will be available when the degree of CMP stacking is augmented as usual. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Deep sedimentary structure model beneath the Osaka plain; Osaka heiya ni okeru shinbu chika kozo no model ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K.; Kagawa, T.; Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Restructuring was carried out on a sedimentary basin structure model of the Osaka plain including Osaka Bay by using newly obtained underground structural data. After the Hygoken-nanbu Earthquake of 1995, a large number of underground structure investigations have been performed in Osaka Bay and urban areas of Kobe and Osaka. However, very few surveys have been done in areas peripheral to Osaka Prefecture, such as the Ikoma area. Therefore, an attempt has been made to increase the number of measuring points to acquire underground structural data of these areas. Estimation of basic rock depths has utilized the dominant cycles in H/V spectra obtained from micro vibration survey, and good correlation of the base rock depths derived by a refraction exploration and a deep-bed boring investigation. With regard to bed division and P- and S- wave velocities in sedimentary beds in the Osaka sedimentary basin, an underground structure model was prepared, which was divided into four beds according to the refraction exploration and the micro vibration investigation. Data obtained by using this model agreed well with depth data acquired from physical exploration and other types of investigations. However, no good agreement was recognized in the data for such areas where the basic depth changes abruptly as the Rokko fault and the Osaka bay fault. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Yellowstone National Park, USA; Beikoku Yellowstone kokuritsu koen ni okeru genchi jikaritsu sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    For the purpose of interpreting data of the aeromagnetic anomalies in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.A., in-situ magnetization intensity measurements have been carried out in 1994 and 1995 on geological outcrops of rocks in that area. Comparisons and discussions were given on the measurement results, and existing rock magnetic data and aeromagnetic anomaly data available for the area. Outside the Yellowstone caldera, part of granitic gneisses among the Precambrian granitic gneisses and crystalline schists distributed to the north has an abnormally high magnetization intensity of 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI. This could be a powerful anomaly source for the high magnetic anomaly in this area. Paleogene volcanic rocks distributed widely in the eastern part of the park also have magnetization intensity as high as 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher, which are also thought a powerful anomaly source in this area. Part of Pleistocene basalts which are exposed partially in the western part of the park has also very high magnetization intensity at 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher. This suggests correlation with the magnetic anomaly in the east-west direction distributed in this area. Quaternary rhyolites are more magnetic than Quaternary welded tuffs, which should give greater effects to the magnetic anomaly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  14. 3D seismic experiment in difficult area in Japan; Kokunai nanchiiki ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Nakagami, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    Difficult area in this context means an exploration-difficult area supposed to store oil/gas but retarded in exploration for the lack of knowledge about the geological structure due to poor quality of available seismic survey records. Discussed in this paper is a survey conducted into an area covering the southern part of Noshiro-shi, Akita-ken, and Yamamoto-cho, Yamamoto-gun, Akita-ken. An area size suitable for data collection at a target depth of 2500m is determined using an interpretation structure compiled on the basis of available well data and 2D seismic survey data. The plan for siting shock points and receiving points is modified case by case as restrictive factors come to the surface (resulting from the complicated hilly terrain, presence of pipes for agricultural water, etc.). The peculiarities of seismic waves in the terrain are studied through the interpretation of the available well data and 2D seismic survey data for the construction of a 3D velocity model for the confirmation of the appropriateness of the plan for siting shock points and receiving points. Efforts are exerted through enhanced coordination with the contractor to acquire data so that a technologically best design may be won within the limits of the budget. The quality of the data obtained from this experiment is in general better than those obtained from previous experiments, yet many problems remain to be settled in future studies about exploration-difficult areas. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method. 2; Gokusenso hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S.; Muraoka, S.; Takahashi, T. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Fault analysis is required in addition to the ordinary process of structural analysis (CDP stacking) for the examination of discontinuity in the reflection horizon in question. The fault shape restoration principle is that the reflection point of a reflection wave observed at a certain receiving point is on an ellipse with the shock point and receiving point at its focal points and that the sum of the distances between the reflection point and the focal points is equal to the reflection wave propagation time. The DMO velocity is worked out by calculation using the positive travel time and inverse travel time from the common reflection surface. When the reflection surface is inclined by {theta}, the average interval velocity/cos{theta} is called the DMO velocity. When the reflection surface inclination and the average interval velocities are determined separately in this way, the position of the reflection point may be worked out, and this enables the calculation of the amount of migration (lateral movement). The reflection wave lineups carried by the original record are picked up one by one, and the average interval velocities are treated very prudently. After such a basic DMO conversion treatment, the actualities of the fault are described fairly correctly. 3 figs.

  16. Measurement results of BHTV logging at the geothermal well. 1; Chinetsusei ni okeru BHTV kenso no sokutei kekka. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, S.; Shimizu, I. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In association with excavation of the No. 135 steam producing well in the Onikubi geothermal power plant in Miyagi Prefecture, shapes of production zones and drilling-induced fracture (DIF) were acquired from the borehole televiewer (BHTV) data. The BHTV logging shoots sound waves onto well walls of wells filled with fluid and detects the reflection waves to investigate the state of the well walls. Vertical fracture with opening lengths from 2 to 3 m were found at depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m. Water run-off has occurred at a depth of about 1312 m during the excavation, to which these vertical fractures might have contributed possibly. In depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m, fractures inclining toward north-east direction and south-west direction are predominant. Some fractures in the depth of about 1333 m incline toward east-south-east direction and west-north-west direction. Fracture inclination azimuth in all of the present logging sections is predominantly in north-east direction and south-west direction. When the DIF is considered to show the maximum compression azimuth, the earth`s crust stress azimuth is generally in east-west direction, which crosses slightly obliquely with the running direction of the predominant fracture in this well. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  17. Relation between frequency of seismic wave and resolution of tomography; Danseiha tomography kaiseki ni okeru shuhasu to bunkaino no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, M.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With regard to the elastic wave exploration, discussions have been given on the relationship between frequency and resolution in P-wave velocity tomography using the initial travel time. The discussions were carried out by using a new analysis method which incorporates the concept of Fresnel volume into tomography analysis. The following two arrangements were used in the calculation: a cross hole arrangement, in which seismic source and vibration receiving points were arranged so as to surround the three directions of a region extending 250 m in the horizontal direction and 500 m in the vertical direction, and observation is performed between two wells, and a permeation VSP arrangement in which the seismic source is installed on the ground surface and receiving points installed in wells. Restructuring was performed on the velocity structure by using a total of 819 observation travel times. This method has derived results of the restructuring according to frequencies of the seismic source used for the exploration. The resolution shown in the result of the restructuring has become higher as elastic waves with higher frequency are used, and the size of the structure identified from the restructuring result has decreased. This fact reveals that sufficient considerations must be given on frequencies of elastic waves used according to size of objects to be explored. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Power feeding to terminal devices in optical subscriber network; Hikari fuaiba tsushin ni okeru tanmatsu kiki eno kyuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, M

    1998-09-01

    This paper outlines present state of the feeding system in the light access system in consideration of backup in case of home power failure. In the optical communication, equipment with bilateral conversion function for light and electricity has to be installed both on communication service side and home side. Outline of the light access system and equipment requiring backup are shown. The following items are explained: main types of the light access system, such as FTTC (fiber to the curb), FTTP (fiber to the pole), FTTH (fiber to the home) and HFC (hybrid fiber coax), and the feeding system; problems on feeding system for the light access system. Key elements of ONU (optical network unit) for FTTH and construction of the ONU power source are illustrated. The ONU power source is composed of a backup power supply unit and main body supply unit. Backup power is indispensable to the ONU and analog telephones: output is supplied by the backup batteries in power failure. For miniaturization of the backup power source, power supply circuits and backup batteries have to be miniaturized simultaneously. History of miniaturization is explained on the experimental models. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Subsurface displacement of the Tachikawa fault; Tachikawa danso no chika shinbu ni okeru danso hen`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Kiguchi, T.; Tanaka, A. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sato, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1997-10-22

    Seismic exploration using the reflection method was carried out at the central section of the Tachikawa fault located in the western part of the Musashino high plain spreading over Tokyo and Saitama Prefectures. The course of traverse was set on a road running in the east to west direction, which crosses the running direction of the Tachikawa fault in Sunagawa, Tachikawa City by about 65 degrees. The area near the course of traverse is a terraced alluvial fan, with the nature of its surface soil consisted of a gravelly bed of the Quaternary period. In order to identify the fault structure in detail, the focal point interval was set to 5 m, being half of the vibration receiving point interval of 10 m. The CMP was defined at a 2.5-m interval rather than a 5-m interval. The S/N ratio of the derived data was found not good. This is because of scattering of seismic energy into the gravelly bed with a thickness of about 100m in the shallow portion and because of noise from passing vehicles. The data processing was applied with correlation, geometry, static correction, velocity analysis and CMP polymerization to have prepared a preliminary CMP polymerization time cross section. As a result, it was elucidated that the Tachikawa fault forms a bend zone or a crush zone under the ground, and continues down to a great depth at a high angle. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Evaluation of biodegradation of bioplastics in swa water. Kaisuichu ni okeru bio plastic no seibunkaisei no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Y. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    Research and development have been pursued of plastic materials degradable in sea water and their application to the fishery material field in consideration of protection of the marine environment. Tests are conducted on degradation speed of bioplastics in sea water. Concerning a sample copolymeric polyester, by giving 4-hydroxy butyric acid, 1,4-butanediol, 1,6-hexanediol and {gamma}-a butyrolactone group to A.eutrophus, copolymeric polyester P (3HB-co-4HB), a mixture of molecular units of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) is fermented. Test results show that it degrades at the same speed, being independent of molecular structures of biopolyester and copolymerization composition, different from the case of degradation in soil. It is clarified that the microorganism which degrades biopolyester in sea water is streptomyces, a kind of actinomycetes. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Present state of desertification and soil conservation in Niger; Niger ni okeru sabakuka to dojo hozen no torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, T. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Major factors for desertification are soil deterioration phenomena such as decrease in the covering by plants, water erosion, weathering, and decrease of organic matter. The current state of desertification and the trend of soil conservation are introduced quoting the case of Niger, and the current state of facing the problem on the spot is introduced lastly. Increase of the population and tight situation of the utilization of land in such severe environment as unstable rainfalls and poor soil are the causes for the poor production basis. Another cause is farming of the extensive style even at present. Effective measures for soil conservation are the improvement of productivity and conservation by water harvesting and fertility management. However, self-help soil conservation by the inhabitants themselves is currently difficult because of the present state of the social economy. It is required that soil conservation is positioned in the overall development of farming village and is developed simultaneously with the improvement of the rate of self-supporting, securing of cash income, and improvement of living environment. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Water quality and water pollution sources in Poyang lake, China; Poyang ko ni okeru suishitsu chosa to odakugen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M. [Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the current status of water quality and pollution sources in Poyang Lake in China. The lake is located in Chianghsi Province of China, and a largest fresh water lake in China that flows out into the Yangtze river. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides and faces the Yangtze on one side, whereas the plains formed by the lake and the rivers flowing in extends in the center of the basin. The plains around the lake has the city of Nanchang, the capital of the province, the city of Jiujiang (both cities have a population of about 4 million, respectively), and four other cities with a size of one million people including Jingdezhen. Water supply system in the basin is used in a 37% area of the urban areas, and no sewage facilities of whatsoever are available as of 1991. The lake has COD of about 3 mg{times}1/l. No severe pollution by organic matters is seen. While the T-P concentration is at a high level, PO4-P is low. Majority of phosphorus flowing into the basin exists in the form trapped in soil particles. In order to maintain the current water quality in the future, waste water treatment is required in the basin. Construction of an oxidation pond in the vast land exposed during the drought period is a measure that can be tackled relatively easily. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Feasibility study on introducing new energy systems into Asian villages; Asia sonraku ni okeru shin energy donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For improvement of living standards in unelectrified areas of Asia, the feasibility of new energy power generation systems was surveyed. The degree of electrification of local areas is different every country, and Thailand is ahead of other countries, while Laos and Cambodia are most unelectrified. Power supply of 100W/house seems to be adequate for local areas because of weather condition, housing situation and life-style. Economic support and education on electricity are necessary for poor areas. Although needs for new energy is increasing, the priority is given to industrial and urbanized areas because of cost and investment effects, and remote areas are dependent on grant- in-aid. Resources of photovoltaic, wind power and micro- hydraulic energies are abundant, however, selection of energy and verification of its usability are important, and the local energy density maps were thus prepared. In introduction of new energy, after selection of energy suitable for an area concerned, such geographical and social conditions should be surveyed as road condition, water rights, land utilization, economic support system, policy and intention of inhabitants. 76 refs., 68 figs., 91 tabs.

  4. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nara National College of Technology; Nara Kogyo Koto Senmon Gakko ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y. [Nara Technical Coll., Nara (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    In the electronic control engineering course, basic knowledge is taught for mechanics, electronics/electricity, control, robotics, information processing, etc., with the purpose of bringing up practical mechatronics engineers, and then, training is conducted so that the students are able to deal with these subjects comprehensively. In the subject of hydraulics and pneumatics for the special course, a lecture on hydraulic and pneumatic control is given in the second year, where structures of hydraulic and pneumatic actuators are explained as well as the principle of operation and the control method. As the related experiment, measurement of liquid viscosity coefficient and flow measurement by a Venturi tube are carried out in the fourth year of the regular course. In addition, carried out in the fifth year are the measurement of stress by trailing velocity distribution of an object and the measurement of pressure distribution around a column. As a subject for graduation theses, a mobile carrier for welfare nursing is being developed using a pneumatic actuator. Development of a suitable actuator is also being developed simultaneously. In the education of electronic control engineering, it is essential to give the students understanding of hydraulic and pneumatic actuator control centering on the role of mechatronics. (NEDO)

  5. Phosphorus and nitrogen removal in waste water at small factory. Shokibo jigyosho ni okeru haisuichu no rin chisso shori gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-05-25

    For the purpose of preventing closed waters from eutrophicating, COD regulations and nitrogen and phosphorus waste water regulations are executed in Japan, but practically applicable techniques for this purpose are a few. Concerning technology for removing nitrogen and phosphorus in waste water, this paper describes the actual situation of two industries, electroplating and alumite processing, and applicable techniques. Among various nitrogen removal methods, the biological treatment method has been used practically in many cases and is applicable to practical use. While there are many kinds of physical and chemical treatment methods, applicable methods are limited. In removing nitrogen, the coagulating sedimentation method with Ca salt, Al salt and Fe salt is effective generally for orthophosphate. At electroplating factories, various forms of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds are used as plating chemicals. In treating waste water containing phosphorus, the coagulating sedimentation method is used most frequently. The oxidation + coagulating sedimentation method, the autolysis + oxidation coagulation method, and the evaporation method are effected, though the examples of their implementation are small in number. 15 tabs.

  6. Studies on energy system for an energy-saving society; Sho energy gata shakai ni okeru energy system kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The system to which new energy technology and energy saving technology were introduced was constructed for case studies of urban areas including core cities and the peripheral areas, and the quantitative analysis was conducted on environmental effects, etc. In the energy supply system model, the following element technologies were all considered: cogeneration system, sewage water heat, river water heat, the photovoltaic power generation, energy storage/heat storage/cold heat storage, adsorption type refrigerator, etc. Also considered were power interchange between clusters, system power buying/power selling, heat interchange or no heat interchange, etc. As a result, it was found that when constructing the energy system which synthetically takes into account thermoelectric ratios, rates of simultaneous loads, ratios of daytime/nighttime in the energy supply and demand in the urban area, the energy saving effect multiplicatively increases, and the energy system using cogeneration and unused energy such as refuse and sewage in the urban area and river water brings an energy saving effect of 32% especially in the concentrated cluster. 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  7. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Inoue, J.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S. [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  8. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Kusunose, K.; Cho, A.; Tosha, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T.; Yamada, F. [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T. [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Magnetic constraints of basement structure offshore of western Kyushu, Japan; Kyushu seiho kaiiki ni okeru jiki ijo no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S.; Nakatsuka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the results from the qualitative analysis of magnetic anomalies offshore of western Kyushu and from an analysis by a three-dimensional two-layer model inversion. The analysis ranged from Kyushu on the east to Jeju Island on the west and from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on the north to Tanegashima and Yakushima Islands on the south, namely, the area of 580km from east to west and 580km from south to north. The analytical data used was Magnetic Anomaly Map of Asia (GSJ and CCOP, 1994). In the qualitative analysis, a pseudogravity anomaly map and a pole gravity anomaly map were prepared from the total magnetic force anomaly map by means of a frequency filter operation. As a result, it was noted that two distinctive magnetic high belts existed in the margin of the Tunghai Shelf, extending from the sea area to the west of the Nansei Islands continuously to NNE, and being distributed transversely through the Goto sedimentary basin. Additionally, in the inversion analysis, it was demonstrated that the magnetic basement became shallow at the margin of the Tunghai Shelf north of latitude 31 degrees north, extending nearly in the NNE direction through west of the Goto Islands, west of Tsushima Island, and continuing to the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Cut down the peak daytime demand for electricity at the residence; Jutaku ni okeru denryoku fuka heijunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-05

    For leveling of power load in small-scale buildings and houses, a test house with actual size was constructed in order to examine soil heat storage system using photovoltaic power generation system and nighttime power. A hundred of polycrystal silicone solar cells with about 5 kW and twenty of amorphous ones were fixed on the roof, to connect with commercial power source by the system interconnection having inverse power flow. For leveling of power load in the periods of heating and cooling, soil heat storage system was applied using nighttime power. Pipes for circulating cooling and heating water were embedded. Heat pump was operated only in the time zone of nighttime power, to obtain cooling and heating source for fan coil unit in the daytime. The sold power was larger than purchased power under continuous cooling condition for twelve hours in summer. Since cooling load was supplied from nighttime power with lower price, there was a large peak cut effect in the daytime. As a result of the tests using a house with actual size, the system was found to be applied practically both in summer and in winter. Effectiveness of peak cut of power load in summer was also provided. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Analysis of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; Harada, a.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K.

    1997-10-01

    Premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) makes it possible to achieve low NOx emission. It is an important factor to make the homogeneous spray formation for PREDIC. In this paper presents I the effect of the spray dispersion on emission characteristic were analyzed with the spray observation and engine test. Pintle type nozzle, which has different feature from orifice type nozzle, are used to form the hollow cone spray. As a result, the pintle type nozzle having grooves to generate the swirl flow, makes the reduced penetration in comparison with the hole nozzle under low ambient gas pressure. And it could improve THC, CO emissions at low NOx emission condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Analysis of flame propagation phenomenon in simplified stratified charge conditions; Tanjunkasareta sojo kyukiba ni okeru kaen denpa gensho no kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyoshi, Y.; Morikawa, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kamimoto, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Since the local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration inside the cylinder affects the combustion characteristics, a basic research on combustion phenomenon in stratified charge conditions is required. The authors have made experiments with a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge field by using a removable partition, to obtain the combustion characteristics. Also, numerical calculations are made using some combustion models. As a result, the important feature that the combustion speed is faster in stratified condition than in homogeneous condition can be predicted by the two-step reaction model. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Reinstatement of material research in the 21st century; 21 seiki ni okeru zairyo kenkyu no fukken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinbara, K. [Osaka Univercity, Osaka (Japan). Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research

    2000-03-10

    Just before the 21st century, Japan is demanded most importantly of reforming the industrial structures, breeding new industries, and working on global environment and energy problems. To solve these problems, emergence of material technologies based on original ideas is indispensable. However, Japan lacks a temperament to value original ideas and support them in positive manners. Structuring unique ideas and concepts with high originality is one of the most important intellectual production activities for human being. Understanding that these activities require incessant challenging spirit and accumulation of exhaustive efforts, a system should be structured to give the highest honor to researchers and groups who have made successes in this respect. It should be understood that development of the material technologies requires huge amount of fund, human resources and time, and national strategies should be established as required. Habitat segregation is to be moved forward in research and development, and a system will be built that links effectively the seed oriented research by universities and national research institutes with the need oriented research by business enterprises. The 21st century will be an age that many people can dream of their own success. (NEDO)

  15. Water monitoring and its information management system in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu monitoring to joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, H.

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the water monitoring system (WMS) in China applied mainly to surface water and operated within the competence of the Environmental Protection Agency. The WMS consists of a national water monitoring network and a water information system that monitors surface water periodically. The WMS comprises water monitoring stations classified from class 1 to class 4, which are located in 2,222 locations. Stations from class 1 to class 3 are operated by using computers, but class 4 stations are still incapable to use floppy disks to perform information transmission. When an information management system is completed at the China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center being constructed by gratis assistance from the Japanese Government, transmission of water quality data will become possible by means of the cable line system in addition to the table system and the floppy system. The water quality data are published to general people in the forms of Chinese gazette for the environmental conditions, the environment yearbook, and the reports on environmental quality. However, the more important is to publish more publications to make people aware of the actual state of water pollution and have them cooperate in environment preservation. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Accuracy of FEM 3-D modeling in the electromagnetic methods; Denjiho ni okeru FEM 3 jigen modeling no seido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Analytical methods considering 3-D resistivity distribution, in particular, finite element method (FEM) were studied to improve the reliability of electromagnetic exploration. Integral equation, difference calculus, FEM and hybrid method are generally used as computational 3-D modeling method. FEM is widely used in various fields because FEM can easily handle complicated shapes and boundaries. However, in electromagnetic method, the assumption of continuous electric field is pointed out as important problem. The normal (orthogonal) component of current density should be continuous at the boundary between media with different conductivities, while this means that the normal component of electric field is discontinuous. In FEM, this means that current channeling is not properly considered, resulting in poor accuracy. Unless this problem is solved, FEM modeling is not practical. As one of the solutions, it is promising to specifically incorporate interior boundary conditions into element equation. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method; Gokusenso jishin hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S.; Muraoka, S.; Kaida, Y.; Takahashi, T. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To effectively use the very shallow seismic reflection for active fault survey, a method has been investigated by which fault structures can be appropriately reconstructed from the fault information detected in the original records. The first step of reconstructing the fault system from the travel time reflection curve was to grasp an outline of fault structure from the patterns of travel time curve observed in the original record. For the very shallow seismic reflection method, especially, the low velocity layers in a shallow part succeeding from the ground surface made the issue complicated. Then, the travel time reflection curves were calculated in the case of existing several horizontal reflection surfaces in the surface layer. The constant values, mean velocities to the depth at individual reflection surfaces were used for the approximation of velocities. The outline of fault structure was grasped from the observation of original record. Then, the structure was reconstructed from the travel time curves. When the mean velocity in the medium was known, reconstruction of the feature of reflection surfaces from the travel time curves could be determined by simple mapping. When the mean velocity was unknown, it was calculated using the reciprocal travel time from the common reflection surface for individual reflection surfaces. 7 figs.

  18. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Yokokura, T.; Kiguchi, T.; Yokota, T.; Matsushima, J. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, T. [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  20. Treatment of waste water miscible cutting fluids in automobile manufacturing; Jidosha kogyo ni okeru suiyosei sessakuyuzai no haieki shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, H. [Yushiro Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Water-soluble cutting fluids are able to be used for several months to several years if the proper periodical management is carried out. However, the used solution should be treated as waste water when the function-recovery thereof becomes remarkable difficult. On this occasion, the treated solution (drainage) ought to meet the environmental standards prescribed for the purpose of protecting globe environment. Many cases in Japan are that the strict rules are set by each urban and rural prefectures addition to the government ordinance. For carrying out the treatment of waste water efficiently, it is necessary to construct the treating system by mastering the characteristics of waste water and selecting the most suitable one from numerous treating methods. In this paper, after the description on the water-polluting substances and drainage standards, the general treating method of waste water miscible cutting fluids is described. Finally, the concrete cases with respect to the treatment of waste water treatment in automobile manufacturing factories are introduced. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Possibility of EV with solar cells on the new traffic system; Shinkotsu system ni okeru solar car no kanosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I.; Kojima, S. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A possibility of a new traffic system was studied for a solar car which is light in weight, small in size and low in speed (cruising speed: 20 km/h) and does not need so much power because of the use for short distance. In the new traffic system, people travel short distance in city by solar car, and use trains for travel between cities. By installing solar cells on roofs, etc. of houses and buildings such as garages around stations, power needed for solar car and incidentally required can be supplied. Assuming the short distance transportation, the car is for one person with a height of luggage space of 70cm, mean length of 165cm, and floor height of 50cm above the ground. In case that the power generation by solar cells (256.5W) is at maximum with no shading during travel on conditions of load weight of 10kg, personnel weight of 70kg, and total weight of 250kg, it was found that solar cells can supply 89% of the required output under test road travel at speed of 20 km/h. A viability of the solar car proposed here is great. A possibility at the time of mode road travel is also studied. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Role of ventilation systems in the prevention of hospital infection; Innai kansen boshi ni okeru kanki system no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayliffe, G.

    1996-05-05

    This paper investigates and considers the actual state of hospital infection. The 80% or more of surgical wound infection is self-infection, for which the factor is the microorganisms that exist in a surgical wound at the completion of an operation. Airborne infection is generally due to staphylococcus aureus. There rarely is a bacteria carrier, and the germ is dispersed from him in some instances. Staphylococcus epidermis sticks to prosthesis, propagates and causes wound infection in rare occasions. Clostridium perfringens and escherichia coli also sometimes cause self-infection from wound. An ordinary plenum ventilation system is less effective for the prevention of wound infection. A remarkable example for reduction in infection is the employment of an ultra clean air system in joint replacement operations, showing reduction in joint septicemic infection from 1.5 to 0.3%. A vertical air flow system may be effectively employed in an operation room for the purpose of improving the air stream. No interrelation exists between the total number of indoor bacteria and infection without staphylococcus aureus. A person infected by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus has to be isolated into a unit. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer; Reito joshitsuki ni okeru gyoshukusui bunri/haishutsu noryoku no joshitsu seino ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, H.; Ichinose, T. [SMC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y.; Hashizume, T. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Science and Engineering Research Lab.

    1995-11-15

    The representative refrigerated dryer as the compressed air dryers is one in which air was cooled at rather low temperature by working medium of refrigerators, and the dew point was decreased with increase of pressure, and air with low relative humility called as the dried air was obtained again by heating. In this paper, for clarifying effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer in relation to shape of a main cooler and a precool-reheater and air temperature of each part, calculation and experimental investigation were conducted. In a refrigerated dryer, condensate happened in the precool part of a precool-reheater and a main cooler, and this would give rise to reduce of separation and drainage of condensate and increase of thermal loads of each heat exchange, and would made dehumidification low. For a fact that decrease of separation and drainage of condensate in a main cooler would bring out heat conduction with phase change in the reheating part of a precool-reheater, it has a profitable side, but it is not desirable for ability of dryers. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. MT survey in the Minaminoshiro oil field; Minaminoshiro chiiki ni okeru MT ho ni yoru sekiyu tanko (sanjigen MT ho chosa no kento). 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, K.; Minegishi, M. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Preliminary experiment, investigation, and study are conducted prior to an experimental 3-D MT (magnetotelluric) survey planned to be carried out in the Minaminoshiro district, Akita Prefecture. In the preliminary investigation, MT measurements were performed at nine locations. It was anticipated that national highways, waste treatment plants, high-voltage power lines, and railways in presence in the district would act as noise sources. Although the impact of such noise was detected in the single site treatment result, yet it was found that it would be mostly eliminated by use of the remote reference treatment. It was learned that the resistivity structure in this district was quite low in contrast or 1 ohm/m against 30 ohm/m, but the result of 3-D model calculation indicated that a sufficient analysis would be possible even in such a low contrast case. Furthermore, as the result of the study of the density of observation stations in the magnetic field, it was found that changes in the response of magnetic field to the resistivity structure would be approximately 2% at the maximum and that the ill effect on the result of measurement would be of the negligible magnitude even when a single magnetic field observation station is deployed against plural electric field observation stations. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  5. High resolution aeromagnetic and radiometric survey in the Hokusatsu district, Japan; Hokusatsu Kushikino chiiki ni okeru kobunkaino kuchu jiki hoshano tansa kekka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishida, H.; Yoshioka, K. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    In FY 1996, aeromagnetic and radiometric survey was performed in the whole area of Hokusatsu district using a helicopter fixed with a stinger mount system with high density 200 m line spacing at low altitude of 80 m, which was the first in Japan. Based on the existing geological maps, Landsat TM data and radiometric data, lithologies and geological structures were extracted in response to individual magnetic characteristics in the whole magnetic map. Obtained geological characteristics are as follows. Straight magnetic anomalies suggested volcanic lava flows. Isolated ring-shaped magnetic anomalies suggested intrusive rocks. Ring-shaped weak magnetic anomalies suggested the centers of volcanoes. Wide range intense magnetic anomalies were caused by deep intrusive rocks. Wide range weak magnetic anomalies were caused by dissipation of magnetite due to hydrothermal alteration. Faults and fracture zones were recognized as linear configurations of magnetic anomaly and divided magnetic anomalies. Based on these results, local geological structures, hydrothermal alterations, and mineralization of known ore deposits were interpreted. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Lifting phenomena due to vortex-flame interactions of jet diffusion flames; Funryu kakusan kaen ni okeru uzu to kaen tono sogo sayo ni motozuku ukiagari gensho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, S.; Hayashi, T.; Tanaka, H.; Onuma, Y. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    2000-08-25

    Lifting phenomena caused by vortex-flame interactions have been investigated about diluted propane jet diffusion flames forced by a speaker installed at the bottom of a fuel tube. Open let diffusion flames were formed on a co-flow burner composed of the inner fuel tube and an outer air tube. Two type nozzles of rim thickness of 1mm and 0.2mm were set at the end of the fuel tube for each experiment and the effects of the rim thickness on the flame stability were investigated. Artificial vortices were imposed in the fuel flow through the speaker excitation to make clear vortex flame interactions. The schlieren and OH radical imaging techniques were employed to unveil the interactions. Experiments in terms of the difference of rim thickness revealed that the ratio of the rim thickness to the Quenching distance is important for lifting criteria as proposed by Takahashi and Schmoll, because the ratio of unity determines the limitation of whether the end of the flame base being in or out the recirculation zone behind the rim. Moreover, it revealed that the vortex-flame interactions are able to become the trigger of lifting, though the effect to lifting was questionable so far. (author)

  7. Report on an investigation into heat pumps in China in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo Chugoku ni okeru heat pump system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper surveyed the present status, the status of spread, and the technical development of the technology of heat pumps for residential and industrial uses in China. Main examples of installation of heat pumps are cited below: steam drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; sea water heat source turbo heat pumps in Qingdao; hot water drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; oil-fueled absorption type water cooling and heating appliances in Beijing; ice latent heat storage airconditioning systems using electrically-driven screw chiller in Beijing; temperature rising systems using electrically-driven heat pump of the solar energy utilization warm water swimming pool in Guangdong Province; cooling water supply using waste heat utilization absorption type refrigerator of the alcohol plant in Shandong Province; timber drying systems using electrically-driven heat pump, and marine product cultivation systems in Quangdong Province; distillation systems using steam turbine heat pump in Jiangxi Province. The demand for heat pumps is expected to be 20 million units under the 9th 5-year plan, and the development of equipment is thought to go toward promotion of energy conservation, low noise, multi-type or multi-functional air conditioning equipment, and computer use. 137 figs., 40 tabs.

  8. Investigation of the deposit formation in pipelines connecting liquefaction reactors; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika hanno tokan fuchakubutsu no seisei yoin ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Y.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The liquefaction reaction system of an NEDOL process coal liquefaction 1t/d PSU was opened and checked to investigate the cause of the rise of differential pressure between liquefaction reactors of the PSU. The liquefaction test at a coal concentration of 50 wt% using Tanito Harum coal was conducted, and it was found that the differential pressure between reactors was on the increase. By the two-phase flow pressure loss method, deposition thickness of deposit in pipelines was estimated at 4.4mm at the time of end operation, which agreed with a measuring value obtained from a {gamma} ray. The rise of differential pressure was caused by deposit formation in pipelines connecting reactors. The main component of the deposit is calcite (CaCO3 60-70%) and is the same as the usual one. It is also the same type as the deposit on the reactor wall. Ca in coal ash is concerned with this. To withdraw solid matters deposited in the reactor, there are installed pipelines for the withdrawal at the reactor bottom. The solid matters are regularly purged by reverse gas for prevention of clogging. As the frequency of purge increases, the deposit at the reactor bottom decreases, but the deposit attaches strongly to pipelines connecting reactors. It is presumed that this deposit is what Ca to be discharged out of the system as a form of deposition solid matter naturally in the Ca balance precipitated as calcite in the pipeline connecting the reactor. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Itokawa, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Results of geophysical survey on Hanaore-fault in the Kyoto urban area; Butsuri tansa ni yoru Kyoto shigaichi ni okeru Hanaore danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan); Toshioka, T.; Matsubara, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper reports results of gravity survey and seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method to identify distribution of the Hanaore fault in the Kyoto urban area. In the gravity survey, level differential structure caused by the fault was identified as an abrupt change in Bouger anomalous values. The continuity therefrom made the estimation possible on existence and positions of such faults as the Hanaore fault belonging to the Hanaore fault system, the Shishigaya fault, the Kaguraoka fault, and the Okazaki fault. The estimation as a result of the gravity survey include the following findings: the Hanaore fault runs from south of the Yoshidayama in the south-north direction; the distribution of the Okazaki fault has a level differential structure falling on the east side; the structure shows low Bouger anomaly distribution; and this area forms a rift valley belt. In the seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method, no distinct reflection plane considered as the basement was verified because of influence from urban area noise. However, it was possible to estimate such an underground structure as a monoclinal fold from shapes of the reflection plane and the distribution depths. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Study of the heat island phenomenon in large cities and the measures to prevent it; Daitoshi ni okeru heat island gensho to sono taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, T.; Ishitani, H.; Matsuhashi, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-30

    The paper made an analysis of the heat island phenomenon in the Kanto area using 3-D numerical analysis models and a study on the effectiveness of the measures to prevent it. The models are composed of advection/diffusion models of heat/steam in the wind-velocity field and atmospheric air, heat diffusion models in the underground and undersea, and heat balance models on the ground surface and sea surface. In the calculation, a simulation was conducted of the case of taking the following three measures: the case where the exhaust heat was reduced 30% in the assumed typical day of summer; the case where the heat volume of buildings/trunk roads was reduced; the case where the evaporation efficiency of buildings/trunk roads was raised. The result of the study was as follows: The reduction effect of the exhaust heat is totally large, but precisely observing, some meshes contrarily showed rises in temperature in the suburbs. Also in the case of reducing the heat volume, the same phenomenon occurred, but the effect was large in the center of a city. It was found that the effect was unexpectedly large in the case of increasing the evaporation efficiency. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Disinfectants used in medal field and problems caused from their use. Igaku ryoiki ni okeru sakkinzai to sorera shiyo ni yoru mondaiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, K.; Watabe, S. (Yokohama City University, Yokohama (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-04-05

    This paper describes typical anti-microorganism chemicals used in hospitals, and touches on measures against intra-hospital infection. Killing microorganisms reliably by using a high-pressure steam sterilization method is the best means for medical devices and apparatuses. However, there are high-priced medical devices that cannot withstand such a method and require other processes according to the situations, such as gas sterilization and alcohol disinfection. In addition to such sterilization methods as using heat, alcohols, and gases, methods that have been developed recently may include the following: use of Bronopol (an antiseptic) and anti-mold agents that have electronphilic functional groups, disinfectants using metal ions from silver, zinc and copper, and other materials. The problem of intra-hospital infection is caused typically by MRSA, hepatitis virus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Preventive measures require good knowledge about their infection courses and disinfecting technologies, as well as an attention not to cause change in the ecology as a result of using excessively strong chemicals. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Future subjects on earthquake research in the Geological Survey of Japan; Chishitsu chosasho ni okeru jishin ni kansuru chosa kenkyu no kongo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinugasa, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    For the study of earthquake occurrence potentials attributable to active faults, etc., researches are being made concerning the assessment of hazard due to active faults, monitoring of underground water, explanation of fault shapes and rock fracture mechanism, geological surveys, and the development of methods for evaluating active faults in the sea. As the results, active fault structural charts have been compiled; underground water monitor data have been collected; relations have been disclosed between the occurrence of plural events, change in the number of events, and the sectional shapes of faults, these thanks to fault simulation using rock specimens; part has been completed of geological maps; profiles have been obtained through application of a high-resolution sound source-aided seismic reflection method to active faults in the sea; and a 2-dimensional extensive distortion analysis program has been substantiated. Studies in the future will deal with the disclosure of the history of activities of active faults, paleoseismological surveys, establishment of methods for evaluating the activity of active faults in the sea and for analyzing earthquake-produced sediments, development of technologies for exploring seismic bedrocks in the flatland, preparation of geological charts for observation-enhanced areas and monitoring of underground water in the same, and the basic research into the process of earthquake occurrence

  15. Viability evaluation using the effective thermal conductivity during extracellular freezing in killifish embryos; Yuko netsudendoritsu ni yoru saibogai toketsu ni okeru himedaka juseiran no sonsho hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujihira, M. [Kitasato Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, K.; Yamaguchi, R.; Tanishita, K. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1996-06-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the viability of milliscale biological materials and their effective thermal conductivity during extracellular freezing in order to achieve successful cryopreservation. The killifish embryo (Oryzias latipes, orange-red variety {phi}1.3mm sphere) was employed as a sample biological material and the viability was evaluated by the hatching rate. Dimethylsulfoxide-water was selected as the cryoprotectant. The thermal conductivity was measured using a self-heated thermistor technique developed by T.A. Balasubramaniam (1977). The thermistor ({phi}2.5 mm sphere) was installed at the bottom of a test section 8{times}8{times}12 mm, and exposed to biological material. The cooling system was equipped with Peltier devices and was capable of reducing the temperature of the test section to -30{degree}C. Between 150 and 200 embryos were loaded in the test section with 5, 15 and 20% w/w Dimethylsulfoxide-water. The effective thermal conductivity during extra cellular freezing was measured over the temperature range -20 to 6{degree}C with a cooling rate of 0.1 to 10{degree}C/min. The effective thermal conductivity increased from 0.5 to 1 W/(m{center_dot}K) with decreasing temperature and increasing the cooling rate. The decrease in the hatching rate and the variation in the effective thermal conductivity were correlated. Thus the viability could be controlled using their effective thermal conductivity during the extra cellular freezing. 23 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. On the muscle activity control in the hierarchy motor systems. Hierarchy undo system ni okeru kin no kassei seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, M.; Miyamoto, Y. (Osaka Industrial University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-31

    Excitory impulses for motor systems are controlled by the psychophysiological nervous systems in the body either autonomically or voluntarily. Involved in the voluntary control loop are motor cortex, basal gangalia, thalamus, cerebellum, etc. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether it is possible to reduce or emphasize the muscle contraction voluntarily through electromyogram (EMG) feedback training. EMG can indicate the excitory impulses of motor units. In the experiments, electrodes were placed on the skin above muscles. A significant reduction effect was observed for subjects trained in relaxation of the forehead musculature through EMG feedback. Results of the experiments suggested that biofeedback training for relaxation of the forehead tensional muscle might be effective in eliminating muscle contraction, and that feedback training for activation of damaged muscles might be effective in emphasizing muscle contraction. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Study of the influence of microgravity on the biological cells and molecular level; Seitai saibo bunshi level ni okeru bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The shape of osteoblast, gene appearance, gene of rice blast, cellular fusion of plants, gravity acceptance mechanism of unicellular organisms, and physiological and immunity functions of mice were investigated under the microgravity condition. The influence of gravity on the vital reaction and the influence of microgravity on the crystallization of vital substances were also investigated. For the observation of osteoblast, the fluorescence dye reacted with Ca was well taken in the cells. The microgravity affected the stability of rice blast, but hardly affected the protoplast culture of mushroom. The reaction of ciliate against the gravity related to the specific gravity difference between cells and outer liquid. The level of adrenaline in blood of mice increased during the drop. The moving speed of trigger waves of chemical parallel slit formed at the BZ reaction under the microgravity became 60% to 80% of that on the ground. In the case of crystallization at the deposition agent concentration of 1% to 4%, the turbidity showing the degree of crystallization changed complicatedly. Nine processes of crystal growth were recognized. 21 refs., 55 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Research report on environmental industry technology in the iron/steel industry in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo tekkogyo ni okeru kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The paper described how the iron/steel industry tackles and studies the issue of the environment and energy conservation. The iron/steel industry is an energy multi-consuming type industry, and consumes 12% of all the industrial energy consumption. In and after the oil shock, energy conservation has rapidly been advanced, aiming at recovering exhaust heat and effectively utilizing electric power and steam. Introduced were efficient energy balance, continued processing for cost reduction, CDQ in coke oven, blast furnace top-pressure recovery turbine (TRT) power generation, etc. As to the environmental problem, the iron/steel industry also works out policies for environmental control in the light of tackling by the government and local governments. Basic policies are contribution to the construction of the environmental preservation society, reduction of environmental loads in business activities, tacking with the global environmental preservation. Relating to the environmental industry related technology, renewal and improvement of the process equipment have been promoted, and at the same time, efforts have been exerted for introduction of dust collectors and water treatment equipment, and reduction of the amount of waste by recycling. Knowhows of these have contributed to the society in terms of construction of resource recycling plants and waste processing facilities, etc. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Questionnaire investigation for the earthquake in Honjo city and Yazawa city, Akita Prefecture; Jishin ni kansuru ishiki chosa (Akitaken Honjoshi oyobi Yuzawashi ni okeru anketo kara)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education; Kabutoya, S.

    1996-05-01

    Consciousness for the earthquake was investigated by questionnaire surveys made in Honjo City and Yuzawa City, Akita Pref. in October 1995 twelve years after the Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake (M=7.7) in May 1983. The survey was conducted in terms of 27 items including personality, memory, knowledge/interest, psychology/action, mental attitude/preparations, wishes for researchers and administration, etc. Also included were the items on the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and the earthquake blank areas. The number of distributed questionnaires and the recovery rate of them are 1500 and 79.2% in Honjo City, and 1700 and 84.7% in Yuzawa City. From the survey, it was found that people have a lot of knowledge of and high interest in the earthquake and well remember it, and a lot of people know of tsunami, liquefaction phenomena, and the earthquake blank area. Further, they are afraid of earthquakes and think of their actions to be taken in case of earthquake. However, most people are little prepared for earthquakes. Important future subjects were suggested for the study of disaster prevention measures. 13 figs.

  20. Analysis of the pressure response of high angle multiple (HAM) fractures intersecting a welbore; Kokeisha multi fracture (HAM) kosei ni okeru atsuryoku oto kaiseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujo, S.; Osato, K. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arihara, N. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Schroeder, R.

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports pressure response analysis on wells piercing a high angle multi (HAM) fracture model. In this model which is defined on a three-dimensional space, a plurality of slanted fractures intersect with wells at high angles (however, intersection of fractures with each other is not considered). With respect to the pressure response analysis method using this model, the paper presents a basic differential equation on pressure drawdown and boundary conditions in the wells taking flows in the fractures pseudo-linear, as well as external boundary conditions in calculation regions (a reservoir spreads to an infinite distance, and its top and bottom are closed by non-water permeating beds). The paper also indicates that results of calculating a single vertical fracture model and a slanted fracture model by using a numerical computation program (MULFRAC) based on the above equations agree well respectively with the existing calculation results (calculations performed by Erlougher and Cinco et al). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Pitting corrosion of copper in aqueous solutions containing phosphonic acid as an inhibitor. Hosuhon san wo inhibita toshite fukumu suiyoekichu ni okeru do no koshiku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School); Seri, O.; Tagashira, K. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)); Nagata, K. (Sumitomo Light Metal Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Lab.)

    1993-09-15

    Phosphonic acid-based inhibitors that are poured into cooling water for copper-tube circulation systems for open heat-accumulators were studied on their influence on pitting corrosion of copper. Amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) dissolved into distilled water to 50 ppm was used for the immersion corrosion test. The corrosion-proof effect of additives such as ZnSO4, benzotriazole (BTA) was tested too. 0.5 mm thick phosphate-treated copper plates with a hole of 5 mm in diameter were used as test specimens. Pitting corrosion on the copper plate occurred when ATMP, BTA and ZnSO4 coexisted. It was proved that SO4 [sup 2-] is essential since Na2SO4 in stead of ZnSO4 induced also corrosion. The pitting took place when 0.6 ppm or more of SO4 [sup 2-] was present in a BTA-added ATMP solution. It was observed that the pitting is prone to occur with increase of SO4 [sup 2-] and the number of pitting increases. The following relationship is established when pitting corrosion occurs; E[sub b] [le] E[sub corr], where the former is a potential value at which current density shows a steep increase and the latter is an average value of spontaneous electrode potential showing a plateau. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Data on ground water quality in the rural area of Japan (1986-1993); Noson chiiki ni okeru chikasui no suishitsu ni kansuru data (1996 nen - 1993 nen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K.; Okamoto, R.; Yamaguchi, T.; Oshima, H.; Shibano, K. [The National Institute of Agro-Environmental Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Omasa, K. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-04-14

    The National Institute of Agro-environmental Sciences conducts a monitoring survey of variation of the ground water quality and a survey to grasp the actual status in each region of Japan. This data includes a well water quality monitoring survey in the Inashiki plateau and its circumferencial area in Ibaraki prefecture, survey of the actual state of ground water quality in the same area, survey of the actual status of ground water quality in each region of the country, survey to grasp quality of the ground water from river revetment, and data on quality of water discharged from patty field conduits. In a survey of adaptability of the water quality standard, CL, COD and total hardness of the usual well water and spring water were below the standard level except for a part of the waters. It was found out that forest areas formed on mountains and slopes of plateaus hold ground water with good quality from a viewpoint of the NO3-N concentration, but there are some cases in which pH does not match water quality standards. Even patty fields hold good-quality ground water, but patty fields adjacent to fields sometimes show the concentration exceeding the water quality standard. 9 refs., 37 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Survey of the trend of technical development and industrial policies in Asian countries; Asia shokoku ni okeru gijutsu kaihatsu no doko to sangyo gijutsu seisaku ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A sharp rise in industrial productivity in Asia countries indicates a rising level of R and D technology. Since Japan has not clearly grasped the R and D ability in these countries, it has not given appropriate personnel/material R and D support to them. Therefore, for the purpose of exactly grasping the R and D ability of Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India) and studying an effective and appropriate method for R and D cooperation, a survey was conducted of R and D potentials in Asia and R and D support policies of the countries. As a result of the survey, the following are taken up as items to be considered: promotion of exchanges between Tsukuba, etc. in Japan and research/university towns and science parks being constructed in lots of countries, participation of private companies in high-tech joint work in cooperation with Japan, sending information from Japan using internet, etc. and exact grasp of needs at partner side, cooperation given to new comers without asking for research results (use of OB researchers, etc.) 25 refs., 39 figs., 59 tabs.

