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Sample records for ni okeru energy

  1. Subjects of the energy industry under yen appreciation; Endakaka ni okeru energy sangyo no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This paper studied effects of yen appreciation on the Japanese economy and changes in energy demand when assuming the medium-term yen appreciation trend, and subjects in the energy industry. The paper also refers to the trend of the Asian material industry largely influencing the energy supply/demand, the risk hedge problem of the exchange, and international cooperation and business development of the energy industry. The energy industry is extremely high in public interest and is rice of the industry. Therefore, the development of the business has focused on the domestic market. However, such a recognition is forced to be changed by waves of the worldwide deregulation. Discussions on foreign/domestic price differences caused by high yen and a series of deregulation policy in the energy industry affected thereby may be concrete signs. The subject in the energy industry under the yen appreciation is that the energy industry will be close to common sense in general industrial circles and change to an industry which is strong and internationally competitive enough to brave the exchange variation. 101 refs., 104 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. Annual energy review-1996; 1996 nen ni okeru juyona energy kankei jiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-20

    This paper reviews the important items concerned with energy in 1996. Primary energy supply sums to 529times10{sup 13}kcal increasing by 2.4% over last year. The growth rates of demand over last year are 2.5% in industry use, 3.7% in transport use, 3.7% in home use, and 1.3% in business use. On R & D trend of use technologies of energy resources, the following are described: (1) Petroleum: resource exploitation, transport, stock, refining, and petrochemistry, (2) Coal: resource exploitation, coal structure and property, processing, transport, liquefaction, gasification, carbonization, tar industry, carbon industry, and coal ash utilization, (3) Natural gas: resource exploitation, transport, storage, and conversion technology, (4) Natural energy: hydraulic, solar, geothermal, wind power, oceanic and biomass energies, and (5) Others: waste resources, hydrogen and alcohol. On R & D trend of energy conversion technology, combustion theory, boiler, engine, thermal energy system, and high-efficiency power generation technology are described. Environmental problems and their protective technologies are also described

  3. Studies on energy system for an energy-saving society; Sho energy gata shakai ni okeru energy system kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The system to which new energy technology and energy saving technology were introduced was constructed for case studies of urban areas including core cities and the peripheral areas, and the quantitative analysis was conducted on environmental effects, etc. In the energy supply system model, the following element technologies were all considered: cogeneration system, sewage water heat, river water heat, the photovoltaic power generation, energy storage/heat storage/cold heat storage, adsorption type refrigerator, etc. Also considered were power interchange between clusters, system power buying/power selling, heat interchange or no heat interchange, etc. As a result, it was found that when constructing the energy system which synthetically takes into account thermoelectric ratios, rates of simultaneous loads, ratios of daytime/nighttime in the energy supply and demand in the urban area, the energy saving effect multiplicatively increases, and the energy system using cogeneration and unused energy such as refuse and sewage in the urban area and river water brings an energy saving effect of 32% especially in the concentrated cluster. 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  4. Feasibility study on introducing new energy systems into Asian villages; Asia sonraku ni okeru shin energy donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For improvement of living standards in unelectrified areas of Asia, the feasibility of new energy power generation systems was surveyed. The degree of electrification of local areas is different every country, and Thailand is ahead of other countries, while Laos and Cambodia are most unelectrified. Power supply of 100W/house seems to be adequate for local areas because of weather condition, housing situation and life-style. Economic support and education on electricity are necessary for poor areas. Although needs for new energy is increasing, the priority is given to industrial and urbanized areas because of cost and investment effects, and remote areas are dependent on grant- in-aid. Resources of photovoltaic, wind power and micro- hydraulic energies are abundant, however, selection of energy and verification of its usability are important, and the local energy density maps were thus prepared. In introduction of new energy, after selection of energy suitable for an area concerned, such geographical and social conditions should be surveyed as road condition, water rights, land utilization, economic support system, policy and intention of inhabitants. 76 refs., 68 figs., 91 tabs.

  5. Making of composite type energy introduction models in cities; Toshi ni okeru fukugogata energy donyu model no sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper made and studied simulation models in case of introducing new energy of composite type to cities. In the study, using a standard composition unit of city as a cluster, the compositional element was divided into 25 cells, which were divided into the residence superiority cell and the business superiority cell. The residence superiority cell was divided into highrise and lowrise. The calculation program is to simulate effects of introducing new energy such as the photovoltaic power generation, solar energy utilization, waste power generation, cogeneration, and unused energy like river water and waste water. Using the program, the analysis of sensitivity was conducted concerning how the outputs will change according to differences in energy consuming composition in the urban area. The calculation was conducted concerning local cities of the warm area, local cities of the cold area, local cities of the subtropical area, residence/working-place neighboring core cities in the warm area, central areas of large cities of the warm area, and new towns of the warm area. 28 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Issues on the energy industry under the yen appreciation; Endakaka ni okeru energy sangyo no kadai. Yoyakuban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    A tendency toward the rapid yen appreciation since spring 1995 has affected various fields of the economic society of Japan. From a broader view, it is discussed whether the Japanese economic system itself is right or wrong, and that the post-war economic system and regulation system should be largely reviewed. In a short term, the yen appreciation largely affects the export industry and is markedly influential to macro economy. At present, the yen is not as high as that in 1995, but a lot of economists assume a tendency toward medium- and long-term yen appreciation. Therefore, this paper analyzed what kinds of influences the exchange fluctuation brings to the Japanese economy and energy supply/demand. It was clarified what kinds of problems will appear in the energy industry, in particular, on the assumption that the yen will keep high in medium- and long-term. The report consists of parts 1 and 2. Described were `Simulational analysis of yen appreciation` in Part 1 and `Yen appreciation and international issues` in Part 2. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Catalytic technology in the energy/environment field. Utilization of catalyst in coal pyrolysis and gasification processes; Energy kankyo bun`ya ni okeru shokubai gijutsu. Sekitan no netsubunkai oyobi gas ka ni okeru shokubai no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Institute for Chemical Reaction Science (Japan)

    1998-05-20

    This review article focuses on the utilization of several catalysts during coal pyrolysis and gasification. In situ or off line catalytic upgrading of volatile matters during pyrolysis of low rank coals is carried out in pressurized H2 with different reactors to produce BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene). When NiSO4 and Ni(OH)2 are used in the hydropyrolysis of Australian brown coal using an entrained bed reactor with two separated reaction zones, BTX yield reaches 18-23%. MS-13X zeolite and USY zeolite mixed with Al2O3 are effective for producing BTX with powder-particle fluidized bed and two-stage reactors, respectively. Catalytic gasification is described from a standpoint of direct production of SNG(CH4) from coal and steam. When K2CO3 and Ni are compared for this purpose, Ni catalyst is more suitable at low temperatures of 500-600degC, where CH4 formation is thermodynamically favorable. Fe and Ca catalysts can successfully be prepared from inexpensive raw materials and are rather active for steam gasification at {>=}700degC. The use of upgrading and gasification catalysts is discussed in terms of preparation, performance, life and recovery. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Study on the optimal control of the ground thermal storage system in the greenhouse. Part 4; Onshitsu ni okeru taiyo energy dochu chikunetsu system ni okeru saiteki seigyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M [Sanko Air Conditioning Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakahara, N [Kanagawa University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Three types of weight in both energy saving and optimum room temperature environment were changed to obtain the optimal control solution of the ground thermal storage system in a greenhouse. The relation diagram between the optimal solution of a performance function, and the state constraints and control function constraints was created in consideration of the energy term in a control function value area and the room temperature environment. As a result, the whole image of the performance function could be grasped in consideration of the energy term with inequality constraints and the room temperature environmental term in this study. The rate of a weighting factor in the performance function significantly influences the optimal solution. The influence on the optimal solution also changes when the optimal room temperature schedule differs. The influence that three types of rising algorithm exert on the convergence and converging speed was investigated. Superiority or inferiority occurs according to the space properties of a performance function. A zigzag method is most disadvantageous. The constraints can be converged to the optimal solution using an SUMT outer point method irrespective of the initial value. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Basic survey on the residence using hybrid energy in snowy cold regions; Sekisetsu kanreichi ni okeru hybrid energy katsuyogata jutaku nado ni kansuru kiso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The conceptual model and feasibility of the hybrid energy system for residences and public facilities in snowy cold regions were studied. Based on the existing data, the existing and available amounts of natural energy and unused energy in the target area, Sapporo were estimated. Based on the predicted energy demands of 4 kinds of building models, the energy systems for such models were studied. The use of the following energies was considered: photovoltaic power generation and solar heat for all the models, household sewage energy for the multiple-dwelling house model, and wind power generation for the public facility model. The annual energy balance was calculated to evaluate it. The use of additional commercial electricity was necessary, while surplus solar heat energy was found in summer which can push up the self-sufficiency rates of the residence and public facility models to 70% and 44%, respectively. The multiple- dwelling house model which can use a large amount of household sewage energy could utilize 80% of new energy, while the other 3 models utilized only 60-70% of that. 81 figs., 42 tabs.

  10. Optimization of performance and energy efficiency for series hybrid commuter-car; Series hybrid hoshiki no commuter car ni okeru doryoku seino to energy koritsu ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, M; Narusawa, K [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal a proper power system for a miniature vehicle called as `Commuter-car` for short trips in urban areas. Two types of simulated series hybrid commuter-cars were set on bench test systems. In order to have sufficient performance and energy saving, combination of electric motor and reduction gear. regenerative break efficiency and generator power supplying were considered by transient driving experiments. Further, estimation of primary energy consumption of the commuter-car was tried. 7 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of leading countries' approaches to biomass energy development; 1999 nendo shuyokoku ni okeru biomass energy kaihatsu eno torikumi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The survey aims to help Japan deliberate its future biomass energy development strategy including the course Japan is to follow in its research and development of biomass energy by clarifying leading countries' approaches to the subject matter and trends of their research and development efforts in this connection. The states of biomass energy development in the U.S. and Europe are reported. In the U.S., President Clinton issued Executive Order 13134 on August 12, 1999, regarding bio-based products and bioenergy development. In this country, bioenergy and bio-based production technologies have developed to reach a stage where business pays, and commercial plants are in service. The U.S. Administration mentions as a strategy the efficient development of the bioenergy industry. In Europe, where resources are versatile and local, it is difficult to assess the economy of scale, and small-scale development efforts are being accumulated. Practical technologies under development mostly involve direct combustion. European measures are similar to U.S. measures in that such political goals as local development and employment promotion are firmly woven into them. (NEDO)

  12. Energy conservation progress in building equipment. Energy conservation on the sports facilities; Kenchiku setsubi ni okeru sho energy no shiten. Supotsu reja shisetsu no sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakura, I.; Kayo, M. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-05

    There are various kinds of sports and leisure facilities. Due to their classes, aims, operation styles and so forth, the grades of aimed environments and facilities change. For example, like a baseball, swimming and skating, quantity of motion and grade of sportswear are different due to their classes and a target environment is also differs. On the other hand, public facility for citizen use is required its cheaper fee, but private facility on commercial base is required its user-collecting capability with added-value. In order to content individual needs of each facility, it is important to combine properly its target environment and its equipment system. The sports and leisure facilities have often large space on their characteristics, and are necessary to maintain their target environments as well as to treat their thermal emission in closed space and to supply their required air. Therefore, it is an extremely meaningful to conduct the energy saving in the facility apt to consume a lot of energy, which is described in this paper mainly on in-door large space facilities. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Investigation on the actual energy consumption by office automation devices used in offices; Office ni okeru OA kiki no energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    With an objective to further improve efficiency of power demand by office automation devices and suppress increase in the power demand, investigations were carried out on the actual power consumption by office automation devices, and discussions were given on energy saving effects in the office automation devices. In the investigations, measurements were conducted for small offices as the subject thereof with regard to electric power consumed by such presentation tools and their peripheral devices as personal computers, word processors, copying machines, facsimile machines, electronic whiteboards and overhead projectors. Power consumption particularly in a standby condition was also investigated. As a result of the investigations, the following characteristics were revealed: the number of office automation devices used to deal with the Energy Star is increasing rapidly; power consumption believed to have been reduced by the Energy Star transferring to lower power consumption is estimated to be 3% in average for personal computers, 26% for copying machines, and 68% for facsimile machines; and while facsimile machines are left in operating condition for 24 hours, their operation rate at night is very low, wherein there is a large room for saving energy in this time band. 65 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Surveys in Hokkaido on promotion of structuring models to be introduced to convert wastes into energy; Hokkaido ni okeru haikibutsu energy ka donyu model kochiku sokushin chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    With an objective of converting dairy farming wastes and fisheries wastes into resources to be used as energies, this paper discusses development trends and utilization possibilities thereof based on their utilization characteristics. The Tokachi, Abashiri and Nemuro regions produce more cattle wastes, and regions on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk produce more hepatopancreas of scallop than other regions. The amount of energy from such wastes is subject to large seasonal variations. Methane gas production through methane fermentation is an effective treatment technology, although it is utilized less effectively in Hokkaido. Important is applying the processes depending on energy demand, supply characteristics and regional features. Taking waste utilization characteristics and regionally uneven distribution of resources into account, conceptions on six model systems that could be introduced were structured. The six systems include two types for fisheries wastes utilization, three types for agricultural and dairy farming wastes, and one type for combined utilization of agricultural and fishery wastes. Important factors to select suitable commercial operation sites and promote the operations are stable quantity assurance of waste resources, energy demand, and stable operation, such as could be available in fishery processing complexes and large dairy farming areas. 44 refs., 66 figs., 29 tabs.

  15. Report on a feasibility survey of the cold accumulated heat use energy system in Hokkaido; Hokkaido ni okeru reichikunetsu riyo energy system no kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A survey was conducted of various systems which use in summer cold heat from the snow stored in winter. A model of the cold accumulated heat system of the type which has a high possibility of the introduction was built to study a possibility of the realization. Types of the model system were selected assuming the utilization of cold heat energy of snow in Sapporo, a typical large city in the cold heavy-snow area. Studies were made on each model of urban type commercial facilities, urban type offices, suburban type shopping center, and suburban type hospitals. For each model, more than one systems were studied according to types and forms of the storage tank, and heat recovery methods. As a result, it was found that cold heat energy of snow can be utilized almost effectively by making an appropriate study of the energy balance like the possible supply of cold heat exceeded the demand in two models of an urban type office building and an suburban type hospital. Further, operating expenses of typical models were roughly calculated. 51 figs., 20 figs.

  16. Basic survey on a potentiality of energy-related cooperation in Vietnam; Betonamu ni okeru energy kanren kyoryoku kanosei kiban chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper reports trends of energy, economy, and the environmental field in Vietnam. The economy of Vietnam has indicated a powerful growth in all the sectors for the first nine months of fiscal 1994. The amount of industrial products showed a growth of 12.2%, and the agriculture is supported by a growth in cash crop, despite of the damage to rice growing caused by the flood. The government announced that they expected a GDP growth rate of 8.5% in fiscal 1994 over the target of 8%. However, a hope that the government wants the inflation rate not exceeding 10% was already given up in October. The government holds a financial deficit totaling 636 million dollars. The government planned to supplement the deficit partially by increasing revenue and partially by support from overseas, but in both cases the fund was short. The trend in the finance/bank sector since August indicates that the money market is appearing. Vietnam established the foreign currency interbank market. Moreover, the government decided on establishment of the stock market up to the beginning of 1995.

  17. Fiscal 1997 survey report on the project on energy conservation by effectively using building energy in Indonesia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Indonesia ni okeru biru energy yuko riyo ni yoru sho energy ka project chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As an energy conservation method for a model building, the following eight methods were selected and trially calculated of the effects. 1) adoption of high efficient illumination apparatus, 2) introduction of an illuminance control system, 3) cooling water secondary pump with invertor, 4) ventilation control for parking lots, 5) heightening of the established temperature, 6) improvement of the 24-hour run chiller, 7) elevator with invertor, and 8) introduction of the photovoltaic power generation. As a result, it was found out that energy was totally reduced by about 3,837.4 MWh/yr or 25.6%. If viewed from the amount of reduction in greenhouse gas, the amount of CO2 emitted from office buildings, approximately 0.22 million t-C/yr, decreases to approximately 0.16 million t-C/yr. Further, approximately 0.93 million t-C/yr, the amount of CO2 emitted from commercial use facilities such as office buildings, department stores and hotels is reduced to about 0.69 million t-C/yr, thanks to the effect of the project on energy saving buildings, which made a CO2 reduction by approximately 0.24 million t-C/yr possible. Validity of the project on energy conservation in Indonesia was confirmed. 2 refs., 55 figs., 38 tabs.

  18. Feasibility study of energy conservation measures to be taken in international cooperation in the metal mining industry; 1998 nendo kinzoku kokogyo ni okeru kokusai kyoryoku ni yoru sho energy taisaku jisshi no kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In the investigation, reviewing detailed processes of mining industries, current situation for saving energy among mining and materials production industries are executed. Discussions on the evaluation methods for global warming, possibility of saving energy, location of smelters, etc. are made among the investigation. As the results, energy saving for the industries in japan is in the highest level all over the world and the effort to improved it almost reaches their limits at the moment. However, considering global environment, there are still possibilities to reduce the impact to the environment. Since the evaluation methods of saving energy for the global environmental has not fixed yet, worldwide discussions for the methods area expected. For the remarkable energy saving, instalment of new process is essential. For the achievement of the saving, continuous research and development are necessary. For the sustainable development of mineral industries and the promotion of global environmental protection, governmental backup and the contribution by national institutes are expected. (NEDO)

  19. Report on the basic survey on the commercialization of innovative energy technology in the Tibet district; Tibet chiku ni okeru kakushinteki energy gijutsu jitsuyoka no jisshi ni kansuru kiso chosa report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A field survey was conducted with the aim of commercializing innovative energy technology in the Tibet district. The survey included the energy supply/demand situation and supply plan and the situation of new energy utilization in the Tibet district. And, based on the concrete circumstances in the Tibet district, a realistic plan was presented for solution to the energy supply/demand problem. To carry out the project, used are a lot of solar energy and wind power energy resources which are abundant in Tibet. In about 5 years, 100 sets of village use system and 80,000 sets of household use system are to be installed, which solves the problem on electric power demand in a part of the non-electrified houses. Accordingly, farmers/stockbreeders living in the non-electrified region will alter their life patterns which are closed and behind other countries, get out of the poverty, basically enhance the quality of life, promote the communication of various knowledge/information of scientific technology, renew their life/production concepts, and heighten the production efficiency for the wealthy society. The project itself belongs to the construction for protection of ecological environment. It produces no exhaust gas/solid waste which do harm to the environment. The ecological environment efficiency is very high. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1998 research report. Research cooperation on car energy and environmental technology based on ITS technology in China; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Chugoku ni okeru ITS gijutsu wo mochiita jidosha energy kankyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This research aims at preparation of the car energy/environmental vision based on ITS (intelligent transport system) technology in China, enhancement of the transport planning ability of Qinghua University, and promotion of effective energy use in China. The following activities were carried out concretely: Survey on the actual traffic situation by Qinghua University, analysis of environment deterioration factors based on the survey result, estimation of a traffic environment improvement effect, study on traffic flow simulation technique based on traffic engineering, and study on traffic planning technique. As the diffusion strategy of ITS along Chinese circumstances, standardization and improvement of a multi- modal traffic system, navigation and its application system, and ETC (electronic toll collection) system are promising. Expectation for Japan and Japanese roles are as follows: Improvement of signal control, provision of information systems such as navigation, discussion on ITS technology such as ETC with Chinese specialists, and feasibility study on introduction of ITS technology for every Chinese district. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of leading countries' approaches to biomass energy development; 1999 nendo shuyokoku ni okeru biomass energy kaihatsu eno torikumi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The survey aims to help Japan deliberate its future biomass energy development strategy including the course Japan is to follow in its research and development of biomass energy by clarifying leading countries' approaches to the subject matter and trends of their research and development efforts in this connection. The states of biomass energy development in the U.S. and Europe are reported. In the U.S., President Clinton issued Executive Order 13134 on August 12, 1999, regarding bio-based products and bioenergy development. In this country, bioenergy and bio-based production technologies have developed to reach a stage where business pays, and commercial plants are in service. The U.S. Administration mentions as a strategy the efficient development of the bioenergy industry. In Europe, where resources are versatile and local, it is difficult to assess the economy of scale, and small-scale development efforts are being accumulated. Practical technologies under development mostly involve direct combustion. European measures are similar to U.S. measures in that such political goals as local development and employment promotion are firmly woven into them. (NEDO)

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Research on mesh-based estimation of natural energy for Southeast Asia as represented by Myanmar (Assessment of wind power and solar energy using numerical weather model); 1999 nendo Myanmar koku wo rei ni shita Tonan Asia ni okeru shizen energy no mesh suitei ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suchi kisho model ni yoru furyoku taiyo energy hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As the first step for the introduction of wind power systems and photovoltaic power systems into developing countries in Southeast Asia etc. and for their diffusion in them for the exploitation of natural energy, a numerical weather model useable in Southeast Asia is developed to make up for the insufficiency of weather data in the region. A technique is developed, to explain which the case of Myanmar is cited, for estimating with accuracy such natural conditions as wind direction, wind velocity, and solar radiation in the past one-year period for the assessment of power to be generated using wind turbines and solar panels. The results of the observation of wind conditions indicate that wind directions are mainly northerly or westerly and that wind speeds are as week as 1-3m/s on the average. As for total solar radiation per diem in December through March, it is found that there is 17-23MJ/m{sup 2}/day, which is twice the level to be measured in Tokyo. A comparison is made between the weather observation results and a model calculation, and it is found that the latter sufficiently reproduces the actual weather conditions. Based on the values of wind conditions and solar radiation estimated in Myanmar, the amount of power to be obtained from an assumed arrangement of wind power systems and solar panels is assessed. (NEDO)

  3. Report on the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the summary of new energy proliferation and promotion policies in Canada; 1999 nendo Canada ni okeru shin energy fukyu sokushin seisaku no gaiyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the new energy promotion policies in Canada. At the Kyoto Conference for Global Warming Prevention, Canada agreed to reduce gas discharge in 2008 through 2012 by 6% from that in 1990 as the reduction target considered realizable while maintaining the trade competitive power. The Ministry for Natural Resources encourages enhancement in energy efficiency and use of substitution energy resources, and pushes forward the promotion programs. The government imposes the world's most stringent energy efficiency criteria on electric products through the high-efficiency and substitution energy program. In the regenerative energy technologies, the government supports use of regenerative energies from the cost and environmental influence aspects. In the energy development programs, the government supports eleven ministries and agencies for energy related research and development activities. In the regenerative energy development plan, targets are set on promotion of air conditioning and hot water supply systems utilizing such regenerative energies as solar light, biomass, and underground heat. The importance is placed not only on development of new technologies, but also on marketing technologies. (NEDO)

  4. Report on the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the summary of new energy proliferation and promotion policies in Canada; 1999 nendo Canada ni okeru shin energy fukyu sokushin seisaku no gaiyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the new energy promotion policies in Canada. At the Kyoto Conference for Global Warming Prevention, Canada agreed to reduce gas discharge in 2008 through 2012 by 6% from that in 1990 as the reduction target considered realizable while maintaining the trade competitive power. The Ministry for Natural Resources encourages enhancement in energy efficiency and use of substitution energy resources, and pushes forward the promotion programs. The government imposes the world's most stringent energy efficiency criteria on electric products through the high-efficiency and substitution energy program. In the regenerative energy technologies, the government supports use of regenerative energies from the cost and environmental influence aspects. In the energy development programs, the government supports eleven ministries and agencies for energy related research and development activities. In the regenerative energy development plan, targets are set on promotion of air conditioning and hot water supply systems utilizing such regenerative energies as solar light, biomass, and underground heat. The importance is placed not only on development of new technologies, but also on marketing technologies. (NEDO)

  5. Save energy of 21{sup st} century in public welfare section. Practical technology and future prospect; Minsei bumon ni okeru 21seiki no sho energy. Jitsuyoka gijutsu to shorai tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagami, H. [Jyu Kankyo Research Inst., Inc. Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Only 2 years left for 20th century. This 100 years, population increased 3 times, actual GNP became 42 times higher, energy consumption was increased to 52 times and amount of CO{sub 2} generation has been 31 times higher. Even at present after 20 years of second oil chock, consumption of energy and amount of CO{sub 2} generation are in a increasing trend. Among them, in public welfare section, energy consumption is increasing along with the transportation section. In residence, increase in energy demand is due to the improvement of residential environment, wide application of home electrical appliances, and increase in official energy demand is due to wider floor space, wide use of OA equipments, automatic vender machines. On the other hand, energy saving of air conditioning, refrigerator, television and so forth has been progressed widely. However, progress of these save energy technologies also is not sufficient to cope with the speed of energy consumption. Results differ with the progress of technology development, speed of its wide use and so forth, however, reduction of generation of CO{sub 2} to a 1990 level in public welfare section is very difficult. General measures like perfect technology development, economical aid, advertisement and so forth are in demand

  6. FY 1998 survey report on the basic study of a possibility of cooperation in new energy technology in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru shin energy gijutsu kyoryoku kanosei kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The development and utilization of new energy and reusable energy in China have greatly progressed for these 20 years, but it is necessary to further enhance the rate of these energy in the energy structure by heightening the conversion efficiency and reducing the production cost. As to the matured technology, it is necessary to attempt a large scale modernization and form a completed production/service system by making large breakthrough of new technology/new industrial art. For improvement of levels of a lot of new energy technology, emphasis should be placed on international cooperation, R and D, and model business. Together with the introduction of reusable energy such as photovoltaic, wind, geothermal and ocean power, the conventional low efficiency biomass utilization system is converted one after another. The development/spread of clean coal technology are promoted, and the rate of the hydroelectric/atomic power generation is heightened. By 2010, the full-scale application/spread of new energy technology should be advanced, and the technology and production of the world top level should be realized. It is necessary to make the energy consumption clean and promote the continuously harmonized growth of economy, society and environment. (NEDO)

  7. Report on the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the summary of new energy proliferation and promotion policies in the U.S.A.; 1999 nendo Beikoku ni okeru shin energy fukyu sokushin seisaku no gaiyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the summary of new energy promotion policies in the U.S.A. The ratio of regenerative energies to all energy in the U.S.A. is 10%. On the other hand, efforts are given on marine energy investigations, and to make hydrogen useful as one of the energy sources. The Matsunaga hydrogen research and development act was enacted in 1990, and so was the hydrogen's future act in 1996 to move positively forward the development thereof. The federal government has announced positive use of substitution fuel using automobiles in the presidential ordinance, whereas the ratio of the substitution fuel cars accounted for in those used by governmental organizations is planned to be 75% in fiscal 1999. At the Kyoto Conference for Global Warming-up Prevention, America was obligated to reduce by 2012 the greenhouse effect gas by 7% against the generation in 1990, but it rejected the proposition saying the country is unable to approve it without participation of developing countries. In 1998, America announced the collective national energy strategy, and recommended utilization of regenerative energies to prevent climate changes. In April 1999, President Clinton issued the plan for governmental greening, and ordered suppression of generation of air polluting substances. In August of the same year, a presidential ordinance was promulgated on developing and promoting use of the bio-energies. (NEDO)

  8. Report on the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the summary of new energy proliferation and promotion policies in Germany; 1999 nendo Doitsu ni okeru shin energy fukyu sokushin seisaku no gaiyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the new energy promotion policies in Germany. Because of the cold climate condition, eighty percent of household energy consumption is for room heating. Regulations on room heating thermal consumption on new and modified buildings, which were begun in the end of 1979, have accomplished the intended effects. However, the achievements have been deadlocked because of industrial collapse in the East Germany area and the delay in modernizing the prefabricated residential buildings. Because of the current situation in which energy saving is difficult in the consumer department, the federal government has shifted the emphasis to rationalization in the industrial department, which has started voluntary regulation on CO2 discharge. However, no noticeable effects have been seen in the electric power, steel making and chemical industries as have been expected. The limitation in energy saving and the policy of abolishing nuclear power generation on the long term basis (because of safety) have expanded expectation on regenerative energies. The plan calls for bringing up the regenerative energy utilization to 50% ratio by 2050, whereas a utilization promoting program was launched in September 1999. Part of the environment tax (amounting to an annual revenue of 12.5 billion Marks) will be assigned to the financial source for the subsidy measures (1 billion Marks). Legislative amendments are discussed, including review on the electric power purchase law for wind power and photovoltaic power generation systems. (NEDO)

  9. Report on the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the summary of new energy proliferation and promotion policies in France; 1999 nendo France ni okeru shin energy fukyu sokushin seisaku no gaiyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the new energy promotion policies in France. The basic stance taken for the policies is the maintenance of public service in energy fields, diversification of supply systems and valuing the environment, and the responsibilities to the future generations. This course increases the relative importance of regenerative energies. Energy conservation is the most important policy problem on the medium to long term basis. The international commitment of France in dealing with global environment issues is to suppress generation of greenhouse effect gases in 2008 through 2012 to the level in 1990. The amount of gases that will be discharged as anticipated from the current status requires reduction of 16 million tons as the carbon weight. The environment tax was elaborated based on 500 francs per discharge of one ton of carbon, whose introduction has been decided to be made starting 2001. The taxation is estimated to have effect of reducing 6.7 million tons. The reduction is short by 2.27 million tons even if the effects of reduction measures in each sector and of the environment tax introduction are counted. The environment taxation may be made harsher if required, upon ascertaining the people's behavior in energy consumption. Measures to make the discharge right transaction more flexible are not taken into considerations. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 2000 survey report on feasibility of implementing model project for energy conservation of sintering machine in China; 2000 nendo Chugoku ni okeru shoketsuki sho energy ka model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey was conducted on the feasibility of implementing a model project for energy conservation of sintering machines in ironworks in China. This paper explains the results of fiscal 2000. The survey was based on the assumption that the HPS (Hybrid Pelletized Sinter) process in operation at Fukuyama ironworks in Japan was to be introduced into China. This process is employed at the Fukuyama No.5 sintering plant with an area of 530 m{sup 2}, and is famous for the highly efficient energy consumption rate with the solid fuel consumption of 37 kg/t and the electric power consumption of 31 kWh/t. The technology was applied to the No.3 sintering machine (265 m{sup 2}) at Tangshan Steel. Case A refers to where only the energy conservation effect of a targeted sintering machine was considered, and Case B refers to where the productivity of the applied sintering machine is increased, with that of the others decreased. In Case A, total equipment cost was 1,977,450 thousand yen, energy conservation effect was 23,795 toe/y, economic savings was 244,000 thousand yen/y, and investment recoupment period was 7.85 years. In Case B, they were 1,977,450 thousand yen, 36,215 toe/y, 356,000 thousand yen/y, and 5.38 years, respectively. In the same token, at Wuhan Steel, Case A showed 2,447,160 thousand yen, 30,320 toe/y, 272,000 thousand yen/y, and 8.77 years; Case B showed 2,447,160 thousand yen, 31,570 toe/y, 289,000 thousand yen/y, and 8.28 years, respectively. Assuming the technological spread is over the entire China, the total energy conservation in terms of crude oil is expected to be 845,700 toe/y. (NEDO)

  12. Recent energy situation in the U.S. and Europe. Trend of discussions on energy safety security and energy policies in the E.U. and CIS (commonwealth of independent states) countries; Obei ni okeru saikin no energy jijo. Energy anzen hosho ni kansuru giron no doko to EU oyobi CIS shokoku no energy seisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The E.U. intends to establish the stabilized new partnership and economic area, based on free trades and tighter economic cooperation with Mediterranean countries. For the purpose of establishing the effective cooperative relationship in the energy field, the E.U. committee taking the short- and medium-term initiative prepares as follows: The establishment of the European/Mediterranean Energy Forum is thought of. This is for the joint management of cooperation in the energy field and the organization of the conferences and meetings of information exchanges between partners. The discussion is started for the final joining in the organization of partners of Mediterranean countries who do not participate in the Pan-European Energy Charter conference. They study options adoptable for easing investments. They cooperate with the related countries for carrying out the project having common interest in the TENs (Trans-European energy networks) field. The working-out of plans and projects is promoted for coordinating energy projects according to the purposes and procedures of MEDA. 59 refs.

  13. Report on the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the summary of new energy proliferation and promotion policies in Britain; 1999 nendo Eikoku ni okeru shin energy fukyu sokushin seisaku no gaiyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the new energy promotion policies Britain. Britain has liberated completely the electric power market in June 1999 subsequently from that for the gas market. In order to share the target of reducing greenhouse effect gases during 2008 through 2012 as committed by the EU in the Kyoto Protocol, Britain has decided officially a 12.5% reduction in June 1998. The climate change tax was proposed in March 1999, and its implementation is scheduled for April 2001. This is a taxation upon commercial and industrial operators (whose carbon dioxide discharge is accounting for 40%), by which annual reduction of two million carbon tons is estimated in 2010. The government has set a target to take care of 10% of the electric power demand by regenerative energies by 2010. This policy is anticipated to be announced by the end of 2000. The EU has moved one step forward for complete opening of the electric power market in 1999, which will be followed by the gas market in August 2000. In addition, a take-off campaign was launched to promote participation and investments into the regenerative energy project. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey on use of reproducible energy in Oceania and on feasibility of future introduction; Oseania ni okeru saisei kano energy riyo jokyo to kongo no kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Survey was conducted on the actual state and the potentiality of reusable energy (RE) in the South Pacific nations. The countries to be surveyed were Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the Fiji, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Nauru. The subject RE are photovoltaic power (PV), solar heat, wind force, biomass, hydraulic power and geotherm. The survey items were as follows; RE policy and promotion programs, technical level of makers, RE supply areas and population for independent/linking type electric power systems, population of non-electrification areas, meteorological data, foreign investment policy, feasibility for introduction if RE not yet introduced, and potential of promotion if RE already introduced. Propositions are as follows. Australia and New Zealand, having a comparatively large population and a stable government, are the two most important markets for RE technologies. The South Pacific nations have a markedly small population, providing a limited market for RE systems. Papua New Guinea, being a country possessing natural gas resources, has a chance of developing photovoltaic and fossil energy hybrid systems. The Fiji shows possibility for hydraulic, wind force and biomass power generation. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in India on effective utilization of blast furnace gas pressure energy; 1999 nendo Indo ni okeru koro gas atsuryoku energy yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    From the viewpoint of energy utilization stated above, blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) unit installability was studied at Bhilai Steel Works of Steel Authority of India, Ltd., Bokaro Steel Works of Steel Authority of India, Ltd., and Visakhapatnum Steel Works of Rashtriya Ispat Nigem. The energy consumption rate at an Indian steelmaking plant is 8Gcal/t-steel, which is larger than 5-6Gcal/t-steel of Japan and therefore needs improvement. Out of the blast furnaces in India, 26 are larger than 1,000m{sup 3}, and two of them are provided with a TRT device of now-defunct Soviet Union manufacture. The blast furnaces were examined for pressure at the top, amount of gas at the top, amount of dust, and safeness in operation. The No. 2 blast furnace of the Borkaro plant was selected for the project, and studies were made for a wet type TRT device. Improvements to be achieved by TRT device installation were calculated to be a TRT output of 5,900kW, power output of 49,100MWh/year, saved crude oil amount of 12,990toe/year, and CO2 reduction of 40,200 tons-CO2/year. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Upgrading of energy utilization in the cement production process; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Cement seizo kotei ni okeru energy kodoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of a project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction by introducing the steam injection gas turbine generator to production facilities of the Siam Cement Industry Corporation (SCI) in Thailand. In the project, studies were made on the following: no purchases of electric power by introduction of the steam injection gas turbine generator; additional heating by gas turbine exhaust gas by introduction of the kiln combustion air heater; remodeling of the preheater of raw materials, and the partial calcination before kiln sintering by introduction of the calcination furnace. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 1,200 toe/y, and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was approximately 8,000 t-CO2/y, which led to the reserve power for increased production of clinker by about 18%. The size of investment was 314.5 million Baht in total. As to the evaluation of economical efficiency of the investment, the actual period of ROI was a little less than 5 years, and the internal earning rate was 17.7%, which substantially met with SCI's standards for equipment investment. However, there are problems on the gas supply infrastructure, recovery of the white cement demand, etc. (NEDO)

  17. Global environmental problems in the electric industry. Denki jigyo ni okeru chikyu kankyo mondai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugi, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1992-09-30

    Since the electric industry has grappled with a prevention of the environmental pollution such as the air pollution and water contamination as a forerunner in case of construction and operation of the power facilities, and at the same time has conducted actively the environmental conservation countermeasures, it has consequently achieved the environmental conservation level as a top level in the world. On the other hand, as for the emission quantity of CO2 relating to the earth warming, the power field occupies about one fourth of total Japan. Therefore the electric industry should aim at the electric energy supply considering the influence on the environment, such as the power supply structure to restrain CO2 emission as less as possible, higher efficiency of equipments, higher efficiency of energy utilization by using the unused energy and so forth. In addition to it, the consumer side should aim at the social structure with a recycle type such as saving resources and saving energy, and aim at changeover of life style. It is hoped to conduct the overall measure including the items mentioned above. In this report, the recent trend of earth enviromental problems, grappling with the environmental problems as a forerunner such as the prevention measure of air pollution in the thermal power plant, etc., and the correspondence to the earth warming problems are outlined. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Survey report in fiscal 1999 on investigations for the current status in energy and environmental problems in Japan and the U.S.A., and investigations on technological development related to energies; 1999 nendo Nichibei ni okeru energy kankyo mondai no genjo chosa oyobi energy ni kakawaru gijutsu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the surveys in fiscal 1999 on energy and developmental problems in Japan and the U.S.A. New and complex environmental problems are rising to the surface, such as global warming, ozone layer destruction, and chemical harms. It is necessary to deepen quickly scientific understanding of the problems, and identify accurately their impacts on human bodies and ecological systems. Within the limitation of the scientific understanding, political decisions on economy and environmental risks are also important and difficult questions, with the environmental hormones being the typical examples. Establishing chemical substance verification systems is important, whereas joint researches by Japan and the U.S.A. are desired. Policy decisions on handling the researches must also be made jointly, and acceptance by citizens must be asked for at international workshops. While energies are the base of economic activities, and the sustained development thereof is indispensable, how to take balance with health and environment in the global scale is a large assignment. Joint Japan-U.S. discussions are required on technological innovation, such as for regenerative energies, energy conservation, safety of and wastes from nuclear reactors, clean use of fossil fuels, and fuel cells. International cooperation, including that from developing countries, is also important. (NEDO)

  19. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000. International infrastructure improving project for rationalization of energy use (Fundamental survey on effective utilization of unutilized biomass energy in ASEAN countries); 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika kiban seibi jigyo chosa hokokusho. ASEAN shokoku ni okeru miriyo baiomasu energy no yuko riyo ni kansuru kisochosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to utilize 'biomass' being the unutilized and reproducible energy source, which exists affluently in the ASEAN countries, investigations and discussions have been carried out on electric power generation using palm shells as fuel in Malaysia. This paper reports the achievement in fiscal 2000. The biomass energy plant project was discussed with the followings as the conditions: an output of 1 MW, use of biomass in the form of wastes discharged from oil palm mills, the system of direct combustion process with boiler/steam turbine generation process, and power transmission to public grids. As a result of the discussions, the following conclusions were obtained: reduction of greenhouse effect gas exhaust will amount to 81,540 t-CO2/year, reduction will be realized on white smoke pollution caused by wastes incineration being criticized from various sectors and such harmful gas exhaust as SOx and NOx discharged from fossil fuel power generation, the uncertainty of electric power supply currently depending on DG power generation will be mitigated resulting in acquisition of economic effects, and electric power supply to 1,000 households will be possible, contributing to enhancement of living standard due to electrification. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1999 basic survey for promotion of joint implementation. Overall study report on energy saving and CO2 reduction at Indocement Company; 1999 nendo Indo cement ni okeru shoene CO{sub 2} sakugen sogo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A study is made about the feasibility of energy saving and CO2 reduction at the Citeureup Plant of the Indocement Company, Indonesia. Future embodiment of a clean development mechanism (CDM) is also discussed. Points examined for improvement involve air quenching clinker cooler (AQC) efficiency (mixing of raw materials, use of combustion control technology, and modification into a new type AQC); the finishing process (installation of a preliminary clinker crusher and a high-efficiency classifier); and waste heat cogeneration using AQC exhaust. The amount of energy to be saved will be 61,866 tons/year in oil, promising a 10.9% energy saving and CO2 reduction. The project requires a fund of 5,988,025,000 yen in total. The financial internal rate of return (FIRR) based on the environmental special yen credit is a little low, but the payout period of 11 years is reasonable. A similar result is obtained when export financing by the ex-Exim Bank is studied. A general loan is not proper in view of overall profitability. With precedents showing that it is near impossible for such a project to enjoy environmental special yen credit, it is necessary for the Japanese Government to build a CDM-oriented system under which environmental special yen credit will be offered to private sectors. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1999 basic survey report for promotion of joint implementation. Study on energy saving and CO2 reduction at Balikpapan refinery; 1999 nendo Balikpapan seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO{sub 2} sakugen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Concerning the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the embodiment of clean development mechanisms (CDMs) in Indonesia, a survey is conducted about energy saving and CO2 reduction at its Balikpapan refinery. At the refinery, a crude-oil atmospheric distillation unit operates at 200,000 BPSD (barrels per stream day) and a vacuum distillation unit at 81,000 BPSD, with the fuel consumed by the two units discharging approximately 470,000 tons/year of CO2. The result of the survey discloses that there is need for some improvement in relation with heat recovery and that the great distance between the two distillation units presents a problem in relation with heat efficiency. To settle the problems, heat recovery will be enhanced and the fuel to be burned in the heating furnace will be reduced. A plan to modify the heat exchanger system is worked out using JGC Corporation's energy-saving technology, and a rough design is drafted for the modification. When the modification is carried out, there will be a CO2 reduction of 18,636-61,597 tons/year. The Pertamina also wants the plan to be realized, wishing that technical and financial aids will be available. The plan when realized will serve as a stimulus to the local community and to the industry as a whole. (NEDO)

  2. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Survey on energy saving and CO2 emission reduction in Cilacap Refinery; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Cilacap seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO2 sakugen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  3. Aspiration toward geothermal energy utilization in regional development plan. Part 6. ; Hydrothermal fluid utilization business in Matsuo-mura of Iwate prefecture. Chiiki keikaku ni okeru 'chinetsu riyo' eno hofu. 6. ; Iwateken Matsuomura no chinetsu nessui riyo jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otobe, Y; Furutate, E

    1992-10-31

    Twenty six years have passed since the first geothermal power station was constructed in Matsuo-mura of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. This paper describes the history, the present situation and the future conception of the geothermal energy utilization in this village. This village includes Hachimantai of a vantage ground in the center and has the gross area of 233.8km[sup 2], the annual average temperature of 8.3 centigrade and the continuous snow cover period of about 100 days. The hot water leading facility was cooperatively constructed by Japan Metals and Chemicals, Hachimantai Hot Spring Development and Matsuo-mura. The total working expense is 539.3 million yen. Hot water sources are the condensate from the condenser of geothermal power plant and hot spring. This mixed hot water of 4.3 t/min is led to respective facilities. The hot water supplying channel has the length of 12.8km from the power station through the Hachimantai hot spring resort, Kamiyogi to Takaishino. Respective total areas of greenhouses using hydrothermal fluid in both districts are 1,075ha and the inlet temperature of hot water is 60 centigrade and kinds of crop are 5 like green pepper and others. Takaishino agricultural park has selected flower and ornamental plant culture such as poppy anemone, stock and statice which are suitable for this district of low temperature and insufficient sunshine. The planted area is 10,700m[sup 2]. 2 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1999 research report. Basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs (Survey of energy saving and CO2 reduction at Omsk Refinery); 1999 nendo Omsk seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO{sub 2} sakugen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The results of basic research conducted for scouting out projects which will attain the goals set forth in the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) protocol are compiled into a report. The atmospheric distillation unit for crude of the Omsk Refinery sited at Omsk City, Russian Federation, is the object of the research. A feasibility study is made about energy saving and reduction in CO2 emissions using various data acquired by an on-site survey, and seven modification plans are presented. In the preparation of the modification plans, 'the optimization of process systems,' 'the modification of the waste heat boiler,' and 'the installation of a new heating furnace' are taken into consideration. In relation to 'the optimization of process systems,' installation of a new heat exchanger and move to a different location of the existing heat exchanger are suggested in Modification Plan 1 and Modification Plan 2. Ultimately, seven modification plans are reviewed, which are combinations of Modification Plan 1, Modification Plan 2, 'the modification of the waste heat boiler,' and 'the installation of a new heating furnace.' Modification Plan 1 and Modification Plan 2 are attractive because they are high in performance for the small funds they require. Modification Plan 3 which includes 'the installation of a new heating furnace' demands a larger initial investment, but it achieves a greater reduction in CO2 emissions. (NEDO)

  5. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research of feasibility of energy supply/demand structure overseas improvement (research of feasibility of more effective energy use for Russian energy consuming industries); 1998 nendo kaigai energy jukyu kozo kodoka jisshi kanosei chosa. Roshia no energy tashohi sangyo ni okeru energy yuko riyo nado jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A report is made outlining the economic situation and industrial policies in Russia and the actual state of energy consuming industries (thermoelectric power generation, oil refining, and iron making) in that country. In Russia, energy efficiency is much lower than in advanced countries in the West, and the improvement of energy efficiency is a serious task to solve in the Russian fuel energy department. Cited to explain the poor efficiency are facilities growing antiquated, delay in the introduction of new technologies and instruments, insufficient maintenance, and the weak consciousness of energy saving. Although the electric power circle and energy related departments are conscious of the need of endeavors for improving energy efficiency, yet it is too difficult for corporations themselves to invest heavily in facilities. When Japan implements a model project for saving energy in Russia, it will be greatly contributing to the improvement of energy supply/demand in Russia, to the stabilization of social and economic states in that country, and to the prevention of global warming. (NEDO)

  6. Study on the energy performance of an energy producing and saving house. Part 3. Measurement results of the connecting system to the power grid and prediction of the PV system electric generation residence in Kyushu; So sho energy seino ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gyakuchoryu keito renkei system no nenkan jisseki to Kyushu ni okeru jutaku deno hatsudenryo yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O.; Sakai, K.; Hirakawa, M. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    Two-year study of an energy-producing/-saving house equipped with a 5kWp photovoltaic power generation system is described, in which the track records of this system capable of back-flow and system interconnection and inverter performance are analyzed, and the power expected to be obtained when photovoltaic power generation systems are installed in some residential houses in the Kyushu area is predicted. In the analysis of the yearly variance in the demand/supply of electric power, it turns out that more is generated in spring than in summer, which is thanks to the good weather in spring, typhoons in summer, and power generation efficiency degraded due to temperature rise in the modules. The amount of photovoltaic cell module-generated power is estimated by performing a multiple regression analysis involving the amount of insolation, outside air temperature, and wind speeds. Furthermore, available power is calculated using a relational expression involving inverter performance. On the assumption of 3kW-capacity photovoltaic power generation systems installed at residential houses at various locations across Kyushu, the expected amount of power to be generated is calculated, which proves to be approximately 3000kWh a year, confirming the effectiveness of the photovoltaic power generation system. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. FY 2000 Fundamental study for promotion of jointed implementations. Feasibility study on energy saving effect and reducing CO2 emissions by use of RDF in cement plants in China; 2000 nendo Chugoku cement kojo ni okeru RDF katsuyo ni yoru shoene koka oyobi nisanka tanso haishutsu sakugen ni kansuru feasibility study chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a project in China for energy saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction by introducing the energy-saving and alternative energy technologies in cement plants. The cement plant selected for the feasibility study is Shanghai Plant of Shanghai Allied Cement Co., Ltd. (SAC), for RDF receive and supply facility, chlorine bypass facility, exhaust heat power generation facility and RDF production facility. The study results indicate that the exhaust power generation can save energy of 4,700 tons/y as crude, or energy saving rate of 25.5%, and that replacing part of coal by RDF and exhaust power generation can reduce CO2 emissions by 25,500 and 18,500 tons/y, respectively. For the investment recovery, it is estimated that the investment can be recovered in 9 years, and the project value is 81.399 million Yuan with the initial investment and project profit in each year discounted to the present value. These results fail to satisfy the SAC's investment standards. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1999 survey report on basic feasibility concerning model project for energy conservation in fiber dyeing and processing industry in Thailand; 1999 nendo Tai ni okeru sen'i senshoku kako sangyo no sho energy ka model jigyo ni kakawaru kihonteki jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A feasibility study was conducted for the implementation of the optimum model project in the fiber dyeing and processing industry in Thailand. This paper describes the results of fiscal 1999. Seventy percent of about 400 companies are those heavily consuming energy, while small-scale businesses having a production capacity of less than one million yards/month take the sixty percent of the industry. Their energy conserving measures are behind. Measures against ground subsidence and drainage cost these companies greatly. Trade competition with China and others is being intensified. Although designated under the Energy Saving Promotion Act, the plants are not enjoying the privilege. Needed for the energy saving measures are grasp of the current situation such as energy consumption status, thorough operation management, improvement of energy efficiency in the present production facilities, renewal/additional installation of production equipment, and implementation of developmental energy saving measures. As energy conservation measures are deemed adaptable to the industry if the investment recovery period is two years or less, diagnostic analysis was made on six plants, with diffusion of the result examined. The total energy consumption of the industry was estimated to be reducible by 35% through high-recovery-rate measures such as improvement of boilers, recovery of exhaust heat, control of energy consumption rate, and introduction of dyeing machines having low liquor ratio. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1999 investigational survey on the project on the potential survey of the effective energy utilization model project in the Asian region; 1999 nendo Asia chiiki ni okeru kokateki energy yuko riyo model jigyo no jisshi kanosei ni kansuru chosa jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A survey was made on the technology applicable to the energy effective utilization model project in the Asian region. In the survey, the technology was listed up which could be the base for the model project in which the use in the commercial/residential field and the use of natural energy were considered. Further, countries for survey were limited to developing countries in the Asian region. Technologies for survey were as follows: various cogeneration systems, fuel cell cogeneration systems, heat storage type heat utilization, heat storage type air conditioning using night power, night power use dynamic ice maker and heat storage tank utilization, low temperature exhaust heat use adsorption type refrigeration, low temperature waste heat recovery absorption type heat pump, low head hydroelectric power generation, energy conservation in buildings, rationalization of energy utilization by energy management, heat supply using solar energy/wind power energy, biomass energy utilization, high efficiency/multiple effect heat utilization, high performance membrane separator utilization, high temperature/high humidity drying, airless dryer, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on trends in developing innovative technologies related to reducing CO2 emission in departments consuming great quantity of energy, such as petrochemical industry; 1999 nendo sekiyu kagaku kogyo nado energy tashohi bumon ni okeru CO{sub 2} sakugen ni kansuru kakushinteki gijutsu kaihatsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A survey was performed on the state of developing energy saving and CO2 emission reducing technologies in the following fields: (1) distillation technologies, (2) combustion technologies, (3) heat transfer and conduction technologies, and (4) technologies to convert and fix generated CO2. While the technologies in the field (1) are of the matured domain, technologies providing 20 to 60% energy saving effect have been developed. In the field (2), gas turbine combustion can achieve an overall plant thermal efficiency of 50% or more, whereas a trial calculation indicates that CO2 emission can be reduced by 22%. Catalytic combustion is noticed as a measure to make low NOx emission possible. A composite type catalytic combustor for gas turbines demonstrated that NOx emission of less than 5 ppm can be achieved. In the field (3), energy saving effect higher by 52% than in the warm wind room heating system has been obtained. Development has been made on heat storing materials that have phase change temperature of higher than 80 degrees C and large latent heat storage quantity. In the field (4), researches are advanced in a TiO{sub 2} catalyst that uses sunlight. A catalyst that is methanated at high speed with CO2 conversion rate at nearly 100% has been developed. In methanol synthesis, a catalyst that has high selectivity even at low temperatures has been developed. (NEDO)

  11. FY 2000 report on the survey of the project for arrangement of the basis of the international energy utilization rationalization. Survey of diagnosis of energy conservation in main industries of ASEAN countries; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika kiban seibi jigyo chosa hokokusho. ASEAN shokoku shuyo sangyo ni okeru sho energy shindan chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of securing the stable energy supply/demand and contributing to the sustainable economic growth in ASEAN countries, survey of the diagnosis of energy conservation was conducted. In this survey, the diagnosis on energy conservation was made in terms of typical plants/works jointly with ASEAN-side engineers to grasp the actual state of energy consumption of each of the plants and to give advice on energy conservation policies. The countries and companies selected as objects in this fiscal year are a fiber plant in Malaysia (Arab-Malaysian Development Berhad), a paper mill in Indonesia (P.T.Kertas Leces Pulp Paper Mill) and a cement plant in Brunei (Butra Djajanti Cement SDN BHD). Diagnosis was made for each of them on January 15-19, on January 22-26 and on February 5-9, 2001, respectively. Through Workshops No. 1 (November 2000) and No. 2 (December 2000), this diagnosis program was carried out in 2001. On the basis of the results of the diagnosis, presented were the necessary energy conservation policies to be taken. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1997 report on the model project for the effective energy consumption in developing countries. Survey of changes of energy conservation technology and environmental protection technology in the oil refining industry in Japan; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo (Nippon sekiyu seiseigyo ni okeru sho energy gijutsu to kankyo taisaku gijutsu no hensen chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For global scale measures to be taken for environmental protection, it becomes more and more important in the future to positively transfer and spread energy conservation technologies of Japan to overseas countries. Especially, it is effective for both economic growth in the Asian region and global environmental protection to transfer technologies which the oil refining industry has been developing and accumulating. Energy conservation in the oil refining industry means the energy conservation by strengthening the operational control at the first and second oil crises in the first stage, the energy conservation in the second stage which was accompanied by small and medium scale plant/equipment investments during several years after the first stage, and the energy conservation in the third stage which was accompanied by large scale investments from the first half of the 1980s to the present, resulting in improvement of 40% over before the first oil crisis. As to environmental protection measures, measures to reduce waste from oil refinery against air pollution and water pollution were prepared by the first half of the 1970s, and technologies were established of waste water treatment, flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. A lot of facilities for improvement of product quality and for low pollution were installed. In addition to environmental technologies, also in other industries, there were seen the heightening of thermal efficiency of kiln and thermal efficiency of cooling technique of clinker cooler in the cement industry and the improvement of productivity in the paper/pulp industry. 360 figs., 62 tabs.