  5. Pseudo-random data acquisition geometry in 3D seismic survey; Sanjigen jishin tansa ni okeru giji random data shutoku reiauto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuburaya, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    Influence of pseudo-random geometry on the imaging for 3D seismic exploration data acquisition has been investigate using a simple model by comparing with the regular geometry. When constituting wave front by the interference of elemental waves, pseudo-random geometry data did not always provide good results. In the case of a point diffractor, the imaging operation, where the constituted wave front was returned to the point diffractor by the interference of elemental waves for the spatial alias records, did not always give clear images. In the case of multi point diffractor, good images were obtained with less noise generation in spite of alias records. There are a lot of diffractors in the actual geological structures, which corresponds to the case of multi point diffractors. Finally, better images could be obtained by inputting records acquired using the pseudo-random geometry rather than by inputting spatial alias records acquired using the regular geometry. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Starting and stopping control on power conditioner in photovoltaic power system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru power conditioner no kido teishi seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, H.; Nakamura, H. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Studies are made about the control of the power conditioner over the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function in a photovoltaic power generation system. The analysis is conducted by means of computer simulation into the effect of a start/stop function added to the control of MPPT and the effect on the generation of power of the setting of parameters in the start/stop function. The reduction in output power due to difference between the actual operation point and the optimum operation point is evaluated by use of a load matching correction factor. In this simulation, it is assumed that the solar cell array consists of 13 rows in 5 parallel columns, is capable of a normal output of 3.149kW, has a panel tilted at 30 degrees, and faces due south. The power conditioner is assumed to be a system rated at 3kVA, equipped with system interconnection and back flow features. As a result, it is learned that the stop voltage should be set at 180V or lower and the steady voltage near 185.5V for a good result and that there is not much need after all for the start/stop technique. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Study of installation of PV systems at campus; Campus ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden donyu ni kansuru kenkyu (taiyo denchi nomi wo secchishita baai no yobi kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, N.; Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In terms of energy consumption, environmentality and economical efficiency in the case of installing the photovoltaic power system on the rooftop of the university campus, a comparative study was conducted with other power generation systems. As objects to be comparatively studied, selected were the all-electric type centralized space heating/cooling system, cogeneration system, nighttime heat storage system and centralized system with solar cells installed. The panel area of the PV system is 10,000m{sup 2} on the rooftop and 7,000{sup 2} on the outer wall. About data on solar radiation, average values obtained in Nagoya were used. Assessment was made in terms of energy consumption amount at the time of operation, system COP, emission amounts of CO2, NOx and SOx at the time of manufacturing and operation, initial cost, running cost, etc. As a result of the study, an effect of reducing global warming gas was admitted in the PV system. However, the initial cost of the solar cell panel was high, and the life cycle cost of the PV system was lower than other systems. 1 ref., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Study on recent research trends in the chemical fields; Kagaku bun`ya ni okeru saikin no kenkyu doko ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This research is conducted to search study themes of chemistry expected towards the 21st century. The complex compound in the fundamental chemistry field and the bio-medical materials in the applied chemistry field are taken up. Bio-medical materials are used for the restoration, rehabilitation, and treatment of the organ and the improvement of its functions. For implants such as hearts, anti-thrombin and anti-calcium precipitation effects and high endurance are required. In this field, special copolymers and bio-membrane-emulating surfaces are studied. For artificial organs, hybrid type materials combining cells, and physiologically active and artificial materials are also studied. There are studies on the missile therapy of drugs and DDS (drug delivery system). The complex compounds contain metallic elements, such as Fe, Mn, Co and Cu, and groups known as ligands which combine these metal elements. They can have a variety of stereo-structures and physical properties. They also exhibit a diversity of functions including electron donor bonding, molecular recognition, chemical substitution, and pharmaceutical activity. These features open up a promising potential for their prospective use as physiologically active substances, cancerostats, new materials, artificial photosynthesis, memory elements, and complex catalysts. 88 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. On the rate of loading for flexural creep testing of CFRP; CFRP no mage creep shiken ni okeru fuka sokudo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, K.; Tanaka, T.; Nagai, I.; Matsukawa, M. [Osaka National Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-12-25

    The effect of a loading rate on creep tests was examined experimentally using a large-capacity creep testing machine to study flexural creep testing methods of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastics). Three kinds of laminates such as unidirectional, fabric and quasi-isotropic ones were used in experiment. Deflection changes of specimens were recorded during and after loading processes at 21 stages of loading rates ranging from 0.025mm/s to 1.9mm/s. As a test result, as a lever type creep testing machine was used, oscillation was inevitable under loading. The oscillation mode was different between three-point loading and four-point loading even under the same test condition. The effect of a loading rate on overshooting was smaller in four-point loading than three-point loading. To keep an overshoot ratio constant, it was better that loading is controlled not by loading rate but by loading time. The attenuation rate of specimen oscillation was dependent on the type of creep testing machines. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Investigational study on the development, production and wide spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe; Hokuo ni okeru fukushi yogu no kaihatsu seisan fukyu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of grasping the present situation of the development/production/spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe, an investigation was conducted paying visits to Sweden and Denmark. Basically in the Swedish policy for handicapped persons, disablement is defined not only as features which belong to each individual, but as problems arising when the environment surrounding each individual touches one another. Moreover, characteristics of their policies on welfare apparatus are that major welfare apparatus can be provided for the disabled free of charge, and that the government and public organs play a major role in each step of the development, evaluation, distribution and provision of welfare apparatus. Features of the market of welfare apparatus are that users and buyers of the apparatus are different persons, that a public corporation called SUB participates in determining selling prices, etc., and that the market reflects needs and requests from users comparatively naturally. The needs for welfare apparatus at the Research Institute of Handicapped Persons are grasped through opinion exchanges with groups of handicapped persons or information exchanges with the technical aid center. 3 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Study on climate control of dwellings using underground air tunnel in the cold region. Part 1. Cooling performance of the underground air tunnel connected to a small-scaled test house; Kanreichi ni okeru chika air tunnel ni yoru junetsukankyo kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Shokibo shiken kaoku ni okeru kaki no ryobo seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Y.; Sanji, H.; Ito, J.; Komoda, T.; Mitsuoka, K.; Mogami, S. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Underground air tunnel is provided for cooling an experimentally built small house and the cooling performance is examined at Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido. The house is provided with 120mm-thick layers of insulating material under the floor and inside the side walls and partitioning walls. The windows are equipped with blinds, with reed screens positioned outside to cover the windows. The air tunnel is a hard vinyl chloride tube, 200mm in internal diameter. It is buried 4.5m deep in the ground, and extends as long as 27m. A filter-provided 72W blower installed at the tunnel outlet is driven to force air through. As for the natural soil temperature in summer, it is found variable between 7.2 and 8.5degC. As the result of the experiment, it is found that thanks to the underground tunnel the room temperature is kept below 27degC even when the maximum temperature in the daytime is 30degC or higher provided the air flow is appropriately regulated. In this experiment, the maximum rate of instantaneously removed heat is approximately 2.5 times higher than the values in other previously reported experiments. The daily coefficient of performance is 6.5-11.1, again higher than the previously reported values. Different from application in warm regions, the effect of rise in the surrounding soil temperature on the cooling performance is not so conspicuous. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  12. FY1998 research report on the basic research on geothermal district heating in Kamchatka, Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia Renpo Kamchatka shu ni okeru chinetsu riyo ni yoru chiiki danbo ni kansuru kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Petropavlovsk-Kamchatky (P-K) city in Kamchatka, Russia is operating hot-water district heating using heavy oil boilers and waste hot water of thermal power plants as heat sources. Feasibility study was made on district heating using natural geothermal hot water and/or geothermal heat pump systems as heat sources of hot water supply for reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission. Among 3 areas including geothermal hot water, use of hot water in K area was impossible because of lower temperature and less spring water. Use of hot water in P and UP areas was impossible as primary hot water because of temperature drop to 64 degrees C during hot water supply toward P-K city. The building heating operation test was carried out using the geothermal heat pump system installed in a newly drilled heat exchange well of 100m deep. As a result, sufficient heat recovery was achieved for heating. If all of 49 boiler houses for heating are replaced with such geothermal heat pump systems, CO{sub 2} reduction was estimated to be 520,000t/y. (NEDO)

  13. CFD prediction of heat island formation on growing Asian cities. Effect of urbanization in Shanghai; Kyodaikasuru Asia no toshi ni okeru heat island keisei ni kansuru CFD yosoku. Shanghai no toshika ga oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, T.; Murakami, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Mitsumoto, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Study is conducted of the effect of change in land use and increase in artificial exhaust heat on heat island formation in Shanghai. Concerning the land use distribution in Shanghai, a point sampling survey was conducted in the 1930s using topographic charts, when the area was broken down into building-occupied region, paddy field, bare ground, and waters. In the 1990s, thanks to data from satellites, high-density and low-density urban regions have added. Calculation for Shanghai is performed, based on the rate of increase in Tokyo`s population and data predicted for Shanghai`s population, on the assumption that Shanghai`s population in the 2050s will grow 2.3 times larger than it is in the 1990s. The prediction thus produced indicates that the urban area in Shanghai in the 2050s will be as large as that of the present-day Tokyo that covers a 50km zone. Heat island formation prediction for Shanghai is worked out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-aided simulation. According to the prediction, while the maximum temperature in the 1930s was 29.6degC or 4degC higher than in the suburbs, it is 33.2degC or 7.6deg higher in the 1990s, and will be 34.4degC or 8.6degC higher in the 2050s. 16 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Development of hydroponic system using agricultural waste. 2. Utilization of ozone for sterilization of nutrient solution; Suiko saibai ni okeru haikibutsu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu. 2. Ozone ni yoru baiyoeki sakkin ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazoe, H.; Yoshihara, T.; Nakaya, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    Discussions were given on a sterilizing effect of ozone on Fusarium bacteria in hydroponic culture, and its effect on components in the culture solution. In an experiment, dry air with O3 concentration of 3.5 ppm was sent into aqueous solution inoculated with Fusarium bacteria at a flow rate of 5 liters per minute. The Fusarium bacteria was sterilized nearly completely in about five minutes. No change was observed in pH, EC and dissolved oxygen concentration of the O3-treated culture solution. However, iron and manganese among the soluble components have been oxidized by O3 and precipitated, hence these components must be added after the O3 treatment. In spinach culture performed on a culture medium inoculated with Fusarium bacteria, ozone water containing dissolved O3 at 0.8 ppm was flown into a urethane foam medium and vegetable roots. This treatment has resulted in reduction of the number of strains occurred with a wilt symptom below that in the section flown with distilled water. The spinach has grown normally without showing an effect of the ozone water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Estimation of overprotection region on the painted steel plate under impressed-current cathodic protection. Gaibu dengenho ni yoru inkyoku boshoku ka no toso kohan ni okeru kaboshoku iki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, M.; Huang, Y.; Fujimoto, Y. (Hiroshima Univ., hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-09-04

    Painting and cathodic protection are used in combination as a corrosion resisting measure for ship hull. n analytic method which uses the boundary element method for protection electric field by impressed-current method is proposed to show that rational determination is possible for the arrangement and current of the anode, and the arrangement and set voltage of the reference electrode used to control the current. However, repetitive calculation is necessary until overprotection voltage disappears from the surface of the painted steel plate while giving optional insulated area because the insulated area of adequate dimension is unknown. To decrease the number of this repetitive calculation, a study is made on a method of estimating the magnitude of the insulated area to be input as the initial value in the electric field analysis by the boundary element method. Although the insulated area has been empirically obtained, such formurization may be useful for automatic optimization using a computer of the location and number of anode, anode current, arrangement and set voltage of the reference electrode, magnitude of the insulated area, etc. in the impressed-current cathodic protection system. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Actual conditions of energy management in office buildings; Results of quetionaire inquiry about load leveling. Gyomu yo biru ni okeru energy kanri no jittai ni tsuite; Fuka heijunka ni kakawaru anketo chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Katsuhiko (The Inst. of Applied Energy, Tokyo, (Japan))

    1989-07-20

    The electric power demand in Japan is increasing, and it is expected that annual load factor shows decreasing tendency. All electric power companies endeavor to improve load leveling than as it was, and intend to introduce direct saving system to control the loading equipments of consumers as well as indirect control such as midnight power system. Therefore, quetionaire inquiry about this new system was made for business power consumers in which power there are much difference in consumed power between day and night and much efficacy for power saving. As the results of the inquiry, it was understood that equipment of automatic or remote control for loading equipments were already introduced by many consumers and adoption of airconditioners controlled at every floor or every room is increased. So, about the control of the equipments in cosumers a method is also required so that electric power companies shall control the maximum demand by consumers and selection of control equipments are left on consumers' decision and judgment, and it is considered to be important that control by electric power companies shall not only turn on or off switchs but also realize convenience and economy of consumers. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Relationship between the electric resistivity and the rain fall in discontinuity zone of rock slope by the continuous measurement; Renzoku tokei ni yoru ganban shamen no furenzokutaibu ni okeru mikake hiteiko henka to kou tono kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumi, H.; Nishida, K. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The relationship between change in resistivity and rainfall was studied by continuously measuring resistivities of fracture zone and stratum boundary along the measuring line of 95m long from the top to bottom of rock slope. The measurement field was located on a hill of 150-200m high at the northern part of Arima-Takatsuki tectonic line. Electrodes of 30m in maximum measuring depth were arranged at 289 points by dipole-dipole method. Resistivity was continuously measured at time intervals of 6 hours. Apparent resistivity was hardly affected by rainfall at points with less infiltration of stormwater from the ground surface, while it decreased by rainfall at points on fracture zone, stratum boundary or bleeding channel. The change rate of apparent resistivity could be approximated with the exponential function of rainfall. In such case, the apparent resistivity under most dried condition at the concerned point should be used as reference maximum apparent resistivity. The change rate of apparent resistivity due to rainfall in fracture zone reflects infiltration of stormwater, suggesting to be useful for disaster prevention of slopes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Wind power development field test project under Japan Sea Museum program. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Nihonkai Museum koso ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Kaio-machi, Niiminato-shi, Toyama Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 3.7m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 26m/s. Winds came prevalently from SW (17.5%), and then from WSW (11.4%) and NNE (10.2%). The wind axis was in the NE-SW direction with a total wind direction occurrence rate of 62.0%. Turbulence intensity was 0.15 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.14 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 32-79% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  19. Fatigue properties of austempered ductile cast iron at room and elevated temperatures; Austemper kyujo kokuen chutetsu no chukoon ni okeru hiro tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, K.; Hasegawa, N.; Inaga, K. [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan)

    1995-06-15

    Austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) is used widely as a structural material with high strength and toughness. However, since few studies have been made on investigation of fatigue properties at medium to high temperatures, this paper describes rotating bending tests carried out in temperature range between room temperature and 400{degree}C to investigate the fatigue properties and the fatigue crack generating behavior. The following results were obtained: the fatigue limit (fatigue strength after 10{sup 7} bendings) showed a remarkable maximizing phenomenon at temperatures around 300{degree}C; micronization of the base structure caused by transformation of residual austenite was recognized above 300{degree}C, and so was rise in the hardness; heating to this temperature led to rise in the Ms point, making the transformation occur more easily; the effect of repetitive stress causes a processing induced transformation; the temperature at which the transformation and the micronization are completed declines by about 50{degree}C lower than in the non-transformed region; and the fatigue fracture at middle to high temperatures is caused more frequently by internally existing graphite and development of cracks from very small casting cavities. 31 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Application of streaming potential method for detection of fractures in granitic rock. part 2; Kamaishi kozan ni okeru ryutai ryudo den`iho tekiyo shiken. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, T.; Yoneda, Y. [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Senba, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Streaming potential method has been applied in the Kamaishi Mine. In FY 1995, self-potential (SP) was monitored on the wall of gallery by varying the pressure in the well with open/close operation of the mouth of well having spring water, which was drilled from the gallery. It was confirmed that SP changes remarkably at the wall having a great number of fractures with spring water. It was considered that the change in SP is due to the streaming potential generated by the flowing underground water from the gallery side to the fractures in the well. In this paper, this continuity of the wall of gallery and the fractures in the well is estimated. In the present tests, SP changes were observed at walls of surrounding galleries by varying the pressure in the well with open/close operation of the mouth of borehole at various drilling depths during drilling of borehole. As a result, SP changes were observed at the wall of gallery when reaching to the depth with increased spring water. The results agreed well with the test results conducted at the same field in FY 1995. It was confirmed that the streaming potential method is a useful method for grasping the hydraulic continuity in the rocks. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Remote sensing data analysis for assessment of sea level change in Asia; Asia ni okeru kaisuijun hendo eikyo hyoka no tame no remote sensing gazo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Y.; Tanaka, A. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kaku, M. [Bishimetal Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Remote sensing images include information of coastal land division, sea level change such as sedimentary environment and vegetation, and distribution of artificial structures. Past sea level changes and their causes can be regionally obtained by analyzing these data and by integrating them with information obtained from geological survey. In this study, causes and history of past sea level changes, formation mechanism of coastal topography, and past sea level change survey in Thailand have been reviewed. This paper describes an extraction method of the sea level change information in coastal districts by analyzing several actual remote sensing images. For understanding the current sea level rise, it is required to clarify the causes quantitatively among three causes of sea level changes, i.e., volumetric change of total ocean water on the earth, relative sea level change due to the crustal deformation, and change of irregularity of sea surface with ocean current. It is also required to compile maps in Asian or global scales. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Application of resistivity-based high-density prospecting to embankments with underground structure; Chika kozobutsu wo yusuru moritsuchi ni okeru hiteiko komitsudo tansa no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T.; Park, G. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ueno, N. [Dai Nippon Construction, Gifu (Japan); Park, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    A structure was embedded in an embankment with homogeneous sandy soil. Resistivity was measured using three kinds of arrays, to investigate effects of the array on the underground structure. For a vertical structural model with high resistivity and a horizontal structural model with low resistivity, location of the underground structure could be grasped from the apparent resistivity profiles by individual arrays. For a transverse structural model with high resistivity, location of the underground structure could be grasped from the apparent resistivity profiles using Wenner array and pole-pole array. However, it could not be grasped from the apparent resistivity profile using dipole-dipole array. Based on the resistivity measurements for individual structural models, the dipole-dipole array was suitable for the vertical structural model, the pole-pole array was suitable for the transverse structural model, and the Wenner array was suitable for the horizontal structural model. Thus, the best apparent resistivity profiles and contrasts were obtained for individual structural models. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Application of magnetotelluric method to hydrocarbon exploration in the Yurihara oil and gas field, northeast Japan; Akitaken Yurihara gasu den ni okeru MT ho jikken chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuhata, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsuo, K.; Minegishi, M. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Experiment and investigation are conducted in the Yurihara District, Akita Prefecture, to verify that the magnetotelluric (MT) method can be effectively applied to oil and gas fields. In the Yurihara district there exist a number of pits dug for exploration or production, and records on seismic surveys conducted, and therefore the geological structure of this district can be explained fairly well. The oil and gas reservoirs belong in the Nishikurosawa stratum overlain by the Onagawa stratum and Funakawa stratum. The Nishikurosawa rocks, basaltic rocks for example, present a resistivity of approximately 5 ohm/m which is higher than that of the other two that is more or less 1 ohm/m. Under the circumstances, experiment and investigation are conducted so as to detect the Nishikurosawa basaltic rocks as a high-resistivity stratum located under low-resistivity strata by use of the MT method. As the result, a high-resistivity stratum corresponding to the Nishikurosawa basaltic stratum is detected under low-resistivity strata, and the three-dimensional structure of the basaltic stratum is disclosed. In this stratum, the resistivity value gradually increases from south toward north with occasional abrupt rises, and it is found that such abrupt rises result from oil and gas producing strata where exploitation is under way. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T.; Doi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ando, Y. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R.; Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Combined process of pyrolyzer/combuster for gas production and power generation; Chugoku ni okeru chukibo hatsuden to toshi gas seizo no tame no fukugo process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, I. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Ma, T.

    1997-10-30

    In China, they are using a lot of coal by direct firing for domestic cooking, space heating and industrial use. Therefore air pollution is the big problem in every cities in winter season. And at moment, they do not have enough infrastructure for supplying energy such as gas and electric power. There is a great need for facilities for supplying gas and electric power from coal in big cities with much less pollution. This paper d a combined process of medium size plant of gas production and power generation by using fluidized circulation bed pyrolizer and combuster, to contribute to the energy supply which greatly reduces air and water polution and coal consumption. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Measurements of turbulent velocity profiles in combined system of polymer additives and riblets; Kobunshi tenkazai to riblet tono fukugokei ni okeru ranryu sokudo bunpu no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizunuma, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Ban, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-25

    In the combined system of polymer additives and riblets, the polymer additives expand the range of non-dimensionalized riblet width s{sup +} where the riblets reduce the frictional drag. Although in the higher region of s{sup +} the riblets increase the frictional drag as the rough surface, the polymer additives thicken the wall layer, which dumps the drag increase due to riblets and then gives the benefical combined effect in this higher region of s{sup +}. Based on this scinario, the velocity profile and the pipe frictional coefficient for the combined system were derived from the velocity profile of each system. The turbulent velocity profiles were measured for the combined system using a laser Doppler velocimetry. The measured results agreed well with the derived prediction for the combined system. (author)

  7. Relationship between variation of parameters and behaviors of coals during heating; Sekitan no kanetsu katei ni okeru kakushu parameter no henka to nanka yoyu kyodo tono kanren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanohashi, T. [National Institute for Reosurces and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science; Kumagai, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Kato, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    For high-caking Warkworth and low-caking K-Prima coals, Geiseler plastometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) and dynamic viscoelasticity were measured at a heating rate of 3 degree C/min under nitrogen. The amount of solvent-soluble constituent of the coals heat-treated at 3 degree C/min was also measured by using a solvent extraction with carbon disulfide-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone mixed solvent at room temperature, which gives high extraction yields for the heat-treated coals in the softening range. Changes in various chemical and physical parameters from the measurements were compared with one another to investigate the mechanism of softening and fusibility of coals. We suggest that the softening is occurred by a physical relaxation of aggregates in coal macromolecular structure and the amount of the solvent-soluble constituents greatly increases, resulting in enhancing the softening and fusibility. The mobility parameter from PMRTA, the viscoelastic parameter and Geiseler fluidity gave the maximum at similar temperature. showing that fusibility is the result of increased mobility of whole coal. The dynamic viscoelastic measurement was found to be a useful and convenient means for the study on caking behaviors of coals, since it can estimate concurrently both the fluidity and the elasticity of coals. (author)

  8. Integrated controller 'MICREX-SX' system and FA application software; Togo controller 'MICREX-SX' system ni okeru FA application software tono renkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, C.; Takeda, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-10

    Recent manufacturing industries have more often combined the technologies and products of various vendors to structure flexible, efficient, low-cost, factory automation (FA) application software. At the same time, standardization for FA systems also has been promoted. In view of the present status of manufacturing industries, this paper describes an example of data linking between FA application software and the programmable controller in the MICREX-SX system. (author)

  9. Development of natural gas in the South American region and internationalization of a market thereof; Nanbei chiiki ni okeru tennen gasu kaihatsu to shijo no kokusaika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, N. [Japan Petroleum Development Association, Tokyo (Japan); Terada, S. [Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Recently, natural gas development in the South American region is actively advanced. Especially, southern countries have formed the customs union 'Mercosur' (the South America south cooperation market), and an energy supply network such as the natural gas pipeline has been formed with the integration of the market. In this paper, a present state of development project, an installment balance situation, a production situation, a relation infrastructure and a trend of the market of natural gas in South America especially each country of the southern district are described. And, the introduction of foreign capital is also advancing with the restructuring related to the natural gas business in these countries. Therefore, those trends are also described. In the South American countries, Argentina has abundant natural gas reserves which is the next quantity to Venezuela, and has coped with the development of natural gas since early times. According to the prediction of future demand trend of natural gas, Argentina, Bolivia and Trinidad Tobago are mentioned as an exporter of natural gas, and Brazil and Chile are mentioned as an importer of natural gas. (NEDO)

  10. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Conversion of char nitrogen to N2 under incomplete combustion conditions; Fukanzen nensho jokenka ni okeru char chuchisso no N2 eno tenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Q.; Yamauchi, A.; Oshima, Y.; Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The effect of combustion conditions on conversion of char nitrogen to N2 was studied in the combustion experiment of char obtained by pyrolysis of coal. Char specimen was prepared by holding ZN coal of Chinese lignite in Ar atmosphere at 1123K for one hour. A batch scale quartz-made fluidized bed reactor was used for combustion experiment. After the specimen was fluidized in reaction gas, it was rapidly heated to start combustion reaction. CO, CO2 and N2 in produced gases were online measured by gas chromatography (GC). As the experimental result, under the incomplete combustion condition where a large amount of CO was produced by consuming almost all of O2, no NOx and N2O produced from char were found, and almost all of N-containing gas was N2. At the final stage of combustion, pyridinic-N disappeared completely, and pyrrolic-N decreased, while O-containing nitrogen complexes became a main component. It was thus suggested that O-containing nitrogen complexes are playing the role of intermediate product in combustion reaction. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Effect of total pressure on sulfur capture of Ca-ion exchanged coal; Kaatsu jokenka ni okeru Ca-tanjitan no datsuryu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.; Benjamin, G.; Abe, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal gasification and combustion under high pressure as highly efficient coal utilization, the effect of total pressure and sintering on the SO2 capture ability of Ca-ion exchanged coal and other desulfurizing agents were studied. In experiment, specimens were filled into a small pressurized reactor to heat them under high-pressure N2 atmosphere. After the completion of combustion reaction of char at 850{degree}C, SO2, CO2 and CO gases were measured at an outlet while flowing SO2/N2. As the experimental result, all of the S content in Ca-ion exchanged coal was not absorbed by Ca content in coal during pyrolysis and combustion, resulting in discharge of 36% of the S content. Since Ca-ion exchanged coal is fast in combustion reaction, most of the S content was desulfurized by coal ash. The ash content yielded from Ca-ion exchanged coal was more excellent in SO2 capture ability than limestone even under higher pressure. In the case of CO2 partial pressure lower than equilibrium CO2 pressure for CaCO3 decomposition, the capture ability decreased with an increase in total pressure, while in higher CO2 partial pressure, it was improved. 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms; Koteisho netsubunkai ni okeru teitankatan kara no N2 no sisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    In order to establish coal NOx preventive measures, discussions were given on formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms thereof. Chinese ZN coal and German RB coal were used for the discussions. Both coals do not produce N2 at 600{degree}C, and the main product is volatile nitrogen. Conversion into N2 does not depend on heating rates, but increases linearly with increasing temperature, and reaches 65% to 70% at 1200{degree}C. In contrast, char nitrogen decreases linearly with the temperature. More specifically, these phenomena suggest that the char nitrogen or its precursor is the major supply source of N2. When mineral substances are removed by using hydrochloric acid, their catalytic action is lost, and conversion into N2 decreases remarkably. Iron existing in ion-exchanged condition in low-rank coal is reduced and finely diffused into metallic iron particles. The particles react with heterocyclic nitrogen compounds and turn into iron nitride. A solid phase reaction mechanism may be conceived, in which N2 is produced due to decomposition of the iron nitride. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Yugawara Town (wind characteristics investigation); Yugawaramachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed in the period November 1997 through October 1998 at Yugawara Town, Kanagawa Prefecture. The average wind speed is 5.1m/s and 5.0m/s at 20m and 10m above ground, respectively, suggesting that the difference in altitude causes but a very small difference in wind speed and that a large wind speed component exists in the vertical direction. Under the 16 compass point system, the wind direction occurrence rate is the highest in the NE direction and the second highest in the W direction. The two directions are prevalent, and their occurrence rates on the wind axes total 62.6%. The occurrence rate of wind speeds of not less than 5m/s is 40%. Turbulence intensity is 0.23 and 0.17 for the average wind speed of not less than 2m/s and for the average wind speed of not less than 4m/s, respectively, suggesting but a little impact of air current turbulence. The amounts of energy to be acquired by wind turbine systems of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW are estimated at 301,363kWh, 651,593kWh, and 1,668,825kWh, respectively. Their annual capacity ratios are 22.9%, 24.8%, and 25.4%, respectively. Since difference in wind speed due to difference in altitude is small, it is supposed that the wind speed at the hub altitude is not so high. It is inferred consequently that service operation will be quite difficult to realize. Difficulties will be also encountered in relation to the route of turbine system transportation, power distribution line, and the distance to a transformation station. (NEDO)

  17. Survey result of airborne electromagnetic survey in the Hachimantai Sumikawa landslide area; Hachimantai Sumikawa jisuberi ni okeru kuchu denjiho chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, N.; Nakamura, N.; Miyamoto, T. [Nippon Engineering Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    For the study of a landslide that occurred at Hachimantai Sumikawa, Akita Prefecture, an airborne electromagnetic survey is conducted for the examination of the relationship between the spot of landslide and solfataric clay (bluish gray clay). The location is a cap block type structure with a Neogene green tuff overlain by accumulated lava flow, where hot water is very active. The system used in this study is capable of measurement across a very wide frequency range, and measurements are made simultaneously at five frequencies of 220Hz, 1100Hz, 5500Hz, 27,500Hz, and 137,500Hz, these frequencies meaning depth levels 5m-70m explored. It is found that the spot of landslide matches a region where resistivity is so low as to be not higher than 10ohm/m. It is also found, in the resistivity cross section analysis for the middle part of the spot of landslide, that the mass of soil that moved on the upper part of the spot is relatively high in resistivity while the part below the slide surface is low in resistivity. There is agreement between the results reported above and the results of on-site investigations. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Development of high field magnets at the National Research Institute for Metals. Kinzoku zairyo gijutsu kenkyusho ni okeru kojikai magnet gun no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoshi, T.; Inoue, K.; Maeda, H. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    Sinece 1988, the Scince and Technology Agency has initiated the superconductor multicore project, which has a purpose of the versatile study on the high temperature superconducting materials of the oxide series. The National Research Institute for Metals is in charge of 5 cores out of them, and in the performance evaluation core which is one of them, the development of each kind of the high field magnets is being advanced for evaluating the characteristics under the high magnetic field. As the magnets, including the 40T class hybrid magnet which generates the steady state magnetic field of 40T, the superconducting magnet of 20T with a large diameter which generates the magnetic field over 20T with a superconductor, the condenser bank system for the pulse magnet to generate the pulse magnetic field up to 80T, and the ultra-precise magnet system which generates the magnetic field with a high uniformity will be consolidated. Keeping pace with a removal of the National Research Institute for Metals to Tsukuba, the construction of the strong magnetic field station is being advanced in the Sakura area. These several kinds of magnets are scheduled to be used in turn for the international joint study. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. R and D contract management systems in the USA (Attachment); Beikoku ni okeru R and D contract kanri system (tenpu shiryohen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    Presented herein is the attachment for 'R and D contract management systems in the USA'. The major contents include regulations governing the R and D contracts, procedures for the R and D contracts, financial procedures for the R and D contracts, procedures for the alternative R and D contracts, financial management of the R and D contracts, and activities for the management of the contract processes by electronic systems. (NEDO)

  20. Investigation on the actual energy consumption by office automation devices used in offices; Office ni okeru OA kiki no energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    With an objective to further improve efficiency of power demand by office automation devices and suppress increase in the power demand, investigations were carried out on the actual power consumption by office automation devices, and discussions were given on energy saving effects in the office automation devices. In the investigations, measurements were conducted for small offices as the subject thereof with regard to electric power consumed by such presentation tools and their peripheral devices as personal computers, word processors, copying machines, facsimile machines, electronic whiteboards and overhead projectors. Power consumption particularly in a standby condition was also investigated. As a result of the investigations, the following characteristics were revealed: the number of office automation devices used to deal with the Energy Star is increasing rapidly; power consumption believed to have been reduced by the Energy Star transferring to lower power consumption is estimated to be 3% in average for personal computers, 26% for copying machines, and 68% for facsimile machines; and while facsimile machines are left in operating condition for 24 hours, their operation rate at night is very low, wherein there is a large room for saving energy in this time band. 65 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. Detection of arcing ground fault location on a distribution network connected PV system; Hikarihatsuden renkei haidensen ni okeru koko chiryaku kukan no kenshutsuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Iwaya, K.; Morooka, Y. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In the near future, it is supposed that a great number of small-scale distributed power sources, such as photovoltaic power generation for general houses, will be interconnected with the ungrounded neutral distribution system in Japan. When ground fault of commercial frequency once occurs, great damage is easily guessed. This paper discusses the effect of the ground fault on the ground phase current using a 6.6 kV high-voltage model system by considering the non-linear self-inductance in the line, and by considering the non-linear relation of arcing ground fault current frequency. In the present method, the remarkable difference of series resonance frequency determined by the inductance and earth capacity between the source side and load side is utilized for the detection of high-voltage arcing ground fault location. In this method, there are some cases in which the non-linear effect obtained by measuring the inductance of sound phase including the secondary winding of transformer can not be neglected. Especially, for the actual high-voltage system, it was shown that the frequency characteristics of transformer inductance for distribution should be theoretically derived in the frequency range between 2 kHz and 6 kHz. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Bearing life in contaminated oil and oil passing into bearing for tapered roller bearing; Ensui koro jikuuke ni okeru ibutsu yuchu deno jumyo to kantsu yuryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Y.; Oshima, H.; Sakamoto, K. [Koyo Seiko Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In this paper a relationship between depth of dents, area of dents gathered and bearing life has been investigated for tapered roller bearings used in differential gear case. It is effective for the longer bearing life to reduce hard particles of Fe especially among several contaminations existing in the gear case. It is also effective to make oil level lower in the case from the view point for reduction of number of dents. 8 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Array measurements of long-period microtremors in southwestern Kanto plain, Japan; Kanto heiya nanseibu ni okeru yaya choshuki bido no array kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, H.; Sato, H.; Kurita, K.; Seo, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Array measurements of long-period microtremors were carried out in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain, Japan, to obtain S-wave velocity structures in sedimentary beds as fundamental data for estimating long-term strong ground motion in Kanto Plain. The major component in a long-term seismic motion observed in Kanto Plain is the surface wave. According to the result of observations on Love wave by Kinoshita et al, the wavelengths of the surface waves of a long-term cycle are 10 to 20 km. Therefore, if an array observation is to be performed at intervals of about two wavelengths, about 40 points will be required to cover the entire Kanto plain. The final phase velocity is decided by averaging phase velocities of each cycle obtained for each data set. The acquired phase velocities are analyzed inversely by using a genetic algorithm to derive the S-wave velocities at each observation point. The present microtremor array observation has used 13 points in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain to acquire S-wave velocity (Vs) distribution in sedimentary beds. It was made clear that beds with Vs of 1.0 km/s and Vs of 1.5 km/s exist in this area between the surface bed and the seismic foundation with Vs of about 3 km/s. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Airborne gamma-ray survey around the Negoro fault. 1; Negoro danso shuhen chiiki ni okeru kuchu {gamma} sen tansa. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, E.; Kasuya, Y.; Hasegawa, H. [Aero Asahi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukuda, E. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    An airborne gamma-ray survey was carried out to investigate the active fault system in the central structure line in the peripheral area of the city of Wakayama. At the same time, with an objective to enhance applicability of the airborne gamma-ray survey to active fault investigation, fundamental data were acquired and discussed. The measurement data were processed according to the standard method specified by IAEA. An ID-FFT filter and a nonlinear filter were employed to extract anomalous gamma-ray intensity values. The gamma-ray intensity distribution chart shows a noticeable positive anomalous area extending from the central part of the western edge to the north-east direction. This area agrees nearly well with the Negoro fault, but its peak portion is positioned slightly more to south than the position of the Negoro fault shown in existing data. The Sakuraike fault and the vicinity of the central structure line also show positive anomaly as a whole, particularly remarkably in the vicinity of their converging portion. However, differing from the vicinity of the Negoro fault, the areas are not extracted as an anomalous area which has directionality and extends in a line form. One of the factors for this would be that it is a fault in unsolidified deposits with low opening trend, differing from the one in solidified rocks. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Discussion on sensor location in circular array for spatial autocorrelation method; Kukan jiko sokanho no enkei array ni okeru jishinkei haichi no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Saito, T.; Yoshida, A. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    Methods to derive underground structures by utilizing the dispersion phenomenon of surface waves contained in microtremors include the frequency-wave number analysis method (the F-K method) and the spatial autocorrelation method (SAC method). The SAC method is said capable of estimating the structures to deeper depths than with the F-K method if the same seismometer is used. However, the F-K method is used more frequently. This is because the SAC method imposes a strict restriction that seismometers must be arranged evenly on the same circumference, while the F-K method allows seismometers to be arranged arbitrarily during an observation. Therefore, the present study has discussed whether the SAC method can be applied to observations with the seismometers arranged in the same way as in the F-K method, by using microtremor data acquired from actual observations. It was made clear that a seismometer arrangement for the SAC method may be sufficed with at least three meters arranged on the same circumference. These meters may not have to be arranged evenly, but because the acquired phase velocities may vary according to wave arriving directions and seismometer arrangement, it is desirable to perform observations with seismometers arranged as evenly as possible. 13 figs.

  6. Efficient calculation of potential distribution in two-layer earth; Niso kozo daichikei ni okeru denki tansa no tame no koritsuteki den`i keisan shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, M.; Okamoto, Y. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Endo, M.; Noguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y.; Akabane, H. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Agu, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    An efficient calculation method of potential distribution in the presence of an embedded body in multi-layer earth has been proposed by expanding the method of image with a consideration of multiple reflection between the ground surface and each underground boundary. For this method, when solving boundary integral equation with the potential of embedded body surface as only one unknown, i.e., when obtaining discretization equation, ordinary boundary element program developed for analyzing the finite closed region can be used. As an example, numerical calculation was conducted for the two-layer earth. The analysis expression of potential distribution in the case of the certain embedded body in two-layer earth has never published. Accordingly, the calculated results were compared with those by the integral equation method. As a result, it was concluded that the primary potential obtained from the present method agreed well with that obtained from the integral equation method. However, there was a disregarded difference in the secondary potential. For confirming the effectiveness, it was necessary to compare with another numerical calculation method, such as finite element method. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Effect of applied synthetic auxin on root growth in plantlet propagation by cuttage and tissue culture; Sashiki to soshiki baiyo ni okeru gosei auxin rui no shiyo koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, K.; Yoshihara, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of synthetic plant hormone 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA on root growth in plantlet propagation was clarified by the cuttage and the issue culture of strawberry seedling production. A periwinkle, vine, and azalea are the effect of 4-C1-IAA on root growth, and a promotion effect was recognized for rooting and root elongation. The concentration of 4-C1-IAA in which the growth promotion effect of a root most appears varies depending on the species of a plant. The concentration of a periwinkle was 20 ppm, and that of an azalea was 2000 ppm. The growth promotion effect of a root in 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA was compared with IBA for an azalea. The result showed that 4-C1-IAA is the same in the effect as IBA and that TFIBA is higher than for IBA. The growth of a vine`s terminal bud was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth, and the callus occurring when IBA was treated was not formed. The rooting of a strawberry was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth. The combined use of TFIBA and BA promotes the growth of a side bud and forms a multi-bud plant. However, rooting was inhibited. The callus caused by the effect of BA on root growth could be suppressed through the combined use with TFIBA. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The utility of electrical prospecting about the holocene sediment survey in the Mekong delta area; Mekon deruta chiiki no kanshisei taisekibutsu chosa ni okeru denki tansa no yuyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quang, T.D.; Yamauchi, Seiki [Shimane University, Shimane (Japan); Iwata, Akio; Sato, Tsutomu; Saito, Takeshi; Nagira, Yukihiro

    1999-02-01

    The Mekong river is a countable big river in the world, originated from Tibet area of China (an elevation of 4,700 m) and flowing across Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam and its total length is 4,200 m. In the passed 70 years, the survey and research on the Mekong delta area has been carried out in wide fields including geology, geomorphology, hydrology, agronomy and sociology by many researchers from France, America and Vietnam. It could be said that the details on the wide delta formation and deposit would be surveyed and studied from now on. In the Mekong delta area at the lower reaches of the Mekong river, the surface water was seriously polluted, the water supply would be a problem in order to supply a clean water to local residents. For this reason, the underground water survey was carried out, and hydrologic and geological situation has been clarified step by step. It was necessary to carry out the detailed underground water survey since this area is wide and the detailed data were few in the past. This time, the results were reported on the electrical prospecting for the Holocene sediment survey in the upper reaches of the Mekong river. (translated by NEDO)

  9. Flow characteristics of Hijiori HDR reservoir form circulation test in 1995; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru shinbu choryuso yobi junkan shiken (1995 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, N.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports the result of a preliminary circulation test conducted in fiscal 1995 on a deep reservoir (at a depth of about 2200 m) in the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field. One water injection well and two production wells were drilled to constitute a circulation loop, to which the circulation test was performed to investigate the flow characteristics thereof. The result revealed the following matters: total amount of injected water of 51500 m{sup 3} resulted in a total fluid recovery rate of about 40%; as a result of well stimulation given twice during the initial stage of the water injection, the continuity impedance in the vicinity of the injection well decreased largely (however, the continuity improvement upon the second attempt was considerably inferior to that from the first attempt); and increase in the water injection amount does not necessarily lead to increase in the production amount. The paper describes additionally that it is extremely difficult to interpret non-linearity between the injection and production amounts by using a model prepared previously with a main objective to analyze the Hijiori HDR circulation system. 1 ref., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Flow characteristic of Hijiori HDR reservoir from circulation test in 1991; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru senbu choryuso shiken (1991 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, T.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports one example of flow analyses on a circulation test carried out in fiscal 1991 at the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field (Yamagata Prefecture). A fluid circulation model was proposed to simulate an HDR circulation system for a shallow reservoir (at a depth of about 1800 m) demonstrated in the circulation test by using an electric circuit network (which expresses continuity impedance in resistance and fluid storage in capacitance). Storage capacity of the reservoir was estimated by deriving time constant of the system from data of time-based change in reservoir pressure associated with transition phenomena during the circulation test. The storage capacity was estimated separately by dividing change of storage in the reservoir by change in the reservoir pressure. To derive the storage in the reservoir, a method to calculate non-recovered flows in the circulation test was utilized. The results of evaluating the reservoir capacity in the shallow reservoir using the above two independent methods were found substantially consistent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Conductivity Measurements of Alkali Metal Thiocyanates in Water-Methanol Mixtures; Mizu-metanoru kongoyoubai ni okeru arukari kinzoku chioshiansan`en no denki dendodo sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Eiji.; Horimoto, Sanaki. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1999-03-10

    The counductivity of several alkali nmetal thiocyanates in water-methanol mixtures was measured at 25degreeC. the data were analyzed using Lee-Wheaton theory for symmetrical electroyers to cbtain ion association constant, K{sub A}, limiting molar sonductivity, {Lambda}{sub 0}, and limiting ionic molar conductivity, lamnda{sub 0}{+-}. In all the solvent systems, calculated{lambda}{sub 0}{sup +} values of the alkali metal ions increase in the order L{sub i}{sup +}

  12. High-resolution S-wave reflection survey in a linear depression; Senjo kubochi ni okeru kobunkaino S ha hanshaho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Y. [Kyushu Regional Construction Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    An attempt was made to apply a method combining the high-resolution S-wave reflection survey with boring to a fault survey at the Kuju town, Oita Prefecture. The investigation area has a linear depression area as small as about 600 m from east to west and about 100 m from north to south surround by mountain slopes. The boundary section with mountain peaks at the north ridge of the depression area is linear, and existence of a southward falling normal fault has been indicated. The seismic investigation has employed an artificial plank hammering method, and the derived data were processed by using the processing software, Vista for Windows. The Bin interval was 25 cm, the S-wave velocity ranged from 100 to 150 m/s, and the spatial resolution was estimated at several ten centimeters or less. The resolution is thought sufficient for assessing the fault location and displacement. The acquired depth cross sections presented distinct structural discontinuity, from which the fault locations were estimated. However, for displacements in the base bed and upper beds, the reflected waves fell into disorder at the faults, having made a detailed assessment difficult. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Acoustic surveys of the southern extension of the Tomikawa fault off Kamiiso in Hakodate bay, southwest Hokkaido; Hakodatewan Kamiisooki ni okeru Tomikawa danso enchobu no onpa tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Y.; Sagayama, T.; Osawa, M.; Hamada, S.; Suga, [Hokkaido Geological Survey, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    With an objective to identify extension into sea area of the Tomikawa fault in southwest Hokkaido, an acoustic survey was carried out off Kamiiso in Hakodate Bay. Using a sound wave exploring machine transmitting frequencies from 5.5 to 8.5 kHz, the acoustic survey was conducted on a workboat cruising at speeds of 4 to 6 knots. The courses of traverse were set on the sea area off from Kamiiso Tomikawa Town to Moheji Town based on the sediment distribution map and the geological map. A total of 17 courses were set: 16 in the east to west direction so as to cross the extension of active faults on the land, and one in the south to north direction. The east-west courses had a length of about 2 km with the line interval of about 300 m, while the south-north course extended nearly parallel with the coast line over a distance of 4.8 km. As a result of the present investigation, verification was given on existence of boundary faces with different sediment structures and displacement falling eastward on several courses of traverse running from east to west. If the locations of these boundary faces are connected, its strike agrees well with the strike of the Tomikawa fault on the land. From the fact that its extension is linked to the end section of the fault, a possibility was shown that the land fault may be extending into the sea area. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  14. 3D seismic experiment in the Minaminoshiro area, Akita. Data processing; Akitaken Minaminoshiro chiiki ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa jikken. Data shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Minegishi, M. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Nakagami, K. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    A 3D seismic experiment was carried out in the Minaminoshiro area in Akita Prefecture, an area difficult of performing seismic exploration. This paper reports progresses during data processing and future problems. The data processing has executed static correction of 3D refraction, 3D DMO correction, and an F-X prediction filter processing on the data in time domain in the 3D seismic exploration as acquired in a spread of 4 km times 5 km in the subject area. The result of the data processing verified existence of a folding structure and the Noshiro thrust fault groups in the east to west direction, and locations of the Sakagawa fault associated therewith. Seen particularly noticeably was a structure having a slope falling north-ward at 15 to 35 degrees in shallow and deep portions on the east side of the Sakagawa fault in the south to north direction. In addition, the Dogiri fault was identified, which has been though to exist in a direction crossing perpendicularly the Noshiro thrust fault groups. It is scheduled that spatial velocity will be analyzed, and data processing will be conducted for deep regions. 7 figs.

  15. Molecular biological approaches on mechanisms involved in adaptation of fish to extreme temperature conditions; Gyorui no kyokugen ondo kankyoka ni okeru bunshi reberu deno tekio kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Shogo [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences

    1999-12-16

    Myosin, a major protein in muscle tissues, was examined for the changes in its isoform expression pattern during cold and warm temperature adaptation with fast skeletal muscle of carp, a typical eurythermal temperate fish. The myosin molecule, especially its heavy chain subunit, was responsible for such changes, being associated with development of consistent swimming ability even when carp encounters environmental temperature fluctuation. Carp myosin isoforms exploited structure and function which are adjusted to different water temperatures. The 5' upstream control regions of carp myosin heavy chain genes also contained nucleotide sequences which may participate with regulation in isoform expression during temperature adaptation. Although further investigation is still required, the present study gave a new insight into molecular mechanisms involved in temperature adaptation for fish and possibly for other eukaryotes. (author)

  16. Shift of the circumstances in effluent pollutant loads and water pollution in the Seto Inland Sea; Setonaikai ni okeru odaku fukaryo to suishitsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T. [Hiroshima Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment, Hiroshima (Japan); Komai, Y. [Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Environmental Science, Kobe (Japan); Koyama, T. [Wakayama Prefectural Research Center of Environment and Public Health, Wakayama (Japan); Nagafuchi, O. [Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environment Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Hino, Y. [Kagawa Prefecture Environmental Research Center, Kagawa (Japan); Murakami, K. [Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental and Public Health, Okayama (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    The relationship between the shift of the amount of effluent pollutant loads and the quality of water in and after the 1970s is studied for the verification of the effect of wastewater control and pollution measures for the Seto Inland Sea. The pollution loads are analyzed using the population, sewerage system diffusion rate, industrial production amount, number of farm animals, etc., gathered from existing data, and the quality of water is analyzed using the surface layer data collected at 124 sites. Although population as the source of pollutant loads has enlarged, the enlargement does not bring about a significant change in the loads, this partly due to the diffusion of sewerage systems. The rates of reduction in the 1979-1994 period of COD (chemical oxygen demand), T-N (total nitrogen), and T-P (total phosphorus) are 25.2%, 5.3%, and 30.3%, respectively. COD has returned to the previous level, but transparency has turned poorer. T-N and T-P worsened in the 1985-1989 period, and have not yet returned to the levels of 1980-1984. Pollution is in progress in Osaka Bay, Hiroshima Bay, and some others. In some sea areas, transparency is improving, with COD and Chl.a on the increase. From the nutrient salt and Chl.a scatter diagrams, the potential of algal growth relative to the concentration of nutrient salts may be estimated. Organic pollution is affected by algal growth. The organic matters produced in the inland sea are approximately 20 times as much as the organic matters produced on land. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Operation history of hydraulic jet pump on teh Chengbei oil field, China. Chengbei yuden ni okeru haidororikku jet pump no shiyo jisseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, Yoshihiro; Takagi, Sunao

    1989-11-01

    Changbei oil field in China uses hydraulic jet pump(HJP) to cope with the increase of oil production and increase of water content in the oil field. This paper described the practical result. This pump makes high speed jet by driving fluid, and converts the dynamic energy to pressure energy by decelerating with a diffuser to push up oil. Wellheads damaged by sand friction or near the gas cap were removed. The production from March, 1988 to October increased at the rate of 114kl/day at total 8 wellheads. Heavy oil of API specific gravity of 16 degree could be proved. Since the separation of oil and water was inferior, so that the countermeasures were studied but the cause was not known. Troubles or failures of main body, nozzle and throat of HJP were not occurred. Any effect could not be found at a wellhead of water content exceeding 50 to 60% because only water production increased. Consequently, this process could result the increase of oil production with lower cost and without mechanical failures. 2 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Hear recovery properties from fuel cell system for telecommunications use; Tsushin`yo nenryo denchi system no fuirudotesuto ni okeru hainetsu kaishu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, M.; Iida, S.; Abe, I.; Amanuma, H. [NTT Integrated Information and Energy Systems Laboratories Tokyo (Japan); Uekusa, T.; Waragai, S. [NTT Power and Building Eacilities Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-20

    NTT is developing a phosphoric acid fuel cell energy system for telecommunication co-generation systems to reduce energy costs and help preserve the environment. Fuel cells are used to provide electrical power to telecommunication equipment and the heat energy that is generated is used by the absorption refrigerator to cool the telecommunication rooms throughout the year. We fieldtested this fuel cell energy system in a telephone office for three years. Heat recovered water from fuel cell stack coolant was supplied to the absorption refrigerator and further extra-heat was recovered by a heat exchanger. The toral heat recovery amount was about 86000 kca/h (the heat recovery efficiency was 20%) under 200kW operation. The absorption refrigerator was supplied about 49000kcal/h of heat and operated with 0.7 of coefficient of performance throughtout the year. The electrical efficiency was maintained more than 38% after 13000h operation. 12 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Heat recovery properties from fuel cell system for telecommunications use; Tsushin`yo nenryo denchi system ni okeru hainetsu kaishu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, M.; Iida, S.; Abe, I.; Yamamoto, M. [NTT Integrated Information and Energy Systems Laboratories, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    NTT is developing a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell energy system for telecommunication co-generation systems to reduce energy costs and help preserve the environment. Fuel cells are used to provide electrical power to telecommunication equipment and the heat energy that is generated is used by the absorption refrigerators to cool the telecommunication rooms throughout the year. We field-tested this fuel-cell energy system in a telephone office. Two heat recovery methods were applied in the test: one uses direct steam heat recovery from fuel-cell stack coolant to keep the heat recovery temperature high and to avoid requiring a heat exchanger for the recovery; the other uses heat recovery from the reformer exhaust gas that is directly in contact with the heat recovery water to recover heat more economically. Our field tests confirmed that the average efficiency of heat recovery from fuel-cell stack coolant is 16%, and from the reformer exhaust gas is 9% under 80-kW continuous operation. Maximum total efficiency including electrical power efficiency was confirmed to be about 73% under the condition of 100-kW and an S/C ratio of 2.5 in the winter period: heat recovery from the fuel-cell stack coolant was 23%, from the reformer exhaust gas was 10%, and from electrical conversion was about 40%. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Gas flow analysis in the sludge melting furnace with packed bed. Jutensogata gesui odei yoyuro ni okeru gas nagare no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Takahashi, R.; Yagi, J. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy)

    1990-07-10

    Gas flow in a sludge melting furnace with packed bed was analyzed. As the fundamantal equation, Ergun equation with an inertial term was applied for gas flow in the packed bed and for gas flow in the freeboard of upper part of packed bed where multistage gas inlets located, turbulence model of kappa-epsilon model was applied. Two and three dimensional cold experimental equipments were prepared to measure gas flow rates and pressure distribution and to compared these results with the results of numerical simulation. The validity of theoretical model was verified from these results. It is necessary to add the inertial term to the Ergun equation at the point where gas flow line changes suddenly (discretization points). Further, when the freeboard was considered, the isobar could not be realized in some cases as the boundary condition at the top of the packed bed. In order to calculate the gas flow in a complex shape such as the sludge melting furnace, it is effective to apply the body fitted coordinate system having mesh generated along the boundary shape by solving the elliptic type equation and to carry out numerical analysis with the finite difference method. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Future petroleum market of the USA under globalization and deregulation (Part 2). Glovarization to kisei kanwaka ni okeru kongo no beikoku sekiyu shijo (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    With the rise of OPEC and the fall of MAJORS in the 1970s, the petroleum market of the USA began to change, and still further changed with the reinforcement of regulation by the Carter administration, and the deregulation and the policy dependent on the market by the Regan administration. Policy of the Regan administration was to raise the suppressed price by means of deregulation, and as a result to increase domestic production of petroleum, to conserve energy, and to increase the supplied amount of energy by accelerating the development of alternative energy and energy conversion to coal. With the abolishment of regulation, difference in the foreign and domestic petroleum prices was lost, domestic exploration development was accelerated and domestic production was increased. With the sharp fall of the petroleum price in 1986, however, demand for energy was increased, and on the other hand activities for domestic exploration declined, domestic production was decreased, and partly with the conversion from other energy to petroleum, import of petroleum is increasing rapidly. Meanwhile, there are problems of nuclear power and the feeling of people who put emphasis on the protection of the environment, and the world keeps an eye on the measures the USA take. 55 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. US oil market under the globalization and alleviating regulation (Part 1). Gurobaraizeshon to kisei kanwaka ni okeru kongo no beikoku sekiyu shijo (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This report is a part of surveies carried out by Japan Petroleum Dervelopment Corp. through the commission of MITI in 1988 and summarized the environmental protecting tendency in US and future US oil market. The environmental problem which is common to all world becomes severer in US, so that new oil development in offshores of Alaska and California is opposed from the viewpoint of environmental protection. The US Government and Congress started the movement for countermeasures concerning greenhouse effect and acid rain which were previously passive. In US oil market, restructuring including different industries and the advance into the downstream in oil producing countries are conducted by the influence of regulation alleviated by prior President Reagan and the oil import will increase hereafter, but share of natural gas will increase and the substitute energy and vihicles using the substitute energy will also be developed and increase. 9 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. Basic survey on a potentiality of energy-related cooperation in Vietnam; Betonamu ni okeru energy kanren kyoryoku kanosei kiban chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper reports trends of energy, economy, and the environmental field in Vietnam. The economy of Vietnam has indicated a powerful growth in all the sectors for the first nine months of fiscal 1994. The amount of industrial products showed a growth of 12.2%, and the agriculture is supported by a growth in cash crop, despite of the damage to rice growing caused by the flood. The government announced that they expected a GDP growth rate of 8.5% in fiscal 1994 over the target of 8%. However, a hope that the government wants the inflation rate not exceeding 10% was already given up in October. The government holds a financial deficit totaling 636 million dollars. The government planned to supplement the deficit partially by increasing revenue and partially by support from overseas, but in both cases the fund was short. The trend in the finance/bank sector since August indicates that the money market is appearing. Vietnam established the foreign currency interbank market. Moreover, the government decided on establishment of the stock market up to the beginning of 1995.

  4. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility survey on offshore wind power generation in Japan; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nippon ni okeru yojo furyoku hatsuden no donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey studied the feasibility of large-scale offshore wind power generation in Japan. Attempt was also made on preparation of outline maps of offshore wind around Japan. The cost of future offshore wind power generation systems is roughly dependent on technical issues and environmental issues. As technical issues, 'installation site,' 'foundation,' 'system interconnection' and 'maintenance/management' were summarized based on applications in Europe. As a result, it was clarified that technical issues can be solved with existing technologies to a certain extent, however, those relate to economical problems closely. The previous environment impact assessments say that wind power generation has no problems on the environmental issues. As relatively strong wind coastal areas, the outline maps of offshore wind point out Western Hokkaido area, Japan Sea area of Tohoku district, Pacific ocean area of the central part of Honshu, Genkai Nada area, Western Kyushu area and Southwest islands area, and suggest that these areas are promising for offshore wind power generation. (NEDO)

  5. Human interface for personal information systems. On-line handwriting recognition; Pasonaru joho kiki ni okeru human interface. On-line tegaki ninshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, T. [Sharp Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    Most of information devices used in the business field use keyboards for the inputting measure, but keyboards are rather awkward for personal use. In contrast to this, the pen input method which everybody can use easily is a product of the latest development. In this articles, on-line handwritten letter recognition is roughly explained which is the basic technique of pen input. Pen input has a demerit that its letter inputting speed is slow, but has much more merits that Chinese ideographs can be directly input, figures, handwritten memoranda, etc. are treated likewise, the device itself can be made compact and no noise is made. The on-line letter recognition methods now used practically can be roughly divided into the pattern matching method and the basic stroke method. Each of them has its own merits and demerits. For the current on-line handwritten letter recognition, the condition is necessary to handwritten a letter in the square style (kaisho) and carefully within the framework for letter entry upon writing, and for this arrangement, input is performed through the work processes of pretreatment/feature extraction, stroke recognition, letter comparison, detail discrimination, and after-treatment. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Switching surge overvoltages on a feeding system of a MAGLEV train; Jiki fujoshiki tetsudo no kidenkei ni okeru kaihei surge kaden`atsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muragishi, H. [Nippon Yusoki Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, Y.; Muraoka, N.; Ametani, A. [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-04-20

    Discussions using simulations were given on surge overvoltages and earth fault surge overvoltage associated with operation of a section switchgear in a feeding system of a MAGLEV train. Results of the discussions may be summarized as follows: throw-in surge overvoltage caused by the section switchgear is about 25 kV at maximum on the coil and about 15 kV on the cable sheath. The coil overvoltage increases as the closer to 90 degrees the throw-in phase approaches, and the greater the power supply frequency increases. The cable sheath overvoltage, however, is not affected by these environments. Breaking surge overvoltage caused by the section switchgear reaches 115 kV on the coil and about the same value on the cable sheath when the breaking current is 50 A. Earth fault surge overvoltage due to cable fault is 24 kV at maximum on the coil, while it reaches 32 kV on the cable sheath. The cable sheath overvoltage depends largely on sheath installing conditions. These overvoltages can be suppressed sufficiently lower than insulation levels of each device by installing arresters. 17 refs., 18 figs.

  7. Lightning surge overvoltages on a feeding system of a MAGLEV train; Jiki fujoshiki tetsudo no kidenkei ni okeru kaminari saji kaden`atsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muragishi, H.; Samejima, J.; Nagaoka, N.; Ametani, A. [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Seki, A. [Japan Central Railway Co., Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-03-20

    This paper investigates lighting surge overvoltages on a coil system of a magnetic-levitation train, when lightning hits an overhead ground wire (GW) to protect the coils. The paper considers an elevated railroad with height of about 20 m from the earth surface and iron structures which were neglected in the previous investigations. The overvoltage induced to the coil due to the lightning current on the GW increases by about 30% when considering the grounding lead of the GW. The iron structures reduce the lightning overvoltages by about 10% when the structure is assumed to be directly grounded to the earth. If the grounding lead of the structure is taken into account, the reduction effect is not much noticeable. The induced overvoltage to the coil enters into a power feeding cable, and produces an overvoltage which may exceed the cable sheath insulation level. The overvoltage can be controlled by an arrester. 15 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. High temperature electrical conductivity of yttrium sesquioxide under entremely low oxygen pressure; Gokuteion sansoatsuka ni okeru ittoria no koon denki dendosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneoka, T.; Terai, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takahashi, Y. [Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    Yttrium sesquioxide (yttria) is considered to be one of the most hopeful candidate materials for a collector electrode of the separated uranium atom in a laser uranium enrichment system. In order to confirm a required property for the electrode, the conductivity measurement of yttria was performed under a simulated condition in the presence of molten uranium. Because of the extremely low oxygen pressure in the U-UO2 system such a condition was locally realized by placing yttria specimens between plates of titanium or vanadium at high temperature. The specimens were reduced in advance to hypostoichiometry with titanium or vanadium plates under the condition of 1600 K and 2.5 Ms in vacuo. The electrical conductivity measurement was performed by the AC four-probe method in the temperature range of about 900-1600 K and the frequency range of 60 Hz-30 kHz. The electrical conductivity of hypostoichiometric yttria reduced by titanium was higher than that of intrinsic germanium at room temperature (2.1 S/m). This specimen showed the characteristic behavior in the temperature dependence of conductivity; the conductivity showed semiconductor-like behavior in the range of 1400-1600 K, while it had a minimum at about 1250 K and again increased below this temperature. That of hypostoichiometric yttria reduced by vanadium was much lower than that of the specimen, educed with titanium and followed a straight line in the Arrhenius plot above 1000 K. The conductivities of both hypostoichiometric specimens were independent of frequency, which means the conduction carrier was the electron or electron hole. From the oxygen concentration of the metals which were used for the reduction, the oxygen pressures equilibrated with the yttria specimens here estimated to discuss the relation to the measured conductivities. 19 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Hydrogen cracking susceptibility evaluation of buried steel pipe under cathodic protection. Cathode boshokuka ni okeru maisetsu kokan no suisoware kanjusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Nonaka, H. (Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Yamakawa, K. (University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering)

    1992-12-01

    An evaluation was given on effects of hydrogen on pipeline materials in order to determine a most base value in an optimal cathodic protection potential in cathodic protection of buried pipelines. Protection potentials were estimated from the relation between critical hydrogen amount and the potentials in marine clays and sodium acetate as electrolyte. The materials were evaluated using a strain rate tensile experiment method. The following results were obtained: The more base the potential, the elongation was somewhat less than the result in air, while the tensile strength increased slightly; difference in water content in soils varies the cross section contraction rate; the rate does not change in a marine clay containing water at 20%, but it decreases in a 30%-content soil; an SEM observation revealed pseudo cleavage faces; and the critical hydrogen amount that causes hydrogen cracking is 10 ppb, which corresponds to -1.4V in a marine clay containing water at 30%, and -1.2V at 14%. A loading experiment with actual loads verified that no fracture due to hydrogen cracking occurs even under an overprotection environment when a load imposed on an actual pipeline is kept constant. 16 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, S.; Ikuma, T.; Tanifuji, R. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Travel time and ray path computation in 2D-heterogeneous structures; Fukinshitsu kozo ni okeru jishinha soji oyobi hasen no atarashii keisan hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujie, G.; Kasahara, J.; Sato, T.; Mochizuki, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    Methods were studied for determining the initial travel time and ray paths with stability when an non-linear travel time inversion is performed in an inhomogeneous structure. The travel time calculation was based on Faria and Stoffa`s method. First, the 2-dimension space was sectioned by grids, and `slowness` was assigned to all the lattice points. Starting from the vibration source, travel time at each lattice point is sequentially calculated. This method calculates travel time for any structure without breakup. In this study, an algorithm more sophisticated than the method of Faria, et al., was developed, and the improvement of travel time calculation accuracy led to the accurate determination of the direction of incidence into the lattice points during the initial motion. The calculation of ray paths was effected by tracing back from the receiving points the incidence into the lattice points or by following back the ray paths to the vibration source. This method performs stable calculation for a heavily inhomogeneous structure and, with the algorithm being simple, do the parallel programming as well. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Application of geophysical methods to investigation of old castle, especially of the moat; Joshi no chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no tekiyo (horiato no tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A.; Karube, F.; Kobayashi, M.; Toge, M. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An explanation is made about the application of geophysical methods to the investigation of the ruins of old castles especially of their moats. Techniques currently in use for exploration of the ruins of castles are mainly underground radar exploration and electric exploration. The underground radar method sends electromagnetic waves through the ground and receives the reflection for a high-precision exploration of the layers shallow in the ground. Therefore, this method is suitable for probing the ruins of castles relatively shallow in the flat land, hills, and mountains. The electric method (resistivity image method) do the probing by use of the two-electrode arrangement, performs inverse analysis on the basis of the obtained data for the determination of the underground resistivity distribution, and displays the distribution in an image easy to read. This method, when there is a great separation between the two electrodes, explores relatively deep into the ground. Thanks to this feature, this method is effective in probing relatively wide and deep ruins of moats, that is, the ruins of moats of castles built in later years, especially of those then filled with water. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Cooperative measurements of microtremors in the north-eastern region of Nishinomiya city, Hyogo Pref.; Nishinomiyashi hokutobu ni okeru joji bido no godo kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Matsuzawa, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sawada, Y.; Tazawa, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the purpose of generally grasping space distribution of ground vibration characteristics, cooperative measurements were conducted in a wide area, mainly in the area stricken by the M7 earthquake. Forty-five organs such as governmental institutes, universities, and private company institutes participated in the measurements which were conducted at 1967 measuring points. The area which the author is in charge is an area from the north of Nishinomiya City to the south of Takarazuka City. The area is relatively far from the hypocenter area, but the magnitude is 7 there and damage was concentrated. The measurements were made by each independent team from August 29 to September 1, 1995. As a result of spectral measurements of NS, EW and UD components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 1.5 sec. cycle in almost all measuring points and components. Further, in spectra of horizontal motion components of A measuring point group, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.15-0.5 sec. cycle, and in those in B and C measuring point groups, in an extent of 0.35-0.5 sec. cycle. In upper/lower motion components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.3 sec. cycle in A measuring point group. 4 figs.

  14. Application of streaming potential method for detection of fractures in granitic rock; Kamaishi kozan ni okeru ryutai ryudo den`iho tekiyo shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, T.; Yokoi, K.; Yoneda, Y. [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Senba, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Measurements were made using the streaming potential method for the purpose of investigating the expansion of hydration cracks, direction of their propagation, and the chaining of cracked surfaces, in the granitic rock. Tests were conducted by use of a bore hole in the gallery wall. The bore hole yielded approximately 400 liters of water per minute, the bore hole was closed and then opened, and the change with the passage of time in the spontaneous potential (SP) on the gallery wall was measured. At a spot 31.2m from the mine entrance, the SP dropped by 15mV simultaneously with the opening of the bore hole, and rose by 14mV simultaneously with the closure of the same. The phenomenon was true for other locations, that is, for the section from the mine entrance to a spot 9.0m therefrom, and for a section beginning at 15.0m and ending at 19.2m therefrom. No change in the SP was observed in a group of cracks with water springing out of the gallery roof, beginning at a point 40m and ending at a point 54m from the mine entrance. The result suggests the possible application of the streaming potential method to the investigation of cracks. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  15. Magnetotelluric investigation in and around southern part of Hidaka metamorphic belt in Hokkaido, Japan; Hidaka henseitai nanbuiki ni okeru MT kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Utsugi, M.; Hirano, K.; Doi, T.; Nishida, Y.; Arita, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An MT observation was conducted in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, for the estimation of the 2D resistivity structure in the southern part of the metamorphic belt, when frequencies of the VLF, ELF, and ULF bands were used. An approximately 42km-long traverse line was set to cross the Hidaka metamorphic belt from east to west. As for the observation points, 48 VLF points, 16 ELF points, and 4 ULF points were provided. During the data processing, impedance tensor was calculated in the frequency domain for the determination of the apparent resistivity relative to frequency and the phase difference. As the result, it was found that there is a fairly large resistivity gap between observation spots MNS and KWR and that the boundary corresponds to the Hidaka metamorphic belt, that the metamorphic belt that is reflected as a conspicuous high-resistivity layer in the VLF-, ELF-MT slopes down toward the east and has a distribution as deep as 10km in the vicinity of observation point KWR, that this high-resistivity layer sandwiches a low-resistivity layer at a depth of 5-7km, and that on the east side of the metamorphic belt there is a medium-resistivity layer creeping under the belt from the east side toward the west side. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Soyo Town (wind characteristics investigation); Soyomachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Soyo Town, Aso-gun, Kumamoto Prefecture. The annual average wind speed is 5.9m/s and 5.6m/s at 20m and 10m above ground, respectively, satisfying the reference values of 5.6m/s and 5.0m/s. The prevalent wind direction is WNW (occurrence rate: 32.8%). The wind from the directions with WNW at their middle occupies 75%, stable and satisfying the reference value of 60%. Strong winds come frequently from the direction of high occurrence, which is advantageous in arranging plural wind turbine systems. The exponential index in the wind speed vertical distribution is 13.3, but wind distribution is not simple at a mountain top site like the observation station in this report. Wind characteristics are similar to those at places with mild inundations, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed of 40.8m/s will not pose a problem. The wind energy density is 205W/m{sup 2}, satisfying the reference value of 150. Wind power systems of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW are assumed. When the exponential index is 13.3, their annual operation rates will be 70%, 71%, and 82%; and their capacity ratios are 22.6%, 23.9%, and 22.9%, all satisfying the reference values. They will collect 297MWh, 629MWh, and 1507MWh of wind energy per year. It is concluded that Soyo Town is fully qualified as a site for wind power development. (NEDO)

  17. Breakdown characteristics of electro-negative gases under needle-plane gap. Hari-hiraita gap ni okeru denkiteki fusei gas no zetsuen hakai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, H.; Onoda, M.; Amakawa, K. (Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)); Kuroda, S. (Nitto Denko Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-07-20

    The voltage-time (V-t) characteristics of corona onset and breakdown were examined in electro-negative gases as SF {sub 6} and CCl {sub 2} F {sub 2}, using a needle-plane electrode with small gap and {mu} s square pulse voltage with various wave fronts. The V-t characteristics in electro-neutral gas as N {sub 2} ordinarily descended rightwards, but those in SF {sub 6} descended rightwards only in smaller gaps and lower gas pressures. In the pulse voltage with shorter wave fronts, those in SF {sub 6} also offered a particular shape descending leftwards. The particular shape was dependent on the steepness of the pulse wave front, being strongly affected by shorter wave fronts, and also strongly related to the onset and development length of corona. The particular phenomenon of V-t characteristics was observed more obviously at a positive needle than negative one without any extremely long corona lengths at negative one, indicating a polarity effect. The phenomenon was also observed in CCl {sub 2} F {sub 2} as particular one in electro-negative gases. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Identification of modal parameters and spatial matrix in frequency domain. Basic theory; Shuhasu ryoiki ni okeru mode tokusei to tokusei gyoretsu no dotei. Kiso riron no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, M. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sugiura, T.; Takaiwa, H.; Nagamatsu, A. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An approach is presented for the identification of spatial matrix with modal parameters in the frequency domain. Modal parameters are transformed to spatial matrix with constraints of modal vector orthogonality and characteristic equation. Adding the connecting conditions or unconnected conditions of measuring points, spatial matrix is determined by modal parameters whose number is smaller than that of dimension of spatial matrix. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Numerical simulation of fuel sprays and combustion in a premixed lean diesel engine; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu to nensho no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Sasaki, S.; Shimazaki, N.; Hashizume, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel sprays and combustion in a direct injection Premixed lean Diesel Combustion (PREDIC) engine, which can make smokeless combustion with little NOx emission, is studied numerically. Numerical simulation was carried out by means of KIVA II based computer code with a combustion submodel. The combustion submodel describes the formation of combustible fuel vapor by turbulent mixing and four-step chemical reaction which includes low temperature oxidation. Comparison between computation and experiment shows qualitatively good agreement in terms of heat release rate and NO emission. Computational results indicate that the combustion is significantly influenced by fuel spray characteristics and injection timing to vary NO emission. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effects of fuel and air mixing on WOT output in direct injection gasoline engine; Chokufun gasoline kikan ni okeru nenryo to kuki no kongo to shutsuryoku seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T.; Iriya, Y.; Naito, K.; Mitsumoto, H.; Iiyama, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of in-cylinder charge motion and the characteristics of the fuel spray and piston crown shape on WOT output in a direct injection gasoline engine are investigated. The fuel and air mixing process in a cylinder is analyzed by computer simulation and LIF method visualization. As a result, the technical factors to achieve enough mixing in a DI gasoline engine equipped with bowl in piston optimized for stratified combustion are clarified. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Study on the behavior of reaction disk in the vacuum brake booster; Shinkushiki bairyoku sochi ni okeru reaction disk no kyodo kaiseki jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, M.; Sawada, T.; Kato, Y. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, E.; Nakamura, S. [Jidosha Kiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Vacuum brake booster has been widely applied in automobiles, and it needs much time for experiments in order to design a new type model and so on. In this report concentrating on the behavior of a reaction disc, it was simulated by ARAQUS FEM program where coefficients of rubber disc are Mooney-Rivlin constants. It was shown that the numerical results represent good agreement with experiments, and in addition that values of jumping force which shows the starting point of the brake increases with the increment of the hardness of the disc, clearance and so on. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Proposal of control system of surface brightness of rolled sheet in cold rolling. Reikan atsuen ni okeru ita hyomen kotaku no seigyo system no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azushima, A.; Iyanagi, Y.; Degawa, H.; Noro, K. (Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama, (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Daido Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    The relation was systematically examined between the surface quality of a rolled sheet in cold rolling and tribological factors (rolling speed, reduction, viscosity of lubricant, surface roughnesses of a roll and sheet). In the case where the surface roughnesses of rolls and sheets were smooth, the surface brightness decreased with an increase in rolling speed and viscosity, resulting in rough surfaces. The dependence of the rolling speed, viscosity and roughness on the brightness was equal to that on an oil film thickness, and the brightness of rolled sheets could be thus expressed as the function of only the oil film thickness. In the case those were rough, the roughness had a great influence on the surface quality of rolled sheets, and the brightness could be expressed as the function of the oil film thickness and roughnesses of rolls and sheets before rolling. Based on these relations, the system was proposed capable of estimating and controlling the brightness of rolled sheets from/by conditions before rolling. 13 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Spin-Prope Investigation og the Dynamic Behavior of Law Molecule Additive in Polyvinylchloride; Supinpurobu ho wo mochiita porienkabiniru naibu ni okeru teibunshitenkazei no douteki kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Kouhei. [NOF Corp., Hyogo (Japan)]|[Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Onodera, Shou.; Enomoto, Hiroyuki. [NOF Corp., Hyogo (Japan). Oleochemical Reserch Laboratory; Nagaoka, Shin`ichi.; Mukai, Kazuo. [Ehime University, Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1999-03-10

    The three kinds of TEMPO radical Derivattttives (TEMPO (-H), TEMPOL (-OH), TEMPOAM (-NH{sub 2})) having defferent substiturents in the molecule as the spin probe ware added to the poly-(vinyl chloride) (PVC) including dioctuly pgthalate (DOP) as plasticiczer, and the rotational correlation times {tau}{sub C(}m) of the radical derivatives were obtained in the temperature range of 90-180degreeC by the ESR measurement. The values of T{sub c(}m) for sech radical decreased by increasing the quantity of DOP added to PVC. Simailarly, the values of {tau}{sub c}{sup (}m) decreased by increasing the temperature. The decrease of {tau}{sub c}{sup (}m) may be explained by the decrease of the density of the PVC resin and, thus, the decrease of the viscosity of PVC resin, due to the addition of DOP and the temperature. It has been cleared that the value of {tau}{sub c}{sup (}m) varies depending on the functional groups (-H, -OH, -NH{sub 2}) in TEMPO radical derivatives, indicating the existence of the nteraction berween the PVC molecule and the functional groups (-H, -OH, -NH{sub 2}) in TEMPO derivatives. The energies of the adove interactions were claculated with the UHF-PM3 method by using the MOPAC 93 program. TEMPO derivatives and DOP increases in the order of TEMPO

  4. Change in surface SP caused by pressure buildup observed at the Nigorikawa geothermal area; Nigorikawa chiiki ni okeru atsuryoku buildup ji no shizen den`i henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K.; Yano, Y.; Matsushima, N.; Ishido, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Takahashi, M.; Suzuki, I.; Aoyama, K.; Kuwano, T.

    1996-10-01

    To examine the effect of change of subsurface flow system on the surface SP (self potential), SP measurements were carried out before and after the pressure buildup and drawdown during the periodic inspection at Nigorikawa area. Relation between the SP distribution and the observed data was also examined by 2-D numerical simulation. Tendency was found that the SP increased gradually with the production near the production well, decreased during the pressure buildup, and increased again during the drawdown. There were some points having the reverse tendency in the surrounding area. Behavior during the pressure buildup and drawdown was not clear. The resistivity near the ground surface was low ranging between 2 and 5 ohm/m within the Nigorikawa basin. The variation of SP was not so large when compared with the measuring error. The SP profiles on the secondary section passing in the center of caldera at the production stop and at one week after the production start were well corresponded with the profiles under natural conditions which were reproduces using the 2-D model. It was considered that the SP profile before the production stop was affected by the production. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Comparison of {gamma}-ray profile across active normal and reverse faults; Seidansogata to gyakudansogata katsudanso ni okeru hoshano tansa kekka no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, A.; Wada, N.; Sumi, H. [Shimada Technical Consultants, Ltd., Shimane (Japan); Yamauchi, S.; Iga, T. [Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Active faults confirmed at trench and outcrop were surveyed by the {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The active fault found at trench is a normal fault, and that found at outcrop is a reverse fault. The {gamma}-ray spectral characteristics of these two types of faults were compared to each other. The normal fault is named as Asagane fault located in Aimi-machi, Saihaku-gun, Tottori prefecture. The reverse fault is named as Yokota reverse fault located in Yokota-cho, Nita-gun, Shimane prefecture. Rises of radon gas indicating the existence of opening cracks were confirmed above the fault for the normal fault, and at the side of thrust block for the reverse fault. It was considered that such characteristics were caused by the difference of fault formation in the tensile stress field and in the compressive stress field. It was also reconfirmed that much more information as to faults can be obtained by the combined exploration method using the total counting method and the spectral method. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  6. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system; Arima Takatsuki Rokko katsudanso chiiki ni okeru komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Okuma, S.; Morijiri, R.; Makino, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic survey was conducted in December, 1995, over the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system, where the 1995 Hyogo-South (Kobe) earthquake took place. Based on the surveyed data, the magnetic anomaly distribution in the Kei-Hanshin district was illustrated. Features of magnetic anomaly observed in it were discussed. Influence of artificial structures in the coastal zone of Kobe City was tried to be removed. Distinct magnetic anomaly observed in the center of Kyoto City was located at the southern part near Shijo-Karasuma. This was mainly affected by the artificial structure. A high magnetic anomaly with a long wave length was observed in the southern part of Kyoto. There was a high magnetic anomaly in an area surrounded by central cities of Nishinomiya-Toyonaka district. At the location where positive and negative magnetic anomalies were illustrated in NEDO`s map in the coastal zone of Kobe City, the anomaly pattern was clarified. The influence of artificial structure was approximated using a point dipole. The dipole was placed in each block having a magnetic anomaly. The parameter was determined by the inverse analysis, to remove the influence. Consequently, most of magnetic anomalies due to artificial structures could be removed. 6 figs.

  7. Research report for fiscal 1998. Promotion of activities implemented jointly etc. in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo nado suishin chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows some flexibility in the implementation of methods for achieving the goal, such as emission trading, activities implemented jointly (AIJ) among advanced countries, construction of clean development mechanisms (CDM) with developing countries, etc., and Japan intends to positively make use of them for the achievement of the goal. For China, who holds second place in the list of greenhouse gas emitting countries in the world, the promotion of CDM is quite important. With the situation taken into consideration, interaction was effected with Chinese officers and scientists of government agencies and academic institutes involved in environmental matters, and researches were conducted. Views and information were exchanged regarding environmental problems and, after on-site investigations, researches were conducted and suggestions were presented as to how AIJ and CDM should be. The suggestions covered Chinese policies toward AIJ and CDM, current state of AIJ projects in China and systems for their promotion, means for enhancing such projects, and discovery of candidates for AIJ and CDM project application. (NEDO)

  8. Comparison of performance between a parallel and a series solar-heat pump system; Solar heat pump system ni okeru heiretsu setsuzoku no seino hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K.; Zhao, J.; Baba, H.; Endo, N. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In a solar heat pump system, a single-tank system was fabricated, in which a heat pump is installed in series between a heat collecting tank and a heat storage tank. At the same time, a double-tank system was also fabricated, in which two tanks are assembled into one to which a solar system and a heat pump are connected in parallel. Performance of both systems was analyzed by using measured values and estimated values. Heat collecting efficiency in the double-tank system is higher by about 13 points than in the single-tank system. Nevertheless, the coefficient of performance for the single-tank system is 1.03 to 1.51 times greater than that of the double-tank system. Dependency of the single-tank system on natural energy is higher by 0.3 to 3 points than the double-tank system. Putting the above facts together, it may be said that the single-tank system connecting the solar system and the heat pump in parallel is superior in performance to the double-tank system of the series connection. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance in cooling mode; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Reibo unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    When a heat pump is used for cooling purpose, it is possible to utilize different kinds of waste water as high-heat sources. However, these heat sources would have their temperatures vary with seasons and time in a day. Therefore, a discussion was given on performance of a heat pump when water and air heat sources are used for condensers during cooling operation independently, in series and in parallel, respectively. The air condenser shows an equivalent COP as compared with the water condenser when air temperature is lower by about 8 degC than water temperature. At the same heat source temperature, the COP for the water condenser indicated a value higher by about 0.6 than the case of the air condenser. A method to use condensers in parallel experiences little contribution from the air heat source, and performance of the heat pump decreases below the case of using the water heat source independently when the air heat source temperature becomes higher than that of the water heat source. In the case of series use in which a water condenser is installed in front and an air condenser in rear, its effect is exhibited when temperature in the air heat source is lower than that in the water heat source. Better performance was shown than in operating the water heat source independently. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Analysis of output characteristics of PV modules under natural sunlight; Shizen taiyokoka ni okeru taiyo denchi module shutsuryoku tokusei no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Y.; Igari, S. [Japan Quality Assurance of Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper measured current/voltage characteristics of various PV modules under natural light and analyzed various characteristics such as generated output and module power generation efficiency. In the experiment, installing various PV modules at the solar techno center located at north latitude 34.7deg and east longitude 137.6deg, measurement was made by I-V curve tracer, pyranometer, and thermocouple buried on the module back. As a result, the following were confirmed: As to the monthly mean power generation efficiency, the crystalline system is lowest in summer and highest in winter, and the amorphous system highest in summer and lowest in winter. Concerning the power generation efficiency and illuminance, the gap of power generation efficiency between at high illuminance and at low illuminance is large in the crystalline system and small in amorphous system. Relating to the azimuth angle of module installation and the generated output, the installation inclined 15deg angle west in summer and 15deg angle east in fall/winter generates more power in the crystalline system. On the contrary, the installation on the south face generates more power in the amorphous system. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Study on indoor pollution by microbes grown in a solar house in Tokyo; Tokyo no solar house ni okeru kabi no jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Aihara, M.; Nakanishi, R.; Ito, H. [Ochanomizu University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Indoor pollution by microbes grown in a solar house is studied. It is a reinforced concrete building, having a total floor area of 260m{sup 2}, equipped with a flat type solar collector on the roof and a lighting window on the north, the former having an area of 16m{sup 2} and slanted at 60deg and the latter slanted at 60deg. It is also provided with a semi-underground room, to utilize heat capacity of soil for coolness in summer and warmness in winter. It provides a residential space throughout the year, with no artificial heating or air-conditioning system, naturally ventilated with air taken into the underground room and released out of a triangular shape on the roof. The building is also passively conditioned, being totally insulated with expanded polystyrene. Energy saving is the most important consideration for the solar house, slightly forcing the residents to exercise patience. For this reason, the solar house often smells musty, and pollution with microbes is quantitatively investigated. Microbes evolve more in the underground room than in the space above groun, because of higher humidity in the former. Accelerated ventilation or slight artificial air-conditioning will solve the trouble. 1 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Study on the simulation time increments for solar DHW heating systems; Taiyonetsu kyuto simulation ni okeru keisan jikan kankaku no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Calculation time intervals effective in simulating solar DHW systems were discussed, taking into account water temperature in a heat storage tank and calorific power in supplied hot water. The discussion was given on a direct heat collecting system in which heat passes through a heat collector from the bottom of the heat storage tank and returns to the center of the tank, and an indirect heat collecting system which has a heat exchanger built inside the heat storage tank at its bottom. The calculation was performed with time intervals of one to sixty minutes and five to forty-five layer divisions. The following results were obtained: because the calorific power of the hot water supplied is underestimated in the calculation if the calorific power of one hot water supply is extremely large, the calculation time intervals must be reduced to 1 to 15 minutes; cumulative calorific power of the hot water supply was found to show little variation if the number of division is greater than fifteen; and the daily cumulative effective heat collection amount shows very little variation due to the calculation time intervals, but errors from the measured value have decreased as the smaller the number of layer division in the direct heat collecting system, and as the greater the number of division in the indirect heat collecting system. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Technical development of cost-efficient installation of power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka ni okeru doboku kensetsu gorika gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokusho, Koji; Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Yasuo; Ikemi, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Kitano, Koichi; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Kanazu, Tsutomu; Komada, Hiroya.

    1987-12-01

    Various latest technical developments were surveyed for the cost-effective installation of power distribution cables under pavements, and their applicabilities were demonstrated with the evaluation of their cost-reduction effects. Cables in conventional vinyl protection tubes could be buried only 30cm under pavements, and in such case, the cost was reduced to 51% of those of conventional methods. As the results of soil tests, excavated soil over 80% was reusable through coarse screening. Underground radar technique to explore buried pipes from the surface was detectable several pipes buried 1.5-2.0m underground, although some problems in precision were found. The improvement of reinforced concrete man-hole structures to minimize the volume of excavated soil indicated the cost reduction of nearly 20%. The application of these techniques to the installation of cables was expected to ultimately halve the total civil engineering cost. 21 refs., 130 figs., 46 tabs.

  14. Survey of the actual state of the coal related research and development in Japan. 11; Nippon ni okeru sekitan kanren kenkyu kaihatsu jittai chosa. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    NEDO is surveying the actual state of the coal related research/development in Japan to supply information on the coal related research/development in Japan to IEA`s coal research project database. This book of fiscal 1997 version includes 338 subjects. The details described are name of research institute, the section in charge, address, name of country, telephone No., name of joint researcher, research theme, classification, outline of research, project No., name of researcher, sponsor, the budget appropriated, term of research, remarks, etc. The books of data collected from each country in surveys of the actual state of the coal related R and D and IEA`s coal researches which have been made so far are submitted for general viewing at NEDO Information Center. Also, a part of those can be accessible from the energy database of which NEDO Information Center is performing on-line service for user members

  15. Calculation of wave resistance by using Kochin function in the Rankine source method; Rankinsosuho ni okeru kochin kansu wo mochiita zoha teiko keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to avoid negative wave resistance (which is physically incomprehensible) generated in calculating wave resistance by using the Rankine source method, a proposal was made on a wave resistance calculation method using the Kochin function which describes behavior of speed potential in regions far apart from a hull. The Baba`s condition was used as a free surface condition for the speed potential which expresses wave motions around a hull. This has allowed a new Kochin function which uses as unknown the speed potential on the hull surface and the free surface near the hull to be defined and combined with the Rankine source method. A comparison was made between the calculated values for wave resistance, hull subsidence and trim change of an ore transporting vessel (SR107 type of ship) in a fully loaded condition and the result of water tank tests. The wave resistance values derived from pressure integration have all become negative when the Froude number is from 0.1 to 0.2, while no negative resistance has appeared in the calculations by using the Kochin function, but the result has agreed with that of the water tank tests. Accuracy of the calculations at low speeds was improved. The trim change in the calculations was slightly smaller than that in the water tank tests. The subsidence showed a good agreement. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Characteristic analysis of turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure; Takukakuka kukan kozo ni okeru ranryunetsu kakusan gensho no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, C.; Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    An analysis was made on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure necessary for designing calorific power and environment for functional systems used in marine vessels and off-shore structures. In a multi-compartment structure, the diffusion phenomenon is complex because of movement of air flow in turbulence and buoyancy resulted from non-isothermal condition. The phenomenon is largely affected by space shapes and walls, and the conditions in heat diffusion field is governed also by shapes of opening connecting the compartments. An analysis was made by using the SIMPLE method on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment space with high Raleigh number in which natural convection is dominant. If the opening is small, the Coanda effect appears, in which air flow passing through the opening rises along the wall, wherein a high-temperature layer is formed near the ceiling, making the heat diffusion inactive. If the opening is large, a jetting flow from the opening and a large circulating flow are created, which cause active advection mixture, making temperature gradient smaller in the upper layer. Heat transfer intensity in an opening on a partition wall decays in proportion with 1/4th power of the opening ratio. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Report on survey of promotion of activities implemented jointly in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no suishin chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Rapid economy growth has been observed in Asia including Japan. On the other hand, problems of population and environment grew even worse with the economic growth. Especially, China is the second CO2 emission country in the world. Large energy demand is still forecasted with its economic growth in the future. It is well-known that the energy consumption per unit GDP is very large. Therefore, it is very significant to promote the activities implemented jointly with China for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases including CO2, which provides a significant meaning for solving global environmental issues as well as for improving regional environmental issues. It is necessary for the above to recognize the appropriate current situations and to promote the activities implemented jointly suitable for the country. Based on the discussions and information exchanges about environmental issues with staffs concerning environmental policies and scientists as well as the field surveys, methods for the activities implemented jointly were investigated to provide some proposals. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Prediction of velocity of the wind generation in Kobe City College of Technology; Kobe Kosen ni okeru furyoku hatsuden no yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamatsu, K.; Kanemura, M.; Amako, K.

    1997-11-25

    Wind conditions, such as average wind velocity for 10 minutes, maximum instantaneous wind velocity and wind directions, are measured by the anemometer and anemoscope installed 3m above the roof of the Kobe City College of Technology`s Information Processing Center building, to collect the data necessary to validate possibility of wind power generation, if the wind system is installed in the college site. Monthly availability of power is estimated from the output power characteristics curve for a generator having a rated capacity of 200W and wind velocity data collected for 9 months. It will generate power of only 144kWh, even when operated to give the rated output, or approximately 8.5kWh at the highest in a month, because of availability of wind power limited to around 30% of the total as estimated from the relative frequency distribution. It is therefore desirable to install a number of units having a rated capacity of 200W or else a smaller number of larger units. Assuming that days that give the highest output for 24 hours last 1 month, a power of 54.3kWh will be generated. It is estimated, based on these results, that a hybrid unit, in which a wind power generator installed at a high place is combined with a solar unit, can provide power required for nighttime lighting, if a wind power unit having a rated capacity of 2kW is field-controlled under an optimum condition. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Photo-irradiation effects on GaAs atomic layer epitaxial growth. GaAs no genshiso epitaxial seicho ni okeru hikari reiki koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashita, M.; Kawakyu, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Ishikawa, H. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan). Research and Development Center)

    1990-08-10

    Single atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) aims at controlling a growing film at a precision of single molecular layer. In this article, it is reported that the growth temperature range of ALE was expanded by the vertical irradiation of KrF exima laser (248 nm) onto the substrate for the ALE growth of GaAs using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. Thanks for the results of the above experiment, it was demonstrated that the irradiation effect was not thermal, but photochemical. In addition, this article studies the possibility of adsorption layer irradiation and surface irradiation as the photo-irradiation mechanism, and points out that coexistence of both irradiation mechanisms can be considered and, in case of exima laser, strong possibility of direct irradiation of the adsorption layer because of its high power density. Hereinafter, by using both optical growth ALE and thermal growth ALE jointly, the degree of freedom of combination of hetero ALE increases and its application to various material systems becomes possible. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Nonlinear process generating Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a reattached boundary layer; Hakuri saifuchaku nagare ni okeru T-S hado no hisenkei reiki katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, M.; Aiba, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Low-frequency Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves may be thought generated as a result of high-frequency disturbance between two proximity frequency modes grown unstably in a separation shear layer causing secondary nonlinear interference to occur. This fact has been verified by a numerical simulation. A non-compression Navier-Stokes equation was used for the fundamental equation, a tertiary windward difference for the convection term, and a secondary central difference for other differential calculus. The Reynolds number was 200, and the disturbance was introduced by applying `v` variation continuously on the wall face. Non-introduction of the disturbance results in a steady flow. Disturbance frequencies of 0.15 and 0.20 were selected as disturbance frequencies from the relationship between the spatial amplification and the frequency dependency. The structure of the excited disturbance agreed with the intrinsic mode. The difference mode due to nonlinear interference grows as the basic mode was amplified. The basic mode decays sharply in the boundary layer after reattachment, while the difference mode decays slowly. Distribution of the difference mode is a distribution of viscous T-S waves, which may be converted into the intrinsic mode. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinder in cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers; Chorinkai Reynolds su ryoiki ni okeru enchu no uzu reiki shindo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Nakao, T.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, M.; Goto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-25

    Vortex-induced vibrations were measured for a circular cylinder subjected to a water cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers for a wide range of reduced velocities. Turbulence intensities were changed from 1% to 13% in order to investigate the effect of the Strouhal number on the region of synchronization by symmetrical and Karman vortex shedding. The reduced damping of the test cylinder was about 0.1 in water. The surface roughness of the cylinder was a mirror-polished surface. Strouhal number decreased from about 0.48 to 0.29 with increasing turbulence intensity. Synchronized vibrations were observed even at supercritical Reynolds numbers where fluctuating fluid force was small. Reduced velocities at which drag and lift direction lock-in by Karman vortex shedding were initiated decreased with increasing Strouhal number. When Strouhal number was about 0.29, the self-excited vibration in drag direction by symmetrical vortex shedding began at which the frequency ratio of Karman vortex shedding frequency to the natural frequency of cylinder was 0.32. (author)

  2. Fatigue life prediction of CFRP using evolution of creep property; Hiro katei ni okeru creep tokusei no henka wo mochiita CFRP no hiro jumyo yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Sato, A. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-15

    A damage criterion on CFRP under fatigue loading defined in terms viscoelasticity is proposed. In order to elucidate the change in viscoelastic property of CFRP composites rider cyclic loadings this to matrix hardening, matrix crack, interface debonding and delamination a series of creep tests was incorporated during monotonic tensile fatigue test. A generalized Voigt model was applied to describe the creep behavior of the damaged composites. By use of the increment of creep strain induced by internal damage growth, a damage variable was proposed in the framework of Kachanov-Ravotnov`s classical damage theory. The evolution of the damage variable in relation to the maximum stress is discussed. Lemaitre-Chaboche`s damage evolution equation was employed to estimate the fatigue life of composites successfully. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Prospect of French industrial technology research and development under President Chirac`s political power; Shiraku seikenka ni okeru Futsu sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seisaku no mitoshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes a prospect of French industrial technology research and development under President Chirac`s political power. The research and development in France is characterized by the national leadership. It depends greatly on the system and organization as well as the economical factors. The policy concentrates on the reformation of development organization rather than the research and development itself. It is required to provide the cultural and social tradition and environment that can bring up people bearing it, the system that can supply the methods of research and development, and the force of technology and market development that can industrialize and commercialize its results. The national leadership in France basically relates to all of these three factors. The actors of framework for the financing and enforcement of research and development are illustrated in a scheme by dividing them into government and companies. The actors for the enforcement of research and development are also divided into governmental public organizations and companies. This paper also provides the defense development in the private companies having a large finance of research and development from the government. The finance of research and development for public welfare from the government is roughly divided into the large-scale projects with determined usage by the government, and the supports for proposals by the companies. 13 refs., 4 figs., 40 tabs.

  5. and ni(ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    NI(II) COMPLEXES WITH SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM SULPHANILAMINE AND. SALICYLALDEHYDE. ⃰Siraj, I. T. and ... with nickel(II) and cobalt(II) chloride in 2:1 mole ratio yielded Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes respectively. The synthesized .... coordinated ligand (coordination number) was determined using the relation ...

  6. Decay of 57Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Scardino, A.M. dos.

    1987-01-01

    The decay of 57 Ni to 57 Co was studied by gamma ray spectroscopy using both singles and coincidence spectra. The sources were obtained with the 58 Ni (Y,n) 57 Ni reaction. Natural metallic nickel was irradiated in the bremsstrahluhng beam of the linear accelerator of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo with 30 MeV electrons. The singles espectra were taken with 104 cc HPGe detector and the coincidences espectra with 27 and 53cc Ge(Li) and 104 cc. HPGe detectors. The energies of transitions that follow the 57 Ni decay were measured using 56 Co as standard (which was obtained by (Y,np) reaction in 58 Ni) and taking into account the cascade cross-over relations. (author) [pt

  7. Numerical method to calculate flow-induced vibration in turbulent flow. 3rd Report. Analysis of vortex-induced vibration in an array of elastically supported tubes; Ranryuba ni okeru ryutai kozotai rensei shindo kaiseki shuho no kaihatsu. 3. Kangun ni okeru uzu reiki shindo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadaoka, N.; Umegaki, K. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-25

    A vortex-induced vibration of an array of elastically supported tubes is simulated in two-dimension by using a flow-induced vibration analysis program, which was developed in order to evaluate flow-induced vibration in various components such as heat exchangers. From a comparison of calculated results and experimental data, the following points are observed. (1) For the calculated results in a 5 {times} 5 square array, the flow pattern surrounding the first-row tubes is markedly different from that observed in the second-row or third-row tubes. This flow pattern is the same as that obtained from the experiment. (2) All tubes begin to oscillate due to unsteady fluid force and the oscillating mode is different for each row of tubes. These oscillation patterns show the same tendency in the experiments and it is concluded that the developed method can simulate vortex-induced vibration in an array of elastically supported tubes. 19 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Submicron particles of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    meter (VSM). It may be noted that Co and Ni form a solid solution in the bulk, CoxNi1–x. For x 0⋅7, the alloy has a fcc structure, with a mixed regime in the intermediate compositions. The atomic moments in Co–Ni alloys increase linearly with Ni content (Tebble and Craik.

  9. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  10. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  11. Study on passive earth pressure acting on the embedment of an earth retaining wall for braced excavation work in cohesive soil; Nenseido jiban ni okeru kussaku dodomeheki neirebu no judo doatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. [Pacific Consultants K.K., Tokyo (Japan); Hirashima, K. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-15

    Passive earth pressure exerts a great influence on the stress and deformation of earth retaining walls in braced excavation. To calculate this pressure, conventional ultimate earth pressure equation, or Rankine-Resals and Coulomb`s equation, are currently applied respectively to cohesive and sandy soil. However, these intentional equation to determine passive earth pressure do not adequately take into account the excavation width during work and the shearing resistance on the earth retaining wall surface. This paper deals with cohesive soil only, deriving a calculation equation for passive earth pressure, which takes into account excavation width and the shearing resistance of the earth retaining wall surface. Then, constants in this equation are determined using the calculation results obtained from the finite element method with blasts-plastic elements. The calculation results are also compared with measured values in the model test in order to check the applicability of the calculation equation for passive earth pressure thus obtained. Finally, this paper proposes a practicable calculation equation for passive earth pressure. 13 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Survey report in fiscal 2000 on the survey on how universities are contributing to promotion of IT industries in U.S.A.; 2000 nendo Beikoku ni okeru joho sangyo gijutsu shinko ni taisuru daigaku no koken jokyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to discuss the ways the Japanese universities should be in venture incubation and for IT industries, and taking measures thereon, surveys have been performed on the current status of the roles played by universities for the information industries in the U.S. as well as trends and measures taken therein. The problem that the U.S. universities are facing is that the superiority of learning in business schools has become more indistinct than in experiencing and learning the business in venture companies. As a result, the number of people who want to enter business schools is decreasing. Therefore, universities are executing audacious innovations including reorganization of the curriculums. Representative examples are the UCLA's entrepreneurship program combining the electric engineering department and the business school, and the Stamford University's marketing skill development course for engineers. An organizational activity is also being taken to mediate dialogues between business entities and actual investors with a university working as the center, such as the one in MIT Enterprise Forum. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1997 survey report on the project on energy conservation by effectively using building energy in Indonesia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Indonesia ni okeru biru energy yuko riyo ni yoru sho energy ka project chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As an energy conservation method for a model building, the following eight methods were selected and trially calculated of the effects. 1) adoption of high efficient illumination apparatus, 2) introduction of an illuminance control system, 3) cooling water secondary pump with invertor, 4) ventilation control for parking lots, 5) heightening of the established temperature, 6) improvement of the 24-hour run chiller, 7) elevator with invertor, and 8) introduction of the photovoltaic power generation. As a result, it was found out that energy was totally reduced by about 3,837.4 MWh/yr or 25.6%. If viewed from the amount of reduction in greenhouse gas, the amount of CO2 emitted from office buildings, approximately 0.22 million t-C/yr, decreases to approximately 0.16 million t-C/yr. Further, approximately 0.93 million t-C/yr, the amount of CO2 emitted from commercial use facilities such as office buildings, department stores and hotels is reduced to about 0.69 million t-C/yr, thanks to the effect of the project on energy saving buildings, which made a CO2 reduction by approximately 0.24 million t-C/yr possible. Validity of the project on energy conservation in Indonesia was confirmed. 2 refs., 55 figs., 38 tabs.