  13. Report on the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system - Study of the optimum system design technology. Case study of the wide area energy supply network in the Osaka prefectural region; Kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu - saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu hokokusho. Osakafuiki ni okeru koiki energy kyokyu network no case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper worked out a model of the wide area supply network which combines the element technology being developed in the eco/energy urban project and the existing technology to apply it to the actually existing city, and the evaluation study was made of energy conservation effects, environmental preservation effects, economical efficiency, etc. The FY 2000 results were reported. In this fiscal year, a case was studied of using the exhaust heat from waste incineration plant by wide area network in the region having a plan of redevelopment/rezoning of the city of Osaka where heat is in great demand. The results of the study were as follows: The total primary energy consumption amount is reduced by 16.3-19.7% in the conventional heat insulation pipe method and by 19.2-20.6% in the vacuum heat insulation method. As to the environmental preservation, the CO2 reduction amount is 36.9-40.0%, and the NOx reduction amount is 43.7-45.5%, which indicated much more improvement than in the present situation. In the aspect of economical efficiency, the result indicated that in the case of the shortest piping, much economical efficiency is expected even without subsidies if considered of the carbon tax. (NEDO)

  14. Model project for enhancing energy consumption efficiency in developing countries. Report on changes of energy conservation technology and environmental protection technology in the chemical industry of Japan; Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo. Nippon kagaku kogyo ni okeru sho energy gijutsu to kankyo taisaku gijutsu no hensen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the economic growth and the global environmental protection in the Asian area, an investigation was carried out into energy conservation technology and environmental protection technology in the chemical industry of Japan. Measures for energy conservation are shifting from those which do not cost so much such as reduction in excess air rate of the heating furnace, and reduction in reflux ratio of the distillation tower to those with equipment investment such as waste heat recovery of the heating furnace and waste heat recovery of the distillation tower. In the 1980s, the utilization of low temperature waste heat by absorption type refrigerator and heat pump was promoted and the energy utilization efficiency by computer control was enhanced. Concerning environmental measures, the following were carried out: installation of the flue gas desulfurization device and reconstruction of high-rise stack, reduction of NOx by combustion control, smoke/dust disposal of electrostatic precipitator, combustion of hydrocarbon causing photochemical oxidant, catalytic oxidation, condensation, treatment by activated carbon, activated sludge treatment for BOD/COD, diaphragm process for dimethylmercury, ion exchange resin process, etc. 21 refs., 29 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Power load leveling and energy saving measures for office buildings. Power load leveling and energy saving technology for the new building of the Kobe branch of the Kansai Electric Power Co., and its effect; Office biru no denryoku fuka heijunka sho energy hosaku. Kobe shiten shinshaoku ni okeru denryoku fuka heijunka sho energy gijutsu to sono koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-06-10

    This paper presents power load leveling and energy saving measures for heat source, air conditioning and lighting of the new Kobe branch building. The low-temperature hot-air system adopts an ice storage system, and reduces blowing power by 12 degreesC blowing in place of normal 16 degreesC blowing, and an initial cost by duct size reduction. The continuous air conditioning system levels an initial peak load of air conditioning as compared with normal air conditioning only for working hours for buildings with large heat capacity. In addition, as power load leveling measures for the whole building, the complete heat storage system using an underground internal melting type ice storage tank is adopted. Energy saving for lighting is achieved with a dimming lighting controlling its lighting output by inverter. The following effects are expected by these new technologies: Load leveling effect of 30%, energy saving effect of 20.2% and CO{sub 2} reduction effect of 24.1%. (NEDO)

  16. Drop behavior in acoustic standing waves; Teizaihachu ni okeru ekiteki no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, H. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, T. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    When new materials, such as those for space shuttles, are developed, it is necessary to hold then in a non-contacting manner. Described herein is behavior of drops in a holding device which utilizes acoustic radiation pressure. When an object sufficiently small as compared with wavelength of a sound wave is placed in acoustic standing waves, it is subjected to acoustic radiation pressure. Chandrasekahr developed the theory on the stability of a rotating drop by equating the entire mechanical energy of a drop with its surface energy. This theory, based on the assumption of symmetric surface energy, is incapable of theoretically dealing with multi-lobed waves evolved by surface tension. In this study, multi-lobed waves excited by sound waves in a rotating drop are analytically found without assuming symmetry of drop surface energy. The multi-lobe waves are first found on the assumption that the acoustic radiation pressure around a drop is constant. Then, the effects of the deformed drop on the radiation pressure around the drop are considered. In addition, the equation for the relationship between the radiation pressure and a drop that becomes oblate due to the radiation pressure is obtained. The theoretically derived results by this equation are in good agreement with the observed results by the ground and flight tests. 17 refs., 18 figs.

  17. Bio-desulfurization technology in Japan; Wagakuni ni okeru baio datsuryu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruhashi, K. [Petroleum Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    A bio-reaction of microbes (catalytic reaction by an enzyme) is characterized in that the reaction is carried out at a normal temperature and under a normal pressure and has particularly high specificity with respect to substrate (reactant). It is considered that a low loading process of environment harmony type can be constructed by applying the bio-reaction in petroleum refinery process. CO{sub 2} exhaust and energy consumption in the bio-desulfurization (BDS) is estimated to be 70 to 80% lower than those in hydrodesulfurization (HDS). The bio-technologies that can be applied to the petroleum refinery process include, for example, desulfurization, demetallation, dewaxing, denitration, cracking and so on. In this paper, the present state of bio-desulphurization technology is introduced. Particularly, as the research results in Japan, acquirement of mesophile R.erythropolis KA2-5-1 strain, thermophile Paenibacillus sp. A11-2 strain whose optimum temperature is 50 degrees C, BT degradation fungus Rhodococcus sp. T09 and the like are introduced. (NEDO)

  18. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University; Nihon Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, M. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University. Department of Mechanical Engineering of Faculty of Production Engineering has been holding up the educational aims of bringing up engineers and researchers who have ability and intelligence to cope with internationalization and contribute to society, and of bringing about creativity, among others. Control equipment is an optional subject for the sophomore class in the second semester, and is centered by mechatronics, including hydraulic and pneumatic control systems and equipment. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, control engineering, system controlling, hydraulic machines, robotics and automobile engineering. The drill course includes disassembling and assembling gear pumps, drills on pneumatic devices, system behavior and mechatronics, experiments on fan and hydraulic control circuits and on servo mechanisms, and machinery designs and drawings. Seminars are led by full-time or part-time lecturers for the themes related to hydraulic power. Many students are interested in hydraulic and pneumatic themes for their graduation theses, because of their relations with control, environments, energy saving and so on. We are now in the age of composite technologies, and hydraulic power basics are prerequisite for engineers, and important for education of students. (NEDO)

  19. Natural gas distribution system for Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysia ni okeru toshi gas jigyo no sosetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, T [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-03-30

    Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. established in 1992 Gas Malaysia Sdn. Bhd, a joint venture company with investments from the Malaysia side, and begun full-fledged activities for supplying natural gas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper explains the summary of the project. With a background of affluent resources including natural gas reserve of 1.9 trillion m[sup 3] as of 1992, Malaysia is promoting various projects to diversify and refine local energy consumption patterns and improve petroleum exporting capacity. The said joint venture project is one of the international bids executed by the national petroleum company, Petronas, in which Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. and Mitsui and Co., Ltd. were selected as their partner. The company business includes supply and sales of petroleum, as well as construction of pipelines to support the former activities. Engineers have been either stationed or sent to the country as technical cooperation including necessary technical transfer. This project is highly significant in terms of contributing to growth of economy in both countries and to solving global environmental problems. 6 figs.

  20. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Surveys on possibility of introducing element technologies and future technological trends in the ECO and ENERGY city projects; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Ekoene toshi project ni okeru yoso gijutsu donyu kanosei to kongo no gijutsu doko ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Covering ECO and ENERGY projects currently on the way under the New Sunshine Project, discussions were given on the possibility of utilizing the technological achievements, and the technological problems therein, from the energy supply and utilization aspects. Taken up as the basic concept of the ECO and ENERGY projects is 'optimization and implementation of a cascade-type energy system in cities under environmental restrictions'. Targets were placed on optimization of a total system including the demand side (a topping system), optimization of a total system including secondary energy other than heat (electric power and gas for example), optimization of energy efficiency for the system as a whole, and minimization of environmental load. The ECO and ENERGY technologies that are assumed for the future application were classified into the following six fields: the optimal energy supply system development field, heat storing technology field, thermoelectric power generation field, environment friendly heat pump system technology field, waste heat utilizing heat cycle technology field, and LNG cold heat utilizing technology field. (NEDO)

  1. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Surveys on possibility of introducing element technologies and future technological trends in the ECO and ENERGY city projects; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Ekoene toshi project ni okeru yoso gijutsu donyu kanosei to kongo no gijutsu doko ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Covering ECO and ENERGY projects currently on the way under the New Sunshine Project, discussions were given on the possibility of utilizing the technological achievements, and the technological problems therein, from the energy supply and utilization aspects. Taken up as the basic concept of the ECO and ENERGY projects is 'optimization and implementation of a cascade-type energy system in cities under environmental restrictions'. Targets were placed on optimization of a total system including the demand side (a topping system), optimization of a total system including secondary energy other than heat (electric power and gas for example), optimization of energy efficiency for the system as a whole, and minimization of environmental load. The ECO and ENERGY technologies that are assumed for the future application were classified into the following six fields: the optimal energy supply system development field, heat storing technology field, thermoelectric power generation field, environment friendly heat pump system technology field, waste heat utilizing heat cycle technology field, and LNG cold heat utilizing technology field. (NEDO)

  2. Development of environmentally-friendly high-efficiency energy utilization system. Research on optimum system design technology (Case study report on wide-area energy supply network system in Osaka Prefecture); Osakafu ni okeru koiki energy kyokyu network system no case study hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A wide-area energy supply network model is fabricated for a region to be re-developed, and the model is assessed from the viewpoints of economy, environmental preservation, and energy conservation. The model is a combination of element technologies being developed under an Eco-Energy City project and some existing technologies. Although a wide-area heat supply system using high-temperature water is superior to district heating systems in energy conservation and environmental friendliness, yet it contains some unsolved problems relating to cost efficiency. The use of a vacuum-insulated tube as the heat supply main is better than the use of a double tube from every point of view. It is noted here that in the study of the Sakai district, the neighborhood of the old Sakai Port, an area in front of Sakai-shi Station of the Nankai Main Line, Nakamozu-Minami district, and Nakamozu-Kita district are defined to be the areas to be supplied with heat. Petroleum company C, glass mill C, and the Sakai Municipal Incineration Plant situated in the bay area are assumed to be the sources of waste heat. It is so set that the high-temperature water is to be transported at 170 degrees C and is to return at 140 degrees C. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1999 survey report on basic feasibility in implementing model project for efficient consumption of energy by fiber dyeing and processing plant in Indonesia; 1999 nendo Indonesia ni okeru senshoku kako kojo energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo kihonteki jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The basic feasibility of a model project was investigated for the purpose of introducing energy saving technology in dyeing and processing by the textile industry, which consumes a great deal of energy in Indonesia. This paper explains the result of fiscal 1999. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 40 companies having a continuous processing plant from spinning to finishing, while seven companies among them were visited for the survey on the status of energy consumption and conservation. Meantime, a survey was also made on the related policies and the state of their implementation in Indonesia as well as on the status of investment on equipment. As energy saving measures for the processing, proposals were made for energy saving in the washing process (exhaust-heat recovery system, monitoring system, and optimization of steam usage in drying process), for introduction of a heat pump system, and for reduced energy consumption in a jet dyeing machine. As energy conservation measures for utilities, reduced energy consumption of boilers was proposed, as was introduction of co-generation system. Essential for the dissemination of the measures are guidance, enlightenment and mentality reform for the entrepreneurs. Needed for the policy are the establishment of a core organization for energy conservation, plans, analyses, model projects, and introduction of an economic support system (e.g., low-interest loan). (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1996 project on the modeling for effective energy consumption in developing countries under a consignment from NEDO. Recent on the results of the demonstrative study on scrap preheater of electric furnace in the iron making process (for public); 1996 nendo hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Seitetsu katei ni okeru denkiro no genryo yonetsu sochi ni kakawaru jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Indonesia is the biggest iron steel producing country in the ASEAN countries. Most of the production is produced by the electric furnace method in which iron steel scrap is used as a material. However, an energy saving measure in this method, the electric furnace scrap preheater using flue gas, has not yet been spread on a full scale. This R and D is aimed at developing jointly with Indonesia an electric furnace scrap preheater for medium/small size electric furnaces which are adoptable to the present iron making situation in Indonesia and installing it to the electric furnace of the iron making plant in Indonesia for a demonstrative study on energy saving, etc. Spread/expansion of the electric furnace scrap preheater which is an excellent energy saving system targeted expansion of energy saving technology not only of Indonesia, but of ASEAN countries and Japan. In this fiscal year, remodeling of part of the system was made by change of flue gas flow for increasing the energy saving effect, and at the same time, a research study was made of a scrap reheater effective as a total system. Moreover, the paper investigated technical data/information in Japan and overseas. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Environmental improvement and energy conservation measures in Pakistan Steel, a state-run enterprise in Pakistan; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Pakistan koku kokuei Pakistan Steel ni okeru kankyo kaizen sho energy taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the state-run plant of Pakistan Steel in Pakistan, an investigational study was conducted on energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission. In the project, energy conservation technology on the following was tried to be introduced: coke oven coal moisture control (CMC) equipment, sintering cooler waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace hot stove waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment, blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) equipment, and hot strip mill heating furnace regenerative type burner equipment. Further, in the project on environmental improvement, studies were made on coke oven environmental improvement and blast furnace cast house dust collection. The results of the study indicated that economical effects of the energy conservation project were considered as low because the unit price of energy of Pakistan Steel is low. However, substitution of the low-priced domestic coal for the imported coal has a good effect, and energy conservation in the TRT power generation and by the regenerative type burner produces a highly economical effect. Therefore, Pakistan Steel also agrees to positively promote the project. Moreover, concerning the environmental improvement project, it was considered that the necessity of the project is high in the relation of the coke oven aimed at reducing emissions of toxic substances. (NEDO)

  6. Improvement of magnetic properties of Fe-50mass%Ni in MIM process; MIM process ni okeru Fe-50mass%Ni no jiki tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Fujita, S. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Fujita, M.; Ninomiya, R. [Mitsuikinzoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-15

    Metal injection molding (MIM) process is hoped to be one of processing for required to more complicated parts of magnetic components. In this study, the effect of different types of powders (prealloyed and mixed elemental powders) on the magnetic properties of permalloy (Fe-50mass%Ni) through the MIM technique was investigated. Approximately 94% of theoretical density was obtained by using the prealloyed powder, and the retained carbon and oxygen contents were controlled to be low. On the other hand, 96% of theoretical density was obtained by using the mixed elemental powder, but the magnetic properties were inferior to that of prealloyed powder's because of high retained oxygen content. By using the carbonyl Fe powder with high carbon, the retained oxygen and carbon content could be controlled to be low, resulting in the improved magnetic properties. (author)

  7. Basic research on energy conservation in developing countries. Basic research on promotion of activities implemented jointly (AIJ) (research on possibility of AIJ in developing countries); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosanado jigyo kyodo jisshi suishin kiso chosa. Hatten tojokoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The activities implemented jointly (AIJ) is expected as global measures to reduce greenhouse gas (such as CO2) emission. In this report, the possibility of AIJ projects in developing countries was researched. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed by 155 countries in 1992. This convention parties approved AIJ projects for measures against global warming. The 1st Conference of the Parties (COPI) held in 1995 approved the pilot phase of AIJ by voluntary workers jointly with developing countries until the end of this century. The trend, level and future plan of energy conservation technologies were researched and analyzed for steelmaking, cement and electric power supply industries in both the Philippine and Thailand. The possibility of AIJ projects was studied by selecting several Japanese energy conservation technologies transferable to both countries. The same research was also carried out for forest as carbon absorption source. 5 refs., 23 figs., 58 tabs.

  8. Report on survey project for demonstration of warm sea water bathing facilities using unutilized resources such as wastes in islands by carbonizing them into energy; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy community field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Rito ni okeru haikibutsu tou mikatsuyo shigen no tanka energyka no kaisui on'yoku shisetsu heno jissho chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    Surveys and discussions have been performed in Yuge Town in Ehime Prefecture for aiming at promotion of district development and zero emission in islands by carbonizing general wastes (household refuses and business operation wastes) and bamboos in the islands to utilize their energies as a substitute for the heat source of the warm sea water bathing facilities, as well as utilizing the produced carbides as soil improving materials or deodorants. The surveys were performed on bamboo carbonizing and gas carbonizing technologies, energy utilization feasibility, analysis of wastes composition, and identification of quantity of bamboos in existence. In discussing the energy utilization system by means of carbonization, it was revealed that the introduction of the bamboo carbonizing and gas carbonizing technologies can sufficiently satisfy the heat demand of the Yuge Town community facilities, although the amount of heat that can be supplied may vary because of difference in the technical processes. Also with regard to the problems of dioxins contained in the discharged gas and the problems of heavy metals contained in the carbides, it was discovered that different environmental criteria can be met as evidenced by the existing demonstration data. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1999 report on the plan to implement the model project for effective utilization of blast furnace gas pressure energy and the potential survey of the spread in India; 1999 nendo Indo ni okeru koro gas atsuryoku energy yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi keikaku oyobi fukyu kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As to the implementation of 'the model project for effective utilization of blast furnace gas pressure energy' and the possibility of spreading the said technology, survey/study were conducted, and the results were reported. The enterprise implementing the model project, Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), has been investing a total of 300 billion yen in modernizing facility/equipment after the liberalization in 1992, which is a cause of a large amount of deficit. About SAIL' cash flow, it is expected that SAIL will go into the black after tax in and after 2002. Local financial institutions are careful in investing in the iron/steel industry, but they have no problems in their own financing ability. In the evaluation of economical efficiency on the commercial basis, it is difficult to implement this model if using power prices, customs duties and borrowing rates in India as conditions. However, when preferential measures such as the exemption from taxation and help to borrowing rates are taken for energy conservation facility/equipment and the cost reduction is realized by technical cooperation, etc., it will be possible to recover the investment in 5 years. As to the possibility of spreading this model, the blast furnace with a capacity of 1000{sup 3} or more is targeted, and the number of the targeted blast furnace is 23. (NEDO)

  10. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation of energy use rationalization in Chinese steel industry (examination of introduction of scrap preheating system for electric furnaces); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku tekkogyo ni okeru energy no shiyo gorika (denkiro scrap yonetsu system donyu kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations are conducted on a project of introducing a scrap preheating system based on the central insertion movable shaft design into China's electric furnaces for the sake of energy saving and global warming gas reduction. Of the electric furnaces numbering approximately 3400 now in operation in China, most are small and antiquated, and are extremely low in energy efficiency when in operation. The percentage of electricity supplied by coal-fired facilities is high, and this causes the CO2 reduction problem. Investigations are conducted into four steel mills operating electric furnaces, and examinations are made on the applicability of a preheating system, which is the ultimate batch system developed by Nippon Steel Corporation. Studies are conducted for Wuyang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Tianjin Steel Pipe Co., Ltd., Budong Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., and Shanghai Five Steel Co., Ltd., and it is found that greenhouse gas will be reduced by 31,000 tons, 21,000 tons, 13,000 tons, and 11,000-tons at the said mills, respectively. It is learned that the cost to be invested will be retrieved in approximately 2.5 years, 2.8 years, 7.7 years, and 8.0 years, respectively. It is concluded that Shanghai Budong Iron and Steel (Group) Co., Ltd., is the best candidate to be equipped with the above-said system. (NEDO)

  11. FY 2000 report on the survey project on the policy for international energy utilization rationalization, etc. - model project on the heightening of international energy consumption efficiency. Viability survey of the project on energy conservation in the urea synthesis process in India; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo - kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado model jigyo chosa hokokusho. Indo ni okeru nyoso gosei process sho energy jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas, a remodeling project was studied of urea plants constructed from the 1960s to the 1970s. Conditions for being companies for study are as follows: company has a production scale of more than 0.2 million t/y, adopts the complete circulation method, and will continue operation. And, Duncans Industries Ltd. (DIL) was selected. DIL owns the ammonia plant of 3 series x 400 t/d and the urea plant of 3 series x 682 t/d. In the modeling, stripper and carbamate condenser are added to the existing reactor as the main equipment. As a result of the study, the energy conservation effect was 13,667 toe/y, and the amount of reduction in greenhouse effect gas was 42,289 t-CO2/y. The total amount of this project was roughly estimated at 1.517 billion yen. By carrying out the project, the urea production cost is reduced approximately $9/t, but the project becomes unprofitable if the urea price is based on $188.1/t. (NEDO)

  12. 18th national meeting for energy saving promotion (prize winning case awarded by Minstry of International Trade and Industry). ; Optimization of additive carrying argon gas in continuous casting. Dai 18 kai sho energy suishin zenkoku taikai (tsusho sangyo daijinsho jusho jirei). ; Renzoku chuzo ni okeru tenkazai hansoyo argon gas no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-30

    An optimal amount of argon gas carrying CaSi additive particles was discovered in a continuous casting process and a stable operation method was established to conserve energy and cost. CaSi particles are added into molten steel to prevent steel materials from cracking, and argon gas is used in carrying the CaSi particles to prevent oxygen and nitrogen from mixing into the molten steel. The proposed modification plan intends to use the existing facilities up to the seal rotary machine, and to reduce the size and length of the carrying pipes thereafter, the length of the flexible tubes, and the size of the booster. A verification test was carried out. As a result of measuring the CaSi particle scattering distribution, it was found that an in-pipe flow velocity of 25 m/s produces a narrow scattering distribution and has the particles impinge on the molten steel dropping position concentratedly. It was also learned that the in-pipe flow velocity of 25 m/s can increase the solid-air ratio to 0.81 to 1.21. Operations of the modified machine reduced the argon gas amount by 5.2 m[sup 3]N/min (reduction rate of 61%) and realized stabler CaSi particle injection which improved the Ca yield by 9.4%. 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. FY 1999 survey report on the cooperative basic project on the heightening of international energy consumption efficiency. Cooperative survey project in energy conservation/environmental protection fields in developing countries (Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam); 1999 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo. Hatten tojokoku ni okeru sho energy kankyo hozen bun'ya kyoryoku chosa jigyo (Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Tai, Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to the pollution preventive administration, clean energy technology, etc. in fields of energy conservation technology, clean energy technology and environment in Japan, administrative officials, researchers and engineers in the fields concerned in Asian countries were invited to Japan for training with the aim of the technology transfer/spread to developing countries. In FY 1999, a total of 15 administrative officials and engineers were invited from Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and had training at International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer. The themes for training are as follows: tackles with energy conservation/environmental protection by the Japanese government administration, pollution preventive measures against automobile gas emissions, pollution preventive measures against industrial gas emissions/waste water, technology for energy conservation, technology for industrial waste disposal, technology for recycling of wastes, etc. Reports were also made public on the situations of the countries participated in the project. Moreover, the field training was made at Yokkaichi complex, Sakakibara wind power plant, Hekinan thermal power plant of the Chubu Electric Power Co., Toyota Motor Corp., etc. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1999 survey report on the cooperative basic project on the heightening of international energy consumption efficiency. Cooperative survey project in energy conservation/environmental protection fields in developing countries (Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam); 1999 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo. Hatten tojokoku ni okeru sho energy kankyo hozen bun'ya kyoryoku chosa jigyo (Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Tai, Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to the pollution preventive administration, clean energy technology, etc. in fields of energy conservation technology, clean energy technology and environment in Japan, administrative officials, researchers and engineers in the fields concerned in Asian countries were invited to Japan for training with the aim of the technology transfer/spread to developing countries. In FY 1999, a total of 15 administrative officials and engineers were invited from Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and had training at International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer. The themes for training are as follows: tackles with energy conservation/environmental protection by the Japanese government administration, pollution preventive measures against automobile gas emissions, pollution preventive measures against industrial gas emissions/waste water, technology for energy conservation, technology for industrial waste disposal, technology for recycling of wastes, etc. Reports were also made public on the situations of the countries participated in the project. Moreover, the field training was made at Yokkaichi complex, Sakakibara wind power plant, Hekinan thermal power plant of the Chubu Electric Power Co., Toyota Motor Corp., etc. (NEDO)

  15. FY 2000 report on the potential survey of implementation of a model project for improvement of thermal efficiency and energy conservation in refineries of Indonesia; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Indonesia ni okeru seiyujo netsukoritsu kojo shoenergy model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    For the purpose of heightening the thermal efficiency in oil refineries in Indonesia, survey was conducted of two main refineries of Pertamina (Cilacap Refinery and Balikpapan Refinery), and a potentiality of spreading energy conservation technology was studied. As a result of the study, the following were found out. In Cilacap Refinery, there is a possibility of energy conservation by enhancing the efficiency of the atmospheric distillation system and rationalizing utility facilities. As to Balikpapan Refinery, when effects of energy conservation are calculated by effectively using the by-producing off-gas emitted from the oil refining process which was recovered as on-site fuel, the amount of reduction in fuel consumption became 2.3 KL-FOE/h, and the year of simple investment recovery 1.7 years. Further, by recovering/effectively using hydrogen in the separation gas emitted from the hydrocracking unit, fuel/raw material in the hydrogen producing facilities were reduced, and the energy conservation effect became 2.98 KL-FOE/h in the amount of reduction in fuel consumption and 2.9 years in the year of simple investment recovery. (NEDO)

  16. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Energy saving projects at two steel making companies in Fushun City in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku Fushun shi ni okeru tekko gaisha 2 sha no shoene project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, investigations and discussions were given on two steel making companies in China. Discussions were given for Fushun Special Steel Co., Ltd. on abolishment and unification of four electric furnaces into two new electric furnaces, and for Fushun New Steel Co., Ltd. on installation of a granulation reinforcing facility, a segregation reinforcing device, and cooler waste heat recovery boilers for the sintering machine, installation of sensors including the waste gas oxygen concentration meter, adoption of a process computer, and optimization of the furnace temperature patterns for the heating furnace. As a result of the discussions, it was revealed that the unit requirement for electric power used at Fushun Special Steel can be reduced largely, and so can the fuel used at Fushun New Steel. The annual energy saving effect would be about 500 million yen relative to the investment amount of 2.8 billion yen at Fushun Special Steel, and about 400 million yen relative to the investment amount of about 400 million yen at Fushun New Steel. The greenhouse gas emission would be reduced annually by 40,000 t-CO2 and 60,000 t-CO2 respectively. Fushun Special Steel will execute an international bid in May this year. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1998 survey report on the potential study of cooperation related to the activity implementation joint in 6 countries of Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia); 1998 nendo Indoshina 6 kakkoku (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Tai oyobi Malaysia) ni okeru energy kankyo kanren kyodo kenkyu jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A potential study in FY 1998 was made of the energy/environment related activity implementation joint (COP3 related AIJ) in 6 Southeast Asian countries. Vietnam is a country which is the lowest in greenhouse effect gas (GHG) emission in the world, but they want the international assistance for their continued development and contribution to the global environment. Laos has to continue their economic development for extermination of poverty and improvement of life level. Accordingly, AIJ has to be the one that supports those and is helpful for both industrial development and environmental improvement. The same in Cambodia as in Laos, AIJ has to be the one that is helpful for both industrial development and promotion of environmental improvement. In Myanmar, GHG emits (CO2 conversion) 94.5% in the agricultural sector where methane is emitted from livestock and rice growing. There, the forest protection plays a big role. In Thailand, the use of land and forest protection are subjects mainly with the heightening of energy efficiency and fuel substitution. Malaysia, of course, promotes the economic development, has the leading GHG policy (traffic management in urban area, etc.), and wants the international technology transfer. (NEDO)

  18. Estimation of the thermal stress in the coke layer. Kanryu katei ni okeru kokusu sonai netsuoryoku no suisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Takatsoshi; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Saito, Shozaburo; Otani, Shigemori [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1989-12-20

    Fissures which are formed in coke ovens are an important factor which exerts influences not only on the quality of coke but also on consumed energy such as thermal transfer. An estimation method of thermal stress distribution in the coke layer which is important to determine these fissures was, therefore, proposed, and the propriety of the method was demonstrated in comparison with the experiment results by X-ray computerized tomography. In the analysis model, heat fluxes from the upper part of the carbonization room and from the heating wall were regarded the same, and the temperature field was obtained by formulating the non-steady heat conduction equation to the finite element method by Galerkin scheme. The stress field was presumed to be an elastic flat field, and it was formulated to the finite element method by the incremental theory. Following investigation results were obtained and thus the propriety of this method was demonstrated. The formation position of principal tensile stress calculated and the formation position of fissures observed by X-ray computerized tomography had a corresponding relation. According to the calculation, with the increase of heating rate, principal tensile stress was increased; and that accounted for experiment results. Estimated results of thermal stress in the layer varied depending on the coal's value of property of the matter. 8 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Subsurface displacement of the Tachikawa fault; Tachikawa danso no chika shinbu ni okeru danso hen`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K; Kano, N; Kiguchi, T; Tanaka, A [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sato, H [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1997-10-22

    Seismic exploration using the reflection method was carried out at the central section of the Tachikawa fault located in the western part of the Musashino high plain spreading over Tokyo and Saitama Prefectures. The course of traverse was set on a road running in the east to west direction, which crosses the running direction of the Tachikawa fault in Sunagawa, Tachikawa City by about 65 degrees. The area near the course of traverse is a terraced alluvial fan, with the nature of its surface soil consisted of a gravelly bed of the Quaternary period. In order to identify the fault structure in detail, the focal point interval was set to 5 m, being half of the vibration receiving point interval of 10 m. The CMP was defined at a 2.5-m interval rather than a 5-m interval. The S/N ratio of the derived data was found not good. This is because of scattering of seismic energy into the gravelly bed with a thickness of about 100m in the shallow portion and because of noise from passing vehicles. The data processing was applied with correlation, geometry, static correction, velocity analysis and CMP polymerization to have prepared a preliminary CMP polymerization time cross section. As a result, it was elucidated that the Tachikawa fault forms a bend zone or a crush zone under the ground, and continues down to a great depth at a high angle. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Roles played by coral reef ecosystems in mitigating global warming. Ondanka taisaku ni okeru sangosho no igi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, H [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-05-01

    This Paper describes briefly a question of whether growing coral reefs could be an effective means to fix CO2 in sea water in order to mitigate global warming: Growing coral reefs could be a promising method from the following three views: Photosynthesis performed by diverse ecosystems that constitute coral reefs is thought to excel calcification (accompanying CO2 discharge from sea to the atmosphere); corals all over the world would fix CO2 at an annual rate of several hundred million tons; and no much energies are consumed to fix CO2. However, these favorable views depend upon another condition that a time period for the CO2 fixation is not too short (a measure for the time being is 100 years or longer). Elucidating where organic matters generated by the photosynthesis would go is an important question to meet this requirement. The paper indicates that measuring nitrogen and phosphor balances in addition to carbon balance is effective for measuring ratio of a net photosynthesis rate to the calcification rate. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Report on an investigation into heat pumps in China in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo Chugoku ni okeru heat pump system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper surveyed the present status, the status of spread, and the technical development of the technology of heat pumps for residential and industrial uses in China. Main examples of installation of heat pumps are cited below: steam drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; sea water heat source turbo heat pumps in Qingdao; hot water drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; oil-fueled absorption type water cooling and heating appliances in Beijing; ice latent heat storage airconditioning systems using electrically-driven screw chiller in Beijing; temperature rising systems using electrically-driven heat pump of the solar energy utilization warm water swimming pool in Guangdong Province; cooling water supply using waste heat utilization absorption type refrigerator of the alcohol plant in Shandong Province; timber drying systems using electrically-driven heat pump, and marine product cultivation systems in Quangdong Province; distillation systems using steam turbine heat pump in Jiangxi Province. The demand for heat pumps is expected to be 20 million units under the 9th 5-year plan, and the development of equipment is thought to go toward promotion of energy conservation, low noise, multi-type or multi-functional air conditioning equipment, and computer use. 137 figs., 40 tabs.

  2. Study of installation of PV systems at campus; Campus ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden donyu ni kansuru kenkyu (taiyo denchi nomi wo secchishita baai no yobi kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, N.; Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In terms of energy consumption, environmentality and economical efficiency in the case of installing the photovoltaic power system on the rooftop of the university campus, a comparative study was conducted with other power generation systems. As objects to be comparatively studied, selected were the all-electric type centralized space heating/cooling system, cogeneration system, nighttime heat storage system and centralized system with solar cells installed. The panel area of the PV system is 10,000m{sup 2} on the rooftop and 7,000{sup 2} on the outer wall. About data on solar radiation, average values obtained in Nagoya were used. Assessment was made in terms of energy consumption amount at the time of operation, system COP, emission amounts of CO2, NOx and SOx at the time of manufacturing and operation, initial cost, running cost, etc. As a result of the study, an effect of reducing global warming gas was admitted in the PV system. However, the initial cost of the solar cell panel was high, and the life cycle cost of the PV system was lower than other systems. 1 ref., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H; Itokawa, K [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Survey on a possibility of geothermal utilization in Tomakomai City; 1980 nendo Tomakomaishi ni okeru chinetsu riyo kanosei ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-11-01

    This paper describes a possibility of geothermal utilization in Tomakomai City. The Tomakomai area has an extremely great amount of hot water existing in deep layers, leading to a consideration that it is very highly possible to develop the hot water. As seen from the underground structure and ground temperature gradient in the Tomakomai sedimentary basin, the development depth would be considerably great, being assumed to be about 2,000 meters. The acquisition amount per well is estimated 100 m{sup 3}/hour or more at 65 degrees C. Rise in petroleum price in the future is an unavoidable fate, hence geothermal water utilization has a fully bright future. The water has relatively low temperature, and is effective for use in room heating, hot water supply, and agricultural and livestock industries. It is worth considering utilization as a local energy system. It has also large secondary effects. According to the latest trial calculation, the unit price for hot water for room heating and hot water supply would be 10 to 20 yen per 1,000 kilo-calories. If the same amount of hot water should be supplied from a boiler, fossil fuel of 20,470 kl/year would be required. If converted by using a kerosene price of 75 yen per liter, the cost would be 1.3 billion 35 million yen, comparatively higher than the geothermal water utilization. (NEDO)

  5. Low energy alpha scattering on 62Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mate, Z.; Szilagyi, S.; Zolnai, L.; Bredbacka, A.; Brenner, M.; Kaellman, K.-M.; Manngard, P.

    1989-01-01

    An anomaly could be observed in the energy dependence of the optical model potential parameters and volume integrals when these quantities were compared with those obtained at higher bombarding energies in several theoretical works. Elastic α-particle differential cross sections were measured in the present work at 12.8, 14.5, 16.3 and 18.1 MeV on 62 Ni in the angular range from 20 to 166 degrees. The angular distributions were analyzed in terms of the optical model. The energy dependence of the volume integrals was compared with the prediction of a model based on the dispersion relation between the real and imaginary parts. (author) 33 refs.; 3 figs

  6. FY 1999 report on the results of the superconductive energy application technology development/research on a total system, etc. Survey of potentiality of the commercialization of superconductive technology, effects of the introduction, etc. (Future course of the superconductive technology development in Japan); 1999 nendo chodendo denryoku oryokuyo gijutsu kaihatsu total system nado no kenkyu. Chodendo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kanosei oyobi donyu koka nado no chosa (Nippon ni okeru chodendo gijutsu kaihatsu no kongo no hokosei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    By the use of superconductive technology, the following are aimed at: marked reduction in power loss of electrical equipment and power transmission path, and size/weight reduction in electrical devices by high current/magnetic flux density. The superconductive technology has advantages such as great energy saving effect, CO2 reduction and global environmental preservation. As an example, concerning the superconductive generator now being developed under the New Sunshine Project, power loss can be reduced by half, and by the use of high magnetic field, size/weight can be reduced such as reduction in rotor diameter and reduction in weight by half. Further, as an innovative system, cited are the superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) and flywheel energy storage system. The superconducting magnetic levitation railway, medical use MRI, etc. have also innovativity which is difficult to get in the conventional technology. Effects are also expected of introducing the process development using superconducting magnet such as magnetic separation, electromagnetic metallurgy, electromagnetic agitation and monocrytal growth convection control. Also cited is Josephson electronic device. High performance SQUID in bio-magnetic/non-destructive inspection is also expected to be developed. (NEDO)

  7. Effects of solvent and catalysts on the hydrogenolysis of alkylnaphthalenes; Alkylnaphthalene no suisoka bunkai ni okeru yobai to shokubai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamura, S. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Catalytic effects of metal and carbon materials, which promote hydrogen transfer from hydrogen donor solvents, are investigated during hydrogenolysis of benzyl-1-methylnaphthalenes (BMN) selected as a hydrogen acceptor. For the isomer distribution of BMN after the reaction, almost the same molecular ratio before the reaction was obtained independent of the presence of catalysts. Selectivity of position during the addition of hydrogen atoms from tetralin was not found. For the reaction of BMN in tetralin, 1-methylnaphthalene and toluene were obtained as products, but the formation of benzylnaphthalene was not found. As for the nuclear hydride of BMN, the trace amount formation was confirmed by gas chromatography. For the hydrogen transfer from tetralin progressed catalytically, it was found that the nuclear of naphthalene can not be hydrogenated easily. This was considered to be due to the obstruction of hydrogen transfer from tetralin by the strong adsorption of BMN on the Ni surface. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Characterization of the various catalyst for solvent hydrogenation at 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru kakushu yozai suisoka shokubai no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakebayashi, H.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Performance of various catalysts for hydrogenation of recycle solvent was evaluated for the operation of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU). Distillate between 220 and 538{degree}C derived from the liquefaction of Tanito Harum coal was used as recycle solvent. Deactivation behaviors of catalysts were compared using a prediction equation of catalyst life, by which aromatic carbon index (fa) after hydrogenation can be determined from the fa of recycle oil before hydrogenation, reaction temperature, and total hydrogenation time. Total hydrogenation time satisfying the {Delta}fa, 0.05 before and after hydrogenation were 8,000, 4,000, and 2,000 hours for NiMo-based catalysts C, A, and B, respectively. Catalyst C showed the longest life. Used catalysts were also characterized. The catalyst C showed larger mean pore size than those of the others, which resulted in the longer life due to the delay of pore blockage. From measurements by XPS and EPMA, relative atomic concentration of carbon increased remarkably after the use for all of catalysts, which was considered to be due to the adhesion of hydrocarbons. Increase of metal atoms, such as Fe and Cr, was also observed due to the contamination of entrainment residues. Deactivation of catalysts was caused by the adhesion of hydrocarbons, and metallic compounds, such as Fe and Cr. 3 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. Hear recovery properties from fuel cell system for telecommunications use; Tsushin`yo nenryo denchi system no fuirudotesuto ni okeru hainetsu kaishu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, M.; Iida, S.; Abe, I.; Amanuma, H. [NTT Integrated Information and Energy Systems Laboratories Tokyo (Japan); Uekusa, T.; Waragai, S. [NTT Power and Building Eacilities Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-20

    NTT is developing a phosphoric acid fuel cell energy system for telecommunication co-generation systems to reduce energy costs and help preserve the environment. Fuel cells are used to provide electrical power to telecommunication equipment and the heat energy that is generated is used by the absorption refrigerator to cool the telecommunication rooms throughout the year. We fieldtested this fuel cell energy system in a telephone office for three years. Heat recovered water from fuel cell stack coolant was supplied to the absorption refrigerator and further extra-heat was recovered by a heat exchanger. The toral heat recovery amount was about 86000 kca/h (the heat recovery efficiency was 20%) under 200kW operation. The absorption refrigerator was supplied about 49000kcal/h of heat and operated with 0.7 of coefficient of performance throughtout the year. The electrical efficiency was maintained more than 38% after 13000h operation. 12 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Evolution of collectivity in the 78Ni region: Coulomb excitation of 74Ni at intermediate energies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the collective properties of nuclear excitations far from stability provides information about the shell structure at extreme conditions. Spectroscopic observables such as the energy or the transition probabilities of the lowest states, in nuclei with large neutron excess, allow to probe the density and isospin dependence of the effective interaction. Indeed, it was recently shown that tensor and three-body forces play an important role in breaking and creating magic numbers. Emblematic is the case of the evolution of the Ni isotopic chain where several features showed up moving from the most neutron rich stable isotope (64Ni towards the 78Ni nucleus where the large neutron excess coincides with a double shell closure. In this framework, we have recently performed an experiment with the goal to extract the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ value for the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment: preliminary results are discussed.

  11. Heat recovery properties from fuel cell system for telecommunications use; Tsushin`yo nenryo denchi system ni okeru hainetsu kaishu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, M.; Iida, S.; Abe, I.; Yamamoto, M. [NTT Integrated Information and Energy Systems Laboratories, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    NTT is developing a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell energy system for telecommunication co-generation systems to reduce energy costs and help preserve the environment. Fuel cells are used to provide electrical power to telecommunication equipment and the heat energy that is generated is used by the absorption refrigerators to cool the telecommunication rooms throughout the year. We field-tested this fuel-cell energy system in a telephone office. Two heat recovery methods were applied in the test: one uses direct steam heat recovery from fuel-cell stack coolant to keep the heat recovery temperature high and to avoid requiring a heat exchanger for the recovery; the other uses heat recovery from the reformer exhaust gas that is directly in contact with the heat recovery water to recover heat more economically. Our field tests confirmed that the average efficiency of heat recovery from fuel-cell stack coolant is 16%, and from the reformer exhaust gas is 9% under 80-kW continuous operation. Maximum total efficiency including electrical power efficiency was confirmed to be about 73% under the condition of 100-kW and an S/C ratio of 2.5 in the winter period: heat recovery from the fuel-cell stack coolant was 23%, from the reformer exhaust gas was 10%, and from electrical conversion was about 40%. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fiscal 1991 report. Overseas surveys out of surveys for coal hydrogasification technology development; 1991 nendo sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa ni okeru kaigai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-01

    For the selection and evaluation of coal gasification processes suitable for substitute natural gas (SNG) production, visits were made to business corporations, research institutes, etc., engaged in the development of coal gasification technology abroad, and surveys were conducted of the development status overseas and information was collected. Visits were made and information was collected on the Lurgi process, a commercial SNG plant, and others at Dakota Gasification Company, U.S.; U-gas process and others at Institute of Gas Technology; energy-related matters at U.S. Department of Energy; coal hydrogasification process and others at Midlands Station, British Gas plc; Shell coal gasification process and others at Amsterdam Research Institute, Royal Dutch Shell; coal gasification, high-temperature desulfurization, and others at KEMA, Holland; and IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) verification plant with the Shell coal gasification process incorporated thereinto, now under construction at Demkolec. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1992 report. Overseas surveys out of surveys for coal hydrogasification technology development; 1992 nendo sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa ni okeru kaigai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    As part of the coal hydrogasification technology development survey project, overseas surveys were carried out as in the preceding fiscal year. With an emphasis placed on the process materials and resources, and on product utilization technologies, surveys and studies were conducted about the trends of development of coal and natural gas resources, and information was collected on energy-related matters in Indonesia and Australia. The need of hydrogasification technology was investigated from the viewpoint of natural resources. Moreover, Japanese engineers were dispatched to APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) New Energy Seminar, Indonesia. Visits were made for information on the natural gas resources at an LNG base in East Kalimantan, Indonesia; coal gasification, energy, and others at CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization), Australia; coal bed and methane resources at Warren Center, University of Sydney, Australia; coal bed and methane resources at the Brisbane office, Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc.; and coal resources at coal mines of Idemitsu South Queensland Coal Pty Ltd. (NEDO)

  14. Survey report for fiscal 1999. Project of diffusing gas driven cooling systems in Oman; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru gas reibo fukyu jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With the clean development mechanism (CDM) borne in mind, a study is made about the diffusion of gas driven cooling systems in Oman. The project under study aims to replace the motor driven turbo cooling systems, now in use at the Royal Hospital and other buildings in various areas, with gas driven cooling systems. It is then found that, when the Royal Hotel is equipped with such systems, energy will be saved by 1,855 tons/year in terms of oil, and greenhouse gas reduced by 5,129 tons/year in terms of CO2. When the Royal Hospital and other large buildings with heavy cooling loads, situated at or near the center of Muscat City and in the vicinity of the existing natural gas pipelines, are taken into account, energy will be saved by 13,049 tons/year in terms of oil and greenhouse gas will be reduced by 31,636 tons/year in terms of CO2, thanks to the presence of universities, hotels, and a sector occupied by government offices. As for the time necessary for investment recovery, it will be 4.7-5.3 years in case the investment does not cover a gas decompression station construction cost and 6.2-6.8 years in case it covers such. The new system will cost 7% less than the existing system. When a comparison is made in terms of electricity charges, the new system will be 30% lower than the existing system. The Omani Government is critical of a plan for allowing Japan to establish there an energy supply company (financed by Japan). (NEDO)

  15. Report on field test project for wind power development at Nagashima-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Nagashimacho ni okeru furyoku field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted to study the feasibility of a wind power generation system for Nagashima-cho, Izumi-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. Observation instruments were installed at the top of a hill approximately 80m above the sea level situated to the northwest of the Nagashima-cho town hall and, in the period October 1998 through September 1999, data were collected at a point 20m above ground, such as the average wind speed and direction, wind velocity standard deviation, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. The data were analyzed, and findings were obtained, as mentioned below. The annual average wind speed was 5.0m, strong in winter and weak in summer. The annual wind direction occurrence rate was 61.8%, turbulence intensity was 0.17 at wind speeds of 4m/s and more, these not presenting any particular problem. Wind energy density was 148W/m{sup 2}. Both wind speed conditions and energy density were slightly lower than the reference levels indicated for evaluation. Studies were made on the assumption that three classes of wind turbines (150, 300, and 750kW) would be introduced, and then it was found that both operating factors and facility availability rates exceeded the required levels. Since there were no detrimental factors in the surrounding conditions, it was concluded that possibilities were high that wind power generation at the site would be practical. (NEDO)

  16. Privatization of YPF and upstream activities in and out of Argentina after the privatization; YPF no min`eika to kokunaigai joryu bumon ni okeru katsudo jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, E. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    Reported herein is the process of the privatization of the formerly state-run enterprise YPF, how it has won success, and its activities in and out of Argentina after the privatization. YPF was established in 1922 as the first Government-operated oil corporation in the world. Since inauguration, it had played a leading part in the domestic oil industry and contributed much to the acquisition of foreign currency. Economy aggravated in Argentina in the second half of the 1980s, however, and President Carlos Menem who assumed presidency in 1989 announced energy industry liberalization policies including the privatization of YPF. YPF chronically in the red those days was subjected to a thorough restructuring, which enabled the corporation to run stably in the black. In June, 1993, the corporation issued shares and privatization was achieved with success. Since then, YPF has been holding the position of a leading oil enterprise in Argentina where competition is in work. In 1995, furthermore, YPF acquisitioned Maxus Energy for a full-scale international deployment. 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T; Doi, T; Tanaka, T; Ando, Y [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R; Kamoshida, J [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Report on survey of promotion of activities implemented jointly in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no suishin chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Rapid economy growth has been observed in Asia including Japan. On the other hand, problems of population and environment grew even worse with the economic growth. Especially, China is the second CO2 emission country in the world. Large energy demand is still forecasted with its economic growth in the future. It is well-known that the energy consumption per unit GDP is very large. Therefore, it is very significant to promote the activities implemented jointly with China for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases including CO2, which provides a significant meaning for solving global environmental issues as well as for improving regional environmental issues. It is necessary for the above to recognize the appropriate current situations and to promote the activities implemented jointly suitable for the country. Based on the discussions and information exchanges about environmental issues with staffs concerning environmental policies and scientists as well as the field surveys, methods for the activities implemented jointly were investigated to provide some proposals. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Survey of the actual state of the coal related research and development in Japan. 11; Nippon ni okeru sekitan kanren kenkyu kaihatsu jittai chosa. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    NEDO is surveying the actual state of the coal related research/development in Japan to supply information on the coal related research/development in Japan to IEA`s coal research project database. This book of fiscal 1997 version includes 338 subjects. The details described are name of research institute, the section in charge, address, name of country, telephone No., name of joint researcher, research theme, classification, outline of research, project No., name of researcher, sponsor, the budget appropriated, term of research, remarks, etc. The books of data collected from each country in surveys of the actual state of the coal related R and D and IEA`s coal researches which have been made so far are submitted for general viewing at NEDO Information Center. Also, a part of those can be accessible from the energy database of which NEDO Information Center is performing on-line service for user members

  20. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Soyo Town (wind characteristics investigation); Soyomachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Soyo Town, Aso-gun, Kumamoto Prefecture. The annual average wind speed is 5.9m/s and 5.6m/s at 20m and 10m above ground, respectively, satisfying the reference values of 5.6m/s and 5.0m/s. The prevalent wind direction is WNW (occurrence rate: 32.8%). The wind from the directions with WNW at their middle occupies 75%, stable and satisfying the reference value of 60%. Strong winds come frequently from the direction of high occurrence, which is advantageous in arranging plural wind turbine systems. The exponential index in the wind speed vertical distribution is 13.3, but wind distribution is not simple at a mountain top site like the observation station in this report. Wind characteristics are similar to those at places with mild inundations, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed of 40.8m/s will not pose a problem. The wind energy density is 205W/m{sup 2}, satisfying the reference value of 150. Wind power systems of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW are assumed. When the exponential index is 13.3, their annual operation rates will be 70%, 71%, and 82%; and their capacity ratios are 22.6%, 23.9%, and 22.9%, all satisfying the reference values. They will collect 297MWh, 629MWh, and 1507MWh of wind energy per year. It is concluded that Soyo Town is fully qualified as a site for wind power development. (NEDO)

  1. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Yaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Yakumachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Yakushima Young Travellers' Village of the above-named town, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is between 1.6 and 4.7, or 3.5 on the average, relatively small due probably to the peculiar terrain and causing no trouble in the development. Turbulence intensity is 0.16 at when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, low enough to meet the reference value (0.30 or less). The total occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis (SSE-NNW) is 48%, falling short of the reference value (60% or more). The average wind speed in the prevalent wind direction is high and the wind energy density concentrates on the prevalent wind axis, this showing that the site is good for wind power development. The annual average wind speed is 5.6m/s, slightly lower than the reference value (5.8m/s or more). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining the wind endurance level for the wind turbine design. The annual wind energy density is 325W/m{sup 2}, fully meeting the reference value (215W/m{sup 2} or more). The annual operation rates of the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 61/65/80%, and these meet the reference value (45% or more). Their annual capacity ratios are 24.5/26.6/27.7%, and these again meet the reference value (17% or more). (NEDO)

  2. Prevention of condenser tubes corroson from polluted sea wtaer at Saijo thermal power station. Saijo hatsudensho ni okeru fukusuiki kan no boshoku taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, T.; Sato, N.; Ito, M. (Shikoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Kagawa (Japan))

    1991-03-15

    After the oil shock, Saijou thermal power station converted its energy source into coal to diversify the power source. With rising operation rate at the plant after fuel conversion, leaky condenser tubes have increased. Such leakage concentrated especially in new 70/30 cupro-nickel tubes equipped in air cooling zones of the condenser. This report investigates the cause of this leakage and describes the study results on the corrosion prevention. Consequently, following two measures were taken: a measure to prevent local erosion of aluminum brass pipes by means of preventing inflow of foreign materials such as seashells; a measure to prevent corrosion of 70/30 cupro-nickel sulfide by strengthening the injection of ferrous sulfate and by test loading of coated tubes. As a result, no sea water was leaked. Moreover, it was found through the eddy current examination that sulfide corrosion of the new 70/30 cupro-nickel tubes was reduced by iron coat and the rate of losing its thickness decreased remarkably. 1 ref., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Countermeasure for the magnetic drag force in guideway structure of superconducting magnetic levitation Vehicle system (MAGLEV); Chodendo jiki fujoshiki tetsudo no kozobutsu ni okeru denjiki taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, A [JR Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-15

    As for the levitation vehicle system, the vehicle is equipped with superconducting magnets and is levitated about 10cm by the electromagnetic force that works between the push coil and levitation guide coil laid on the ground and it runs 500km an hour. But, the running resistance and energy loss called as magnetic resistance caused by the electromagnet phenomenon that generates between the superconducting magnets and structures (steel products) generate. In this paper, the magnet resistance generated in guideway structure of superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle system and its countermeasures therefor are introduced. The main countermeasures against the magnetic resistance are as follows. The steel products have to be as arranged as separated from the superconducting magnets as far as possible in the permissible design limit. Based on the analysis results the low magnetic steel would be used in an area within 1.5m from the strand of the superconducting magnet. The contact resistance of the joints part of loop-shaped components would be bigger so as to do not cause the loop current. And the big component would be divided into small parts when it is used near to the superconducting magnets. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Trends in coal gasification technology development in the U.S.A. (Volume 2); Beikoku ni okeru sekitan gas ka gijutsu kaihatsu no doko. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    Studies were carried out subsequently from fiscal 1986 on trends in coal gasification technology development in the U.S.A., as a voluntary study of the Coal Utilizing Hydrogen Manufacturing Technology Research Association. In the U.S.A., the governmental organizations and private sectors are working in a body on developing coal technologies. The present survey has seen activities at the Morgan Town Energy Technology Center (METC) being a national research organization, the Institute of Gas Technology Research (IGT) having a long history, and the Great Plains project, a commercialization project. The great accumulation of technologies as the advanced research nation is impressive. In the present study, site surveys were carried out in the U.S.A. in October last year in addition to the surveys made from the aspects of literatures available inside and outside Japan. Section 1 describes the development of the policies of the METC for comprehensive coal gasification research and development, and the development of advanced gasification technologies. Section 2 describes research activities of IGT covering a wide range, the U-Gas process, a plan for the commercial coal gasification plant using Utah coal, and the high-pressure agglomeration (U-gas process). Section 3 describes the summary of the Great Plains coal gasification project and the way to the commercialization thereof. (NEDO)

  5. Comparison of performance between a parallel and a series solar-heat pump system; Solar heat pump system ni okeru heiretsu setsuzoku no seino hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K; Zhao, J; Baba, H; Endo, N [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In a solar heat pump system, a single-tank system was fabricated, in which a heat pump is installed in series between a heat collecting tank and a heat storage tank. At the same time, a double-tank system was also fabricated, in which two tanks are assembled into one to which a solar system and a heat pump are connected in parallel. Performance of both systems was analyzed by using measured values and estimated values. Heat collecting efficiency in the double-tank system is higher by about 13 points than in the single-tank system. Nevertheless, the coefficient of performance for the single-tank system is 1.03 to 1.51 times greater than that of the double-tank system. Dependency of the single-tank system on natural energy is higher by 0.3 to 3 points than the double-tank system. Putting the above facts together, it may be said that the single-tank system connecting the solar system and the heat pump in parallel is superior in performance to the double-tank system of the series connection. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Study on indoor pollution by microbes grown in a solar house in Tokyo; Tokyo no solar house ni okeru kabi no jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T; Aihara, M; Nakanishi, R; Ito, H [Ochanomizu University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Indoor pollution by microbes grown in a solar house is studied. It is a reinforced concrete building, having a total floor area of 260m{sup 2}, equipped with a flat type solar collector on the roof and a lighting window on the north, the former having an area of 16m{sup 2} and slanted at 60deg and the latter slanted at 60deg. It is also provided with a semi-underground room, to utilize heat capacity of soil for coolness in summer and warmness in winter. It provides a residential space throughout the year, with no artificial heating or air-conditioning system, naturally ventilated with air taken into the underground room and released out of a triangular shape on the roof. The building is also passively conditioned, being totally insulated with expanded polystyrene. Energy saving is the most important consideration for the solar house, slightly forcing the residents to exercise patience. For this reason, the solar house often smells musty, and pollution with microbes is quantitatively investigated. Microbes evolve more in the underground room than in the space above groun, because of higher humidity in the former. Accelerated ventilation or slight artificial air-conditioning will solve the trouble. 1 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Holdup of O/W emulsion in a packed column for liquid membrane separation of hydrocarbon; Tankasuiso no ekimaku bunri ni okeru jutento nai no emarushon horudo appu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egashira, R.; Sugimoto, T.; Kawasaki, J. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-07-10

    Liquid membrane separation of hydrocarbon is an energy saving separation method that is expected of practical use. If the method uses a packed column, the holdup of O/W emulsion affects the effective contact area and residence time of the emulsion. Therefore, this paper describes an attempt to correlate the dynamic emulsion holdup in a packed column in liquid membrane separation of hydrocarbon with property values of the emulsion and external oil phase, and operation variables. The experiment used a mixture of toluene + n - heptane + n - decane for oil phase in the O/W emulsion and saponin aqueous solution for liquid phase (liquid membrane phase). The packed column with an inner diameter of 37 mm used stainless steel McMahon packing. As a result of the experiment, the dynamic emulsion holdup showed a correlation according to the Reynolds number and Galilei number, regardless of whether the emulsion permeates the liquid membrane. The correlation made it possible to estimate in a simple manner the emulsion holdup in the packed column when this separation method is used. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Correlation between the structural relaxation and the functionality of optically functional glasses; Kokinosei glass ni okeru kozo kanwa to kinosei no sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, T [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-15

    A discussion was given to elucidate the correlation between the crystallization of infrared ray permeating glass and the infrared ray permeability. The elucidation used infrared ray permeation spectrum, infrared ray absorption spectrum, and the Mosbauer effect. Reduction in permeability due to heat treatment of aluminate glass was discussed from the crystallization mechanism. Ultrafine crystals of mayenite phase having a composition ratio of CaO/Al2O3 = 1.7 diffuse and grow from the glass surface into interior as a result of heat treatment. The crystal growth is triggered by severance of Al-O tetrahedron. Gallate glass has CaGa2O4 and small amount of CaFe2O4 phase deposited when it is heat-treated in the vicinity of Tg. Although the infrared ray permeability decreases in association with the crystallization, the decrease is limited to crystallization on the glass surface, hence the permeability will not fall to zero. Laser irradiation on the gallate glass causes crystallization, resulting in reduced infrared ray permeability. Semi-stable Ca3Ga4O7 phase remains, however, because the heat energy amount is not large. Tellurite glass has {alpha}-TeO2 and a small amount of telluric acid iron deposit when heat-treated. 29 refs., 10 figs.

  9. FY 1998 annual report on power generation by waste heat from cement production in China; Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu hatsuden 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is to implement a feasibility study for applying waste heat power generation, which have been already commercialized in Japan and producing remarkable results, to China's cement plants producing 3,500 t/d or more of clinker, and thereby to try to establish a link with the Japan's clean development mechanism. It is expected that introduction of these systems improves energy use efficiency and environments in China. The study results indicate that the project for a Tongling Conch plant could generate power of 15,000 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 89,178 t/y and cumulatively 1,783,560 tons in the 20-year period. The results also indicate that the project will be highly profitable, with an estimated internal return rate of as high as 33.78%. The project for a Huaxin plant could generate power of 8,400 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 48,412 t/y and cumulatively 968,240 tons in the 20-year period, annually saving power charges by 325 million yen and bringing an internal return rate of 10.72%. (NEDO)

  10. Recycling technologies for sewarage systems. Reuse of water, heat, and sludge in Tokyo; Gesuido wo meguru risaikuru gijutsu. Tokyoto ni okeru mizu/netsu/odei no sairiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mino, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-03-10

    The recycling technology employed in Tokyo were reported. It will be useful for developing and introducing the recycling technology for water, heat, and sludge in the sewage treatment. Among various kinds of recycling technology, one of the most peculiar technology is the district heating and cooling system using the heat of sewage. The Japan`s first practical plant which uses the untreated sewage as the heat source was installed and is now operating in Korakuen pump station. In the station, the energy contained in the sewage is recovered by a heat exchanger. The heat pump produces warm water of 45{degree}C and cold water of 7{degree}C as well. Both are supplied to the area near by through the heat source supply pipeline. The Nanbu sludge plant has a sludge-resourcing plant, in which the sludge is converted into fuel, metro-bricks, and light-weight granules, as well as a conventional sludge treatment plant carrying out the concentration, dehydration, and incineration of sludge. The Ochiai sewage treatment plant reuses water after cleaning. The clean water is used as for the service water in addition to being discharged into the river stream. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Kamiyaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Kamiyakucho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at the above town located at the northern end of the Yakushima island, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is 6.06 with all the directions averaged, and is so high as 8.4/13.6 in the wind directions (W/E). Prudence should be exercised, when to estimate the wind speed at the wind turbine hub altitude, against disjunction from the simple exponential law due to geographical peculiarities of the observation location. Turbulence intensity is low and is 0.15 when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, not exerting an ill effect on wind power development. As for the total wind direction occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis, 78.2% is recorded, which is much higher than the reference value (60%). The average wind speed on this wind axis is high, and this shows that the location is quite suitable for wind power development. The annual average wind speed of 6.3m/s is much higher than the reference value, this again promising a success. The wind energy density of 478W/m{sup 2} is sufficiently high, as compared with the reference value (215W/m{sup 2}). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining wind endurance for the wind turbine design. The annual capacity ratios for the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 33.8/36.5/36.9%, respectively, higher than the NEDO-provided reference value (17% or higher) and predicting sufficient power generation. (NEDO)

  12. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Yugawara Town (wind characteristics investigation); Yugawaramachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed in the period November 1997 through October 1998 at Yugawara Town, Kanagawa Prefecture. The average wind speed is 5.1m/s and 5.0m/s at 20m and 10m above ground, respectively, suggesting that the difference in altitude causes but a very small difference in wind speed and that a large wind speed component exists in the vertical direction. Under the 16 compass point system, the wind direction occurrence rate is the highest in the NE direction and the second highest in the W direction. The two directions are prevalent, and their occurrence rates on the wind axes total 62.6%. The occurrence rate of wind speeds of not less than 5m/s is 40%. Turbulence intensity is 0.23 and 0.17 for the average wind speed of not less than 2m/s and for the average wind speed of not less than 4m/s, respectively, suggesting but a little impact of air current turbulence. The amounts of energy to be acquired by wind turbine systems of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW are estimated at 301,363kWh, 651,593kWh, and 1,668,825kWh, respectively. Their annual capacity ratios are 22.9%, 24.8%, and 25.4%, respectively. Since difference in wind speed due to difference in altitude is small, it is supposed that the wind speed at the hub altitude is not so high. It is inferred consequently that service operation will be quite difficult to realize. Difficulties will be also encountered in relation to the route of turbine system transportation, power distribution line, and the distance to a transformation station. (NEDO)

  13. The study of quasi-projectiles produced in Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions: excitation energy and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, A.

    2003-02-01

    During the collision between the projectile and the target nuclei in the intermediate energy regime (E < 100 MeV/nucleon) two excited nuclei are mainly observed in the exit channel, the quasi projectile (QP) and the quasi target. They disintegrate by particle emission. However, this binary picture is perturbed by the emission of particles and light fragments with velocities intermediate between the projectile velocity and the target one, all along the interaction (midrapidity component). This work aim to determine the excitation energy and the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin) of quasi-projectiles produced in the Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions at 52 and 90 MeV/nucleon. The excitation energy is deduced from the kinematical characteristics of particles emitted by the quasi-projectile. They have to be separated from midrapidity particles. Three different scenarios have been used for this purpose. The spin of the quasi-projectile has been extracted from the experimental data by mean of proton and alpha particles multiplicities emitted by the QP in the Ni+Au at 52 MeV/nucleon reaction. The results have been compared to the predictions of a theoretical model based on nucleon transfers. Their evolution is qualitatively reproduced as a function of the violence of the collision. (author)

  14. Synthesis of Ni3Ta, Ni2Ta and NiTa by high-energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites, H.S.N.; Silva, B.P da; Ramos, A.S.; Silva, A.A.A.P.; Coelho, G.C.; Lima, B.B. de

    2014-01-01

    The tantalum has relevance for the development of multicomponent Ni-based superalloys which are hardened by solid solution and precipitation mechanisms. Master alloys are normally used in the production step in order to produce refractory metals and alloys. The present work reports on the synthesis of Ni_3Ta, Ni_2Ta and NiTa by high-energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment. The elemental Ni-25Ta, Ni-33Ta and Ni-50Ta (at.-%) powder mixtures were ball milled under Ar atmosphere using stainless steel balls and vials, 300 rpm and a ball-to-powder weight ratio of 10:1. Following, the as-milled samples were uniaxially compacted and heat-treated at 1100 deg C for 4h under Ar atmosphere. The characterization of as-milled and heat-treated samples was conducted by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. A large amount of Ni_3Ta, Ni_2Ta and NiTa was formed in the mechanically alloyed heat-treated Ni-25Ta, Ni-33Ta and Ni-50Ta alloys. (author)

  15. Improvement of the detection limits in radio-frequency-powered glow discharge optical emission spectrometry associated with bias-current conduction method; Jiko bias denryu donyuho ni yoru koshuha glow hoden hakko bunseki ni okeru kenshutsu genkai no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagatsuma, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute for Materials

    1999-01-01

    A d.c. bias current driven by the self-bias voltage which is conducted through the r.f.-powered glow discharge plasma varies the emission characteristics drastically, leading to improvement of the detection power in the optical emission spectrometry. By conducting the bias currents of 20-30 mA, the emission intensities of the atomic resonance lines were 10-20 times larger than those obtained with conventional r.t.- powered plasmas. The detection limits for determination of alloyed elements in the re-based binary alloy samples were estimated to be l.6 x 10{sup -3}% Cr for CrI 425.43nm, 7 x 10{sup -4}% Mn for MnI 403.10nm, 1.9>10{sup -3}% Cu for CuI 327.40nm, 1.1 x 10{sup -3}% Al for AlI 396.16nm, and 6.6 x 10{sup -3}% Ni for NiI 352.45 nm. (author)

  16. Reports on 1976 result of Sunshine Project. Investigation on development policy and position of various coal liquefaction processes in Japan; 1976 nendo Nippon ni okeru kakushu sekitan ekika process no kaihatsu hoshin to ichizuke ni kansuru chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report is the summary of the 'investigation results concerning development policy and position of various coal liquefaction processes in Japan'. The purpose of this investigative research is primarily to clarify the position of coal energy in the future energy supply, technologies of converting coal to clean fuel as the form of coal energy utilization most suitable for Japan, and the position of coal liquefaction in such converting technologies, and also to decide on the policy of R and D on coal liquefaction process in Japan at present. Accordingly, this paper investigates the status quo of various liquefaction processes including the coal liquefaction technologies for which R and D are conducted under the Sunshine Project; making analysis/assessment from such viewpoint as clean process as environmental safeguard and a precondition for coal energy utilization, technical problems concerning coal import and transportation, and suitability for the present energy consumption structure centering on oil; and further, examining the position of coal liquefaction in the general effective utilization of coal as organic carbonaceous resources in the distant future. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the survey on the global warming prevention measures in the U.S.; 2000 nendo Beikoku ni okeru ondanka boshi taisaku no gaiyo ni tsuite hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The results of the overseas survey were summed up mostly of global warming prevention measures taken by the U.S. government and those by private companies. At COP3 in 1997, the U.S. gave a pledge internationally that they would reduce greenhouse effect gas emissions during 2008-2012 7% below from that in 1990. But the U.S. government seems hesitating to take concrete measures in regions. Hesitating, however, they are publicly making it a target to find how to eliminate a risk of global warming which is now a global problem in cooperation with other countries and international organizations. Concretely, programs are as follows: ranking of the energy consumption amount of household electric appliances, housing loan programs taking energy efficiency into account, preferential taxing system, incentive money system in case of using the substituting energy transportation program, waste management program, commendation of men of achievements and prize-winning, etc. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the survey on global warming prevention measures in main E.U. countries; 2000 nendo EU shuyokoku ni okeru ondanka boshi taisaku no gaiyo ni tsuite hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This report dealt with the background of energy policies in E.U. countries and energy plans. At COP3, E.U. countries internationally gave a pledge that they will reduce the emission of greenhouse effect gas 8% from that as of 1990 during 2008-2012, which is stricter than those given by Japan and the U.S. Actually, the European Commission made public 'Toward the European Climate Change Programme' and 'Green Paper on Emissions Trading in the E.U.' These are correspondent to E.U.' global warming preventive strategy which is called the twin track approach by the European Commission. The former is a frame for coordinating individual reduction measures taken under the responsibility of member countries as the whole E.U. As to the latter, for the specified sectors from energy supply sectors to large energy consumption industries, it was planned to be started in 2005. And, the basic policy on the trade and concrete subjects/problems on the trading system were arranged. (NEDO)

  19. FY 2000 report on the survey on global warming prevention measures in main E.U. countries; 2000 nendo EU shuyokoku ni okeru ondanka boshi taisaku no gaiyo ni tsuite hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This report dealt with the background of energy policies in E.U. countries and energy plans. At COP3, E.U. countries internationally gave a pledge that they will reduce the emission of greenhouse effect gas 8% from that as of 1990 during 2008-2012, which is stricter than those given by Japan and the U.S. Actually, the European Commission made public 'Toward the European Climate Change Programme' and 'Green Paper on Emissions Trading in the E.U.' These are correspondent to E.U.' global warming preventive strategy which is called the twin track approach by the European Commission. The former is a frame for coordinating individual reduction measures taken under the responsibility of member countries as the whole E.U. As to the latter, for the specified sectors from energy supply sectors to large energy consumption industries, it was planned to be started in 2005. And, the basic policy on the trade and concrete subjects/problems on the trading system were arranged. (NEDO)

  20. Probing core polarization around 78Ni: intermediate energy Coulomb excitation of 74Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2013-12-01

    We have recently measured the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ of the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory of the Michigan State University. The 74Ni secondary beam has been produced by fragmentation of 86Kr at 140 AMeV on a thick Be target. Selected radioactive fragments impinged on a secondary 197Au target where the measurement of the emitted γ-rays allows to extract the Coulomb excitation cross section and related structure information. Preliminary B(E2 values do not point towards an enhancement of the transition matrix element and the comparison to what was already measured by Aoi and co-workers in [1] opens new scenarios in the interpretation of the shell evolution of the Z=28 isotopes.

  1. Quantum analysis in the transition process to excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions; Denshi shototsu ni tomonau sanso bunshi ni okeru reiki jotai sen`i no ryoshironteki kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, K. [Gifu National College of Technology, Gifu (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-25

    For understanding of fundamental chemical reactions under a highly non equilibrium condition which is quite often used in plasma processing, the relevant atomic and molecular processes must be clarified. In this study, an analysis of the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions in the oxygen plasma has been carried out. First, the electron density distribution in an oxygen molecule has been calculated using the extended Huckel molecular orbital method. Then, the electron potential energy distribution in the transition process to the excited state has been estimated. The electron behavior has been calculated using the estimated unidimensional electron potential energy distribution and unsteady quantum mechanics. As a result, the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions and its conditions have been clarified qualitatively. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Fiscal 1997 survey of the overseas coal import base preparation/improvement. Survey of a coal flow in China; 1997 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chugoku ni okeru coal flow ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed the preparation of the coal transportation infrastructure, status of its running, economical efficiency, etc. in terms mainly of the trend of coal production/consumption in China, and coal railroad/water transportation and electric power transportation by mine-mouth power generation. From the survey, the following conclusions were obtained. As to the coal which China uses as a main energy for maintaining the present high economic growth as targeted, there will remain the coal transportation problem between production site (north and west) and consumption site (east and south) still in the future (in 2000 and 2010). China is now facing with a big turning point in a socioeconomic aspect. The advancing opening market policy brought steep rises in energy prices such as coal and electric power, which is affecting various fields. Further, the energy related laws, which were unprepared, are abruptly being prepared, and the environment for the introduction of foreign investment, which is expected to be accelerated, is being prepared. In the future, attention should be paid to environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. 48 figs., 96 tabs.

  3. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy study of NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.Q.; Schryvers, D.

    2008-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) investigations were carried out on NiTi shape memory alloys. The composition of lens-shaped precipitates is determined to be Ni 4 Ti 3 by model-based EELS quantification, and the Ni-depleted zone in the B2 matrix surrounding the Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates was quantified. The Young's modulus Y m of the B2 matrix with 51 at.% Ni and the Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates was evaluated to be about 124 and 175 GPa, respectively. The intensity of the Ni L 3 edge for the precipitate is slightly higher than that for the B2 phase

  4. Measurement of cooling coil film heat transfer coefficient with polymer reaction proceeding in a stirred batch reactor; Jugo sonai ni okeru hanno shinko ni tomonau reikyaku coil no kyomaku netsudentatsu keisu no keiji henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K [Soken Chemical and Engineering Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Nishi, K; Kaminoyama, M; Kamiwano, M [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-10

    In radical additional solution polymerization, the viscosity increases with reaction progress. It is important to evaluate beforehand the cooling capacity of the reactor, which worsens with the process. In this study, a stirred batch reactor with both a paddle and a helical screw impeller were studied, and measurements were made for the dynamic changes of the film heat transfer coefficient of the cooling coil with progress of the polymer reaction. We found the change could be evaluated by the calculating heat balance of the generated heat, the viscous dissipation energy and the sensible heat change under conditions of monomer conversion and changing viscosity. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Energies of Electronic States of Ni (II) Ion in NiO-Al2O3 Catalyst Prepared by Impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadovic, D. Z.; Kiurski, J.; Marinkovic-Neducin, R. P.

    2007-01-01

    The behavior of NiO-Al2O3 catalysts is strongly dependent on the preparation method, as well as on pretreatment conditions. In the present work we investigated the influences of Ni(II) ion on NiO-Al2O3 catalysts properties due to the preparation by impregnation method. Based on experimental diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) data of electronic d-d transitions of Ni (II) promoter ion the energies of electronic states in spinel-like structure were calculated, and the most probable scheme of molecular orbital have been proposed

  6. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on industrial utilization of microorganism reaction mechanisms under anaerobic condition; 1999 nendo kenki jokenka ni okeru biseibutsu hanno kiko no kogyoteki riyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Industrial utilization of reaction mechanisms of microorganisms under anaerobic condition permits structuring energy saving type production processes. The present survey has investigated features of new microorganisms under anaerobic condition and the status of researches thereon inside and outside the country, and discussed their future applications. Chapter 1 compares anaerobic microorganisms and functions of microorganism under anaerobic condition with those aerobic to describe their general features, and describes the purpose of this survey and the summary of the investigations. Chapter 2 surveys the current status of technologies to utilize microorganisms under anaerobic condition. Chapter 3 outlines metabolic characteristics of the anaerobic microorganisms, and extracts functions effective for material production by different anaerobic microorganisms to describe their applicability. Chapter 4 evaluates the system classification for the anaerobic microorganisms utilizing the basic arrangement of 16S rRNA genes, and extracts technical problems therein. Chapter 5 proposes structuring a total methane fermentation system including a raw material collecting process, and enhancing alcohol productivity of Zymomonas bacteria. (NEDO)

  7. Improved paper quality and runability by biological process water recovery in closed water circuits of recycle mills; Saisei banshi kojo ni okeru junkansui no seibutsugakuteki shori ni yoru shihinshitsu oyobi sogyosei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habets, L.; Knelissen, H.; Hooimeijer, A.; Nihei, K. [Nippon Paper Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    A lot of efforts have been made traditionally for reducing the amount of water consumption in recycled paper industry. Several mills in Europe and the North America have succeeded in running the closed white water circuit that means to make the amount of water discharge be zero by returning the effluent water back. In this paper, the relevant factors that contaminate the white water in recycled paper mills are investigated. The accumulation of substances which provide bad effects on the paper manufacturing process and product quality is caused by the closed white water circuit in the recycled paper mills. The accumulated substances in white water include microorganisms, volatile fatty acids, salts, calcium, etc. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment is used as means for reducing the consumption of chemicals and energy and minimizing residues. The first biological in line treatment plant was utilized by Zulpich Papier in Germany and its result is satisfactory in aspects of production and product quality. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Hierarchically porous Ni monolith@branch-structured NiCo2O4 for high energy density supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjie Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of NiCo2O4 nanostrucutures ranging from nanowire to nanoplate and branched structures were successfully prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. The experimental results show that NiCo2O4 with branched structures possesses the best overall electrochemical performance. The improvement of energy density was explored in terms of hierarchically three-dimensional (3D metal substrates and a high specific area capacitance, and area energy density is obtained with hierarchically porous Ni monolith synthesized through a controlled combustion procedure.

  9. CONFIGURATION-INTERACTION IN NI METAL AND NI-ALLOYS AND HIGH-ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TANAKA, A; JO, T; SAWATZKY, GA

    We discuss the electronic state of Ni atoms in Ni metal and of Ni impurity in Cu and Au metals from the viewpoint of 3d configuration interaction (CI) using the Anderson impurity model including atomic multiplets. On the basis of the discussion, we give an interpretation for the Ni 2p-core X-ray

  10. Large energy absorption in Ni-Mn-Ga/polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuchtwanger, Jorge; Richard, Marc L.; Tang, Yun J.; Berkowitz, Ami E.; O'Handley, Robert C.; Allen, Samuel M.

    2005-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys can respond to a magnetic field or applied stress by the motion of twin boundaries and hence they show large hysteresis or energy loss. Ni-Mn-Ga particles made by spark erosion have been dispersed and oriented in a polymer matrix to form pseudo 3:1 composites which are studied under applied stress. Loss ratios have been determined from the stress-strain data. The loss ratios of the composites range from 63% to 67% compared to only about 17% for the pure, unfilled polymer samples

  11. Low-energy charge transfer excitations in NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V I; Yermakov, A Ye; Uimin, M A; Gruzdev, N B; Pustovarov, V A; Churmanov, V N; Ivanov, V Yu; Sokolov, P S; Baranov, A N; Moskvin, A S

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra of NiO poly- and nanocrystals in the spectral range 2-5.5 eV reveals two PLE bands peaked near 3.7 and 4.6 eV with a dramatic rise in the low-temperature PLE spectral weight of the 3.7 eV PLE band in the nanocrystalline NiO as compared with its polycrystalline counterpart. In frames of a cluster model approach we assign the 3.7 eV PLE band to the low-energy bulk-forbidden p-d (t 1g (π)-e g ) charge transfer (CT) transition which becomes the allowed one in the nanocrystalline state while the 4.6 eV PLE band is related to a bulk allowed d-d (e g -e g ) CT transition scarcely susceptible to the nanocrystallization. The PLE spectroscopy of the nanocrystalline materials appears to be a novel informative technique for inspection of different CT transitions.

  12. Structure determination of the ordered (2 × 1) phase of NiSi surface alloy on Ni(111) using low-energy electron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazzadur Rahman, Md.; Amirul Islam, Md.; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Mizuno, Seigi

    2015-12-01

    The (2 × 1) structure of the two-dimensional nickel silicide surface alloy on Ni(111) was investigated using quantitative low-energy electron diffraction analysis. The unit cell of the determined silicide structure contains one Si and one Ni atom, corresponding to a chemical formula of NiSi. The Si atoms adopt substitutional face-centered cubic hollow sites on the Ni(111) substrate. The Ni-Si bond lengths were determined to be 2.37 and 2.34 Å. Both the alloy surface and the underlying first layers of Ni atoms exhibit slight corrugation. The Ni-Si interlayer distance is smaller than the Ni-Ni interlayer distance, which indicates that Si atoms and underlying Ni atoms strongly interact.

  13. Actual conditions of energy management in office buildings; Results of quetionaire inquiry about load leveling. Gyomu yo biru ni okeru energy kanri no jittai ni tsuite; Fuka heijunka ni kakawaru anketo chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Katsuhiko (The Inst. of Applied Energy, Tokyo, (Japan))

    1989-07-20

    The electric power demand in Japan is increasing, and it is expected that annual load factor shows decreasing tendency. All electric power companies endeavor to improve load leveling than as it was, and intend to introduce direct saving system to control the loading equipments of consumers as well as indirect control such as midnight power system. Therefore, quetionaire inquiry about this new system was made for business power consumers in which power there are much difference in consumed power between day and night and much efficacy for power saving. As the results of the inquiry, it was understood that equipment of automatic or remote control for loading equipments were already introduced by many consumers and adoption of airconditioners controlled at every floor or every room is increased. So, about the control of the equipments in cosumers a method is also required so that electric power companies shall control the maximum demand by consumers and selection of control equipments are left on consumers' decision and judgment, and it is considered to be important that control by electric power companies shall not only turn on or off switchs but also realize convenience and economy of consumers. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The activation energy for loop growth in Cu and Cu-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.; Leffers, T.; Singh, B.N.

    1978-08-01

    The apparent activation energy for the growth of interstitial dislocation loops in copper, Cu-1%Ni, Cu-2%Ni, and Cu-5%Ni during high voltage electron microscope irradiation was determined. The apparent activation energy for loop growth in all these materials can be taken to be 0.34eV+-0.02eV. This value together with the corresponding value of 0.44eV+-0.02eV determined earlier for Cu-10%Ni is discussed with reference to the void growth rates observed in these materials. The apparent activation energy for loop growth in copper (and in Cu-1%Ni that has a void growth rate similar to that in pure copper) is interpreted as twice the vacancy migration energy (indicating that divacancies do not play any significant role). For the materials with higher Ni content (in which the void growth rate is much lower than that in Cu and Cu-1%Ni) the measured apparent activation energy is interpreted to be characteristic of loops positioned fairly close to the foil surface and not of loops in ''bulk material''. From the present results in combination with the earlier results for Cu-10%Ni it is concluded that interstitial trapping is the most likely explanation of the reduced void growth rate in Cu-Ni alloys. (author)

  15. Low energy structure of even-even Ni isotopes close to 78Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Mazzocchi, C.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, Carrol R.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J.H.; Hwang, J.K.; Karny, M.; Krolas, W.; Liddick, S.N.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Morton, N.H.; Mantica, P.F.; Mueller, W.F.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A.; Winger, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of magic neutron-rich nickel isotopes produced in the fragmentation of a 140 A MeV 86 Kr beam was investigated. For the first time four gamma transitions were assigned to the decay of the I π =8 + , T 1/2 = 590 +180 -110 isomer, thus establishing the 0 + -2 + -4 + -6 + -8 + ground-state band in 76 Ni. The previously unknown 2 + and 4 + levels belonging to the ground-state band in 74 Ni were identified in the β decay of 74 Co (T 1/2 =30(3) ms). The decay properties of 72 Co → 72 Ni were verified and confirmed on the basis of γ-γ coincidence data. The relevance of the measured level properties for the magicity of 78 Ni is analyzed with the help of advanced shell-model predictions

  16. Sideward flow of K+ in Ru+Ru and Ni+Ni reactions sat SIS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crochet, P.; Herrmann, N.; Wisniewski, K.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data on K + and proton sideward flow measured with the FOPI detector at SIS/GSI in the reactions Ru+Ru at 1.69 A GeV and Ni+Ni at 1.93 A GeV are presented. The K + sideward flow is found to be anti-correlated (correlated) with the one of protons at low (high) transverse momenta. When compared to the predictions of a transport model, the data favour the existence of an in-medium repulsive K + -nucleon potential. (author)

  17. Isospin diffusion in 58Ni-induced reactions at intermediate energies. I. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galichet, E.; Rivet, M. F.; Borderie, B.; Colonna, M.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Lopez, O.; Manduci, L.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Dayras, R.; Volant, C.; Guinet, D. C. R.; Lautesse, P.; Neindre, N. Le; Parlog, M.; Rosato, E.

    2009-01-01

    Isospin diffusion in semiperipheral collisions is probed as a function of the dissipated energy by studying two systems 58 Ni+ 58 Ni and 58 Ni+ 197 Au, over the incident energy range 52A-74A MeV. A close examination of the multiplicities of light products in the forward part of the phase space clearly shows an influence of the isospin of the target on the neutron richness of these products. A progressive isospin diffusion is observed when collisions become more central, in connection with the interaction time.

  18. Wind energy technology : from the past to the future; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no henkan. Furyoku hatsuden : kako kara mirai e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-01-20

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20{sup th} century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  19. Calculation of Gibbs energy of Zr-Al-Ni, Zr-Al-Cu, Al-Ni-Cu and Zr-Al-Ni-Cu liquid alloys based on quasiregular solution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.Q.; Yang, Y.S.; Tong, W.H.; Wang, Z.Y.

    2007-01-01

    With the effects of electronic structure and atomic size being introduced, the mixing enthalpy as well as the Gibbs energy of the ternary Zr-Al-Cu, Ni-Al-Cu, Zr-Ni-Al and quaternary Zr-Al-Ni-Cu systems are calculated based on quasiregular solution model. The computed results agree well with the experimental data. The sequence of Gibbs energies of different systems is: G Zr-Al-Ni-Cu Zr-Al-Ni Zr-Al-Cu Cu-Al-Ni . To Zr-Al-Cu, Ni-Al-Cu and Zr-Ni-Al, the lowest Gibbs energy locates in the composition range of X Zr 0.39-0.61, X Al = 0.38-0.61; X Ni = 0.39-0.61, X Al = 0.38-0.60 and X Zr = 0.32-0.67, X Al = 0.32-0.66, respectively. And to the Zr-Ni-Al-Cu system with 66.67% Zr, the lowest Gibbs energy is obtained in the region of X Al = 0.63-0.80, X Ni = 0.14-0.24

  20. Application of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings to the base materials of the rotating disk in the centrifugal atomization process. Enshinryoku funmuho ni okeru kaiten enban eno ceramic yosha himaku no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T; Okimoto, K [Government Industrial Research Inst., Kyushu, Tosu, Saga (Japan); Yasutake, R [Koeiseiko Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1992-07-08

    Applicability of the ceramic coating on the rotating disk was studied. In regard to the synthesis of Cu-based rapidly solidified powders, centrifugal atomization with molten Cu-24.6Sn was carried out using rotating disks sprayed with four kinds of sprayed ceramic coatings. It was found that atomization of Al203-40%TiO2 sprayed coating has been the best, and the yield ratio has been about 60 %. The melt temperature in case of Fe-based rapidly solidified metal powders, has risen above 1600[degree]C, and the required conditions for rotating disk have been very difficult to meet. The reason for it is thought that there has also been limitations regarding the functions of the characteristics like heat transfer, heat capacity, etc. Fe-24Cr-5Ni-1Mo 2 phase stainless steel powder has shown the most suitable trend among the seven kinds of disk materials examined for ZrO2 ceramic sprayed coatings. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Fiscal 2000 survey report on project for promoting international cooperation. Survey on coal utilization in APEC region (Coal note); 2000 nendo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo chosa hokokusho. APEC iki nai ni okeru sekitan riyo jokyo tou chosa (Koru note)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of contributing to the infrastructure for promoting clean coal technology (CCT), there were compiled as the 'coal note' various kinds of coal-related information in China, Indonesia, Philippine, Thailand and Vietnam among APEC countries. Concerning China, for example, economic growth and energy supply/demand in the category of the energy outline were described in detail; as were the guiding principle. individual guidance plan, and specific energy policy of the 10th five year plan, in the category of the energy policy; coal deposits, geological summary, coal quality in each coal forming period, and the status quo of development, in the category of the coal mines and development; coal supply/demand, production, consumption, and export, in the category of the present status of the coal industry; producers, sales, quality of product coal, distribution, and price, in the category of the domestic supply; present state of environmental problems relating to coal, and environmental measures intended for coal, in the category of the coal-related environmental issues; and development, production, coal cleaning, quality control, safety control, and utilization (combustion, liquefaction and gasification), in the category of coal utilization technology, respectively. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1998 research report. Current state survey for promoting the field test project for introduction of advanced industrial furnaces; 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo ni okeru jigyo sokushin no tame no jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Survey was made on the current state of installation and operation of industrial furnaces mainly in manufacturers to predict the applicability of advanced industrial furnaces, and study was made on energy consumption trends, the energy saving effect of advanced industrial furnaces, and factor extraction for their applicability. In the survey, questionnaires were delivered to 4,597 offices extracted from domestic 50,780 offices with employees more than 30, and nearly 30% of them were recovered, covering nearly 2.6% of all the offices concerned with this survey. As the survey result, the total annual energy consumption of domestic manufacturers was estimated to be 740,949 x 10{sup 6}Mcal, and among it, 709,709 x 10{sup 6}Mcal for large industrial furnaces. Under the assumption that nearly 30% of large industrial furnaces in operation are replaced with advanced industrial furnaces, energy saving expectation is estimated to be 210,000 x 10{sup 6}Mcal. Opinions and demands for this project showed the difficulty in their application to industrial furnaces in operation and study on their effects. Further enlightenment activities are necessary. (NEDO)

  3. Determination of standard Ghibbs free energy of formation of NiW sub 2 B sub 2 and activity of Ni-W binary system by EMF measurement. Kidenryokuho ni yoru NiW sub 2 B sub 2 no hyojun seisei Gibbs jiyu energy to Ni-W 2 seibunkei no katsuryo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayama, Koichiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Matsuo, Hideki (Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan) Fukushin Electric Co., Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1989-12-25

    NiW {sub 2} B {sub 2} (M phase), existing in trinary Ni-W-B system, was measured in standard Gibbs free energy (GF) of formation in the temperature range from 1273K to 1423K by an electromotive force method (EMF) with use of solid oxide electrolyte. First, oxide phase in equilibrium with three-phase M-W-Ni solid solution region was confirmed to be B {sub 2} O {sub 3}. Binary Ni-W system solid solution in equilibrium with M phase and W phase is constant in composition with Ni-16.4mo1%W in the above temperature range. WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72} were actually measured in GF. As Ni-W solid solution is in equilibrium with WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}, binary Ni-W system was measured in activity by the EMF, and Ni-16.4mo1%W solid solution was calculated in GF of mixing by use of the above measured GF of WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}. Finally with use of sample in M-W-Ni solid solution region, M phase was calculated in GF by the EMF. The result of those calculations were expressed with experimental formulas. 19 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Magnetic domain structure and domain-wall energy in UFe8Ni2Si2 and UFe6Ni4Si2 intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyslocki, J.J.; Suski, W.; Wochowski, K.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic domain structures in the UFe 8 Ni 2 Si 2 and UFe 6 Ni 4 Si 2 compounds were studied using the powder pattern method. The domain structure observed is typical for uniaxial materials. The domain-wall energy density γ was determined from the average surface domain width D s observed on surfaces perpendicular to the easy axis as equal to 16 erg/cm 2 for UFe 8 Ni 2 Si 2 and 10 erg/cm 2 for UFe 6 Ni 4 Si 2 . Moreover, the critical diameter for single domain particle D c was calculated for the studied compounds

  5. Bombardment of Ni(100) surface with low-energy argons: molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevenc, Ziya B.; Hippler, Rainer; Jackson, Bret

    2005-01-01

    Results of molecular dynamics simulations of the sputtering of Ni(100) by Ar atoms are reported. The solid is described by an embedded atom potential, and the interaction between the projectile and the metal atoms is modelled by a Morse-like function. Processes leading to Ni atom emissions from the lattice are analysed over the energy range of 70-80 eV. In this energy range cluster (larger than three atoms) emission is not observed. The maximum penetration depth of Ar, the kinetic energy and angular distributions of the reflected Ar, and the sputtered Ni atoms are evaluated as functions of the impact energy and sputtering time. The computed sputtering yield is compared with the available theoretical and experimental data

  6. Conditioning of data for cyclic variation of IMEP under lean burn operation in a spark-ignition engine; Hibana tenka kikan no kihaku nensho untenji ni okeru zushi heikin yuko atsuryoku no hendo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K.; Urata, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Ono, t. [Honda Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-25

    In this study, we investigated the relationship of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) for a spark ignition engine under lean combustion with the cyclic variation of mass fraction burned by measuring the energy release from the spark plug, intensity of the light emission from the flame and the cylinder pressure at the same time. In order to minimized an error in the initial and late combustion sages of the mass fraction burned to be obtained by cylinder pressure, spark plug energy and intensity of light emission were measured. As a result, it was found that there are three main causes of cyclic variation of IMEP. These consist of the burning speed during the initial stage of combustion, variation in the total mass fraction burned, and variation of the late burning during the late expansion stroke. Thus, we determined that there is a favorable interrelationship between the IMEPs and the corrected mass fraction burned. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. FY1995 comprehensive assessments of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas; 1995 nendo heat shinku wo riyoshita daikibo reibo system no kaihatsu (daitoshi ni okeru kaki koonka taisaku gijutsu no hyoka shuho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The urban heat-island phenomenon is one of the man-made changes of local climate. The objectives of this research are to develop a heat-island model to cover the building scale to mesoscale and to assess the countermeasures to heat- island effects. The analysis of Tokyo by remote-sensing, field observation and estimates of anthropogenically exhausted heat using energy consumption data were conducted. And, techniques to assess the most effective countermeasure against the urban warming were developed. (NEDO)

  8. Report on a wind power development field test project (detailed wind condition investigation) in the city of Choshi; Choshishi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes observation on the annual wind condition at the Yokka-ichibadai in the city of Choshi. The average wind velocities were 4.7 and 3.8 m/s at the ground height of 20 and 10 meters, respectively, not having reached the NEDO's criterion values 5.6 and 5.0 m/s. The annual wind direction emergence rate on the wind axis was 70%, meeting the criterion value of 60% or higher, and the wind direction is stable. The exponent for the vertical wind velocity distribution was 3.3, which is similar to that in the urban area. Disturbance in the wind condition was 0.18, meeting the criterion value of 0.30 or lower. The maximum momentary wind velocity was 31.9 m/s, which is well below the criterion of 60 m/s presenting no problem as a wind mill construction site. The wind energy density was 94 W/m{sup 2}, being only 63% of the criterion value, when all the azimuths were used as the object. The result of the investigation is that the average wind velocity is low and the wind energy density is also low. However, if the size of wind mill to be introduced is set to the class B (300 kW), it is possible to attain an annual operation rate of 58%, an annual energy acquisition amount of 515 MWh, and a facility utilization rate of 19.6%. If set to the class C (750 kW), an operation rate of 78%, an annual energy acquisition of 1296 MWh, and a facility utilization rate of 19.7% can be obtained, meeting the criterion value. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1999 basic survey report for promotion of joint implementation. Survey of diffusion of fluidized bed cement kilns in Vietnam; 1999 nendo Vietnam koku ni okeru ryudosho cement kiln fukyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Possibility is assessed of energy saving and CO2 reduction through replacing shaft kilns with fluidized bed kilns at four cement plants in Vietnam. The effort will be associated with the clean development mechanism (CDM) ultimately. The fluidized bed kiln is one of the state-of-the-art technologies developed to meet social, economic, and technical demands involving global environments, enhancement of energy efficiency, effective use of resources, improvement in cost performance, increasingly diversified needs for cement, etc. Use of the technology will lead to an extensive reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, solution of the problem of dust flying from calcinating facilities, production of clinkers high in stability and quality, utilization of inexpensive fuels such as low-grade coal, and production cost reduced thanks to the new equipment occupying less installation space. The conclusion of the study is that the energy to be consumed by the four plants will decrease by 6101-9551 tons/year in terms of oil and that energy saving rate will be 37-44%. The decrease in fuel and electricity for calcinating furnaces in turn decreases CO2 emissions, with the amount of reduction estimated at 24,393-38,794 tons/year in terms of CO2 and the rate of reduction estimated at 36-44%. As for payout in case environmental special yen credit is granted, it will realize in the 10-12th year, which means such financing will achieve a sufficient investment effect. Effect is also tentatively calculated in case of fluidized bed kilns diffused across the country. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Survey by region/industry in India; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indo ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A survey was made in India which is a coal producing/consuming country following China in Asia and where coal is used for about 60% of the primary commercial energy. The survey was conducted on coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental issues, aiming at studying feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly coal utilization system into every industry including the residential/commercial one, and at implementing a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation. Total power source facilities in fiscal 1995 are 83.3 million kW, 64% of which are coal thermal power facilities and generated 260 TWh, 69% of the total output energy. Main commercial energy sources are coal, oil and natural gas, and oil is self-sufficient. The survey this time did not examine very well the actual state of the environmental pollution problem caused by the coal utilization. Indian coal is high in ash content but low in sulfur content, and therefore, SOx polluting air has not been a very important problem so far, but soot/smoke is almost the problem. Further, ash treatment after combustion at boilers, etc. is expected to be a big problem in the future. 49 figs., 88 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in China on effective utilization of cement waste heat; 1999 nendo Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although China ranks first in the world in the manufacture of cement, yet the energy consumption rate is high and there remains room for improvement. Effective utilization of energy at cement making plants will not only profit the industry but also contribute to the stabilization of energy supply for China. The model project on power generation using cement waste heat implemented at Ningguo Cement Plant was concluded successfully. For the purpose of enabling China to domestically manufacture the equipment, the installation of such equipment at Zhujiang Cement Plant and Liuzhou Cement Plant in Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu was assumed, and their locations and plant operating conditions were studied. In addition, surveys were conducted of manufacturers of important components of the power generation equipment such as boilers, steam turbines, generators, and breaker boards. Two manufacturers were visited for each of the components, and they were checked for records of manufacturing similar equipment, quality assurance and process management capabilities, and for ability to satisfy required specifications. Among the visited manufacturers were Nanjing Turbine and Electric Machinery Co., Jinan Power Equipment Factory, and Hangzhou Boiler Works. Based on the results of the surveys, it was concluded that the model project may be implemented. (NEDO)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Research on safety technology in hydrogen energy system; 1976 nendo suiso energy system ni okeru hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Material is collected relative to the safety of hydrogen inside Japan and outside and, on the basis of the collected data, generalization is made of a draft of general standards for the safety of hydrogen and a draft of technological standards for the safety of gaseous hydrogen and liquid hydrogen. In the draft of general standards for the safety of hydrogen, the physical properties of hydrogen and basic matters about the handling of hydrogen are put together, and the possible ignition sources are classified and measures against ignition are shown, and general matters about fire prevention and fighting are explained. Hydrogen attack and embrittlement are taken into consideration, and the caution to exercise when selecting, treating, and processing materials for use with hydrogen is described. Attention is paid to the handling of hydrogen, referring to the dangers of aerohypoxia, frostbite and cold death, and burns. Furthermore, a proposition is newly suggested this fiscal year, which emphasizes the need of disaster preventing facilities such as explosion-proofed electrical equipment and explosion-proofed wiring and explains where to install them and how to maintain them. Also taken up in the research are the need of measures, such as the delivery of safety education and training to workers, to cope with dangers peculiar to hydrogen, and the methods of implementing such programs. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. Research on safety technology for hydrogen energy systems; 1975 nendo suiso energy system ni okeru hoan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-01