  14. FY 1997 report of survey on the intellectual property in international collaboration research project; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kokusai kyodo kenkyu ni okeru chiteki zaisanken ni tsuite no chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In promoting international collaboration research project, coordination of the patent system of each country which participants to the project belong to has broad implications in concluding the contract for the project. For example, in Japan, 100% of the patent belongs to the government for contrast or collaboration project with the government. While, in the USA, the patent developed by the private company belongs to the private company even for the contrast project. In Japan, the shared patent can not be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. While, in the USA, the shared patent can be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. Due to such a difference, some projects can not be established by ill coordination of intellectual property even when the meaning of the projects is well understood. In this survey, was investigated the outline of patent systems of major countries to study about what should well balanced treatment of intellectual property in international collaboration research project be in the future. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Researches regarding a constructing problem of a PV system. Part 1. Conscious investigation by means of a questionnaire survey; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru kenchikuteki shomondai no kenkyu. 1. Anketo chosa ni yoru ishiki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; Kuroki, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The installation and introduction of photovoltaic power generation systems (PVS) in buildings are growingly expected in the construction field from now, coupled with the marketing of a solar cell module as a product for a construction material in the form of an external wall or a roof material for example. For this purpose, it is necessary at first to summarize problems that may arise at the time of or after the installation of PVS as a product. This paper examines an opinion poll, degree of recognition, current problems, etc., of PVS as a result of a questionnaire survey given to engineers and architects engaged in the actual construction business. The degree of recognition and interest was very high. Consultation or request for PVS installation was much more than predicted in numbers. Roughly 50% of the respondents reacted positively for the future installation request of PVS and, combined with the respondents who answered to look into the installation tentatively, not less than 90% were of a forward-looking opinion. The 85% of the respondents was not aware of the monitor business system for residential PVS. Further, the survey clearly brought out the importance of cost problems. 1 ref., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Study of the oil flow and the bearing temperature in engine. Part 3. Influence of the bearing designs; Engine ni okeru jikuuke yuryo oyobi jikuuke ondo ni kansuru ichikosatsu. 3. Jikuuke sekkei yoso no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, K.; Kawai, K.; Sasaki, S. [Taiho Kogyo Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    It is necessary to find the bearing design so that the bearing temperature drops most efficiently by making the proper oil flow. We measured the oil flow and the bearing temperature using the narrow width bearing the bearing with small oil relief , the bearing with shallow circumferential microgrooves (the microgrooved bearing), the narrow width bearing with microgrooves. And further, we measured the variation of the oil flow every 5-15deg crank angle and searched for the efficient oil flow. As the result the bearing temperature using the microgrooved bearing dropped most efficiently. 3 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Borehole geophysics for delineating the geological structure in the Sakonishi prospect, the Hida area, Japan; Hida chiiki Sako nishi chiku ni okeru boring ko riyo butsuri tansa ni yoru chishitsu kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, H.; Hishida, H.; Yoshioka, K. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In order to discuss effectiveness of physical exploration in the Sakonishi prospect in the Hida area, physical exploration was carried out by utilizing bored wells. This area contains the Kamioka mine, one of the major base metal mines in Japan, where electrical exploration has been attempted several times in the past. No effective results have been obtained, however, because specific resistance contrast between mine beds and base rocks is too small, and the topography is too steep making site workability inferior. As part of the investigations on geological structures over wide areas, electrical logging (specific resistance and natural potential) was performed in fiscal 1995 and 1996 by utilizing the boreholes. Induced polarization logging was also conducted on the same boreholes. A traverse line on the ground with a length of 600 m and boreholes were used to execute specific resistance tomography. Clear extraction was possible on a fault structure which is thought related with limestone distribution and mine bed creation. However, it was not possible to identify upward continuity of zinc ores expected in the exploration. Because of not large a specific resistance contrast between zinc ores and base rocks, it is difficult to find mine bed locations only from the information on the specific resistance. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Fiscal 1993 investigational study of a model of international cooperation for an environmentally harmony type green technosystem; 1993 nendo Oshu ni okeru haikibutsu shori oyobi recycle no doko ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For the natural environment preservation, effective utilization of resources, and maintenance of the ecosystem, an international cooperation model was proposed for the environmental harmony type green technosystem. A comprehensive evaluating analysis of a green forest resource, etc. as the global resource, and an intensive extraction of subjects and needs was made. The analysis was conducted of technical possibility and abstract business development effects toward the industrialization with high values added which is in harmony with the environment. As a case study, the Papua New Guinea area, Malaysia was selected and re-evaluated. For this typical tropical forest area, a new technical system was studied based on the natural environment, industry/economy, social/cultural assessment, etc., and a model for industrializing new international cooperation was proposed. For the model making for industrialization, various steps to be taken and conditions to be prepared were studied and arranged for the realization. Upon going ahead with the international technical cooperation, Japan, a large lumber consuming country, needs to always consider the fostering and effective use of lumber resource in particular. 27 refs., 28 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Investigations and researches on CO2 balance in a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With an objective to select a promising process by comparing application environments and effectiveness of a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation, recovery and re-utilization technology with other methods, investigations were performed on reducible amount of carbon dioxide discharge by using material balance and system introduction. A large number of chemical and physical technologies are being developed for the separation and refining methods. This paper discusses the technologies for their application to iron and steel making, oil refining, and petrochemical industries, the so-called heavy and large product industries. As a possibility of utilizing the high-temperature separated CO2 in iron and steel making, an investigation was given on the direct iron ore smelting reduction process. It would be unreasonable to use CO2 in oil refining as a substitute to air to regenerate a catalytic decomposition and reformation catalyst because of decline in the catalytic activity. A discussion was given on a case to replace steam with CO2 in steam reformation and pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. The discussion requires the objective to be focused on such items as C/H ratio at a reformer outlet and relationship of balance in decomposition products. The C1 chemical and others were reviewed to search possibilities for their use as raw materials of chemicals used in chemical industries. Possibilities were discussed to fix high-temperature CO2 into peridotite and serpentine. 42 refs., 32 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Study on construction of temporary dwellings and problems caused by living long time on Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake; Hanshin / Awaji daishinsai ni okeru okyu kasetsu jutaku no secchi to chokikan shiyo suru baai no kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Nakamura, Y. [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan)] Shimizu, Y. [Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Two years after the above-titled earthquake, an examination was performed on inhabitants in the temporary dwelling houses in Kobe, center of the calamity, and problems caused by a long stay there were clarified together with a grasp of the evolving problems by comparing the result of survey carried out immediately after the disaster. The number of such temporary dwelling houses amounted to 29,128 within Kobe City and 3,168 outside of the city. According to the room arrangement, they were either one f 4 types : 2-rooms with a kitchen, 1 room with a kitchen, dormitory and those specifically for aged persons. There were 59,449 applications at the first offer of 2,702 houses. The priority of their assignments and so on are explained. As for the housing structure, numerous complaints concerned with the room temperature, noise and so forth. As for the living environment, lack of nearby commodity shop, omission of transportation access, ill drainage of the housing sites were pointed out and the matters of demand to the local authorities included the installation of mail post and street lights. As for the health management, insomnia, stiff shoulder, lumbago and other bad physical conditions were revealed. The financial difficulty and the high house rent were obstacles to migrate to other places. The prolonged temporary lives worsened the apprehension of dwellers for the earthquake, typhoon, fire and alike. Some features for the calamity are described in comparison with the result of survey on those who were compelled to live under similar conditions by the eruption of Mr. Fugen. 6 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Preliminary research on the activities implemented jointly (AIJ) workshop. Present AIJ in China; Kyodo jisshi katsudo workshop ni kansuru jizen chosa. Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to positively promote the activities implemented jointly (AIJ) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the AIJ workshop acting in contact with Asia/Pacific countries, in particular, Chine having large effect on global environmental pollution was researched preliminarily. AIJ approved in the convention is the effective means to promote measures against global warming cost-effectively by optimally combining every developed country`s technology, know-how and fund. Distribution of the credit for greenhouse gas emission reduction by AIJ is unsolved because of the disagreement of views between developed and developing countries. The pilot phase of AIJ projects is carried out by voluntary workers jointly with developing countries until establishment of international rules. In fiscal 1995, the following were studied: the framework necessary for AIJ between Japan and China, the organization for promoting concrete AIJ projects, and the means to create the reliance of China for AIJ projects. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Estimation of shallow ground structure using short-period microtremors array observation. Results in Morioka area; Tanshuki bido no array kansoku ni yoru senbu chika kozo no suitei. Moriokashiiki ni okeru kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Obuchi, T.; Saito, T.; Iwamoto, K. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yoshida, Y. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The velocity structure in the shallow ground structure was evaluated by observing microtremors of 1-10Hz in the Morioka City area. Plural wave sections free of vehicle noises or the like were selected out of the collected microtremor records, and the Fourier spectrum and coherence were calculated. Records sufficiently supporting the correlation between seismographs were chosen for the analysis. The phase velocity was calculated for each observation spot from plural array records by use of the F-K spectrum. The underground velocity structure was estimated by the inversion process using the matrix method. In this method, an early model was built on the basis of the observed phase velocity and the optimum underground velocity structure was determined by alternately performing two inversion processes: one for the case wherein the S-wave velocity is the sole parameter and the other for the case wherein the layer thickness is the sole parameter. As the result, a shallow underground velocity structure, which has good agreement with the available boring data in the Morioka City area, was successfully estimated, verifying the validity of this method. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Time domain electromagnetic method for petroleum exploration. Part 3. Case study in Yoneyama area; Sekiyu tansa ni okeru TDEM ho data shutoku to kaiseki ni tsuite. 3. Niigataken Yoneyama chiiki deno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H.; Mitsuhata, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shiga, N. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The result is reported of a TDEM method-based survey for oil exploration conducted in the Yoneyama district, Niigata Prefecture. The survey covered the southern part of the sedimentary basin in the prefecture, known for the poor quality of the seismic prospecting data that had been recorded. The purpose of the TDEM method-assisted survey was to probe the high-resistivity volcanic rock structure and low-resistivity sedimentary layer, and to know their details. The obtained data were subjected to interpretation by use of the 1D inversion method. A 4000m-deep level was subjected to interpretation, 34 data were inputted, and the early model consisted of 20 layers. As the result, it was found that there was a high-resistivity layer ranging from the ground surface down to a depth of approximately 500m, that a low-resistivity layer 2500-3000m in thickness lay thereunder, and that the lowest layer had a high resistivity of approximately 100 Ohm m. By comparing these data with the geological structure, structures were disclosed corresponding to the rock bed depth, Ukawa syncline, Ishiguro anticline, and Yoneyama mountain mass. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. On the relation between free volume and powder pressure with the gas stream in the powder moving-bed; Gasu nagare wo tomonau kotai idoso ni okeru kukanritsu to ryutaiatsu no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyasu, Suminao; Yoshino, Akio; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu

    1999-04-05

    On the stand pipe with gas stream equipped the bottom in fluidized bed from powder and equation of continuity of the gas, equation of momentum balance considering frictional force of wall surface and equation of pressure loss of the gas by relative speed and test data on the axial gas pressure distribution besides with stand pipe axial direction powder pressure {sigma}{sub z} relational expression of free volume {epsilon} it asks ask. According to this result, (1) d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is increased in free volume or big part in the stand pipe entrance, and it once lowers in the middle, and in addition, it increases in the downward again. That is to say, the inflection point of the powder pressure does the right and presence in the. intermediate. (2) There is mainly the high possibility by the effect of the frictional force of stand pipe wall surface on d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} increasing in the stand pipe inlet vicinity. (3) The powder pressure is not only free volume but also function of the powder particle diameter too. And, this powder ratio and free volume also showed that the distribution of amount of gas which flow and axial gas pressure, powder pressure, free volume, etc. was obtained the stand pipe from relational expression of particle size and other theoretical formula. (translated by NEDO)

  5. Correlation of voidage and stress of granular materials in a packed moving bed accompanied with gas flow; Gasu nagare wo tomonau funtai idoso ni okeru kugekiritsu to funtaiatsu no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyasu, Yoshitada. [Sanzou Energy Engineering Corp., Okayama (Japan); Yoshino, Fumio.; Iwata, Hiroshi.; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-03-10

    The flow characteristics of granular materials and gas in a vertical packed moving bed, called a [stand pipe], furnished at the bottom of the fluidized bed are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A correlation equation of axial stress {sigma}{sub z} and voidage {epsilon} of granular materials in the stand pipe is proposed through investigations of the continuity equation, the momentum balance equation, Ergun's equation for gas pressure loss and the gas pressure distribution data measured experimentally in the axial direction. Regarding the relation of the axial stress and the voidage, it was recogniged that : 1. The absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is large at the voidage near the minimum fluidizing condition, and at the voidage in the dense packed condition, and an inflection point of {sigma}{sub z} exists in range between the both conditions ; 2. It seems to be the wall-friction-effect of stand pipe that the absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is larger at the inlet of stand pipe, and ; 3. The stress is also a function of the particle diameter. The gas flow rate, axial stress distribution of granular materials, gas pressure distribution and voidage distribution in the axial direction of the stand pipe can be calculated from relating equations. (author)

  6. Studies on the mechanical behavior of rock anchors. ; Results of in-situ pull-out tests. Rock anchor no rikigaku kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Gen prime ichi shiken ni okeru anchor no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, K.; Ebisu, S.; Nakagawa, M.; Usui, M.; Someya, T.; Machida, N. (Okumura Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-31

    The rock anchor method is planned to apply to some permanent structures but since this method was developed for temporary structures, the clarification of the transferring mechanism of force from an anchor to a rockmass, the fracture mechanism and the development of the dynamic model have not been established. This paper arranged the data obtained by a full-scale, in-situ pulling out test of a rock anchor as the first step to understand the dynamic behavior and analyzed by paying attetion to the modulus of deformation of the rockmass where the anchor was embedded to elucidate the affecting degree of rockmass modulus of deformation, the embedded length and the tendon diameter on the dynamic behavior of the anchor. The rock anchor behavior could be expressed accurately by applying a theoretical solution derived by the balancing condition of forces at the boundary face. Especially, when the rockmass is uniform and the fracture occurrs at the interface between the tendon and grout, this approach can express the fracture with the accuracy similar to that made by the finite element method. 6 refs., 11 figs.,1 tab.

  7. Study of a fuel injection quantity sensor in diesel engine. Part 3. Experimental evaluation of the improved type micro turbine sensor; Diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funsharyo sensor no kenkyu. 3. Funsharyo keisoku no seido kojo ni kansuru jikken hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Kobayashi, T. [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Micro Turbine Sensor has been developed to measure fuel injection quantity and injection rate. Previous reports described results of experiments on the MTS which were carried out under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The MTS has been improved in shape of a holder tip and a detecting procedure for rotating speed of a turbine. As a result revolution speed of the turbine increased 18% over the conventional type holder under steady flow condition. Furthermore the measurement resolution of the MTS came up to about 2(mm{sup 3}/pulse) at 20(mm{sup 3}/stroke) under intermittent spray conditions using fuel injection pump. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report on the development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Russia having natural gas resources largest in the world is actively promoting the basic research on liquefaction technology of natural gas such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic catalyst, and its research potential is extremely high. This 3-year research project surveys the R and D trends of catalyst technology for liquefaction of natural gas, and fabricates the prototype FT synthetic catalyst based on the idea of Russian researchers to evaluate its feasibility experimentally. This report summarizes the following to clarify the research background: (1) The technology system for liquefaction of natural gas, and its future R and D trend, (2) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in the world, (3) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in Russia, (4) The research system of catalyses in Russia, (5) The activities of Russian catalysis research institutes, (6) The fuel liquefaction technologies of Russian major research institutes, and (7) The proposals from Russian research institutes. (NEDO)

  9. On the calculation of scattered fields by 3-D structure in the time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method; Jikan ryoiki denjiho ni okeru sanjigen kozo kara no sanranba no keisan ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, A.; Oya, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the calculation method of 3-D underground structures in TDME method which measures only field components. Recently, FDTD method was developed as calculation method in time domain difference calculus, and the forward analysis accuracy of 3-D fields was rapidly improved. The survey results using a large-scale loop (600m{times}360m) were numerically analyzed by FDTD method. 16 measuring lines were prepared in both X and Y directions, and measuring points were prepared on intersection points of the measuring lines. Since signal current is staircase one, step and impulse responses of the ground were determined by calculating magnetic field and its time differentiation. The rectangular body (120m{times}120m{times}100m) of 0.2S/m in conductivity (5 ohm m in resistivity) was installed 160m under the ground as 3-D resistivity anomaly. The ground of 0.01S/m (100 ohm m) was assumed. Time variation in horizontal magnetic field vector plot of impulse responses of the uniform ground could be observed. The position of the resistivity anomaly could be also determined from spacial differentiation of magnetic field of grid pattern measuring points. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  10. Electromagnetic survey (TEM method) in Teradomari and examination of resistivity structure to be based on near surface information; Niigataken Teradomarimachi ni okeru denji tansa kekka (TEM ho) no doshitsu joho ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Matsuo, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Wada, K. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    TEM method was applied to estimate soil structure from resistivity change of underground water saturated stratum featured by slow S wave and fast P wave over 1500m/s. Vertical magnetic field was measured by underlaying a transmission loop of 60m{times}60m around a measuring point in Teradomari, Niigata prefecture, and by installing a magnetic sensor at the measuring point. From comparison of a soil profile with the resistivity profile obtained by TEM data, the former well consisted with the latter. The surface low resistivity stratum corresponded to alluvium from comparison of it with soil and logging data. This alluvium base with fast P wave over 1500m/s satisfied the condition of optimum blasting depth because of a saturated stratum in the surface base. The resistivity structure was related to a saturated stratum. Sand bed was thick at the interface between alluvium low ground and hill area, and from the analytical result, the depth of sand bed showing high resistivity was more shallow than that of the alluvium base, pointing out necessary notice in interpretation. Resistivity survey is promising as simple method for optimum blasting depth. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Survey on actual status of R and D fund assistance in the U.S.A.; Beikoku ni okeru kenkyu kaihatsu shikin enjo no jittai nado ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    As a basic survey to serve for establishment of science and technology policies, a survey was carried out on the actual status of R and D fund assistance in the U.S.A., roles of the government and civil sectors, and how they are interrelated. The survey was performed in detail on the following items: the assistance and cooperation measures taken by the U.S. government, and technological policies of the U.S. government; fund subsidies and policies toward technological research and development provided by the U.S. government; research and development plans and projects being the object of the subsidies given by the U.S. government; assistance and cooperation of private organizations for financing research and development activities in the U.S.A.; cooperation and joint works among industries, the government and universities (research consortiums) in the research and development activities; legal assistance policies for research and development in the U.S.A., the favorable tax system for research and development, the 1984 National Joint Research Act, and the actual status and analysis of the legal assistance policies in the U.S.A. for aiding research and development tests. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1997 survey of the overseas coal import base preparation/improvement. Survey of a coal flow in China; 1997 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chugoku ni okeru coal flow ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed the preparation of the coal transportation infrastructure, status of its running, economical efficiency, etc. in terms mainly of the trend of coal production/consumption in China, and coal railroad/water transportation and electric power transportation by mine-mouth power generation. From the survey, the following conclusions were obtained. As to the coal which China uses as a main energy for maintaining the present high economic growth as targeted, there will remain the coal transportation problem between production site (north and west) and consumption site (east and south) still in the future (in 2000 and 2010). China is now facing with a big turning point in a socioeconomic aspect. The advancing opening market policy brought steep rises in energy prices such as coal and electric power, which is affecting various fields. Further, the energy related laws, which were unprepared, are abruptly being prepared, and the environment for the introduction of foreign investment, which is expected to be accelerated, is being prepared. In the future, attention should be paid to environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. 48 figs., 96 tabs.

  13. Considerations on FEM modeling in analyzing buckling and plastic collapse of a detection control; Boto panel no zakutsu sosei hokai kaiseki ni okeru FEM model ka ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, T.; Fujikubo, M.; Yanagihara, D.; Irisawa, M. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Buckling and plastic collapse of upper decks and bottom outer plates of a hull results directly in longitudinal bending collapse of the hull. Therefore, discussions were given on analysis for pressure destruction strength of a detection control panel which assumes an upper deck and a bottom outer plate. Pressure destruction behavior of the panting panel is a complex phenomenon accompanying non-linearity and geometrical non-linearity of the materials. Its whole phenomenon may be analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM) as a principle, but the analysis is not efficient. Therefore, considerations were given in relation to modeling when using the FEM. The considerations were given on a panel attached with flat steel panting members with respect to the modeling scope which considers the buckling mode according to the aspect ratio of the panel partitioned by the deflection control members. If the local buckling mode of the panel is an even number wave mode in the longitudinal direction, a triple span model is required. A modeling scope for a case of being subjected to water pressure and in-plane compression was considered on a panel attached with angle-type steel members having non-symmetric cross section. In this case, a triple bay model is more preferable to reproduce the behavior under water pressure loading. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  14. Study of solute incorporation into ice-layer on freeze concentration with ice-lining; Ice lining toketsu noshukuho ni okeru hyosho sochu eno yoshitsu torikomi ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K. [Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hirata, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    The mechanism of solute incorporation into an ice-layer in freeze concentration with ice-lining was studied by changing the impeller speed N and the difference between the brine temperature and the freezing point of the feed solution {Delta}T in 10 kg/m{sup 3} CCNa solution. The effect of N on the apparent partition coefficient of the solute K, is more serious than that of {Delta}T. The growth rate of the ice layer is 10{sup -7} - 10{sup -6}m/s under the condition of {Delta}T=2.8 - 7.9degC and N = 20-400 min{sup -1}. The growth rate had a little effect on solute incorporation into the ice-layer. K values depended on the surface condition of the ice layer, which is effected by the mixing speed of the impeller. The ice layer formed at low mixing speed has a complex rough shape, and has much solute because of adhesion to a large surface area. Therefore, it is recommended that freeze concentration is performed by making an ice layer with smooth surface at high mixing speed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Quantum analysis in the transition process to excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions; Denshi shototsu ni tomonau sanso bunshi ni okeru reiki jotai sen`i no ryoshironteki kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, K. [Gifu National College of Technology, Gifu (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-25

    For understanding of fundamental chemical reactions under a highly non equilibrium condition which is quite often used in plasma processing, the relevant atomic and molecular processes must be clarified. In this study, an analysis of the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions in the oxygen plasma has been carried out. First, the electron density distribution in an oxygen molecule has been calculated using the extended Huckel molecular orbital method. Then, the electron potential energy distribution in the transition process to the excited state has been estimated. The electron behavior has been calculated using the estimated unidimensional electron potential energy distribution and unsteady quantum mechanics. As a result, the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions and its conditions have been clarified qualitatively. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Study on heat collector of the solar system utilizing outdoor air. Experimental results in cases of cold and warm regions; Gaiki donyushiki solar system no shunetsubu ni kansuru kenkyu. Kanreichi to ondanchi ni okeru shunetsu jikken to kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, S.; Ebara, Y. [OM Solar Association, Shizuoka (Japan); Wada, H. [Wada Building Constructors Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    An experiment on heat collection was made in the heat collector of a solar system utilizing outdoor air in cold and warm regions. In this system, outdoor air is heated by the air circulation layer on the roof exposed to solar radiation. The heated air is supplied to the object space for heating and ventilation. In the experiment in a cold region, the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted by putting a baffle plate in the air duct according to the experiment of a glass heat collector. The heat collecting air layer on only the iron roof may leak or freeze in the region subject to coldness or heavy snowfall. Therefore, preheat forms the space of a garret, and the preheat temperature comparatively becomes low. The data in which the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted using only a glass heat collector is required corresponding to the regional situation. In the experiment in a warm region, an experiment was made inclusive of the preheat for which outdoor air is absorbed at the eaves. As a result, the heat collection characteristics of preheat were improved. Moreover, a heat collection temperature of about 60{degree}C was obtained on the heat collection surface including the preheat. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Research and survey report of FY 1997 on the CO2 balance for high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the application condition and effectiveness of high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology. To evaluate the present process, it was compared with others, such as separation using a polymer membrane, physico-chemical absorption process, adsorption process, hydrogen contact reduction process, and biological fixation. The development trends of absorption, membrane, adsorption, and cryogenic separation were investigated. The questionnaire was carried out about the separation technologies which are in the stage of performance test using actual gas, to arrange and compare the data and information. The current trends of chemical and biological CO2 fixation and utilization technology were also investigated for arranging the subjects. High-temperature CO2 disposal by the carbonation in concrete waste has been studied, to clarify its application conditions and effectiveness. In order to compare the separation technologies, treatment processes of CO2 in the exhaust gas from boilers of LNG power generation and coal fired power generation were simulated. These processes were simulated by ASPEN PLUS for the modeling. Trends of application of ASPEN PLUS and collection of information were surveyed by participating in the ASPEN WORLD. 103 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  18. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni nanoparticles prepared from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. March 2009 physics pp. 577–586. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni nanoparticles prepared from different precursors: Magnetic studies ... 2Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India ..... this work and Avanti, Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC for her help in cyclic.

  19. Reactive Ni/Ti nanolaminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D. P.; Bai, M. M.; Rodriguez, M. A.; McDonald, J. P.; Jones, E. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Moore, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Nickel/titanium nanolaminates fabricated by sputter deposition exhibited rapid, high-temperature synthesis. When heated locally, self-sustained reactions were produced in freestanding Ni/Ti multilayer foils characterized by average propagation speeds between ∼0.1 and 1.4 m/s. The speed of a propagating reaction front was affected by total foil thickness and bilayer thickness (layer periodicity). In contrast to previous work with compacted Ni-Ti powders, no preheating of Ni/Ti foils was required to maintain self-propagating reactions. High-temperature synthesis was also stimulated by rapid global heating demonstrating low ignition temperatures (T ig )∼300-400 deg. C for nanolaminates. Ignition temperature was influenced by bilayer thickness with more coarse laminate designs exhibiting increased T ig . Foils reacted in a vacuum apparatus developed either as single-phase B2 cubic NiTi (austenite) or as a mixed-phase structure that was composed of monoclinic B19 ' NiTi (martensite), hexagonal NiTi 2 , and B2 NiTi. Single-phase, cubic B2 NiTi generally formed when the initial bilayer thickness was made small.

  20. Excitations of the unstable nuclei 48Ni and 49Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.; Tselyaev, V.I.

    2002-01-01

    The isoscalar E1 and E2 resonances in the proton-rich nuclei 48,49 Ni and the {f 7/2 x3 - } multiplet in 49 Ni have been calculated taking into account the single-particle continuum exactly. The analogous calculations for the mirror nuclei 48 Ca and 49 Sc are presented. The models used are the continuum random-phase approximation (RPA) for 48 Ni, 48 Ca and the odd RPA for 49 Ni, 49 Sc, where the latter has been developed recently and describes both single particle and collective excitations of an odd nucleus on a common basis. In all four nuclei, we obtained a distinct splitting of the isoscalar E1 resonance into 1(ℎ/2π)ω and 3(ℎ/2π)ω peaks at about 11 MeV and 30 MeV, respectively. The main part of the isoscalar E1 energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) is exhausted by the 3(ℎ/2π)ω resonances. The 1(ℎ/2π)ω resonances exhaust about 35% of this EWSR in 48,49 Ni and about 22% in 48 Ca and 49 Sc. All seven {f 7/2 x3 - } multiplet members in 49 Ni are calculated to be in the 6-8 MeV energy region and have noticeable escape widths

  1. Time series analysis of the CO sub 2 exchange rate in the one-year-old leaves of laelia anceps lindl. Laelia anceps lindl no ichinen shiyo ni okeru CO sub 2 kokan sokudo no jikeiretsu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogane, Yuji; Ando, Toshio (Chiba Univ., Chiba, (Japan). Faculty of Horticulture)

    1990-01-31

    Concerning the carbon-fixing patterns in the dark reaction of plant photosynthesis, it has been known that there are 3 kinds, namely C {sub 3}, C {sub 4}, and CAM types, most of green plants fix CO {sub 2} by their C {sub 3} circuits and those with {C sub 4} and CAM circuits are rather small in number. However, CAM plants can switch from the CAM type to the C {sub 3} type or vice versa depending upon the external as well as internal factors and have capability of changing the balance between the two circuits, often making analysis of quantitative and qualitative changes of photosynthesis difficult, hence the analysis of photosynthesis rate of CAM plants dealt with in the studies which have so far been made has been limited to a quantitative grasp. This study used Laelia anceps Lindl. as sample material, classified several conditions whose photosynthesis rates differ recognizably and succeeded to analyze qualitative differences of these conditions by the mathematical measure. For analyzing photosynthesis rates, the time series analysis was newly adopted. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Influence on driver fatigue of vertical vibrations over long distances. Assessment in terms of stress hormones; Driver no unten hiro ni okeru joge shindo no eikyo. Stress hormone wo shiyo to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, T.; Inagaki, H. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Driving tests are conducted to obtain some indexes that describe the cumulative effect of the sense of tiredness. The heart rate, Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, urinary adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol in saliva are tested. Adrenaline and Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia are ultimately named in view of their correlation with tiredness. It is believed that tiredness is attributable to two factors, which are increase in mental stress and decrease in vigilance. An excitation test is then conducted using a motion simulator. Upon application of 4Hz vibrations (equivalent to the chest section resonance frequency), adrenaline increases sharply, and then decreases sharply upon termination of excitation. Upon application of 1.6Hz vibrations (equivalent to the head section resonance frequency), adrenaline increases but not sharply, and the elevated level is sustained for some time after excitation. Driving tests are next conducted using a vehicle with its suspension fixed and another with 1-2Hz vibrations reduced. Rise in the adrenaline level is found inhibited aboard the latter. No difference is detected in terms of Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia between the two vehicles. 4 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. FY 1998 survey report on the basic study of a possibility of cooperation in new energy technology in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru shin energy gijutsu kyoryoku kanosei kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The development and utilization of new energy and reusable energy in China have greatly progressed for these 20 years, but it is necessary to further enhance the rate of these energy in the energy structure by heightening the conversion efficiency and reducing the production cost. As to the matured technology, it is necessary to attempt a large scale modernization and form a completed production/service system by making large breakthrough of new technology/new industrial art. For improvement of levels of a lot of new energy technology, emphasis should be placed on international cooperation, R and D, and model business. Together with the introduction of reusable energy such as photovoltaic, wind, geothermal and ocean power, the conventional low efficiency biomass utilization system is converted one after another. The development/spread of clean coal technology are promoted, and the rate of the hydroelectric/atomic power generation is heightened. By 2010, the full-scale application/spread of new energy technology should be advanced, and the technology and production of the world top level should be realized. It is necessary to make the energy consumption clean and promote the continuously harmonized growth of economy, society and environment. (NEDO)

  4. Modified spatial autocorrelation method using autoregressive model for estimating underground velocity structure from microtremor array observation; Bido array tansa ni okeru kukan jiko sokanho no jiko kaiki model wo mochiita kairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Obuchi, T. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Spatial autocorrelation method (SAC) is an effective analysis for estimating underground S-wave velocity structure from microtremor phase velocity dispersion relation because it has larger detectable range of microtremor wavelength than frequency-wavenumber analysis. However, phase velocities estimated by conventional SAC methods such as band-pass filtered method or Fast Fourier Transform method were not precise if suitable band width was not selected for analysis. We proposed a new technique for SAC using autoregressive model which estimated spectra with high resolution because the best fitting model can be selected using AIC. We apply the new method to calculate phase velocities of microtremors which were observed at a ground of Morioka Technical High School with arrays. As a result, phase velocities calculated by the new method were continuous with frequency although those calculated by the conventional methods were scattered. This indicates that SAC functions calculated by the new method are estimated better than those by conventional SAC methods. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Synthetic focused array of electrical prospecting using pole-pole array potential data; Sanjigen denki tansaho ni okeru nikyokuho den`i data wo mochiita denryu shusoku haichi no goseiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Various methods have been put into practice for the conventional two-dimensional pole configuration using a single line in three-dimensional electrical prospecting. Pole configuration effective for the three-dimensional exploration has not been investigated. This paper describes synthetic focused array using four pairs of guarded poles based on pole-pole array potential data in the case of arrangement of measuring points on a grid. Results of the numerical simulation are also described. For the focused array, laterolog of electrical logging is applied to the surface prospecting. Directivity can be given to the current from the main pole by controlling the current from guarded pole. It was found from the simulation that the resistivity anomaly is concentrated directly on the embedded ball for the focused array rather than for the pole-pole array. It was also found that two conductive balls can be clearly separated for the focused array rather than for the dipole-dipole array. Accordingly, it was considered that results approximating the original structures can be obtained by analyzing using the both arrays. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance with heat sources arranged in parallel; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Netsugen heiretsu unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Miura, N.; Sato, S. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y.; Hamada, K. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A heat pump system using water and air as heat sources was built and evaluated for its performance. In this system, evaporators may be operated singly or as connected in parallel or series, and, for each case, the quantity of heat acquired may be measured and system performance may be quantitatively evaluated. The findings follow. When the two heat sources are equal in temperature in the single-evaporator operation, the evaporation temperature is about 7{degree}C higher on the water side than on the air side, and the performance coefficient is about 0.7 higher. When the air heat source temperature is 25{degree}C in the parallel operation, like quantities of heat are obtained from both heat sources, and collection of heat from the water increases with a decrease in the air heat source temperature but, with an increase, collection from the air increases. When the air heat source temperature decreases, the evaporation temperature decreases in the single-evaporator working on the air and in the parallel operation but it levels off in the single-evaporator working on the water alone. When the water heat source temperature decreases, evaporation temperature drop is sharper in the single-evaporator working on the water than in the parallel operation, which suggests the transfer from the parallel operation to the single-evaporator working on the air. In the single-evaporator operation on the water heat source, the evaporation temperature linearly decreases with an increase in superheating. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  7. Study on solar chemical heat pump system. Basic experiment on falling film reaction for dehydrogenation of 2-propanol; Solar chemical heat pump no kenkyu. 2-propanol bunkai hanno ni okeru ryuka ekimakushiki hanno jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, T.; Ando, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Takashima, T. [Electrochemical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Nomura, T.; Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    An experiment and the examination were carried out in order to elucidate the optimum conditions in the falling liquid film reaction method, in the conversion of solar energy using the decomposition reaction of 2-propanol. The device for the experiment was constituted of a reaction container, tubular pump, cooling pipe, sampling container for effluent from the upper and lower part of the reaction container, and gas burette. Examined in the experiment were various factors such as a fibrous activated carbon (catalyst support), ratio for carrying catalyst, catalytic composition and heating temperature. In the experiment, with the temperature inside the reaction container fully stabilized under prescribed conditions, measurement was done for the hydrogen generation by the gas burette for 10 minutes as well as for the sampling of effluent. The experiment revealed that the heat utilization ratio reached the maximum of about 27% when the heating temperature was 90{degree}C using a catalyst with the ratio of RU and Pt 1 to 1 and the ratio for carrying catalyst 10wt%, so that a great improvement was obtained in the heat utilization ratio at a low temperature. Also obtained was a large inversion ratio of about 15%. 4 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Relationship between Vickers hardness and mechanical properties for austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures; Gokuteion ni okeru osutenaito kei sutenresu ko no bikkasu katasa to kikaiteki tokusei tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabuchi, A.; Shimizu, T.; Onodera, R. [Iwate Univ., Iwate (Japan); Yoshino, Y.

    1999-11-10

    Of the material the hardness have be yield stress ductility-brittleness characteristics elastic recovery creep property contact electricity resistance frictional wear characteristics close. It is generally known that the following equation is established even in the inside between Vickers hardness and yield stress. However, whether it establishes this relation in the very low temperature has not clarified present place. Vickers hardness test was carried out at 293,77,4.2K each temperature of the tensile test in this study in very low temperature for the material. (NEDO)

  9. Measurement of electric intensity distribution inside a human cadaver cochlea for multichannel cochlear implants; Multichannel jinko naiji no tame no hito no tekishutsu kagyunai ni okeru denkai kyodo bunpu no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, S.; Ifukube, T.; Matsushima, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    We have proposed a Tripolar Electrode Stimulation Method (TESM) which may succeed in narrowing the stimulation region and continuously moving the stimulation site for cochlear implants. The TESM stimulates the auditory nerve array through lymph liquid using the 3 adjacent electrodes which are selected among the electrodes of an electrode array. The currents from the two electrodes on both sides are emitted and a central electrode receives them. The current received by the central electrode is made equal to the sum of the currents emitted from the electrodes on both sides. In this paper, the electric intensity profiles produced by the TESM and the monopolar stimulation were measured in a human cadaver cochlea and in a saline solution. As a result, in the TESM, the electric intensity profile produced in the human cadaver cochlea was about the same as that in the saline solution In monopolar stimulation, the electric intensity profile was broader than that of TESM in a human cadaver cochlea. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Coalbed methane collection and utilization project in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    China is surveyed for promotion of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures in the Kyoto Protocol, the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The project aims to collect methane for global warming suppression and to use it as town gas and for power generation as well. The survey covers the 2 coalfields of Yangquan and Panjiang. The Yangquan coalfield is the largest anthracite yielding base in China, with 6 mines in operation. Power generation centering on a 100MW plant is discussed, and generation fired by a mixture of debris out of the coal preparation facility and gas is compared with another fired by town gas, on the assumption that 130-million m{sup 3} is available under the current circumstances. In the case of the Panjiang coalfield, which is expected to develop into a large coal base in the southern part of China, power generation centering on a 50MW plant fired by a mixture of debris and gas is discussed, on the assumption that 63-million m{sup 3} is collectable from the existing 5 mines. Use of town gas is also studied. When Japan's coalbed methane collection technology is applied, the gas drainage rate will be elevated to 40-35% or higher. It is desired that the use of gas drainage will be further diffused for the prevention of disasters of coal mine gas explosion. It is hoped that the use of environmentally friendly energies will be enhanced. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Survey by region/industry in India; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indo ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A survey was made in India which is a coal producing/consuming country following China in Asia and where coal is used for about 60% of the primary commercial energy. The survey was conducted on coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental issues, aiming at studying feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly coal utilization system into every industry including the residential/commercial one, and at implementing a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation. Total power source facilities in fiscal 1995 are 83.3 million kW, 64% of which are coal thermal power facilities and generated 260 TWh, 69% of the total output energy. Main commercial energy sources are coal, oil and natural gas, and oil is self-sufficient. The survey this time did not examine very well the actual state of the environmental pollution problem caused by the coal utilization. Indian coal is high in ash content but low in sulfur content, and therefore, SOx polluting air has not been a very important problem so far, but soot/smoke is almost the problem. Further, ash treatment after combustion at boilers, etc. is expected to be a big problem in the future. 49 figs., 88 tabs.

  14. 3Wave propagation in rock samples under medium and low temperature conditions. Characteristics of methane hydrate-BSR phenomena; Chu teion ryoiki ni okeru ganseki shiryo no hado denpa tokusei. 1. Methane hydrate BSR gensho no kosatsu suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y.; Matsushima, J.; Sano, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-22

    In relation to sea-bottom pseudo reflection face and methane hydrate in seismic exploration records, fundamental experimental studies have been made. In order to get a handhold to elucidate phenomena accompanying methane hydrate, the studies have investigated wave propagation behavior of rock samples and sandy sediments under medium and low temperature conditions. The experiments have used a constant-temperature cooling water circulating equipment to control temperatures of each sample. The samples were placed in a cooler box with the vibration transmitter and receiver fixedly installed, and changes of the waves against temperature change were measured. Sand-stones and two kinds of tuffs were used as rock samples for the measurement. Artificial sand sample soaked in water was used as a substitute for a methane hydrate layer. As a result of the experiments, the relation between the hydrate layer and the gas layer was comprehended. In addition, the blanking phenomenon was thought occurring as a result of the nearly whole substance presenting the speed of ice due to freezing of the sediments, rather than by what is described in the ground homogeneousness theory. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation (rehabilitation of 300MW coal-fired thermoelectric power plants in China); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku ni okeru 300MW sekitan karyoku hatsudensho rihabiri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Studies are made on the feasibility of the above project which aims at energy efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction at thermoelectric power plants. Opinions and comments are collected by hearing, and on-site surveys are conducted at Shandong Province Zouxian Power Plant, Anhui Province Luohe Power Plant, and Henan Province Yaomeng Power Plant. The conclusion reached is outlined below. In view of the current and future demand for electricity in China and of the network to be constructed, it is believed that the rehabilitation is a pressing task for improvement on efficiency and reliability at 300MW coal-fired power plants. As for air pollution, NOx and dust in addition to greenhouse gas will be reduced under the project. There will be 3-4% improvement in boiler efficiency and approximately 4% improvement in turbine efficiency, and, in this connection, there will be CO2 emission reduction of 140,400-154,900 tons/year per unit in case of 300MW coal-fired power plants. As for cost efficiency, it is inferred that investment will achieve an adequate result, with the number of years required for investment retrieval taken into consideration. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1994 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Investigation on the trend of coal demand in Central and South American countries; 1994 nendo kaigaitan kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chunanbei shokoku ni okeru sekitan jukyu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Focusing on the present status and future of coal demand in Central/South American countries and the coal trade between Central/South American countries and the U.S., the paper described the present status and future of coal demand there and the effects on Japan. Export of Colombian coal will amount to approximately 30-35 million tons in 2000. Venezuelan coal 10-20 million tons. The U.S. imported good-quality general coal low in sulfur content, 3.08 tons from Columbia and 1.39 tons from Venezuela. Coal export from the U.S. to Central/South America was mostly of raw material coal, 5 million tons in 1993 and 5.39 million tons in 1994. General coal was 180,000 tons. The U.S. has no plans of increasing US coal export to Central/South America. But it is safely predicted that Columbia and Venezuela will increase coal export to Europe in the future. It will bring about decrease in export of US coal to Europe, which connects with increasing pressure for the coal trade amount of Japan. 21 figs., 47 tabs.

  17. Biological treatment with mass balance analysis for two types of groundwaters contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and tetrachloroethylene; Sekiyukei tanka suiso oyobi tetrachloroethylene osen chikasui no seibutsu shori ni okeru busshitsu shushi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogure, K. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan); Kuraishi, J.; Tsuchiya, Y. [Nishihara Environmental Sanitation Research Corp., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    A depollution experiment with microbial decomposition was carried out on simulated groundwaters contaminated by a jet fuel (JP-4) composed of petroleum hydrocarbons as the main constituent and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). An aerobic batch reactor (SBR) was used for a purification experiment on the JP-4 contaminated groundwater. An anaerobic batch reactor (AnSBR) connected with the SBR in series was used for a purification experiment on the PCE contaminated groundwater. For microbe sources, the Formulation L-104 and sludge in a sludge digestion tank were used. The following conclusions were obtained as the result of the experiment: 98-99% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons existing in the simulated JP-4 contaminated water is decomposed by the biological treatment, and 0.06-1.3% thereof is discharged in the treated water; and in the depollution experiment on the PCE using the AnSBR reactor connected with the SBR in series, a PCE removal rate of 99.2% was obtained in a PEC load with 35.1{mu}mol per cycle in average. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Study of numerical simulations concerning the performance of antennas used for automobile wireless communications; Jidosha no musen tsushin ni okeru antenna seino hyoka no tame no suchi simulation no ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueyoshi, M.; Yano, T.; Noda, Y.; Goto, H. [Honda Lock Mfg. Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Automobiles and communication technologies will be more closely related with each other in the advanced intelligence society. Anti-theft security systems apply those technologies, where antenna performance is one of the key elements. This is a study of numerical simulations of the performance of those vehicle antennas. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Reduction of artificial source effect in the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the Hanshin region; Hanshin chiiki no komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa ni okeru jinko noise source no eikyo no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Makino, M.; Morijiri, R.; Okuma, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in December 1995 on areas from Kobe City to Kyoto City in relation to the Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake in 1995. It was found in the survey that effects of electric trains driven by direct current and man-made structures cannot be avoided, working as a large noise factor in extraction and analysis of geological information. This paper describes a quantitative analysis on magnetic anomaly suspected to have been caused from artificial sources seen in the magnetic map of the Hanshin area obtained from the above exploration data. The paper also gives considerations on methods to remove the effects therefrom. It then describes a quantitative analysis and the result of attempts on removal of the anomaly, taking up the following factors: (1) distribution of specific and remarkable magnetic anomalies which correspond to railroad positions of the Hanshin Railways running through the Nishinomiya-Toyonaka area, (2) the magnetic anomaly trend in positive and negative pair seen in the seafront area of Kobe City, and (3) typical bipolar isolated type magnetic anomaly in the north-west part of Kobe City. The cause for (1) was loop current flown for the railway operation, that for (2) was man-made structures in the improved seafront area, and that for (3) was a provisionally built metal waste storage yard. 9 figs.

  20. 2D inversion results and interpretation of CSAMT data in the Itaya prospect, Northern Honshu, Japan; Tohoku nanbu chiiki Itaya chiku ni okeru CSAMT ho nijigen kaiseki kekka to sono kaishaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, K.; Hishida, H.; Katayama, H. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A two-dimensional analysis was carried out on electric exploration data obtained by using the CSAMT method in the Itaya prospect in the southern part of the Tohoku region in Japan. Considerations were given on mine exploration targets. Gold produced in this area is contained in stockwork or vein deposited quartz in silicified hydrothermal breccia. Therefore, the exploration targets are silicified rocks that show high resistivity. The field investigation using the CSAMT method was conducted by installing a dipole source of about 1.9 km as a transmission source at a location about 6 km apart from the investigation area, and by measuring transmission currents from 8 to 10A and ten frequencies from 4 to 2048 Hz. The two-dimensional analysis was performed by using programs of a forward calculation that used a finite element method and of an inversion calculation that used a least-squares method. Analysis utilizing resistivity of the boring cores made minimizing RMS misfit possible. As a result, estimations were made on distribution of silicification and claying alteration from the detailed resistivity distribution around the Itaya mine. 5 ref., 8 figs.

  1. Three-dimensional modeling in the electromagnetic/magnetotelluric methods. Accuracy of various finite-element and finite difference methods; Denjiho MT ho ni okeru sanjigen modeling. Shushu no yugen yosoho to sabunho no seido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    To enhance the reliability of electromagnetic/magnetotelluric (MT) survey, calculation results of finite-element methods (FEMs) and finite difference methods (FDMs) were compared. Accuracy of individual methods and convergence of repitition solution were examined. As a result of the investigation, it was found that appropriate accuracy can be obtained from the edge FEM and FDM for the example of vertical magnetic dipole, and that the best accuracy can be obtained from the FDM among four methods for the example of MT survey. It was revealed that the ICBCG (incomplete Cholesky bi-conjugate gradient) method is an excellent method as a solution method of simultaneous equations from the viewpoint of accuracy and calculation time. For the joint FEM, solutions of SOR method converged for both the examples. It was concluded that the cause of error is not due to the error of numerical calculation, but due to the consideration without discontinuity of electric field. The conditions of coefficient matrix increased with decreasing the frequency, which resulted in the unstable numerical calculation. It would be required to incorporate the constraint in a certain form. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Experiment for deep seismic reflections in Hidaka, Hokkaido. Comparison between Vibroseis and explosive data; Hidaka chiiki ni okeru shinbu hanno data no shutoku jikken. Vibroseis to dynamite no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, N.; Ikawa, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T.; Tsumura, N.; Shinohara, M.; Ikawa, T. Ikawa, H.; Asano, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Miyazono, N. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Arita, K.; Moriya, T.; Otsuka, K.; Omura, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Osaka Prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Hirata, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Okuike, S.

    1997-05-27

    This is a prompt report. These days the importance of acquiring knowledge about the structure from the lower crust down to the upper mantle is often discussed with reference taken to Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. The Hidaka collision belt where the lower crust is exposed on the surface is a rare phenomenon in the world and has been the subject of seismic survey. As a part of the survey, experiments are conducted by the use of vibrations produced by Vibroseis and dynamite sources. Every one of the shot records (20-second record) from the two types of vibration sources contains a clear echo in the vicinity of 16 seconds supposedly from a level deeper than 40 kilometers, not to mention reflections from shallow levels. Although some studies have to be conducted before the reflecting geological boundary (possibly the upper mantle) of the echo near the 16-second point can be identified, yet this is probably the reflection from the deepest level ever obtained in the seismic reflection survey conducted in Japan`s land area. It is proved by this experiment that vibration from a vibrator can reach as far as that from explosion if the vibrator specifications are rightly chosen. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  3. FY 1998 basic survey to promote the joint execution, etc. Overall repair plan of thermal power plants in Maritime Province of Russia; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Roshia Enkaishu ni okeru karyoku hatsudensho sogo kaishu keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For thermal power plants in Maritime Province of Russia, a repair plan for effective reduction of emission of greenhouse effect gas was worked out as a draft plan for the joint execution. The project is to be implemented for the additional installation/replacement of boilers at Vladivostok No. 2 power plant, construction of a power plant as a substitute for Partizansk power plant, and new construction of Ussuriisk power plant. The draft plan includes the new installation of two gas-fired boilers/replacement of existing boilers at Vladivostok No. 2 power plant, construction of 200MW cogeneration facility at Partizansk power plant, construction of 180MW cogeneration facility at Ussuriisk power plant, abolition of small-sized boiler station, etc. The reduction amount of the greenhouse effect gas emission based on this repair plan totaled 338 million tons in project. The effect against cost is US$ 4.75 per 1 CO2 ton at Vladivostok. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1997 for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the optimization of the coal transportation system in Indonesia; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In addition to the data collection and site surveys made in Phase 1, conducted in Phase 2 were determination of sites for harbors, determination of a scenario on coal transportation from coal mines to harbors, optimization of the coal transportation system, social/economic assessment, and proposal on the optimum transportation system. The results of the simulation were as follows: It is the most advantageous to transport coal from coal deposit area to harbor by rail and from harbor to Paiton by barge weighed over 10,000 tons. Tanjung Api Api is the most advantageous as harbor. The production scale which is profitable became more than 15 million tons. The present coal price of PTBA is $25/t arriving Suralaya. The coal in this case is said to be 5500kcal/kg in quality, and the coal of the same quality to this is only profitable. 8 refs., 68 figs., 104 tabs.