    Important notices and problems on the safety for hydrogen gas were analyzed. Analysis was made on hydrogen gas property, flammability, explosivility, bio-toxicity, equipment, storage, transport, leakage, fire, technology and education for safety management, and quality and analysis of products. Study was also made on the relation between the above items and every domestic or overseas standard. Important notices and problems on the safety for liquid hydrogen were analyzed. Analysis was made on liquid hydrogen property, liquefaction and refining equipment, transport, storage, materials concerned, bio-toxicity, leakage, fire fighting technique, and safety management. Among them, such problems are pointed out from the viewpoint of accident prevention, as O-P conversion, refining of hydrogen gas for liquefaction, selection of structural materials, hydrogen embrittlement, layout of various equipment and devices, explosion-proof electric devices, and leakage detection. Research on effective fire fighting and fire preventive measures against hydrogen leakage and diffusion from tanks or piping are also in demand. (NEDO)

  14. Report on field test project for wind power development at Onejime Athletic Park. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Onejime Undo Koen ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted to study the feasibility of a wind power generation system for Onejime Athletic Park, Kimotsugu-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. Observation instruments were installed at a wasteland beside the park and, in the period October 1, 1998, through September 30, 1999, data were collected at a point 20m above ground, such as the average wind speed and direction, wind velocity standard deviation, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. The data were analyzed, and findings were obtained, as mentioned below. The wind axis along which the wind direction occurrence rate was the highest ran WNW-ESE at an occurrence rate of 65.8%. Turbulence intensity was 0.23 at wind speeds of 2m/s and more, the maximum instantaneous wind velocity was 40m/s, all these fully satisfying the evaluation levels set forth by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). On the other hand, the average wind speed was 3.48m/s and wind energy density was 69W/m{sup 2}, these failing to satisfy the levels indicated by NEDO. Studies were made on the assumption that 150, 300, and 750kW-class wind turbines would be introduced, and then it was found that their annual operating factors and facility availability rates both failed to meet the NEDO standards concerned and that therefore the site in question was not fit for wind power generation. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1997 report on a feasibility survey of cooperation in relation to the joint implementation activities in Southeast Asian countries (6 nations); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Tonan Asia chiikikoku (rokkakoku) ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren no kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the COP3 Conference on Global Warming held in Kyoto in December 1997, the framework on greenhouse gases was agreed in discussions comprehensively made among Japan, the U.S. and the E.U. As a result, it is for 6 gases including CO2 and methane, and total emissions in developed countries are to be reduced 5% at least during 2008-2012 from the 1990 level. Target of each country is determined by gaps, and Japan`s reduction target is 6%. Therefore, to pass the numerical target agreed, it is necessary to take measures such as rationalization of the energy use by energy saving, etc. in the country and also measures such as promotion of the greenhouse gas emission control in developing countries. Accordingly, for the future development of NEDO`s AIJ project, a possibility of cooperation in the joint implementation was surveyed such as the state of greenhouse gas emissions of countries which are objects of GAP in Southeast Asian countries and neighboring countries, policies of the countries after the COP3 agreement, technological transfer for the emission control, etc. Countries for survey are Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam and Myanmar. 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  17. Report for fiscal 2000 investigations on Activities Implemented Jointly in China and promotion of transfer to CDM; 2000 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo oyobi CDM eno iko suishin chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    It is purposed to promote the Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) intended of reducing carbon dioxide emission amount in China. Investigations have been performed on China's environment and energy problems, CDM assignments and transfer means, and project candidates. China emits a great amount of CO2 due to coal combustion, and the CO2 emission is anticipated to increase from the coal burning thermal power generation that may continue into the future. Countermeasures for the thermal power department as the object are required. Since 1997, China has been performing the AIJ project with Norway, Japan, and America, wherein such projects have been implemented with Japan as the dry coke fire extinguishing facility model project, the energy saving model project using alloy iron electric furnaces, and the model project to utilize effectively the refuse combustion waste heat. China is one of the countries in which the greenhouse effect gas emission reducing project can be performed at a minimum cost, who will be the important party in the CDM performed by the developed countries to achieve their obligation to reduce the greenhouse effect gas emission. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1997 research report. Research on the possibility of the joint implementation activity among 6 Southeast Asia countries; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiikikoku (6 kakoku) ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren no kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    COP3 agreed on greenhouse effect gases and their regulation framework through the comprehensive discussion mainly by Japan, U.S.A. and EU in Dec. 1997. As a result, it was decided that greenhouse effect gases include such 6 gases as CO{sub 2} and methane, and such gases emission should be reduced by at least 5% during 2008-2012 in developed countries as compared with that in 1990, including reduction by 6% for Japan. Promotion of countermeasures for rationalization of energy use by energy saving in Japan, and those for emission control of greenhouse effect gases in developing countries are thus necessary to achieve the decided numerical target. For promotion of the future joint implementation activity of NEDO, survey was made on emission situations of greenhouse effect gases, and policies for COP3 in GAP countries such as Thailand and Indonesia, and neighboring countries in Southeast Asia area. Survey was also made on the possibility of the joint implementation activity such as technology transfer for emission control of greenhouse effect gases. (NEDO)

  19. The study of quasi-projectiles produced in Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions: excitation energy and spin; Etude des quasi-projectiles produits dans les collisions Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: energie d'excitation et spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buta, A

    2003-02-01

    During the collision between the projectile and the target nuclei in the intermediate energy regime (E < 100 MeV/nucleon) two excited nuclei are mainly observed in the exit channel, the quasi projectile (QP) and the quasi target. They disintegrate by particle emission. However, this binary picture is perturbed by the emission of particles and light fragments with velocities intermediate between the projectile velocity and the target one, all along the interaction (midrapidity component). This work aim to determine the excitation energy and the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin) of quasi-projectiles produced in the Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions at 52 and 90 MeV/nucleon. The excitation energy is deduced from the kinematical characteristics of particles emitted by the quasi-projectile. They have to be separated from midrapidity particles. Three different scenarios have been used for this purpose. The spin of the quasi-projectile has been extracted from the experimental data by mean of proton and alpha particles multiplicities emitted by the QP in the Ni+Au at 52 MeV/nucleon reaction. The results have been compared to the predictions of a theoretical model based on nucleon transfers. Their evolution is qualitatively reproduced as a function of the violence of the collision. (author)

  20. Simulation of Ni-MH Batteries via an Equivalent Circuit Model for Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance measurement was conducted at the entire cell level for studying of the Ni-MH rechargeable batteries. An improved equivalent circuit model considering diffusion process is proposed for simulation of battery impedance data at different charge input levels. The cell capacity decay was diagnosed by analyzing the ohmic resistance, activation resistance, and mass transfer resistance of the Ni-MH cells with degraded capacity. The capacity deterioration of this type, Ni-MH cell, is considered in relation to the change of activation resistance of the nickel positive electrodes. Based on the report and surface analysis obtained from the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the composition formula of metal-hydride electrodes can be closely documented as the AB5 type alloy and the “A” elements are recognized as lanthanum (La and cerium (Ce. The capacity decay of the Ni-MH cell is potentially initiated due to starved electrolyte for the electrochemical reaction of active materials inside the Ni-MH battery, and the discharge product of Ni(OH2 at low state-of-charge level is anticipated to have more impeding effects on electrode kinetic process for higher power output and efficient energy delivery.

  1. Ionization current in N2 gas. Part 7. ; Diffusion and reflection of metastable particles. N2 gas chu ni okeru denri denryu. 7. ; Jun antei reiki ryushi no kakusan to hansha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Ito, H.; Sekizawa, H. (Chiba Inst. of Technology, Chiba (Japan)); Ikuta, N. (Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    The energy loss process in quenching of excited particles by collision to other ones and solid surfaces was investigated with metastable excited particles formed in weakly ionized gases. The measured lifetime of N2 metastable particles in N2, N2/CO, N2/CH3 gases during Townsent discharge did not agree with the Molnar's theoretical value which was obtained by solving diffusion equations using the boundary condition that assumes the density of excited particles to be zero at electrodes and tube walls. Strange behavior was observed too, that is, coefficients of diffusion and reaction rate determined by the theoretical lifetime change systematically with the distance between electrodes. Then, the novel boundary condition that takes reflection coefficient into account was applied to solve diffusion equations. The results obtained could account for experimental results without any discrepancy. The analysis of results clarified the dependence of various parameters of metastable excited particles on the reflection coefficient. The increase of reflection coefficient decreases the surface quenching of excited particles at electrodes and elongs effectively excited lifetime and increases the number of collisional quenching in gas phases. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Fiscal 1996 survey report. Data collection and evaluation analysis in the project on field tests on the fuel cell generation; 1996 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Nenryo denchi hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru data shuyaku oyobi hyoka kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper installed fuel cell power generation equipment experimentally at various facilities which are the final diffusion form of the new energy power generation, conducted long-term operation under the actual load, collected/analyzed various data, arranged them as data useful for full scale introduction/diffusion, aiming at forming the base for general diffusion of the fuel cell power generation. The number of the systems installed for field test execution has been 24 places/28 units since the start of the project, and the system capacity totaled 4,250kW. The actual operation hours in five years are 6,000-28,000. In fiscal 1996, the average cumulative accumulated operational rate was approximately 68%, a little over that in fiscal 1995, 65%. The average load factor was 69% in fiscal 1995 and 70% in fiscal 1996. The utilization rate increased as a whole to about 57% on average if seeing only fiscal 1996, as compared with that in fiscal 1995, about 48%. The power generating efficiency was approximately 34% on average. As to the status of shutdown of the fuel cell power generation, the paper surveyed the average interval of failure, the rate of frequency of shutdown, the analysis of shutdown, etc. 250 figs., 29 tabs.

  3. Phase relations and equilibrium oxygen partial pressures in the iron-titanium-oxygen system at 1373 K; Tetsu-chitan-sansokei no 1373K ni okeru sokankei to heiko sanso bun`atsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, O.; Ito, S.; Azakami, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-20

    Phase relations and the equilibrium oxygen partial pressures in the Fe-Ti-O ternary system at 1373 K have been studied using a thermogravimetric technique in various atmospheres buffered by a CO-CO2 gas mixture and X-ray diffraction technique. The results indicate that at 1373 K ilmenite (FeTiO3) can be reduced and decomposed to iron and rutile (TiO2). Consequently upgrading ilmenite to a rutile substitute is possible in principle. From the present results, the standard Gibbs energy of the following reactions was calculated to be -184.7, -196.0 kJ{center_dot}mol{sup -1} at 1373 K, respectively. Fe(s)+FeTiO3(s)+1/2O{sub 2}(g)=Fe2TiO4(s), Fe(s)+TiO{sub 2}(s)+1/2O{sub 2}(g)=`FeTiO3`(s). Both the activities of magnetite and ulv6spinel in the Fe2TiO4-Fe3O4 spinel solid solutions coexisting with metallic iron at 1373 K obtained exhibit negative deviations from Raoult`s law. 19 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. 1998 comparative studies on R and D strategies of private firms in U.S. and Japan; 1998 nendo minkan kigyo ni okeru gijutsu kaihatsu senryaku no Nichibei hikaku chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys were made on the present state of R and D strategies such as energy conservation technologies and high performance technologies among private firms in the U.S. and Japan, for the purpose of suggesting direction of R and D for Japanese private firms and contributing to the R and D policies in the future. The R and D strategy trends of Japanese private firms are, for example, shortened R and D period, market needs in R and D and emphasis on direct links to product development, lack of researchers, R and D outsourcing, and introduction of project team system. In the U.S., firms are showing signs of revival of their R and D activities that have been on the wane since 1980s. The focus of R and D contents has been shifting from basic to applied researches. In the efforts of compensating reduced basic researches, the firms are beginning to establish a cooperation system through alliances with outside research institutions by throwing away the completely independent principle. The private firms are also advancing alliances with venture firms. The firms are presumably taking in the idea of financial products in their investments in R and D. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in Malaysia on effective utilization of waste heat from paper sludge incineration; 1999 nendo Malaysia ni okeru seishi sludge nensho hainetsu yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Efforts are under way to popularize practical energy conservation technologies through verification on real machines in target countries. Possibilities were studied that Malaysian paper making plants would adopt technologies of collecting heat from high-temperature exhaust gas from paper sludge incineration and of effectively utilizing the thus-collected heat. The Malaysian paper making industry produced 800-thousand tons or more in 1998, covering 72% of the total national demand. Heat recovery facilities may be installed in 15 plants. On-site surveys were made into their actual states, and then Genting Sanyen Industrial Paper Sdn. Bhd. was selected as the plant for the model project, and detailed model project feasibility studies were conducted. The studies covered the amount of wastes from paper making, their properties, treatment process, amounts of utilities to be used during system operation, land on which to build the facilities, and a plan for collecting invested funds. As the result, it was concluded in view of the magnitude of the expected fruit that the model project be implemented at this plant. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1996 survey for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the coal infrastructure propagation in Indonesia; 1996 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan infura seibi chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Phase 1 survey in fiscal 1996 was conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In the survey, conducted were collection of data on coal fields and site surveys, collection of data on inland transportation and site surveys, collection of data on harbors and site surveys, and worked out were a simplified database and a coal transportation plan by optimization of the coal chain system. The area for survey is the periphery of the Musi River of South Sumatra. The results of the simulation by LP models were as follows: When the coal of Bukit Asam coal mine is $25/t in price, only coal of 5500Kcal/kg is profitable, and when $27/t in price, coal of 4500Kcal/kg also becomes profitable. This shows that if the coal is of good quality, it can pay arriving at Suralaya, independent of the distance of transportation. 47 figs., 63 tabs.

  7. Experimental results of 2-propanol dehydrogenation with a falling-liquid film reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru ryuka ekimakushiki 2-propanol bunkai hanno jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, T; Tanaka, T; Ando, Y; Takashima, T [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Koike, M; Kamoshida, J [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A solar chemical heat pump is intended to attempt multi-purposed effective utilization of solar energy by raising low temperature solar heat of about 100 degC to 150 to 200 degC by utilizing chemical reactions. The chemical heat pump under the present study uses a 2-propanol (IPA)/acetone/hydrogen system which can utilize low-temperature solar heat and has large temperature rising degree. It was found from the result of experiments and analyses that IPA dehydrogenation reaction can improve more largely the heat utilization rate in using a falling-liquid film reactor than using a liquid phase suspended system. As an attempt to improve further the heat utilization rate, this paper reports the result of experimental discussions on inclination angles of a reaction vessel and feed liquid flow rate which would affect the fluid condition of the liquid film. As a result of the experiments, the initial deterioration in the catalyst has settled in about 15 hours, and its activity has decreased to about 60% of the initial activity. It was made clear that the influence of the inclination angle of the reaction vessel on the reaction is small. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Assessment and analysis of collected data in wind power generation field test project; 1998 nendo furyoku hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Examination was made on wind conditions, power generating characteristics, and the reliability of a system by analyzing the operation record of the wind power generation equipment which was installed at Hiraizumi-cho, Nishi-Iwai gun, Iwate prefecture and at Misaki-cho, Miura-shi, Kanagawa prefecture. The equipment at Hiraizumi had a rated output of 490 kW, and at Miura 400 kW. The period of the examination was from April, 1998 through February, 1999, the items for data collection being the generator output, generated energy, average wind velocity, record of abnormality occurrence, and maximum wind velocity. At Hiraizumi, annual average utilization rate was 12.9%; annual average operation rate, 49.9%; average wind velocity, 4.6 m/s; and maximum wind velocity of the period, 31 m/s. At Miura, annual average utilization rate was 16.5%; annual average operation rate, 77.0%; and average wind velocity, 5.0 m/s. The utilization rate is desirably 17%. The top three abnormalities were drop in AC control voltage, actuation of main shaft brake and eddy current/actuation of open phase relay, accounting for 83.3% of the total abnormalities at Hiraizumi, while they were unbalance in current, grid drop and automatic unwinding of cable, accounting for 74.5% at Miura. (NEDO)

  9. Study on strategies in joint implementation and its improvement to reduce CO2 emissions; CO2 sakugen no tame no kyodo jisshi ni okeru senryaku oyobi sono kaizen hosaku no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, R.; Ishitani, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, we have to introduce measures to suppress economic differences between developed countries (DC) and less developed countries (LDC) as well as accelerate technology improvement. In this sense, Joint Implementation (JI) is a promising measure not only to economically reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also to facilitate technology transfer from DC to LDC. In this article, we first investigated JI strategies, in which LDC can improve industrial energy efficiency under financial support of DC. Strategies of countries involved in JI was represented with Stackelberg game. Analytical results revealed that JI activities may considerably be diminished in Stackelberg equilibrium, depending on shapes of the marginal cost functions of reducing CO2. Therefore we proposed measures to prevent the suppression of JI and quantitatively evaluated the potential of this improved JI system. As far as actual data on economy and industry are concerned, we used the ones of Japan and China, since China has been rapidly increasing its economic scale and greenhouse gas emissions. However implications from these analyses are useful also for other countries. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Development of CO2 fixation system at a sludge incinerator by a unicellular green alga chlorella; Gesui odei shokyaku shisetsu ni okeru kurorera wo mochiita CO2 kotei system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misonou, T. [Yamanashi Univ., Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Pedagogy; Morimoto, K. [Yamanashi Univ., Yamanashi (Japan). Graduate School; Suzuki, Y. [Yamanashi Univ., Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-05

    Among many environmental problems now the world is facing with, the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is considered to give rise to many phenomena causing such serious effects as abnormal weather, water shortage, food shortage, etc., hence predictions by climate models are being tried at many places in the world, and any of them predicts a temperature rise due to the increase of gases such as CO2 causing the green house effect. In this article, an experiment has been carried out which cultures chlorella capable of fixing CO2 by using the exhaust gas actually emit from the sludge incinerator inside the South Sewage Purification Center of Kofu City, Yamanashi Prefecture. As a result, it has been theoretically concluded that a CO2 fixation system can be constructed inside the above center, but it is necessary to consider the balance between working electric energy during the system operation and the amount of CO2 fixation by the above system. In case when the electric power from a commercial power plant is used for the operation of the system, such usage becomes meaningless unless the system fixes CO2 more than the CO2 discharge by this power generation. 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in India on cement calcination facilities waste heat recovery; 1999 nendo Indo ni okeru cement shosei setsubi hainetsu kaishu model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    India produces 96-million tons/year of cement, ranking fourth in the world, and 55% of the yield comes from 1-million tons/year plants. Some of the waste heat from the manufacturing process is used to dry materials, etc., but much is discharged into the atmosphere. Estimation is made of the energy conservation effect expected to be brought about in case the waste heat power generation technology which is in use to good effect in Japan is introduced into Indian cement plants whose clinker production exceeds 3,000 tons/day. As the result, it is concluded that the model project may be implemented at any of the four plants for which power generation capability and CO2 reduction effect are tentatively calculated below. There will be power generation of 7,300kW and CO2 reduction of 43,125 tons for the Guijarat Ambuja Cement Ltd./Ambuja Cement Eastern plant; power generation of 7,700kW and CO2 reduction of 901,960 tons for the India Cement Ltd./Rassi Cement plant; power generation of 45,098kW and CO2 reduction of 1,140,220 tons for the Larsen and Toubro Ltd./Hirmi plant; and power generation of 5,450kW and CO2 reduction of 32,230 tons for the J. K. Corp Ltd./Lakshmi Cement Sirohi plant. (NEDO)

  12. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation (rehabilitation of 300MW coal-fired thermoelectric power plants in China); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku ni okeru 300MW sekitan karyoku hatsudensho rihabiri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Studies are made on the feasibility of the above project which aims at energy efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction at thermoelectric power plants. Opinions and comments are collected by hearing, and on-site surveys are conducted at Shandong Province Zouxian Power Plant, Anhui Province Luohe Power Plant, and Henan Province Yaomeng Power Plant. The conclusion reached is outlined below. In view of the current and future demand for electricity in China and of the network to be constructed, it is believed that the rehabilitation is a pressing task for improvement on efficiency and reliability at 300MW coal-fired power plants. As for air pollution, NOx and dust in addition to greenhouse gas will be reduced under the project. There will be 3-4% improvement in boiler efficiency and approximately 4% improvement in turbine efficiency, and, in this connection, there will be CO2 emission reduction of 140,400-154,900 tons/year per unit in case of 300MW coal-fired power plants. As for cost efficiency, it is inferred that investment will achieve an adequate result, with the number of years required for investment retrieval taken into consideration. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1997 for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the optimization of the coal transportation system in Indonesia; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In addition to the data collection and site surveys made in Phase 1, conducted in Phase 2 were determination of sites for harbors, determination of a scenario on coal transportation from coal mines to harbors, optimization of the coal transportation system, social/economic assessment, and proposal on the optimum transportation system. The results of the simulation were as follows: It is the most advantageous to transport coal from coal deposit area to harbor by rail and from harbor to Paiton by barge weighed over 10,000 tons. Tanjung Api Api is the most advantageous as harbor. The production scale which is profitable became more than 15 million tons. The present coal price of PTBA is $25/t arriving Suralaya. The coal in this case is said to be 5500kcal/kg in quality, and the coal of the same quality to this is only profitable. 8 refs., 68 figs., 104 tabs.

  14. Basic survey project for joint implementation. Feasibility study for the diffusion of fluidized bed cement kiln system in China; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Chugoku ni okeru ryudosho cement kirun fukyu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Discussions were given on conversion of shaft kilns mainly used at Tianjin Cement and Huaxin Cement to the fluidized bed cement kiln of the most advanced type. Possibility of energy conservation in China, that is reduction of carbon dioxide emission, was evaluated. This system has been developed by the Center for Coal Utilization, Japan. The system is characterized by reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission, elimination of the problem of dust scattering from sintering facilities, stabilized production of high-quality clinker, capability of using low-grade coal and anthracite, and reduction of cement production cost. As a result of the discussions, the reduction rate of greenhouse effect gases was found about 17 to 33%. The cost effect may be calculated as 2 to 5 thousand yen per ton of CO2 reduction amount assuming the system life of 20 years. If this process has been diffused into China, the quantity of CO2 to be reduced will reach about four million tons annually assuming a diffusion rate of 10%. This project shows as high profitability as about 20% at IRR, and the system is more advantageous economically than the shaft kiln. (NEDO)

  15. Study on solar chemical heat pump system. Basic experiment on falling film reaction for dehydrogenation of 2-propanol; Solar chemical heat pump no kenkyu. 2-propanol bunkai hanno ni okeru ryuka ekimakushiki hanno jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, T; Ando, Y; Tanaka, T; Takashima, T [Electrochemical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Nomura, T; Kamoshida, J [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    An experiment and the examination were carried out in order to elucidate the optimum conditions in the falling liquid film reaction method, in the conversion of solar energy using the decomposition reaction of 2-propanol. The device for the experiment was constituted of a reaction container, tubular pump, cooling pipe, sampling container for effluent from the upper and lower part of the reaction container, and gas burette. Examined in the experiment were various factors such as a fibrous activated carbon (catalyst support), ratio for carrying catalyst, catalytic composition and heating temperature. In the experiment, with the temperature inside the reaction container fully stabilized under prescribed conditions, measurement was done for the hydrogen generation by the gas burette for 10 minutes as well as for the sampling of effluent. The experiment revealed that the heat utilization ratio reached the maximum of about 27% when the heating temperature was 90{degree}C using a catalyst with the ratio of RU and Pt 1 to 1 and the ratio for carrying catalyst 10wt%, so that a great improvement was obtained in the heat utilization ratio at a low temperature. Also obtained was a large inversion ratio of about 15%. 4 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Gist of the gas business law amendment. Deregulation in the town gas business field; Gas jigyoho kaisei no yoten. Toshi gas jigyo bun`ya ni okeru kisei kanwa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, A. [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-20

    This paper introduces the summary of the partial amendment in the gas business law (which was enforced in March 1995 upon propositions from the General Energy Investigation Council). The amendment consists mainly of deregulation on business rules for gas supply to large users. The amendment may be summarized as follows: the present billing regulations are deregulated for cases that gas purchasers are large users, permitting in principle the pricing to be agreed upon negotiations between the concerned parties; general gas business operators are allowed to supply gas under certain conditions even outside their supply areas, provided the supply is limited to large users; even any other persons than the general gas business operators can supply gas under certain conditions; persons to start newly a large -scale gas supply business shall be applied with the mandatory portions of the safety regulations that have already been imposed on the general gas business operators; clerical works for the national examination on chief gas engineers will be commissioned to civil organizations; and duplicated application of regulations in the gas utility industry law is eliminated for those operators who are subjected to regulations in the electric utility industry law. 1 fig.

  17. Report of fiscal 1998 results. Feasibility study of overseas technological development (feasibility study for joint research on photovoltaic power generation in Myanmar); 1998 nendo kaigai gijutsu kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Myanmar ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden system kyodo kenkyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility was studied of a demonstrative research concerning effective operation of a hybrid system consisting of photovoltaic, wind and diesel power generations in Myanmar. Upon confirmation of Myanmar's request and assistance, Myanmar electric Power Enterprise was selected as the counterpart, with Kantangyi village determined as the candidate site from the viewpoint of the quantity of solar radiation, wind conditions, and convenience in transportation service. Meteorological observation instruments were installed at Nyaung U observatory, with the observation implemented. It was grasped that the demand spreading pattern and the demand for electric power was 40 kWh/month per household. It was also judged that the system structure should be constituted of photovoltaic power, wind power, and diesel generator/battery/adjustable load. The problems are stable supply technology, technology for effective use of renewable energy, technology for complementary effects of photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation, and demonstration of a 100 kW class wind power generation system. Particularly important is consistency between the capacity of power storage equipment and that of diesel power generation. The study results applicable to Japan is the verification of a small-sized independent system for remote islands or the like. The total research expenses were estimated to be 600 million yen. (NEDO)

  18. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Coalbed methane collection and utilization project in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    China is surveyed for promotion of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures in the Kyoto Protocol, the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The project aims to collect methane for global warming suppression and to use it as town gas and for power generation as well. The survey covers the 2 coalfields of Yangquan and Panjiang. The Yangquan coalfield is the largest anthracite yielding base in China, with 6 mines in operation. Power generation centering on a 100MW plant is discussed, and generation fired by a mixture of debris out of the coal preparation facility and gas is compared with another fired by town gas, on the assumption that 130-million m{sup 3} is available under the current circumstances. In the case of the Panjiang coalfield, which is expected to develop into a large coal base in the southern part of China, power generation centering on a 50MW plant fired by a mixture of debris and gas is discussed, on the assumption that 63-million m{sup 3} is collectable from the existing 5 mines. Use of town gas is also studied. When Japan's coalbed methane collection technology is applied, the gas drainage rate will be elevated to 40-35% or higher. It is desired that the use of gas drainage will be further diffused for the prevention of disasters of coal mine gas explosion. It is hoped that the use of environmentally friendly energies will be enhanced. (NEDO)

  19. In-situ observation of the energy dependence of defect production in Cu and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.E.; Merkel, K.L.; Baily, A.C.; Haga, K.; Meshii, M.

    1983-01-01

    The damage function, the average number of Frenkel pairs created as a function of lattice atom recoil energy, was investigated in Cu and Ni using in-situ electrical-resistivity damage-rate measurements in the high-voltage electron micrscope (HVEM) at T < 10K. Electron and proton irradiations were performed in-situ on the same polycrystalline specimens using the Argonne National Laboratory HVEM-Ion Beam Interface. Both Ni and Cu exhibit a sharp rise in the damage function above the minimum threshold energy (approx. 18 eV for Cu and approx. 20 eV for Ni) as displacements in the low-threshold energy regions of the threshold energy surface become possible. A plateau is observed for both materials (0.54 Frenkel pairs for Cu and 0.46 Frenkel pairs for Ni) indicating that no further directions become productive until much higher recoil energies. These damage functions show strong deviations from simple theoretical models, such as the Modified Kinchin-Pease damage function. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms of defect production that govern the single-displacement regime of the damage function and are compared with results from recent molecular-dynamics simulations

  20. Ni-Zn nanoferrites synthesized by microwave energy: influence of exposure time and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Debora A.; Diniz, Veronica Cristhina S.; Lira, Helio L.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.; Cornejo, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This work suggests the synthesis of Ni-Zn nanoferrites by combustion reaction using microwave energy as a heating source, evaluating the performance of these materials as absorbers of electromagnetic energy at frequencies between 4 - 12 GHz. The influence of the synthesis conditions on the structural, morphology and absorption characteristic was investigated. The powders were characterized by DRX, BET, AGM and reflectivity measurements in the frequency bands of 8 to 12 GHz. The results of XRD show the formation of Ni-Zn ferrite phase and Fe 2 O 3 and Ni as secondary phases. The crystallites size determined was between 32- 42 nm. The exposure time and power parameters of the microwave oven changed the final characteristics of the powders obtained. All powders showed morphology constituted by soft agglomerates of nanoparticles. The best results of the saturation magnetization and attenuation achieved was 70 emu/g and -4.1 dB in the frequency of 10 GHZ. (author)

  1. Performance of magnetoelectric PZT/Ni multiferroic system for energy harvesting application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Reema; Tomar, Monika; Kumar, Ashok; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) thin films has been probed for possible energy harvesting applications. Single phase PZT thin films have been deposited on nickel substrate (PZT/Ni) using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The effect of PLD process parameters on the ME coupling coefficient in the prepared systems has been investigated. The as grown PZT films on Ni substrate were found to be polycrystalline with improved ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. The electrical switching behavior of the PZT thin films were verified using capacitance voltage measurements, where well defined butterfly loops were obtained. The ME coupling coefficient was estimated to be in the range of 94.5 V cm-1 Oe-1-130.5 V cm-1 Oe-1 for PZT/Ni system, which is large enough for harnessing electromagnetic energy for subsequent applications.

  2. Experimental determination of proton induced reaction cross sections on {sup nat}Ni near threshold energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Md. Shuza [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumer [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics; Spellerberg, Stefan; Spahn, Ingo; Qaim, Syed M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Shariff, Md. Asad; Das, Sopan [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Rashid, Md. Abdur [Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    A newly developed facility at the 3 MV Tandem Accelerator at Dhaka for measurement of proton induced reaction cross sections in the energy region below 5 MeV is outlined and tests for the beam characterization are described. The results were validated by comparison with the well-known excitation function of the {sup 64}Ni(p, n){sup 64}Cu reaction. Excitation functions of the reactions {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 60,61}Cu, {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 55,57,58m+g}Co and {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 57}Ni were also measured from threshold to 16 MeV using the stacked-foil technique, whereby irradiations were performed with 5 MeV protons available at the Tandem Accelerator and 16.7 MeV protons at the BC 1710 cyclotron at Juelich, Germany. The radioactivity was measured using HPGe γ-ray detectors. A few results are new, the others strengthen the database. In particular, the results of the reaction {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 61}Cu below 3 MeV could serve as beam monitor.

  3. Crystal field and low energy excitations measured by high resolution RIXS at the L edge of Cu, Ni and Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiringhelli, G.; Piazzalunga, A.; Wang, X.

    2009-01-01

    of the 3d transition metals with unprecedented energy resolution, of the order of 100 meV for Mn, Ni and Cu. We present here some preliminary spectra on CuO, malachite, NiO, , MnO and . The dd excitations are very well resolved allowing accurate experimental evaluation of 3d state energy splitting. The low...

  4. Porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms for high performance electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianbo; Li, Man; Li, Junru; Wei, Chengzhen; He, Yuyue; Huang, Yixuan; Li, Qiaoling

    2017-12-01

    Porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms have been successfully synthesized via a facile route. The process involves the preparation of nickel-cobalt-manganese acetate hydroxide by a simple co-precipitation method and subsequently the thermal treatment. The as-synthesized Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms had a large surface area (96.53 m2 g-1) and porous structure. As electrode materials for supercapacitors, porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms showed a high specific capacitance of 1623.5 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1. Moreover, the porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms were also employed as positive electrode materials to assemble flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The resulting flexible device had a maximum volumetric energy density (0.885 mW h cm-3) and power density (48.9 mW cm-3). Encouragingly, the flexible device exhibited good cycling stability with only about 2.2% loss after 5000 charge-discharge cycles and excellent mechanical stability. These results indicate that porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms have the promising application in high performance electrochemical energy storage.

  5. Progress in photometry. Sokko ni okeru saikinno shinpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krochmann, J

    1991-07-01

    A recent progress in photometry was summarized. As to photometric error, photometric head, luminous intensity, luminous flux, and lighting system, a present situation was introduced. Was described the error in photometry using a silicon photodiode, which became in a level of 0.1% by the self-calibration. Also were illustrated the photometric heads for evaluating spatial luminous intensities, the detector for ratio temperature measurement needed for calibration of a normal standard light source, the filter-type monochromator for measuring a difference of spectral response, and the solar battery for reference which can correct the photometer used for the long period in the field. A measurement of high-speed photocurrent was shown, in which the resolving power of 10{sup {minus}14}ampere (10{sup {minus}6}lux) can be achieved. A goniophotometer for luminous flux measurement was also introduced. Furthermore, the stimulation direct-reading colorimeter, the reflectance and transmission measuring apparatus, the illumination meter with a remote control transmitter, the diffuse reflectance measuring apparatus, and the daylight factor measuring apparatus were illustrated. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Efficiency of Energy Harvesting in Ni-Mn-Ga Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Paul; Hobza, Tony; Patrick, Charles; Müllner, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Many researchers have reported on the voltage and power generated while energy harvesting using Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys; few researchers report on the power conversion efficiency of energy harvesting. We measured the magneto-mechanical behavior and energy harvesting of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys to quantify the efficiency of energy harvesting using the inverse magneto-plastic effect. At low frequencies, less than 150 Hz, the power conversion efficiency is less than 0.1%. Power conversion efficiency increases with (i) increasing actuation frequency, (ii) increasing actuation stroke, and (iii) decreasing twinning stress. Extrapolating the results of low-frequency experiments to the kHz actuation regime yields a power conversion factor of about 20% for 3 kHz actuation frequency, 7% actuation strain, and 0.05 MPa twinning stress.

  7. Comment on ''Energy partition in near-barrier strongly damped collisions 58Ni+208Pb''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Breuer, H.; Planeta, R.

    1993-01-01

    Chatterjee et al. [Phys. Rev. C 44, R2249 (1991)] report that the sharing of dissipated energy in the 58 Ni + 208 Pb reaction at E/A=6.5 MeV is not influenced appreciably by the direction and magnitude of net charge (and mass) transfer. We point out that neither this conclusion nor one arguing for a correlation between mass flow and excitation energy division is supported by the data and analysis presented in their communication

  8. Magnetic and frequency properties for nanocrystalline Fe-Ni alloys prepared by high-energy milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongsheng; Zhang Jincang; Yu, Liming; Jia Guangqiang; Jing Chao; Cao Shixun

    2005-01-01

    Fe-based nano-crystalline soft magnetic alloy with Ni-doping was fabricated successfully by high-energy milling. It was proved that a Fe-Ni solid solution is formed and the evaluated average grain size is about 20 nm. The effect of doping Ni on the frequency properties was systematically investigated. From the magnetic measurement results, it can be concluded that, the nickel doped decreases the resonance frequency of Fe-Ni alloy, but Ni doping enhances the frequency stability. The corresponding value of initial permeability as a function of Ni doping concentration was given at 10 kHz and the result indicates that the peak value of initial permeability shifts to the region of low Ni concentration for the samples milled for 72 h

  9. Energy landscape for martensitic phase transformation in shape memory NiTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibey, S.; Sehitoglu, H.; Johnson, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    First-principles calculations are presented for parent B2 phase and martensitic B19 and B19' phases in NiTi. The results indicate that both B19 and B19' are energetically more stable than the parent B2 phase. By means of ab initio density functional theory, the complete distortion-shuffle energy landscape associated with B2 → B19 transformation in NiTi is then determined. In addition to accounting for the Bain-type deformation through the Cauchy-Born rule, the study explicitly accounts for the shuffle displacements experienced by the internal ions in NiTi. The energy landscape allows the energy barrier associated with the B2 → B19 transformation pathway to be identified. The results indicate that a barrier of 0.48 mRyd atom -1 (relative to the B2 phase) must be overcome to transform the parent B2 NiTi to orthorhombic B19 martensite

  10. Thin and flexible Ni-P based current collectors developed by electroless deposition for energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Haoran; Susanto, Amelia; Lian, Keryn

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A PET metallized by electroless nickel was developed as flexible current collector. • The Ni-PET current collector showed good conductivity and chemical stability. • The flexible nanocarbon electrodes with Ni-PET exhibited capacitive behavior. • The Ni-PET enabled electrodes performed nicely in liquid and solid supercapacitors. - Abstract: A PET film metalized by electroless nickel deposition was demonstrated as thin and flexible current collector for energy storage devices. The resultant nickel-on-PET film (Ni-PET) can be used both as current collector for electrochemical capacitors and as electrode for thin film batteries. The composition of Ni-PET was characterized by EDX and XPS. The electrochemical performance of the Ni-PET current collector was similar to Ni foil but with less hydrogen evolution at low potential. The Ni-PET film exhibited better flexibility than a metallic Ni foil. Carbon nanotubes were coated on a Ni-PET substrate to form an electrochemical capacitor electrode which exhibited high chemical stability in both liquid and solid electrolytes, showing strong promise for solid energy storage devices.

  11. Thin and flexible Ni-P based current collectors developed by electroless deposition for energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Haoran, E-mail: haoran.wu@mail.utoronto.ca; Susanto, Amelia; Lian, Keryn

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • A PET metallized by electroless nickel was developed as flexible current collector. • The Ni-PET current collector showed good conductivity and chemical stability. • The flexible nanocarbon electrodes with Ni-PET exhibited capacitive behavior. • The Ni-PET enabled electrodes performed nicely in liquid and solid supercapacitors. - Abstract: A PET film metalized by electroless nickel deposition was demonstrated as thin and flexible current collector for energy storage devices. The resultant nickel-on-PET film (Ni-PET) can be used both as current collector for electrochemical capacitors and as electrode for thin film batteries. The composition of Ni-PET was characterized by EDX and XPS. The electrochemical performance of the Ni-PET current collector was similar to Ni foil but with less hydrogen evolution at low potential. The Ni-PET film exhibited better flexibility than a metallic Ni foil. Carbon nanotubes were coated on a Ni-PET substrate to form an electrochemical capacitor electrode which exhibited high chemical stability in both liquid and solid electrolytes, showing strong promise for solid energy storage devices.

  12. Deep-inelastic scattering in 124,136Xe+58,64Ni at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehring, J.; Back, B.B.; Chan, K.C.; Freer, M.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C.L.; Rehm, K.E.; Schiffer, J.P.; Wolanski, M.; Wuosmaa, A.H.; Gehring, J.; Wolanski, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cross sections, angular distributions, and mass distributions have been measured for deep-inelastic scattering in 124 Xe+ 58 Ni and 136 Xe+ 64 Ni at laboratory energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. The mass distributions show distinct components due to deep-inelastic and fissionlike processes. The strength of deep-inelastic scattering is similar in the two systems measured and comparable to previous measurements in 58 Ni+ 112,124 Sn. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Microfabricated pseudocapacitors using Ni(OH)2 electrodes exhibit remarkable volumetric capacitance and energy density

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2014-09-10

    Metal hydroxide based microfabricated pseudocapacitors with impressive volumetric stack capacitance and energy density are demonstrated. A combination of top-down photolithographic process and bottom-up chemical synthesis is employed to fabricate the micro-pseudocapacitors (μ-pseudocapacitors). The resulting Ni(OH)2-based devices show several excellent characteristics including high-rate redox activity up to 500 V s-1 and an areal cell capacitance of 16 mF cm-2 corresponding to a volumetric stack capacitance of 325 F cm-3. This volumetric capacitance is two-fold higher than carbon and metal oxide based μ-supercapacitors with interdigitated electrode architecture. Furthermore, these μ-pseudocapacitors show a maximum energy density of 21 mWh cm-3, which is superior to the Li-based thin film batteries. The heterogeneous growth of Ni(OH)2 over the Ni surface during the chemical bath deposition is found to be the key parameter in the formation of uniform monolithic Ni(OH)2 mesoporous nanosheets with vertical orientation, responsible for the remarkable properties of the fabricated devices. Additionally, functional tandem configurations of the μ-pseudocapacitors are shown to be capable of powering a light-emitting diode.

  14. Elastic and inelastic scattering of alpha particles on 58Ni and 60Ni in a broad range of energy and angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzanowski, A.; Dabrowski, H.; Freindl, L.; Grotowski, K.; Micek, S.; Planeta, R.; Strzalkowski, A.; Bosman, M.; Leleux, P.; Macq, P.; Meulders, J.P.; Pirart, C.

    1978-01-01

    The differential cross sections for α particles elastically and inelastically scattered from 5 8Ni (at 29, 34, 38, and 58 MeV) and elastically scattered from 6 0Ni (at 29 and 34 MeV), are measured together with excitation functions in the 25--38 MeV region at 178.5 0 lab. These data together with the data of 26.5, 32.3, 104, and 139 MEV for 5 8Ni and 32.3 and 104 MeV for 6 0Ni from other sources were analyzed using an optical model with volume and surface absorptions and the Saxon-Woods square form factors. The analysis yielded energy dependent depths of both real and imaginary parts of the potential and constant geometric parameters. The analytical expressions for depths of the real and both absorption potentials are obtained. The coupled channel calculations using the above optical potential were performed for the first excited state of 5 8Ni. Both elastic scattering data and coupling with the first excited state of 5 8Ni are well reproduced using the above potential in the wide scattering energy range

  15. Mesoporous NiCo2O4 nano-needles supported by 3D interconnected carbon network on Ni foam for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congxiang; Liu, Wen-wen; Pan, Hui; Tay, Beng Kang; Wang, Xingli; Liang, Kun; Wei, Xuezhe

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a three dimensional (3D) interconnected carbon network consisting of ultrathin graphite (UG) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on Ni foam is fabricated and employed as a novel type of substrate for mesoporous NiCo2O4 nano-needles. The successfully synthesized NiCo2O4 nano-needles/CNTs/UG on Ni foam has many advantages including facile electrolyte access and direct conducting pathways towards current collectors, which enable it to be a promising electrode material in battery-like electrochemical energy storage. Encouragingly, a high capacity of 135.1 mAh/g at the current density of 1 A/g, superior rate performance and also stable cycling for 1200 cycles at the current density of 5 A/g have been demonstrated in this novel material.

  16. Effects of alloying element and temperature on the stacking fault energies of dilute Ni-base superalloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, S L; Zacherl, C L; Fang, H Z; Wang, Y; Du, Y; Liu, Z K

    2012-12-19

    A systematic study of stacking fault energy (γ(SF)) resulting from induced alias shear deformation has been performed by means of first-principles calculations for dilute Ni-base superalloys (Ni(23)X and Ni(71)X) for various alloying elements (X) as a function of temperature. Twenty-six alloying elements are considered, i.e., Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Ir, Mn, Mo, Nb, Os, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sc, Si, Ta, Tc, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn, and Zr. The temperature dependence of γ(SF) is computed using the proposed quasistatic approach based on a predicted γ(SF)-volume-temperature relationship. Besides γ(SF), equilibrium volume and the normalized stacking fault energy (Γ(SF) = γ(SF)/Gb, with G the shear modulus and b the Burgers vector) are also studied as a function of temperature for the 26 alloying elements. The following conclusions are obtained: all alloying elements X studied herein decrease the γ(SF) of fcc Ni, approximately the further the alloying element X is from Ni on the periodic table, the larger the decrease of γ(SF) for the dilute Ni-X alloy, and roughly the γ(SF) of Ni-X decreases with increasing equilibrium volume. In addition, the values of γ(SF) for all Ni-X systems decrease with increasing temperature (except for Ni-Cr at higher Cr content), and the largest decrease is observed for pure Ni. Similar to the case of the shear modulus, the variation of γ(SF) for Ni-X systems due to various alloying elements is traceable from the distribution of (magnetization) charge density: the spherical distribution of charge density around a Ni atom, especially a smaller sphere, results in a lower value of γ(SF) due to the facility of redistribution of charges. Computed stacking fault energies and the related properties are in favorable accord with available experimental and theoretical data.

  17. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Investigational research on safety technology in the hydrogen energy system; 1974 nendo suiso erergy system ni okeru hoan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-01

    In this study, samples were surveyed and collected of the present regulations and standard, disaster accident, basic literature, etc. concerning the safety of hydrogen in Japan and abroad. Further, according to the necessity, these collected data were translated. The data to be examined/collected are those in and after 1950, and the data except the above-mentioned are collected if those are thought to be important. As to the condition of hydrogen to be examined/surveyed, those under all conditions from gas (normal pressure) to liquid and solidified hydrogen. The data for survey were classified into law/standard, corporate standard, samples of disaster accident, and general literature. The general literature was classified into general physical property, material relation, fire/explosion, and harmfulness/environment. The number of the disasters collected is 81, from which 3 in relation to suffocation and handicap were excluded. The rest is related to fire/explosion and burst. Most accidents occurred at plant or on corporate side, however, it is worthy of note that accidents occurred during the charge of buttery and with advertising balloon or balloon. (NEDO)

  18. Cladding of Ni superalloy powders on AISI 4140 steel with concentrated solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, B.J.; Lopez, V.; Vazquez, A.J. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Martinez, D. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas Almeria (Spain)

    1998-05-12

    The present work deals with Ni alloy cladding on AISI 4140 steel samples made with high power density concentrated solar beams. The quality of the cladding is high concerning the adherence, low dilution and high hardness of the coating. Some considerations are presented concerning the future of high power density beams related to SUrface Modification of Metallic mAterials with SOLar Energy (SUMMA cum SOLE)

  19. Microstructural evaluation and magnetic Ni-Zn ferrite sintered by microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Veronica Cristhina S.; Vieira, Debora A.; Costa, Ana Cristina F.M.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.; Cornejo, Daniel Reinaldo

    2011-01-01

    The present Ni-Zn ferrite magnetic properties sensitive to microstructure and obtain a ferrite with a uniform microstructure is the biggest challenge in the advancement of new technologies. This study proposes to evaluate the microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn ferrite sintered by microwave energy. The samples were previously synthesized by combustion reaction using urea and glycine, with 1200 deg C/2h sintered at a heating rate of 5 deg C/min, and characterized by density, XRD, SEM and magnetic measurements. The results show that the sample synthesized with glycine showed the formation of ferrite phase and traces of secondary phase hematite, grains with undefined format, and a high porosity and inter intragranular. The sample synthesized with urea gave only the ferrite phase, with hexagonal grains, and low intergranular porosity. The sample synthesized with urea showed better magnetic characteristics when compared with the samples synthesized with glycine. (author)

  20. Changes of surface structure of Ni, W and chromium-nickel steel Cr18Ni10 irradiated by high fluences of krypton ions with high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Semina, V.K.; Khalil, A.; Suvorov, A.L.; Stepanov, A.Eh.; Cheblukov, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    The surfaces of W single crystal, Ni polycrystal and chromium-nickel steel, irradiated by Kr ions with energy 305 and 245 MeV up to the fluences 2*10 15 and 3*10 15 ion/cm 2 , were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. The evaporation coefficients of material surfaces were estimated on the base of changes of surface relief. The values of these coefficients turned out much more than ones predicted by the inelastic sputtering model. The method of 'step' was offered and realized for the more correct estimations evaporation coefficient on the Ni example. The phenomenological model explaining the observed phenomena is introduced

  1. Temperature effects on the generalized planar fault energies and twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu: First principles calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lili

    2014-06-01

    Based on the quasiharmonic approach from first-principles phonon calculations, the volume versus temperature relations for Al, Ni and Cu are obtained. Using the equilibrium volumes at temperature T, the temperature dependences of generalized planar fault energies have also been calculated by first-principles calculations. It is found that the generalized planar fault energies reduce slightly with increasing temperature. Based on the calculated generalized planar fault energies, the twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu are discussed with the three typical criteria for crack tip twinning, grain boundary twinning and inherent twinning at different temperatures. The twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu also decrease slightly with increasing temperature. Ni and Cu have the inherent twinnabilities. But, Al does not exhibit inherent twinnability. These results are in agreement with the previous theoretical studies at 0 K and experimental observations at ambient temperature. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature effects on the generalized planar fault energies and twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu: First principles calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lili; Wang, Rui; Wu, Xiaozhi; Gan, Liyong; Wei, Qunyi

    2014-01-01

    Based on the quasiharmonic approach from first-principles phonon calculations, the volume versus temperature relations for Al, Ni and Cu are obtained. Using the equilibrium volumes at temperature T, the temperature dependences of generalized planar fault energies have also been calculated by first-principles calculations. It is found that the generalized planar fault energies reduce slightly with increasing temperature. Based on the calculated generalized planar fault energies, the twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu are discussed with the three typical criteria for crack tip twinning, grain boundary twinning and inherent twinning at different temperatures. The twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu also decrease slightly with increasing temperature. Ni and Cu have the inherent twinnabilities. But, Al does not exhibit inherent twinnability. These results are in agreement with the previous theoretical studies at 0 K and experimental observations at ambient temperature. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy and Rate Determinations to Activate the C-C σ-BOND of Acetone by Gaseous NI^+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Vanessa A.; Dee, S. Jason; Villarroel, Otsmar J.; Laboren, Ivanna E.; Frey, Sarah E.; Bellert, Darrin J.

    2009-06-01

    A unique application of a custom fabricated photodissociation spectrometer permits the determination of thermodynamic properties (activation energies), reaction rates, and mechanistic details of bare metal cation mediated C-C σ-bond activation in the gas phase. Specifically, the products and rates resulting from the unimolecular decomposition of the Ni^+Acetone (Ni^+Ac) adduct are monitored after absorption of a known amount of energy. The three dissociative products which are observed in high yield are Ni^+, Ni^+CO, and CH3CO^+. The latter two fragment ions result from the activation of a C-C σ-bond. It was found that minimally 14 000 cm^{-1} of energy must be deposited into the adduct ion to induce C-C bond breakage. Preliminary results for the Ni^+ activation of the C-C σ-bond of acetone indicate that there are (at least) two low energy reaction coordinates leading to C-C bond breakage. The lower energy pathway emerges from the doublet ground state with an upper limit to the activation energy of 14 000 cm^{-1} and reaction rate ≈0.14 molecules/μs. The higher energy path is assumed to be along the quartet reaction coordinate with a minimum activation energy of 18 800 cm^{-1} (relative to the ground state) and a slightly slower reaction rate.

  4. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of CH3N2CH3 adsorbed on Ni(100), Ni(111), Cr(100), Cr(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M.A.

    1985-07-01

    A study of the adsorption of CH 3 N 2 CH 3 on Ni(100), Ni(111), Cr(100), and Cr(111) using high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is presented. Under approximately the same conditions of coverage, the vibrational spectra of CH 3 N 2 CH 3 on these four surfaces are quite distinct from one another, implying that the CH 3 N 2 CH 3 -substrate interaction is very sensitive to the physical and electronic structure of each surface. In addition to the room temperature studies, the evolution of surface species on the Ni(100) surface in the temperature range 300 to 425 K was studied. Analysis of the Ni(100) spectra indicates that molecular adsorption, probably through the N lone pair, occurs at room temperature. Spectra taken after annealing the CH 3 N 2 CH 3 -Ni(100) surfaces indicate that CH and CN bond scission occurred at the elevated temperatures. Decomposition of CH 3 N 2 CH 3 takes place on the Ni(111), Cr(100), and Cr(111) surfaces at room temperature, as evidenced by the intensity of the carbon-metal stretch in the corresponding spectra. Possible identities of coadsorbed dissociation products are considered. The stable coverage of surface species on all four surfaces at 300 K is less than one monolayer. A general description of an electron energy loss (EEL) spectrometer is given. Followed by a more specific discussion of some recent modifications to the EEL monochromator assembly used in this laboratory. Both the previous configuration of our monochromator and the new version are briefly described, as an aid to understanding the motivation for the changes as well as the differences in operation of the two versions. For clarity, the new monochromator design is referred to as variable pass, while the previous design is referred to as double pass. A modified tuning procedure for the new monochromator is also presented. 58 refs., 11 figs

  5. The Energy Dependence of Flow in Ni Induced Collisions from 400A to 1970A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chance, J.; Brady, F.; Cebra, D.; Kintner, J.; Partlan, M.; Romero, J.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Costa, S.; Insolia, A.; Potenza, R.; Romanski, J.; Russo, G.; Tuve, C.; Bieser, F.; Cebra, D.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H.; Symons, T.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Choi, Y.; Elliott, J.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Porile, N.; Scharenberg, R.; Srivastava, B.; Tincknell, M.; Warren, P.; Chacon, A.; Wolf, K.

    1997-01-01

    We study the energy dependence of collective (hydrodynamic-like) nuclear matter flow in (400 endash 1970)A MeV Ni+Au and (1000 endash 1970)A MeV Ni+Cu reactions. The flow increases with energy, appears to reach a maximum, and then to decrease at higher energies. A way of comparing the energy dependence of flow values for different projectile-target mass combinations is introduced, which demonstrates a more-or-less common scaling behavior among flow values from different systems. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Stacking fault energy measurements in solid solution strengthened Ni-Cr-Fe alloys using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unfried-Silgado, Jimy [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP, Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica FEM, Campinas (Brazil); Universidad Autonoma del Caribe, Grupo IMTEF, Ingenieria Mecanica, Barranquilla (Colombia); Wu, Leonardo [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Furlan Ferreira, Fabio [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas (CCNH), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mario Garzon, Carlos [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota (Colombia); Ramirez, Antonio J, E-mail: antonio.ramirez@lnnano.org.br [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    The stacking fault energy (SFE) in a set of experimental Ni-Cr-Fe alloys was determined using line profile analysis on synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. The methodology used here is supported by the Warren-Averbach calculations and the relationships among the stacking fault probability ({alpha}) and the mean-square microstrain (<{epsilon}{sup 2}{sub L}>). These parameters were obtained experimentally from cold-worked and annealed specimens extracted from the set of studied Ni-alloys. The obtained results show that the SFE in these alloys is strongly influenced by the kind and quantity of addition elements. Different effects due to the action of carbide-forming elements and the solid solution hardening elements on the SFE are discussed here. The simultaneous addition of Nb, Hf, and, Mo, in the studied Ni-Cr-Fe alloys have generated the stronger decreasing of the SFE. The relationships between SFE and the contributions on electronic structure from each element of additions were established.

  7. Variable-energy positron-beam studies of Ni implanted with He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, K.G.; Chen, D.M.; Nielsen, B.; Pareja, R.; Myers, S.

    1986-01-01

    Variable-energy positron-beam studies have been made on well-annealed polycrystalline Ni samples implanted with 30-, 90-, and 180-keV 4 He ions. The positron-annihilation characteristics were measured with a solid-state Ge detector at a number of different incident-positron energies and after isochronal annealing at various temperatures. The Doppler broadening of the annihilation photons was found to be strongly influenced by the 4 He implantations. The data indicate that trapping of the positrons occurred predominantly at small He bubbles. The variation of the broadening with incident-positron energy was sensitive to the depth distribution of the traps. A diffusion model assuming a square concentration-defect profile was developed and analytically fitted to the parametrized momentum data. These fitted results were compared to Monte Carlo range calculations for 4 He in Ni, and fairly good agreement was found. This investigation demonstrates the capabilities of positron annihilation for nondestructive depth profiling in ion-implanted systems. In addition, it establishes parallels between the trapping behavior of positrons and that reported elsewhere for hydrogen, thereby augmenting the present level of understanding of the technologically important trapping of hydrogen by the bubbles

  8. Fiscal 1999 research report. Data acquisition and analysis on the advanced high-efficiency energy system field test; 1999 nendo sendoteki kokoritsu energy system field test jigyo ni okeru data shuyaku oyobi hyoka kaiseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although the next-generation phosphoric acid fuel cell has nearly reached its practical application stage as far as technology is concerned, its diffusion is yet to come due to lack of data about its cost efficiency and reliability. Under the circumstances, the goal now is to collect and analyze various data obtained in the above-named project which was started in fiscal 1997 for the compilation of data useful for full-scale diffusion in the future so that a foundation may be built for the overall popularization of the fuel cell. In this fiscal year, assessment and analysis have been conducted at 15 test sites now in presence. At the second plant of the Semboku LNG Terminals where approximately 17,000 hours have elapsed since the test began, the cell has operated for more than 16,000 hours in total. The Mycal Bore Sanda has established the longest uninterrupted operation record of 6,500. As for power generation efficiency, a town gas 13A-fueled system exhibits approximately 40% operating smoothly at a high overall efficiency of not less than 90%. (NEDO)

  9. Opto-electrical energy conversion by thin electrolytic CdSe films on Ni substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenis, G X; Athanassopoulou, M D; Argyropoulos, Th G; Dervos, C T

    2015-01-01

    Thin-films (300 nm) of zinc-blende (cubic structure) CdSe (111) electrolytically deposited on nickel substrates had their surface characteristics investigated by XRD, SEM, and profilometry scans. A metal-CdSe-metal structure was formed by positioning a Au electrode on top of CdSe and the I–V characteristics of the resulting device were investigated in the dark and under low intensities (≤0.2 mW cm −2 ) of diffused solar radiation. The experimental results show that the illuminated structure is an active device that produces electric power in the 2nd quadrant of the I–V curve. This response may be related to the Ni-to-CdSe interface, where carriers are effectively generated as a result of deep energy level formations, spatially confined in the interfacial region of the depletion layer width of the Ni-CdSe junction. A potential energy diagram is proposed to present the spatially and energetically confined deep-level parameters, the operation principles (carrier generation and transport processes) across the structure and link them to the obtained I–V response. A mathematical modeling based on the Schokley-Read-Hall recombination theory confirms the experimentally obtained current profiles of illuminated junctions. Such opto-electrical tranducers might be implemented in multilayer photovoltaic hetero-structures to enhance their conversion efficiencies and reduce their operating temperatures. (paper)

  10. Opto-electrical energy conversion by thin electrolytic CdSe films on Ni substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenis, G. X.; Athanassopoulou, M. D.; Argyropoulos, Th G.; Dervos, C. T.

    2015-02-01

    Thin-films (300 nm) of zinc-blende (cubic structure) CdSe (111) electrolytically deposited on nickel substrates had their surface characteristics investigated by XRD, SEM, and profilometry scans. A metal-CdSe-metal structure was formed by positioning a Au electrode on top of CdSe and the I-V characteristics of the resulting device were investigated in the dark and under low intensities (≤0.2 mW cm-2) of diffused solar radiation. The experimental results show that the illuminated structure is an active device that produces electric power in the 2nd quadrant of the I-V curve. This response may be related to the Ni-to-CdSe interface, where carriers are effectively generated as a result of deep energy level formations, spatially confined in the interfacial region of the depletion layer width of the Ni-CdSe junction. A potential energy diagram is proposed to present the spatially and energetically confined deep-level parameters, the operation principles (carrier generation and transport processes) across the structure and link them to the obtained I-V response. A mathematical modeling based on the Schokley-Read-Hall recombination theory confirms the experimentally obtained current profiles of illuminated junctions. Such opto-electrical tranducers might be implemented in multilayer photovoltaic hetero-structures to enhance their conversion efficiencies and reduce their operating temperatures.

  11. Synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles for energy and environment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Rimal, Gaurab; Tang, Jinke; Dai, Qilin

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are of great interest due to their applications in energy and environment. In this work, we developed a chemical solution based method to synthesize NiFe2O4 (NFO) nanoparticles with different sizes and structures by organic ligands and studied their applications in magnetic electrolyte concentration cells and waste water treatment. NFO nanoparticle growth is controlled by the organic passivating ligand ratios, reaction temperatures, and reaction solution concentrations to achieve the control of NFO nanoparticle size ranging from 25 nm to 160 nm. The NFO growth mechanism is controlled by aggregation related mechanism, leading to tunable magnetic properties and concentration cell device performance. Magnetic biochar consisting of biochar/NFO composite was also obtained based on the developed method. Waste water containing Rhodamine B was tested by the synthesized magnetic biochar. We believe the method developed in this work about magnetic NFO nanoparticles and magnetic biochar will shed light on the application of magnetic nanoparticles in energy and environment.

  12. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities in Ni XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, N.C.; Msezane, A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Fine-structure energy levels relative to the ground state, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for transitions among the lowest 40 fine-structure levels belonging to the configurations 3s 2 3p, 3s3p 2 , 3s 2 3d, 3p 3 and 3s3p3d of Ni XVI are calculated using a large scale CI in program CIV3 of Hibbert. Relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation via spin-orbit, spin-other-orbit, spin-spin, Darwin and mass correction terms. The existing discrepancies between the calculated and measured values for many of the relative energy positions are resolved in the present calculation which yields excellent agreement with measurement. Also, many of our oscillator strengths for allowed and intercombination transitions are in very good agreement with the recommended data by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST). (orig.)

  13. FY 1999 report on the results of the introductory study on the global environmental industry technology. Study of the technology to recycle organic waste as resource in the chemical industry; 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kagaku kogyo ni okeru yukisei haikibutsu no saishigenka gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of applicability/viability of the technology to recycle as resource the organic waste and CO2 discharged from the chemical industry, etc., and the FY 1999 results were summarized. As to the production of hydrogen from the organic waste, a bioreactor was developed which enables the production of hydrogen of 58 mmol/L/hr using Enterobactor aerogenes by the isolation bacteria method, and it successfully enabled the production of hydrogen from biomass resource. Further, the micro-flora method can be responded to a variety of substrates, but in this method the hydrogen production rate is not as high as in the isolation bacteria method at the present time. Concerning the method to convert CO2 to useful organic resource by the hydrogen produced, an experimental value of the maximum production rate of 149g/L/d which is high was obtained in case of acetic acid. Moreover, the paper described an outline and the basic concept of the recycle system of energy and carbon resource which integrates the production of energy from organic waste being considered at the present time and the production of useful matters from CO2. (NEDO)

  14. Survey report for fiscal 1997 on the survey report on the actual state of technical cooperation on industrial technologies by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiiki ni okeru Obei shokoku no sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru gijutsu kyoryoku jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The actual state was surveyed on the technical cooperation by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region. The U.S.A. is making research cooperation with Thailand on ethylene molecule structures to enhance productivity in rubber production, France on molecule markers for high production rubber clone selection, and Australia on grain storing and drying methods. For the Philippines, America is giving assistance on management of reproducible resources, France on climate information communications systems for local areas, Australia on grain storing and drying methods, and Germany on waste oil recovery and reutilization, and development of pollution-free energy resources. For Malaysia, the Great Britain is cooperating on building engineering research centers, Australia on search for plant patheology genetic organics available in the Pacific region, and Germany on investigative researches on pollution prevention for tin mines and processing areas, and forestry and plant information systems. With respect to the ASEAN, this paper reports its activities placing importance on biology and electronics engineering, while the organization is taking actions in the areas of foodstuffs, animals, electronics, information and material science, energy exploration, marine and earth physics, and resource development. (NEDO)

  15. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote the joint implementation. Potential survey of the greenhouse effect gas reduction by high-efficient utilization of the oil residue in Bataan Refinery in the Philippines; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Philippines koku Bataan seiyusho ni okeru sekiyu zansa kokoritsu riyo ni yoru onshitsu koka gas sakugen kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the CO2 emitted from electricity/vapor supply facilities of Bataan Refinery in the Philippines, study was conducted of optimum energy supply facilities considering the effective use of the oil residue and future reinforcement of the refinery. Concerning the high-pressure/high-temperature condensing extraction boiler/turbine cogeneration, gas turbine cogeneration and low speed diesel engine cogeneration, comparative study was carried out in terms of thermal efficiency, reliability/preservation, environmental acceptability, effectiveness of measures for the future excessive oil residue, etc. As a result, the study was concluded as follows: the electric power consumption will markedly increase in the future; however, in the light of the situation of the refinery where the vapor demand will not increase, it is the most suitable to use low speed diesel engine cogeneration facilities as on-site power generation facilities which can burn the excessively increasing oil residue as direct fuel. The CO2 reduction effect estimated from the project on the present scale was 132,880 t-CO2/y, and the energy conservation effect estimated was 50,861 toe/y. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1999 report on the results of the investigation of feasibility of joint implementation promotion through plant-related technology transfer to Central/Eastern European countries; 1999 nendo Chu Too nado chiiki ni okeru plant yushutsugata gijutsu iten wo tsujita kyodo jisshi nado suishin kanosei ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility of joint implementation promotion through plant-related technology transfer is investigated for 15 Central and Eastern European countries. Emissions of the greenhouse effect gases can be relatively easily abated in these countries by improving energy utilization efficiency, because they have more advanced infrastructures than developing countries, and are behind the developed countries in modernization of the facilities. Therefore, European and North American countries have been positively promoting the AIJ programs in these countries, and there are fierce competitions for promising projects. It will be necessary for Japan to provide public loans, e.g., environmental yen loans, to promote the plant-related JI/CDM projects in these countries. Many of these countries have not drawn plans for reducing emissions of the greenhouse effect gases, and expect establishment of the international cooperation systems for exchanging information related to global warming problems, and introducing the Japanese technologies and policies. (NEDO)

  17. Local Energies and Energy Fluctuations — Applied to the High Entropy Alloy CrFeCoNi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tetsuya; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori; Ogura, Masako; Zeller, Rudolf; Dederichs, Peter H.

    2017-11-01

    High entropy alloys show a variety of fascinating properties like high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. They are random solid solutions of many components with rather high concentrations. We perform ab-initio calculations for the high entropy alloy CrFeCoNi, which equal concentration of 25% for each element. By the KKRnano program package, which is based on an order-N screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method, we consider a face-centered cubic (FCC) supercell with 1372 randomly distributed elements, and in addition also smaller supercells with 500 and 256 atoms. It is found from our calculations that the local moments of the Cr atoms show a large environmental variation, ranging from -1.70 μB to +1.01 μB with an average of about -0.51 μB. We present a new method to calculate "local energies" of all atoms. This is based on the partitioning of the whole space into Voronoi cells and allows to calculate the energetic contribution of each atomic cell to the total energy of the supercell. The supercell calculations show very large variations of the local energies, analogous to the variations of the local moments. This shows that the random solid solution is not stable and has a tendency to form an L12-structure with the Cr-atoms ordered at the corner of the cube and the elements Fe, Co, and Ni randomly distributed on the three other FCC sublattices. For this structure the variation of the local moments are much smaller.

  18. Project report for fiscal 1998 on the research cooperation promotion project/research cooperation related to practical use of a thermal efficiency enhancing system for use in thermal power plants; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo / karyoku hatsudensho ni okeru netsu koritsu kojo system no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Thermal efficiency enhancing system technology for existing thermal power plants is studied jointly with Indonesia to achieve energy conservation and power generation cost reduction and serve for suppressing CO2 emission. Site investigations were carried out for the study on enhancing thermal efficiency in component devices, including improvements in a device to rinse small pipes in condensers and in materials used in air preheaters, as well as for heat management and efficient operation of the plants. Indonesian engineers were received to develop device designing and thermal efficiency controlling programs, and for technical guidance. Site seminars were held to proliferate the achievements. Under the trend of increasing electric power demand, Indonesia is apt to place first priority on stabilized operation of power plants, with the efforts of thermal efficiency management staying behind partly due to fossil fuel price being low. The present project has made it possible to utilize hereafter the result of the rough design on improving the thermal efficiency in existing thermal power plants as has been done under the present project. Receiving the researchers and holding the site seminars also helped transfer the technologies on the thermal efficiency improving processes, and device maintenance and management methods. The project has also contributed to the consciousness reformation. (NEDO)

  19. Statistical analysis of thermal efficiency in industrial furnaces in Japan and determination of CO2 reduction amount realized by improving the efficiency; Nippon no kogyoro ni okeru netsukoritsu no tokeiteki kaiseki to sono kaizen ni yoru CO2 sakugenryo no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabayashi, T.; Matsuhashi, T.; Ishitani, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanabe, K. [The Energy Conservation Center Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, R. [The Japan Industrial Furnace Manufacturers Association, Tokyo (Japan); Takashima, T.

    1997-01-30

    Analyses and evaluations were given on heating furnaces and heat treatment furnaces used in the Japanese steel and iron industry to calculate amounts of energy and CO2 that could be reduced by introducing a new furnace. The analyses have derived factors affecting thermal efficiency of the heating furnaces by using regression analysis. Discussions were given on a high-temperature air combustion system and a stored heat combustion system as new furnace technologies. As a result, it was disclosed that the current fuel consumption could be reduced to about 40% to 80% only by performing air pre-heating ideally and suppressing heat loss from furnace walls. This concept is sufficiently payable in terms of economy. It was also revealed that fuel consumption could be reduced to about 12% to 36% and CO2 discharge could be reduced in proportion with reduction in the fuel consumption, if ideal preheating can be carried out on materials to be heated. Furthermore, a result was obtained that the present thermal efficiency of 26.86% in nonferrous industries such as for copper and aluminum could be increased up to 53.37%. 10 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effects of stacking fault energy on the creep behaviors of Ni-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Chenggang; Han, Guoming; Cui, Chuanyong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The decrease of SFE could promote the dislocation dissociation. • The creep mechanisms were significantly affected by the SFE of the alloys. • The creep properties of the alloys improved with the decrease of SFE by facilitating the microtwinning process. - Abstract: Cobalt in a 23 wt.% Co containing Ni-base superalloys was systematically substituted by Ni in order to study the effects of stacking fault energy (SFE) on the creep mechanisms. The deformation microstructures of the alloys during different creep stages at 725 °C and 630 MPa were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the creep life increased as the SFE decreased corresponding to the increase of Co content in the alloys. At primary creep stage, the dislocation was difficult to dissociate independent of SFE. In contrast, at secondary and tertiary creep stages the dislocations dissociated at γ/γ′ interface and the partial dislocation started to shear γ′ precipitates, leaving isolated faults (IFs) in high SFE alloy, while the dislocations dissociated in the matrix and the partials swept out the matrix and γ′ precipitates creating extended stacking faults (ESFs) or deformation microtwins which were involved in diffusion-mediated reordering in low SFE alloy. It is suggested that the deformation microtwinning process should be favorable with the decrease of SFE, which could enhance the creep resistance and improve the creep properties of the alloys

  1. Research for a database of alternative energy technologies; Miriyo energy ni kansuru data shu sakusei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper collects and arranges data on the unused energy in terms of examples of the introduction in Japan and other countries, policies, laws and rules, subsidy systems, etc. In the overview of the system, described was typical heat supply systems utilizing unused energy. As to concrete examples of the introduction in Japan, the examples were arranged by unused energy source, by temperature level, and by region, and a detailed data book of the typical introduction examples was made. As to examples overseas, data were arranged on the introduction mainly in Europe and the U.S. With relation to policies, laws and rules, and subsidy systems in Japan and overseas, investigated were policies, laws and rules, and subsidy systems concerning unused energy mostly in Japan, Europe and the U.S. As to the production quantity, the actual amount of introduction, and the predicted amount of introduction, survey on the effect and arrangement of the data were conducted in terms of typical two heat supply facilities utilizing unused energy. The paper adds information pertaining to the cost, main related companies and groups, the distribution cost, etc.

  2. Anisotropic microstructure and superelasticity of additive manufactured NiTi alloy bulk builds using laser directed energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimber, Beth A. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamilton, Reginald F., E-mail: rfh13@psu.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Keist, Jayme; Palmer, Todd A. [Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16804 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The microstructure and superelasticity in additive manufactured NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. Using elementally blended Ni and Ti powder feedstock, Ni-rich build coupons were fabricated via the laser-based directed energy deposition (LDED) technique. The build volumes were large enough to extract tensile and compressive test specimens from selected locations for spatially resolving microconstituents and the underlying stress-induced martensitic phase transformation (SIMT) morphology. In the as-deposited condition, X-ray diffraction identified the B2 atomic crystal structure of the austenitic parent phase in NiTi SMAs, and Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitates were the predominant microconstituent identified through scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure exhibited anisotropy, which was characterized by the Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitate morphology being coarsest nearest the substrate, while a finer morphology was observed farthest from the substrate. In-situ full-field deformation measurements calculated using digital image correlation confirmed that the SIMT predominately occurred in the finer precipitate morphology. Heat treatment reduced the degree of anisotropy, and DIC analysis revealed localized SIMT strains increased compared to the as-deposited condition.

  3. Effect of the milling energy on the production and thermal stability of amorphous Mg50Ni50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, D.; Ordonez, S.; Serafini, D.; Rojas, P.; Bustos, O.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of milling energy on the amorphisation process and subsequent thermal crystallization of Mg 50 Ni 50 was investigated. The amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 was produced using a planetary mill (medium energy) with a ball to material weight ratio of 13:1, and a SPEX mill (high energy) with a ball to material weight ratio of 20:1. The results obtained by means of X-ray diffraction showed that it is possible to obtain an amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 alloy, through both milling processes, starting of Ni powders and Mg turnings. However, the amorphisation process requires more time in the planetary mill (80-90 h) than in the SPEX mill (15-20 h), due to the difference in energy level and milling mechanism between these mills. The phase evolution during the amorphisation process is practically independent of the mill energy. In this way, it was observed that the mill conditions promoted an extensive refinement of the microstructure during the first hours of milling. The defects produced during this time led to the amorphisation of part of the system. This amorphous precursor suffers a mechanically induced crystallization into Mg 2 Ni, which is subsequently destabilized into amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 . Based on the results obtained, it is proposed that the formation of amorphous precursor during mechanical milling of Mg and Ni is a characteristic of the Mg-Ni system, over a wide composition range, rather than of a particular composition. In relation to the thermal crystallization of the amorphous produced, the results of the differential thermal analysis applied to the amorphous samples showed that the formation enthalpy for both amorphous is the same, however, the amorphous produced in a planetary mill presented higher crystallization temperatures and apparent activation energies than the amorphous produced in a SPEX mill. The last behavior would be related with iron contamination coming from the erosion of the milling media. Finally, it is possible to conclude, that under the

  4. Multishelled NiO Hollow Microspheres for High-performance Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Energy Density and Robust Cycle Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xinhong; Zheng, Wenji; Li, Xiangcun; He, Gaohong

    2016-09-01

    Multishelled NiO hollow microspheres for high-performance supercapacitors have been prepared and the formation mechanism has been investigated. By using resin microspheres to absorb Ni2+ and subsequent proper calcinations, the shell numbers, shell spacing and exterior shell structure were facilely controlled via varying synthetic parameters. Particularly, the exterior shell structure that accurately associated with the ion transfer is finely controlled by forming a single shell or closed exterior double-shells. Among multishelled NiO hollow microspheres, the triple-shelled NiO with an outer single-shelled microspheres show a remarkable capacity of 1280 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, and still keep a high value of 704 F g-1 even at 20 A g-1. The outstanding performances are attributed to its fast ion/electron transfer, high specific surface area and large shell space. The specific capacitance gradually increases to 108% of its initial value after 2500 cycles, demonstrating its high stability. Importantly, the 3S-NiO-HMS//RGO@Fe3O4 asymmetric supercapacitor shows an ultrahigh energy density of 51.0 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 800 W kg-1, and 78.8% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles. Furthermore, multishelled NiO can be transferred into multishelled Ni microspheres with high-efficient H2 generation rate of 598.5 mL H2 min-1 g-1Ni for catalytic hydrolysis of NH3BH3 (AB).

  5. Energy difference and energy of mixing for crystalline structures of Ni-Ti-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorentsev, L.F.; Demidenko, V.S.

    1995-01-01

    Using the locator variant of the coherent potential method combined with the canonical d band approximation, we have obtained the energy characteristics of molybdenum-containing titanium nickelide alloys for real and virtual high-symmetry crystalline phases. We have analyzed the reasons implied by the calculation results for the difference in the properties of molybdenum- and iron-containing alloys

  6. Study of street-blockades caused by a large earthquake; Daishinsaiji ni okeru doro heisoku ni knsuru kenkyu (Hanshin Awaji daishinsai ni okeru jittai bunseki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Asami, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-30

    The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake caused great damage to roads. Not only on highways, but even in regional communities, a considerable number of streets became unusable because of falls of buildings, etc. to roads and occurrence of bumps. It provided obstacles in refuge and rescue activities. In building cities preparing for earthquake in future, it is important to re-evaluate how to make the road network including narrow streets. Therefore, paying attention to the physical distance of the roads in earthquake and the number of the points which people cannot reach, clarified was the relation between those phenomena and the characteristics of towns/roads which the region has. As an example of Higashinada-ward, Kobe-city, this report analyzed the data on the actual state from the aspects written below which become especially important in actions taken immediately after earthquake, and described the information/knowledge obtained therefrom: (1) difference in arrival distance between usually and in earthquake in case of walking from residence place to refuge place; (2) state of occurrence of the points where people cannot reach in going to hospitals by ambulance. (NEDO)

  7. Detection of vehicle crossing path at intersection; Mitoshi no yoi kosaten ni okeru deaigashira jiko ni tsuite (Ibarakiken ni okeru jiko tahatsu zone no tokucho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K; Uchida, N; Katayama, T [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An investigation was excuted to understand the actual state of accidents happened at intersections where there were no constructive obstacles in field of view. First, the aspects of fatal accidents are described under the basis of the data published by the police of Ibaraki prefecture. Then it is shown that there are at least 336 intersections where the accidents happened in the last two years. It is also clarified that many dangerous zones were located in line along rivers. The authors stress that it is urgent to inform the existence of dangerous zones to prevent the accidents. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  8. CO2 photoreduction using NiO/InTaO4 in optical-fiber reactor for renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zhen-Yi; Chou, Hung-Chi; Wu, Jeffrey C.S.; Tsai, Din Ping; Mul, Guido

    2010-01-01

    The photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into fuels provides a direct route to produce renewable energy from sunlight. NiO loaded InTaO4 photocatalyst was prepared by a sol–gel method. Aqueous-phase CO2 photoreduction was performed in a quartz reactor to search for the highest photoactivity in a series

  9. Measurements of local chemistry and structure in Ni(O)-YSZ composites during reduction using energy-filtered environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Quentin; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images are acquired during the reduction of a NiO-YSZ composite in H-2 up to 600 degrees C. Temperature-resolved quantitative information about both chemistry and structure is extracted with nm spatial resolution from the data, paving the way...

  10. Survey of energy load leveling system in Europe; Energy fuka heijunka taisaku ni kansuru Europe chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Setsunan University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-05-05

    This paper describes the survey of energy load leveling systems in Europe. In Denmark, especially regional heating is remarkably diffused, and they have 350 plants. With extending the service areas, the energy load leveling has been promoted. For the cogeneration plants of SK Power, the largest electric power company, they have hot water heat storage tanks for regional heat supply with a total capacity 2,200 MWh. The regional heating system in Goeteborg City of Sweden supplies 80% of the total heat demand of the city. Unused energy sources derived from petroleum refining, sewage treatment, and garbage burning are utilized. In Uppsala, they have seasonal heat storage systems using solar heat. The Vienna Regional Heat Supply Corporation supplies heat equivalent to 5,000 GWh a year. Cogeneration plants and garbage burning plants are used as heat sources, and 25% of the total heating in the city is supplied. In Austria, they have an electric power demand with a peak in winter, and they have a pumped-storage power station in Kaprun for the annual load leveling using dump power in summer. This paper also introduces a compressed air storage gas turbine plant at Huntorf of Germany, and a large-scale underground natural gas storage of Gaz de France. 6 figs.

  11. Gravitational observation in central Hokkaido; Hokkaido chuobu ni okeru juryoku sokutei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Y; Makino, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    To compile a base map of gravity in Hokkaido, gravity was measured in central Hokkaido where gravity data are absent. Gravity anomaly was made clear in this region. Survey area was 87 km in the east-west and 224 km in the north-south. A topographic map with a scale of 25,000:1 was initially used for determining location and altitude of gravity measuring points. Since the GPS survey was found to be very useful for gravitational observation in the region of Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake in 1995, the GPS has been used in this survey from 1996. Based on new measurements at 2,148 points in addition to existing points, Bouguer anomaly map was made, and density distribution of surface layer of the crust was estimated. As a result, the gravity anomaly pattern in the north-south direction and gravity anomaly in basins and volcanoes were made clear. Quantitative analysis is to be conducted using these gravity data. Using these gravity data, the density distribution of surface layer of the crust was estimated. This distribution agreed well with the geological map in this region. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Study on the time-domain electromagnetic responses; TDEM ho ni okeru denji oto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, K; Endo, M [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With an objective to perform three-dimensional analysis with high accuracy in using the electromagnetic exploration method, characteristics in electromagnetic response were analyzed, and conditions for acquiring necessary data were discussed. The discussion defined a parameter called `response anomaly` which uses response from media to standardize response only from substances with abnormal resistivity. The receivers were located uniformly on the same plane, and the response anomaly was derived from electromagnetic response from each of the three horizontal and vertical components at each receiving point, which was expressed as a contour map. The parameter for the abnormal body was consisted of location and resistivity contrast with media. Discussions using the contour map were given on the response when these factors for the parameter were varied. As a result, it was found that the response anomaly appears in the form that reflects the abnormal body, and the response anomaly of the horizontal component is superior in terms of being large. It was also referred that, as a requirement for the abnormal body which gives larger impact from the electromagnetic response, the abnormal body should have lower resistivity than that in the media, and resistivity contrast with the media should be greater. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nunez-Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs and Energy Reserves (ERs in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas.

  14. Quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectra to determine electronic and optical properties of Fe–Ni alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Oh, Sukh Kun; Kang, Hee Jae; Tougaard, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). • The energy loss functions (ELF) are dominated by a plasmon peak at 23.6 eV for Fe and moves gradually to lower energies in Fe-Ni alloys towards the bulk plasmon energy of Ni at 20.5 eV. • Fe has a strong effect on the dielectric and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films even for an alloy with 72% Ni. Electronic and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). - Abstract: Electronic and optical properties of Fe–Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) by ion beam sputter deposition were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). The analysis was carried out by using the QUASES-XS-REELS and QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS softwares to determine the energy loss function (ELF) and the dielectric functions and optical properties by analyzing the experimental spectra. For Ni, the ELF shows peaks around 3.6, 7.5, 11.7, 20.5, 27.5, 67 and 78 eV. The peak positions of the ELF for Fe_2_8Ni_7_2 are similar to those of Fe_5_1Ni_4_9, even though there is a small peak shift from 18.5 eV for Fe_5_1Ni_4_9 to 18.7 eV for Fe_2_8Ni_7_2. A plot of n, k, ε_1, and ε_2 shows that the QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS software for analysis of REELS spectra is useful for the study of optical properties of transition metal alloys. For Fe–Ni alloy with high Ni concentration (Fe_2_8Ni_7_2), ε_1, and ε_2 have strong similarities with those of Fe. This indicates that the presence of Fe in the Fe–Ni alloy thin films has a strong effect.

  15. Energy transmission using microwaves and its possibility. Maikuroha ni yoru energy yuso to sono kanosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Shinohara, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    Transmitting of electric energy in the form of electromagnetic waves is a century-old idea, which has reached its final step of realization at last. This paper describes a review and future prospects on electric power transmitting technologies using microwaves (a wavelength of 12 cm is thought as the most promising candidate). Electric power was transmitted successfully to a flying helicopter in the U.S.A. in 1964. Transmission of 30-kW power was performed in 1975 to a power receiving rectenna (an antenna with microwave receiving rectification circuit) placed 1.6 tm away using a parabola as a transmitting antenna. These studies were carried over to the investigative studies on space power stations (SPS). This is a conception to install a static satellite equipped with a huge solar cell array in the sky of about 36,000 km high to generate power, convert the power to microwaves, and transmit the power of ten million kilowatt class to the ground. A number of results of advanced experiments have been obtained in Japan using rockets or aircraft. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Re-evaluation of {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni resonance parameters in the neutron energy range thermal to 800 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H.; Leal, L.C.; Guber, K.H.; Wiarda, D.; Arbanas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The previous {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni set of resonance parameters (Endf/B7.O, Jeff-3, etc.) was based on the SAMMY analysis of Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutron transmission, scattering cross section and capture cross section measurements by C.M. Perey et al. The present results were obtained by adding to the SAMMY experimental database the capture cross sections measured recently at the Oak Ridge Linear Electron Accelerator by Guber et al. and the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator and very high-resolution neutron transmission measurements performed by Brusegan et al. A complete resonance parameter covariance matrix (RPCM) was obtained from the SAMMY analysis of the experimental database. The data sets were made consistent, when needed, by adjusting the neutron energy scales, the normalization coefficients, and the background corrections. The RPCM allows the calculation of the cross section uncertainties due mainly to statistical errors in the experimental data. The systematic uncertainties of the experimental data, estimated from the preliminary analyses of the experimental database, were taken into account in the cross section covariance matrix (CSCM) for total, scattering, and capture cross sections. The diagonal elements of the CSCM were obtained by quadratic combination of the different components of the uncertainties. Because of a lack of experimental information, the energy correlations were not obtained, and a value of 0.5 was arbitrarily taken for all the CSCM nondiagonal elements. The average capture cross-sections are significantly smaller than those calculated form Endf/B7.0

  17. Hydrothermal growth of hierarchical Ni3S2 and Co3S4 on a reduced graphene oxide hydrogel@Ni foam: a high-energy-density aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasis; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2015-01-21

    Ni foam@reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hydrogel-Ni3S2 and Ni foam@rGO hydrogel-Co3S4 composites have been successfully synthesized with the aid of a two-step hydrothermal protocol, where the rGO hydrogel is sandwiched between the metal sulfide and Ni foam substrate. Sonochemical deposition of exfoliated rGO on Ni foam with subsequent hydrothermal treatment results in the formation of a rGO-hydrogel-coated Ni foam. Then second-time hydrothermal treatment of the dried Ni@rGO substrate with corresponding metal nitrate and sodium sulfide results in individual uniform growth of porous Ni3S2 nanorods and a Co3S4 self-assembled nanosheet on a Ni@rGO substrate. Both Ni@rGO-Ni3S2 and Ni@rGO-Co3S4 have been electrochemically characterized in a 6 M KOH electrolyte, exhibiting high specific capacitance values of 987.8 and 1369 F/g, respectively, at 1.5 A/g accompanied by the respective outstanding cycle stability of 97.9% and 96.6% at 12 A/g over 3000 charge-discharge cycles. An advanced aqueous asymmetric (AAS) supercapacitor has been fabricated by exploiting the as-prepared Ni@rGO-Co3S4 as a positive electrode and Ni@rGO-Ni3S2 as a negative electrode. The as-fabricated AAS has shown promising energy densities of 55.16 and 24.84 Wh/kg at high power densities of 975 and 13000 W/kg, respectively, along with an excellent cycle stability of 96.2% specific capacitance retention over 3000 charge-discharge cycles at 12 A/g. The enhanced specific capacitance, stupendous cycle stability, elevated energy density, and a power density as an AAS of these electrode materials indicate that it could be a potential candidate in the field of supercapacitors.

  18. Comparison of comprehensive properties of Ni-MH (nickel-metal hydride) and Li-ion (lithium-ion) batteries in terms of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jianqiang; Yan, Fuwu; Zhang, Pei; Du, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we successfully proposed a method to compare the comprehensive properties of different battery systems in terms of a parameter, energy efficiency. The quantitative relationship of OCV (open circuit voltage) and SOC (state of charge) for Ni-MH batteries is firstly established to calculate the energy efficiency. Then a comprehensive comparison of the energy efficiency for Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries is systemically analyzed under different operating conditions. The results suggest that the energy efficiency is larger for Li-ion batteries than for Ni-MH batteries under charge and charge–discharge cycles, but lesser under a large current rate discharge. The outcome indicates that Ni-MH batteries are more favorable in the case of large current rates discharge than Li-ion batteries. Under plus current rates, two factors, SOC and current rates are analyzed with respect to energy efficiency. For both the batteries, the energy efficiency is varied slightly with SOC, but declines greatly with increased current rates. - Highlights: • A method to compare the comprehensive property for different battery systems. • The relationship of OCV and SOC for Ni-MH batteries established. • An analysis of energy efficiency for Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries. • Ni-MH batteries are more favorable under large current rates discharge

  19. Preparation of 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders by high-energy ball milling and hot pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinzeck de Alcantara Abdala, Julia, E-mail: juabdala@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Bacci Fernandes, Bruno, E-mail: brunobacci@yahoo.com.b [Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Santos, Dalcy Roberto dos, E-mail: dalcy@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Centro Tecnologico Aeroespacial, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Rodrigues Henriques, Vinicius Andre, E-mail: vinicius@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Centro Tecnologico Aeroespacial, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Moura Neto, Carlos de, E-mail: mneto@ita.b [Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Saraiva Ramos, Alfeu, E-mail: alfeu@univap.b [Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2010-04-16

    This study reports on the preparation of the 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr (at.%) alloy by high-energy ball milling and hot pressing. The elemental powder mixture was processed in silicon nitride and hardened steel vials, and samples were collected after different milling times. To recover the previous powders in addition wet milling isopropyl alcohol (for 20 min) was adopted. The mechanically alloyed powders were hot-pressed under vacuum at 900 {sup o}C for 1 h using pressure levels close to 200 MPa. The milled powders were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectrometry techniques. It was noted that the ductile starting powders were continuously cold-welded during ball milling. This fact was more pronounced during the processing of 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders in hardened steel vial. After milling for 5 h, the results suggested that amorphous and nanocrystalline structures were achieved. The complete consolidation was found after hot pressing of mechanically alloyed 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders, and a large amount of the B2-NiTi phase was formed mainly after processing in stainless steel balls and vial.

  20. Investigation into introduction and promotion of clean energy cars; Clean energy jidosha no donyu sokushin ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Gazing the introduction target for fiscal 2000 and 2010, the paper arranged comprehensively and systematically the trend in Japan and overseas of clean energy cars and described subjects. Themes of the study to be promoted in terms of electric cars are: Li secondary batteries, heightening of performance of batteries such as Ni-hydrogen, power generation/power storage hybridization to make the long-distance travel possible. For the price reduction, the body is so made as to make it possible to select three kinds of power unit, that is, gasoline, hybrid, and electricity. Low noise and easy operation are also important. As to natural gas vehicles, the price is more than three times as high as that of gasoline vehicles, and relaxation of the related regulations on metal tanks, the Road Traffic Act, etc. is necessary. It is indispensable to establish quantity production and technical standards and reduce cost by the remodeling for bi-fueling with gasoline engines, development of FRP tanks, etc. Methanol vehicles are the closest to gasoline vehicles, but the introduction is delayed having no groups for generalization. Solar and hydrogen cars are promising, but are on a stage of developing the basic technology. 43 figs., 104 tabs.

  1. FY 2000 report on the survey project on the environmentally friendly energy community, excluding mostly projects on electric power generation. Survey project on the environmentally friendly energy community in the Nagoya area; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo 'shutoshite hatsuden jigyo ni kakawaru mono wo nozoku' chosa hokokusho. Nagoya chiiki ni okeru kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper studied the working-out of the basic plan on the RPF (refuse paper and plastic fuel) production business in the area mainly including Nagoya city and of the business profitability. RPF is a solid fuel made by grinding, mixing and pressurizing paper and plastics in appropriate sizes. Its shape and calorific value can be adjusted according to the needs. In the Nagoya area, the demand for RPF is more than the supply, and therefore a much larger amount of RPF is in need. In Phase 1, business was studied for paper and plastics in the container packing paper waste and business-derived general waste. As a result, the RPF production amount was 21,000 t/y, which is equivalent to the effect of reduction of the same amount of coal. As to the profitability, it was made clear that the business can be profitable if collecting 41,400 yen/ton as the re-commercialization cost. In Phase 2, the design of the facilities was made for the larger-sized commercialization by adding industrial waste plastics to the waste in Phase 1. (NEDO)

  2. Low-energy elastic-scattering of alpha particles from [sup 34]S, [sup 50]Cr and [sup 62]Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredbacka, AA. (Department of Physics, AAbo Akademi, 20500 AAbo (Finland)); Brenner, M. (Department of Physics, AAbo Akademi, 20500 AAbo (Finland)); Kaellman, K.-M. (Department of Physics, AAbo Akademi, 20500 AAbo (Finland)); Manngaard, P. (Department of Physics, AAbo Akademi, 20500 AAbo (Finland)); Mate, Z. (Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen Pf. 51 (Hungary)); Szilagyi, S. (Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen Pf. 51 (Hungary)); Zolnai, L. (Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen Pf. 51 (Hungary))

    1994-07-11

    Angular distributions of elastically scattered alpha particles were measured for the [sup 34]S, [sup 50]Cr and [sup 62]Ni target nuclei in the energy range 12.8-20.0 MeV. The experimental data were analysed using the phenomenological optical model with the Saxon-Woods form factor; in the case of [sup 34]S the squared Saxon-Woods form factor was also applied. Phenomena such as the anomalous energy dependence of the potential near the Coulomb barrier, the discrete ambiguity problem, the low-mass and low-energy limit of applicability of the optical model are discussed using the real volume integral values obtained. ((orig.))

  3. System approach on solar hydrogen generation and the gas utilization; Taiyo energy ni yoru suiso no seisei oyobi sono riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Hirooka, N; Deguchi, Y; Narita, D [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    An apparatus is developed to establish a system which allows utilization of hydrogen safely and easily, and its applicability to a hydrogen system for domestic purposes is tested. The system converts solar energy by the photovoltaic cell unit into power, which is used to generate hydrogen by electrolysis of water at the hydrogen generator, stores hydrogen in a metal hydride , and sends stored hydrogen to the burner and fuel cell units. It is found that a hydrogen occluding alloy of LaNi4.8Al0.2 stores hydrogen to approximately 80% when cooled to 20 to 25degC, and releases it to 10% when heated to 40degC. The fuel cell uses a solid polymer as the electrolyte. The hydrogen gas burner is a catalytic combustion burner with a Pt catalyst carried by expanded Ni-Al alloy. The optimum distance between the burner and object to be heated is 22mm. High safety and fabrication simplicity are confirmed for use for domestic purposes. The system characteristics will be further investigated. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Microstructure and morphology of powder particles TiC-NiCr, synthesized in plasma jet, at high-energy actions on components of initial composition Ti-C-NiCr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonenko, Oleg P.; Smirnov, Andrey V.; Chesnokov, Anton E.

    2017-10-01

    The results of experiments on in-situ synthesis of the microspherical, in particular hollow, cermet powder TiC- 30vol.%NiCr at processing of the Ti-C-NiCr agglomerates in argon-helium plasma jet flowing out into controlled atmosphere are presented. Preparation of the agglomerates consisted of the following stages: (i) high-energy treatment of the initial powders Ti and NiCr in planetary mill with their subsequent uniform mixing with glass black powder, (ii) preparation of dough from mechanically mixed powders and binder, and their granulation using the extrusion method, (iii) drying and classification of granules by the sizes.

  5. Facile in situ synthesis of hierarchical porous Ni/Ni(OH)₂ hybrid sponges with excellent electrochemical energy-storage performances for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanren; Wang, Wenhua; Wang, Mengjiao; Guo, Xiaohui

    2014-09-01

    Herein, we report the in situ growth of single-crystalline Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on a Ni support by using facile hydrothermal processes. The as-prepared Ni/Ni(OH)2 sponges were well-characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The results revealed that the nickel-skeleton-supported Ni(OH)2 rope-like aggregates were composed of numerous intercrossed single-crystal Ni(OH)2 flake-like units. The Ni/Ni(OH)2 hybrid sponges served as electrodes and displayed ultrahigh specific capacitance (SC=3247 F g(-1)) and excellent rate-capability performance, likely owing to fast electron and ion transport, sufficient Faradic redox reaction, and robust structural integrity of the Ni/Ni(OH)2 hybrid electrode. These results support the promising application of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes as advanced pseudocapacitor materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Tidal energy conversion. Renewable energy; 3-3 choseki / choryu hatsuden. II. saisei kano energy ni yoru hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, T. [Tobishima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    There are not much examples applying tidal energy conversion, but tide and tidal current phenomena can be forecasted so correctly regardless of weather that the applying tidal energy is to be expected in the future. The largest tidal power plant is at Reims in France and install 24 Kaplan turbines each of which outlet power is 10,000kW (rotational direction is reversible) on the breakwater (750m is length). Tidal range at this place being 8.5m on an average, during the period of flowing seawater into the reservoir and on the contrary during the period of discharging seawater to the sea generation is both performed. Though there is no actual result of tidal power plant in Japan, in tidal current power system experimental generators have been installed at Kurushima channel and Naruto channel. Nihon University carried out various kinds of experiment using a Darius turbine (1.6m in dia.) at Kurushima channel and got outlet power of 3kW at the maximum (1983-`88). There are few coasts which have sufficient tide range in Japan, but there are so good many applicable coasts in China and Southeast Asia that the tidal power generation is to be expectatively. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Effect of P impurity on mechanical properties of NiAl Σ5 grain boundary: From perspectives of stress and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Lan; Zhao, Ruo-Xi; Deng, Jiang-Ge; Hu, Yan-Min; Song, Qing-Gong

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we employ the first-principle total energy method to investigate the effect of P impurity on mechanical properties of NiAl grain boundary (GB). According to “energy”, the segregation of P atom in NiAlΣ5 GB reduces the cleavage energy and embrittlement potential, demonstrating that P impurity embrittles NiAlΣ5 GB. The first-principle computational tensile test is conducted to determine the theoretical tensile strength of NiAlΣ5 GB. It is demonstrated that the maximum ideal tensile strength of NiAlΣ5 GB with P atom segregation is 144.5 GPa, which is lower than that of the pure NiAlΣ5 GB (164.7 GPa). It is indicated that the segregation of P weakens the theoretical strength of NiAlΣ5 GB. The analysis of atomic configuration shows that the GB fracture is caused by the interfacial bond breaking. Moreover, P is identified to weaken the interactions between Al–Al bonds and enhance Ni–Ni bonds. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404396 and 51201181) and the Subject Construction Fund of Civil Aviation University of China (Grant No. 000032041102).

  8. Tailoring the morphology followed by the electrochemical performance of NiMn-LDH nanosheet arrays through controlled Co-doping for high-energy and power asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Shinde, Nanasaheb M; Xia, Qi Xun; Gopi, Chandu V V M; Yun, Je Moon; Mane, Rajaram S; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2017-10-14

    Herein, we tailor the surface morphology of nickel-manganese-layered double hydroxide (NiMn-LDH) nanostructures on 3D nickel-foam via a step-wise cobalt (Co)-doping hydrothermal chemical process. At the 10% optimum level of Co-doping, we noticed a thriving tuned morphological pattern of NiMn-LDH nanostructures (NiCoMn-LDH (10%)) in terms of the porosity of the nanosheet (NS) arrays which not only improves the rate capability as well as cycling stability, but also demonstrates nearly two-fold specific capacitance enhancement compared to Co-free and other NiCoMn-LDH electrodes with a half-cell configuration in 3 M KOH, suggesting that Co-doping is indispensable for improving the electrochemical performance of NiMn-LDH electrodes. Moreover, when this high performing NiCoMn-LDH (10%) electrode is employed as a cathode material to fabricate an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as an anode material, excellent energy storage performance (57.4 Wh kg -1 at 749.9 W kg -1 ) and cycling stability (89.4% capacitive retention even after 2500 cycles) are corroborated. Additionally, we present a demonstration of illuminating a light emitting diode for 600 s with the NiCoMn-LDH (10%)//rGO ASC device, evidencing the potential of the NiCoMn-LDH (10%) electrode in fabricating energy storage devices.

  9. Development of a tungsten heavy alloy, W-Ni-Mn, used as kinetic energy penetrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahraee, S. M.; Salehi, M. T.; Arabi, H.; Tamizifar, M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a tungsten heavy alloy having a microstructure and properties good enough to penetrate hard rolled steels as deep as possible. In addition this alloy should not have environmental problems as depleted uranium materials, For this purpose a wide spread literature survey was performed and on the base of information obtained in this survey, three compositions of tungsten heavy alloy were chosen for investigation in this research. The alloys namely 90 W-7 Ni-3 Fe, 90 W-9 Ni-Mn and 90 W-8 Ni-2 Mn were selected and after producing these alloys through powder metallurgy technique, their thermal conductivity, compression flow properties and microstructure, were studied. The results of these investigations indicated that W-Ni-Mn alloys had better flow properties and lower thermal conductivities relative to W-Ni-Fe alloy. In addition Mn helped to obtain a finer microstructure in tungsten heavy alloy. Worth mentioning that a finer microstructure as well as lower thermal conductivity in this type of alloys increased the penetration depth due to formation of adiabatic shear bands during impact

  10. Investigation on innovation of technology development by means of strategic energy intelligence; Energy senryakurontekina approach ni yoru gijutsu kaihatsu no kakushin ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the future innovative energy technology, the paper described a strategic point of view. Effects of the energy issue are remarkable on the next generation and thereafter as seen in the finite of energy resource, global-scale environmental changes, the increasing energy demand, natural/social influences of large-scale technology development. If the technological development is going on in the same way as until now, there will appear limits. Relating to the strategies, to seek what energy should be among the strategies, it is necessary to consider not only global-scale problems but particular conditions in Japan (self-sufficiency, international cooperation, creativity, etc.) Also, wisdom and technique are necessary to attain it. Technological development in a wide sense plays a major role in the energy strategy. Technology innovation must be advanced according to the energy strategy. Integrating ideology into the development of energy technology and selecting therefrom developmental subjects which meet the purpose, required is the construction of the energy system with high flexibility and functionality. Looking at the conventional way of thinking from a different angle and posing a future pull plan, Japan should show leadership to the world. 20 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles dispersed in silica prepared by high-energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E. M.; Montero, M. I.; Cebollada, F.; de Julián, C.; Vicent, J. L.; González, J. M.