  5. Comparative evaluation of water qualities in inside and outside of the floating-leaved plant, trapa stand, in western part of lake Inba-numa; Nishi Inbanuma ni okeru fuyo shokubutsu, onibishi gunraku naigai no suishitsu no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumoto, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurihara, M. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ikushima, I.; Koizumi, T. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science; Aikawa, M. [Kisarazu National College of Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    1995-10-10

    Characteristics of water quality, seasonal variation of DOC and total nitrogen (T-N) concentrations, in the floating-leaved plant Trapa stand were studied in western part of Lake Inba-numa, Chiba Prefecture during three years from April 1990 to April 1993. Water was sampled in inside and outside of the Trapa stand once a month during the experimental period. Each sample was filtered through a 0.45 {mu}m membrane filter and used for the water quality analysis. The results obtained in this study are as follows; the annual change of DOC concentration is steady, 7.8 mg{center_dot}l{sup -1}, in the inside of Traps stand. The concentration of T-N has seasonal variation, lower than annual mean value (2.2 mg{center_dot}l{sup -1}) of the quality in summer season and higher than the mean value in winter season respectively, in the inside of Traps stand. Similarly, the hourly variations of DOC and Tap concentrations have steady in the inside of Trapa stand. It is suggested from the experimental study that the variation of DOC and T-N concentrations is strongly affected by the production of vigorous glowing plants of Traps in the western part of Lake Inba-numa. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. History and recent practices of chemical cleaning for power plant boilers in China. Chugoku ni okeru hatsuden'yo boiler no kagaku senjo no hensen to saikin no jisshirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, H. (East China Electric Power Test and Research Institute, (China))

    1993-06-01

    This paper summarizes the change and the latest technologies for chemical cleaning for power plant boilers in China quoting a large number of the practices. High-pressure boilers have become constructed since the 1960's, for which water quality control has been applied, as well as hydrochloric and sulfuric acid cleaning, degreasing using alkaline chemicals, and phosphate passivation process. Thereafter, as ultra high-pressure facilities like once-through boilers, ultra high critical pressure facilities, and nuclear power facilities have entered into operations, organic acid cleaning, chelate cleaning, and EDTA-formic acid-hydroxy acetic acid cleaning have become used. Being carried out in addition to ordinary processes are use of solution accelerating agents, oxidizing ammonification, addition of thiourea, use of rinsing agents, and use of passivating agents. Evaluations and considerations were given on cleaning cycles, application procedures, and cleaning chemicals used on 336 units in total. As a result, it was indicated that chemical cleaning before starting operation of a new boiler is important, and futuristic EDTA would be more advantageous. 5 tabs.

  7. Development of advanced transverse thickness profile control of thin hard steel strips at tandem cold rolling mill; Reikan tandem mill ni okeru nan`atsuenzai no koseido profile seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiruta, T.; Akagi, I.; Mizushima, N. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes an advanced transverse thickness profile control method of thin hard steel strips at tandem cold rolling mill in the Mizushima Works of Kawasaki Steel Corporation. The work roll profile was optimized by the profile control of cold rolling using a one-side tapered work roll sifting method, to expand the profile control range in transverse direction of steel strip. Based on the data measured by the profile meter set at outlet of hot roll mill, the work roll sifting position can be controlled in response to the size of hot-rolled strip crown. A feed-forward edge drop control system and a feed-back edge control system using an edge drop sensor set at outlet of mill were established. Consequently, high thickness accuracy in transverse direction was achieved within 0.5% in a steady rolling state and within 0.8% in a non-steady rolling state over the full length of the thin hard steel strip product. 14 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Development and problems on concrete technology in Thailand. Effort toward performance-based design and wastes utilization; Tai ni okeru konkurito gijutsu no katten to kongo no mondai. Seino shosagata sekkei to haikibutsu no riyo eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somnuk, Tangtermsirikul [University Thailand, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-03-10

    They explained economic crisis and development trend of concrete technology of Thailand in the back and future problem. They introduced growth (GNP) of the economy from 1989 to 1998, growth of the construction business and the cement production quantity and the cement consumption of the interval. In addition, as a design concept of concreting material, they introduced the utilization of the natural and artificial pozzolans (fly ash, steel slag, silica fume, pumice, metakaolin, etc.) as a utilization of a waste to the concrete, when they considered property and strength of the concrete suitable for the climate of Thailand, and they introduced strength of the concrete using these, etc.. (NEDO)

  9. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Survey on energy saving and CO2 emission reduction in Cilacap Refinery; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Cilacap seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO2 sakugen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  10. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in sewage and their reduction in treatment process; Gesuichu no Giardia shisuto oyobi Cryptosporidium oshisuto noudo to gesui syori ni okeru jyokyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A.; Hirata, T. [Azabu University, Kanagawa (Japan); Magara, Y. [National Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Ogaki, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-10

    Recently, the water system infection owing to protozoan, virus and so on which is different from the conventional infection like represented by bacteria, is reported. There are few examples for the infection conditional study and epidemiological investigation of these protozoan and virus in Japan. Authors carried out a field survey at nine sewage treatment plants, in order to investigate the occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw sewage and the removal in sewage treatment processes. As a result, in all plants, Giardia cysts were detected in raw sewage and effluent of primary sedimentation. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected from only one raw sewage sample. Indicator bacteria counts tested, C.perfringens spores, coliforms and E.coli, were statistically correlated with Giardia cyst densities and the most significant relationship was observed between C.perfringens spore counts and Giardia cyst densities. It was found that turbidity was the most appropriate indicator for Giardia cyst removal in activated sludge treatment process. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Internal friction and microplasticity of carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics; Tanso sen`i kyoka SiC ceramics no hakai zenku katei ni okeru naibu masatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-08-20

    Mechanical responses of carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics before fracture were measured in the strain range below 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} by two experimental methods: mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Load-deflection curves were obtained by the three-point bending deformation in loading-unloading cycles. A little permanent strain was found after the first cycle even in the range where fracture never occurred. A closed hysteresis loop was observed after several cycles and stabilized with a symmetrical shape after more than twenty cycles. Such a stabilized hysteresis loop is attributed to the steady-state microplastic deformation and may cause the amplitude-dependent internal friction. Internal friction was measured in the fundamental mode of free-free resonant vibration as a function of strain amplitude. With increasing the amount of prestrain in the bending deformation, internal friction increased and became sensitive to the strain amplitude. The amplitude-dependent internal friction in the composites is considered to originate from fiber pull-out or microcrack propagation. The internal friction data were analyzed on the basis of the microplasticity theory and converted into the plastic strain expressed as a function of stress. Therefore, it becomes possible to non-destructively study the forerunning process of fracture of the fiber-reinforced ceramics. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  12. 55th electric science promotion prize (progress prize). Demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW first in the world; Dai 55 kai denki gakujutsu shinkosho (shinposho) jusho. Seiaihatsu no OPGW ni okeru hikari soriton denso no jissho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-10

    Electric science promotion prize (progress prize) is given to `Person who newly proposed a new concept, theory, material, device, system and method on electrical science and technology, or demonstrated these proposals` by the commendation committee of Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan every year. Eight promotion prizes including that for Kansai Electric Power`s `Demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW first in the world` were given. This research succeeded in development of the transmission/ receiving device suitable for optical soliton transmission, and the prediction method of an optimum transmission condition by computer simulation. In addition, this research succeeded in 10Gbit transmission of 784km and 40Gbit transmission (4-wave multiplex) of 392km by applying the above research result to Okurobe trunk line OPGW (98.2km). This demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW is first in the world. (NEDO)

  13. Range of wavelengths possible to estimate phase velocities of surface waves in microtremors; Bido tansaho ni okeru suitei kanona bidochu no hyomenha iso sokudo no hacho han`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K.; Okada, H.; Ling, S. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    To specify the maximum wavelength of the phase velocities that can be estimated by the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method or F-K method in microtremor exploration, investigations were conducted using numerical simulation. In view of feasibility, an equilateral triangle array was employed, the maximum radius of the array having 7 observation points being 0.10km. The dispersion curve of the Rayleigh wave basic mode was calculated from an underground structure model. White noise was used as the incident wave, and, in case the waves came in from multiple directions, a different phase spectrum was assigned to each direction. In searching for the maximum wave length of phase velocities that could be estimated, a limit was imposed upon estimation, and it was prescribed that the wavelength be the limit if the difference between the theoretical value and estimated phase velocity was 5% or higher. As the result, it was found that it is possible to estimate the phase velocity when the wavelength is up to approximately 10 times longer than the array maximum radius in the SPAC method, and up to approximately 5 times longer in case of the F-K method. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Report on a wind power development field test project (detailed wind condition investigation) in the city of Choshi; Choshishi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes observation on the annual wind condition at the Yokka-ichibadai in the city of Choshi. The average wind velocities were 4.7 and 3.8 m/s at the ground height of 20 and 10 meters, respectively, not having reached the NEDO's criterion values 5.6 and 5.0 m/s. The annual wind direction emergence rate on the wind axis was 70%, meeting the criterion value of 60% or higher, and the wind direction is stable. The exponent for the vertical wind velocity distribution was 3.3, which is similar to that in the urban area. Disturbance in the wind condition was 0.18, meeting the criterion value of 0.30 or lower. The maximum momentary wind velocity was 31.9 m/s, which is well below the criterion of 60 m/s presenting no problem as a wind mill construction site. The wind energy density was 94 W/m{sup 2}, being only 63% of the criterion value, when all the azimuths were used as the object. The result of the investigation is that the average wind velocity is low and the wind energy density is also low. However, if the size of wind mill to be introduced is set to the class B (300 kW), it is possible to attain an annual operation rate of 58%, an annual energy acquisition amount of 515 MWh, and a facility utilization rate of 19.6%. If set to the class C (750 kW), an operation rate of 78%, an annual energy acquisition of 1296 MWh, and a facility utilization rate of 19.7% can be obtained, meeting the criterion value. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1997 report on a feasibility survey of cooperation in relation to the joint implementation activities in Southeast Asian countries (6 nations); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Tonan Asia chiikikoku (rokkakoku) ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren no kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the COP3 Conference on Global Warming held in Kyoto in December 1997, the framework on greenhouse gases was agreed in discussions comprehensively made among Japan, the U.S. and the E.U. As a result, it is for 6 gases including CO2 and methane, and total emissions in developed countries are to be reduced 5% at least during 2008-2012 from the 1990 level. Target of each country is determined by gaps, and Japan`s reduction target is 6%. Therefore, to pass the numerical target agreed, it is necessary to take measures such as rationalization of the energy use by energy saving, etc. in the country and also measures such as promotion of the greenhouse gas emission control in developing countries. Accordingly, for the future development of NEDO`s AIJ project, a possibility of cooperation in the joint implementation was surveyed such as the state of greenhouse gas emissions of countries which are objects of GAP in Southeast Asian countries and neighboring countries, policies of the countries after the COP3 agreement, technological transfer for the emission control, etc. Countries for survey are Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam and Myanmar. 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Introduction effect of a load levelling system in an electric power system with a photovoltaic and wind system; Taiyoko/furyoku hatsuden wo donyu shita denryoku keito ni okeru fuka heijunka shisutemu no donyu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1998-12-05

    Introduction effect of load levelling system by a battery in an electric power system by a battery in an electric power system with a PV and wind system is investigated. Charge and discharge power of the battery are determined from a load curve and every hour data of PV and wind output. Annual cost of the power system is calculated from the generating power and the capacity of each source via the installed utility capacity and the capacity factor. It is found that (1) the battery system reduces the maximum demand and improves the load factor, (2) the cost effect of the battery system when introducing the PV system is higher than that when introducing the wind system. (author)

  17. Evaluations of thermal shock resistance and fracture toughness of SiC as a gas turbine blade at high temperatures. Gas turbine yo SiC yokuzai no koon ni okeru tainetsu shogekisei no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S.; Kurumada, A.; Kudo, Y.; Chikahata, H.; Shibano, M.; Miyata, H. (Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-12-20

    This paper shows the results of the experiments on the thermal shock resistance and the thermal shock fracture toughness of ceramic blade used for high quality high temperature gas turbines. Using disk specimens of alpha SiC blade, the thermal shock resistance and the thermal shock fracture toughness are determined by means of Joule {prime} s heating at a central area of disk specimens at 1000 {degree} C (4.3 sec.) and at 1200 {degree} C, 1300 {degree} C, and 1600 {degree} C (4.5 sec.) . Both of the thermal shock resistance and fracture toughness decreases as the temperature increases until 1300 {degree} C, and then increases from 1300 to 1600 {degree} C. Both show maximum values at 1600 {degree} C. The writers consider that this is due to the stress release by the increase of ductility at high temperature. The experiments were also performed for SC-101 which is used for semiconductor base as reference material. The thermal shock resistance and fracture toughness of SC-101 at 1200 {degree} C is three times and 1.4 times larger respectively than SiC. The writers considered that it is caused by the high thermal conductivity three times larger than alpha SiC. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Floor impact noise interception performance examination in the laboratory of the temperature warmth ceremony floor heating soundproof floor; Onsui yukadanbo boon jikahariyuka no jikkenshitsu ni okeru yuka shogekion shadan seino shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A floor impact noise level improvement quantity examination in the laboratory was done about the warm water ceremony floor heating soundproof floor (for the warm water circulation-type floor warmth for benson floor SG floor warmth) that it was submitted by Hayakawa rubber incorporated company, and a floor impact noise level calculation and an insulation grade were found as that result. A form dimension, section details, and so on are shown in the table 1 in the figure 1 the kind of the test body, the trade name, the dimension, and so on. A test body was constructed on the floor edition for the examination. (NEDO)

  19. Characteristics of contact resistance for Ag, Cu and Al spot contact under DC current flow of 300A; Gin, do oyobi arumi tensesshokushi no chokuryu 300A tsudenji ni okeru sesshoku teiko tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichi, H. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Matsumura, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Miyachi, I. [Aichi Inst. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The temperature rise of the contact spot by Joule`s heat under high current flow may result in the softening or welding of the contact materials. Contact resistances of Ag, Cu and Al spot contacts have been observed under the current flow of up to 300A DC. The contact resistances of Ag and Cu with clean surfaces were revealed to be kept constant independent of the magnitude of the applied current flow. On the other hand, contact resistances of Al and Cu with oxidized surfaces were greatly reduced with the increasing current flow. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Silicon kessho usumaku ni okeru hyomen kaimen saiketsugo sokudo no hyoka to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films. To optimize design and manufacture of solar cells, it is necessary to identify correctly resistance factor (or doping) of bulk of materials, bulk minority carrier life, and recombination velocity on surface, passivation interface and electrode interface. A group in the Hokkaido University has been working since a few years ago on development of non-contact and non-destructive photo-luminescence surface level spectroscopy (PLS{sup 3}). A new non-contact C-V method was also introduced. Using these methods, basic discussions were given on possibility of separate measurements on surface/interface and bulk characteristics of solar cell materials. The PLS{sup 3} method and the non-contact C-V method were used for experimental discussions on evaluation of silicon mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline materials. Discussions were given on separate evaluations by using the DLTS method. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Fiscal 1996 survey for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the coal infrastructure propagation in Indonesia; 1996 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan infura seibi chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Phase 1 survey in fiscal 1996 was conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In the survey, conducted were collection of data on coal fields and site surveys, collection of data on inland transportation and site surveys, collection of data on harbors and site surveys, and worked out were a simplified database and a coal transportation plan by optimization of the coal chain system. The area for survey is the periphery of the Musi River of South Sumatra. The results of the simulation by LP models were as follows: When the coal of Bukit Asam coal mine is $25/t in price, only coal of 5500Kcal/kg is profitable, and when $27/t in price, coal of 4500Kcal/kg also becomes profitable. This shows that if the coal is of good quality, it can pay arriving at Suralaya, independent of the distance of transportation. 47 figs., 63 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1999 basic survey report for promotion of joint implementation. Survey of diffusion of fluidized bed cement kilns in Vietnam; 1999 nendo Vietnam koku ni okeru ryudosho cement kiln fukyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Possibility is assessed of energy saving and CO2 reduction through replacing shaft kilns with fluidized bed kilns at four cement plants in Vietnam. The effort will be associated with the clean development mechanism (CDM) ultimately. The fluidized bed kiln is one of the state-of-the-art technologies developed to meet social, economic, and technical demands involving global environments, enhancement of energy efficiency, effective use of resources, improvement in cost performance, increasingly diversified needs for cement, etc. Use of the technology will lead to an extensive reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, solution of the problem of dust flying from calcinating facilities, production of clinkers high in stability and quality, utilization of inexpensive fuels such as low-grade coal, and production cost reduced thanks to the new equipment occupying less installation space. The conclusion of the study is that the energy to be consumed by the four plants will decrease by 6101-9551 tons/year in terms of oil and that energy saving rate will be 37-44%. The decrease in fuel and electricity for calcinating furnaces in turn decreases CO2 emissions, with the amount of reduction estimated at 24,393-38,794 tons/year in terms of CO2 and the rate of reduction estimated at 36-44%. As for payout in case environmental special yen credit is granted, it will realize in the 10-12th year, which means such financing will achieve a sufficient investment effect. Effect is also tentatively calculated in case of fluidized bed kilns diffused across the country. (NEDO)

  3. Evaluation of the autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture using the impulse response function; Impulse oto kansu wo mochiita shisei henkan katoki ni okeru jiritsu shinkei kino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Toyota College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    Autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture has been evaluated by applying transient response function of the system to the blood regulation system. The impulse response function was determined from the change in heart rate before postural change to the upright posture, and was compared with the transient change immediately after a change to the upright posture. The time series of R-R interval of electrocardiogram was used as the time series of the change in heart rate. To determine the impulse response function, an autoregressive model was applied to the R-R interval time series. The impulse response function at the steady state is a transient reaction at the impulse stimulation added to the blood regulation system. The R-R interval decreases rapidly by the autonomic neuropathy reaction in which the blood is rapidly transferred into the legs immediately after a change to upright posture. There is a close correlation between the initial temporary decrease in R-R interval and the impulse response function derived from the change in heart rate immediately after a change to the upright posture. Accordingly, the blood regulation and autonomic neuropathy functions can be evaluated by the impulse response function without actual standing test and load of tested persons. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Utilization of two-way multicore cables and comparison of various electrode configurations in electrical prospecting; Denki tansa ni okeru sohokogata tashin cable no riyo to kakushu dekyoku haichi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsushima, J. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    For more precise electrical prospecting, the new multicore cable was developed to allow high-density measurement by conventional equipment. Since conventional multicore cables are inferior in cost, length and weight, the new cable is composed of an n-conductor cable, two n-conductor male connectors and n lead wires. For connection of the multi-conductor cable and lead wires, cable sheath is peeled at n points at specific intervals. Sheath of the k-th conductor is peeled at k-th point from the terminal, and restored for insulation after connection of the conductor and lead wire. The male connectors are attached to the both ends of the multi-conductor cable. Since this two-way type cable can be used at every end, the measuring equipment can measure at one divisional point after another of a long measuring line while shifting the equipment from one point to another. All measurements are perfected only with two short cables. Resistivities were successfully measured along the long measuring line of 480m long with 97 electrodes arranged at intervals of 5m. Various electrode configurations were also compared. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Application of magnetotelluric method to hydrocarbon exploration. Case study of MT survey in Yurihara oil and gas field, Akita prefecture; MT ho no kokunai sekiyu tanko eno tekiyo. Akitaken Yurihara chiiki ni okeru jikken chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuhata, Y.; Matsuo, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakagami, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    The experiment and survey were carried out to verify the effectiveness and limitation of MT method. The previous seismic reflection method is unsuitable for steep terrain and over-folded complicated geological structure. In such difficult areas, application of MT method is increasing as complement or substitution for the reflection method. However, the evaluation of resistivity structure interpretation for every area is slightly difficult because of lack of data, poor quality of data, and no verification data at boreholes. Consequently, the survey was again carried out in well-known Yurihara oil and gas field, Akita prefecture whose geological structure has been surveyed in detail at boreholes, by adding new 32 sites, 22 sites on the south side and 10 sites on the north side of the measuring line extending from east to west. As a result, it was clarified that the lower high-resistivity layer found by MT method is equal to the Nishikurosawa basaltic layer, and basalt extends to the west in the north area. This result can`t be simply compared with the previous geological profile. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Fiscal 1997 research report on the data collection, evaluation and analysis in the PV power generation field test project for public facilities; 1997 nendo kokyo shisetsu nado yo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As a part of the field test project for diffusing PV power generation into public facilities generally, evaluation and analysis were made on the collected data from 105 sites installed during fiscal 1993-1996. Analysis of operation characteristics was made by using parameters obtained by developing a basic equation for every component. 94% of all the sites fell under the total solar irradiation of 3.0- 4.5kWh/m{sup 2}/D. 83% of those fell under the equivalent array operation time of 2.5-4.0h/D. 70% of those fell under the equivalent system operation time of 2.5-3.5h/D. 72% of those fell under the system operation time of 9.0-12.0h/D. 78% of those fell under the effective inverter efficiency of 0.84- 0.96. 68% of those fell under the inverter load factor of 0.25-0.35. 85% of those fell under the array performance ratio of 0.7-1.0. 83% of those fell under the system performance ratio of 0.6-0.9. The generation cost decreased from 270yen/kWh in 1993 to 100yen/kWh in 1996 because reduction of an installation cost largely contributed to reduction of the total cost. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  8. Degradation characteristics of total organic carbon in UV-C oxidation pilot plant accompanied by hydogen peroxide addition; Kasanka suiso heiyo UV-C sanka pairotto puranto ni okeru zen yukitai tanso bunkai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakoshi, Y. [Photoscience Japan Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Sugawara, K.; Sugawara, T. [Akita Univ., Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1997-03-10

    Degradation characteristics of total organic carbon (TOC) for the dilute water of super LSI cleaning waste water used in semiconductor factory was studied by pilot plant experiment using low pressure mercury lamp and UV-C oxidation accompanied by hydrogen peroxide method. Firstly, decomposition rates of methanol, acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) were compared. As a result, the initial TOC concentration of each organic compound was 1mg-C.l{sup -1}, and decomposition rate of methanol was most faster and acetone and IPA showed almost same rates at a condition of initial concentration of 10 ppm of hydrogen peroxide. Secondly, experiment using different light intensity lamps was carried out in order to study the effect of light intensity on TOC decomposition rate. As a result, it was revealed that the decomposition constant was proportional to the light intensity. Further, from the experiment with different number of lamps that are on, it was clarified that the effect of inner filter due to hydrogen peroxide differed when lamp density inside the same reactor was different. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Photovoltaic system at Nagaoka College of Technology. Fabrication of photovoltaic system and development of data logging system; Nagaoka kosen ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden. Setsubi no kochiku to data shuroku system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, M.; Shirai, I.; Togawa, K.; Koshoji, H.; Otaki, S. [Nagaoka College of Technology, Niigata (Japan); Murata, M.; Murata, K.; Nomura, M. [New Energy Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Reported in this paper is a photovoltaic power generation facility built in the yard of Nagaoka College of Technology. The purpose of this study is to find out if such a facility operates effectively in a heavy-snow region. A data logging system is also constructed. In a preliminary experiment, a 50W panel was installed, facing southwest at an inclination of 30degC, on the roof of the schoolhouse. A voltmeter, ammeter, and slide rheostat were used to perform necessary measurement. The panel temperature was approximately 50degC, and insolation was estimated at 70mW/cm{sup 2}. The data logging system is comprised of a personal computer, display, printer, etc. Using this system, voltage and current are measured with the load automatically adjusted, and the maximum power point is sought out and logged. In addition, insolation, ambient temperature, and panel temperature are logged. Data is logged every 10th minute and, when a day`s measurement is over, mean values are obtained for every hour and data is built for a power generation profile, all automatically. There is a plan for a wintertime power generation experiment. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Experimental results of 2-propanol dehydrogenation with a falling-liquid film reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru ryuka ekimakushiki 2-propanol bunkai hanno jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ando, Y.; Takashima, T. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Koike, M.; Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A solar chemical heat pump is intended to attempt multi-purposed effective utilization of solar energy by raising low temperature solar heat of about 100 degC to 150 to 200 degC by utilizing chemical reactions. The chemical heat pump under the present study uses a 2-propanol (IPA)/acetone/hydrogen system which can utilize low-temperature solar heat and has large temperature rising degree. It was found from the result of experiments and analyses that IPA dehydrogenation reaction can improve more largely the heat utilization rate in using a falling-liquid film reactor than using a liquid phase suspended system. As an attempt to improve further the heat utilization rate, this paper reports the result of experimental discussions on inclination angles of a reaction vessel and feed liquid flow rate which would affect the fluid condition of the liquid film. As a result of the experiments, the initial deterioration in the catalyst has settled in about 15 hours, and its activity has decreased to about 60% of the initial activity. It was made clear that the influence of the inclination angle of the reaction vessel on the reaction is small. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Evaluation of performance for solar house with Trombe wall. Part 6; Trombe kabeshiki solar house no hyoka kenkyu (toki tan`i ni okeru Trombe heki naihyomen kyuhonetsuryo no santei hoho no kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, R.; Nakajima, Y. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, N. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Service Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Abe, H. [National Land Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaga, K. [Mitsubishi Estate Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    `Equivalent heat loss factor` used in the simplified load calculation method for the Trombe wall is a version modified to fit a solar house equipped with a Trombe wall. To compute the factor, it is necessary to input the quantities of Trombe wall inner surface absorbed/radiated heat for whose calculation the effect of the delay in solar heat storage by the Trombe wall has to be taken into consideration. The daily summation of the quantities of absorbed/radiated heat can be easily calculated using the day`s and the previous day`s insolation amounts. In this report, the hourly summation of the quantities of Trombe wall surface absorbed/radiated heat is performed by use of two variables which are the day`s and the previous day`s insolation amounts. In calculating the hourly summation of the quantities of absorbed/radiated heat, the daily summation of the quantities of absorbed/radiated heat is first calculated using the chart of predicted lines for the Trombe wall and, based on the data thus obtained, the quantities of absorbed/absorbed heat are divided and assigned to the respective hours and, as the result, approximations are obtained for the calculation of the hourly summation of the quantities of Trombe wall absorbed/radiated heat. A `time-dependent performance prediction curves for the Trombe wall` is proposed, which enables the visual comprehension of the effect of Trombe wall hourly units. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Consideration of the reservoir by the temperature history at the Hijiori HDR (hot dry rock) wells; Hijiori koon gantai no kokukosei ni okeru ondo rireki wo mochiita choryuso no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, W.; Shinohara, N.; Osato, K.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Hot dry rock (HDR) power generation has been promoted by NEDO since 1984 at Hijiori, Okura village, Mogami-gun, Yamagata Prefecture. Hydraulic fracture tests and circulation tests have been conducted using four wells named as SKG-2, HDR-1, HDR-2 and HDR-3. Based on these test results, flow models of Hijiori shallow and deep reservoirs have been proposed. Conventional circulation tests have been analyzed only using temperature profile data. In this paper, circulation tests are analyzed by numerical simulation, to discuss individual characteristics of the shallow and deep reservoirs. Injection flow, production flow and circulation days were inputted as past circulation test data, to discuss the characteristics of geological layers, especially the permeability data, by which the features of temperature profiles in each well can be explained. As a result, it was found that the extension of permeable zone affecting the temperature in the SKG-2 well equivalent to the shallow reservoir was larger than that in the HDR-1 well. It was also found that there was a large difference in the permeability between the HDR-2a and HDR-3 wells. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Report on a wind power development field test project (detailed wind condition investigation) at the Masari Kappu Tokyu Golf Club; Masari Kappu Tokyu Golf Club ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes observation on wind characteristics at the the Masari Kappu Tokyu Golf Club in Hokkaido. The exponent for vertical wind velocity distribution was found distributed between 2.6 and 7.1, with the average of 4.8. No problematical element can be found in wind power development. The disturbance intensity was in a medium scale at 0.24 at wind velocity of 2 m/s, satisfying the evaluation criterion of 0.30 or less applied by NEDO. The total emergence rate on the prevailing wind axis (SE-NW) was 68%, meeting the evaluation criterion of 60% or higher. Wind energy density is concentrated on the prevailing wind axis, which is suitable for wind power development. The annual average wind velocity was 4.2 m/s, not meeting the NEDO's evaluation criterion of 5.8 m/s or higher. The maximum momentary wind velocity was 24 m/s, meeting the evaluation criterion of 60 m/s or lower. The annual average for the wind energy density was 107 W/m{sup 2}, not meeting the evaluation criterion of 215 W/m{sup 2} or more. The annual average operation rates were 53, 56 and 71% (for 150, 300 and 750 kW class, respectively), meeting the evaluation criterion of 45% or more. The annual facility utilization rates were 14.0, 17.2 and 16.9% respectively, whereas the 300-kW class has barely passed the evaluation criterion, while others have not passed the criterion. (NEDO)

  14. Determination of electron impact ionization and excitation coefficients in He-Xe gas mixtures. He-Xe kongo gas ni okeru denshi shototsu denri keisu oyobi reiki keisu no sokutei to kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Tachibana, K. (Kyoto Inst. of Technology, Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-03-20

    The rare gas discharge gives a stable discharge and light emission characteristics at low temperature in comparison with the discharge of the vapor of such a metal as Hg. The present barrier for the commercialization of the color PDP lies in the lower level of its emission intensity and efficiency in comparison with that of CRT. In this report, an electron impact ionization coefficient in a gas mixture and an electron impact excitation coefficient for a XeIs {sub 4} level were analyzed using a Boltzmann equation by means of a steady state Townsend method using a drift tube. By comparing both, the elementary process in the gas mixture is investiagted to discuss the respective contributions for the effective ionization coefficient and the excitation coefficient. As a result, it was found that the ionization process in the He-Xe gas mixture could be described by the processes of direct ionization of Xe and He, and an indirect ionization (Penning effect) by an active helium. 37 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Pressure dependence of emission intensity of rare-gas excimer light produced by silent discharge; Teikiatsu ryoiki ni okeru musei hoden reiki ki gas excimer hikari shutsuryoku no atsuryoku izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    To establish the pressure dependence of silent discharge excited rare gas excimer light emission, a vacua ultraviolet light was subjected to spectroscopic analysis at a pressure lower than 20kPa. Researches are under way to apply the discharge excited rare gas excimer lamp as a vacuum ultraviolet light source for the development of new materials and for the conservation of environments. When the pressure is as low as 1.8kPa or 4.4kPa, the emission has peaks at wavelengths centering on 147nm and 149nm, both of which are the resonance lines of the xenon atom. Excimer generation becomes prominent as the pressure increases, with the second continuum of light growing dominant at 35kPa to weaken relatively the resonance lines and the first continuum of light. In the first continuum, emission increases only at a suppressed rate, as compared with emission in the second continuum, due for instance to a collision caused relaxation process in which excimers are lost. In the case of xenon in the vicinity of 10-11kPa, the first continuum of light and the second continuum of light are approximately equal in emission intensity, producing a vacuum ultraviolet light source with a bandwidth relatively large for a single gas spectrum. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Ionization current in N2 gas. Part 7. ; Diffusion and reflection of metastable particles. N2 gas chu ni okeru denri denryu. 7. ; Jun antei reiki ryushi no kakusan to hansha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Ito, H.; Sekizawa, H. (Chiba Inst. of Technology, Chiba (Japan)); Ikuta, N. (Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    The energy loss process in quenching of excited particles by collision to other ones and solid surfaces was investigated with metastable excited particles formed in weakly ionized gases. The measured lifetime of N2 metastable particles in N2, N2/CO, N2/CH3 gases during Townsent discharge did not agree with the Molnar's theoretical value which was obtained by solving diffusion equations using the boundary condition that assumes the density of excited particles to be zero at electrodes and tube walls. Strange behavior was observed too, that is, coefficients of diffusion and reaction rate determined by the theoretical lifetime change systematically with the distance between electrodes. Then, the novel boundary condition that takes reflection coefficient into account was applied to solve diffusion equations. The results obtained could account for experimental results without any discrepancy. The analysis of results clarified the dependence of various parameters of metastable excited particles on the reflection coefficient. The increase of reflection coefficient decreases the surface quenching of excited particles at electrodes and elongs effectively excited lifetime and increases the number of collisional quenching in gas phases. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Generation of metallic arc spectrum of pumping discharge of XeCl laser; XeCl ekishima laser reiki hoden ni okeru arc iko to kinzoku supekutoru no hassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, H.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-12-20

    An arc generation of a long-pulse spiker-sustainer excimer laser with about 250ns of pulse width , is discussed by using time-varying spectroscopic method. First arcing occurs during a main discharge for laser excitation and shows XeII spectrum, while a glow-like discharge represents only XeI spectrum, the metallic spectrum such as Nil caused by vaporization of electrode material begins to appear just after the termination of the main discharge. Second arcing occurs after about 2{mu}s, which brings strong intensity of Nil spectrum. It means that the reignition arc might be produced in a metallic vapor that appears during the main discharge. Accordingly, it is concluded that the reignition arc is inherently metallic, which is different from the main arc with rare gas plasma. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Observation of microcracks due to high temperature creep in unidirectionally reinforced AS4/PEEK laminate 90-degree material. Ichihoko kyoka AS4/PEEK sekisoban 90deg zai no koon creep ni okeru bisho kiretsu no kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, R.; Kitamura, T.; Tada, N.; Ejima, T.; Sakurai, H. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)); Koizumi, T. (Toho Gas Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan))

    1998-05-21

    A flat strip specimen of an AS4/PEEK (polyetheretherketone) 90-degree material is subjected to a high temperature creep test, the test being interrupted at specified intervals for the detailed observation of the initiation and growth of microcracks. The specimen for the experiment is taken out of a CFRP laminate board in which a thermoplastic resin PEEK is unidirectionally reinforced by the carbon fiber AS4. The creep test is conducted in the atmosphere of 473K with the stress kept at 20MPa, and is interrupted every 4th hour for the observation of microcracks. Some findings are obtained as the result of the test, which are mentioned below. A general observation of the polished specimen surface identifies one approximately 100[mu]m-long crack, and a detailed observation detects a multiplicity of 2-14[mu]m-long interfacial cracks constituting the said crack. The crack growth rate is quite variable but a tendency exists for it to grow higher as the crack grows up. It is supposed that a crack grows when it merges with smaller cracks in presence in front of the crack tip. Among the cracks, there are many that halt at a matrix-rich region and fail to restart growing, this indicating that a matrix-rich region is highly resistant to crack growth. 6 figs.

  19. FY 1998 evaluation/analysis of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In the field test project for the photovoltaic power generation for public facilities, operational data were collected/analyzed on facilities at 158 sites installed from FY 1994 to FY 1997. As a result, the following were found out: Average values of the global radiation on an inclined surface, equivalent array operation time, equivalent system operation time, system operation time, inverter performance efficiency, inverter load factor, array power coefficient, and system power coefficient are 3.51 kWh/m{sup 2}/D, 2.72 h/D, 2.47 h/D, 10.3 h/D, 0.91, 0.30, 0.77 and 0.70, respectively. No deterioration with age was recognized in the 4-year operation data. As to the maintenance, the item, 'there are a lot of failures in the photovoltaic power system,' was 2% in rate. As to the inspection, times are mostly once a month. The annual maintenance cost was widely between about 360 yen/kW and about 30,000 yen/kW. Supposing annual expenses to be a total of capital expense, direct expense, and general administrative expense, the power generation cost dropped from approximately 240 yen/kWh in FY 1994 to 100 yen/kWh in FY 1997. (NEDO)

  20. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  1. Electronic structure of Ni/sub 3/Al and Ni/sub 3/Ga alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pong, W F; Chang, Y K; Tsai, M H; Hsieh, H H; Pieh, J Y; Tseng, P K; Lee, J F; Hsu, L S

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates the charge transfer and Al(Ga) p-Ni d hybridization effects in the intermetallic Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy using the NiL/sub 3.2/- and K-edge and Al(Ga)K X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements. We find that the intensity of white-line features at the NiL/sub 3.2/-edge in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni /sub 3/Ga) alloy decreased in comparison with that of pure Ni, which can be attributed to the enhancement of Ni3d states filling and the depletion of the density of Ni 3d unoccupied states in the Ni/sub 3 /Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy. Two clear features are also observed in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) XANES spectrum at the Al(Ga) K-edge, which can be assigned to the Al(Ga) unoccupied 3p (4p) states and their hybridized states with the Ni 3d/4sp states above the Fermi level in Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga). The threshold at Al K-edge XANES for Ni/sub 3/Al clearly shifts towards higher photon energies relative to that of pure Al, indicating that Al loses charges upon forming Ni/sub 3 /Al. ...

  2. 111Cd PAC Study of Gd-Ni Intermetallic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presa, P. de la; Forker, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a perturbed angular correlation study of the magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions of 111 Cd on Gd sites of the Gd-Ni intermetallic compounds GdNi, GdNi 2 , GdNi 3 , Gd 2 Ni 7 , GdNi 5 and Gd 2 Ni 17 .

  3. Measurement of 59Ni and 63Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; He, Ming; Ruan, Xiangdong; Xu, Yongning; Shen, Hongtao; Du, Liang; Xiao, Caijin; Dong, Kejun; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Xuran; Lan, Xiaoxi; Wu, Shaoyong; Zhao, Qingzhang; Cai, Li; Pang, Fangfang

    2015-10-01

    The long lived isotopes 59Ni and 63Ni can be used in many areas such as radioactive waste management, neutron dosimetry, cosmic radiation study, and so on. Based on the large accelerator and a big Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the measurement method for 59Ni and 63Ni is under development at the AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). By using the ΔE-Q3D technique with the Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the isobaric interferences were greatly reduced in the measurements of 59Ni and 63Ni. A four anode gas ionization chamber was then used to further identify isobars. With these techniques, the abundance sensitivities of 59Ni and 63Ni measurements are determined as 59Ni/Ni = 1 × 10-13 and 63Ni/Ni = 2 × 10-12, respectively.

  4. Measurement of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); He, Ming, E-mail: minghe@ciae.ac.cn [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Ruan, Xiangdong [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Xu, Yongning [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Shen, Hongtao [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Du, Liang; Xiao, Caijin; Dong, Kejun; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Xuran [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Lan, Xiaoxi [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wu, Shaoyong; Zhao, Qingzhang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Cai, Li [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Pang, Fangfang [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The long lived isotopes {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni can be used in many areas such as radioactive waste management, neutron dosimetry, cosmic radiation study, and so on. Based on the large accelerator and a big Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the measurement method for {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni is under development at the AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). By using the ΔE-Q3D technique with the Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the isobaric interferences were greatly reduced in the measurements of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni. A four anode gas ionization chamber was then used to further identify isobars. With these techniques, the abundance sensitivities of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni measurements are determined as {sup 59}Ni/Ni = 1 × 10{sup −13} and {sup 63}Ni/Ni = 2 × 10{sup −12}, respectively.

  5. Ni4Ti3 precipitate structures in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holec, David; Bojda, Ondřej; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 481, Sp. Iss. (2008), s. 462-465 ISSN 0921-5093. [ESOMAT 2006. Bochum, 10.09.2006-15.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitates * Multi-step martensitic transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  6. Relation between shape of Ni-particles and Ni migration in Ni-YSZ electrodes – a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu

    2016-01-01

    pressure (pH2O) gradient as previously observed [1], but in the present cases Ni seems to migrate up the pH2O gradient. However, it is also observed that there is a preceding phase in this Ni-YSZ electrode degradation, namely that the Ni-particles closest to the YSZ electrolyte loose contact to each other......This is an attempt to explain a phenomenon of total depletion of Ni next to the electrolyte in Ni-YSZ cermet electrodes in solid oxide electrolysis cells during electrolysis at high current density/overpotential. Intuitively, we would think that Ni would always migrate down the steam partial...

  7. Hexanuclear [Ni6L12] metallacrown framework consisting of NiS4 square-planar and NiS5 square-pyramidal building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angamuthu, R.; Kooijman, H.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Bouwman, E.

    2007-01-01

    The hexanuclear [Ni6L12] (2) wheel-type cluster adopts an unusual structural motif whereby four NiS4 square-planar and two NiS5 square-pyramidal units are conjoined by edge sharing; the NiS5 units resemble the Ni centre of the inactive state in the [NiFe] hydrogenase.

  8. Superstructure of NiAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozue, Tatsuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisao; Kamimura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    The structural transition in NiAs was studied by neutron diffraction on the single crystalline sample. The crystal structure of NiAs has been reported to be bottom-centered orthorhombic with Cmc2 1 symmetry (niccolite-type). The measurement of temperature dependence of the powder X-ray diffraction revealed that NiAs undergoes a structural transition to the NiAs-type at T t =335 K. In present neutron diffraction experiment at room temperature, we observed the reflections indexed on the basis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The intensities of these reflections are qualitatively explained in terms of the niccolite-type structure with taking account of three domain structures, except for the weak reflections indexed as (001), (003) and (012). Then, the intensities of (001), (002) and (004) reflections were measured in temperature range of 20 to 420 K. The temperature dependences of (002) and (004) reflections qualitatively agree with those of the calculated intensities using the atomic positions of niccolite-type structure. However, the temperature dependence of (001) reflection shows the anomaly around T t , which suggests the symmetry of crystal structure of NiAs is not the Cmc2 1 symmetry. (author)

  9. Giant magnetoimpedance effect in sputtered single layered NiFe film and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Zhou, Y.; Lei, C.; Zhou, Z.M.; Ding, W.

    2010-01-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect on NiFe thin film is very promising due to its application in developing the magnetic field sensors with highly sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the single layered NiFe thin film and NiFe/Cu/NiFe thin film with a meander structure are prepared by the MEMS technology. The influences of sputtering parameters, film structure and conductor layer width on GMI effect in NiFe single layer and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film are investigated. Maximum of the GMI ratio in single layer and sandwich film is 5% and 64%, respectively. The results obtained are useful for developing the high-performance magnetic sensors based on NiFe thin film.

  10. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    content (99.8% Ni and 99.995% Ni) were used to examine the impact of impurities on the polarisation resistance and contact area morphology. The electropolished nickel wires were pressed against a polished 8 mol% YSZ surface. Extensive structural changes from a flat interface to a hill and valley structure...... between polarised and non-polarised samples. With pure nickel wires, however, the microstructures depended on the polarisation/non-polarisation conditions. At non-polarised conditions a hill and valley type structure was found. Anodic polarisation produced an up to 1 μm thick interface layer consisting...... of nano-sized YSZ particles with some Ni present. At cathodic polarisation both a granulated structure and a hill and valley structure resembling the structure of non-polarised samples were found. Small impurity ridges were surrounding the contact areas on non-polarised and cathodically polarised samples...

  11. Umreti ni mogla stara Sibila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Hriberšek

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Izid omenjene knjige prof. Jožeta Kastelica predstavlja še enega od dogodkov v sklopu proslave 200-letnice Prešernovega rojstva. Delo je nastalo na osnovi njegove (kot sam pravi »Že davno napisane in neobjavljene« doktorske disertacije, ki jo je za izdajo v knjižni obliki dopolnil in obogatil ne le vsebinsko, ampak tudi oblikovno. Naslov sam skriva v sebi globoko simboliko; na eni strani kaže na simbolično povezavo med Sibilo, ki ni mogla umreti prej, dokler se ni dotaknila prsti iz svoje domovine (zgodba je povzeta po Serviju in Prešernom kot prvim imenom slovenskega parnasa ter aludira na njuno nesmrtnost, po drugi pa že sam po sebi kaže na Prešernovo izjemno poznavanje antike.

  12. ni potni list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Krajnc

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Decembra 1994 je bila v Rimu velika mednarodna konferenca o permanentnem ali vse življenje trajajočem izobraževanju. Široki strokovni javnosti sta bila takrat prvič predstavljena tudi dva nova pojma: osebni učni načrt in učni potni list. Pri priči sta se prijela v teoriji in praksi - očitno sta bila oba predloga odsev potreb.

  13. Studies on the air distribution and thermal performance of the air circulation wall. Part 4. Study on the thermal emissivity of the air circulation layer`s surfaces; Gaidannetsu tsuki koho ni okeru tsuki sonai no netsu tsuki tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu. 4. Tsuki sonai hyomen no hosha tokusei ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimori, K.; Sakai, K.; Ishihara, O. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The thermal and air distribution characteristics of the air circulation wall in a heat-insulated system were grasped using an experimental model. In this paper, the difference in the heat exchange between the wall and air was confirmed based on the radiation on the circulation layer`s surface. In this system, thin air circulation layers with ventilating holes at the top and bottom are attached to the south and north outer walls of a wooden building. This system is a kind of passive solar house that achieves the insolation screening effect and the temperature rising effect based on solar collection. The heat flow in a circulation layer is eliminated by the natural convection heat transfer on the outer wall. The heat flow passing through insulating materials is the heat transfer by radiation. The heat flow based on the in-layer natural convection is increasingly eliminated by the decrease in temperature on the air circulation layer`s surface. The decrease in room surface temperature using aluminum foil and the reflective heat-insulated effect showed that the heat passing through the wall surface decreases as the convection heat transfer in an air circulation layer increases. 6 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Submicron particles of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 24; Issue 5. Submicron particles of Co, Ni and ... bulk values. The alloy particles follow a trend similar to the bulk alloys. ... G U Kulkarni1. Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560 064, India ...

  15. Revisiting El Niño Modokis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Shamal; Ashok, Karumuri; Swapna, P.; Sabin, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    The suggestion that there exist two types of El Niño in the tropical Pacific has generated a debate in the community. Applying various linear and non-linear approaches and composite analysis technique on observed and reanalyzed climate datasets primarily for the 1950-2010 period, we revisit the variability of the tropical Pacific in the light of this debate. Our objective is to examine whether the proposed El Niño Modokis need a classification distinct from canonical El Niños. Even if the distinction is subject to short data records, we demonstrate that the El Niño Modoki events indeed display a seasonal evolution and teleconnections different from the canonical El Niños, and that the distinction is not subject to inclusion of the two extreme El Niños 1982 and 1997 as canonical El Niños. We show that the El Niño Modoki events are not an artifact associated with the orthogonality constraint associated with the EOF technique. Our cluster analysis shows that evolutions of the canonical El Niño and El Niño Modokis through various seasons differ from one another. Importantly, the dynamic and thermodynamic air-sea coupling strength is distinctly different between the El Niño Modoki and the canonical El Niño events. We find that, dynamic feedback intensity is stronger for El Niño Modoki (canonical El Niño) during boreal summer (winter); though the air-sea coupling strength, a major contributor to Bjerknes feedback, is maximum for Modokis during the developing stages, it decreases thereafter. In case of thermodynamic feedback intensity, SST-wind-evaporation feedback is dominant for El Niños while SST-SHF feedback is important during El Niño Modokis. However, we find that the thermodynamic feedback values significantly differ across the flux datasets.

  16. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce crack-free thin surface layers consisting of binary (Al-Ni, Al-Fe) and ternary (Al-Ni-Fe) intermetallic phases by means of a high power laser beam. The laser surface alloying was carried out by melting Fe and Ni...

  17. Nanostructure analysis of friction welded Pd-Ni-P/Pd-Cu-Ni-P metallic glass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, T.; Shoji, S.; Kawamura, Y.; Hono, K.

    2005-01-01

    Friction welded Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 /Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass interface has been characterized by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy. The interface is fully amorphous with a gradual compositional change of Cu and Ni in the range of 30 nm. By annealing above T g , the interdiffusion of Cu and Ni progressed in the supercooled liquid region, and the crystallization occurred from the Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 glass

  18. Niños investigadores

    OpenAIRE

    Manfred Liebel

    2007-01-01

    EN LA SOCIOLOGÍA INFANTIL, EL PRINCIPIO DE HACER PARTICIPAR A NIÑAS Y NIÑOS en los procesos de investigación está ampliamente reconocido. Tomando como punto de partida ese principio de participación, el presente aporte analiza la pregunta de en qué medida y de qué manera los niños mismos pueden actuar como investigadores. A fin de apreciar en lo justo la perspectiva de los niños, el presente trabajo aboga por que –con el debido acompañamiento de personas adultas– la investigación esté en mano...

  19. Flowsheet for 63Ni production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Knauer, J.B.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Wiggins, J.T.; Porter, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The production of large quantities of high specific activity 63 Ni (>10Ci/g) requires both a highly enriched 62 Ni target and a long irradiation period at high neutron flux. Trace impurities in the nickel and associated target materials are also activated and account for a significant fraction of the discharged activity and essentially all of the gamma activity. While most of these undesirable activation products (mainly transition metals) can be easily removed as chloride complexes during anion exchange, chromium, present as 51 Cr, and manganese, present as 54 Mn, are exceptions and require solvent extraction of the in-cell product to achieve the desired purity. In addition to summarizing the current development and production experience, optimized flowsheets are discussed

  20. niños preescolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosario Portilla Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora la relación entre la escritura y la comprensión de la referencia a través de una tarea de sinonimia en niños entre 5 y 6 años de edad, de origen latinoamericano, escolarizados en Barcelona (España. Las variables relacionadas con la tarea de sinonimia fueron (a la comprensión de la entidad lingüística nombre y (b el nivel de conceptualización de la escritura de los niños y la presencia de etiquetas escritas durante la tarea. Para la tarea de sinonimia se utilizaron pares de sinónimos dialectales del español (de Latinoamérica y de la Península Ibérica. Los resultados mostraron una diferenciación en el razonamiento de los niños, la cual dependía de la comparación entre lenguaje oral y lenguaje escrito en el desarrollo de la tarea, evidenciando una mayor aceptación de la sinonimia en la modalidad de lenguaje oral que en la modalidad de lenguaje escrito.

  1. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition; Etude exclusive des collisions centrales Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: coexistence de phase et decomposition spinodale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, B

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  2. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified NiAl/NiAlTa Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Promising creep strengths were found for a directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloy when compared to other NiAl based intermetallics. The directionally solidified alloy had an off-eutectic composition that resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The room temperature toughness of the two phase alloy was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa. Alloying additions that may improve the room temperature toughness by producing multiphase alloys are discussed.