    1998-04-01

    We analyze the magnetic properties of mechanically ground nanosized Ni particles dispersed in a SiO2 matrix. Our magnetic characterization of the as-milled samples show the occurrence of two blocking processes and that of non-monotonic milling time evolutions of the magnetic-order temperature, the high-field magnetization and the saturation coercivity. The measured coercivities exhibit giant values and a uniaxial-type temperature dependence. Thermal treatment carried out in the as-prepared samples result in a remarkable coercivity reduction and in an increase of the high-field magnetization. We conclude, on the basis of the consideration of a core (pure Ni) and shell (Ni-Si inhomogeneous alloy) particle structure, that the magnetoelastic anisotropy plays the dominant role in determining the magnetic properties of our particles.

  12. Subsidy project in fiscal 1999 to accelerate forming an environment harmonizing energy community. Report on the survey on energy supply investigation project by using a wastes electric power generation system in wide city and village area in the Joso area; Joso chiho koiki shichosonken ni okeru haikibutsu hatsuden ni yoru energy kyokyu chosa jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Discussions were given on the feasibility of a project to be performed jointly by the Business Bureau of the Ibaraki Prefectural Government who takes charge of the wastes electric power generation project, and the Joso Area Wide City and Village Area Affair Association who performs refuse disposal project. The basic plan for the system may be summarized as follows: the gasification melting furnace shall have a capacity of 420 tons per day, discharge concentrations of dioxins shall be 0.01 ng-TEQ/m{sup 3} or less, the power generation system shall be the steam high-temperature high-pressure system, the power generation efficiency shall be 25%, and the electric power generation takes priority, with the steam after power generation use utilized for heat supply. The evaluation on the effect of introducing the project can be summarized as follows: in the social aspect, the execution of the joint project is safe and effective for the residents and society; it contributes to activation of the areas and assistance to the regional activities; correspondence will be possible to the tighter enforcement of the laws and regulations in the future; in the environmental aspect, discharge of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and dioxins can be suppressed; and in the economic aspect, the ultimate disposal quantity in refuse treatment will be reduced greatly, serving for saving the treatment expense, and the refuse treatment cost may be reduced by assuring the earning from selling the electric power. (NEDO)

  13. Design and fabrication of highly open nickel cobalt sulfide nanosheets on Ni foam for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and long cycle-life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Daosong; Fu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Nickel cobalt sulfides (NiCo-S) are promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors but normally show poor rate capability and unsatisfactory long-term endurance. To overcome these disadvantages, a properly constructed electrode architecture with abundant electron transport channels, excellent electronic conductivity and robust structural stability is required. Herein, considering that in situ transformation can mostly retain the specific structural advantages of the precursors, a two-step strategy is purposefully developed to construct a binder-free electrode composed of interconnected NiCo-S nanosheets on Ni foam (NiCo-S/NF), in which NiCo-S/NF is synthesized via the in situ sulfuration of networked acetate anion-intercalated nickel cobalt layered double hydroxide nanosheets loaded on Ni foam (A-NiCo-LDH/NF). Noticeably, the optimized Ni1Co1-S/NF exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2553.9 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, excellent rate capability (1898.1 F g-1 at 50 A g-1) and superior cycling stability (nearly 90% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles). Furthermore, the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor based on Ni1Co1-S/NF demonstrates a high energy density of 58.1 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 796 W kg-1 and impressive long-term durability even after a repeated charge/discharge process as long as 70,000 cycles (∼92% capacitance retention). The attractive properties endow the Ni1Co1-S/NF electrode with significant potential for high-performance energy storage devices.

  14. Energy dependence of the zero-range DWBA normalization of the /sup 58/Ni(/sup 3/He,. cap alpha. )/sup 57/Ni reaction. [15 to 205 GeV, finite-range and nonlocality corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, J R; Zimmerman, W R; Kraushaar, J J [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1977-01-04

    Strong transitions in the /sup 58/Ni(/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)/sup 57/Ni reaction were analyzed using both the zero-range and exact finite-range DWBA. Data considered covered a range of bombarding energies from 15 to 205 MeV. The zero-range DWBA described all data well when finite-range and non-locality corrections were included in the local energy approximation. Comparison of zero-range and exact finite-range calculations showed the local energy approximation correction to be very accurate over the entire energy region. Empirically determined D/sub 0/ values showed no energy dependence. A theoretical D/sub 0/ value calculated using an ..cap alpha.. wave function which reproduced the measured ..cap alpha.. rms charge radius and the elastic electron scattering form factor agreed well the empirical values. Comparison was made between these values and D/sub 0/ values quoted previously in the literature.

  15. NiO nanoparticles supported on graphene 3D network current collector for high-performance electrochemical energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingjun; Song, Xuefen; Dai, Shuge; Xu, Weina; Yang, Qi; Liu, Jianlin; Hu, Chenguo; Wei, Dapeng

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the faradaic oxidation and reduction reactions mainly taking place on surface, enlarging the specific surface of redox materials is one of the most effective ways to achieve excellent electrochemical performance. Here we report a binder-free three dimensional (3D) architecture electrode consisting of a graphene 3D network (G3DN) structure growing on flexible carbon paper (CP) by chemical vapor deposition and NiO nanoparticles growing on the G3DN by in-situ thermal decomposition for high rate battery and high-performance electrochemical capacitors. Such a nanostructure provides a large specific surface and fast electronic transmission channels. The unique structure design for this electrode enables outstanding performance, showing high specific capacity of 89.1 mAh cm −2 (119.2 mAh/g) at current density of 0.5 mA cm −2 (0.67 A/g) with the NiO loading of 0.7471 mg cm −2 . Meanwhile the electrode displays excellent rate capability and cycling stability, which keeps 85.48% of initial capacity after 3000 deep-discharge cycles. Furthermore, a solid-state symmetric electrochemical capacitor based on two NiO/G3DN/CP electrodes with an area of 4 cm 2 each is fabricated, and two pieces of them in series can light up 100 green LEDs for 2 min. The architecture of G3DN loaded with NiO might be generally applied to different kinds of nanomaterials for high-rate energy storage to improve their overall electrochemical performance.

  16. Advanced asymmetric supercapacitors based on Ni(OH){sub 2}/graphene and porous graphene electrodes with high energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jun; Fan, Zhuangjun; Sun, Wei; Wei, Tong [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Ning, Guoqing [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Rufan; Wei, Fei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction, Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhi, Linjie [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao 11, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-06-20

    Hierarchical flowerlike nickel hydroxide decorated on graphene sheets has been prepared by a facile and cost-effective microwave-assisted method. In order to achieve high energy and power densities, a high-voltage asymmetric supercapacitor is successfully fabricated using Ni(OH){sub 2}/graphene and porous graphene as the positive and negative electrodes, respectively. Because of their unique structure, both of these materials exhibit excellent electrochemical performances. The optimized asymmetric supercapacitor could be cycled reversibly in the high-voltage region of 0-1.6 V and displays intriguing performances with a maximum specific capacitance of 218.4 F g{sup -1} and high energy density of 77.8 Wh kg{sup -1}. Furthermore, the Ni(OH){sub 2}/graphene//porous graphene supercapacitor device exhibits an excellent long cycle life along with 94.3% specific capacitance retained after 3000 cycles. These fascinating performances can be attributed to the high capacitance and the positive synergistic effects of the two electrodes. The impressive results presented here may pave the way for promising applications in high energy density storage systems. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Energy relaxation between low lying tunnel split spin-states of the single molecule magnet Ni4

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loubens, G.; Chaves-O'Flynn, G. D.; Kent, A. D.; Ramsey, C.; Del Barco, E.; Beedle, C.; Hendrickson, D. N.

    2007-03-01

    We have developed integrated magnetic sensors to study quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in single molecule magnet (SMMs) single crystals. These sensors incorporate a microstrip resonator (30 GHz) and a micro-Hall effect magnetometer. They have been used to investigate the relaxation rates between the 2 lowest lying tunnel split spin-states of the SMM Ni4 (S=4). EPR spectroscopy at 30 GHz and 0.4 K and concurrent magnetization measurements of several Ni4 single crystals are presented. EPR enables measurement of the energy splitting between the 2 lowest lying superposition states as a function of the longitudinal and transverse fields. The energy relaxation rate is determined in two ways. First, in cw microwave experiments the change in spin-population together with the microwave absorption directly gives the relaxation time from energy conservation in steady-state. Second, direct time-resolved measurements of the magnetization with pulsed microwave radiation have been performed. The relaxation time is found to vary by several orders of magnitude in different crystals, from a few seconds down to smaller than 100 μs. We discuss this and the form of the relaxation found for different crystals and pulse conditions.

  18. Correlation Among the Variant Group, Effective Grain Size, and Elastic Strain Energy During the Phase Transformation in 9Ni Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Moriguchi, Koji; Tomio, Yusaku; Yamagishi, Hideki; Morito, Shigekazu

    2017-12-01

    The effect of carbon content on the density of variant-pair boundaries was investigated in 9Ni steel using an electron backscatter diffraction patterns method. The changes in the density of variant-pair boundaries were correlated with the nondestructive measured values of shear modulus of the austenite phase at the phase transformation point. Furthermore, the effective grain size was correlated with the shear modulus and the density of variant-pair boundaries. These relations are discussed from the viewpoint of self-accommodation of elastic strain energy and the nucleation event in the bainite and martensitic transformations.

  19. Gibbs free-energy difference between the glass and crystalline phases of a Ni-Zr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Holzer, J. C.; Johnson, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    The heats of eutectic melting and devitrification, and the specific heats of the crystalline, glass, and liquid phases have been measured for a Ni24Zr76 alloy. The data are used to calculate the Gibbs free-energy difference, Delta G(AC), between the real glass and the crystal on an assumption that the liquid-glass transition is second order. The result shows that Delta G(AC) continuously increases as the temperature decreases in contrast to the ideal glass case where Delta G(AC) is assumed to be independent of temperature.

  20. Reaction-mechanism evolution for the system 20Ne + 60Ni at intermediate energies: from massive transfer to fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreozzi, F.; Brondi, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; LaRana, G.; Moro, R.; Perillo, E.; Romano, M.; Terrasi, F.; Dayras, R.; Dumont, H.; Gadi, F.; Gomez del Campo, J.

    1993-01-01

    Mass and charge distributions for heavy residues in the reaction 20 Ne + 60 Ni at 50 MeV/nucleon were measured by in-beam and off-line γ-ray spectrometry. The stacked foil method was used to obtain information about the distribution of the velocity component parallel to the beam direction for target-like residues. The comparison of the data to the predictions of a participant-spectator model indicates that an 8% width for the dissipated energy distribution accounts for the observed projected ranges. (orig.)

  1. FY 1998 evaluation/analysis by site of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities. 4/4; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kaku site betsu. 4/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The data items are horizontal insolation intensity, inclined insolation intensity, effective inclined insolation intensity (each unit: kWh/m{sup 2}), average temperature, array power energy, system power energy, system consumption power, load power energy, system supply load, and back flow power energy (each unit: kWh). Besides, the number of interconnected protective movement, disconnection hour (minute), system operating hour (minute), independent operating load, independent supply load (each unit: kWh), equivalent array operating hour, equivalent system operating hour, array/system output coefficient, system utilization rate/power generation rate, INV effective efficiency, and INV load factor. The objects of field tests are government office (joint office building, etc.), school (college, high school, elementary school, etc.), the Shinkansen Kyoto Station, health/welfare facilities (health facilities for the elderly, welfare center, etc.), hospital, industrial experimental station, training facilities (exhibition training facilities, etc.), broadcasting facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1999 Evaluation and analysis of the data collected by the field test project for photovoltaic power generation in public facilities. By site (1/3); 1999 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki. 1/3. Kaku site betsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Described herein are the results of evaluation and analysis of the data (management nos.701 to 814) collected by the field test project for photovoltaic power generation in a total of 45 facilities, mainly public. Each system is operated for 30 to 31 days every month. A total of 23 items of the data described below are recorded every day, and totaled up, averaged and evaluated for effectiveness at the end of the month: solar radiation on a horizontal, sloped and effective sloped plane, average air temperature, array electric energy, system electric energy, system power consumption, load electric energy, load for supplying power to a network, electric energy of reversed flow, linkage protection actions, linkage parallel off time, system operation time, self-sustaining load, load of voluntary supply, equivalent array operation, equivalent system operation, array output coefficient, system output coefficient, system utilization, system power generation efficiency, INV effective efficiency, and INV load factor. (NEDO)

  3. Surface chemistry and catalytic activity of Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} irradiated with high-energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jin [Department of Optometry and Optic Science, Dongshin University, 252 Daeho-Dong, Naju 520-714 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jinjun@dsu.ac.kr; Dhayal, Marshal [Liquid Crystal and Self Assembled Monolayer Section, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. KS Krisnan Marg, New Delhi 120011 (India); Shin, Joong-Hyeok [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dongshin University, 252 Daeho-Dong, Naju 520-714 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Getoff, Nikola [Department of Nutrition, Section Radiation Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-05-30

    The radiation effects induced effects by electron beam (EB) treatment on the catalytic activity of Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were studied for the carbon dioxide reforming of methane with different EB energy and absorbed radiation dose. Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the change in structure and surface states of Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst before and after the EB treatment. Higher energy EB treatment is useful for increasing the proportion of the active sites (such as Ni{sup 0} and NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}-phase) on the surface. The increase of Ni/Al-ratio indicates that the Ni dispersion on the surface increased with the EB-treatment, resulting in an increase of the active sites, which leads to improving the catalytic activity. XPS measurement also showed a decrease of the surface carbon with EB dose. The maximum 20% increase in the conversion of CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}-mixture into CO/H{sub 2} gas was observed for the catalyst treated with 2 MeV energy and 600 kGy dose of EB relative to untreated.

  4. Phase and magnetic studies of the high-energy alloyed Ni-Fe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Buršík, Jiří; Turek, Ilja; Hapla, Miroslav; Titov, A.; Životský, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 594, May (2014), s. 133-140 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1350 Grant - others:VŠB(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0074 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Ni-Fe * mechanical alloying * magnetic properties * microstructure * particle interactions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.999, year: 2014

  5. Elastic scattering of polarized deuterons from 40Ca and 58Ni at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, N. van; Arvieux, J.; Yanlin, Y.; Gaillard, G.; Bonin, B.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Lugol, J.C.; Babinet, R.; Hasegawa, T.; Soga, F.; Cameron, J.M.; Neilson, G.C.; Sheppard, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Angular distributions of cross section, and Asub(y) and Asub(yy) analyzing powers were measured for polarized deuteron elastic scattering from 58 Ni at 200, 400 and 700 MeV, and 40 Ca at 700 MeV. Phenomenological potentials were obtained from an optical model analysis of the data. The total reaction cross sections deduced were compared to predictions from the Glauber theory optical limit. (orig.)

  6. FY 1997 evaluation/analysis by site of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities. 3/3; Kokyo shisetsunadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kaku site betsu (1997 nendo). 3/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The data were collected on field tests of the photovoltaic power generation. The items of measurement are horizontal insolation intensity, inclined insolation intensity, effective inclined insolation intensity, average temperature, array electric energy, system electric energy, load electric energy, system supply load, back flow electric energy, interconnected protective movement, disconnection hour, system operating hour, independent operation load, independent supply load, equivalent array operation, equivalent system operation, array output coefficient, system output coefficient, system utilization rate, system power generation efficiency, INV effective efficiency, INV load factor, etc. The number of places for measurement is 27 including the following: Environmental Science Research Institute, Utatsu-cho Municipal Office, Ginga-gakuin Junior High School, New Energy Business Coop, Nisshin Techno Center, Shikoku Medicom Co., Miyosawa Kinoko-en, Takasaki City Welfare Vocational School, Madama Junior High School, Hitoo Junior High School, Koshien-gakuin Junior/Senior High School, Sansei Technical Research Development Center, Mitsui Greenland, DHI Mach head office/plant, Nabeya Ueno Water Purification Plant, Hoo Senior High School, National Agricultural Resource Research Center, etc. (NEDO)

  7. Ab initio study of the compound-energy modeling of multisublattice structures: The (hP6) Ni{sub 2}In-type intermetallics of the Ni–In–Sn system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos de Debiaggi, S., E-mail: susana.ramos@fain.uncoma.edu.ar [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos, Biotecnología y Energías Alternativas – CONICET-UNCo (Argentina); González Lemus, N.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Deluque Toro, C. [Grupo de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad de la Guajira, Riohacha (Colombia); Fernández Guillermet, A. [CONICET - Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Avda. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A DFT study of the compounds involved in CALPHAD modeling of the Ni–In–Sn (hP6) phase. • Several three-sublattice compounds of Ni, In, Sn and vacancies are studied ab initio. • Structural, cohesive and thermodynamic properties and the electronic DOS are reported. • Trends in calculated properties are correlated with changes in electronic structure. • A picture of the chemical bonding trends for these s-p/d type compounds is discussed. - Abstract: The thermodynamic modeling of non-stoichiometric, multisublattice intermetallic phases using the Compound-Energy Formalism (CEF) involves the determination of parameters representing the Gibbs energy (G{sub m}) of binary compounds, the so-called “end-member compounds” (EMCs), which are often metastable or hypothetical. In current CALPHAD (i.e., “Calculation of Phase Diagrams”) work, these quantities are treated as free parameters to be determined by searching for the best fit to the available information in the optimization procedure. The general purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical approach to the study of the EMCs which makes use of density-functional-theory (DFT) ab initio calculations. The present method is applied to the EMCs involved in the CEF modeling of the non-stoichiometric (hP6) Ni{sub 2}In-structure type phase of the Ni–In and Ni–In–Sn systems using the three-sublattice models (Ni){sub 1}(Ni,Va){sub 1}(In,Ni){sub 1} and (Ni,Va){sub 1}(Ni,Va){sub 1}(In,Ni,Sn){sub 1}, respectively. By means of systematic ab initio projected augmented waves (PAW) calculations using the VASP code we study the EMCs involved in the CEF formulations of the G{sub m} for this phase in the binary and the ternary systems. Specifically, we study the twelve EMCs corresponding to the following sublattice occupations: (Ni){sub 1}(Ni){sub 1}(In){sub 1}, which is usually described as Ni:Ni:In (i.e., a compound with formula “Ni{sub 2}In”), Ni:Ni:Ni (i.e., “Ni{sub 3}”), Ni:Ni:Sn (“Ni

  8. Ab initio study of the compound-energy modeling of multisublattice structures: The (hP6) Ni2In-type intermetallics of the Ni–In–Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos de Debiaggi, S.; González Lemus, N.V.; Deluque Toro, C.; Fernández Guillermet, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A DFT study of the compounds involved in CALPHAD modeling of the Ni–In–Sn (hP6) phase. • Several three-sublattice compounds of Ni, In, Sn and vacancies are studied ab initio. • Structural, cohesive and thermodynamic properties and the electronic DOS are reported. • Trends in calculated properties are correlated with changes in electronic structure. • A picture of the chemical bonding trends for these s-p/d type compounds is discussed. - Abstract: The thermodynamic modeling of non-stoichiometric, multisublattice intermetallic phases using the Compound-Energy Formalism (CEF) involves the determination of parameters representing the Gibbs energy (G m ) of binary compounds, the so-called “end-member compounds” (EMCs), which are often metastable or hypothetical. In current CALPHAD (i.e., “Calculation of Phase Diagrams”) work, these quantities are treated as free parameters to be determined by searching for the best fit to the available information in the optimization procedure. The general purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical approach to the study of the EMCs which makes use of density-functional-theory (DFT) ab initio calculations. The present method is applied to the EMCs involved in the CEF modeling of the non-stoichiometric (hP6) Ni 2 In-structure type phase of the Ni–In and Ni–In–Sn systems using the three-sublattice models (Ni) 1 (Ni,Va) 1 (In,Ni) 1 and (Ni,Va) 1 (Ni,Va) 1 (In,Ni,Sn) 1 , respectively. By means of systematic ab initio projected augmented waves (PAW) calculations using the VASP code we study the EMCs involved in the CEF formulations of the G m for this phase in the binary and the ternary systems. Specifically, we study the twelve EMCs corresponding to the following sublattice occupations: (Ni) 1 (Ni) 1 (In) 1 , which is usually described as Ni:Ni:In (i.e., a compound with formula “Ni 2 In”), Ni:Ni:Ni (i.e., “Ni 3 ”), Ni:Ni:Sn (“Ni 2 Sn”), Ni:Va:In (i.e., “NiIn”), Ni:Va:Ni (i

  9. FY 1997 evaluation/analysis by site of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities. 1/3; Kokyo shisetsunadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kaku site betsu (1997 nendo). 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The data on field tests of the photovoltaic power generation were collected. The items for survey were as follows: horizontal insolation intensity, inclined insolation intensity, effective inclined insolation intensity, average temperature, array electric energy, system electric energy, load electric energy, system supply load, back flow electric energy, interconnected protective movement, disconnection hour, system operation hour, independent operation load, independent supply load, equivalent array operation, equivalent system operation, array output coefficient, system output coefficient, system utilization rate, system charging efficiency, INV effective efficiency, INV load factor, etc. The number of the places for survey is 37 including the following: Hikarigaoka Park of Sakata City, Koiwai Plant of Koiwai Dairy Product Co., Kameoka Ayumi Nursely School, Ichinoseki I-DOME, Okano Park, Kuriyama Park Health Sports Center, Mejiro University, Tokyo Hikarigaoka Sports Facilities, Regional Community Center, Yokohama Tobu Joint Purchase Center, Taemi-so Nursing Care Center for the Elderly, Uemichi School Meal Providing Center, Okayama Prefectural Office, Oita Prefectural Agricultural Research Center, Kanagawa Industrial Technology Research Center Institute, etc. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1998 survey report on the potential study of cooperation related to the activity implementation joint in the Southeast Asian region (4 countries); 1998 nendo Tonan Asia chiikikoku (4 kakoku) ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren no kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A potential study was made of cooperation related to the activity implementation joint (COP3 relation) in Southeast Asia. Thailand took up effectiveness and fuel substitution as the most important strategy for greenhouse effect gas (GHG) reduction in the energy field, and set up technology development, demand-side management, fuel substitution, reusable energy, recycling, etc. as choices. In the non-energy field, rationalization of the land use and forest protection are the important subjects. Manpower training is also indispensable. In Indonesia, the use of non-fossil fuel is No. 1 target. Other targets are the reduction in methane and N2O (emitted by nitrogen fertilizer), that is, the modernization of rice growing and stock raising. The forest protection is also important. In the Philippines, the pillars are the introduction of reusable energy technology, heightening of power generation efficiency, strong promotion of demand-side management, and introduction of the quantity transportation system which is efficient and environmentally friendly. In Vietnam, the GHG emission/person is the lowest in the world. They are promoting the reduction in GHG emission and the absorption as an important part of the policy. (NEDO)

  11. New energy visions for the Town of Naie district. Human-friendly Town of Naie City by environment-friendly energies; Naiemachi chiiki shin energy vision. Kankyo ni yasashii energy ga tsukuru hito ni yasashii machi Naie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Naie, Sorachi-gun in Hokkaido, where the industrial sector (manufacturing industries) consumes more than 60% of the total energy consumption. By energy type, oil and others account for 80%. When arranged in the order of expected recoverable quantity, the new energies for the town include utilization of solar energy, photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, and utilization of wastes, biomass energy (agricultural products) and snow energy. The basic guidelines for introduction of new energies are for health and welfare, clearing and utilization of snow, environmental education and bringing up talented persons, supporting the related entrepreneurs, and integration of new energy with promotion of energy-saving movement. The priority projects the town plans to promote include utilization of biogas and temperature-differential energy for the town's water purification center; foundation of the Naie eco-school; and drawing conceptions for utilization of underground heat, utilization of low-temperature and snow/ice energy, co-energy around the spa of Naie, and mega-solar and eco-park at the Sorachi housing complex. (NEDO)

  12. New energy visions for the Town of Naie district. Human-friendly Town of Naie City by environment-friendly energies; Naiemachi chiiki shin energy vision. Kankyo ni yasashii energy ga tsukuru hito ni yasashii machi Naie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Naie, Sorachi-gun in Hokkaido, where the industrial sector (manufacturing industries) consumes more than 60% of the total energy consumption. By energy type, oil and others account for 80%. When arranged in the order of expected recoverable quantity, the new energies for the town include utilization of solar energy, photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, and utilization of wastes, biomass energy (agricultural products) and snow energy. The basic guidelines for introduction of new energies are for health and welfare, clearing and utilization of snow, environmental education and bringing up talented persons, supporting the related entrepreneurs, and integration of new energy with promotion of energy-saving movement. The priority projects the town plans to promote include utilization of biogas and temperature-differential energy for the town's water purification center; foundation of the Naie eco-school; and drawing conceptions for utilization of underground heat, utilization of low-temperature and snow/ice energy, co-energy around the spa of Naie, and mega-solar and eco-park at the Sorachi housing complex. (NEDO)

  13. 1D Ni-Co oxide and sulfide nanoarray/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructures for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and excellent cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Cui, Guanwei; Shi, Xifeng; Wong, C P; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hong

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of supercapacitor electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability is still a great challenge. A carbon aerogel, possessing a hierarchical porous structure, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, is an ideal backbone to support transition metal oxides and bring hope to prepare electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability. Therefore, NiCo 2 S 4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials were synthesized by assembling Ni-Co precursor needle arrays on the surface of the channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan in this study. The 1D nanostructures grow on the channel surface of the carbon aerogel vertically and tightly, contributing to the enhanced electrochemical performance with ultrahigh energy density. The energy density of NiCo 2 S 4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid asymmetric supercapacitors can reach up to 55.3 Wh kg -1 and 47.5 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 400 W kg -1 , respectively. These asymmetric devices also displayed excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of about 96.6% and 92% over 5000 cycles.

  14. FY 2000 Study report. Feasibility study on model project for effective utilization of sensible heat of off gas from hot stoves at blast furnaces in India; 2000 nendo Indo ni okeru koro netsufuro hai gas kennetsu yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a model project in India for the energy saving effect and reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions by introducing blast furnace hot stove waste heat recovery systems in steelworks. The blast furnaces studied are Blast Furnace G at Jamshedpur Steelworks of TISCO, the largest private steel maker in India, and No.7 Blast Furnace at Bhilai Steelworks of state-operated Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL). The study results indicate that the annual energy-saving effects of 8,255 and 8,190 tons as heavy oil, and annual CO2 emission reduction of 25,543 and 25,342 tons are expected in the TISCO and SAIL blast furnaces, respectively, in the case of increasing blast temperature and reducing blast furnace fuel coke (increased iron production possible). The model project is applicable to both blast furnaces. There are a total of 46 blast furnaces in India in which the heat recovery systems can be introduced. The nation-wide annual energy saving and CO2 abatement would reach 126,202 tons as heavy oil and 390,501 tons, when all of these blast furnaces could be provided with the heat recovery systems. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The paper surveyed the present situation and future trend of economy, energy supply/demand, coal production/distribution/utilization and the environmental effects in Thailand. The survey on the coal utilization and its environmental effects was partially requested of the environmental research institute in Thailand. The amount of coal utilization in Thailand rapidly increased to nearly four times as large as that ten years ago mainly in terms of domestic lignite under the government`s policy on expansion of the domestic energy use. However, most of this domestic lignite is low-grade coal with low calories and high sulfur content, and the use of it was rapidly increased mostly in power generation sector without no adequate environmental measures taken. This caused an environmental problem on air pollution due to sulfur oxides at Mae Moh power plant in the north several years ago, and the damages to the regional residents, etc. were given much publicity by journalism and developed the social problem. Accordingly, Thai people are now critical of the coal resource exploration and the coal use expansion. Under the circumstances, the Ministry of Industry and the energy related ministries/offices are obliged to review their development/promotion plans. 84 figs., 99 tabs.

  16. FY 1999 report on the potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; 1999 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowa gata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Firipin ni okeru kankyo chowa gata system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to working out a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines, analysis was made of the state of coal use/the state of spread by industry mostly including the electric power industry, cement industry and residential/commercial use fuel sector. In the Philippines, the amount of coal use has rapidly been increasing since coal-fired power plants started operation. For the promotion of the use of domestic coals, it is important to reform low grade coal. Moreover, the technology is required which copes with the reinforced regulation against SOx emissions. In the cement industry, coal and coal ash have not yet been effectively used. Therefore, the following measures should be taken to increase the competitive force: energy conservation measures, reinforcement of environmental measures such as dust prevention, and effective use of the fly ash emitted from power plants. In general households and small-/medium-sized industries such as tobacco drying, they still use a large amount of charcoals and firewood, which is approximately 86% of the residential/commercial use energy. There is a growing tendency for the development/spread of coal briquette as substituting energy. (NEDO)

  17. Two-step hydrothermal synthesis of NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods on nickel foam for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Lin, Jianming; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Miaoliang; Fan, Leqing; Chen, Hongwei; He, Xin; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Zedong

    2018-03-01

    It is still a huge challenge to obtain a high-energy-density asymmetric supercapacitors and develop an active electrode material with excellent electrochemical characteristics. Although NiCo2S4 has been considered as one of the promising positive electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors, the electrochemical performance of the NiCo2S4-based positive electrodes is still relatively low and cannot meet the demand in the devices. Herein, NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods with a large capacitance are synthesized via a simple two-step hydrothermal treatment. A high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor operating at 1.6 V is successfully assembled using the NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode in 3 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, which demonstrates a fairly high energy density of 49.6 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 123 W kg-1, an excellent capacitance of 0.91 F cm-2 (139.42 F g-1) at current density of 1 mA cm-2 as well as a remarkable cycling stability due to the high physical strength, the large specific surface area, and the good conductivity for NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods and the brilliant synergistic effect for NiCo2S4 and Co9S8 electrode materials. The as-prepared NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods open up a new platform as positive electrode material for high-energy-density asymmetric supercapacitors in energy-storage.

  18. Defect production in natural diamond irradiated with high energy Ni ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varichenko, V.S.; Martinovich, V.A.; Penina, N.M.; Zajtsev, A.M.; Stel'makh, V.F.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Fahrner, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Defect production in diamond irradiated by 335 MeV Ni ions within a dose range of 5 · 10 12 - 5 · 10 14 cm -2 has been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method. The irradiation leads to the appearance in diamond lattice of quasi-one-dimensional track like structures with non tetrahedral atomic configurations. Possible mechanism of microwave conductivity in the modified structures is discussed. Peculiarities of depth distribution profile of concentration of paramagnetic centres in modified structures are explained by track channeling and by stopped ions because of their elastic collisions with lattice atoms during ion stopping. (author). 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Atomic mixing of metallic bilayers Ni/Ti irradiated with high energy heavy ions; Etude du melange ionique de bicouches metalliques Ni/Ti irradiees avec des ions lourds de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguay, R

    1994-09-26

    We have studied the ionic mixing of Nl(105 angstrom) bilayers irradiated, at 80 and 300 K. with GeV heavy ions. In this energy range, the energy transfer from the incident ions to the target occurs mainly through electronic excitations. We have shown that this energy transfer induces a strong ionic mixing at the Nl/Ti interface. The thickness of the mixed interlayer increases with the fluence. At low fluences (10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}), the Nl/Ti interface is rough ; at higher fluences (10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a homogeneous mixed interlayer appears ; and at even higher fluences (some 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a preferential diffusion of Ni into Ti is clearly seen. The characterization techniques used are: (1) electrical resistivity measurements which allow to follow in situ the damage kinetic. (II) neutron and X-ray reflectometry. (III) elaboration of transverse cuts on which was performed energy loss spectroscopy. (II) and (III) allow the determination of the concentration profiles of the different species present in the sample. (IV) transmission electron microscopy on the transverse cuts which gives a direct image of the different layers. (author). 11 refs., 103 figs., 23 tabs., 2 appends.

  20. Investigation on the chemically fixing technique of carbon dioxide utilizing solar energy; Taiyo energy riyo ni yoru nisanka tanso no kagakuteki koteika gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the results of effective fixing technique of CO2 by utilizing solar energy. First of all, the investigation was directed to the technique for synthesizing ethylene, hydrocarbons and alcohol by electrochemical reduction of CO2. The power required for this process is supplied by photovoltaic power generation. Development of excellent electrode catalyst is needed because the reduction of CO2 requires a high overvoltage. It is desirable to enhance the selectivity of the reaction for specific material and improve the transport process in the electrolytic cell. Next, designing of material and reaction of photocatalysts using semiconductor electrode and semiconductor particulate was examined. A semiconductor electrode made of FeS2 is inexpensive and has a high ability of collecting solar light. In the category of photocatalysis system, a photocatalytic system in which semiconductor particles are embedded in vesicle and a photpocatalyst based on potassium niobate are noteworthy. As biosystem, the method of reducing CO2 by calcareous algae which simultaneously advances fixing and calcification of CO2 by photosynthesis is noteworthy. 129 refs., 45 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  2. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Survey of the effective use of wastes at palm oil refineries; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Palm oil seisei kojo ni okeru haikibutsu yuko riyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As to empty fruit bunches (EFB) which are wasted at the Lahad Datu plant of Felda Vegetable Oil Products Co. in Malaysia, a project was studied for energy substitution and greenhouse effect gas reduction by fluidized bed cogeneration facilities using this as fuel. In the project, studied was the introduction of on-site cogenerator of 7,800kW in generating-end output, and that of IPP cogenerator of 16,000kW as reference. As a result of the study, the energy substitution amount in toe in 20 years was approximately 376 k tons in case of on-site power generation/fluidized bed boiler and approximately 695 k tons in case of IPP and fluidized bed boiler. The amount of greenhouse effect gas emission in toe in 20 years was approximately 5,757 k tons and 11,654 k tons, respectively. Concerning the profitability, the internal earning rate was 3.32-8.47% in case of on-site power generation/fluidized bed boiler and 9.13-14.65% in case of IPP/fluidized bed boiler. It indicated the materialization of the project. (NEDO)

  3. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Introduction of central load dispatching center in Oman; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Oman koku ni okeru chuo kyuden shireijo no donyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In Oman, electric power supply is made by operating a large number of gas turbine generators. However, the operation is inefficient as a whole as a result of operating the generators provided with large reserves to minimize effects of unit failures in each power plant as one unit. Therefore, the present investigative study has begun from discussing the achievement of energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gas emission by managing the demand and supply in an economical manner upon introducing a central load dispatching center (CLDC). Given the introduction of CLDC, the effects of introducing the equi-{lambda} method with still higher economy and of introducing the control system of reserve operation power may be summarized as follows: the energy saving effects (converted to crude oil quantity) are 22,400 toe/year for the former case and 35,800 toe/year for the latter case; and the greenhouse gas reduction effects are 52,000 t-CO2/year for the former case and 84,000 t-CO2/year for the latter case. This is an effective project with a considerable amount of effect as a result of introducing the equi-{lambda} and of introducing the control system of reserve operation power, while the investment amount is relatively small. The investment recovery period is 2.5 years and 2 years, respectively, making the project considerably promising as a CDM project. (NEDO)

  4. Project to support promotion of forming an environmentally friendly energy community. Survey report on 'a survey on introduction of an RDF electric power generation system utilizing general wastes in the Noto area'; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo. 'Noto chiiki ni okeru ippan haikibutsu riyo RDF hatsuden no donyu ni kansuru chosa' chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A business feasibility survey was performed on introduction of an RDF electric power generation system utilizing general wastes in the Noto area. Wastes quantity was estimated by accounting for large-sized wastes to be generated newly as a result of enforcement of the container package recycling law, and transfer of non-combustible wastes to incineration. The quantity was estimated to be 84,000 tons annually. Quantities of RDF and heat were calculated from this estimation to be 103 tons per day and 400 lkcal/kg respectively. According to the result of discussing the RDF transportation systems, time-based freight was found advantageous for short distance, and distance freight system for long distance in terms of cost. Discussions for RDF power systems were carried out on an RDF circulation fluid bed furnace plus ash melting furnace, a fluid bed gasification melting furnace, and shaft furnace type gasification melting furnace. In a comprehensive view, it is difficult to distinguish them in terms of merit and demerit. Molten slag was assumed to be re-utilized, but cost for the re-utilization should be considered. According to the result of discussing the business feasibility, it was found difficult to make it profitable by operating the RDF power generation business alone, and wastes incineration charge should be collected. (NEDO)

  5. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Clean coal technology model project seminar held in Thailand; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Tai ni okeru clean coal technology model jigyo seminar no kaisai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, the desulfurization seminar diffusing the demonstration project of simplified desulfurizer introduction was held at the site in Thailand. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants and contribute to the effective utilization of energy with coal utilization in Thailand. Invitation letters were sent to users of coal and heavy oil boilers through the Department of Factories, Ministry of Industry, Thailand, to call participation in the seminar. Inspection of the desulfurizer introduced in the factory of Thai Union Paper Public was included in the seminar for diffusing the project. The inspection site is in the demonstration project site of simplified desulfurizer introduction. There were a lot of participants from Thai users and from Japan. The seminar included the presentations from NEDO, JETRO, FTI, and MOSTE, introduction of general technology for processes of ENAA desulfurizer, introduction of demonstration unit plan by IHI, and introduction of operation of demonstration unit by TUP. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. New energy vision for Oita Prefecture. Toward the adoption of eco-energy; 2001 nendo Oita ken shin energy vision. Eco energy no donyu ni mukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For contributing to the preservation of the global environment, studies were made to work out a new energy introduction vision fully exploiting the characteristic features of Oita Prefecture. Oita Prefecture's demand for energy in 1998 is estimated to be 408.6 times 10{sup 15} J, with coal-based energy covering 204,016 TJ, oil-based energy 160,192 TJ, electric power 37,721 TJ, and so forth. The consumption will result in the emission of 35.77 million tons of carbon dioxide. According to Oita Prefecture's prospect of its eco-energy adoption in 2010, there will be 319 MW from hydroelectric power, 155 MW from geothermal power, 52 MW from photovoltaic power, 46 MW from clean energy vehicles, 33 MW from refuse-fueled power, and so forth. To prepare plans for facilities to utilize eco-energy and for regional development in the future through the use of such facilities, introduction costs were predicted and effects were simulated for model businesses engaged in biomass power generation using livestock wastes, small-scale hydroelectric power generation, bio-diesel fuel production, wind power generation, and woody biomass power generation. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1999 report on the survey of the history/inheritance of industrial technology. Survey of the inheritance/education of technology in museums of industrial technology in Japan; 1999 nendo sangyo gijutsu rekishi keisho chosa hokokusho. Kokunai sangyo gijutsu hakubutsukan ni okeru gijutsu keisho keihatsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of clarifying the course of promotion of the original/creative future R and D and contributing to selection of technical themes and working-out of developmental methods, survey was conducted paying visits to museums of industrial technology in Japan which evaluate/preserve/exhibit/utilize memorial goods, data, information pertaining to the industrial technology in Japan. Museums for survey were the following ten: Chiba Museum of Science and Industry; Garasu no Sato (Glass Village); Maizuru World Brick Museum; Museum of Industrial Technology; Numata Memorial Hall/Mitsutoyo Museum of Dimensional Metrology; Omachi Energy Museum; Sake Museum; Saint Juan Bautista Museum; Subway Museum; Textile Museum Yukari. One of the points of this survey was to survey the actual state of the experimental type exhibition. The experimental type exhibition, which is wide in sphere, seems to be effective since visitors can operate it, simulate it, feel its size and make scientific experiments. However, the museums are not necessarily satisfied with the present situation. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in India); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Indo ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was conducted of the present situation of coal utilization and the present coal situation such as the environmental state of India which is a coal producing/consuming country next to China in Asia. The paper studied a feasibility of the introduction of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system` to be planned in India. The items for survey are the present situation of economy and energy and the future trend, environmental problems on coal utilization, the present status of the coal distribution system and study subjects, the present status of coal utilization by field and study subjects, a possibility of briquette use, a possibility of coal fluidization, electric power development plans and coal combustion technology in each industry, etc. The subjects are the obligation of coal preparation to coal thermal power plants 1000 km away from coal mines starting 2001, measures taken for effective ash use, measures taken for superannuated gas furnaces, etc. Based on the results of these site surveys and reports of the investigation under consignment from CMPDI, the paper studied/analyzed possibilities of introducing the coal utilization system having actual introduction results in Japan to India, and made an investigational report. 39 refs., 12 figs., 56 tabs.

  9. FY 2000 report on the survey project on potentiality of the environmental harmony coal utilization system. Potential study of the circulating fluidized bed boiler model project in Vietnam; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa jigyo hokokusho. Vietnam ni okeru junkan ryudosho boiler model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In Vietnam, survey was conducted of the project in which the adoption of circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) makes energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction possible. CFB makes a marked decrease in SOx emission possible by using limestone as combustion bed material. As a result of the survey, the thermal power plant was not suitable for the model project due to its large size. However, it was found that two cement plants and one fiber plant having coal-fired boiler were suitable for survey. Nghi Son and Bim Son cement plants are typical cement plants in Vietnam. As a result of the hearing, they were eager to adopt CFB equipment. As to environmental improvement effects, in the thermal power plant with power source loads, emissions of SOx and NOx can be reduced by 79.0% and 72.5%, respectively. Further, in Nam Dinh Textile Company, emissions of SOx and NOx can be reduced by 79.8% and 84.6%, respectively, in case of converting boiler from the existing stoker boiler to CFB boiler. (NEDO)

  10. Achievement report in fiscal 1999 on commissioned research project. 'Model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes in Thailand' Project for 1999 Volume 3; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to reuse industrial wastes and effectively utilize them as a petroleum replacing energy resource, and attempt to reduce consumption of fossil fuel in Thailand where increase in discharge of industrial wastes is estimated, a model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes has been carried out. This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 1999. Specifically, the project calls for incineration in fluidized bed incinerators of industrial wastes discharged from factories in industrial complexes possessed by the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT), recovery of waste heat from waste heat recovering boilers to generate process steam, which is supplied to the factories in the complexes. The current fiscal year, which is the first current year of the project, has put into order the operations shared by Japan and Thailand, compiled the various procedures and schedules into the form of appendices to the agreement, and executed signing of the agreement. Thereafter, the Japanese side has carried out decision on the specifications of the facilities, the basic designs, the detailed designs of facilities to be arranged by Japan, and the fabrication of some of the devices according to the descriptions of the agreement appendices. The volume 3 summarizes the inspection reports other than those included in the Volume 2. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 2000 report of research on the analysis and evaluation on data collected in project of field test of photovoltaic power generation for public and other facilities; 2000 nendo kokyo shisetsunadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting photovoltaic power generation, analysis and evaluation were conducted on the data of the project of the field test in public facilities for example. This paper describes the fiscal 2000 results. The equivalent array operation time was 2.98 h/day and, by multiplying it by the output of the standard test condition, a generated output was obtained. The system generating efficiency was 0.102 while the inverter energy efficiency was 0.917 on the average. The average array performance ratio was 0.778 and the system performance ratio was 0.714. The analysis on cost effectiveness of the installed systems has an important bearing upon the future introduction, promotion and development. The power generating cost (the annual cost was calculated as the sum of the capital cost, the direct cost, and the administrative expenses) decreased as the installation year progressed, with the average at the sites installed in fiscal 1997 at 93 yen/kWh. The system cost (calculated by dividing the construction cost by the array capacity) also decreased as the installation year became more recent. The annual maintenance cost showed a wide range from 500 yen to 30,000 yen/kW. Answers from the sites that the systems were running smoothly were 38 to 45%, while those that trouble occurrence was frequent were 2.4% on the generating systems and 12.9% on the measuring systems. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1999 report on the results of the contract project 'The model project for facilities for effective utilization of industrial waste at the industrial complex in Thailand.' Separate Volume 4 - FY 1999 project; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the consumption of fossil fuel by recycling industrial waste for effective use as petroleum substituting energy in Thailand where the amount of industrial waste is expected to increase, a model project on facilities for effective use of industrial waste at the industrial complex was carried out, and the FY 1999 results were reported. Concretely, the industrial waste generated from each plant at the industrial complex owned by IEAT is to be incinerated in fluidized bed incinerator, and the process steam is to be generated by recovering waste heat by waste heat recovery boiler and to be supplied to plants within the complex. In this fiscal year, the first year of the project, the attachment to the agreement was prepared in terms of the allotment of the project work between Japan and Thailand, various kinds of gist, schedules, etc. and signed. After that, the following were conducted at the Japan side according to the attachment to the agreement: determination of the basic specifications for facilities, basic design, detailed design, manufacture of a part of the equipment, etc. Separate Volume 4 included the results of the inspection of the tank, pump, blower, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Achievement report in fiscal 1999 on commissioned research project. 'Model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes in Thailand' Project for 1999 Volume 1; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to reuse industrial wastes and effectively utilize them as a petroleum replacing energy resource, and attempt to reduce consumption of fossil fuel in Thailand where increase in discharge of industrial wastes is estimated, a model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes has been carried out. This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 1999. Specifically, the project calls for incineration in fluidized bed incinerators of industrial wastes discharged from factories in industrial complexes possessed by the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT), recovery of waste heat from waste heat recovering boilers to generate process steam, which is supplied to the factories in the complexes. The current fiscal year, which is the first current year of the project, has put into order the operations shared by Japan and Thailand, compiled the various procedures and schedules into the form of appendices to the agreement, and executed signing of the agreement. Thereafter, the Japanese side has carried out decision on the specifications of the facilities, the basic designs, the detailed designs of facilities to be arranged by Japan, and the fabrication of some of the devices according to the descriptions of the agreement appendices. The volume 1 summarizes the agreement appendices, and the specifications of the main devices. (NEDO)

  14. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems in sectors except the coal industry in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sekitan kogyo igai no bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of working out a comprehensive master plan for application of the coal utilization system, the paper surveyed and studied the coal utilization system in terms of environmental measures and efficiency improvement in the utilization of coal. As a result of the discussion with NEDO and the National Planning Committee of China, Liaoning Province (the whole China) and Shenyang City were selected as a model area and a model city for the survey and study. As energy conservation measures taken in the former, desirable are intensifying/capacity-increase of boilers, kilns, etc. and adoption of new-type/high-efficient equipment. Also expected are reinforcement of combustion control and improvement of efficiency by using coal preparation, industrial use coal briquette, etc. Measures taken in the latter are the same as those taken in the whole China. As SOx reduction measures for Liaoning Province, desirable is installation of dry-type desulfurization equipment and simple desulfurization equipment. As dust prevention measures for it, desirable is installation of electrostatic precipitators or high-functional bag filters. SOx reduction measures for Shenyang City are the same as those taken in the whole China. SOx can be reduced by using coal-prepared low-sulfur coal and industrial use coal briquette added with desulfurizing agent. 88 figs., 163 tabs.

  15. FY 2000 report on the plan to carry out a model project for recovery of waste heat from the cement sintering equipment in India and the survey of the feasibility; 2000 nendo Indo ni okeru cement shosei setsubi hainetsu kaishu model jigyo jisshi keikaku oyobi fukyu kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, survey was conducted on a project for recovering waste heat from the cement production process and using it for power generation in India. In India, the production amount of cement has steadily been increasing in and after the complete liberalization of the cement industry in 1989, and now the production amount is second in the world. Duties of approximately 25% are imposed on the import of the cement waste heat equipment, which is still a high-rate tariff. The India Cement Co., which is a candidate local company for this project, is a typical cement company in an excellent financial state in India. As to the economical efficiency of the project, economical effects are very good as seen in the internal earning rate of more than 30% and the period of ROI of less than 4 years, even if high-rate duties of India are imposed. There seems to be a great possibility of the spread of the related technology in the light of the following reasons: the situation of electric power in India is not good, reduction in production cost is being urgently requested due to the drop in cement price, and the equipment in this project is clean equipment using waste heat and therefore meets with the policy of the Indian government in which emphasis is placed on the environment. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote the joint implementation. Feasibility study for new installation of the Ashuganj NGL rectification plant in Bangladesh; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Bangladesh koku ni okeru Ashuganj NGL seiryu plant shinsetsu no tame no FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of effectively using natural gas and controlling the decrease in forests having ability to absorb/store greenhouse effect gas, a project was worked out for construction of the NGL rectification plant to produce LPG, MS and HSD at Ashuganj in Bangladesh, and the feasibility study was conducted. A total of 467t/d of NGL as raw material is transported from the Sylhet section to the plant site by pipeline with 175km distance and 6 inch diameter. In this project, this NGL is rectified to produce LPG of 123t/d, MS of 262t/d and HSD of 82t/d. As a result of the study, the substitution energy effect in this project is approximately 45,000 toe/y. The greenhouse effect gas emission is reduced by 861,000 t-CO2/y by converting the residential/commercial use fuel from firewood as biomass fuel to LPG. The ROI before tax is 19.24% in 20 years, which predicts a high earning rate. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1999 report on the results of the contract project 'The model project for facilities for effective utilization of industrial waste at the industrial complex in Thailand.' Separate Volume 5 - FY 1999 project; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the consumption of fossil fuel by recycling industrial waste for effective use as petroleum substituting energy in Thailand where the amount of industrial waste is expected to increase, a model project on facilities for effective use of industrial waste at the industrial complex was carried out, and the FY 1999 results were reported. Concretely, the industrial waste generated from each plant at the industrial complex owned by IEAT is to be incinerated in fluidized bed incinerator, and the process steam is to be generated by recovering waste heat by waste heat recovery boiler and to be supplied to plants within the complex. In this fiscal year, the first year of the project, the attachment to the agreement was prepared in terms of the allotment of the project work between Japan and Thailand, various kinds of gist, schedules, etc. and signed. After that, the following were conducted at the Japan side according to the attachment to the agreement: determination of the basic specifications for facilities, basic design, detailed design, manufacture of a part of the equipment, etc. Separate Volume 5 included the drawing of the basic design, drawing of building/design, drawing of manufacturing equipment, etc. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2001 study report on the evaluation/analysis of the data collected in the field test project on the photovoltaic power generation for public facilities, etc.; 2001 nendo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kokyo shisetsu you taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    As a field test project on the photovoltaic power generation, collection/analysis/evaluation of the operational data were made about photovoltaic power systems installed at 73 places in FY 2001. As to the analysis of deterioration with age and yearly changes of the system, analysis was made of operation hours of the equivalent system, system output coefficient and inverter performance efficiency in FY 1999, FY 2000 and FY 2001, and it was confirmed that there was few deterioration with age. Relating to the evaluation of reliability of the system, evaluation was made for the record of failures of photovoltaic power systems at 73 places, and the results were not very good as follows: average failure cycle: 1.06 y/system; average failure repair period: 14.9 d/system; rough opportunity loss electric energy: 81,548 kWh/y x 73 sites. Concerning the analysis of economical efficiency, the system cost decreased year by year to 1,102,000 yen/kW in FY 1997, and the power generation cost became 91.8 yen/kWh. The fund recovery year was 35.3 years, assuming the following: unit price of selling electricity: 15 yen/kWh, durable years: 20 years, and public subsidiary rate: 1/2. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1997 feasibility survey of an environment friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environment friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam (case of Vietnam); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Vietnam ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the state of coal utilization by coal consumption field, the state of coal physical flow in Vietnam, etc., surveyed/studied a possibility of introducing the environment friendly type coal utilization system, and assessed the possibility. As to energy resources, the north is abundant in hydroelectric and coal (mainly anthracite) resources, and the south in oil and natural gas resources. Coal production in fiscal 1997 is planned to be 10 million tons. Coal preparation technique presently available is only grain size sieving. Accordingly, it is necessary to study for heightening efficiency of facilities and modernizing facilities in accordance with the introduction of the environment friendly type coal utilization technology. During the study, it is possible to propose improvement on coal processing technology (coal preparation technology). Assessment and study are made especially of the coal selection system, fine coal recovery system and waste water treatment system. For the plan on new coal-fired power plants (300MWtimes4), there is left much necessity of proposing studying models considered of the anthracite combustion technology and environmental improvement and of assessing/studying them. 60 figs., 117 tabs.

  20. FY 1999 report on the results of the fundamental investigation for promotion of Joint Implementation. Preliminary evaluation of introduction of VICS systems in Klang Valley and Multimedia Super Corridor in Malaysia; 1999 nendo Malaysia koku Klang Valley oyobi multimedia super corridor ni okeru VICS system donyu no jizen hyoka chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility study is conducted for introduction of the VICSs (Vehicle Information and Communication Systems) in Malaysia's Klang Valley and Multimedia Super Corridor, to contribute to abatement of the greenhouse effect gases and saving energy. This study has produced the following results. The systems need a total fund of about 1.4 billion yen, including the design fees, when based on the FM multiplex broadcasting, and annual operation/maintenance cost of about 110,000 million yen. These systems are expected to save 4,850 toe/y of fuel and abate CO2 emissions by 11,200 t/y, with the benefit cost ratios of 20.2 toe/million yen and 46.6 tons of CO2/million yen, respectively, when they are in service for 10 years. Introduction of the VICS system in Malaysia is highly feasible both technically and economically, which, however, will need establishment of, e.g., the JICA-proposed integrated traffic information system and Malaysia Traffic Information Authority. (NEDO)

  1. FY 1999 report on the results of the fundamental investigation for promotion of Joint Implementation. Preliminary evaluation of introduction of VICS systems in Klang Valley and Multimedia Super Corridor in Malaysia; 1999 nendo Malaysia koku Klang Valley oyobi multimedia super corridor ni okeru VICS system donyu no jizen hyoka chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility study is conducted for introduction of the VICSs (Vehicle Information and Communication Systems) in Malaysia's Klang Valley and Multimedia Super Corridor, to contribute to abatement of the greenhouse effect gases and saving energy. This study has produced the following results. The systems need a total fund of about 1.4 billion yen, including the design fees, when based on the FM multiplex broadcasting, and annual operation/maintenance cost of about 110,000 million yen. These systems are expected to save 4,850 toe/y of fuel and abate CO2 emissions by 11,200 t/y, with the benefit cost ratios of 20.2 toe/million yen and 46.6 tons of CO2/million yen, respectively, when they are in service for 10 years. Introduction of the VICS system in Malaysia is highly feasible both technically and economically, which, however, will need establishment of, e.g., the JICA-proposed integrated traffic information system and Malaysia Traffic Information Authority. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1999 report on the results of the contract project 'The model project for facilities for effective utilization of industrial waste at the industrial complex in Thailand.' Separate Volume 4 - FY 1999 project; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the consumption of fossil fuel by recycling industrial waste for effective use as petroleum substituting energy in Thailand where the amount of industrial waste is expected to increase, a model project on facilities for effective use of industrial waste at the industrial complex was carried out, and the FY 1999 results were reported. Concretely, the industrial waste generated from each plant at the industrial complex owned by IEAT is to be incinerated in fluidized bed incinerator, and the process steam is to be generated by recovering waste heat by waste heat recovery boiler and to be supplied to plants within the complex. In this fiscal year, the first year of the project, the attachment to the agreement was prepared in terms of the allotment of the project work between Japan and Thailand, various kinds of gist, schedules, etc. and signed. After that, the following were conducted at the Japan side according to the attachment to the agreement: determination of the basic specifications for facilities, basic design, detailed design, manufacture of a part of the equipment, etc. Separate Volume 4 included the results of the inspection of the tank, pump, blower, etc. (NEDO)

  3. Achievement report in fiscal 1999 on commissioned research project. 'Model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes in Thailand' Project for 1999 Volume 2; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to reuse industrial wastes and effectively utilize them as a petroleum replacing energy resource, and attempt to reduce consumption of fossil fuel in Thailand where increase in discharge of industrial wastes is estimated, a model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes has been carried out. This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 1999. Specifically, the project calls for incineration in fluidized bed incinerators of industrial wastes discharged from factories in industrial complexes possessed by the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT), recovery of waste heat from waste heat recovering boilers to generate process steam, which is supplied to the factories in the complexes. The current fiscal year, which is the first current year of the project, has put into order the operations shared by Japan and Thailand, compiled the various procedures and schedules into the form of appendices to the agreement, and executed signing of the agreement. Thereafter, the Japanese side has carried out decision on the specifications of the facilities, the basic designs, the detailed designs of facilities to be arranged by Japan, and the fabrication of some of the devices according to the descriptions of the agreement appendices. The volume 2 summarizes the inspection reports in the referential materials. (NEDO)

  4. Investigations in fiscal 2000 on feasibility of environment friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey on environment friendly coal utilization system in India; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa hokokusho. Indo ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Taking the area of the clean coal technology (CCT) effective for energy conservation and environment preservation as the object, a feasibility survey has been performed on executing a model project in India. About 70% of the total power generation capacity in India depends upon coals existing in abundance inside the country. Since the local coals are high in ash, low in sulfur, and low in calorie, the environmental problem related to thermal power plants is the disposition of fly ash. The Central Electricity Authority of India expects solving this problem by CCT introduction. It also expects increase in combustion efficiency by using ultra-critical boilers. The Indian cement industry often uses in-house electric power generation facilities because of high electric power cost, wherein the produced coal ash is used as a cement raw material. The matter of the strongest interest is the introduction of a high-efficiency combustion system that depends on low-grade coals. Among the CCTs, strong interest was shown in the fluidized bed cement kiln and the circulating fluidized bed boiler. The iron and steel industry has expectations toward effective coal washing technologies and coke manufacturing technologies. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1999 report on the results of the contract project 'The model project for facilities for effective utilization of industrial waste at the industrial complex in Thailand.' Separate Volume 6 - FY 1999 project; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the consumption of fossil fuel by recycling industrial waste for effective use as petroleum substituting energy in Thailand where the amount of industrial waste is expected to increase, a model project on facilities for effective use of industrial waste at the industrial complex was carried out, and the FY 1999 results were reported. Concretely, the industrial waste generated from each plant at the industrial complex owned by IEAT is to be incinerated in fluidized bed incinerator, and the process steam is to be generated by recovering waste heat by waste heat recovery boiler and to be supplied to plants within the complex. In this fiscal year, the first year of the project, the attachment to the agreement was prepared in terms of the allotment of the project work between Japan and Thailand, various kinds of gist, schedules, etc. and signed. After that, the following were conducted at the Japan side according to the attachment to the agreement: determination of the basic specifications for facilities, basic design, detailed design, manufacture of a part of the equipment, etc. Separate Volume 6 included drawings of assembling of the equipment such as crane, crusher and valve. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1999 report on the results of the contract project 'The model project for facilities for effective utilization of industrial waste at the industrial complex in Thailand.' Separate Volume 6 - FY 1999 project; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the consumption of fossil fuel by recycling industrial waste for effective use as petroleum substituting energy in Thailand where the amount of industrial waste is expected to increase, a model project on facilities for effective use of industrial waste at the industrial complex was carried out, and the FY 1999 results were reported. Concretely, the industrial waste generated from each plant at the industrial complex owned by IEAT is to be incinerated in fluidized bed incinerator, and the process steam is to be generated by recovering waste heat by waste heat recovery boiler and to be supplied to plants within the complex. In this fiscal year, the first year of the project, the attachment to the agreement was prepared in terms of the allotment of the project work between Japan and Thailand, various kinds of gist, schedules, etc. and signed. After that, the following were conducted at the Japan side according to the attachment to the agreement: determination of the basic specifications for facilities, basic design, detailed design, manufacture of a part of the equipment, etc. Separate Volume 6 included drawings of assembling of the equipment such as crane, crusher and valve. (NEDO)

  7. Observation of a hole-size-dependent energy shift of the surface-plasmon resonance in Ni antidot thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, H.; Akinoglu, E. M.; Fumagalli, P., E-mail: paul.fumagalli@fu-berlin.de [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Caballero, B.; García-Martín, A. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, Tres Cantos, E-28760 Madrid (Spain); Papaioannou, E. Th. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Cuevas, J. C. [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada and Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Giersig, M. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Nanoarchitectures for Energy Conversion, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-13

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of the magneto-optic properties of a series of nickel antidot thin films is presented. The hole diameter varies from 869 down to 636 nm, while the lattice periodicity is fixed at 920 nm. This results in an overall increase of the polar Kerr rotation with decreasing hole diameter due to the increasing surface coverage with nickel. In addition, at photon energies of 2.7 and 3.3 eV, where surface-plasmon excitations are expected, we observe distinct features in the polar Kerr rotation not present in continuous nickel films. The spectral position of the peaks exhibits a red shift with decreasing hole size. This is explained within the context of an effective medium theory by a change in the effective dielectric function of the Ni thin films.

  8. Elastic scattering measurements of {sup 4},{sup 6}He+ {sup 58}Ni at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Faria, P.N.; Camargo, O.; Barioni, A.; Mendes Junior, D.R.; Condori, R.P.; Zamora, J.C.; Morais, M.C.; Pires, K.C.C.; Scarduelli, V.; Leistenschneider, E.; Zagatto, V.A.B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Elastic scattering angular distributions and total reaction cross sections of the neutron halo projectile nucleus {sup 6}He on a {sup 58}Ni target at energies around the Coulomb barrier are presented. The measurements were obtained at pelletron accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the {sup 6}He radioactive secondary beam has been produced in the RIBRAS system through the {sup 9}Be({sup 7}Li, {sup 6}He){sup 10}B production reaction. The elastic scattering angular distributions obtained at E{sub Lab}= 12.5, 16.5 and 21.0 MeV, have been analysed by using optical model, using the Sao Paulo and Wood-Saxon potentials and the respective total reaction cross sections have been obtained. The total reaction cross sections have been reduced using the Wong formula and the UFF equation and are compared with other stable and unstable systems from the literature. (author)

  9. Facile Synthesis of A 3D Flower-Like Mesoporous Ni@C Composite Material for High-Energy Aqueous Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; An, Cuihua; Zang, Lei; Chang, Xiaoya; Guo, Huinan; Jiao, Lifang; Wang, Yijing

    2018-04-16

    A 3D flower-like mesoporous Ni@C composite material has been synthesized by using a facile and economical one-pot hydrothermal method. This unique 3D flower-like Ni@C composite, which exhibited a high surface area (522.4 m 2  g -1 ), consisted of highly dispersed Ni nanoparticles on mesoporous carbon flakes. The effect of calcination temperature on the electrochemical performance of the Ni@C composite was systematically investigated. The optimized material (Ni@C 700) displayed high specific capacity (1306 F g -1 at 2 A g -1 ) and excellent cycling performance (96.7 % retention after 5000 cycles). Furthermore, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) that contained Ni@C 700 as cathode and mesoporous carbon (MC) as anode demonstrated high energy density (60.4 W h kg -1 at a power density of 750 W kg -1 ). © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Outline and summary of research for a database of unused energy technologies; Miriyo energy ni kansuru data shu sakusei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For effective promotion of the new energy utilization project of NEDO and preparation of the future new energy vision, the data on unused energy were systematically arranged. The definition of heat supply systems using unused energy was clarified, and the kind and property of unused energy were arranged. Some typical systems of heat supply facilities using unused energy were presented. The data were classified by energy source, temperature level and region, and the detailed database was prepared for the typical systems. The overseas database was prepared, in particular, for European and American systems. Domestic and overseas policies, laws and subsidy systems were arranged. The introduction effect of two heat supply facilities using unused energy was surveyed, and their operation costs were analyzed. Basic terminology related to unused energy was compiled and explained. Related organizations, in particular, manufacturers were surveyed and arranged. The main manufacturers of a heat recovery refrigerator and waste heat boiler as typical equipment, and the number of these equipment shipped were arranged. 51 figs., 116 tabs.

  11. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of graphene growth at initial stage on Ni(100) facet for low flux C energy by CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ibnu, E-mail: ibnu-syuhada-p3@yahoo.com; Rosikhin, Ahmad, E-mail: aulia-fikri-h@yahoo.co.id; Fikri, Aulia, E-mail: a.rosikhin86@yahoo.co.id; Noor, Fatimah A., E-mail: fatimah@fi.itb.ac.id; Winata, Toto, E-mail: toto@fi.itb.ac.id [Departement of Physics, Institute of Technology Bandung, Tamansari 64 Street, East Java (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    In this study, atomic simulation for graphene growth on Ni (100) at initial stage via chemical vapor deposition method has been developed. The C-C atoms interaction was performed by Terasoff potential mean while Ni-Ni interaction was specified by EAM (Embedded Atom Modified). On the other hand, we used very simple interatomic potential to describe Ni-C interaction during deposition process. From this simulation, it shows that the formation of graphene is not occurs through a combined deposition mechanism on Ni substrate but via C segregation. It means, Ni-C amorphous is source for graphene growth when cooling down of Ni substrate. This result is appropriate with experiments, tight binding and quantum mechanics simulation.

  13. All-solid state, flexible, high-energy integrated hybrid micro-supercapacitors based on 3D LSG/CoNi2S4 nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavifard, Seyyed Ebrahim; Shamsi, Javad; Altafi, Mohammad Kazem; Moosavifard, Zeinab Sadat

    2016-11-18

    3D LSG/CoNi 2 S 4 //LSG interdigitated microelectrodes have been firstly developed by a facile, scalable and low cost process for all-solid-state, flexible integrated asymmetric micro-supercapacitors. These devices can achieve energy densities of up to 49 W h l -1 which is comparable to those of lead acid batteries.

  14. Angular distribution and cross section measurements of 64Zn(n,α)61Ni reaction for neutron energy 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingtang; Chen Zemin; Qi Huiquan; Li Mingtao

    1995-01-01

    A twin gridded ionization chamber with dual parameter data acquisition system is used to study neutron induced charged particle emission reaction. The angular distribution and cross section of α-particles from the 64 Zn(n,α) 61 Ni reaction are measured at neutron energy 5 MeV

  15. Report on survey/research on energy-related elementary techniques; Energy kanren yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The survey/research project is implemented for establishing environment-compatible energy systems in urban areas by constructing wide-area heat supply networks to exchange energy among cities. This project studies, taking Kanagawa Pref. as the model area, distributions of unutilized energy sources, and possibilities of their utilization for heat supply. There are large quantities of unutilized energy, including waste heat from power plants, general works and cleaning works, and low-temperature waste heat from, e.g., sewage and pumping systems. The district air conditioning promotion areas are selected from those consuming large quantities of heat energy in the prefecture, and their characteristics are grasped. The effects of the networks on total energy consumption of the entire prefecture are estimated for the cases of introducing the district air conditioning systems or wide-area heat supply networks in these selected areas. Introduction of optimum advanced heat utilization systems in stereotyped areas is also considered, in order to predict the effects of introduction of wide-area heat supply networks. (NEDO)

  16. Effects of Laser Energy Density on Size and Morphology of NiO Nanoparticles Prepared by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rory; Reddy, M. Amaranatha; Kim, Tae Kyu [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Metaloxide nanoparticles are of great importance to a large variety of chemical and material applications ranging from catalysts to electronic devices. Among the metal-oxide nanoparticles, NiO is one of the technologically versatile and important semiconducting materials. It has been extensively investigated because of its myriad applications in catalysts, gas sensors, Li-ion battery materials, electrochromic coatings, active optical fibers, fuel cell electrodes, and so on. The effect of laser ablation at various laser energy densities was investigated. At low energy densities, the produced nanoparticles were of irregular morphology with an average size of 2.4 nm. At higher laser energy densities, the produced nanoparticles were spherical, with a polycrystalline structure and their average size was around 10 nm. More detailed investigations on effects of laser wavelength and energy density as well as the particle size effect on the catalytic activity of synthesized NiO nanoparticles will be investigated in future works.

  17. CORRELATION OF THE FERMI ENERGY OF Ni, Cr, Mn WITH THE ELECTROCATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE TRIPLE ALLOYS ON THE BASE OF THESE METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Andreyanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It was established the dependence of the electrocatalytic activity of alloys Ni-Cr-Mn at the variable contents of copper with values of Fermy energy of their components. Electrocatalytic activity of alloys was estimated by density of the current, determined by the method of suspended half-element. For Fermi energy calculation of various metals Sommerfeld model, in which distribution of electrons by speed is described by Fermi-Dirac statistic was used.

  18. What have pneumatic manufacturers tried in energy saving; Kukiatsu maker wa sho energy ni tsuite donoyona kokoromi wo shitekitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oneyama, N [SMC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-15

    Presented herein are new energy-saving type products by pneumatic manufacturers. The pneumatic slide rule was developed in 1974, when the whirlwind of energy-saving as a result of the oil crisis raved all over the industries. The word energy-saving for pneumatic systems is changed into the word air-saving, which is more straightforward and directly related to saved money, and the slide rule exhibits its ability as a diagnostic tool for air-saving without adversely affecting the system functions. Noting that output required by clamping, calking and conveyance as typical works for a double acting cylinder is generated only by the forward stroke, the PFC valve was developed, in which the return stroke is set at a minimum indispensable pressure. This reduces air consumption by 20 to 30%. The other products developed include energy-saving lifter and economy valve. A new cylinder driving method was developed to reduce air consumption. The system concept of the right pressure in the right place was proposed to provide a local compressor in a production line of low pressure and high capacity. It is necessary to develop in the future an index which allows direct comparison of an energy-saving system with other driving systems. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Human physiology and psychology in space flight; Uchu hiko ni okeru ningen no seiri to shinri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)

  20. Refraction experiment in the Kobe-Hanshin area; Kobe Hanshin kan ni okeru kussetsuho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koketsu, K [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    The refraction experiments were conducted to investigate the underground structures reaching the basement by analyzing the results of the artificial earthquakes the explosion earthquake research group produced in City of Kobe and the Hanshin District on December 12 to 15, 1995. Considering that noise level can exceed 1 mkine in an urban area even in the mid-night, the courses of traverse were drawn focusing on Points S2 through S4 and U1. The earthquake waves from Points S2 through S4 are generally low in amplitude. However, the major components of the signals have a dominant frequency exceeding 10Hz, which makes them distinguishable from urban noise having a lower frequency, contrary to the previous indication that such a low-amplitude wave might not be distinguishable. On the other hand, the signals from the explosion at Point 4 in Awaji Island cannot be distinguished in the urban area, even on the nearby course of traverse D. At present, the analytical group is organized to read various phases running and analyze the P-velocity structures. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Rear impact whiplash neck injury reduction technology; Jidosha komen shototsu ni okeru muchiuchisho teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y.; Ichikawa, H.; Kayama, O. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Even though whiplash neck injuries suffered in low-speed rear impacts are one of the major concern in traffic accidents, the mechanism of the injuries is not fully understood at present. Hence, the countermeasures have not been clear, yet. The bio-mechanical research was done to understand the injuries and three different modes of occupant's motion related to the mechanism were found. Based on this research, Nissan Active Head Restraint has been developed to reduce whiplash neck injuries in low-speed rear impacts. (author)

  2. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Dissipative structure of mechanically stimulated reaction; Kikaiteki reiki hanno ni okeru san`itsu kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-20

    Recently various studies have been conducted concerning the state changes of materials obtained through mechanical alloying (MA) or mechano-chemical (MC) processing. What is noticeable is the quasi-steady state of almost all the materials obtained through various processes including MA and MC, and that the super cooling, supersaturating and high residue distortion realized under unbalanced conditions have not been clarified. In other words, the tracing capability to the external binding conditions is low. In this report, the appearance of the high temperature phase and high pressure phase obtained through MA or MC processing, the forming of amorphous, the mesomerism of the amorphous materials, the interesting phenomena generated by combination between the mechanical disturbance and chemical reactions were discussed with concrete examples, and a steady dissipative organization theory was approached from the viewpoint of dissipative structure development which is equal to the forming process of the quasi-steady phase. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Development of a platoon driving AHS; AHS jikkensha ni okeru gunsoko seigyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Y; Inoue, H [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nissan and the Public Work Research Institute of the Ministry of Construction are developing an Automated Highway System. We are investigating a longitudinal control system in AHS. In this paper, a vehicle control method using two actuators an engine and a brake, is described. Experimental and simulated results are shown. A Platoon driving control method using road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication is described. And the influence of the communication on the control performance is shown by experiments and simulation. The effects of the communication device and control device mentioned above are verified by experimental results in an AHS field test conducted in September 1996 on a dosed highway. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Revised design calculations of lift systems; Elevator no setsubi keikaku ni okeru kotsu keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, T.; Komaya, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    For sufficient transportation capacity and passengers comfort and convenience, it is very important to design the suitable lift systems (e.g., the appropriate number of cages, velocity, capacity etc.) using a model which describes real elevator movements. The procedure used in conventional design calculations for office buildings is to determine the transportation capacity for the up-peak traffic situation using a simple passengers arrival model. This paper presents a new design calculations using balanced traffic model, which can deal with the elevator movements considering passengers arrival rate. As some performance indexes to evaluate the quality of service can be calculated by using this model, lift system designers can determine the appropriate lift facilities as to satisfy their goals. The validity of the proposed model is also shown by comparing with the measured data in real lift systems. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Prospect of concrete technology; Kenchiku ni okeru korekarano konkurito gijutsu no tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tadahiko [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-10

    The privatization of state-owned companies, the abolition of the protectionism to domestic industries and the market liberalization, deregulation to the economic activities or movement to abolition of regulation were concretely made a start. Moreover, the reform of the social life was also requested with an increasing of international global environmental preservation. These reform influences in the construction industry have been affected and could not ignored in consideration of the development in the 21st century. In this paper, the summary of reform in development, construction industry; especially the correspondence in the construction industry and the relation to concrete technology from now were described. Especially, concerning establishment of concrete technology, it was given as the construction of the safe and comfortable space, highly production technical development, countermeasures to resource-saving and environmental preservation, search of new concrete materials, development of the renewal technology and correspondence to large project. (NEDO)

  8. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Freezing process in unsaturated packed beds; Fuhowa ryushi sonai ni okeru suibun toketsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahori, M; Aoki, K; Hattori, M [Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata (Japan); Tani, T [Oji Paper Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-25

    The freezing process in unsaturated packed beds has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Water transport to the frozen front plays an important part on freezing. The rate of the absorption of water into frozen layer depended on the freezing heat flux and the water saturation at the freezing front. As a result, ice content in the frozen layer was related to the rate of the absorption of water and the freezing heat flux. A one-dimensional freezing model in unsaturated packed beds has been presented, accounting for the water transport. The predicted water saturation and temperature distributions in the body and the thickness of frozen layer were compared with the experimental results using a porous bed composed of glass beads. 12 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. High resolution CSMT method for shallow structure; Senjo ochi ni okeru kobunkaino denjiho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Takasugi, S [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inazaki, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Y

    1997-10-22

    Electromagnetic exploration methods and seismic reflection methods are conducted for the study of applicability of geophysical exploration to shallow layer geological survey. In the study, four north-south traverse lines are set in 400mtimes200m grassland. Tensor type CSMT methods are employed, a CSMT method using 96kHz-1kHz artificial magnetic fields and an MT method using 1kHz-10kHz natural magnetic fields, for the determination of resistivity distribution in the ground. Distributed in the site are a surface layer composed of gravel-containing sand and silt, andesitic fractured lava, and massive andesite, and the exploration reaches several tens of meters below the surface. The results of CSMT measurements are found to be in agreement with reflection profiles acquired simultaneously with these CSMT measurements. It is found, furthermore, that CSMT profiles help identify reflection waveforms in a domain where reflection is obscure. It is also found that electromagnetic methods are effective in fault logging because they are very sensitive to porosity, or the amount of pore water, which is higher in a domain with subsurface cracks than in the neighborhood without cracks. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  11. Earthquake ground motion research in Sapporo city; Sapporoshi ni okeru jishindo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasatani, T [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City established in May 1996 has inaugurated collection of information on ground structures and observations of strong earthquakes in Sapporo City. The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City has carried out geological investigations, electric logging and PS logging to date in three boring holes each with a depth of about 100 m, 200 m and 600 m. According to the result of the logging in the new Ishikari Bay port (600-m deep hole), the S-wave velocity has increased slowly as it starts from the ground surface to greater depths, but showed no noticeable velocity boundaries in this range of the depth. The Sapporo municipal office has drilled three observation wells (500-m deep) for the purpose of determining focal points of microtremors directly under the city area. Hole-bottom observation has been inaugurated since the beginning of this year. According to comparison of the results of loggings at great depths, a depth at which the S-wave velocity reaches about 700 m/s becomes greater toward the sea area. The result of calculations on amplification characteristics of the SH wave on rock beds revealed that a seismic wave of about 0.5 Hz is amplified by a little more than two times. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography; Hiteiko tomography ni okeru konaisui no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Theoretical discussions were given on the effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography. The discussions performed incorporation of earth resistance as a method to consider borehole diameters in an FEM calculation using wire elements. The numerical experiment conducted a simulation on the following two objects: resistivity tomography in a horizontal multi-layer structure consisted of layers with resistivity ranging from 10 to 10000 ohm-m, and a model with a slanted low resistivity band existing in a background of 5000 ohm-m. As a result of the discussions, it was made clear that the effect of the boreholes can be corrected by giving earth resistance between the wire elements and natural ground. An improved potential calculating program indicated that the effect of the fluid-filled boreholes in the resistivity tomography generates false images with high resistivity along the bores if the resistivity has high contrast. Incorporating the wire elements into an inverse analysis model reduces the false images and improves the accuracy. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  13. Source inversion in the full-wave tomography; Full wave tomography ni okeru source inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, T [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    In order to consider effects of characteristics of a vibration source in the full-wave tomography (FWT), a study has been performed on a method to invert vibration source parameters together with V(p)/V(s) distribution. The study has expanded an analysis method which uses as the basic the gradient method invented by Tarantola and the partial space method invented by Sambridge, and conducted numerical experiments. The experiment No. 1 has performed inversion of only the vibration source parameters, and the experiment No. 2 has executed simultaneous inversion of the V(p)/V(s) distribution and the vibration source parameters. The result of the discussions revealed that and effective analytical procedure would be as follows: in order to predict maximum stress, the average vibration source parameters and the property parameters are first inverted simultaneously; in order to estimate each vibration source parameter at a high accuracy, the property parameters are fixed, and each vibration source parameter is inverted individually; and the derived vibration source parameters are fixed, and the property parameters are again inverted from the initial values. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Materials and joining technologies of commercial jet plane. Jet ryokyakuki ni okeru zairyo to setsugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hira, H; Yoshino, Y [Kawasaki Heavy Industries,Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-12-05

    The present report explained light weight and high strength materials which are strong against the corrosion and fatigue, and economical. Also explained were their joining technologies for the commercial jet plane production. Resin composites are acceleratedly used as light weight and high strength materials. Fiber to be used is heightened in strength by replacing the glassfiber by the hybrid and carbon fiber. As measures against the drop in both strength around the drilled holes, and compressive strength due to the separation between layers and dehumidification, which drop is a defect generated in the composite, improving measures are taken such as enlargement of allowable strain by carbon fiber of a medium elastic modulus, use of resin base hardly degraded by the dehumidification and diffusion of high toughness resin. Metallic materials are also heightened in characteristics. For the joining technologies, measures are progressively taken against the strength damage around the drilled holes and electric corrosion by fasteners in the composite. Also for the tightening of metallic materials, the fatigue strength is designed to be heightened by the introduction of compressive residual stress. Both thermal degradation and stress in the hardening process must be taken into consideration for the structure use adhesives which are mainly of an epoxy system. The corrosion control is indispensable at the time of etching for the metallic adhesion. The welding was also explained. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Effect of fall wind on wind power generation; Furyoku hatsuden ni okeru dashikaze no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, H [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Wind conditions in Arakawa Town, Niigata Prefecture, were surveyed by anemometers and anemoscopes installed at 3 different points, and the data are analyzed to develop the prediction model for investigating possibility of introduction of wind mills there. Outlined herein is power generated by fall wind by comparing predicted power availability with the actual results. In order to investigate possibility of power generation by fall wind, the wind conditions and power availability are simulated using the observed wind condition data. Predicted wind velocity involves a large error at a point where frequency of prevailing wind direction is high, and direction in which average wind velocity is high coincides with direction in which land is slanted at a high slope. Fall wind occurs locally for geographical reasons. Location of the wind mill must be carefully considered, because it is complex, although potentially gives a larger quantity of power. A wind mill of 400kW can produce power of around 600MWh annually, when it is located at the suited site confirmed by the wind condition analysis results. 6 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Automobile industry and globalization in Asian market; Asia ni okeru jidosha sangyo to globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Asian countries are now attracting attention of automobile manufacturers of the world for their capabilities of buying, producing, and assembling of automobiles, and producing and supplying of parts, which means that the Asian market is now exposed to globalization. As for the automobile and part manufacturers of Japan, in the presence of economic depression lingering in Asia affecting motorization and rapid changes in the circumstances Japan`s automobile industry finds itself under, are pressed to work out new strategies as a member of the Asian community. A panel discussion of the same name as the subject held in 1997 won favor as a fine initiative to suitably cope with the difficult situation. Useful suggestions and proposals were made concerning the panel discussion, calling the event a new type of round-table talks well responding to the rapid changes in the world economy since 1997, by learned and experienced people, the government offices concerned, staffers of manufacturers in charge of overseas marketing, and international information analysts. They related to the current state and tasks of automobile manufacturing in Asia, trends of regulations and standardization, rolls of technical assistance and the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Ltd., expressed from a wide angle covering various problems relative to environmental protection, safety, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area; Hanshin chiiki ni okeru bido no kihon tokusei nitsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Yamanaka, H; Seo, K [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To increase general understandings of fundamental characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area, microtremors have been observed at Sumiyoshi River-side, Rokko Island, and Nishinomiya. Relations were discussed among the stability of predominant period, successive fluctuation and meteorological conditions. For the analysis, cosine-type taper was conducted before and after 10% of the observed records, and Fourier spectrum was calculated by smoothing using Parzen window with a band width 0.3 Hz. Geometrical mean of two components was used as a horizontal component. At the observation points except Sumiyoshi River-side, predominance in the short period side was not distinct, and was not stable due to the successive fluctuation of predominant period. However, there was less successive fluctuation of spectrum ratio between different two points in the band with period more than 1 sec. Since there was a close correlation between the successive fluctuation in this band and the wind velocity or air pressure, the microtremors in this band was affected by a single vibration source. Ground characteristics could be illustrated by the averages of ratio against base points of moving observation. 14 refs.

  19. Magnetic prospecting in Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb; Kaibukiyama kofun ni okeru zenjiryoku sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1996-10-01

    Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb located in Kumeda, Kishiwada City, Osaka has a square shape in the front and an orbicular shape in the rear, which was considered to be made in the 4th century. This ancient tomb has a total length about 135 m, a diameter of orbicular shape in the rear about 82 m, and a height about 9 m, which is a symbolical existence of the Kumeda ancient tombs. Stone chamber and stone casket made of Sanbagawa crystalline schist or rhyolitic-andesitic tuff are expected in this tomb. Magnetic prospecting in this study is accompanied with this survey. A differential type proton magnetometer was used for the measurements, which were conducted using meshes with 1 m edges. A pair of distinct positive and negative magnetic anomalies were observed in the center of orbicular shape in the rear. This coincides with a location of main body buried, which is archaeologically estimated. The magnetic anomaly might be caused by the article buried in the tomb, such as ironware, based on the measurement of magnetic intensity. From the calculated values of magnetic anomaly using a model, the buried article with magnetic anomaly was considered to have a size with length of 1 m, width of 0.1 m, and height of 0.2m. The negative magnetic anomaly could not be explained only by this. It is necessary to consider the other reasons. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Detailed seismic intensity in Morioka area; Moriokashi ni okeru shosai shindo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T; Yamamoto, H; Settai, H [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamada, T [Obayashi Road Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To reveal a seismic intensity distribution in individual areas, a large-scale detailed seismic intensity survey was conducted in Morioka City through questionnaire, as to the Hokkaido Toho-oki (HE) earthquake occurred on October 4, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 4 at Morioka, and the Sanriku Haruka-oki (SH) earthquake occurred on December 28, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 5 at Morioka. A relationship was also examined between the seismic intensity distribution and the properties of shallow basement in Morioka City. The range of seismic intensity was from 2.9 to 4.6 and the difference was 1.7 in the case of HE earthquake, and the range was from 3.1 to 5.0 and the difference was 1.9 in the case of SH earthquake. There were large differences in the seismic intensity at individual points. Morioka City has different geological structures in individual areas. There were differences in the S-wave velocity in the surface layer ranging from 150 to 600 m/sec, which were measured using a plate hammering seismic source at 76 areas in Morioka City. These properties of surface layers were in harmony with the seismic intensity distribution obtained from the questionnaire. For the observation of short frequency microtremors at about 490 points in the city, areas with large amplitudes, mean maximum amplitudes of vertical motion components more than 0.1 mkine were distributed in north-western region and a part of southern region. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Array TDEM survey at the Yufuin fault; Yufuin danso ni okeru array shiki TDEM tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, T [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, Y; Fukuda, Y [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Science; Jomori, N [Chiba Electric Research Institute Co., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The array arrangement of receivers was studied to improve the resolution of LOTEM (long offset transient electromagnetics) survey. To eliminate the effect of underground structure from a source to a receiving point, continuous array arrangement from a source site is desirable. The survey at the Yufuin fault was carried out by arranging TEM receivers at intervals of 100m from the source. Since the synchronization between transmitting and receiving points by high-precision clock is essential, an amplifier for a flux gate magnetometer capable of measuring at four points at the same time was used. In the south plateau of the Yufuin basin, a relatively high resistivity stratum more than several tens ohm m exists at depth less than several hundreds meter, and a low resistivity stratum less than 10 ohm m exists under that. Those boundary depth increases toward the north up to 950m, and the depth subsequently decreases toward the north until the low resistivity stratum disappears. In addition, the uniform stratum of 1000m deep continues toward the north. Such precise resistivity structure around the fault was obtained by dense arrangement of measuring points. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Survey of Joint Implementation activities in China; Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is a large task for Japan to positively promote the Joint Implementation activities related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Rapid increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases, especially CO2, is predicted in China with remarkable economic growth and population of 1.2 billion. It is essential to promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. In this survey, framework, organization, problems and tasks were investigated to effectively promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. Construction of framework for the real Joint Implementation activities has been proposed. Current problems for promoting the Joint Implementation activities in China are that the distinct guideline for the Joint Implementation is not established in the government, that the receiving system including receiving, planning and arranging sections is not established, and that the burden problems for the costs of project evaluation, data acquisition, monitoring, and verification are not solved. 5 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Applications of thermal spraying for automotive parts. Jidosha ni okeru yosha no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, K [Toyota Motor Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1992-10-31

    Application of thermal spraying for automotive parts is described. Outlines of the spraying types that are materialized recently, like 'gel-double spraying of turbo-compressor housing part' and 'iron alloy spraying to outer portion of valve lifter made with Al alloy', are introduced. Gel-double spraying technology is widely used in the jet engine of aeroplane, however its use in automotive turbo was difficult from the reason like quality assurance relating to continuous production of automotives. As a result of the research and development based on the above reasons, a low speed torque is confirmed by the formation of gel-double spray layer. Spraying to the outer part of the valve lifter made from Al alloy is cited as the best example of thermal spraying. Relation between flying speed of spraying particles and degree of flattening, etc., relating to the conformity of adhesion power of coated layer, is explained. Further research topics are given as; improvement of spraying efficiency, improvement of resistance of spraying equipments, unification of equipments standards, quantification of spray coatings, design of spray materials, etc. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Industrialization, urbanization and demographic change in England; Igirisu ni okeru kogyoka toshika to jinko mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, M. [Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Economics

    1994-12-15

    In order to study the effects of progress in industrialization and urbanization on societies and economy, analyses were performed on the northern England in the period of the Industrial Revolution. The rapid expansion of the city of Leeds in the 1780`s and on had brought about the increase in employment opportunities in the suburban farming villages, as well as drop in matrimonial age in agricultural and coal mine workers, and the rapid population increase. Housing conditions for those workers who had flown into the city from agricultural villages in a large number were of very poor quality, and their living standard was low. More than half of the patients visiting the charity hospital in Leeds City came from the urban area, with industrial accidents such as injuries in young workers noticed remarkably high. Many women were included in them, from which the progress in mechanization of the textile industry in Leeds and its surrounding areas can well be imagined. The attributes of households, families, and population were divided into diverse structures and hierarchies, according to the residential construction form and work income earner rates in family constituting members were also various. The development urbanization and industrialization had given diversified effects on households, families, population, and life cycles in city dwellers through changes in housing environments. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  5. Load averaging system for co-generation plant; Jikayo hatsuden setsubi ni okeru fuka heijunka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-30

    MAZDA Motor Corp. planed the construction of a 20.5MW co-generation plant in 1991 for responding to an increase in power demand due to expansion of the Hofu factory. On introduction of this co-generation plant, it was decided that the basic system would adopt the following. (1) A circulating fluidized bed boiler which can be operated by burning multiple kinds of fuels with minimum environmental pollution. (2) A heat accumulation system which can be operated through reception of a constant power from electric power company despite a sudden and wide range change in power demand. (3) A circulating-water exchange heat recovery system which recovers exhaust heat of the turbine plant as the hot water to be utilized for heating and air-conditioning of the factory mainly in winter. Power demand in MAZDA`s Hofu factory changes 15% per minute within a maximum range from 20MW to 8MW. This change is difficult to be followed even by an oil burning boiler excellent in load follow-up. The circulating Fluidized bed boiler employed this time is lower in the follow-up performance than the oil boiler. For the newly schemed plant, however, load averaging system named a heat accumulation system capable of responding fully to the above change has been developed. This co-generation plant satisfied the official inspection before commercial operation according the Ministerial Ordinance in 1993. Since then, with regard to the rapid load following, which was one of the initial targets, operation is now performed steadily. This paper introduces an outline of the system and operation conditions. 10 refs.

  6. Alternative disinfection technology for water purification systems; Josui shori ni okeru enso daitai shodoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, T. [The Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-10

    This paper describes chlorination substituting disinfection technologies used in water purification systems. Chloramine treatment is regarded as effective in reducing trihalomethane (THM). Chlorine is injected in the initial stage in the form of free chlorine to disinfect pathogenic microorganisms in a short time, which is then added with ammonia to convert it into chloramine for further utilization. Chlorine dioxide has not been used in Japan, but introduced in Europe and America to treat THM. Ozone has the strongest oxidizing power, and is used for disinfection, virus inactivation, decomposition of THM precursors, and removal of fungus odor. The ozone treatment will produce aldehyde if an organic matter is present, but aldehyde can be removed by treatment using organismic activated carbon. Ultraviolet ray treatment has an advantage of being difficult of producing byproducts. This system was experimentally compared with free chlorine treatment on disinfection effect, mutagenicity, suppression of producing THM byproducts, and odor removal. In order to assure reliability of microorganismic and chemical safety in tap water supply systems, assurance by considering the entire system is important, not only by operating the disinfection units, but also combining such physical water purifying technologies as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and membrane treatment. The use of chlorine substituting disinfectants is also a part of the conception. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Noise and vibration improvement technologies for engines; Engine ni okeru soon shindo kaizen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzuoka, H.; Maeda, R. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    This is an outline of recent measurement and simulation technology for reduction of engine noise and vibration. We can recognize correct phenomenon by visualization of noise and vibration phenomena using new measurement technology. And we can create optimum countermeasures using new simulation technology In this report, examples of application of these technology in the development of NEO-DI engines are provided. (author)

  8. Visualization techniques in diesel engine research. Diesel Engine kenkyu ni okeru kashika gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komori, M.; Tsujimura, K. (New ACE., Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    In order to grasp the phenomena actually occurring in the combustion chamber for improving the combustion and for reducing the exhaust gas emission of the diesel engines, the visualization techniques are becoming to be essential and indispensable. The authors have observed the spray and combustion, when proceeding the combustion improvement by the high pressure injection, and then have performed the image processing and simulation calculation based on them. The high pressure injection devices used for the experiment are the intensifier type and accumulator type which can generate the injection pressure more than 200MPa, and both of them are the electronic controlled hydraulic drive type, and are driven separately from the engine. Since it was found that the analysis of high pressure injection by the hologram is limited in the conditions, as for the spray, the spray analysis was performed by the transmitted light attenuation method and laser sheet method. As for the combustion, the engine for observing the combustion was trially made, and then the combustion state was observed by the high speed photograph. Furthermore, the flame temperature analysis by the image processing using the combustion photograph and the analysis of flow and turbulence of the flame were carried out. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  9. Reliability of soldered joints for automotive electronic devices; Denso buhin ni okeru handa setsugo no shinraisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, T; Mukaibo, N; Ando, K; Moriyama, M [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Concerning the tin and lead eutectic solder, we have evaluated the reliability of three factors of intermetallic compound layer, creep and vibration which cause solder degradation. First, the stress factor was extracted from investigating the mechanism of degradation, and the best acceleration test method was fixed. Next, the acceleration test was executed to find the stress dependency and the tendency of solder degradation was modeled numerically. While the environmental stress frequency was obtained and they were put together by using a minor method, which enabled us to predict the life span of solder on the market with precision. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Laser cutting system in bridge fabricating line; Kyoryo seisaku line ni okeru laser no setsudan system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaguchi, Y.; Yokotani, K. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes the laser cutting system established at a new advanced plant that was constructed by Hitachi Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd. in 1993. At the plant, the cutting line consists of four NC cutting lines: the plasma cutting machine, gas cutting machine, frame planer, and laser cutting machine. The laser cutting machine is used to cut complex shapes of relatively thin (6 - 16 mm) materials with high accuracy. The machine consists of a 3 kW CO2 laser oscillator mounted gantry type NC cutter and a slat conveyor of about 30 m long, with the maximum cutting width of 3.6 m. The NC cutting machine is provided with the automatic printing function using NC data, marking function, scheduled operation function, steel plate detector, and coordinate rotation function, etc. These functions enable unattended operation of the machine to cut multiple materials. This NC laser cutting line has the same performance data collection function for data during the operating time as other production lines. Therefore, the NC laser cutting line can be subjected to the realtime centralized control together with the other lines. All these technologies have provided high accuracy and efficiency for production as well as an environment in which many female operators can successfully work. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Mechatronization of rotating machines in plant; Plant ni okeru kaiten kikai no mechatronics ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, H. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-10-01

    This paper introduces mechatronization of rotating machines in a plant, with application examples of electronic governors as the main subject. For centrifugal compressors, design and fabrication of anti surging control system have become possible by using a programmable logic controller (PLC) and a distributed control system (DCS) with fine scanning time. An electronic governor for turbine control has been added with a function to control amount of power generated by a motive force recovery device in a flowing catalytic cracking equipment by means of an expander inlet valve. This has made possible to operate the motive force recovery device automatically even under a low load operation. With an electronic governor to control supply and receipt amount of steam to and from an existing plant, the governor valve opening angles were so controlled that actual steam header pressure matches the setting, whereas the steam has become possible to be utilized without waste under normal operation. Operation of a comprehensive compressor/turbine monitoring system on DCS, operation of centrifugal compressors of two casings by using electromagnetic bearings, and motor speed control with use of an inverter heve also become possible. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Crew training on FMPT and IML-2 mission; FMPT/IML-2 ni okeru tojoin kunren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T.; Takahashi, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    This paper introduces a summary of astronaut trainings on FMPT (first material experiment)/IML-2 (second international micro gravity laboratory). The trainings are divided into a training to board on a space shuttle (MIT for mission independent training) and a training to bring the mission to success (MDT for mission dependent training). The paper describes devices used in the training conducted in the FMPT/IML-2. The training using devices equivalent to those used in the flight includes attachment and removal of cartridge for an electric oven, melting samples in an image furnace, affixing electrodes for detecting signals from living organisms, microscopic photographing of cell cultivation experiments, and hormone injection into newts. The training equipment that simulates functions consists mainly of a simulator that only simulates movements and indications. Simulations were also carried out on an electric migration device and an incubator. The training equipment that simulates shapes include an image oven, a refrigerator, and light sensitive plate for radiation measurement. The experiment operation procedure manual and the time line may be referred to as those that reflect results of the training. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Present status of geothermal power development in Kyushu; Kyushu ni okeru chinetsu hatsuden no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyoshi, M. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    The present situation was introduced of the geothermal power generation in Kyushu. In Kyushu, where there are lots of volcanos and abundant geothermal resources, the geothermal exploration has been made since long ago. Three non-utility use units at three geothermal power generation points and six commercial use units at five points are now in operation in Kyushu. The total output is approximately 210 MW, about 40% of the domestic geothermal power generation. At Otake and Hacchobaru geothermal power plants, the Kyushu Electric Power Company made the geothermal resource exploration through the installation/operation of power generation facilities. At the Otake power plant, a geothermal water type single flashing system was adopted first in the country because of its steam mixed with geothermal water. At the Hacchobaru power plant, adopted were a two-phase flow transportation system and a double flashing system in which the geothermal water separated from primary steam by separator is more reduced in pressure to take out secondary steam. Yamakawa, Ogiri and Takigami power plants are all for the joint exploration. Geothermal developers drill steam wells and generate steam, and the Kyushu Electric Power Company buys the steam and uses it for power generation. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Natural disasters in the Shikoku district. 1. ; Landslide. Shikoku ni okeru shizen saigai. 1. ; Chisuberi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatabe, R [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-09-25

    There are more than ten thousand places in Japan which are in danger of landsliding, and they are mostly distributed in Hokuriku and Shikoku districts. Shikoku is a district which suffers many typhoon disasters, and the rate of ground disasters among the typhoon disasters has been getting higher in recent years. Reports are made on the general characteristics and soil mechanical properties of fractured zone landslides, which are the majority of landslides occurred in the Shikoku district. Most of the landslides in the Shikoku district occurred in Sanbagawa zone, south of the central tectonic line, and little landslides occurred in the granite zone in the Inland Sea area. Although rocks in landslided areas are fractured, little progress is observed for clay formation. The scales of the landslides are from several tens of meters to over 1km, with the average of about 20m, in length and from 200 to 300m in width. Although some of them have the depth of more than 50m, the average is about 20m. Descriptions are made on the relationship between the movement of landslide and rainfall, strength constants of cohesive soil in the slid strata, and the variance in the dynamic constants of cohesive soil in the slid strata. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Biomethylation in the natural environment: a review; Shizen kankyo ni okeru biomethylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, H. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Fatoki, O. [University of Fort Hare, (South Africa)

    1997-09-25

    This paper explains mechanism of biomethylation of such elements important in environmental science as As, Hg, Sn and Pb, and its significance in the environmental science. Biomethylation is a process to bond methyl group directly to metals by actions of living organisms, which is occurring widely in the natural environment. Addition of methyl group onto metallic elements has a high possibility of changing their chemical and physical properties and increasing their movability, thus affecting the geochemical circulation. Particularly, such elements are important for the environmental science as As, Hg, Sn, Pb, Se, Te, Ge, Sb, P, S, and Cl. Deposits in water zones which have been regarded previously as final settling places for heavy metals are active media for anaerobic bacteria which can cause methylation. Important molecules involving in methylation are S-acenosylmethionine (SAM) and methylcobalamin which is a derivative of vitamin B12. The SAM is regarded as sulfonium salt, and the methyl group is transferred as a carbocationic intermediate. 106 refs.