  3. Transparent nanostructured electrodes: Electrospun NiO nanofibers/NiO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamastra, F.R. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Nanni, F. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Enterprise Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Menchini, F. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Nunziante, P. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Grilli, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.grilli@enea.it [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2016-02-29

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/nickel(II) acetate precursor fibers were deposited by electrospinning directly on radio frequency sputtered thin Ni and NiO films grown on quartz substrate, starting from Ni(II) acetate and PVP solution in ethanol. The samples were calcined in air in the temperature range 400–500 °C to obtain transparent and conductive p-type NiO nanofibers on NiO films. A higher density of nanofibers was obtained on Ni/quartz substrates, as compared to NiO/quartz ones, demonstrating the feasibility of fiber adhesion directly to an insulating substrate previously coated by a thin Ni layer. Samples were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometric and resistance measurements. - Highlights: • Nanostructured electrodes: electrospun NiO nanofibers/NiO films were fabricated. • NiO fibers were directly grown on insulating substrate coated by thin Ni or NiO films. • Good quality crystalline fibers were obtained at low calcination temperatures. • Transparent and conductive p-type electrodes were fabricated.

  4. Atomistic calculations of hydrogen interactions with Ni3Al grain boundaries and Ni/Ni3Al interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskes, M.I.; Angelo, J.E.; Moody, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potentials have been developed for the Ni/Al/H system. The potentials have been fit to numerous properties of this system. For example, these potentials represent the structural and elastic properties of bulk Ni, Al, Ni 3 Al, and NiAl quite well. In addition the potentials describe the solution and migration behavior of hydrogen in both nickel and aluminum. A number of calculations using these potentials have been performed. It is found that hydrogen strongly prefers sites in Ni 3 Al that are surrounded by 6 Ni atoms. Calculations of the trapping of hydrogen to a number of grain boundaries in Ni 3 Al have been performed as a function of hydrogen chemical potential at room temperature. The failure of these bicrystals under tensile stress has been examined and will be compared to the failure of pure Ni 3 Al boundaries. Boundaries containing a preponderance of nickel are severely weakened by hydrogen. In order to investigate the potential embrittlement of γ/γ' alloys, trapping of hydrogen to a spherical Ni 3 Al precipate in nickel as a function of chemical potential at room temperature has been calculated. It appears that the boundary is not a strong trap for hydrogen, hence embrittlement in these alloys is not primarily due to interactions of hydrogen with the γ/γ interface

  5. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiot, B.

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  6. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings......The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low......, the nickel aluminide layer was no longer adherent to the tube and was only found within the deposit. However, Ni2Al3 coatings had provided some protection compared to uncoated and Ni coated tubes. The formation of nickel chloride binds aggressive chlorine and slows down the active oxidation mechanism...

  7. Optimal control of helicopters following power failure. Helicopter no engine koshoji no saiteki hiko seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Y.

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the optimal control of helicopters, the control procedures following power failure were theoretically investigated by applying nonlinear optimal control theory to the following four optimization problems. The first was minimization of the touchdown speed following power failure. Comparisons between the calculated optimal solutions and the empirical flight test results showed that pilots used nonoptimal controls, especially in the timing and amplitude of the collective flare before touchdowns. The second was prediction of the height-velocity (H-V) boundaries. The calculated H-V boundaries showed good correlation with the flight test results. The third was optimization of the takeoff procedures for category A STOL operation following power failure. The results showed that the required takeoff distance using the normal takeoff procedure can be significantly reduced. The fourth was evaluation of the takeoff performance for category A VTOL operation. The calculating method of the maximum takeoff weight was confirmed, and possibility of allowing the payload to be increased was shown. 38 refs., 53 figs.

  8. Analisis Interferensi dalam Kelas Kata Keishiki Meishi Khususnya Penggunaan Tame Ni dan You Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalti Novianti

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Article aimed to find out the amount of interference in the translation using tame ni and you ni. The research used analysis description. Data were taken by giving a test to 20 student from the Japanese Department, Bina Nusantara University. The result showed that there is some interference in the exercises in the test given to the respondents. It is concluded that the interference occurs because many students do not understand the differences in using tame ni anda you ni.

  9. Formation enthalpy of NiBe and Ni5Be21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.I.; Karpova, T.F.; Dalago, N.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    The method of dissolution calorimetry is used to determine standard enthalpies of NiBe and Ni 5 Be 21 formation, which are 84.8+-2.2 and (-669+-37)kJ/mol. The enthalpy values of NiBe and Ni 5 Be 21 at 331 K are shown to coincide (within the limits of errors of these values) with the values at the standard temperature of 298.15 K [ru

  10. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael K; Jia, Qingying; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Allen, Robert J; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-03-12

    We report a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unprecedented mass-activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline electrolyte. The HER kinetics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-oxide/C samples were evaluated in aqueous 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni-Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiO x and Cr 2 O 3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. The onset of the HER is significantly improved compared to numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys, including Ni-Mo materials. It is likely that at adjacent Ni/NiO x sites, the oxide acts as a sink for OH ads , while the metallic Ni acts as a sink for the H ads intermediate of the HER, thus minimizing the high activation energy of hydrogen evolution via water reduction. This is confirmed by in situ XAS studies that show that the synergistic HER enhancement is due to NiO x content and that the Cr 2 O 3 appears to stabilize the composite NiO x component under HER conditions (where NiO x would typically be reduced to metallic Ni 0 ). Furthermore, in contrast to Pt, the Ni(O x )/Cr 2 O 3 catalyst appears resistant to poisoning by the anion exchange ionomer (AEI), a serious consideration when applied to an anionic polymer electrolyte interface. Furthermore, we report a detailed model of the double layer interface which helps explain the observed ensemble effect in the presence of AEI.

  11. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3 Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, MK; Jia, QY; Ramaswamy, N; Allen, RJ; Mukerjee, S

    2015-03-12

    We report a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unpreeedented massactivity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). in alkaline electrolyte. The HER Oietics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-euride/C samples were evaluated in aquebus 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni-Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiOx and Cr2O3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. The onset of the HER is significantly improved compared to munerous binary dor ternary Ni-alloys, inCluding Ni Mg materials. It is likely that at adjacent Ni/NiOx sites, the oxide acts as a sink for OHads, while the metallic Ni acts as a, sink for the H-ads, intermediate of the HER, thus minimizing the high activation energy of hydrogen evolution via water reduction. This is confirmed by in situ XAS studies that show that the synergistic HER enhancement is due to NiO content and that the Cr2O3 appears to stabilize the composite NiO component-under HER conditions (where NiOx would typically be reduced to metallic Ni-0). Furthermore, in contrast to Pt, the Ni(O-x)/Cr2O3 catalyst appears resistant to poisoning by the anion.exchange ionomer (AEI), a serloua consideration when applied to an anionic polymer electrolyte interface. Furthermore, we report a: detailed model of the double layer interface which helps explain the observed ensemble effect in the presence of AEI.

  12. The Ni-Al-Hf Multiphase Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Darken method was applied to simulate the diffusion between γ-Ni| γ’-Ni3Al and γ’-Ni3Al|β-NiAl interfaces. The results of calculations were compared with the experimental concentration’s profiles of nickel, aluminum and hafnium in aluminide and hafnium doped aluminide coatings deposited by the CVD and PVD methods on pure nickel. The method deals with the Wagner’s integral diffusion coefficients and thermodynamic data - activities of components. The experimental results agree with the simulated ones.

  13. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contexto Familiar: Diferencias Conductuales entre Niños y Niñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aurelia Ramírez Castillo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se investigan las diferencias por género en problemas de conducta. En una muestra de 200 sujetos (niños y niñas en tre 5 y 18 años de Granada (España, los resultados concluyen que los niños tienen más problemas de conducta delictiva que las niñas. Cuando existen conflictos matrimoniales y prácticas de crianza negativas, de nuevo los niños tienen más problemas externos que las niñas. En este trabajo se investigan las diferencias por género en problemas de conducta. En una muestra de 200 sujetos (niños y niñas en tre 5 y 18 años de Granada (España, los resultados concluyen que los niños tienen más problemas de conducta delictiva que las niñas. Cuando existen conflictos matrimoniales y prácticas de crianza negativas, de nuevo los niños tienen más problemas externos que las niñas.

  15. Porous NiTi shape memory alloys produced by SHS: microstructure and biocompatibility in comparison with Ti2Ni and TiNi3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Paola; Panseri, Silvia; Ruffini, Andrea; Montesi, Monica; Ghetti, Martina; Zanotti, Claudio; Tampieri, Anna; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-10-01

    Shape memory alloys based on NiTi have found their main applications in manufacturing of new biomedical devices mainly in surgery tools, stents and orthopedics. Porous NiTi can exhibit an engineering elastic modulus comparable to that of cortical bone (12-17 GPa). This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Open cells porous NiTi was produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from Ni and Ti mixed powders. The main NiTi phase is formed during SHS together with other Ni-Ti compounds. The biocompatibility of such material was investigated by single culture experiment and ionic release on small specimen. In particular, NiTi and porous NiTi were evaluated together with elemental Ti and Ni reference metals and the two intermetallic TiNi3, Ti2Ni phases. This approach permitted to clearly identify the influence of secondary phases in porous NiTi materials and relation with Ni-ion release. The results indicated, apart the well-known high toxicity of Ni, also toxicity of TiNi3, whilst phases with higher Ti content showed high biocompatibility. A slightly reduced biocompatibility of porous NiTi was ascribed to combined effect of TiNi3 presence and topography that requires higher effort for the cells to adapt to the surface.

  16. Dynamic recovery in nanocrystalline Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Van Petegem, S.; Cervellino, A.; Durst, K.; Blum, W.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2015-01-01

    The constant flow stress reached during uniaxial deformation of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni reflects a quasi-stationary balance between dislocation slip and grain boundary (GB) accommodation mechanisms. Stress reduction tests allow to suppress dislocation slip and bring recovery mechanisms into the foreground. When combined with in situ X-ray diffraction it can be shown that grain boundary recovery mechanisms play an important role in producing plastic strain while hardening the microstructure. This result has a significant consequence for the parameters of thermally activated glide of dislocations, such as athermal stress and activation volume, which are traditionally derived from stress/strain rate change tests

  17. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Nitin; Claypoole, Leslie; Bachas, Leonidas G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  18. .';.:NI~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He mentions, inter alia, the share he had in the passing of Defence Act no 44 of 1957 and expresses his gratitude to God for saving his life and allowing him to ...... gevolg dat vier van ons seniors, brigadiers rang behou het. Een offisier, wat betreklik junior was voor die oorlog, is ook brigadiersrang toegeken, sodat hy in een ...

  19. Estilos de vida saludables de niños, niñas y adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Campo-Ternera; Yaneth Herazo-Beltrán; Floralinda García-Puello; Mariela Suarez-Villa; Orlando Méndez; Francisco Vásquez-De la Hoz

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir los estilos de vida saludables de niños, niñas y adolescentes de Barranquilla. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 991 niños, niñas y ado - lescentes. Se evaluó la actividad física mediante los cuestionarios de Actividad Física para Adolescentes y para niños escolares; se aplicó una encuesta que midió los conocimientos y prácticas de los escolares sobre salud bucal, lavado de manos, consumo de frutas y verduras y ...

  20. Creatividad en niños superdotados

    OpenAIRE

    González Román, María del Pilar

    1992-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio sobre la creatividad en los niños superdotados. Analizándose los diferentes modelos de creatividad y superdotacion avalados por un estudio empírico, en el cual se han valorado las diferencial que existen entre los niños superdotados y contraste a nivel verbal y grafico-espacial.

  1. Who is El Niño?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philander, S. George

    It is a curious story, about a phenomenon we first welcomed as a blessing but now view with dismay, if not horror [Philander, 1998]. We named it El Niño for the child Jesus, provided it with relatives—La Niña and ENSO—and are devoting innumerable studies to the description and idealization of this family. These scriptures provide such a broad spectrum of historical, cultural, and scientific perspectives that there is now confusion about the identity of El Niño. Trenberth [1997] summarizes the situation as follows.The atmospheric component tied to El Niño is termed the “Southern Oscillation.” Scientists often call the phenomenon where the atmosphere and ocean collaborate ENSO, short for El Niño-Southern Oscillation. El Niño then corresponds to the warm phase of ENSO. The opposite “La Niña” (“the girl” in Spanish) phase consists of a basinwide cooling of the tropical Pacific and thus the cold phase of ENSO. However, for the public, the term for the whole phenomenon is “El Niño.”

  2. Preparation of one-step NiO/Ni-CGO composites using factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.J.M. de; Sousa, A R.O. de; Camposa, L.F.A.; Macedo, D.A.; Loureiro, F. J.A.; Fagg, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis, processing and characterization of NiO/Ni- CGO composite materials as potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The particulate materials were obtained by a one-step synthesis method and characterized by thermal analysis (prior to calcination) and X-ray diffraction (calcined powder). The ceramic processing of samples containing from 30 to 70 wt.% NiO was carried out by factorial design. Besides the NiO content controlled during the chemical synthesis, the impacts of the pore-former content (citric acid, used in proportions of 0, 7.5 and 15 wt.%) and the sintering temperature (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C) were also investigated. The open porosity of NiO-CGO composites and reduced Ni-CGO cermets was modeled as a function of factors (NiO content, citric acid content and sintering temperature) and interaction of factors. (author)

  3. Torsional superelasticity of NiTi archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolender, Yves; Vernière, Anne; Rapin, Christophe; Filleul, Marie-Pierryle

    2010-11-01

    To reproduce and compare the intraoral torsional behavior of 10 commonly used preformed upper NiTi 0.017 x 0.025 archwires in 0.018-slot brackets at 20 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 55 degrees C. Ten upper preformed NiTi archwires were compared to a multibraided stainless steel wire. An original testing bench was used to reproduce palatal root torque applied onto an upper central incisor with a maximum value of 1540 g x mm. Ten samples of each wire type were tested at 20 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 55 degrees C each. Loading and unloading at 20 degrees C revealed three categories of wires: a group of four NiTi wires of relative stiffness bereft of any superelasticity, a group of six NiTi wires displaying some horizontal plateau, and finally the stainless steel wire of lesser stiffness. Testing at the average oral temperature of 35 degrees C produced the same three categories of wires, with only 2 of 10 NiTi wires displaying a superelastic effect (Copper NiTi 35 degrees C and 40 degrees C). None of the NiTi wires was superelastic at 55 degrees C. Moments increased with temperature as the martensite was replaced by the more rigid austenite. This study showed that most NiTi wires did not exhibit in torsion the superelastic effect traditionally described in bending. The combination of straight-wire prescriptions and rectangular superelastic NiTi archwires did not provide optimal constant moments necessary to gain third-order control of tooth movement early in treatment. A braided stainless steel rectangular archwire displayed better torsional behavior at 35 degrees C than most NiTi archwires of the same dimensions.

  4. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the analysis of factors contributing to the development of venture firms in the U.S. and Europe in the domain of energy technology, and survey of the actualities of venture firms in the Asian region (China) and the feasibility of their coordination with Japan; 2000 nendo energy gijutsu bun'ya ni okeru venture kigyo no hatten yoin bunseki oyobi Asia chiiki (Chugoku) ni okeru venture kigyo no jittai to Nippon tono renkei no kanosei ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In search of measures to take for raising, developing and integrating venture firms, studies are made about the process and factors of growth after the corporatization of venture firms in the U.S. and Europe, and then about the mechanism of industrial integration in newly-arising high technology- and novel industry-intensive areas and the actualities of strategic clustering. In China, studies are made about feasibility of coordination with Japan. Activities are conducted in the four domains of (1) the analysis of development and growth factors after launching a venture firm in the U.S., (2) analysis of factors contributing to the development of industrial integration in newly-arising high-technology areas, (3) actualities of assistance to ventures in Europe, and (4) the survey of venture trends in China. In domain (4), venture firm creating, raising, and assisting conditions are studied. Also studied are the actual state of venture firm creating, raising, and assisting, and some cases of venture firm creation and raising. (NEDO)

  5. Influence of annealing temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuan; Yao, Jiangfeng; Sun, Rui

    2018-03-01

    Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires (NWs) were synthesized by thermal annealing of Ni NWs and variations in the microstructure, surface morphology, and magnetic properties of the NWs as a function of annealing temperature were investigated. The results showed that the grain size and crystal quality of NiO increased with an increasing annealing temperature. Specially, the effect of annealing temperature was much greater than annealing time for the formation of Ni/NiO NWs during the oxidization process. The total weight gain of the Ni/NiO NWs continuously increased when the annealing temperature was lower than 400 °C and the annealing time was more than 2 h; however, the weight gain of the Ni/NiO NWs was almost constant after annealing for 40 min when the annealing temperature was higher than 500 °C. The thorns on the surface of the Ni/NiO NWs gradually passivated and magnetic properties declined when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 °C to 400 °C. Smooth Ni/NiO NWs with no magnetic properties were prepared when the annealing temperature was over 500 °C. The detail study regarding the formation and evolution of Ni/NiO NWs is of considerable value and may provide useful information regarding the choice of post-treatment parameters for different applications of Ni/NiO NWs.

  6. Niño maltratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ivis Crespo Barrios

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 200 niños maltratados que acuden al Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Juan Manuel Márquez" en el período comprendido de diciembre de 1990 a enero de 1992; éstos fueron seleccionados teniendo en cuenta los criterios de maltrato, y era el objetivo fundamental del estudio conocer cómo se comporta en nuestro medio. En los resultados se muestra que la forma más frecuente fue el tipo no intencional; la ingestión de tóxicos fue la forma de negligencia física más frecuente dentro del maltrato no intencional, ésta es más usual en los niños menores de 5 años; los trastornos psiquiátricos y el alcoholismo son favorecedores del maltrato intencional, la madre es la que más maltrata; la mortalidad por esta causa no fue elevada (5 fallecidos y los criterios de riesgo de maltrato tienen utilidad para su identificación.200 mistreated children who were seen at the "Juan Manual Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital from December, 1990 to January, 1992, are presented. These patients were selected taking into consideration the abuse criteria. The main objective of this paper was to know how these criteria behave in our enviroment. According to the results, the most common form was the non-intentional type. The ingestion of toxic agents was the most frequent form of physical neglect within the non-intentional mistreatment, and it is the most usual among children under 5. Psychiatric disorders and alcoholism favor the intentional mistreatment, and the mother mistreats the most. Mortality due to this cause was not high (5 deaths, and the abuse risk criteria are useful for its identification.

  7. Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor Based on In Situ Reduction of Ni/NiO-Graphene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ni/NiO nanoflower modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanocomposite (Ni/NiO-rGO was introduced to screen printed electrode (SPE for the construction of a nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The Ni/NiO-rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ reduction process. Graphene oxide (GO hybrid Nafion sheets first chemical adsorbed Ni ions and assembled on the SPE. Subsequently, GO and Ni ions were reduced by hydrazine hydrate. The electrochemical properties of such a Ni/NiO-rGO modified SPE were carefully investigated. It showed a high activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium. The proposed nonenzymatic sensor can be utilized for quantification of glucose with a wide linear range from 29.9 μM to 6.44 mM (R = 0.9937 with a low detection limit of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3 and a high sensitivity of 1997 μA/mM∙cm−2. It also exhibited good reproducibility as well as high selectivity.

  8. Asymmetry of inter-El Niño and -La Niña diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kug, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Over the North Pacific, there is a distinctive asymmetry of inter-El Niño and -La Niña diversity in atmospheric teleconnection patterns, indicating a strong diversity during La Niña events. Recent studies suggested that the typical patterns of the extratopical teleconnections associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are predominantly explained by the relative roles of the equatorial central Pacific (CP) and western North Pacific (WNP) precipitation anomalies. We find that the diversity of WNP precipitation anomalies is greater during La Niña events than during El Niño events. It also implies that the diversity of WNP precipitation anomalies during La Niña events is responsible for the diversity in the extratropical teleconnection. Since the relationship of anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) to precipitation is quite sensitive for SST in the range of 27-28°C, the WNP precipitation differences located over the warm pool among La Niña events lead to considerable teleconnection changes. In addition, we find here that the CMIP5 models well simulate the overall diversity in the tropical precipitation and extratropical teleconnection patterns during La Niña events, but it fails to reproduce a detailed pattern difference of atmospheric teleconnection in inter-La Niña events.

  9. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sommer, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr system is a basis for the production of bulk amorphous materials by rapid solidification techniques from the liquid state, it is of great scientific interest to determine the partial and the integral thermodynamic functions of liquid and undercooled liquid alloys. Such data, as was pointed out previously, are important in order to understand their extremely good glass-forming ability in multicomponent metallic systems as well as for processing improvements. In order to measure the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr quaternary, it is necessary to have reliable thermochemical data for its constituent canaries and ternaries first. In a series of articles, the authors have reported in detail the thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zr, Al-Zr, Al-Cu-Ni, and Al-Cu-Zr alloys. This article deals with the direct calorimetric measurements of the partial and the integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys and the heat capacity of liquid Ni 26 Zr 74 . In a subsequent article, the authors will present similar data for the liquid ternary Al-Ni-Zr and for the liquid quaternary Al-Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

  10. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3 Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael K.; Jia, Qingying; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Allen, Robert J.; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    We report a Ni–Cr/C electrocatalyst with unprecedented mass-activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline electrolyte. The HER kinetics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-oxide/C samples were evaluated in aqueous 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni–Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiOx and Cr2O3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. The onset of the HER is significantly improved compared to numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys, including Ni–Mo materials. It is likely that at adjacent Ni/NiOx sites, the oxide acts as a sink for OHads, while the metallic Ni acts as a sink for the Hads intermediate of the HER, thus minimizing the high activation energy of hydrogen evolution via water reduction. This is confirmed by in situ XAS studies that show that the synergistic HER enhancement is due to NiOx content and that the Cr2O3 appears to stabilize the composite NiOx component under HER conditions (where NiOx would typically be reduced to metallic Ni0). Furthermore, in contrast to Pt, the Ni(Ox)/Cr2O3 catalyst appears resistant to poisoning by the anion exchange ionomer (AEI), a serious consideration when applied to an anionic polymer electrolyte interface. Furthermore, we report a detailed model of the double layer interface which helps explain the observed ensemble effect in the presence of AEI. PMID:26191118

  11. Study of the central collisions in the reactions Ni + Al and Ni + Ni at 28 A.MeV; Etude des collisions centrales dans les reactions Ni + Al et Ni + Ni a 28 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, L.

    1995-12-01

    The work is in characterisation of mechanisms in the energy range of onset of multifragmentation (excitation energy of composed nucleus around 4 - 5 AMeV). This work focused on an experiment performed at the SARA facility, in Grenoble, using the AMPHORA multi detection array. I have been particularly interested in central collisions in the Ni + Al and Ni + Ni systems. The possibility to detect complete events for Ni + Al, and quasi-complete events for the Ni + Ni case, is the reason of this choice. Furthermore Ni + Ni presents the interest of a symmetrical system, for which the excitation energy per nucleon is maximum. The study of these reactions has been focused on the quasi-complete events (events for which at least 80 % of the total charge has been detected). Heavy ions produced in peripheral collisions are very likely emitted along the beam line or stopped in the plastic detectors, energy thresholds are too high for the quasi-target products detection, consequently by requiring complete or quasi-complete measurement of the total charge, we are able to detect mostly central events. The knowledge of informations like charge, energy or detection angles allows to isolate the source(s) and to reconstruct the size and the excitation energy of the source(s). Comparisons with simulations like sequential emission (GEMINI code), very deep inelastic collision or instantaneous emission (Berliner code) allows to characterise the first stage of the collision (binary collisions or central collisions) and the type of deexcitation of the source(s). Some calculations was also performed with the statistical model code MODGAN. Indeed azimuthal correlations seem to be a good tool in getting more information about involved reaction mechanisms. Comparisons with MODGAN provide information about angular momentum of the source and time delay between emissions of the two particles (separation between sequential or instantaneous process). (author). 69 refs.

  12. Effect of Ca/Al molar ratio on the growth of Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa and Chamaecyparis pisifera grown in nutrient solution culture and their critical point; Suiko saibai jokenka ni okeru sugi, hinoki, sawara no seiiku ni oyobosu Ca/Al no eikyo to critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Umezawa, T.; Murakoshi, M. [Bio-Environment Research, Co. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    A solution culture is experimented for the investigation of the effect of Ca/Al on the growth of Sugi (cryptomeria), Hinoki (cypress), and Sakura (cherry tree), and of CP (critical point for the emergence of the effect of Al). The solution culture is performed in water under specified conditions, the harvest is assortedly collected after 14 weeks, and is measured for dried weight. Sugi and Hinoki wither and die at an Al concentration of 5mM, but not at an Al concentration of 1mM or less. The concentration of Ca fails to exert any significant influence. At the Al concentration of 5mM, the trees are inhibited from growing in height or trunk diameter, but not affected by Ca concentration. The dried weight shares the same trend. The dried weight begins to decrease when the mol concentration ratio of Ca/Al or (K+Ca+Mg)/Al lowers to four or less. It may be concluded that conifers are inhibited from growing when the Al concentration is 2mM or higher, Ca/Al is one or lower, or (K+Ca+Mg)/Al is five or lower. If the point where growth is inhibited by 20% or 50% is chosen as the reference point, the CP of (K+Ca+Mg)/Al will be 1 or 0.5, respectively. This means that a different reference point yields a different value. There is an experimental outcome stating that growth is not affected even when this value is 0.4 in the case of soil exposed to artificial acid rain. 22 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Investigation of the creation of functional surfaces and the recent development in related researches. 2. Investigation of the development of new isolation/refining systems in water system; Kokino hyomen no sosei to shintenkai no kenkyu doko chosa. 2. Suikei ni okeru atarashii bunri seisei system no kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Propositions were made concerning new chromatography and membrane separation techniques wherein a command control material is used, the mobile phase is fixed upon water, and the fixed phase is caused to vary by external commands, and how to develop the said techniques into a project was discussed. New methods were also introduced, capable of separating water systems and, particularly, capable of separating and refining, without damaging their functions, bionic elements such as proteins, genes, and cells, which encouraged discussion on the future of the said project. As for command controlled materials, detailed investigations were conducted into materials responsive to physical stimulation such as light, electric field, magnetic field, or heat and materials responsive to PH and chemical or biochemical substances, and discussion was made on the structures and characters of the said materials. Concerning the manufacture of a command controlled surface, consideration centered particularly about the density and thickness of command controlled molecules to be introduced onto the surface. Furthermore, the current state and problems were discussed regarding chromatographic separation and refining of optical isomers, nucleic acids, physiologically active substances, peptides, cells, etc. 252 refs., 75 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Recent energy situation in the U.S. and Europe. Trend of discussions on energy safety security and energy policies in the E.U. and CIS (commonwealth of independent states) countries; Obei ni okeru saikin no energy jijo. Energy anzen hosho ni kansuru giron no doko to EU oyobi CIS shokoku no energy seisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The E.U. intends to establish the stabilized new partnership and economic area, based on free trades and tighter economic cooperation with Mediterranean countries. For the purpose of establishing the effective cooperative relationship in the energy field, the E.U. committee taking the short- and medium-term initiative prepares as follows: The establishment of the European/Mediterranean Energy Forum is thought of. This is for the joint management of cooperation in the energy field and the organization of the conferences and meetings of information exchanges between partners. The discussion is started for the final joining in the organization of partners of Mediterranean countries who do not participate in the Pan-European Energy Charter conference. They study options adoptable for easing investments. They cooperate with the related countries for carrying out the project having common interest in the TENs (Trans-European energy networks) field. The working-out of plans and projects is promoted for coordinating energy projects according to the purposes and procedures of MEDA. 59 refs.

  15. Characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in rotating pipe. 2nd Report. Pressure characteristics in downstream of the entrance of rotating pipe; Kaiten enkannai kieki nisoryu no ryudo tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kaitenkan iriguchi karyuiki ni okeru atsuryoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Osaka, Y. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-04-25

    In the present study, we report experimental results obtained from air-water two-phase flows in the downstream region of a rotating pipe which consists of three independent rotating parts with a total length of 3 m. The pressure drop characteristics associated with the change in flow behavior due to effect of the pipe rotation are examined. Particular attention is paid to the length of the rotating pipe on the pressure drop characteristics. From the results of experiment, it is revealed that the effect of the rotating pipe becomes significant in the downstream of the entrance. A correlation based on the consideration of bubble fusion number applied to the bubble fusion model (proposed in the previous report) can be used to estimate the friction multiplication factor {phi}L{sup 2} satisfactory in bubble flow and plug flow regimes for the developed rotating two-phase flows. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Geotechnical environmental inhomogeneity monitoring by visualization of surface and subsurface electrode array resistivity data. Investigation by simple predictable models in earth resources information system engineering; Chihyo oyobi chichu denkyoku riyohi teiko data ni yoru jiban fukinshitsu kankyo no chika joho kashika monitoring. Shigen joho system kogaku ni okeru tanjunna model no sotei to sono yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugano, T.; Ogawa, J.; Moriyama, D.; Kishi, W.

    1998-02-10

    Data of potentials and resistivity obtained by surficial and underground electrodes are utilized for the study of underground information visualization. Current sources are given by dots, to be analyzed by the use of an finite element method 2D-3D algorithm. Resistivity is analyzed as a 2D structure, with the analysis model x-axis made to squarely cross the run of underground structure and the z-axis designated to be positive in the downward direction. In a 3D Poisson equation, Fourier transformation and 2D Helmholtz equation are solved relative to the y axis (structure run direction). The boundary conditions of the x and z are considered for a solution in the domain of investigation, and the use of inverse Fourier transformation determines the potentials distribution in the 3D space. When apparent resistivity due to actual electrode arrangement is calculated based on this potentials distribution and is reverse-analyzed, the underground resistivity distribution may be picturized. To put this technique to practical use, studies are conducted of the assumption of a simple model and prediction accuracy, basics of resistivity data analysis, and fundamental problems in the effective use of resistivity data utilizing the surficial and underground electrodes. A conclusion is reached as to what direction the basic policy should face. 20 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  17. FY 1997 report on the survey on the current residential waste treatment and integrated utilization of waste including heat supply in Shanghai city; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Shanghai shi ni okeru seikatsu gomi shori no genjo narabini kyonetsunado wo fukumu sogo riyo ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Survey was made on residential waste treatment in Shanghai city. Shanghai city with nearly 13 million registered residents produces on average 10,000-11,000 tons/day residential solid wastes. Such wastes are basically disposed by land filling. A landfill site has a current disposal capacity of 7,500 tons/day, and is scheduled to be expanded up to 9,000 tons/day. Problems of waste disposal in Shanghai city are as follows: transportation of wastes collected in the city by trucks, transportation through transit stations to the landfill site by ships, and high disposal cost. Shanghai Environmental Sanitation Bureau is pursuing researches on recycling of wastes, reduction of wastes and harmless treatment in place of conventional land filling. As the survey result, adoption of complete separate collection of wastes is basically important, and application of the latest technologies such as combustion treatment for every waste, heat use, gasification fusion furnace, and RDF (refuse derived fuel) for coal-firing boilers should be considered. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Survey report for fiscal 1997 on the survey report on the actual state of technical cooperation on industrial technologies by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiiki ni okeru Obei shokoku no sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru gijutsu kyoryoku jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The actual state was surveyed on the technical cooperation by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region. The U.S.A. is making research cooperation with Thailand on ethylene molecule structures to enhance productivity in rubber production, France on molecule markers for high production rubber clone selection, and Australia on grain storing and drying methods. For the Philippines, America is giving assistance on management of reproducible resources, France on climate information communications systems for local areas, Australia on grain storing and drying methods, and Germany on waste oil recovery and reutilization, and development of pollution-free energy resources. For Malaysia, the Great Britain is cooperating on building engineering research centers, Australia on search for plant patheology genetic organics available in the Pacific region, and Germany on investigative researches on pollution prevention for tin mines and processing areas, and forestry and plant information systems. With respect to the ASEAN, this paper reports its activities placing importance on biology and electronics engineering, while the organization is taking actions in the areas of foodstuffs, animals, electronics, information and material science, energy exploration, marine and earth physics, and resource development. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the coal preparation sector in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sentan bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Specifying the coal preparation technology among clean coal technologies (CCT) in China, the paper investigated governmental policies, plans, standards of coal preparation technology, subjects, etc. toward the introduction/spread of coal preparation technology, and studied decision, introduction and spread of the coal preparation system suitable for the coal utilization status in China. The survey was conducted in Shanxi and Henan Provinces which are main provinces of coal production, and field survey was made at some selected coal preparation plants having different operational conditions. In the field survey, problems on the operation were extracted, and points of improvement were studied at the same time. Further, to grasp the positioning of coal preparation in CCT in China, survey was carried out on laws and regulation on coal preparation in terms of energy and environmental policies. Finally, the result of the field survey was analyzed, a coal preparation system of which the introduction/spread in medium- and long-term are enabled was proposed considering the coal utilization status and economic situation in China, and how to introduce/spread it was studied. 35 figs., 42 tabs.

  20. Fabrication of submerged caissons for constructing the west route tunnel of the Tokyo Port Coastal Road, and construction of ventilation shafts using the pneumatic caisson process; Tokyowan rinkai doro nishi koro tunnel kensetsu koji ni okeru chinmaikan no seisaku oyobi pneumatic caisson koho ni yoru kanki tatekui no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan Office, Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, T.; Hayashi, N.; Koyama, F. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    This paper introduces fabrication of submerged caissons for an ocean bottom tunnel for the Tokyo Port Coastal Road, and construction of ventilation shafts (on either side of the tunnel) using the pneumatic (pressurized air) caisson process. With regard to the submerged tunnel, eleven submerged caissons made of reinforced concrete with a width of 32.3 m, a height of 10m and a length of 120 m were fabricated in a nearby dock. The both ends of the ducts were covered with iron lids, and the dock was filled with sea water to float the ducts. Then, the ducts were towed and submerged by using a catamaran submerging work ship, connected under water pressure, and laid on the sea bottom. The ventilation shafts were structured from above the sea surface by using the pneumatic caisson process. After foundation piles of the caissons were driven, the factory-fabricated steel shell caissons were transported on the sea; pulled into beam stands having already been constructed; and then settled onto the sea bottom by using weight of the concrete of the bottom slabs. Thereafter, while the ducts were subsided at a subsiding speed of 10 to 30 cm per day, the main body construction was completed in the prescribed sequence. Remote ground controlled drilling system was used to operate a drilling machine by radio from a ground operating room to load and unload the earth automatically. The construction was completed maintaining the construction environment safely and reliably. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Influence of bow-tie trees on the residual AC breakdown voltage of dry-cured XLPE power cables under immersed accelerated aging test. Shinsui kadenka ni okeru kanshiki kakyo polyethylene cable no zanson hakai den'atsu tokusei ni oyobosu bow tie jo mizu tree no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T.; Shinoda, C.; Nakamura, K.; Hotta, M.; Tani, T. (Yazaki Electric Wire Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-20

    A 6-kV class polyethylene cable manufactured by using a dry-cured three-layer extrusion system has been subjected to accelerated deterioration under immersed condition (at a voltage of 6.9V and a frequency of 1 kHz for an application period as long as 18 months as maximum). The cable had then been given a breakdown test by means of an application method based on the electric power standard to derive the residual breakdown voltage characteristics. Causes of the breakdown have been discussed by using a pre-interruption method. This paper reports the result of the discussion. The following findings have been obtained: the residual breakdown voltage values vary largely on the whole, but no trend has been observed that the voltage decreases as the application period for accelerated deterioration becomes longer; generation of bow-tie trees (with a length of about 600 [mu]m or longer) in contact with internal or external semiconduction layer largely reduces the breakdown voltage values, and presence of bow-tie trees has increased the variation in the breakdown values; and the breakdown voltage values vary largely due to moisture in the bow-tie trees contacting the semiconduction layer. 12 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Characteristics of combustion and heat transfer of excess enthalpy flames stabilized in a stagnation flow. 2nd Report. ; Heat flux at high flow rate and effects of Lewis number. Yodomi nagarechu ni anteika sareta choka enthalpy kaen no nensho oyobi etsudentatsu tokusei. 2. ; Koryuryo ni okeru netsuryusoku oyobi Lewis su no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S. (Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)); Asato, K.; Kawamura, T. (Gifu University, Gifu (Japan). Faculty of Engineerirng); Mazaki, T. (Daido Senior High School, Nagoya (Japan)); Umemura, H. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-25

    For the purpose of developing small-sized combustors of high heat transfer efficiency for household and business uses, a study has been carried out on the characteristics of an excess enthalpy flame stabilized in a stagnant flow, the maximum heat flux utilizable from flames through a heat receiver wall, the heat transfer characteristics near the extinction limits, and the effects of Lewis number (Le). Even when heat is drawn from the heat receiver wall in the downstream of flames, stable flames are kept until they extremely approach the heat receiver wall by the effect of preheating for lean methane-air flames of Le[approx equal]1.0 and lean propane-air flames of Le>1.0 and by the effect of preheating and Lewis effect for lean hydrogen-air flames of Le<1.0. In any flames, therefore, the heat flux to the heat receiver wall increases abruptly with the increase of stagnant velocity gradient and thereby the heat transfer characteristics at the heat receiver wall are improved. Heat transfer in the cases where flames exist on the outside and inside of the temperature boundary layer depend not on the thickness of the temperature boundary layer but on the position of flames. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Report on the fiscal 1993 investigational study of the environmental technology development trend in Japan. Trend survey of the introduction policy of environmentally friendly products; 1993 nendo Nippon ni okeru kankyo gijutsu kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata seihin no donyu hosaku nado doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    An investigation was conducted into the systematical scheme for the introduction and promotion of environmentally friendly products mostly to the U.S., Europe and China. In the U.S., the introduction policy is given to one and all fields of the industry. The introduction policy of the U.S. has a characteristic that the introduction is left to the market principle by DSM or permit dealing, etc. except the preferential tax system and systematical finance in which the government is concerned. The policy of European countries is characterized by the idea preceding, standards or rules are first given, and the whole is pushed on to them. Accordingly, it seems that there is few atmosphere of expecting to receive the government side economic incentives from the corporate side. Legal regulations on the environment in China were prepared in a comparatively early time (1979), but the supervision of obeying the regulations and the appearance/spread of environmentally friendly product menus have just started. Accordingly, as the introduction policy on environmentally friendly products, there was found nothing valuable but the regulations. 12 refs., 3 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M.

    1996-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. FY 1999 cooperation program - Comprehensive research cooperation in environmental technology. Research cooperation in toxic/hazardous waste management in the Laguna de Bay region; 1999 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo gijutsu sogo kenkyu kyoryoku - Raguna ko chiiki ni okeru yudoku yugai haikibutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing preventive measures for water contamination in the Laguna de Bay region, the Philippines, where the water contamination is in progress and the eutrophication is feared, a research cooperation project was carried out on the water quality contamination monitoring technology (measuring method/analysis method/prediction method). In the survey of the state of generation of toxic/hazardous waste, the following were grasped based on the existing data: amount of use of toxic/hazardous substances in factories, state of generation of waste, situation of the processing/disposal, etc. In the detailed survey of the situation of pollution in the Laguna de Bay region, specimens of water quality and bottom material were collected from the lake and rivers thereinto, and qualitative/quantitative analysis of contaminants was made using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gaschromatograph mass spectrometer. As to the evaluation of pollutant sources and control method, the paper conducted the introduction of measures generally taken against pollutant sources, study of a method to grasp the behavior of contaminants by the environmental assessment method for the closed water area, etc. The training was also conducted for researchers/engineers widely in charge of management of toxic/hazardous waste in the Philippines. (NEDO)

  6. Study on the energy performance of an energy producing and saving house. Part 3. Measurement results of the connecting system to the power grid and prediction of the PV system electric generation residence in Kyushu; So sho energy seino ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gyakuchoryu keito renkei system no nenkan jisseki to Kyushu ni okeru jutaku deno hatsudenryo yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O.; Sakai, K.; Hirakawa, M. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    Two-year study of an energy-producing/-saving house equipped with a 5kWp photovoltaic power generation system is described, in which the track records of this system capable of back-flow and system interconnection and inverter performance are analyzed, and the power expected to be obtained when photovoltaic power generation systems are installed in some residential houses in the Kyushu area is predicted. In the analysis of the yearly variance in the demand/supply of electric power, it turns out that more is generated in spring than in summer, which is thanks to the good weather in spring, typhoons in summer, and power generation efficiency degraded due to temperature rise in the modules. The amount of photovoltaic cell module-generated power is estimated by performing a multiple regression analysis involving the amount of insolation, outside air temperature, and wind speeds. Furthermore, available power is calculated using a relational expression involving inverter performance. On the assumption of 3kW-capacity photovoltaic power generation systems installed at residential houses at various locations across Kyushu, the expected amount of power to be generated is calculated, which proves to be approximately 3000kWh a year, confirming the effectiveness of the photovoltaic power generation system. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Change of environmental factors in different site which effect the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic module. Comparison of the environmental factors in Shinjuku Tokyo with the one in Chino Nagano; Kotonaru chiten ni okeru taiyo denchi no henkan koritsu ni eikyo wo ataeru kankyo inshi no henka. Tokyoto Shinjukuku to Naganoken Chinoshi no kankyo inshi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T.; Tani, T.; Hirata, Y.; Inasaka, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Environmental factors affecting conversion efficiency of solar cells were measured in Tokyo and Nagano to comparatively study the difference. In the study, measurement was made of intensity of global solar radiation on an inclined surface (insolation intensity), ambient air temperature, and distribution of spectral solar radiation at the two points. Also measured were output characteristics of polycrystal silicon solar cell modules and amorphous silicon solar cell modules. The result of the comparative analysis was as follows: The annual inclined global solar radiation amount integrated in 1996 is 27% more in Nagano than in Tokyo. The weighted average insolation intensity in Nagano is 0.09 kW/m{sup 2} higher in Tokyo. The weighted average cell temperature in Nagano is 4degC lower than in Tokyo. The effective spectral ratio in Nagano is 1-2% lower both in polycrystal Si and amorphous Si than in Tokyo. Thus, it was inferred from that environmental factors are different that conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic modules were different. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Submerged arc welding in the ArN sub 2 mixture gas atmosphere. Report 3. ; Various gas atmosphere. Ar-N sub 2 kongo gas fun prime ikichu ni okeru submerge arc yosetsu ni tsuite. 3. ; Kakushu gas fun prime iki no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Akamatsu, T.; Ukita, S. (Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)); Iwamoto, N. (Osaka University, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    The research of submerged arc welding under many kinds of gas atmosphere cannot be found up to now except the Ar or Ar-O {sub 2} atmosphere. This research was carried out for the welding to clarify the effect on the oxygen and nitrogen contents in weld metal as well as the chemical reaction which occurrs during the welding under Ar-N {sub 2} atmosphere changing the nitrigen partial pressure; and then the absorbed energy by Charpy impact test of these metals was measured. The following results could be obtained: The oxygen content in the weld metal did not change with the change of nitrogen partial pressure. The nitrogen content increased as the nitrogen partial pressure increased. The Si content increased slightly with the increase of nitrogen partial pressure. The Mn content was almost constant but in some cases decreased slightly by the flux compositions as the nitrogen partial pressure increases. The absorbed energy changed (increased or decreased) depending on the flux compositions as the nitrogen partial pressure increased. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Interfacial phases in diffusion-bonded joints of commercial Al alloys. Report 2. Diffusion-bonding mechanism of aluminum alloys by transmission electron microscopy; Jitsuyo Al gokin no setsugo kaimen ni okeru keiseiso. 2. Toka denshi kenbikyo kansatsu ni yoru Al gokin no kakusan setsugo kiko no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, K. [Industrial Research Inst. of Aichi Prefecture, Aichi (Japan); Ikeuchi, K.; Matsuda, F. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Inst.

    1996-05-05

    In this study, the diffusion-bonded joints of pure Al 1080, Al-Cu-Mg 2017 alloy, Al-Si 4043 alloy, Al-Mg 5005 alloy and 5052 alloy, Al-Mg-Si 6063 alloy and Al-Zn-Mg 7N01 alloy are carried out, the joint interfaces are observed by using a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the interfacial phases in the joint interfaces are identified by electron ray diffraction. Then, the tensile strength of the interfaces and fracture patterns are investigated and the effects of the interfacial phases and the metal components therein on the bondability are studied. As the results of the study, the followings are recognized. The oxides in the joint interfaces of commercial Al alloys are dominated by the Mg content, when the Mg content is 0 to 0.01%, uncrystallized continuous film, when the Mg content is 0.3 to 1%, crystallized oxide grain Al2MgO4, and when the Mg content is 1 to 2.4%, crystallized oxide grain MgO are formed respectively. The bonding strength as well as the interface fracture patterns of the alloys with Mg content of 0 to 0.01% and more than 0.3% are quite different. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of the current state and tasks of research and development of technologies for effectively utilizing CO{sub 2} fixation by higher vegetation; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Koto shokubutsu ni okeru nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu no genjo to kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations and studies are conducted seeking for a CO2 fixation method improved by utilizing the photosynthesizing function of higher vegetation. Details of higher vegetation genes are being disclosed thanks to the rapid progress of studies making use of molecular biological techniques, and the application of the genetic mechanism to scientific and technological fields is becoming increasingly feasible. In particular, the role of the CO2 fixation enzyme RuBisCO has been elucidated almost completely. It has been learned that, in terms of photosynthesizing capability, the C{sub 4} plants (corn etc.) are 2-3 times higher than the C{sub 3} plants (rice, wheat, etc.), and 5-10 times higher than the CAM plants (cactuses etc.). Studies are also under way about the rice genome so that a photosynthesizing capability so high as that of the C{sub 4} plants may be endowed the rice plant. The metabolism and control of useful substances produced in the CO2 fixation process etc. in the higher vegetation are being investigated, and it is now expected that some day such useful substances will be produced and utilized efficiently. Researches are under way into the relationship between the green leaf that is the organ that performs photosynthesis and the organ (sink) that stores and utilizes starch and sugar is in progress, and now a new field is going to open where vegetables will be fully utilized. (NEDO)

  11. Combustion-driven oscillation in a furnace with multispud-type gas burners. 4th Report. Effects of position of secondary air guide sleeve and openness of secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation condition; Multispud gata gas turner ni okeru nensho shindo. 4. Nijigen kuki sleeve ichi oyobi nijigen kuki vane kaido no shindo reiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, I.; Okiura, K.; Baba, A.; Orimoto, M. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-25

    Effects of the position of a secondary air guide sleeve and the openness of a secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation conditions were studied experimentally for multispud-type gas burners. Pressure fluctuation in furnaces was analyzed with the previously reported resonance factor which was proposed as an index to represent the degree of combustion oscillation. As a result, the combustion oscillation region was largely affected by both position of a guide sleeve and openness of a guide vane. As the openness having large effect on the ratio of primary and secondary air/tertiary air and the position hardly having effect on the ratio were adjusted skillfully, the burner with no combustion oscillation region was achieved in its normal operation range. In addition, as the effect of preheating combustion air was arranged with a standard flow rate or mass flow flux of air, it was suggested the combustion oscillation region due to preheating can be described with the same manner as that due to no preheating. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  12. niños pre-escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra León Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las producciones narrativas orales de niños de pre-escolar y relacionar estos desempeños con la lectura de imágenes. Se conformó una muestra de 9 niños entre 4 y 6 años que pertenecían a instituciones de educación formal. Se realizó un análisis de tarea de la historieta presentada y la aplicación de ésta fue de manera individual en el contexto familiar del niño. Los resultados mostraron que los niños identificaban la situación inicial de la narración, en la cual relacionaban personajes principales, actividades propias de ellos y del espacio donde sucedían sin embargo, a medida que se avanzaban en el procedimiento, se observó cómo se dificultaba para los niños la elaboración de las otras categorías que estructuran la narración como la complicación, la reacción, la resolución y la situación final. En relación con las estrategias cognitivas se observó que cuatro niños se encuentra en un nivel cognitivo bajo, cuatro se encuentra en un nivel cognitivo medio y un niño, en un nivel cognitivo alto. En cuanto a los procesos de lectura de imágenes se encontró que sólo dos niños utilizaron la referencia y dos niños usaron conectores temporales

  13. Electrochemical preparation and characteristics of Ni-Co-LaNi5 composite coatings as electrode materials for hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang; Li Ning; Dai Changsong; Zhou Derui

    2004-01-01

    Electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 composite electrodes prepared by electrochemical codeposition technique was evaluated. The relationship between the current density for hydrogen evolution reaction and the amount of LaNi 5 particles in Ni-Co baths is like the well-known 'volcano plot'. The Surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Co-LaNi 5 coatings were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetic parameters were determined from electrochemical steady-state Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology in 1 M NaOH solution. The values obtained for the apparent energies of activation are 32.48, 46.29 and 57.03 kJ mol -1 for the Ni-Co-LaNi 5 , Ni-Co and Ni electrodes, respectively. The hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 proceeds via Volmer-Tafel reaction route with the mixed rate determining characteristics. The composite coating Ni-Co-LaNi 5 is catalytically more active than Ni and Ni-Co electrodes due to the increase in its real surface areas and the decrease in the apparent free energy of activation caused by the electrocatalytic synergistic effect of the Ni-Co alloys and the hydrogen storage intermetallic particles on the electrode surface

  14. De niños e infancias

    OpenAIRE

    Camenen, Gersende; Liendo, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    A Sarmiento, el niño sabio, lo llevan de casa en casa como al prodigio del pueblo para oírlo leer en voz alta. Norah Lange, la niña excéntrica, grita desaforada en distintos idiomas y finge carcajadas enloquecidas desde el techo de su casa hasta gastar la voz. Reinaldo Arenas, el niño salvaje, escribe, como Celestino, poemas con un cuchillo en el tronco los árboles para que no amanezca. Borges, el traductor precoz, lee a los seis años el Quijote en inglés sin tener la menor sospecha de que el...

  15. New developments in Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.; Hoghoj, P. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    It is now 20 years since super-mirrors were first used as a neutron optical element. Since then the field of multilayer neutron-optics has matured with multilayers finding their way to application in many neutron scattering instruments. However, there is still room for progress in terms of multilayer quality, performance and application. Along with work on multilayers for neutron polarisation Ni/Ti super-mirrors have been optimised. The state-of-the-art Ni/Ti super-mirror performance and the results obtained in two neutron-optics applications of Ni/Ti multilayers are presented. (author).

  16. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latvala, Siiri; Hedberg, Jonas; Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n) and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2) were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80-100 wt% for metallic Ni) than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1-3 wt% for all particles). Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay) whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20-40 μg cm2) when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE). Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2). Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1) was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies.

  17. Exchange bias variations of the seed and top NiFe layers in NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayer as a function of seed layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.K.; Yoon, S.M.; Kim, C.G.; Kim, C.O.

    2005-01-01

    Development of exchange bias at the seed and top NiFe layers in the NiFe (t nm)/FeMn(10 nm)/NiFe(5 nm) trilayer structure is investigated as a function of seed layer thickness, in the range of 2-20 nm. The seed NiFe layer shows maximum exchange bias at 4 nm seed layer thickness. The bias shows inverse thickness dependence with increasing thickness. The top NiFe layer on the other hand shows only half the bias of the seed layer which is retained even after the sharp fall in seed layer bias. The much smaller bias for the top NiFe layer is related to the difference in crystalline texture and spin orientations at the top FeMn/NiFe interface, in comparison to the bottom NiFe/FeMn interface which grows on a saturated NiFe layer with (1 1 1) orientation

  18. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-06-25

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  19. Free-energies of the Ti-Ni, Fe-Ni and Mo-Ni alloys in relation to their behaviour under particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Tendler, R.H.; Rodriguez, C.; Gallego, L.J.; Alonso, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The metastable free-energy diagrams of the Ti-Ni, Fe-Ni and Mo-Ni systems were calculated at room temperature using a semiempirical theory based on thermodynamic considerations. Ti-Ni and Mo-Ni form equilibrium-ordered compounds that are destabilized by particle irradiation. Effectively, Ti 2 Ni, TiNi, MoNi and MoNi 3 amorphize after irradiation. In the present work, this experimental behaviour is understood by considering the modification of the free-energy diagrams after particle irradiation. Conversely, in the Fe-Ni system, a metastable f c c solid solution evolves under irradiation towards ordered FeNi. In this system, according to our calculation, the free-energy of the amorphous phase is much higher than the free-energy of any other competing phase, so the amorphous phase cannot be produced. Each selected alloy has an intermetallic compound (TiNi 3 , FeNi 3 and MoNi 4 ) which does not amorphize by particle irradiation and whose composition is close to the nickel-rich end of the phase diagram. According to the calculated free-energy diagrams, the reason for this impossibility of amorphization would be the competition of the terminal solid solution with the amorphous phase. (Author)

  20. Precipitation of Ni4Ti3-variants in a polycrystalline Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bojda, Ondřej; Eggeler, G.; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2005), s. 99-104 ISSN 1359-6462 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitation * Transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2005

  1. Influence of Ni Solute segregation on the intrinsic growth stresses in Cu(Ni) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaub, T.M.; Felfer, P.; Cairney, J.M.; Thompson, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Using intrinsic solute segregation in alloys, the compressive stress in a series of Cu(Ni) thin films has been studied. The highest compressive stress was noted in the 5 at.% Ni alloy, with increasing Ni concentration resulting in a subsequent reduction of stress. Atom probe tomography quantified Ni's Gibbsian interfacial excess in the grain boundaries and confirmed that once grain boundary saturation is achieved, the compressive stress was reduced. This letter provides experimental support in elucidating how interfacial segregation of excess adatoms contributes to the post-coalescence compressive stress generation mechanism in thin films. - Graphical abstract: Cu(Ni) film stress relationship with Ni additions. Atom probe characterization confirms solute enrichment in the boundaries, which was linked to stress response.

  2. Continuum mechanics simulations of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites during reduction and re-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Repeated reduction–oxidation (redox) cycles on Ni-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have been experimentally well investigated and are known to be detrimental to the thermomechanical stability of the composites, especially on anode supported structures. In the present work the mechanistic...... for the dimensional change arises from the volumetric change related to the phase change NiO ↔ Ni. The measurable change in bulk length is given by the ceramic YSZ backbone as a response to the stress created by the chemical strain. The different subprocesses described in the model for YSZ were elastic and anelastic...... expansion, diffusional creep, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and microcracking due to excessive stress. In the Ni/NiO phase, nonelastic strains in terms of diffusional and power law creep were implemented, and additionally for NiO deformation due to microcracking and/or pseudoplasticity. Semi...

  3. Site occupancy of Fe in ternary Ni 75-x

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of a detailed structural and magnetic study clearly indicate that regardless of the thermal history of the samples, Fe has a strong preference for the Ni sites in Ni-poor (non-stoichiometric) Ni75Al25 alloys. Fe substitution has a profound effect on the nature of magnetism in Ni75Al25.

  4. Reduction of a Ni/Spinel Catalyst for Methane Reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Fløystad, Jostein Bø

    2015-01-01

    microscopy (HRTEM) was performed on the fresh catalyst sample. The Ni particles in the fresh catalyst sample were observed to exhibit a Ni/NiO core/shell structure. A decrease of the Ni lattice parameter is observed during the reduction in a temperature interval from 413 – 453 K, which can be related...

  5. Electronic structure of graphene on Ni surfaces with different orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudikov, D.A.; Zhizhin, E.V.; Rybkin, A.G.; Rybkina, A.A.; Zhukov, Y.M.; Vilkov, O. Yu.; Shikin, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of the graphene, synthesized by propylene cracking on Ni surfaces with different orientation: (100) and (111), using angle-resolved photoemission, has been performed. It has been shown that graphene on Ni(111) had a perfect lateral structure due to consistency of their lattices, whereas graphene/Ni(100) consisted of a lot of domains. For both systems electronic structure was quite similar and demonstrated a strong bonding of graphene to the underlying Ni surface. After Au intercalation the electronic structure of graphene in both systems was shifted to the Fermi level and became linear in the vicinity of the K point of the Brillouin zone. - Highlights: • Graphene on Ni(111) is well-ordered, whereas on Ni(100) – multi-domain. • Graphene on Ni(111) and Ni(100) is strongly bonded with substrate. • Intercalation of Au atoms restores the linearity in dispersion and makes graphene quasi-free on both Ni(100) and Ni(111).

  6. Modeling and simulation of NiO dissolution and Ni deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Suk Woo; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Lim, Tae Hoon [Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Dissolution of NiO cathode into the electrolyte matrix is an important phenomena limiting the lifetime of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The dissolved nickel diffuses into the matrix and is reduced by dissolved hydrogen leading to the formation of metallic nickel films in the pores of the matrix. The growth of Ni films in the electrolyte matrix during the continuous cell operation results eventually in shorting between cathode and anode. Various mathematical and empirical models have been developed to describe the NiO dissolution and Ni deposition processes, and these models have some success in estimating the lifetime of MCFC by correlating the amount of Ni deposited in the matrix with shorting time. Since the exact mechanism of Ni deposition was not well understood, deposition reaction was assumed to be very fast in most of the models and the Ni deposition region was limited around a point in the matrix. In fact, formation of Ni films takes place in a rather broad region in the matrix, the location and thickness of the film depending on operating conditions as well as matrix properties. In this study, we assumed simple reaction kinetics for Ni deposition and developed a mathematical model to get the distribution of nickel in the matrix.

  7. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  8. The magnetic moment of Ni in the Laves phase compound GdNi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Kazuo; Umehara, Izuru; Miyazawa, Tomoaki; Adachi, Yoshiya; Sato, Kiyoo

    2005-01-01

    Magnetization and inverse susceptibility of the Laves phase compound GdNi 2 were investigated and analyzed in detail by employing molecular-field analysis. Both the temperature dependence of the magnetization and the Curie-Weiss (C-W) law-like linear relationship of inverse susceptibility are reproduced in terms of a two-sublattice model and it is seen that the magnetic structure of GdNi 2 is ferrimagnetic and Ni in GdNi 2 retains a magnetic moment of about 0.24μ B

  9. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India); Mandal, S.K., E-mail: sk_mandal@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India)

    2010-04-15

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni{sup 2+} clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni{sup 2+} clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  10. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A. R.; Mandal, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni 2+ clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni 2+ clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  11. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R.; Mandal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni 2+ clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni 2+ clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  12. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3 Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Michael K.; Jia, Qingying; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Allen, Robert J.; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    We report a Ni–Cr/C electrocatalyst with unprecedented mass-activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline electrolyte. The HER kinetics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-oxide/C samples were evaluated in aqueous 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni–Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiOx and Cr2O3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. Th...

  13. Pressure dependence on the remanent magnetization of Fe-Ni alloys and Ni metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingguo; Gilder, Stuart Alan; Maier, Bernd

    2014-10-01

    We measured the acquisition of magnetic remanence of iron-nickel alloys (Fe64Ni36, Fe58Ni42, and Fe50Ni50) and pure Ni under pressures up to 23 GPa at room temperature. Magnetization decreases markedly for Fe64Ni36 between 5 and 7 GPa yet remains ferromagnetic until at least 16 GPa. Magnetization rises by a factor of 2-3 for the other compositions during compression to the highest applied pressures. Immediately upon decompression, magnetic remanence increases for all Fe-Ni alloys while magnetic coercivity remains fairly constant at relatively low values (5-20 mT). The amount of magnetization gained upon complete decompression correlates with the maximum pressure experienced by the sample. Martensitic effects best explain the increase in remanence rather than grain-size reduction, as the creation of single domain sized grains would raise the coercivity. The magnetic remanence of low Ni Invar alloys increases faster with pressure than for other body-centered-cubic compositions due to the higher magnetostriction of the low Ni Invar metals. Thermal demagnetization spectra of Fe64Ni36 measured after pressure release broaden as a function of peak pressure, with a systematic decrease in Curie temperature. Irreversible strain accumulation from the martensitic transition likely explains the broadening of the Curie temperature spectra, consistent with our x-ray diffraction analyses.

  14. Grain boundaries in Ni3Al. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.; Sass, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface

  15. Niños y Violencia

    OpenAIRE

    International Child Development Centre

    1997-01-01

    Este Innocenti Digest explora la violencia de los niños y hacia los niños, usando el marco de la Convención de los Derechos del Niño de las Naciones Unidas. Se centra en la violencia interpersonal, tanto intrafamiliar como extrafamiliar. Se incluye el abuso sexual y la explotación ya que a pesar de no implicar obligatoriamente violencia o coerción, la mayor parte de la evidencia demuestra su efectos dañinos tanto físicos como psicológicos. También se discute la implicación de los niños en los...

  16. Root morphology of Ni-treated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskova, A.; Fargasova, A.; Giehl, R. F. H.; Wiren, N. von

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots are very important organs in terms of nutrient and water acquisition but they also serve as anchorages for the aboveground parts of the plants. The roots display extraordinary plasticity towards stress conditions as a result of integration of environmental cues into the developmental processes of the roots. Our aim was to investigate the root morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to a particular stress condition, excess Ni supply. We aimed to find out which cellular processes - cell division, elongation and differentiation are affected by Ni, thereby explaining the seen root phenotype. Our results reveal that a distinct sensitivity exists between roots of different order and interference with various cellular processes is responsible for the effects of Ni on roots. We also show that Ni-treated roots have several auxin-related phenotypes. (authors)

  17. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: An experimental and mechanistic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At

  18. Fe-Cr-Ni system alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Phase diagram of Fe-Cr-Ni system, which is the basic one for production of corrosion resistant alloys, is considered. Data on corrosion resistance of such alloys are correlated depending on a number of factors: quality and composition of modifying elements, corrosion medium, temperature, alloy structure, mechanical and thermal treatment. Grades of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys are presented, and fields of their application are pointed out

  19. Heteromorphic NiCo2S4/Ni3S2/Ni Foam as a Self-Standing Electrode for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Rao, Yuan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Jialiang; Wang, Luyang; Wu, Mingbo

    2018-04-04

    Considerable works have been devoted on developing high-efficiency nonplatinum electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, 3D heteromorphic NiCo 2 S 4 /Ni 3 S 2 nanosheets network has been constructed on Ni foam (denoted as NiCo 2 S 4 /Ni 3 S 2 /NF) serving as a self-standing electrocatalyst through directly thermal sulfurization of a single-source NiCo-layered double hydroxide precursor. The resultant NiCo 2 S 4 /Ni 3 S 2 /NF electrode exhibits outstanding electrocatalytic HER performance with an extremely low onset overpotential of 15 mV and long-term durability in alkaline solution. Such enhanced HER performance can be credited to (1) the massive exposed active sites provided by mixed transition metal chalcogenides (NiCo 2 S 4 and Ni 3 S 2 ), (2) the strong interfacial interaction at NiCo 2 S 4 /Ni 3 S 2 heterojunction interfaces with the strengthened H binding, and (3) the porous highly conductive Ni foam substrate with accelerated electron transfer. This work opens up a new direction to fabricate effective and non-noble-metal electrodes for water splitting and hydrogen generation.

  20. Heavy metal environmental impact. Nickel (Ni); Impatto ambientale da metalli pesanti. Il Nichel (Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ. Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-02-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a heavy metal in over 3.000 different alloys used to produce kitchen utensils, batteries, coins, etc.. Human extractive and industrial activities are therefore a cause for environmental dispersion of this metal into the biosphere. This shows how in urban areas car traffic and house-heating are the main sources of nickel pollution. Nickel is relatively non-toxic, such as iron, cobalt, copper and zinc; nevertheless prolonged inhalation of dust containing such compounds as Ni O or NiCl{sub 2} concurs in the outbreak of respiratory pathologies. The carcinogenic effect of such compounds as Ni S, Ni O and Ni(CO){sub 4} has been confirmed by experiments on laboratory animals. Ni potentially toxic concentrations, and as a consequence of potential environmental impact, are to be mainly found in populated areas where the main sources are represented by industries and landfills. [Italian] Il nichel (Ni) e' un metallo presente in oltre 3.000 differenti leghe che vengono utilizzate per la produzione di utensili da cucina, batterie, monete, ecc.. Le attivita' estrattive ed industriali dell'uomo sono quindi causa di una dispersione del metallo nella biosfera. Sono stati riscontrati elevati tassi di Ni nell'atmosfera di aree urbane. Cio' sta a dimostrare che nelle aree urbane il traffico automobilistico e il riscaldamento domestico sono le fonti principali di inquinamento da tale metallo. Il nichel e' relativamente atossico, analogamente a ferro, cobalto, rame e zinco, tuttavia l'inalazione protratta di polveri contenenti composti come il NiO o il NiCl{sub 2} contribuisce al manifestarsi di patologie dell'apparato respiratorio. E' stato confermato sperimentalmente su animali da laboratorio l'effetto cancerogeno di alcuni composti quali NiS, NiO e Ni(CO){sub 4}. Concentrazioni potenzialmente tossiche di Ni, e quindi di probabile impatto ambientale, sono maggiormente da ricercare nelle zone antropizzate dove le fonti

  1. Moessbauer analysis and magnetic properties of Invar Fe-Ni-C and Fe-Ni-Mn-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadutov, V. M.; Svystunov, Ye. O.; Kosintsev, S. G.; Tatarenko, V. A.

    2006-01-01

    The saturation magnetization and the hyperfine magnetic field of different f.c.c. Fe-Ni based alloys containing nearby 29 at .% Ni were studied as a function of temperature and for different Carbon and Manganese contents. We have observed abnormal behaviors that are explained in terms of mixed exchange interactions between atomic spins: J NiNi (r i ) FeFe (r i ) > 0, J NiFe (r i ) < 0.

  2. Single-crystalline Ni2Ge/Ge/Ni2Ge nanowire heterostructure transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Xiu, Faxian; Hong, Augustin J; Chen, Shengyu; Wang, Minsheng; Zeng, Caifu; Yang, Hong-Jie; Tuan, Hsing-Yu; Tsai, Cho-Jen; Chen, Lih Juann; Wang, Kang L

    2010-12-17

    In this study, we report on the formation of a single-crystalline Ni(2)Ge/Ge/Ni(2)Ge nanowire heterostructure and its field effect characteristics by controlled reaction between a supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) synthesized Ge nanowire and Ni metal contacts. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal a wide temperature range to convert the Ge nanowire to single-crystalline Ni(2)Ge by a thermal diffusion process. The maximum current density of the fully germanide Ni(2)Ge nanowires exceeds 3.5 × 10(7) A cm(-2), and the resistivity is about 88 μΩ cm. The in situ reaction examined by TEM shows atomically sharp interfaces for the Ni(2)Ge/Ge/Ni(2)Ge heterostructure. The interface epitaxial relationships are determined to be [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Back-gate field effect transistors (FETs) were also fabricated using this low resistivity Ni(2)Ge as source/drain contacts. Electrical measurements show a good p-type FET behavior with an on/off ratio over 10(3) and a one order of magnitude improvement in hole mobility from that of SFLS-synthesized Ge nanowire.

  3. Synthesis and magnetic properties of multilayer Ni/Cu and NiFe/Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (EV5 VSM, ADE Technologies) and MFM (D3100, Digital Instrument) were used to characterize the magnetic properties of these nanowires. 3. Discussion. The bamboo-like structure of Ni/Cu nanowires is shown in figure 1. From the. TEM micrograph the thickness of Ni layer and Cu layer are 400 nm and 50 nm, respectively.

  4. Eutectic superalloys strengthened by delta Ni3Cb lamellae, and gamma prime, Ni3Al precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkey, F. D.; Thompson, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Bivariant eutectic alloys, located on a liquidus surface within the Ni-Cb-Cr-Al quaternary, were identified which permitted the production of aligned delta Ni3Cb lamellae within a nichrome matrix containing the fcc precipitate gamma prime Ni3Al. The volume fraction of delta and gamma prime could be varied significantly by compositional changes. After directional solidification certain alloys possessed improved ductility and corrosion resistance with respect to the Ni3Al-Ni3Cb eutectic, while their values of tensile and creep strength approached or exceeded those for the Ni3Al-Ni3Cb pseudobinary system. The mechanical properties of the directionally solidified alloy, Ni-19.7 wt % Cb-6.0 wt % Cr-2.5 wt % Al, were evaluated. Its longitudinal strength in tension and creep was found to be superior to all advanced nickel base superalloys. It is thus demonstrated that useful properties for gas turbine airfoil applications can be achieved by reinforcing a strong and tough gamma nichrome matrix containing precipitated gamma prime by a strong lamellar intermetallic compound having greater strength at elevated temperature.

  5. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Splitting on NiO/Ni/Carbon Fiber Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyu Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale growth of low-cost, efficient, and durable non-noble metal-based electrocatalysts for water splitting is crucial for future renewable energy systems. Atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin coatings of electrocatalysts, which are useful in many technologies, including the splitting of water. In this communication, we report the growth of a NiO/Ni catalyst directly on carbon fiber paper by atomic layer deposition and report subsequent reduction and oxidation annealing treatments. The 10–20 nm NiO/Ni nanoparticle catalysts can reach a current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at an overpotential of 189 mV for hydrogen evolution reactions and 257 mV for oxygen evolution reactions with high stability. We further successfully achieved a water splitting current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at 1.78 V using a typical NiO/Ni coated carbon fiber paper two-electrode setup. The results suggest that nanoparticulate NiO/Ni is an active, stable, and noble-metal-free electrocatalyst, which facilitates a method for future water splitting applications.

  6. Adherencia al tratamiento en niñas y niños con VIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Ruiz Navia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y determina el grado de adherencia al tratamiento en niños y niñas con VIH/ SIDA teniendo en cuenta los comportamientos y las variables asociadas a ésta. La muestra estuvo conformada por 1 niño y 5 niñas, diagnosticados con VIH, y su respectivo cuidador primario, quienes respondieron a la entrevista semiestructurada de evaluación de adherencia para niños y niñas con VIH/ SIDA ad hoc y a la entrevista semiestructurada de evaluación de adherencia para niños y niñas con VIH/SIDA versión cuidador primario ad hoc, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran la presencia de conductas de adherencia en los participantes del estudio, evidenciando la influencia de una serie de variables determinantes para este comportamiento. Cinco de los participantes cumplieron más del 95% de adherencia, mientras que uno se ubicó por debajo de este porcentaje. Como aspectos centrales se destacan la influencia de los estados emocionales en la toma del medicamento y la importancia del rol del cuidador primario en la adherencia.

  7. Probing the semi-magicity of $^{68}$Ni via the $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni,$^{68}$Ni)p two-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Franchoo, S; Mertzimekis, T; Darby, I G; Van de walle, J; Raabe, R; Elseviers, J; Gernhaeuser, R A; Sorlin, O H; Georgiev, G P; Bree, N C F; Habs, D; Chapman, R; Gaudefroy, L; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Axiotis, M; Huyse, M L; Patronis, N

    We propose to perform the two-neutron transfer reaction $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni, $^{68}$Ni)$p$ using the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam at 2.7 $A$ MeV and the MINIBALL + T-REX setup to characterize the 0$^{+}$ and 2$^{+}$ states in $^{68}$Ni.

  8. First-Principles Study of Substitution of Au for Ni in Ni3Sn4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yali; Wu, Ping

    2018-02-01

    First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the effects of substitution of Au for Ni on the structural, elastic, thermodynamic and electronic properties of Ni3Sn4. The calculated lattice constants for the pure phase are consistent with the reported values. Substitution of Au for Ni results in a stable thermodynamic structure. The bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, hardness and thermal conductivity are decreased and the relative brittleness is improved after substitution. A three-dimensional graphic representation of the anisotropy of Young's modulus indicates that substitution of Au for Ni increases the anisotropy. All of the compound compositions examined are metallic and nonmagnetic. The electronic density of states manifests a conjoined peak between - 6 eV and - 4 eV hybridized by Au-d electrons and Sn-p electrons when the fraction of Au atom is above 14.29 at.% in Ni3Sn4.

  9. Ni(OH){sub 2} and NiO nano structures: Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghatforoush, Lotf Ali; Sanati, Soheila; Mehdizadeh, Robabeh [Payam Noor Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasanzadeh, Mohammad [Tabriz Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Hydrothermal route have been used in different conditions for preparation of Ni(OH){sub 2} nano structures. The NiO nanoparticles were obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor at 450 .deg. C for 2 h. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) as surfactant on the morphology and size of Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles were discussed in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. The growth mechanism of the as-synthesized nano structures was also discussed in detail based on the experimental results. Coming up, the NiO nanoparticle modified carbon paste electrode was applied to the determination of captopril in aqueous solution.

  10. Effect of amount of glycine as fuel in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.N.; Simoes, V.N.; Neiva, L.S.; Quirino, M.R.; Vieira, D.A.; Gama, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the effect of the amount of glycine in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO synthesized by combustion reaction technique. The amount of glycine used was calculated on the stoichiometric composition of 50% and 100%. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption by the BET method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed with powder of Ni/NiO result. The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed the presence of crystalline NiO phase in the presence of nickel as a secondary phase, whose amount increased with the amount of glycine. Increasing the concentration of glycine also caused an increase in surface area, which ranged from 1.1 to 1.4 m 2 /g. The micrographs revealed the formation of soft agglomerates with porous appearance and easy dispersions. It can be concluded that the synthesis is effective to obtain nanosized powders. (author)

  11. Mechanical alloying of the FeNi-Ag system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Ibarra, D.; Ochoa, J.; Villalba, R.; Sagarzazu, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Fe-Ni-Ag system is of particular interest for its potential applications as soft magnetic granular material with small magnetic grains embedded in a non-magnetic metal matrix. Under equilibrium conditions: Fe-Ag and Ni-Ag are immiscible and Fe-Ni shows complete solubility. These materials are particularly important for magnetoresistivity properties. The properties of these alloys are closely related to their microstructure; therefore, a detailed study of the transformations occurring during milling was undertaken using pre-alloyed Fe x Ni 100-x (x = 30, 50 and 70) further milled with different Ag content to give the following alloys compositions (Fe x -Ni 100-x ) 100-y Ag y (y = 5, 20, 60). Consolidation of the mechanically alloyed powders by sintering at 950 o C was performed. Morphological and structural characterization of the sintered powders was carried out by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Fe 30 Ni 70 and Fe 50 Ni 50 formed ordered FeNi 3 compound. Fe 70 Ni 30 showed the formation of a mixture of γ-(Fe,Ni) and α-Fe(Ni) solid solutions. The mixture of these systems with Ag showed the metal solid solutions surrounded by Ag islands of Fe x Ni y -Ag, There was also evidence of Ag diffusing into the γ-(Fe,Ni). High Ag content (60%) shows formation of islands of FeNi surrounded by Ag. Sintering is always improved with the Ag content

  12. Magnetoresistance of nanogranular Ni/NiO controlled by exchange anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bianco, L.; Spizzo, F.; Tamisari, M.; Allia, P.

    2013-01-01

    A link between exchange anisotropy and magnetoresistance has been found to occur in a Ni/NiO sample consisting of Ni nanocrystallites (mean size ∼13 nm, Ni content ∼33 vol%) dispersed in a NiO matrix. This material shows metallic-type electric conduction and isotropic spin-dependent magnetoresistance as well as exchange bias effect. The latter is the outcome of an exchange anisotropy arising from the contact interaction between the Ni phase and the NiO matrix. Combined analysis of magnetization M(H) and magnetoresistance MR(H) loops measured in the 5–250 K temperature range after zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and after field-cooling (FC) from 300 K reveals that the magnetoresistance is influenced by exchange anisotropy, which is triggered by the FC process and can be modified in strength by varying the temperature. Compared to the ZFC case, the exchange anisotropy produces a horizontal shift of the FC MR(H) loop along with a reduction of the MR response associated to the reorientation of the Ni moments. A strict connection between magnetoresistance and remanent magnetization of FC loops on one side and the exchange field on the other, ruled by exchange anisotropy, is indicated. - Highlights: • Nanogranular Ni/NiO with giant magnetoresistance (MR) and exchange bias effect. • Exchange anisotropy produces a shift of the field-cooled MR(H) loop and reduces MR. • MR, remanence of field-cooled loops and exchange field are three correlated quantities. • It is possible to control MR of nanogranular systems through the exchange anisotropy

  13. Oxide Scales Formed on NiTi and NiPtTi Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.; Garg, Anita; Rogers, Richard B.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Ni-49Ti and Ni-30Pt-50Ti (at.%) shape memory alloys were oxidized isothermally in air over the temperature range of 500 to 900 C. The microstructure, composition, and phase content of the scales were studied by SEM, EDS, XRD, and metallography. Extensive plan view SEM/EDS identified various features of intact or spalled scale surfaces. The outer surface of the scale was a relatively pure TiO2 rutile structure, typified by a distinct highly striated and faceted crystal morphology. Crystal size increased significantly with temperature. Spalled regions exhibited some porosity and less distinct features. More detailed information was obtained by correlation of SEM/EDS studies of 700 C/100 hr cross-sections with XRD analyses of serial or taper-polishing of plan surfaces. Overall, multiple layers exhibited graded mixtures of NiO, TiO2, NiTiO3, Ni(Ti) or Pt(Ni,Ti) metal dispersoids, Ni3Ti or Pt3Ti depletion zones, and substrate, in that order. The NiTi alloy contained a 3 at.% Fe impurity that appeared in embedded localized Fe-Ti-rich oxides, while the NiPtTi alloy contained a 2 v/o dispersion of TiC that appeared in lower layers. The oxidation kinetics of both alloys (in a previous report) indicated parabolic growth and an activation energy (250 kJ/mole) near those reported in other Ti and NiTi studies. This is generally consistent with TiO2 existing as the primary scale constituent, as described here.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of α-Ni(OH){sub 2} and its conversion to NiO with electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yong; Ma, Jianmin, E-mail: nanoelechem@hnu.edu.cn; Wang, Taihong, E-mail: thwang@hnu.edu.cn

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • α-Ni(OH){sub 2} microspheres have been synthesized with triethanolamine. • The formation mechanism of α-Ni(OH){sub 2} microspheres is suggested. • NiO deriving from α-Ni(OH){sub 2} microspheres exhibits better electrochemical performances. -- Abstract: The paper reports the fabrication of microscale NiO matrixes with enhanced electrochemical properties through annealing the corresponding chrysanthemum-like α-Ni(OH){sub 2} microspheres. The precursor α-Ni(OH){sub 2} can be synthesized by a hydrothermal method using triethanolamine as the alkaline source. The formation mechanism of chrysanthemum-like α-Ni(OH){sub 2} microspheres is properly discussed. Furthermore, the electrochemical experiments demonstrate that the microscale NiO matrixes show superior electrochemical behavior in lithium-ion batteries due to their unique structures.

  15. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of Mg85Ni10Ca5 and Mg90Ni10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Saito, Katsushi; Towata, Shin-ichi

    2005-01-01

    Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 and Mg 90 Ni 10 were prepared by melting mixtures of the elements in mild steel crucibles and pouring them into copper molds. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of the alloys were characterized by the volumetric method using a Sievert's apparatus, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallite size of Mg in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 , which is evaluated by XRD peak broadening, is about 50% smaller than that in Mg 90 Ni 10 . In addition, the nanometer-scale structure composed of Mg, Mg 2 Ni, Mg 2 Ca was observed in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 . Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 shows better hydrogen absorption kinetics than Mg 90 Ni 10 in the temperature range of room temperature to 573 K. The better absorption kinetics of Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 is mainly attributed to the nanometer-scale structure

  16. Evolution of Ni nanofilaments and electromagnetic coupling in the resistive switching of NiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Zhao, Diyang; Zhao, Yonggang; Chiang, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Pengcheng; Guo, Minghua; Luo, Nannan; Jiang, Xingli; Miao, Peixian; Sun, Ying; Chen, Aitian; Lin, Zhu; Li, Jianqi; Duan, Wenhui; Cai, Jianwang; Wang, Yayu

    2014-12-01

    Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found that multi-nanofilaments are involved in the low resistance state and the nanofilaments become thin and rupture separately in the RESET process with subsequent increase of the rupture gaps. Theoretical calculations reveal the role of oxygen vacancy amount in the evolution of Ni nanofilaments. We also demonstrate electromagnetic coupling in this system, which opens a new avenue for multifunctional devices.Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found

  17. Exchange bias beyond the superparamagnetic blocking temperature of the antiferromagnet in a Ni-NiO nanoparticulate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aparna; De Toro, J. A.; Amaral, V. S.; Muniz, P.; Riveiro, J. M.; Ferreira, J. M. F.

    2014-02-01

    We report magnetic and exchange bias studies on Ni-NiO nanoparticulate systems synthesized by a two-step process, namely, chemical reduction of a Ni salt followed by air annealing of the dried precipitate in the temperature range 400-550 °C. Size of Ni and NiO crystallites as estimated from X-ray diffraction line broadening ranges between 10.5-13.5 nm and 2.3-4 nm, respectively. The magneto-thermal plots (M-T) of these bi-magnetic samples show a well developed peak in the vicinity of 130 K. This has been identified as the superparamagnetic blocking temperature "TB" of NiO. Interestingly, all samples exhibit exchange bias even above their respective NiO blocking temperatures, right up to 300 K, the maximum temperature of measurement. This is in contrast to previous reports since exchange bias requires the antiferromagnetic NiO to have a stable direction of its moment in order to pin the ferromagnet (Ni) magnetization, whereas such stability is unlikely above TB since the NiO is superparamagnetic, its moment flipping under thermal activation. Our observation is elucidated by taking into account the core-shell morphology of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles whereby clustering of some of these nanoparticles connects their NiO shells to form extended continuous regions of NiO, which because of their large size remain blocked at T > TB, with thermally stable spins capable of pinning the Ni cores and giving rise to exchange bias. The investigated samples may thus be envisaged as being constituted of both isolated core-shell Ni-NiO nanoparticles as well as clustered ones, with TB denoting the blocking temperature of the NiO shell of the isolated particles.

  18. La niña proletaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartabia, Sabrina A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone trazar un paralelo entre el cuento de Osvaldo Lamborghini “El niño proletario”, el cual, según la autora del ensayo, introduce al lector en la lucha de clases y el sometimiento de los/as proletarios/as, que sufren las mujeres, en particular a través de la violencia sexual. De esa forma la autora se pregunta si el poder que ciertas clases detentan sobre otras no influye también sobre el sometimiento de la mujer. El ensayo analiza además cómo la violencia sexual es una herramienta que constituye la base de la desigualdad, el sometimiento y la degradación de la mujer, al igual que constituye una herramienta de opresión de otros grupos vulnerables como los niños y niñas.

  19. Analisis Kesalahan Penggunaan Partikel Ni dan De

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Carolina Marion

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Articel clasified the type and cause of mistake done by Bina Nusantara Japanese student of six and eight semesters on the use of ni (に and de (で particles indicating place in the exam. Data were collected from library research and distributed questionnaires to 79 student of the 6th and 8th semester, Japanese departement. The result showed that the student of Japanese language did not make the same mistake in using the ni (に and de (で particles having the some function in indicating place. It is concluded that the respondents are able to use the ni (に and de (で particles.       

  20. Advances in developing TiNi nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A. Torres; Cuellar, E. Lopez; Mendez, U. Ortiz; Yacaman, M. Jose

    2006-01-01

    The elaboration of nanoparticles has become a field of great interest for many scientists. Nanoparticles possess different properties than those ones shown in bulk materials. Shape memory alloys have the exceptional ability to recuperate its original shape by simple heating after being 'plastically' deformed. When this process is originated, important changes in properties, as mechanical and electrical, are developed in bulk material. If there is possible to obtain nanoparticles with shape memory effects, these nanoparticles could be used in the elaboration of nanofluids with the ability to change their electrical and thermal conductivity with temperature changes, i.e., smart nanofluids. In this work, some recent results and discussion of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by ion beam milling directly from a TiNi wire with shape memory are presented. The nanoparticles obtained by this process are about 2 nm of diameter with a composition of Ti-41.0 at.% Ni. Synthesized nanoparticles elaborated by this method have an ordered structure

  1. Effects of phase transformation and interdiffusion on the exchange bias of NiFe/NiMn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chih-Huang; Lien, W. C.; Chen, F. R.; Kai, J. J.; Mao, S.

    2001-01-01

    The correlation between the exchange field of NiFe/NiMn and the phase transformation of NiMn was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) dark-field images, contributed by the order phase of NiMn, were used to identify the location and volume fraction of the order phase. TEM selected area diffraction patterns showed the (110) superlattice diffraction rings of NiMn, verifying the existence of the order phase in the annealed samples. The order volume fraction can be calculated by the dark field image contributed by the (110) diffraction. The exchange field increased almost linearly with increasing order volume fraction. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy attached to TEM indicated that Mn diffused into NiFe for annealing at 280 degreeC, leading to a larger coercivity and small coercivity squareness. Part of the NiMn still maintains the paramagnetic phase even after annealing at 280 degreeC. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  2. Corrosion and wear resistance study of Ni-P and Ni-P-PTFE nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankita, Sharma; Singh, Ajay

    2011-09-01

    This article reports on the corrosion and wear resistance of Ni-P and Ni-P-PTFE nanocomposite coatings deposited on mild steel substrates using the electroless plating technique. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-Ray (EDAX), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The coatings were smooth and had thicknesses between 7 and 23 µm. They contained Ni, P, and additionally, F, in the case of the Ni-P-PTFE films. A broadening of the Ni peak in XRD was attributed to the amorphous nature and/or fine grain size of the films. Corrosion resistance was measured using immersion and electrochemical polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl solution whereas wear resistance was determined by the pin-on-disc method. Both Ni-P and Ni-P-PTFE coatings exhibited significant improvement in corrosion (in salty media) and wear behavior. Furthermore, the addition of PTFE in the coatings showed improvement in their corrosion resistance as well as a reduction in friction coefficient. Our testing revealed that the coatings' wore out following the "adhesive type" mechanism.

  3. Exchange bias in finite sized NiO nanoparticles with Ni clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Lin, Jauyn Grace, E-mail: jglin@ntu.edu.tw

    2017-02-15

    Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are investigated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. A minor Ni phase is detected with synchrotron XRD, attributed to the oxygen defects in the NiO core. A considerable exchange bias of ~100 Oe is observed at 50 K and it drops abruptly and vanishes above 150 K, in association with the reduction of frozen spins. FMR data indicate a strong interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases below 150 K, consistent with the picture of isolated FM clusters in AFM matrix. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are systematically investigated with several advanced techniques. • A strong interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases is found below 150 K. • Exchange bias field in finite sized NiO nanoparticles is due to anisotropy energy of Ni clusters over riding the domain wall energy of NiO.

  4. Exchange bias in finite sized NiO nanoparticles with Ni clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Lin, Jauyn Grace

    2017-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are investigated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. A minor Ni phase is detected with synchrotron XRD, attributed to the oxygen defects in the NiO core. A considerable exchange bias of ~100 Oe is observed at 50 K and it drops abruptly and vanishes above 150 K, in association with the reduction of frozen spins. FMR data indicate a strong interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases below 150 K, consistent with the picture of isolated FM clusters in AFM matrix. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are systematically investigated with several advanced techniques. • A strong interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases is found below 150 K. • Exchange bias field in finite sized NiO nanoparticles is due to anisotropy energy of Ni clusters over riding the domain wall energy of NiO.

  5. Bone Cell–materials Interactions and Ni Ion Release of Anodized Equiatomic NiTi Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Sheldon A.; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Davies, Neal M.; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Laser processed NiTi alloy was anodized for different durations in H2SO4 electrolyte with varying pH to create biocompatible surfaces with low Ni ion release as well as bioactive surfaces to enhance biocompatibility and bone cell-materials interactions. The anodized surfaces were assessed for their in vitro cell-materials interactions using human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells for 3, 7 and 11 days, and Ni ion release up to 8 weeks in simulated body fluids. The results were correlated with surface morphologies of anodized surfaces characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results show that the anodization creates a surface with nano/micro roughness depending on anodization conditions. The hydrophilicity of NiTi surface was found to improve after anodization due to lower contact angles in cell media, which dropped from 32° to NiTi surfaces after anodization. This work indicates that anodization of NiTi alloy has a positive influence on the surface energy and surface morphology, which in turn improve bone cell-materials interactions and reduce Ni ion release in vitro. PMID:21232641

  6. Tipos especiales de niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rodrigo Bellido

    1946-09-01

    Full Text Available En las tres últimas lecciones han sido expuestas algunas consideraciones referentes a niños y adolescentes desde el nacimiento hasta el dintel de la juventud. En todas ellas hemos procurado poner de relieve la necesidad de individualizar el conocimiento de cada niño para obtener mejores resultados en su adaptación a su futura vida de adultos, En todas ellas  nos hemos referido al llamado niño normal. Nos corresponde en la lección de hoy ocuparnos can la superficialidad característica de estas charlas tipo-muestrario, de otras categorías de niños muy dignos de interés.. quienes unas por exceso, otros por defecto, otros por dificultades de adaptación por diferentes causas, se desvían de la línea media de la normalidad. Consideramos que no está fuera del lugar, aquí, el tema de los niños excepcionales y por el contrario que es necesario intensificar el estudio de los trastornos de la vida mental y emocional de los niños en la preparación de los estudiantes de Medicina. Y no es nuestra solo esta opinión; no hace mucho tiempo en la Medical School de Ia Universidad de Minnessota hemos sabido que se ha hecho un intento de considerar y evaluar factores emocionales ambientales sobre las mismas bases que los descubrimientos fisiológicos.

  7. Generation and Decay Mechanisms of Ningaloo Niño/Niña

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Takahito; Tozuka, Tomoki; Yamagata, Toshio

    2017-11-01

    Using an ocean model, generation and decay mechanisms of warm/cool sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) off Western Australia, or Ningaloo Niño/Niña, are investigated through the calculation of a mixed-layer temperature (MLT) balance taking the mixed-layer depth (MLD) variation into account. Since Ningaloo Niño/Niña develops owing to local air-sea interaction and/or remote forcing, events are classified into two cases based on alongshore wind anomalies and analyzed separately. It is revealed that the anomalous meridional advection associated with the stronger Leeuwin Current and the enhanced warming by the climatological shortwave radiation because of the shallower MLD generate warm SSTAs in the coastal region for both cases of Ningaloo Niño. On the other hand, the latent heat flux damps SSTAs only in a case without northerly alongshore wind anomalies. In the decay, larger sensible heat loss is important. Because of the reduced meridional temperature gradient, the meridional advection eventually damps SSTAs. The sensitivity change to the climatological shortwave radiation owing to MLD anomalies explains offshore MLT tendency anomalies for both cases throughout the events. The mechanisms for Ningaloo Niña are close to a mirror image of Ningaloo Niño but differ in that the latent heat flux damps offshore SSTAs. The seasonal phase-locking nature of Ningaloo Niño/Niña is related to the seasonal variations of MLD and surface heat fluxes, which regulate the amplitude and sign of the sensitivity change to surface heat fluxes. It is also related to the seasonal variations of the Leeuwin Current and meridional temperature gradient through advection anomalies.

  8. Ionizing Radiation Effects in Ni Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlimas, D.; Kozlovsky, A.; Shumskaya, A.; Kaniukov, E.; Ibragimova, M.; Zdorovets, M.; Kadyrzhanov, K.

    2017-01-01

    Polycrystalline nickel nanotubes with diameter of 380 nm and wall thickness 95 nm were synthesized by electrochemical method using PET track-etched membranes with thickness of 12 μm. A comprehensive study of the structural, morphological and electrical characteristics of Ni nanotubes irradiated with C+13 ions with energy 1.75 MeV/nucleon and fluence ranging from 109 to 5 × 1011 cm-2 was carried out. The ability of modification of structural parameters such as lattice parameter and the average size of crystallites and conductivity of Ni nanotubes by irradiation was shown.

  9. Salud mental del niño

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina de González, Bernarda

    1987-01-01

    Es ya reconocida por todos las importancia de los primeros años de vida en la estructutración de la personalidad y, por consiguiente, en la salud mental del niño. En este artículo se hace una síntesis de los diferentes aspectos del desarrollo de la personalidad infanltil que seben ser conocidos por el personal de salud para estar en condiciones de brindar una atención integral a la madre y al niño. Con igual propósito se señalan algunos patrones de tipo psicosocial que influyen en la estabili...

  10. Magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Xia, H.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers has been investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance techniques (FMR). The FMR spectra are obtained as a function of the orientation of the applied magnetic field from in-plane to out-of-plane. The results are fitted theoretically to determine the magnetic anisotropy. From VSM and FMR, a positive value for Ni/Cr interface anisotropy is obtained, which favours a perpendicular easy axis. The possible mechanism for the perpendicular anisotropy has been discussed and it may be attributed to the magnetostriction, caused by intrinsic stress due to lattice mismatch. (orig.). With 005 figs., 001 tabs

  11. The structure of extruded NiAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, I.; Schulson, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    The deformation structure of Ni-rich NiAl extruded at 550 C has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by optical microscopy. Dislocations having a(100) Burgers vectors were found as complex networks, tangles, and prismatic loops. a(110) dislocations, which were rare, were concluded to arise from reactions of a(100) dislocations. Evidence of recovery and recrystallization was obtained. Extrusion was deemed to have been possible by the operation of (hko)(001) slip systems (often in plane strain flow) plus diffusion-assisted processes.

  12. Comparative effectiveness of NiCl2, Ni- and NiO-NPs in controlling oral bacterial growth and biofilm formation on oral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz

    2013-12-01

    Oral ailments are often treated with antibiotics, which are rendered ineffective as bacteria continue to develop resistance against them. It has been suggested that the nanoparticles (NPs) approach may provide a safer and viable alternative to traditional antibacterial agents. Therefore, nickel (Ni)- and nickel oxide (NiO)-NPs were synthesized, characterized and assessed for their efficacy in reducing oral bacterial load in vitro. Also, the effects of bulk compound NiCl2 (Ni ions), along with the Ni- and NiO-NPs on bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and biofilm formation on the surface of artificial teeth, and acrylic dentures, were investigated. Total bacteria from a healthy male were collected and adjusted to 4×109cells/ml for all the tests. Effect of the NPs on growth, biofilm formation, EPS production and acid production from glucose was tested using standard protocols. Data revealed that the Ni-NPs (average size 41.23nm) exhibited an IC50 value of 73.37μg/ml against total oral bacteria. While, NiO-NPs (average size 35.67nm) were found less effective with much higher IC50 value of 197.18μg/ml. Indeed, the Ni ions exhibited greater biocidal activity with an IC50 value of 70μg/ml. Similar results were obtained with biofilm inhibition on the surfaces of dental prostheses. The results explicitly suggested the effectiveness of tested Ni compounds on the growth of oral bacteria and biofilm formation in the order as NiCl2>Ni-NPs>NiO-NPs. The results elucidated that Ni-NPs could serve as effective nanoantibiotics against oral bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermodynamics of disaggregated polymer composites based on nanosized powders of Ni and NiO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Volodina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Technique to obtain disaggregated composites with uniform distribution of the Ni nanoparticles in a polymer matrix was developed on the example of epoxy resin. Disaggregated and aggregated composites based on butyl methacrylate copolymer with 5 wt% methacrylic acid and Ni and NiO nanoparticles were obtained. Enthalpies of mixing the components compositions in a wide range of compositions were defined using isothermal calorimetry. Parameters adhesive interaction at the interface and glassy polymer structure changes were calculated. The influence of the chemical nature of nanosized filler on interfacial energy was found.

  14. IMPURITY CENTRES.Ni+ and Ni3+ centers in X-irradiated CaF2

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, J.; Den Hartog, H.; Alcalá, R.

    1980-01-01

    Optical and EPR measurements of CaF2 : Ni before and after X-irradiation are reported. An absorption band at 255 nm grows during X-irradiation. The thermal evolution of this band and some bleaching experiments in 15 K X-irradiated samples containing Vk centers indicate that the 255 nm band is due to Ni+ centers. Some EPR signals associated with the Ni+ centers are also observed. Low temperature measurements show that there are two slightly different kinds of centers one of them having tetrago...

  15. Structure characterization of Ni/NiO and Ti/TiO2 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamine, Brahim

    1983-01-01

    This research thesis reports the structure characterization of Ni-NiO and Ti-TiO 2 interfaces through an in-situ investigation of thin blade oxidation, of oxide germination and growth, and through a determination of mutual metal/oxide orientation relationships. Thin films of TiO 2 have also been characterized and the study of the influence of vacuum annealing on TiO 2 layer structure and morphology has been attempted. The examination of metal-oxide interface reveals a duplex structure of NiO and TiO 2 layers, and a preferential grain boundary oxidation of the underlying metal [fr

  16. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Fe - Ni - Mo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, E.E.; Ershov, A.V.; Mashin, A.I.; Mashin, N.I.; Rudnevskij, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Procedures for the X-ray fluorescence determination of the composition and thickness of Fe - Ni - Mo thin films and the concentration of elements in thick films of the Fe - Ni - Mo alloy are developed [ru

  17. Enhancement of porous silicon photoluminescence using (Ni) treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil, M.; Elnouby, M.; Gayeh, N.; Sakr, A. H.; Motaweh, H. A.

    2017-10-01

    A new method has been developed to improve the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon (PS). Self-organized (PS) can be used in various fields. The deposition of metal nanoparticles (Ni) allows utilizing the obtained nano-composite for numerous applications such as sensor technology, biomedicine, and many more. (Ni/PS) nano-composite powders are prepared using Ni deposition on the PS powder surface. The (Ni/PS) powders became hydrophilic by the deposited Ni nanoparticles. At the different percentages of (Ni: PS), at a higher percentage than (3:1) the values of the crystallite size of Ni and PS are nearly equivalent which suggests the saturation case of PS surface by Ni particles. It also depends on the deposition time value. In this study, that is the commercialization of nanostructured materials, it is important that the manufacturing costs are appropriate and inexpensive for large scale production, in addition, the enhancement of the photoluminescence intensity of (PS).

  18. Effect of thermomechanical pre-treatment on short- and long-term Ni release from biomedical NiTi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Katharina E; Bremer-Streck, Sibylle; Kiehntopf, Michael; Rettenmayr, Markus; Undisz, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The effect of annealing and deformation on short-term (21days) and long-term (8months) Ni release from biomedical NiTi wires is studied. The deformation of annealed NiTi wires causes cracking and flaking of the surface oxide layer. Flaking of oxide particles does not uncover the Ni-rich layer underneath the surface oxide layer, since at sites where flaking occurs, a thin (∼25nm) layer of oxide remains on top of this Ni-rich layer. The number of cracks in the oxide and Ni-rich layer, respectively, increases with deformation, and intercrystalline crack propagation into the Ni-rich layer and the NiTi bulk is observed. In plastically deformed wires, the cracks may remain opened, providing access of immersion liquid to these zones. Characteristics and quantity of short-term Ni release are significantly affected by the pre-deformation, resulting in an up to 2 times higher total Ni release within the first 21days of deformed compared to annealed wires. Pre-deformation does not significantly influence long-term Ni release; all annealed and deformed samples exhibit similar long-term Ni release rates. The source of Ni during short-term release is the Ni contained in the surface zone of the oxide layer. For high pre-deformation, the Ni-rich layer is a second source for Ni. This second source is also the cause for Ni release in long-term immersion experiments. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple solution-combustion synthesis of Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites with highly electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Ni, Yonghong; Zhai, Muheng

    2018-01-01

    Transition metal and its oxide composite nanomaterials are attracting increasing research interest due to their superior properties and extensive applications in many fields. In this paper, Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites were successfully synthesized in one step via a simple solution-combustion route, employing NiCl2 as the Ni source, oxygen in the atmosphere as the oxygen source, and ethanol as the solvent. The final product was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), (high resolution) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/HRTEM), and Raman spectra. N2 gas sorption-desorption experiments uncovered that the BET surface area of Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites reached 161.9 m2 g-1, far higher than 34.2 m2 g-1 of Ni-NiO. The electrochemical measurement showed that the as-produced Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites presented better catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of methanol than Ni-NiO and NiO, which provides a new catalyst selection for the electro-oxidation of methanol.

  20. Fabrication of CdTe/NiTe films on Ni foils by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yannan; Zhou, Xiaoming; Yao, Huizhen; Su, Shi; Lv, Pin; Chen, Yanli; Wang, Jun; Fu, Wuyou; Song, Wenxu; Yang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of T s on CdTe deposited on Ni by magnetron sputtering is investigated. • An effective method is studied of making CdTe/NiTe without post-treatment. • As-prepared CdTe/NiTe raised optical absorption and PEC properties. • Pre-deposited Te can react with Ni to generate NiTe at T s = 350 °C. - Abstract: Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) semiconductor thin films are fabricated on flexible Ni foil substrates using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under different substrate temperatures. The crystal structure and properties of the prepared functional thin films were characterized with series analysis technologies. The characterization results revealed that Nickel Telluride (NiTe) phase formatted at the interface of CdTe and Ni substrate when substrate temperature (T s ) is 450 °C. Specially, XRD results demonstrated that CdTe/NiTe films could also be obtained by pre-depositing Te film on Ni and reducing T s to 350 °C. The investigation on optical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the products illustrated that compact CdTe/NiTe films had improved the absorption in the visible region. Furthermore, PEC measurements indicated that CdTe/NiTe/Ni photoelectrode can have a promising application in photovoltaic devices

  1. Effect of Synthetic Levers on Nickel Phosphide Nanoparticle Formation: Ni5P4 and NiP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Senevirathne, Keerthi; Aquilina, Lance; Brock, Stephanie L

    2015-08-17

    Due to their unique catalytic, electronic, and redox processes, Ni5P4 and NiP2 nanoparticles are of interest for a wide-range of applications from the hydrogen evolution reaction to energy storage (batteries); yet synthetic approaches to these materials are limited. In the present work, a phase-control strategy enabling the arrested-precipitation synthesis of nanoparticles of Ni5P4 and NiP2 as phase-pure samples using different Ni organometallic precursors and trioctylphosphine (TOP) is described. The composition and purity of the product can be tuned by changing key synthetic levers, including the Ni precursor, the oleylamine (OAm) coordinating solvent and TOP concentrations, temperature, time, and the presence or absence of a moderate temperature soak step to facilitate formation of Ni and/or Ni-P amorphous nanoparticle intermediates. Notably, the 230 °C intermediate step favors the ultimate formation of Ni2P and hinders further phosphidation to form Ni5P4 or NiP2 as phase-pure products. In the absence of this step, increasing the P/Ni ratio (13-20), reaction temperature (350-385 °C), and time (10-48 h) favors more P-rich phases, and these parameters can be adjusted to generate either Ni5P4 or NiP2. The phase of the obtained particles can also be tuned between pure Ni2P to Ni5P4 and NiP2 by simply decreasing the OAm/TOP ratio and/or changing the nickel precursor (nickel(II)acetylacetonate, nickel(II)acetate tetrahydrate, or bis(cyclooctadiene)nickel(0)). However, at high concentrations of OAm, the product formed is the same regardless of Ni precursor, suggesting the formation of a uniform Ni intermediate (an Ni-oleylamine complex) under these conditions that is responsible for product distribution. Intriguingly, under the extreme phosphidation conditions required to favor Ni5P4 and NiP2 over Ni2P (large excess of TOP), the 20-30 nm crystallites assemble into supraparticles with diameters of 100-500 nm. These factors are discussed in light of a comprehensive

  2. Oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by [Ni (cyclam)] in aqueous acidic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: smradha73@gmail.com; viju47@yahoo.co.in. MS received 29 August 2012; revised 9 February 2013; accepted 8 March 2013. Abstract. The kinetics of oxidation of H2O2 by [NiIII(cyclam)]3+, [NiIIIL1], was studied in aqueous acidic media at 25. ◦. C and I = 0.5 M (NaClO4). The [NiIIIL1] to [NiIIL1] reduction was found ...

  3. New route for synthesis of electrocatalytic Ni (OH) 2 modified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Immobilization of redox species like Ni(OH)2 onto the electrode surface is important in the application areas such as super capacitor, electrochromic displays and electrocatalysis. Nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) modified glassy carbon could be further derivatized with Ni(OH)2 by electrochemical cycling in alkali.

  4. Phytoremediation technologies for Ni ++ by water hyacinth | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second experiment, Ni++ contaminated Hoagland's solution was used for the hydroponic growth of water hyacinth. The result of hydroponic experiment showed the phytoremoval of Ni++ from Ni++ contaminated wastewater; maximum removal was 1.954 μg/g of dry weight. In third experiment, ash of water hyacinth ...

  5. Large scale synthesis and characterization of Ni nanoparticles by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    energy absorption, fuel cell electrodes, catalysts etc. So the synthesis of Ni nanoparticles has attracted considerable attention. Although many methods are used to prepare Ni particles (Pfeil and Leonard 1987; Degen and Matek. 1999; Zheng et al 2001; Ni et al 2003; Syukri et al 2003;. Hou and Gao 2004; Kumar et al 2004; ...

  6. Fabrication of micro-Ni arrays by electroless and electrochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Nickel micro-arrays were fabricated by electroless and electrochemical deposition in an etched porous aluminum membrane. The aluminum membrane with metal characteristic could be fabricated from high-purity aluminium by electrochemical method. The aluminum reduced Ni. 2+ into Ni and the formed Ni.

  7. Morphological and compositional engineering of Ni/carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ni/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite films were deposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by a Ni plating bath containing homogeneously dispersed MWCNTs using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as dispersion additive. Incorporation of MWCNTs into Ni matrix was greatly enhanced by the application ...

  8. Optimization of process parameters for synthesis of silica–Ni ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optimumcombination of experimental variable, temperature, time of heat treatment under nitrogen atmosphere and amount of Ni-salt was delineated to find out the maximum yield of nanophase Ni in the silica gel matrix. The size of Ni in the silica gel was found to be 34 and 45 nm for the two chosen compositions, ...

  9. Optimization of process parameters for synthesis of silica–Ni ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The optimum combination of experimental variable, temperature, time of heat treatment under nitrogen atmosphere and amount of Ni-salt was delineated to find out the maximum yield of nanophase Ni in the silica gel matrix. The size of Ni in the silica gel was found to be 34 and 45 nm for the two chosen ...

  10. Irradiation induced defects in deformed $Ni_{3}Ge$ and $Ni_{3}Al$ single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Murakumo, T; Miyahara, A; Hannuki, T; Sato, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of plastic deformation on the formation of point defects and defect clusters by electron irradiation has been studied in Ll /sub 2/ ordered Ni/sub 3/Ge and Ni/sub 3/Al by high voltage electron microscopy. It is found that defects are formed preferentially along the Burgers vector directions as linear lines and grow into linear chains of clusters by electron irradiation. This phenomenon is explained by preferential generation of the defects along the antiphase boundary (APE) tubes, in specimens deformed both below and above the peak temperature T/sub p/. Based on three-dimensional analyses of the defect distribution, the formation mechanism of the APE tubes is discussed with particular reference to superdislocation motion and the strengthening of the Ll/sub 2/ ordered compounds of Ni /sub 3/Ge and Ni/sub 3/Al. (44 refs).

  11. Evolution of collectivity in the 78Ni region: Coulomb excitation of 74Ni at intermediate energies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the collective properties of nuclear excitations far from stability provides information about the shell structure at extreme conditions. Spectroscopic observables such as the energy or the transition probabilities of the lowest states, in nuclei with large neutron excess, allow to probe the density and isospin dependence of the effective interaction. Indeed, it was recently shown that tensor and three-body forces play an important role in breaking and creating magic numbers. Emblematic is the case of the evolution of the Ni isotopic chain where several features showed up moving from the most neutron rich stable isotope (64Ni towards the 78Ni nucleus where the large neutron excess coincides with a double shell closure. In this framework, we have recently performed an experiment with the goal to extract the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ value for the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment: preliminary results are discussed.

  12. Mechanical properties of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites depending on temperature, porosity and redox cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2009-01-01

    %. For all samples a linear relation between Young's modulus and porosity was found. The temperature dependency of the mechanical properties of both as-sintered and reduced composites was investigated by IET up to 1200 degrees C. In the as-sintered state, first an increase and peak of stiffness coinciding......The Impulse Excitation Technique (IET) was used to determine the elastic modulus and specific damping of different Ni/NiO-YSZ composites suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The porosity of the as-sintered samples varied from 9 to 38% and that of the reduced ones from 31 to 52...... with the Neel temperature, 250 degrees C, of NiO was observed. Above this temperature, a linear decrease occurred. Specific damping showed a peak at 170-180 degrees C and increased above ca. 1000 degrees C in NiO-YSZ. In the reduced state the elastic modulus decreased linearly with temperature; specific damping...

  13. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Ni and Carbon Coated Ni by Levitational Gas Condensation (LGC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rang Uhm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nickel (Ni, and carbon coated nickel (Ni@C nanoparticles were synthesized by levitaional gas condensation (LGC methods using a micron powder feeding (MPF system. Both metal and carbon coated metal nano powders include a magnetic ordered phase. The synthesis by LGC yields spherical particles with a large coercivity. The abnormal initial magnetization curve for Ni indicates a non-collinear magnetic structure between the core and surface layer of the particles. The carbon coated particles had a core structure diameter at and below 10 nm and were covered by 2-3 nm thin carbon layers. The hysteresis loop of the as-prepared Ni@Cs materials with unsaturated magnetization shows a superparamagnetic state at room temperature.

  14. Thermal stability of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers; an EBSD-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Gholinia, A.; Trimby, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein recrystallisat......The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein...... recrystallisation occurs. The results are discussed in relation to the resolution of EBSD for the very fine grained electrodeposits and previous X-ray diffracton investigations....

  15. Bottom and top AF/FM interfaces of NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, V.P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Multidisciplinar, Rua Professor Paris, s/n Centro, 26221-150 Nova Iguacu, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: valberto@cbpf.br; Passamani, E.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Depto. Fisica, Avenida Fernando Ferrari, 514 Goiabeiras, 29075-910 Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Alvarenga, A.D. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial, Avenida Nossa Senhora das Gracas, 50 Duque de Caxias, 25250-020 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Biondo, A. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Depto. Fisica, Avenida Fernando Ferrari, 514 Goiabeiras, 29075-910 Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Pelegrini, F. [Universidade Federal de Goias, Instituto de Fisica, Campus Samambaia, 74001-970 Goiania, GO (Brazil); Saitovitch, E. Baggio [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150 Urca, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-01-30

    X-ray reflectivity analyses were performed in the Si/WTi (7 nm)/NiFe (30 nm)/FeMn (13 nm)/NiFe (10 nm)/WTi (7 nm) exchange-biased system prepared by magnetron sputtering under three different argon working pressures. Layer-by-layer analyses were realized in order to obtain the interfacial roughness parameters quantitatively. For a fixed argon pressure, the root-mean-square roughness (including the atomic grading) of the upper (FeMn/NiFe) interface are greater than that for the lower one in all studied samples. Argon working pressure also has severe influence over the NiFe/FeMn interfaces, being more pronounced at the upper interfaces.

  16. Ni MINERALIZATION AND PGE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    fractionation, (2) the IPGEs are often associated with chromites as alloys or sulfides in dunites whilst the PPGEs are often ... al. 2001, Maier et al. 2001). Several factors affect the Ni, Cu and PGE grades of the sulfides of the magmatic sulfide deposits, the most important of which include: concentration of these elements in the.

  17. Collision strengths for transitions in Ni XIX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    atomic data (namely energy levels, radiative rates, collision strengths, excitation rates, etc.) are required in order to estimate the power loss from the walls of the reactors. Furthermore, Ni XIX, a neon-like ion, is also very useful in lasing plas- mas. Similarly many transitions, particularly within the n = 3 configurations, have.

  18. Ni (II) complexes of dithiophosphonic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 4. Ni(II) complexes of dithiophosphonic acids ... Gholivand Ali Asghar Ebrahimi Valmoozi. Volume 126 Issue 4 July 2014 pp 1125-1133 ... The new compounds were additionally tested in view of their anti-bacterial properties. The ligands containing amine ...

  19. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Chong-Yu

    2009-10-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni3Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni3Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni3Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt-Reuss-Hill rule of mixtures.

  20. Microporous Ni@NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al nanoparticles as a high microwave absorption material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Li, Da [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Chou, Wusheng [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Tong, E-mail: tongliu@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from Ni{sub 45}Al{sub 55} master alloy by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction method, and were subsequently dealloyed to produce porous Ni@NiO NPs of 36 nm. The pore size ranges from 0.7 to 1.6 nm, leading to large specific surface area of 69.5 m{sup 2}/g and big pore volume of 0.507 cc/g. The saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) and coercivity (H{sub C}) of the microporous Ni@NiO NPs are 11.5 emu/g and 5.2 Oe. They exhibit high microwave absorption performance with a minimum reflection coefficient (RC) of −86.9 dB and an absorption bandwidth of 2.6 GHz (RC≤−10 dB) at thickness of 4.5 mm. The enhanced microwave absorption properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of the magnetic Ni core and dielectric NiO shell, and the micropore architecture. The NPs with micropore morphology and core/shell structure open a new way to modify the microwave absorption performance. - Graphical abstract: The microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al NPs exhibit high microwave absorption intensity (−86.9 dB) and wide absorption bandwidth (2.6 GHz for RC≤−10 dB). - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticals were prepared by chemically dealloying method. • They possessed micropores of 0.7–1.6 nm with a surface area of 69.5 m{sup 2}/g. • They showed high microwave absorption intensity and wide absorption bandwidth. • Microwave absorption mechanism was explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  1. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  2. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju

    2012-01-01

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  3. Effects of Ni concentration on structural, magnetic and optical properties of Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang [Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette 47907 (United States); Liu, Hongbo [Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Chen, Zhenguo; Kadasala, Naveen; Mao, Chenyi [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette 47907 (United States); Wang, Yaxin; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Huilian; Liu, Yanqing [Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Yang, Jinghai, E-mail: jhyang1@jlnu.edu.cn [Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Yan, Yongsheng [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Graphical abstract: With increase of Ni concentration, the saturated magnetization increases firstly and then decreases, which results from the competition between oxygen vacancies and antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni{sup 2+} in NiO. - Highlights: • Ni-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol–gel method. • Ni ions are substitutionally incorporated into the crystal lattice of ZnO. • Saturated solubility of Ni in ZnO is 2%. • Oxygen vacancies are the origin of ferromagnetism in Ni-doped ZnO NPs. - Abstract: Ni-doped zinc oxide (Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O, 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.08) diluted magnetic semiconductors have been synthesized by the using a sol–gel method. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of the samples have been studied. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) indicated that Ni ions were substitutionally incorporated into the crystal lattice of ZnO. With Ni concentration increasing up to 2 at.%, all diffraction peaks corresponded to wurtzite structure of ZnO, but for Zn{sub 0.97}Ni{sub 0.03}O, secondary phase of NiO emerged. Based on the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ni incorporated into the ZnO lattice as Ni{sup 2+}. The produced samples showed good high-Tc (Curie temperature) ferromagnetism. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and photoluminescence (PL) showed that ferromagnetism (FM) of the Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles originated from the presence of the O vacancy.

  4. Superconductivity in Bi/Ni bilayer system: Clear role of superconducting phases found at Bi/Ni interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. Y.; Xing, Y. T.; Merino, I. L. C.; Micklitz, H.; Franceschini, D. F.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Bell, D. C.; Solórzano, I. G.

    2018-01-01

    Bi/Ni bilayers with varying Bi and Ni layer thicknesses have been prepared by (a) pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at 300 K and (b) thermal evaporation at 4.2 K. A two-step superconducting transition appears on the electrical transport measurements in the samples prepared by PLD. High-resolution transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy, supported by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis, reveal that two superconducting intermetallic alloys, namely NiBi and NiBi3, are formed by interdiffusion, if the bilayers are prepared at 300 K. The Tc of the two phases behaves very differently in an external magnetic field and the upper critical magnetic fields at zero temperature [Bc 2(0 ) ] were estimated as 1.1 and 7.4 T, respectively. The lower value corresponds to the Bc 2(0) of NiBi3 phase and the higher one is supposed to be of NiBi. These alloys are responsible for the superconductivity and the two-step transition appearing in the Bi/Ni bilayer system. Surprisingly, the Bi-rich phase (NiBi3) is formed near the Ni layer, while the Ni-rich phase (NiBi) is formed far from the Ni layer. The EDXS analysis at nanometer scale clearly shows an unusual increase of Ni concentration near the interface of Bi/substrate. The limited thickness of Bi layer in the interdiffusion process results in an unexpected distribution of Ni concentration. Samples prepared at 4.2 K after annealing at 300 K do not show any superconductivity, which indicates that a nonepitaxial Bi/Ni interface does not induce superconductivity in the case interdiffusion does not occur. These results offer a deeper understanding of the superconductivity in the Bi/Ni bilayer system.

  5. Geometric structures of thin film: Pt on Pd(110) and NiO on Ni(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Oden L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This thesis is divided into 3 papers: dynamical low-energy electron- diffraction investigation of lateral displacements in topmost layer of Pd(110); determination of (1x1) and (1x2) structures of Pt thin films on Pd(110) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis; and structural determination of a NiO(111) film on Ni(100) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis.

  6. Electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Co and Co-Ni-P coatings for hard chromium replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Chao

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the preparation and characterisation of environmentally friendly and low-cost nanocrystalline Ni-Co coatings and Co-Ni-P coatings to replace hard chromium coatings for anti-wear and anti-corrosion applications. nanocrystalline Ni–Co coatings with different cobalt contents were electrodeposited.The investigation on the role of tribofilms and wear debris in the tribological behavior sliding against AISI-52100 stainless steel under unlubricated conditions shows that the tri...

  7. 3D Computer Models of T- x- y Diagrams, Forming the Fe-Ni-Co-FeS-NiS-CoS Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsyk, V. I.; Vorob'eva, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    3D computer models of Fe-Ni-Co, Fe-Ni-FeS-NiS, Fe-Co-FeS-CoS, Ni-Co-NiS-CoS T- x- y diagrams have been designed. The geometric structure (35 surfaces, two-phase surface of the reaction type change, 17 phase regions) of the Fe-Ni-FeS-NiS T- x- y diagram is investigated in detail. The liquidus hypersurfaces prediction of the Fe-Ni-Co-FeS-NiS-CoS subsystem is represented.

  8. Weldability of spheroidal graphite ductile cast iron using Ni / Ni-Fe electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual, M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Weldability of spheroidal graphite ductile cast iron was established using a cheap Ni-Fe and a high purity Ni electrode. A preheating treatment at 350 °C and an annealing treatment at 850 °C were carried out to improve mechanical properties of welded pieces. The pure Ni electrode showed graphite diffusion in the bead with a uniform distribution of phases, improving weldability and decreasing fragility. Preheating and annealing treatments increased ductility and improved weldability.

    Se establece la soldabilidad de funciones dúctiles de grafito según las características mecánicas alcanzadas, utilizando un electrodo puro de Ni mientras se compara con uno más económico de Ni-Fe. Diferentes tratamientos t��rmicos son propuestos y analizados. El electrodo de Ni puro mostró difusión de grafito desde el material original al cordón de soldadura, dando como resultado una fase homogénea que mejoró la soldabilidad y redujo la fragilidad. Un pre tratamiento a 350 °C y un recocido a 850 °C incrementaron la ductilidad y mejoró la soldabilidad.

  9. Effect of Ni4Ti3 precipitation on martensitic transformation in Ti-Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, N.; Shen, C.; Wagner, M.F.-X.; Eggeler, G.; Mills, M.J.; Wang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation of Ni 4 Ti 3 plays a critical role in determining the martensitic transformation path and temperature in Ni-Ti shape memory alloys. In this study, the equilibrium shape of a coherent Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitate and the concentration and stress fields around it are determined quantitatively using the phase field method. Most recent experimental data on lattice parameters, elastic constants, precipitate-matrix orientation relationship and thermodynamic database are used as model inputs. The effects of the concentration and stress fields on subsequent martensitic transformations are analyzed through interaction energy between a nucleating martensitic particle and the existing microstructure. Results indicate that R-phase formation prior to B19' phase could be attributed to both direct elastic interaction and stress-induced spatial variation in concentration near Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates. The preferred nucleation sites for the R-phase are close to the broad side of the lenticular-shaped Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates, where tension normal to the habit plane is highest, and Ni concentration is lowest.

  10. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-04-06

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19' martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19' martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen.

  11. Fabrication of metallic alloy powder (Ni{sub 3}Fe) from Fe–77Ni scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Inseok [ES Materials Research Center, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Shun-Myung [Extractive Metallurgy Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Deajeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang-An [Department of Environmental Engineering, Silla University, Busan 46958 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Jei-Pil, E-mail: jpwang@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The oxidation behavior of Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was investigated at an oxygen partial pressure of 0.2 atm and temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 900 °C. The corresponding oxidation rate increased with increasing temperature and obeyed the parabolic rate law, as evidenced by its linear proportionality to the temperature. In addition, surface morphologies, cross-sectional views, compositions, structural properties were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Diffusion through either the spinel structure or the NiO layer, which were both present in the alloy during oxidation at elevated temperatures, was deemed the rate-limiting step of the reaction. The oxide powder less than 10 μm was obtained from Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was obtained using ball-milling and sieving processes. In fact, 15 h of milling yielded a recovery ratio of 97%. Using hydrogen gas, the oxide powder was successfully reduced to an alloy powder of Ni{sub 3}Fe and reduction rates of ∼97% were achieved after 3 h at 1000 °C. - Highlights: • The oxidation behavior of Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was investigated. • The oxide powder less than 10 μm was obtained from Fe–77Ni alloy scrap. • Using hydrogen gas, the oxide powder was successfully reclaimed. • Reduction rates of ∼97% were achieved after 3 h at 1000 °C.

  12. Epitaxial NiWO4 films on Ni(110): Experimental and theoretical study of surface stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudin, N.; Pomp, S.; Blatnik, M.; Resel, R.; Vorokhta, M.; Goniakowski, J.; Noguera, C.; Netzer, F. P.; Surnev, S.

    2017-05-01

    Despite the application potential of nickel tungstate (NiWO4) in heterogeneous catalysis, humidity and gas sensing, etc, its surfaces have essentially remained unexplored. In this work, NiWO4 nanoparticles and films with the wolframite structure have been grown via a solid-state reaction of (WO3)3 clusters and a NiO(100) film on a Ni(110) crystal surface and characterized by a variety of experimental techniques, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), combined with ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. NiWO4 grows initially as three-dimensional (3D) crystalline nanoparticles displaying mainly two crystalline facets vicinal to the (100) surface, which merge with increasing the (WO3)3 coverage into a quasi-continuous epitaxial film. The DFT results provide an account of the energetics of NiWO4 low index surfaces and highlight the role of faceting in the stabilization of extended polar (100) terraces. These combined experimental and theoretical results show that interaction with a metal substrate and vertical confinement may stabilize oxide nano-objects with high energy facets, able to enhance their reactivity.

  13. Studies on the valence electronic structure of Fe and Ni in FexNi1−x ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sults of MCDF calculations performed for various valence electronic configurations [2] of. Fe and Ni. The 3d electron populations, thus obtained, for pure Fe and Ni metals (table 2) are found to be in close agreement with the results of band structure calculations of Papa- constantopoulos [9] (6.93 for Fe and 8.97 for Ni) and ...

  14. Synthesis and catalytic activity of electrospun NiO/NiCo2O4 nanotubes for CO and acetaldehyde oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Hee; Lee, Hyerim; Yu, Areum; Jeong, Jae Hwan; Lee, Youngmi; Kim, Myung Hwa; Lee, Chongmok; Dok Kim, Young

    2018-04-01

    NiO/NiCo2O4 nanotubes with a diameter of approximately 100 nm are synthesized using Ni and Co precursors via electro-spinning and subsequent calcination processes. The tubular structure is confirmed via transmission electron microscopy imaging, whereas the structures and elemental compositions of the nanotubes are determined using x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. N2 adsorption isotherm data reveal that the surface of the nanotubes consists of micropores, thereby resulting in a significantly higher surface area (˜20 m2 g-1) than expected for a flat-surface structure (present a study of the catalytic activity of our novel NiO/NiCo2O4 nanotubes for CO and acetaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic activity of NiO/NiCo2O4 is superior to Pt below 100 °C for CO oxidation. For acetaldehyde oxidation, the total oxidation activity of NiO/NiCo2O4 for acetaldehyde is comparable with that of Pt. Coexistence of many under-coordinated Co and Ni active sites in our structure is suggested be related to the high catalytic activity. It is suggested that our novel NiO/NiCo2O4 tubular structures with surface microporosity can be of interest for a variety of applications, including the catalytic oxidation of harmful gases.

  15. Interfacial reaction of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic compound in Ni/SnAg solder/Ni system under thermomigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi-Shan; Yang, Chia-Jung; Ouyang, Fan-Yi, E-mail: fyouyang@ess.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-07-25

    The growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic compound (IMC) between liquid–solid interface in micro-scale Ni/SnAg/Ni system was investigated under a temperature gradient of 160 °C/cm at 260 °C on a hot plate. In contrast to a symmetrical growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on both interfaces under isothermally annealed at 260 °C, the interfacial Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} IMC exhibited asymmetric growth under a temperature gradient; the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at cold interface was faster than that at hot side because of temperature gradient induced mass migration of Ni atoms from the hot end toward the cold end. It was found that two-stage growth behavior of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} IMC under a temperature gradient. A growth model was established and growth kinetic analysis suggested that the chemical potential gradient controlled the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at stage I (0–120 min) whereas the dynamic equilibrium between chemical potential gradient and temperature gradient forces was attained at the hot end at stage II (120–210 min). When dynamic equilibrium was achieved at 260 °C, the critical length-temperature gradient product at the hot end was experimentally estimated to be 489.18 μm × °C/cm and the moving velocity of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} interface due to Ni consumption was calculated to be 0.134 μm/h. The molar heat of transport (Q*) of Ni atoms in molten SnAg solder was calculated to be +0.76 kJ/mol. - Highlights: • Interfacial reaction in Ni/SnAg solder/Ni system under thermal gradient. • Growth rate of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at cold end is faster than that at hot end. • Critical length-temperature gradient product at hot end is 489.2 μm°C/cm at 260 °C. • Velocity of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} moving interface is 0.134 μm/h during dynamic equilibrium. • Molar heat of transport (Q*) of Ni in molten SnAg was +0.76 kJ/mol.

  16. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  17. Evaluation of the Antitumor Activity by Ni Nanoparticles with Verbascoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB has attracted a great deal of attention due to ITS pharmacological properties. In our study, we synthesized a multifunctional verbascoside coated Ni nanoparticles (VB-Ni. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC display the characteristics of VB-Ni nanoparticles. Compared with VB, VB-Ni has been proven to induce apoptosis and resist the growth of doxorubicin-resistant K562 cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, VB-Ni nanoparticles can be thought of as an ideal mode of cancer treatment.

  18. Atomistic modeling of ternary additions to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt and Ni-Ti-Hf shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, H.O., E-mail: hmosca@cnea.gov.ar [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Bozzolo, G. [Loyola University Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Grosso, M.F. del [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The behavior of ternary and quaternary additions to NiTi shape memory alloys is investigated using a quantum approximate method for the energetics. Ternary additions X to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt, and Ni-Ti-Hf alloys, for X=Au, Pt, Ir, Os, Re, W, Ta,Ag, Pd, Rh, Ru, Tc, Mo, Nb, Zr, Zn, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, V, Sc, Si, Al and Mg are considered. Bulk properties such as lattice parameter, energy of formation, and bulk modulus of the B2 alloys are studied for variations due to the presence of one or two simultaneous additives.

  19. Kinetic study of hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni30 Mo70, Co30Mo70, Co30Ni70 and Co10Ni20Mo70 alloy electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Plata-Torres, M.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.; Hallen-Lopez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction on nanocrystalline Ni 30 Mo 70 , Co 30 Mo 70 , Co 30 Ni 70 , and Co 10 Ni 20 Mo 70 , metallic powders prepared by mechanical alloying was investigated with linear polarization and ac impedance methods, in 30 wt.% KOH aqueous solution at room temperature. The formation process and structural properties of these nanocrystalline materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Alloyed powders showed the presence of two phases: an fcc solid solution and intermetallic compounds of Ni, Co and Mo. Based on polarization and ac impedance measurements, an improved electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction was observed in mechanically alloyed Co 30 Ni 70 powders, which is slightly higher than milled metallic Ni powders

  20. Structural evaluation and nonlinear optical properties of Ni/NiO, Ni/NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Co/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahulan, K. Mani, E-mail: krahul.au@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, SRM Valliammai Engineering College, Chennai 603203 (India); Padmanathan, N. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Guindy, Chennai 600025 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Balamurugan, S. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Kanakam, Charles C., E-mail: charlesckin@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, SRM Valliammai Engineering College, Chennai 603203 (India)

    2013-10-01

    Nanocomposites of Ni/NiO, Ni/NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Co/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} have been synthesized by a chemical reduction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirm the mixed composite nature of the sample and uniform particle size of approximately 13 nm. Formation of Ni/NiCo{sub 3}O{sub 4} solid solution or NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase in the mixed composite is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum. Magnetic hysteresis (M–H) curves of the nanocomposites show excellent ferromagnetic (FM) nature at room temperature. Nonlinear optical transmission of the nanocomposites is measured using the open aperture Z-scan technique employing 7 nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. Experimental results show that NiO/NiO–Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibit good optical limiting performance. From the measurements and numerical fitting of the data to theory, it is found that nonlinear absorption has contributions from excited state absorption and two-photon absorption. Optical limiting is enhanced in Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ni/NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} in which the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} content has a larger volume ratio.

  1. CO2 activation on bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Austin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic, and CO2 adsorption properties of 55-atom bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles (NPs in core-shell and decorated architectures, as well as of their monometallic counterparts. Our results revealed that with respect to the monometallic Cu55 and Ni55 parents, the formation of decorated Cu12Ni43 and core-shell Cu42Ni13 are energetically favorable. We found that CO2 chemisorbs on monometallic Ni55, core-shell Cu13Ni42, and decorated Cu12Ni43 and Cu43Ni12, whereas, it physisorbs on monometallic Cu55 and core-shell Cu42Ni13. The presence of surface Ni on the NPs is key in strongly adsorbing and activating the CO2 molecule (linear to bent transition and elongation of C˭O bonds. This activation occurs through a charge transfer from the NPs to the CO2 molecule, where the local metal d-orbital density localization on surface Ni plays a pivotal role. This work identifies insightful structure-property relationships for CO2 activation and highlights the importance of keeping a balance between NP stability and CO2 adsorption behavior in designing catalytic bimetallic NPs that activate CO2.

  2. Changing effect of El Niño on Antarctic iceberg distribution: From canonical El Niño to El Niño Modoki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Yury A.; Romanova, Nina A.; Romanov, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies indicate that during El Niño events the iceberg concentration increases in the east of the Pacific sector and in the west of the Atlantic sector of Southern Ocean, but decreases in the center of the Pacific sector. During La Niña the pattern of the iceberg concentration anomalies in these regions reverses. This iceberg redistribution is explained by anomalous winds and currents around an extensive positive atmospheric pressure anomaly that typically develops in the South-East Pacific during the warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase. In this study, the results of iceberg observations during two cruises of the r/v "Akademik Fedorov" in Antarctica in January-February 2008 (La Niña) and 2010 (El Niño) have been used to examine the consistency of changes in the iceberg distribution in the Southern Ocean related to El Niño events. The analysis of these observations has shown that in the Pacific Sector of Antarctica changes in the iceberg distribution between 2008 and 2010 followed the scenario outlined above and thus could be associated with the ENSO phase change. Contrary to earlier observations, the iceberg concentration in the Atlantic sector of Antarctica did not increase during 2010 El Niño. The latter is explained by a noncanonical type of 2010 El Niño, El Niño Modoki, and associated atmospheric circulation pattern different from the canonical El Niño. Further analysis has shown that a more frequent occurrence of El Niño Modoki in recent years have resulted in weaker links between El Niño events and the Antarctic iceberg distribution.

  3. NiCo2S4nanosheet-decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode materials for all solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Jayaseelan, Santhana Sivabalan; Seo, Min-Kang; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2017-12-07

    Wire type supercapacitors with high energy and power densities have generated considerable interest in wearable applications. Herein, we report a novel NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode for high performance supercapacitor application. In this work, a facile method is introduced to fabricate a 3D, porous Ni film deposited on a Ni wire as a flexible electrode, followed by decoration with NiCo 2 S 4 as an electroactive material. The fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode displays a superior performance with an areal and volumetric capacitance of 1.228 F cm -2 and 199.74 F cm -3 , respectively, at a current density of 0.2 mA cm -1 with a maximum volumetric energy and power density (E V : 6.935 mW h cm -3 ; P V : 1.019 W cm -3 ). Finally, the solid state asymmetric wire type supercapacitor is fabricated using the fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire as a positive electrode and N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) as a negative electrode and this exhibits good areal and volumetric capacitances of C A : 0.12 F cm -2 and C V : 19.57 F cm -2 with a higher rate capability (92%). This asymmetric wire type supercapacitor demonstrates a low leakage current and self-discharge with a maximum volumetric energy (E V : 5.33 mW h cm -3 ) and power (P V : 855.69 mW cm -3 ) density.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, A.V., E-mail: knyazevav@gmail.com [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zakharchuk, I.; Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Baidakov, K.V.; Knyazeva, S.S. [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ladenkov, I.V. [Joint-stock Company “Research and Production Company “Salut”, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders were prepared by the solid-state reaction at 1073 K. • The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. • The temperature dependences of magnetization exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior. - Abstract: Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders with nominal compositions Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by the solid-state reaction synthesis with periodic regrinding during the calcination at 1073 K. The structure of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was refined assuming space group F d-3m. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the average sizes of the crystalline ferrite particles are 130–630 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 140–350 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. The Curie temperature tends to increase upon Zn substitution by Co, as well. The temperature dependences of magnetization measured using zero-field cooled and field cooled protocols exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior.

  5. Effects of Bond Coating on NiCrBSi-Mo Composite Functional Coating Properties in Plasma Spraying NiCrBSi-Mo/Ni Coating

    OpenAIRE

    DU Ji-yu; LI Fang-yi; LU Hai-yang; SHANG Jian-tong; LI Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-based bond coating and composite functional coating were sprayed on leaf blade steel material FV520B successively by using air plasma spraying system. NiCrBSi-Mo powder deposition rate, coating porosity, bonding strength and surface hardness were tested. The results indicate that, for the NiCrBSi-Mo/Ni coating, bond coating with 180-220μm thickness can improve NiCrBSi-Mo powder deposition rate while the surface coating with lower porosity, higher bonding strength and high hardness is p...

  6. Thermodynamic characterization of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawar, Rimpi; Babu, R.; Ananthasivan, K.; Anthonysamy, S.

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2(g) over the biphasic mixture Ni3TeO6 (s) + NiO(s) in the temperature range 1143-1272 K was carried out using transpiration-thermogravimetric technique (TTG). Gibbs energy of formation of Ni3TeO6 was obtained from the temperature dependence of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g) generated by the incongruent vapourisation reaction, Ni3TeO6 (s) → NiO(s) + TeO2 (g) + 1/2 O2 in the temperature range 1143-1272 K. An isoperibol type drop calorimeter was used to measure the enthalpy increments of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5. Thermodynamic functions viz., heat capacity, entropy and Gibbs energy functions of these compounds were derived from the experimentally measured enthalpy increment values. Third-law analysis was carried out to ascertain absence of temperature dependent systematic errors in the measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g). A value of -1265.1 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Δ Hf,298K o (Ni3TeO6) using third-law analysis.

  7. Estilos de vida saludables de niños, niñas y adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Campo-Ternera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los estilos de vida saludables de niños, niñas y adolescentes de Barranquilla. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 991 niños, niñas y ado - lescentes. Se evaluó la actividad física mediante los cuestionarios de Actividad Física para Adolescentes y para niños escolares; se aplicó una encuesta que midió los conocimientos y prácticas de los escolares sobre salud bucal, lavado de manos, consumo de frutas y verduras y cuidado postural; la Lista de Chequeo “Mi Vida en la Escuela”, la cual evalúa los índices de “bullying” y agresión; y la inteligencia emocional a través dela escala TMMS -24. Resultados: El 65,4 % se categoriza como inactivos físicamente. Solo el 14,7% de los estudiantes reconoce que el peso máximo del bolso es el 10 % de su peso corporal; el 34,1 % cambia el cepillo de dientes cada 3 meses, como lo recomiendan los expertos, y 48,4 % se cepilla los dientes entre 2 y 3 veces al día. El 16,6 % no se lava las manos antes y después de ir al baño y 9,4 % no lo hace antes y después de las comidas; el 17,5 % no tiene un buen consumo de verduras y frutas; y se encontró un Índice de “bullying” en el 55,6 % de los participantes. Conclusión: Los anteriores resultados obligan a plantear intervenciones que incrementen las prácticas saludables en niños, niñas y adolescentes.

  8. Evaluation of structure and mechanical properties of Ni-rich NiTi/Kapton composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohri, Maryam [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); PouryazdanPanah, Mohsen; Hahn, Horst [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Joint Research Labaratory Nanomaterials, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-06-21

    NiTi thin films are usually sputtered on silicon wafers by magnetron sputtering. But the systems composed of thin film on flexible polymeric substrate are used in many applications such as micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Investigation on mechanical properties of thin films has attracted much attention due to their widespread applications. In this paper, the mechanical properties of 1 µm-thick crystallized Ni-49.2 at%Ti thin film alloy deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on Kapton substrate are investigated by using tensile test. The as-deposited thin films are in amorphous state, then for crystallization, the thin film was annealed at 450 °C for 30 min. Formation of the austenite phase after annealing was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The surface morphology of as deposited and crystallized thin films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stress-strain curves of the NiTi alloy thin film were obtained by subtracting of the stress-strain Kapton curves from the corresponding curves of the NiTi/Kapton composite. The XRD results revealed that the NiTi thin film deposited on the Kapton is austenitic and presents super-elastic effect at room temperature. This pseudo elastic effect leads to more recoverable strain in NiTi/Kapton composite film compared with Kapton foils on loading/unloading test. Furthermore, it was concluded that nanostructure of the NiTi thin film is responsible for remarkable improvement of ultimate tensile strength (1.4 GPa) at a strain of 30% compared with the bulk material.

  9. High Damping of Lightweight TiNi-Ti2Ni Shape Memory Composites for Wide Temperature Range Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Luo, Zheng; Yuan, Bin; Liu, Jiangwen; Gao, Yan

    2017-10-01

    A bimodal porous TiNi-Ti2Ni shape memory alloy composite (SMAC) with 59% porosity was fabricated by sintering Ti-46at.%Ni elemental powders with pore-forming agent. The porous TiNi-Ti2Ni SMAC contains two irregular pores of about 400 and 120 μm. We investigated the microstructure and pore morphology correlated with the mechanical properties and damping capacities of the SMAC. Ti2Ni intermetallic phases with size of 1-3 μm were homogeneously distributed in the TiNi matrix. The porous TiNi-Ti2Ni SMAC exhibits exceptionally high inverse mechanical quality factor ( Q -1) of 0.25 at SMAC at relatively low strain amplitude can exhibit considerable high Q -1 of 0.06 0.11 for a wide range of temperature between - 90 and 200 °C, which is attributed to the stress concentration distribution provided by the bimodal structure of pores and the massive interfaces between pore/matrix and TiNi/Ti2Ni. These porous SMACs can be an ideal candidate for using as a lightweight damping material in the energy-saving applications.

  10. Preparation of Ni-YSZ Cermet through Reduction of NiO-YSZ Ceramic for SOFC Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baity, P. S. N.; Budiana, B.; Suasmoro, S.

    2017-07-01

    Research on the synthesis of Nickel-Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (Ni-YSZ) cermet for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode has been performed. The preparation was carried out through the reduction process of the Nickel Oxide-Yttria stabilized Zirconia (NiO-YSZ) ceramic. NiO and YSZ were prepared separately, the NiO powder was prepared by calcination of CH4Ni3O7.xH2O at 500°C for 3 hours, while YSZ powder was prepared by calcination of 7mol% Y2O3 and 93mol% ZrO2 mixture at 1350°C for an hour. The NiO-YSZ ceramic preparation was carried outby mixing of YSZ and NiO powder with natural white starch by weight ratio NiO: YSZ: natural white starch = 4:6:1 followed by sintering at 1200°C for 4 hours. The completion of reduction process of NiO-YSZ ceramic was performed at 1000°C in flowing Argon (Ar) containing 10% Hydrogen (H2) up to 4 hours. The characterisations include thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), XRD, SEM-EDX and Impedance Analyzer meter. The synthesised Ni-YSZ cermet at composition 33wt% Ni and 67wt% YSZ, shows relative density 70% and electrical conductivity 10-2 S/cm at 700°C, it qualifies as anode for SOFC.

  11. Role of Ni-tolerant Bacillus spp. and Althea rosea L. in the phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Waheed Ullah; Yasin, Nasim Ahmad; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Ali, Aamir; Ahmed, Shakil; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2017-05-04

    In our current study, four nickel-tolerant (Ni-tolerant) bacterial species viz, Bacillus thuringiensis 002, Bacillus fortis 162, Bacillus subtilis 174, and Bacillus farraginis 354, were screened using Ni-contaminated media. The screened microbes exhibited positive results for synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. The effects of these screened microbes on Ni mobility in the soil, root elongation, plant biomass, and Ni uptake in Althea rosea plants grown in Ni-contaminated soil (200 mg Ni kg -1 ) were evaluated. Significantly higher value for water-extractable Ni (38 mg kg -1 ) was observed in case of Ni-amended soils inoculated with B. subtilis 174. Similarly, B. thuringiensis 002, B. fortis 162, and B. subtilis 174 significantly enhanced growth and Ni uptake in A. rosea. The Ni uptake in the shoots and roots of B. subtilis 174-inoculated plants enhanced up to 1.7 and 1.6-fold, respectively, as compared to that in the un-inoculated control. Bacterial inoculation also significantly improved the root and shoot biomass of treated plants. The current study presents a novel approach for bacteria-assisted phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated areas.

  12. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of Ni/NiO nanoparticles as electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Prabhakarn; Ghanem, Mohamed A.; Al-Mayouf, Abdullah M.; Al-shalwi, Matar; Hamed Abd-Elkader, Omar

    2017-02-01

    Nickel/Nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) nanoparticles catalyst is prepared by microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition using ethylene glycol (EG) and water mixture under atmospheric conditions. The physicochemical characterizations of the catalyst carried out by surface area analyzer, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron microscopes measurements suggest the formation of crystalline nanoparticles structure of NiO. The surface area of Ni/NiO prepared using EG/water mixture reaches 70 m2 g-1 which is 2-fold enhsancement in surface area in comparison with NiO prepared in pure EG and an order of magnitude higher than that of bulk nickel prepared in pure water. The methanol electro-oxidation activity of the Ni/NiO nanoparticles obtained in EG/water mixture displayed more than 4-fold increase in oxidation current at 1.7 V versus RHE in comparison with NiO nanoparticles obtained in EG and 20-fold increase compared to bulk nickel catalyst concord with the enhancement of electro-active surface area. The results show the Ni/NiO nanoparticles produced by microwave assisted synthesis has superior activity for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution over the other nickel based catalysts and has potential for mass production.

  13. Anti-corrosive and anti-microbial properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathy, Y.; Natarajan, K.A.; Srivastava, Chandan, E-mail: csrivastava@materials.iisc.ernet.in

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrodeposition yielded phase-segregated, nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings. • Ni-Ag alloys exhibited smaller Ni crystals compared to pure Ni. • Ultra fine Ni grains of size 12–14 nm favoured Ni-Ag solid solution. • Nanocrystalline Ag resisted bio-fouling by Sulphate Reducing bacteria. • Ni-Ag outperformed pure Ni in corrosion and bio-corrosion tests. - Abstract: Anti-corrosive and anti-bacterial properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings are illustrated. Pure Ni, Ni-7 at.% Ag, & Ni-14 at.% Ag coatings were electrodeposited on Cu substrate. Coating consisted of Ni-rich and Ag-rich solid solution phases. With increase in the Ag content, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating initially increased and then decreased. The initial increase was due to the Ni-Ag solid solution. The subsequent decrease was due to the increased galvanic coupling between the Ag-rich and Ni-rich phases. For all Ag contents, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating was higher than the pure Ni coating. Exposure to Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) revealed that the extent of bio-fouling decreased with increase in the Ag content. After 2 month exposure to SRB, the Ni-Ag coatings demonstrated less loss in corrosion resistance (58% for Ni-7 at.% Ag and 20% for Ni-14 at.% Ag) when compared pure Ni coating (115%).

  14. Anti-corrosive and anti-microbial properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghupathy, Y.; Natarajan, K.A.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrodeposition yielded phase-segregated, nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings. • Ni-Ag alloys exhibited smaller Ni crystals compared to pure Ni. • Ultra fine Ni grains of size 12–14 nm favoured Ni-Ag solid solution. • Nanocrystalline Ag resisted bio-fouling by Sulphate Reducing bacteria. • Ni-Ag outperformed pure Ni in corrosion and bio-corrosion tests. - Abstract: Anti-corrosive and anti-bacterial properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings are illustrated. Pure Ni, Ni-7 at.% Ag, & Ni-14 at.% Ag coatings were electrodeposited on Cu substrate. Coating consisted of Ni-rich and Ag-rich solid solution phases. With increase in the Ag content, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating initially increased and then decreased. The initial increase was due to the Ni-Ag solid solution. The subsequent decrease was due to the increased galvanic coupling between the Ag-rich and Ni-rich phases. For all Ag contents, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating was higher than the pure Ni coating. Exposure to Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) revealed that the extent of bio-fouling decreased with increase in the Ag content. After 2 month exposure to SRB, the Ni-Ag coatings demonstrated less loss in corrosion resistance (58% for Ni-7 at.% Ag and 20% for Ni-14 at.% Ag) when compared pure Ni coating (115%).

  15. Effect of Ni Core Structure on the Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Ni/C in Methanol Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Wang, Rongfang; Wang, Hui; Liao, Shijun; Key, Julian; Linkov, Vladimir; Ji, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C), were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA). While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous)/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells. PMID:28811402

  16. Effect of Ni Core Structure on the Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Ni/C in Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Linkov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C, were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA. While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells.

  17. Resiliencia en Niños

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Ivonne González Arratia Lopez Fuentes

    2007-01-01

    Con el objetivo de acercarse al constructo teórico de resiliencia, y desde la propuesta de Grotberg (1995a) y Melillo (2003), del modelo donde es posible caracterizar a un niño resiliente a través de la posesión de condiciones que en el lenguaje se expresan diciendo: "Yo tengo", "Yo soy", "Yo estoy", "Yo puedo", es que se procedió a hacer la aplicación de la técnica de Redes Semánticas Naturales a 400 niños de ambos sexos, de 6° año de primaria de escuelas públicas y privadas de la ciudad de ...

  18. Ni ion damage in Cu and Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, J.B.; Narayan, J.

    1975-01-01

    Ni ion damage in Cu was studied using x-ray diffuse scattering and transmission electron microscopy, and in Nb using x-ray diffuse scattering. Single crystals of Cu and Nb were irradiated at room temperature to a fluence of 1.2 x 10 13 /cm 2 at 60 MeV, and Cu was also irradiated to 5 x 10 12 /cm 2 at 4 MeV. The x-ray diffuse scattering from loop-type defect clusters in the crystals was measured near several Bragg reflections in order to probe the depth distributions of the damage. In Cu, cluster size distributions derived from the x-ray measurements agreed well with TEM results. Comparison with fission reactor irradiations using the damage energy concept suggests similarities in retained damage between the neutron and Ni ion irradiations

  19. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  20. Fe-Ni-bearing serpentines from the saprolite horizon of Caribbean Ni-laterite deposits: new insights from thermodynamic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Domènech, Cristina; Tauler, Esperança; Galí, Salvador; Tassara, Santiago; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-10-01

    Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite horizon is the main Ni ores in hydrous silicate-type Ni laterites and formed by chemical weathering of partially serpentinized ultramafic rocks under tropical conditions. During lateritization, Mg, Si, and Ni are leached from the surface and transported downwards. Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+ and fixed as insoluble Fe-oxyhydroxides (mostly goethite) that incorporate Ni. This Ni is later leached from goethite and incorporated in secondary serpentine and garnierite. As a result, a serpentine-dominated saprolite horizon forms over the ultramafic protolith, overlapped by a Fe-oxyhydroxide-dominated limonite horizon. The serpentine from the protolith (serpentine I) is of hydrothermal origin and yields similar Ni (0.10-0.62 wt.% NiO) and lower Fe (mostly 1.37-5.81 wt.% FeO) concentrations than the primary olivine. In contrast, Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite (serpentine II) shows significantly higher and variable Fe and Ni contents, typically ranging from 2.23 to 15.59 wt.% Fe2O3 and from 1.30 to 7.67 wt.% NiO, suggesting that serpentine get enriched in Fe and Ni under supergene conditions. This study presents detailed mineralogical, textural, and chemical data on this serpentine II, as well as new insights by thermodynamic calculations assuming ideal solution between Fe-, Ni- and Mg-pure serpentines. The aim is to assess if at atmospheric pressure and temperature Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine can be formed by precipitation. Results indicate that the formation of serpentine II under atmospheric pressure and temperature is thermodynamically supported, and pH, Eh, and the equilibrium constant of the reaction are the parameters that affect the results more significantly.