  16. Welding mechanization in shipyard CIM; Zosen ni okeru yosetsu no jidoka robot ka CIM ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper explains development and examples of application of automated welding devices from a viewpoint of an element technology constituting computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), based on the history of modernization of shipyards that has been achieved to date. In the first step of promoting the modernization, elevating cutting accuracy in the uppermost stream process was thought a starting point of rationalization. What have been achieved therefrom are adoption of the most advanced NC plasma cutting machine, and improvement in the computer aided system for the cutting machines. In addition, a twenty-electrode line welder has been developed, which does not create angle deformation in welding longerons, and can be operated even by unskilled workers. The welder has successfully realized a construction method in which robots can be applied more easily. Further developments have been made on a robot to weld cells, advanced CAD/CAM operation techniques which are linked with data from design, an automatic one-side welding device which can achieve a speed 2.5 times greater than by conventional devices, and an automation device for three-dimensionally bent blocks, whose automation has been regarded difficult. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Mechanized and robotized welding in shipbuilding; Zosen ni okeru yosetsu no jidoka robot ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Large-scale ships such as VLCC are built at the Kure No.1 Works of IHI (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industry). This paper introduces current status of mechanized and robotized welding at the works. For the sub-assembly with short weld length and horizontal fillet, simplified automatic welders are used in which mag-welding method using CO2 is adopted. The frequent wound welding of member ends can be automatically conducted using welders developed by IHI. In the large-scale assembly processes, remarkable rationalization and highly accurate assembly of flat plate welding have been promoted. Tankers, container ships, and bulk carriers can be treated at the same time. Teaching times of welding robots can be greatly reduced by a technique called parametric treatment. In the future, it is essential to enhance the accuracy of members by introducing the laser cutting during machining processes. Completely self-type mechanization is required as well as large-output laser welding and sensor technology. 3 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Refractories for steelmaking in Japan; Seikoyo taikabutsu no genjo (Nippon ni okeru seikoyo taikabutsu no hensen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, S. [Kurosaki Refractories Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes changes and the current state of refractories for steel making in Japan. Refractories used for torpedo cars have undergone material improvement and diagnostic technology progress in alumina-SiC-C brick that serve in extending life and reducing unit requirement in furnace materials. The improvement and progress have been achieved under diversification in the methods of preliminary treatment of molten pig iron. In refractories for converters, the MgO-C brick had epoch-making improvement in life because of its excellent spalling and corrosion resistance resulting in expansion of its use. Refractories for iron ladles have been changed largely keeping the pace with progress in steelmaking technologies. Attempts have been made from using acidic refractories including zircon brick material to applying neutral and basic bricks. On the other hand, application of monolithic materials has begun, which has led to realizing the totally monolithic lining together with the progress in the repairing technologies including spraying. Plate materials for sliding gate nozzle to control flow rate of molten steel from an iron ladle now use Al2O3-C as the mainstream after having gone through a number of improvements. Alumina graphite material is used as the mainstream for immersion nozzles and shrouds which are important for continuous casting. 57 refs., 37 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Recent trend in construction materials field. Kenzai bun[prime]ya ni okeru saikin no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, M [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-09-01

    The Japanese construction industry, the construction market and the technical trend of construction materials made by Kawasaki Steel Group were described. The roles of the steel industry in the construction material market are to increase the ratio of steel used in construction, to manufacture steel products of high value added and to develop new applications. Appearance and good design are required to provide for the construction materials made of processed steel in addition to the necessary functions. In the construction material market, qualitative changes in needs are taking place, such as labor saving shortening of construction period and simplification of construction management. Kawasaki Steel Group intends to expand the integrated business such as system building, external wall materials for buildings made of metals, highly corrosion resistant stainless steel for metallic roof field, and roof materials of the heat insulation, good appearance and horizontally covering type based on the overall business strategy. In addition, Kawasaki Steel Group is expanding the Kawasaki Design Steel Plaza and its construction material research laboratory to cope with the trend of diversified functions and design of construction goods and of making kinds of construction material much more and to develop more rational construction techniques. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  20. Consideration on extradosed prestressed concrete road bridge; Dorokyo ni okeru daihenshin PC keburu kyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, A.; Honma, A. [Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-31

    The details of the investigation on the Odawara Blue Way Bridge for which extradosed type is employed are provided, and a report is made about the situation of the study on the future construction of the 2nd Tomei-Meishin Expressway. The extradosed PC bridge is considered to have intermediate structural characteristics of those of the conventional beam bridge and PC cable stayed bridge, and is expected to be applied to bridges having approximately from 100 to 200m span. The features of the extradosed PC bridge is outlined. Approximately 1/35 beam height on the intermediate support and 1/10 main tower height against the center span are considered to be proper. PC steel products can be used efficiently because stress fluctuation of diagonals and the load sharing rate of the diagonal member are less than those of the PC cable stayed bridge and safety factor similar to that of general internal cable can be adopted. Construction works for the main tower and the diagonal member are easy due to low height of the main tower, and the bridge is advantageous also in the maintenance control because no beam is required. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Modern techniques in prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. Puresutoresuto concrete shachokyo ni okeru atarashii gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, A. (Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-03-31

    Because the prestressed concrete (PC) cable-stayed bridges combine the distinctive features such as a rationality of the structure or a structural beauty, it will not stay on a development of the technologies to make them longer and larger, and a rationalization of the execution, an investigation from various aspects such as the scenery design, material selection, pursuit of new structure and so forth will become necessary. In a main meeting, 15 volumes of paper on the most advanced technologies of PC cable-stayed bridges were presented. The presentations from Japan were 11 volumes, and occupied about 70%, and therefore a high interest to the PC cable-stayed bridges in Japan was inferred. In the presentation from Japan, there were many relevancies of the important study themes which would become a foundation for a development of PC cable-stayed bridges in the future, like ones that an improvement effect of dynamic behavior such as the aseismatic property, wind endurance and so forth was made as an objective, ones that a safety evaluation at an ultimate state as the oblique member anchoring part, main tower or entire structure was related, ones that a construction of the various control systems when the cable-stayed bridges were executed was concerned and so forth. 23 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Hybrid structure in civil engineering construction.; Doboku bun`ya ni okeru fukugo kozo.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-03-30

    The structure of steel-concrete hybrid structure which is recently attracting attention is outlined quoting some examples. The effects of steel-concrete hybrid structure are classified according to the characteristics. The Normandie Bridge completed in January this year near the mouth of the Seine River in France is a cable stayed bridge with the world largest span, and it has a hybrid structure of ingeniously combined steel and concrete. The Dole Bridge in France is a hybrid bridge with 7 continuous spans having steel corrugated sheets in the web. Hybrid structure has come to be applied to many structures other than the superstructure works of bridges. The substructures of bridges are applied to immersed tunnels, and the usefulness has come to be recognized widely. The features of hybrid structure can contribute well to the reinforcement of existing structures. In addition, adoption of hybrid structure has been studied as the best method for repairing and reinforcing structures damaged by earthquakes. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Methods for PCO2 measurement in coral reef. Sangosho ni okeru PCO2 no genba sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, H; Saito, H; Mito, A; Tamura, N; Takahashi, C [National Research Laboratory of Metrology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-05-01

    This paper introduces an instrument to measure CO2 partial pressure in sea water being developed for coral reef site measurements. The instrument uses a method that sea water is contacted with a gaseous phase via a gaseous body permeating membrane, and CO2 partial pressure in the gaseous phase is measured when CO2s in the sea water and the gaseous phase have reached a dissolution equilibrium, using an adequate analyzer. The gaseous body permeating membrane uses a material with high CO2 permeation rates, such as porous polytetrafluoroethylene. The paper describes a system that applies a gaschromatograph process to analyzing CO2 in the gaseous phase, and an automatic measuring system that utilizes a non-discrete infrared densitometer. Basic experiments are being carried out that are intended to develop a CO2 partial pressure sensor using optic fibers. This is a device to measure CO2 concentration in sea water, in which fluorescent coloring aqueous solution is contacted with sea water via a gaseous body permeation membrane, and change in fluorescence intensity in the said solution as a result of CO2 melting into it from sea water is utilized. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Machine learning assisted first-principles calculation of multicomponent solid solutions: estimation of interface energy in Ni-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Mahesh; Lee, S. C.; Shim, Jae-Hyeok

    2018-02-01

    A disordered configuration of atoms in a multicomponent solid solution presents a computational challenge for first-principles calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The challenge is in identifying the few probable (low energy) configurations from a large configurational space before DFT calculation can be performed. The search for these probable configurations is possible if the configurational energy E({\\boldsymbol{σ }}) can be calculated accurately and rapidly (with a negligibly small computational cost). In this paper, we demonstrate such a possibility by constructing a machine learning (ML) model for E({\\boldsymbol{σ }}) trained with DFT-calculated energies. The feature vector for the ML model is formed by concatenating histograms of pair and triplet (only equilateral triangle) correlation functions, {g}(2)(r) and {g}(3)(r,r,r), respectively. These functions are a quantitative ‘fingerprint’ of the spatial arrangement of atoms, familiar in the field of amorphous materials and liquids. The ML model is used to generate an accurate distribution P(E({\\boldsymbol{σ }})) by rapidly spanning a large number of configurations. The P(E) contains full configurational information of the solid solution and can be selectively sampled to choose a few configurations for targeted DFT calculations. This new framework is employed to estimate (100) interface energy ({σ }{{IE}}) between γ and γ \\prime at 700 °C in Alloy 617, a Ni-based superalloy, with composition reduced to five components. The estimated {σ }{{IE}} ≈ 25.95 mJ m-2 is in good agreement with the value inferred by the precipitation model fit to experimental data. The proposed new ML-based ab initio framework can be applied to calculate the parameters and properties of alloys with any number of components, thus widening the reach of first-principles calculation to realistic compositions of industrially relevant materials and alloys.

  5. Water dissociating on rigid Ni(100): A quantum dynamics study on a full-dimensional potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianhui; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhaojun; Shen, Xiangjian; Fu, Bina; Zhang, Dong H.

    2018-04-01

    We constructed a nine-dimensional (9D) potential energy surface (PES) for the dissociative chemisorption of H2O on a rigid Ni(100) surface using the neural network method based on roughly 110 000 energies obtained from extensive density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The resulting PES is accurate and smooth, based on the small fitting errors and the good agreement between the fitted PES and the direct DFT calculations. Time dependent wave packet calculations also showed that the PES is very well converged with respect to the fitting procedure. The dissociation probabilities of H2O initially in the ground rovibrational state from 9D quantum dynamics calculations are quite different from the site-specific results from the seven-dimensional (7D) calculations, indicating the importance of full-dimensional quantum dynamics to quantitatively characterize this gas-surface reaction. It is found that the validity of the site-averaging approximation with exact potential holds well, where the site-averaging dissociation probability over 15 fixed impact sites obtained from 7D quantum dynamics calculations can accurately approximate the 9D dissociation probability for H2O in the ground rovibrational state.

  6. Measurement of (n,α) cross-sections for Cr, Fe and Ni at 14 MeV neutron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattecamps, E.; Liskien, H.; Arnotte, F.

    1983-01-01

    Helium production cross-sections for the main constituents of stainless steel (Cr, Fe, Ni) have recently been published for neutron energies between 5 and 10 MeV. The α-particles were detected with a multi-angle telescope and cross-section data relative to the well known n-p scattering cross-section were deduced. Those measurements have been performed now also at 14 MeV. At this energy the background condition had to be improved by changing the neutron collimation, by reducing the sensitive volume of the ΔE-proportional counters, and by replacing remaining low-Z material inside the chamber by tantalum. Listing mode data acquisition is used and α-particle identification is performed by transforming the observed (ΔE,E) signal into a (MZ 2 ,E) signal. The measurements yield the angle-differential cross sections for five fixed angles. Angle-integrated cross-sections are compared with the few results available in literature. (Auth.)

  7. Magnetic and microstructural properties of Ni-Zn ferrites synthesized and sintered by microwave energy; Propriedades magneticas e microestruturais de ferritas Ni-Zn sintetizadas e sinterizadas oir energia de microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, D.A.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Sousa, J-P.LM.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Cornejo, D.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    The soft ferrites (or soft) and the Ni-Zn type are composed of spinel with cubic structure, which exhibit a permanent magnetization, called ferrimagnetism. Thus, this work will be assessed the structure and magnetic properties of ferrites Ni{sub 0},{sub 5}Zn{sub 0},{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by combustion reaction using microwave energy as a source of heat and urea as fuel and after sintering by microwave energy. The synthesized powders were compacted by uniaxial pressing. The synthesized powders and the samples after sintering were characterized by XRD, SEM and magnetic measures. The diffractogram X-ray powder and the sintered samples showed the presence of the desired phase Ni{sub 0},{sub 5}Zn{sub 0},{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in both cases. The powders and sintered samples resulted in the Ms value of 8.09 emu/g and 67.73 emu/g, respectively. (author)

  8. Preparation of Improved p-n Junction NiO/TiO2 Nanotubes for Solar-Energy-Driven Light Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ching Sim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-organized TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs with average inner diameter of 109 nm, wall thickness of 15 nm, and tube length of 7–10 μm were loaded with nickel oxide (NiO nanoparticles via incipient wet impregnation method. The molar concentration of Ni(NO32·6H2O aqueous solution varied in a range of 0.5 M–2.5 M. The samples were characterized for crystalline phase, morphology, topography, chemical composition, Raman shift, and UV-Vis diffusion reflection properties. The finding shows that the loading of NiO did not influence the morphology, structure, and crystalline phase of TNTs but it exhibited significant effect on crystallite size and optical absorption properties. Further, the solar-energy-driven the photocatalytic activity of NiO/TNTs and pure TNTs was evaluated by degrading methylene blue (MB. The results confirm that photocatalytic efficiency of NiO/TNTs is higher than that of TNTs.

  9. Magnetic interactions in high-energy ball-milled NiZnFe2O4/SiO2 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo Lopez, G.; Silvetti, S.P.; Urreta, S.E.; Cabanillas, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    Composites Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 /SiO 2 are obtained after high-energy ball milling precursor oxides, in stoichiometric proportions, for 200 h at room temperature and further isothermal annealing for 1 h at 1273 K, under air and argon atmosphere, respectively. After 200 h grinding, a complex microstructure develops with small hematite crystals mixed with SiO 2 and remanent NiO and ZnO particles, and very small NiZn ferrite clusters, reaching a mean size of ∼9 nm. The high temperature treatments remove the hematite grains from the powder and promote the growth of NiZn ferrite grains to reach mean sizes nearly ∼20 nm. For treatments in oxidizing atmospheres, the major phases are SiO 2 and NiZn ferrite, while for annealing in Ar a new phase appears, fayalite, which is paramagnetic at room temperature. The M-H loops are all well described by the sum of a ferromagnetic and a superparamagnetic-like contribution. The observed properties are interpreted considering the different magnetic phases obtained, their crystal sizes and their mutual interactions

  10. Self-template synthesis of double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengzhen; Ru, Qinglong; Kang, Xiaoting; Hou, Haiyan; Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Daojun

    2018-03-01

    In this work, double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres have been achieved via a simple self-template route, which involves the synthesis of Zn-Ni solid spheres precursors as the self-template and then transformation into double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres by sulfidation treatment. The as-prepared double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres possess a high surface area (105.26 m2 g-1) and porous structures. Benefiting from the combined characteristics of novel structures, multi-component, high surface area and porous. When applied as electrode materials for supercapacitors, the double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97hollow spheres deliver a large specific capacitance of 696.8C g-1 at 5.0 A g-1 and a remarkable long lifespan cycling stability (less 5.5% loss after 6000 cycles). Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was assembled by utilizing ZnS-NiS1.97 (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) as electrode materials. The as-assembled device possesses an energy density of 36 W h kg-1, which can be yet retained 25.6 W h kg-1 even at a power density of 2173.8 W Kg-1, indicating its promising applications in electrochemical energy storage. More importantly, the self-template route is a simple and versatile strategy for the preparation of metal sulfides electrode materials with desired structures, chemical compositions and electrochemical performances.

  11. Performance analysis on natural energy autonomous house, HARBEMAN house; Shizen energy jiritsu house (HARBEMAN house) no simulation ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, T; Saito, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Outlined herein are a procedure developed to simulate performance of an energy-autonomous (independent) solar house referred to as HARBEMAN HOUSE (HH) built in 1996 in City of Sendai, comparison between the simulated and observed results, and characteristics of the solar house. The house is equipped with a solar collector and sky radiator, both installed on the roof, the former facing south to collect solar energy and generate hot water whereas the latter facing north to radiate heat and generate cool water. Both are connected to an underground heat-insulated tank having a capacity of 31m{sup 3}, which stores hot or cool water to keep their conditions for extended periods. The solar system operates in heat- or cool-storage mode. In the heat-storage mode, quantity of heat stored increases, although at a slow rate, as tank capacity increases. In the cool-storage mode, on the other hand, quantity of cool stored increases in proportion to tank capacity. This is because solar energy is collected throughout the year whereas cooling by radiation is concentrated in early spring. Loss rate of heat stored increases as tank capacity increases, and the opposite trend is observed with cool stored. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Dual-energy X-ray micro-CT imaging of hybrid Ni/Al open-cell foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fíla, T.; Koudelka, P.; Zlámal, P.; Jiroušek, O.; Kumpová, I.; Vavřík, D.; Jung, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we employ dual-energy X-ray microfocus tomography (DECT) measurement to develop high-resolution finite element (FE) models that can be used for the numerical assessment of the deformation behaviour of hybrid Ni/Al foam subjected to both quasi-static and dynamic compressive loading. Cubic samples of hybrid Ni/Al open-cell foam with an edge length of [15]mm were investigated by the DECT measurement. The material was prepared using AlSi 7 Mg 0.3 aluminium foam with a mean pore size of [0.85]mm, coated with nanocrystalline nickel (crystallite size of approx. [50]nm) to form a surface layer with a theoretical thickness of [0.075]mm. CT imaging was carried out using state-of-the-art DSCT/DECT X-ray scanner developed at Centre of Excellence Telč. The device consists of a modular orthogonal assembly of two tube-detector imaging pairs, with an independent geometry setting and shared rotational stage mounted on a complex 16-axis CNC positioning system to enable unprecedented measurement variability for highly-detailed tomographical measurements. A sample of the metal foam was simultaneously irradiated using an XWT-240-SE reflection type X-ray tube and an XWT-160-TCHR transmission type X-ray tube. An enhanced dual-source sampling strategy was used for data acquisition. X-ray images were taken using XRD1622 large area GOS scintillator flat panel detectors with an active area of [410 × 410]mm and resolution [2048 × 2048]pixels. Tomographic scanning was performed in 1,200 projections with a 0.3 degree angular step to improve the accuracy of the generated models due to the very complex microstructure and high attenuation of the investigated material. Reconstructed data was processed using a dual-energy algorithm, and was used for the development of a 3D model and voxel model of the foam. The selected parameters of the models were compared with nominal parameters of the actual foam and showed good correlation

  13. Energy loss of 107Ag, 109Ag and 150Sm in Ni and Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribas, R.V.; Seale, W.A.; Roney, W.M.; Szanto, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    The stopping power of 107 Ag, 109 Ag and 150 Sm in nickel and gold was measured as a preliminary test of a new technique for measuring energy loss based on the γ-ray Dopppler shift. The analysis of the data was based on the theories of Lindhard, Scharff and Schiott for nuclear and electronic stopping. The results are compared with the semi-empirical predictions of Northcliffe and Schilling. (author) [pt

  14. Technologies for high performance and energy saving in room air conditioners. Shoenegata kokoritsu eakon ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, N. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-31

    An energy saving inverter type air-conditioner was introduced. It is important to increase the efficiency in the low capacity zone below the rated capacity to realize the energy saving. For the reduction of peak, improving the efficiency in the high capacity operation is also necessary. The power consumption in compressor and in inverter is about 90 % of the total power consumption in air-conditioner. The other 10 % are distributed to the fan motor and the control unit. For achieving the energy saving, the reduction of this 10 % part is also necessary because this 10 % part is constant regardless of the capacity of air-conditioner. The compressor motor was modified to the brushless DC motor with rotor position detecting device to improve the rotor structure and the position detection system. The heat exchanger was changed to a room heat exchanger with slit pattern. For the outdoor heat exchanger, the complex curvature blade fan was adopted. The control system of air-conditioner was changed. The PMV was previously learned and input in the microcomputer to calculate the data. Resultantly, the power consumption was reduced by about 20 % as compared with the conventional air-conditioner. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Energy storage for load leveling; Fuka heijunka ni kakasenai denryoku chozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, S. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    This paper introduces features and state of development of electric power storage technologies. Pumped storage power generation is a technology to store electric power by utilizing energy of position. However, because the plant locations are limited to mountainous areas far away from power demand areas, development of power storage technologies is being progressed from a new viewpoint of installing plants in the vicinity of demand areas. Superconduction power storage continues flowing current into a superconductor coil to store the power as electromagnetic energy, which is drawn out as electric power on request. Research and development is in progress in Japan on superconductor coils, permanent current switches, and control and protection systems. A flywheel system stores energy by rotating a disk at high speeds. Element technologies are being developed on long-period storage technologies such as superconductor magnetic bearings and high-speed rotating flywheels. For new load leveling batteries, development efforts are being given on sodium-sulfur batteries, zinc-bromine batteries, redox flow batteries, and lithium batteries. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the analysis of factors contributing to the development of venture firms in the U.S. and Europe in the domain of energy technology, and survey of the actualities of venture firms in the Asian region (China) and the feasibility of their coordination with Japan; 2000 nendo energy gijutsu bun'ya ni okeru venture kigyo no hatten yoin bunseki oyobi Asia chiiki (Chugoku) ni okeru venture kigyo no jittai to Nippon tono renkei no kanosei ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In search of measures to take for raising, developing and integrating venture firms, studies are made about the process and factors of growth after the corporatization of venture firms in the U.S. and Europe, and then about the mechanism of industrial integration in newly-arising high technology- and novel industry-intensive areas and the actualities of strategic clustering. In China, studies are made about feasibility of coordination with Japan. Activities are conducted in the four domains of (1) the analysis of development and growth factors after launching a venture firm in the U.S., (2) analysis of factors contributing to the development of industrial integration in newly-arising high-technology areas, (3) actualities of assistance to ventures in Europe, and (4) the survey of venture trends in China. In domain (4), venture firm creating, raising, and assisting conditions are studied. Also studied are the actual state of venture firm creating, raising, and assisting, and some cases of venture firm creation and raising. (NEDO)

  17. Performance analysis on natural energy autonomous house (HARBEMAN house); Shizen energy jiritsu house (HARBEMAN house) ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, T; Saito, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    To reduce fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission, this article introduces an actually constructed natural energy autonomous house. It has a solar collector on the south roof for hot water supply and a sky radiator on the north roof for cooling water supply. The sky radiator uses radiation cooling phenomena into the space by electromagnetic wave through the window of atmosphere. This house also has an insulated tank with a capacity of 31 m{sup 3} in its underground. In the long-term heat storage mode, the heat is collected through the solar radiation during the period from summer to spring and is stored in the underground water tank, to use it for heating and hot water supply in winter. The heat can be recovered from the garbage waste incinerator. A gas fired auxiliary boiler is used for the shortage. In the long-term heat regeneration mode, the heat is regenerated through the sky radiator during the period from spring to summer and is stored in the underground water tank, to use it for cooling in summer. For the shortage, the water is cooled using a heat pump operated by the midnight power. The insulating performance is improved by using the pair glass in windows and the glass wool in the walls. Rain water is collected in a tank with a capacity of 2 m{sup 3}, to use it for toilet water. Annual energy and water saving is equivalent to 600,000 yen. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Investigations on steel slag re-utilization in developing countries; Hatten tojokoku ni okeru tekko slag sairiyo ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to promote steel slag re-utilization in developing countries, a possibility was presented for technical cooperation to India, Indonesia and Thailand upon putting the status of slag utilization in Japan into order. Blast furnace slag produced in Japan (having a re-utilization rate of 95%) is re-utilized and processed as cement aggregates and road beds, and converter slag as civil engineering materials and ores. Steel making slag (having a re-utilization rate of 80%) is re-utilized as road, processing and civil engineering materials. Since the steel making slag faces intensifying competition with ash made by incinerating construction and general wastes, it is important to improve its price competitiveness or mixed utilization with other materials. Re-utilization has not advanced to a recognizable level in developing countries because of having no difficulty for availability of lands for wastes. However, growth of full-scale steel industries and elevation in tendency of environment preservation now urge increase in the slag re-utilization rate. Required to achieve the goal would include wider use of re-utilization technologies, quality control on slag, joint use of facilities to produce re-utilization products, and governmental assistance on burdens of transportation cost. Assistance from Japan is expected to help meet these requirements. 25 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. On noise, traffic and factory vibrations in Akita city; Akitashi ni okeru soon oyobi kotsu kojo shindo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M; Kikuchi, T; Morino, T; Sannohe, M [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education

    1996-05-01

    Noise and vibration were measured in Akita City. In 1994, noise and traffic-caused vibration were measured along the trunk lines and other roads across the entire Akita City area. In 1995, the effort centered on the Ibarashima manufacturing quarters, the important source of noise and vibration in Akita city. The general-purpose noise meter LA-220S was used to measure noise and the vibration level meter VR-5100 was used to measure vibration. The results of noise measurement carried out at 122 points in Akita City indicated that the noise level was high along Route 7, Route 13, and the southern line belonging to the newly built national highway, marking the highest of approximately 74dB. As compared with the measurement made in 1968, the value was higher by 3-13dB. A roughly similar trend was seen in vibration. The noise level measurement of 1995 accomplished at 100 points in the vicinity of Ibarashima district indicated that the factories were responsible for high levels of noise and vibration. It was found that the levels lowered in proportion to the increase in the distance from the factories. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Elevator group control during morning rush-hours; Erebeta gun kanri ni okeru shukkinji unten ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikita, S. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Komaya, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Industrial Electronics and Systems Lab.

    1995-11-30

    In a high-rising building, a group control system is indispensable which controls elevators systematically in order to improve efficiency of transportation. The group control and supervision are divided into two kinds namely the allocated control and the operation control. The former is the control to determine the optimal elevator which is to respond to a call of an individual passenger and the latter is the control to determine the operational practice as an elevator group in response to changes of the macroscopic traffic flows which are repeated periodically like morning rush hours or a lunch time. In this article, the meaning of the operation during morning rush hours has been discussed, the effect of the operation during the rush hours has been verified through simulation, and as a result, it has been verified that the determination of number of elevator cages to be arranged by the number of passengers (in particular the number of passengers from the main floor) is not necessarily related to improvement of total transportation efficiency. Besides, after analyzing the behavior of the group of elevators under the morning rush hour operation, the new index for determination of the optimal number of elevator cages at the main floor has been established, a new practice for determining the number of cages to be arranged based on the above has been proposed, and its effect has been verified. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Subjects on geochemical technology for geothermal power plant. Chinetsu hatsudensho ni okeru kagaku kanri gijutsu ni kansuru shomondai. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirowatari, K [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1991-04-30

    This paper introduces the following technologies and countermeasures found to be successful in solving geochemical problems relating to the maintenance and management of geothermal power plants belonging to Kyushu Electric Power Co., Ltd. In controlling condensate properties,curtailment of pH fluctuation range by changing the injection point of NaOH,inactivation of sulphur bacteria by using chloramphenicol and prevention of slime loading of the condenser strainer by running of the cooling tower without make-up water were achieved. In the environmental countermeasures,it was concluded that Fe-ion injection method was most effective to remove As out of waste hot waters which are all reinjected into the underground formation now. By understanding the characteristics of the well eruption fluids,the attenuation mechanism of steam producing wells could be estimated, which were interference,re-eruption and degradation of the reservoir temperature caused by the reinjected hot waters. And the problems associated with the attenuation of steam producing wells have been solved fundamentally by taking proper countermeasures to eliminate the influence of reinjected hot waters. The atteunuation of reinjection well was found to be caused dominantly by silica loading at the permeable zone of wellbore and to be effectively solved by high temperature reinjection of the waste hot waters, controlling of temp. degradation of hot waters to be reinjected and prevention of air mixing. After applying proper countermeasures, the attunuation rate of the reinjection well has been fairly improved. 13 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Measurement of organic carbon quantity at chemoautorophic bacterium; Kagaku dokuritsu eiyo saikin ni okeru yuki tansoryo no sokutei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, I; Kato, K; Nozaki, K [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurokawa, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Described herein is the method for analyzing quantity of organic carbon synthesized by chemoautotrophic bacterium. It is based on the combustion-infrared spectroscopy, which is normally adopted for quantitative analysis of organic carbon. The problems involved in the measurement of organic compounds synthesized by iron-oxidizing bacteria are noise by culture medium components, aging of gas analyzer and contamination with organic compounds from a silicon plug. The measures taken in this study against these problems include comparison of the results with a medium containing iron-oxidizing bacteria with those with a medium free of these bacteria, calibration with the standard solution for each measurement, and replacement of a silicone plug by a silicon cap. Organic carbon is measured by a TOC-5000 analyzer equipped with an automatic sample feeder ASI-5000. Biomass density is determined by the MPN method. It is confirmed that organic carbon quantity is almost in proportion to biomass density, a phenomenon which can be used to determine organic carbon quantity. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Surface deformation effects on stainless steel, Ni, Cu and Mo produced by medium energy He ions irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Florescu, V.; Sarbu, C.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate dose and energy dependence of surface deformation effects (blistering and flaking), different kinds of candidate CTR first wall materials as 12KH18N10T, W-4541, W-4016 and SS-304 stainless steels, Ni, Cu, Mo were irradiated at room temperature with 3.0, 4.7 and 6.8 MeV He + ions at IAP Cyclotron. The effects were investigated by means of a TEMSCAN 200 CX electron microscope and two metallographic Orthoplan Pol Leitz and Olympus microscopes. We observed two dose dependent main phenomena: blistering and flaking (craters). So, blisters occurrence on the irradiated surface is almost instantaneous when a critical dose (number of He ions accumulated in the region at the end of alpha particles range) is reached. Increasing irradiation dose, we reached flaking stage. So, isolated submicronic fissures along grain boundaries were observed on the blister skin, chronologically followed by large (5-20 μm) deep cracks of hundreds of microns in length, blisters opening and, finally, flaking appearance. (author) 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. Synthesis of the Mg2Ni alloy prepared by mechanical alloying using a high energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J. L.; Lopez M, B. E.; Garcia N, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Mg 2 Ni was synthesized by a solid state reaction from the constituent elemental powder mixtures via mechanical alloying. The mixture was ball milled for 10 h at room temperature in an argon atmosphere. The high energy ball mill used here was fabricated at ININ. A hardened steel vial and three steel balls of 12.7 mm in diameter were used for milling. The ball to powder weight ratio was 10:1. A small amount of powder was removed at regular intervals to monitor the structural changes. All the steps were performed in a little lucite glove box under argon gas, this glove box was also constructed in our Institute. The structural evolution during milling was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The hydrogen reaction was carried out in a micro-reactor under controlled conditions of pressure and temperature. The hydrogen storage properties of mechanically milled powders were evaluated by using a thermogravimetric analysis system. Although homogeneous refining and alloying take place efficiently by repeated forging, the process time can be reduced to one fiftieth of the time necessary for conventional mechanical milling and attrition. (Author)

  5. Synthesis of the Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy prepared by mechanical alloying using a high energy ball mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J. L.; Lopez M, B. E. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia N, M. R., E-mail: joseluis.iturbe@inin.gob.m [UNAM, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Batalla 5 de Mayo s/n, Esq. Fuerte de Loreto, Col. Ejercito de Oriente, 09230 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Mg{sub 2}Ni was synthesized by a solid state reaction from the constituent elemental powder mixtures via mechanical alloying. The mixture was ball milled for 10 h at room temperature in an argon atmosphere. The high energy ball mill used here was fabricated at ININ. A hardened steel vial and three steel balls of 12.7 mm in diameter were used for milling. The ball to powder weight ratio was 10:1. A small amount of powder was removed at regular intervals to monitor the structural changes. All the steps were performed in a little lucite glove box under argon gas, this glove box was also constructed in our Institute. The structural evolution during milling was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The hydrogen reaction was carried out in a micro-reactor under controlled conditions of pressure and temperature. The hydrogen storage properties of mechanically milled powders were evaluated by using a thermogravimetric analysis system. Although homogeneous refining and alloying take place efficiently by repeated forging, the process time can be reduced to one fiftieth of the time necessary for conventional mechanical milling and attrition. (Author)

  6. Combustion of used tires for energy recovery. Yozumi taiya shokyaku ni suru netsuriyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, N. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-03-15

    The recycled automobile tires in 1991 amounts to 87%, and the tires are used most effectively for heat generation. The utilization of tires for heat in Japan and in other countries are outlined, and a detailed report is made on the use of used tires as fuel at coal cogeneration plants in tire manufacturing plants. The 'utilization percent for heat' is steadily increasing among the recycling applications of used tires. Energy recovery by dry distillation method and by direct combustion method is discussed. The states of used tire utilization in America, West Germany, and Britain are introduced. A concrete example of utilization for heat of used tires at a tire manufacturing plant is shown. Used tires are chopped into chips, mixed and burned in a coal boiler, the generated steam is used as the heat source for private power generation, and the power is used as the power source for the plant. 15 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Confinement of solar thermal energy by Nesa film; Nesa maku ni yoru taiyo netsu energy no fujikome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A; Yano, K; Kasuga, M; Daigo, Y [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports a Nesa (SnO2) film as selective transmissive film for effective confinement of solar thermal energy. Solar light spectrum ranges from 0.3 to 2.0{mu}m, while thermal radiation from bodies at 100-200degC is infrared ray more than 2{mu}m. Consequently, a solar water heater using the film which can pass rays below 2.0{mu}m while reflect rays over 2.0{mu}m for windows is very efficient. The Nesa film reflects rays with wavelengths more than plasma wavelengths (controllable from 1 to several {mu}m) by plasma action of free electrons. The Nesa films with different carrier densities were fabricated by spraying deposition method at dopant rates (Sb/Sn) from 0 to 2mol%. The solar water heaters were prepared using normal glass and specific glass coated with the Nesa film as selective transmissive film. The heater using the glass coated with the Nesa film of 2{mu}m plasma wavelength for windows could efficiently confine solar heat. The Nesa film of 700nm plasma wavelength which can pass visible light while reflect infrared ray was effective to reduce cooling/heating losses. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Silver effect of Co–Ni composite material on energy storage and structural behavior for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanamuthu, RM.; Prasanna, K.; Subburaj, T.; Jo, Yong Nam; Lee, Chang Woo

    2013-01-01

    Ag powder has been comparatively applied to the Co–Ni materials preparing by mixing method and the prepared electrodes were used as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries applications. The prepared Co–Ni and Ag–Co–Ni with 10 wt.% of Ag composite electrodes are characterized by XRD, FE-SEM with EDX, impedance and electrochemical charge-discharge studies. These electrochemical studies are demonstrated at current rates of 0.1 C and 0.5 C between 0.01 and 2.0 V vs. Li/Li + . The porous Co–Ni and Ag–Co–Ni composite materials are electrochemically tested in lithium half cells. The porous Ag–Co–Ni composite material demonstrates that the initial and end of discharge capacity up to 20th cycles is, respectively, 860 and 715 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C rate maintaining at approximately 83%. The porous Ag–Co–Ni composite electrode may be a good candidate for high power lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Coupled Simulation of Thermomagnetic Energy Generation Based on NiMnGa Heusler Alloy Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Manfred; Gueltig, Marcel; Wendler, Frank

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a simulation model for the coupled dynamic properties of thermomagnetic generators based on magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) films. MSMA thermomagnetic generators exploit the large abrupt temperature-induced change of magnetization at the first- or second-order magnetic transition as well as the short heat transfer times due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of films. These properties allow for resonant self-actuation of freely movable MSMA cantilever devices showing thermomagnetic duty cycles in the order of 10 ms duration, which matches with the period of oscillatory motion. We present a numerical analysis of the energy conversion processes to understand the effect of design parameters on efficiency and power output. A lumped element model is chosen to describe the time dependence of MSMA cantilever deflection and of temperature profiles as well as the magnitude and phase dependency of magnetization change. The simulation model quantitatively describes experimentally observed oscillatory motion and resulting power output in the order of 100 mW cm-3. Furthermore, it predicts a power output of 490 mW cm-3 for advanced film materials with temperature-dependent change of magnetization Δ M/Δ T of 4 A m2 (kg K)-1, which challenges state-of-the-art thermoelectric devices.

  10. Improvement of energy conversion efficiency and power generation in direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell: The effect of Ni-M core-shell nanoparticles (M = Pt, Pd, Ru)/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, M. G.; Mahmoodi, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, core@shell nanoparticles with Ni as a core material and Pt, Pd and Ru as shell materials are synthesized on multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) as catalyst support using the sequence reduction method. The influence of Ni@Pt, Ni@Pd and Ni@Ru core@shell nanoparticles on MWCNT toward borohydride oxidation in alkaline solution is investigated by various three-electrode electrochemical techniques. Also, the impact of these anodic electrocatalysts on the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell (DBHPFC) is evaluated. The structural and morphological properties of electrocatalysts are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of three electrode investigations show that Ni@Pd/MWCNT has excellent catalytic activity since borohydride oxidation current density on Ni@Pd/MWCNT (34773.27 A g-1) is 1.37 and 9.19 times higher than those of Ni@Pt/MWCNT (25347.27 A g-1) and Ni@Ru/MWCNT (3782.83 A g-1), respectively. Also, the energy conversion efficiency and power density of DBHPFC with Ni@Pd/MWCNT (246.82 mW cm-2) increase to 34.27% and 51.53% respect to Ni@Pt/MWCNT (162.24 mW cm-2) and Ni@Ru/MWCNT (119.62 mW cm-2), respectively. This study reveals that Ni@Pd/MWCNT has highest activity toward borohydride oxidation and stability in fuel cell.

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical behavior of nanostructured cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinay; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Miura, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides were electrochemically deposited onto stainless steel electrode by electrochemical method and characterized for their structural and supercapacitive properties. The SEM images indicated that the obtained Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides had cauliflower-type nanostructure. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the formation of Co 3 O 4 , NiO, Co and Ni. The EDX elemental mapping images indicated that Ni, Co and O are distributed uniformly. The deposited Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides showed good supercapacitive characteristics with a specific capacitance of 331 F/g at 1 mA/cm 2 current density in 1 M KOH electrolyte. A mechanism of the formation of cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides was proposed. A variety of promising applications in the fields such as energy storage devices and sensors can be envisioned from Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides

  12. Decay of 57Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Scardino, A.M. dos.

    1987-01-01

    The decay of 57 Ni to 57 Co was studied by gamma ray spectroscopy using both singles and coincidence spectra. The sources were obtained with the 58 Ni (Y,n) 57 Ni reaction. Natural metallic nickel was irradiated in the bremsstrahluhng beam of the linear accelerator of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo with 30 MeV electrons. The singles espectra were taken with 104 cc HPGe detector and the coincidences espectra with 27 and 53cc Ge(Li) and 104 cc. HPGe detectors. The energies of transitions that follow the 57 Ni decay were measured using 56 Co as standard (which was obtained by (Y,np) reaction in 58 Ni) and taking into account the cascade cross-over relations. (author) [pt

  13. /sup 58/Ni(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 62/Zn reaction at an incident energy 80 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, Yasuhiko [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Motobayashi, Tooru; Takimoto, Kiyohiko; Shimoura, Susumu; Ogino, Kouya; Fukada, Mamoru; Suehiro, Teruo; Matsuki, Seishi; Yanabu, Takuji

    1983-03-01

    Cross section angular distributions for the /sup 16/O + /sup 58/Ni elastic scattering and the /sup 58/Ni(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 62/Zn- 3.8416 MeV reaction leading to the discrete and continuum states at an incident energy Esub(lab)(/sup 16/O) = 80 MeV have been measured. The eight low-lying single and double energy levels were observed in the energy spectra of the /sup 58/Ni(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 62/Zn reaction. Populations of these levels have the cross sections of 1-200 ..mu..b/sr. The ground state cross section was proved to change with the incident energy by comparing the present data with the other 46 and 60 MeV data. The cross section angular distribution for the ground state transition changes also with the incident energy. The data points for the 46 MeV show a typical bell shape angular distribution. The angular distribution for the 60 MeV reveals a forward peaked and pronounced oscillation pattern, while that for the 80 MeV shows an oscillation damping with the angle and then a monotonous fall on the angle. Optical model parameters were deduced from the best fit to the measurements of the /sup 16/O + /sup 58/Ni elastic scattering. The EFR-DWBA calculations of the (/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C) results were performed with reasonable fits for the cross section angular distributions of observed energy levels. The optical model parameters giving good representations of the ..cap alpha..-transfer data have the property that the real diffuseness parameter has a large value almost equal to the radius parameter. The inclusion of Coulomb correction in the transfer interaction causes a reduction of 0.9 times in cross section, but no change in angular distribution. The dependence of the angular distribution shape on the incident energy can be reproduced by the EFR-DWBA calculation even if only one parameter set is used in the calculation over the wide incident energy range.

  14. Synthesis of Ni-YSZ cermet for an electrode of high temperature electrolysis by high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, H.S.; Chae, U.S.; Park, K.M.; Choo, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    Ni/YSZ composites for a cathode that can be used in high temperature electrolysis were prepared by ball milling of Ni and YSZ powder. Ball milling was performed in a dry process and in ethanol. The microstructure and electrical conductivity of the composites were examined by XRD, SEM, TEM and a 4-point probe. XRD patterns for both the dry and wet ball-milled powders showed that the composites were composed of crystalline Ni and YSZ particles. The patterns did not change with increases in the milling time up to 48 h. Dry-milling slightly increased the average particle size compared to starting Ni particles, but little change in the particle size was observed with the increase in milling time. On the other hand, the wet-milling reduced the average size and the increasing milling time induced a further decrease in the particle size. After cold-pressing and annealing at 900 C for 2 h, the dry-milled powder exhibited high stability against Ni sintering so that the particle size changed little, but the particle size increased in the wet-milled powder. The electrical conductivity increased after sintering at 900 C. Particles from the dry and wet process became denser and contacted closer after sintering, providing better electron migration paths. (orig.)

  15. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 8. Study on periodic steady state of the annual cycle energy system at a practical operation; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A study was made of the periodic steady state of the annual cycle solar energy system with seasonal heat storage at a practical operation. Cold heat in winter and warm heat in summer are stored in the seasonal storage tank, and these are each used in shift until when demand for cold/warm heat appears. Moreover, gap in quantity of cold/warm heat going in/out of the heat storage tank during a year is filled by natural energy such as solar energy, so that the system can be operated in annual cycles. Studies were conducted of the periodic unsteady term and the problem on lowering of performance during the term such as the periodic unsteady term of water temperature inside the seasonal heat storage tank and temperature of the soil around the storage tank, and the level of lowering of performance during the term, necessity of additional operation/control at the start of operation and aged deterioration of the system. Within the assumption, even if starting operation in any time of the year, the system could show the performance almost expected from the first operation year with no additional system operation and control required only at the start of operation. It is thought that the heat source selection control of heat pump largely contributes to this. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Breakup of 8B on 58Ni at energies around the Coulomb barrier and the astrophysical S17(0 factor revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Rivera J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of breakup and direct proton transfer for the 8B+58Ni system at energies around the Coulomb barrier (EB,lab=22.95 MeV were performed by the continuum-discretized coupled channels (CDCC method and the coupled-reaction-channels (CRC method, respectively. For the 7Be+58Ni interaction, we used a semimicroscopic optical model potential (OMP that combines microscopic calculations of the mean-field double folding potential and a phenomenological construction of the dynamical polarization potential (DPP. The 7Be angular distribution at Elab=25.75 MeV from the 8B breakup on 58Ni was calculated and the spectroscopic factor for 8B → 7Be+p vertex, Sexpt = 1.10 ± 0.05, was deduced. The astrophysical S17(0 factor was calculated equal to 20.7 ±1.1 eV•b, being in good agreement with the previously reported values.

  17. Processes of microstructural evolution during high-energy mechanical treatment of ZnO and black NiO powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakazey, M., E-mail: kakazey@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Vlasova, M. [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Vorobiev, Y. [Unidad Querétaro del Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Querétaro (Mexico); Leon, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Cabecera Gonzalez, M. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Chávez Urbiola, Edgar Arturo [Unidad Querétaro del Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Querétaro (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    Kinetics of microstructural evolution in ZnO and NiO black powder mixture during prolonged high-energy mechanical ball milling were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Laser Particle Sizer, X-ray diffraction, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and UV–vis Diffuse Reflection methods. The use of these methods allows us to control the macrostructural processes (ZnO particles and NiO granules grinding, the deagglomeration and “secondary agglomeration”), the microstructural processes (formation and annealing of different native defects in ZnO [V{sub Zn}{sup −}:Zn{sub i}{sup 0} (I), V{sub Zn}{sup −} (II), and (V{sub Zn}{sup −}){sub 2}{sup −} (III) centers] and NiO black) and the mechanothermal processes in samples. This allows to establish the relationship between microstructural evolution and the properties of the samples depending on the duration of the mechanical processing.

  18. Electronic structure of Ni/sub 3/Al and Ni/sub 3/Ga alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pong, W F; Chang, Y K; Tsai, M H; Hsieh, H H; Pieh, J Y; Tseng, P K; Lee, J F; Hsu, L S

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates the charge transfer and Al(Ga) p-Ni d hybridization effects in the intermetallic Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy using the NiL/sub 3.2/- and K-edge and Al(Ga)K X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements. We find that the intensity of white-line features at the NiL/sub 3.2/-edge in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni /sub 3/Ga) alloy decreased in comparison with that of pure Ni, which can be attributed to the enhancement of Ni3d states filling and the depletion of the density of Ni 3d unoccupied states in the Ni/sub 3 /Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy. Two clear features are also observed in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) XANES spectrum at the Al(Ga) K-edge, which can be assigned to the Al(Ga) unoccupied 3p (4p) states and their hybridized states with the Ni 3d/4sp states above the Fermi level in Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga). The threshold at Al K-edge XANES for Ni/sub 3/Al clearly shifts towards higher photon energies relative to that of pure Al, indicating that Al loses charges upon forming Ni/sub 3 /Al. ...

  19. Finding the energy source for self-propagating high-temperature synthesis production of NiTi shape memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Školáková, A.; Pignol, D.; Průša, F.; Salvetr, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Perriere, L.; Karlík, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 181, September (2016), s. 295-300 ISSN 0254-0584 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : NiTi * Shape memory alloys * Powder metallurgy * Microstructure Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.084, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S025405841630476X

  20. Effect of cold deformation on latent energy value and high-temperature mechanical properties of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, O.P.; Shiganakov, Sh.B.; Gusev, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    Energetic and magnetic characteristics and also the high-temperature mechanical properties depending on the preliminary cold deformation of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel are presented. It is shown that the value of storage energy in the steel has being grown with increase of the deformation. The rate of its growth has been increased after beginning of martensitic γ→α'- transformation when value of comparative storage energy at first decreased and then has been stay practically constant. Level of mechanical properties of the steel at 1073 K has been determined not only by value of cold deformation but and structural reconstruction corresponding to deformations 35-45% and accompanying with α'-phase martensite formation and change of energy accumulating rate. Preliminary cold deformation (40-60 %) does not improve high- temperature plasticity of steel samples implanted by helium. refs. 7, figs. 2

  1. Transfer vs. Breakup in the interaction of the 7Be Radioactive Ion Beam with a 58Ni target at Coulomb barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzocco M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured for the first time 7Be elastically scattered nuclei as well as 3,4He reaction products from a 58Ni target at 22.3 MeV beam energy. The data were analyzed within the optical model formalism to extract the total reaction cross section. Extensive kinematical, Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBAand Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel (CDCC calculations were performed to investigate the 3,4He originating mechanisms and the interplay between different reaction channels.

  2. Research report of fiscal 1997. Feasibility research on introduction of distributed power sources using new energy (photovoltaic and wind power generation) in the South Pacific; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Minami Taiheiyo ni okeru shin energy (taiyoko, furyoku nado) wo katsuyoshita bunsangata dengen no donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Feasibility research was made on distributed power sources using photovoltaic and wind power generation in Tonga and Samoa. For the best mix of environment-friendly power sources, hearing from government leaders and power business persons, and field inspection were carried out. Foreign currency earnings of Tonga are dependent on remittance from nations working overseas, while since diesel fuel for power generation is expensive because of import through Fiji and tariffs, multi-power sources for power cost reduction and low-cost new power systems are in expectation. Underground transmission and distribution lines are under consideration to prevent typhoon damages. Both countries are probably rich in wind power potential, however, wind condition data are poor requiring further researches. Tonga government is in charge of power business except that in Tongatapu island. In Samoa, EPC (Electric Power Corp.) is in charge of power business. Hydroelectric power generation is possible because of rivers formed by abundant tropical rains. Feasibility research was made on coal-firing, fuel cell combined, wind power, photovoltaic and waste power generation. 7 figs.

  3. Enhanced electrochemical performance of mesoporous NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} as an excellent supercapacitive alternative energy storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhojane, Prateek [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452020 (India); Sen, Somaditya [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452020 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452020 (India); Shirage, Parasharam M., E-mail: paras.shirage@gmail.com [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452020 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452020 (India)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • A facile technique to grow mesopores NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} flakes. • High specific capacitance. • High capacitance retention at higher cycles. • A promising candidate for energy storage device. - Abstract: Here we report the supercapacitive properties of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}) synthesized by fast, inexpensive and facile chemical bath method, by avoiding high pressure, high temperature and chemical complexity. Physico-chemical characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman Spectra, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm analysis is performed to characterize the electrode material. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements reveal the surface area 52.86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and from Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH), typical pores size ranges between 10 and 50 nm, also confirms the mesoporosity. The electrochemical properties are measured by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charging/discharging. The synthesized material exhibits remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 1130 F g{sup −1} at 1 mV s{sup −1} sweep rate and 1125 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.05 A g{sup −1}, highest without supporting base like carbon cloth, Ni-foam, Ti- foil used for direct growth (deposition) of electrode material. It is superior to those of its individual and hybrid components prepared by similar technique. Ragone plot shows high specific energy density (49.25 Wh kg{sup −1}) and corresponding specific power density (1851.31 W kg{sup −1}) even at high current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}.

  4. Study of surface activation of PET by low energy (keV) Ni+ and N+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathawat, Rashi; Kumar, Anil; Kulshrestha, V.; Vijay, Y.K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kanjilal, D.

    2008-01-01

    Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) has been modified by 100 keV Ni + and N + ions using metal ion from volatile compound (MIVOC) ion source to fluence ranging from 1 x 10 14 to 1 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 . The increasing application of polymeric material in technological and scientific field has motivated the use of surface treatment to modify the physical and chemical properties of polymer surfaces. When a material is exposed to ionization radiation, it suffers damage leading to surface activation depending on the type. The surface morphology was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). That show the roughness increases with fluence in both the cases. The Ni particles as precipitation in PET were observed by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The optical band gap (E g ) deduced from absorption spectra; was calculated by Tau'c relation. Raman spectroscopy shows quantitatively the chemical nature at the damage caused by the Ni + and N + bombardment. The ration of I D /I G shows graphite-like structure is formed on the surface. A layer of hydrogenated amorphous carbon is formed on the surface, which has confirmed by XPS results also.

  5. Fiscal 1999 research report. Basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs (Comprehensive feasibility study on efficiency improvement of heat generation facility and heat network for district heating at middle and small cities in Moscow region, the Russian Federation - 2 model cities within the region); 1999 nendo Russia renpo Moscow shunai chusho toshi ni okeru chiiki danboyo netsu kyokyu shisetsu yusomo no koritsu kaizen keikaku sogo chosa hokokusho. Shunai 2 toshi wo model to suru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The above-named effort aims to work out modification plans and to predict their energy saving, energy substituting, and greenhouse gas reduction effects, and thereby to scout out a project which will effectively utilize flexibility-ensuring 'joint implementation' for the attainment of greenhouse gas reduction levels defined at COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The results of assessment of this project based on the outcome of the survey show that (1) there is necessity for the project and that the presence of needs to be urgently satisfied is clear, that (2) energy saving, energy substituting, and greenhouse gas reduction effects are proved to exist and that the project is therefore an appropriate candidate for an activity to be implemented jointly, that (3) Russian agencies concerned are strongly interested in the project and that a sufficiently cooperative system will be available toward implementation, and that (4) there is an extremely large room for energy saving in the district heating oriented heat supply business in Russia and that probabilities are quite high that natural gas-fired turbine cogeneration plants capable of improving overall energy efficiency will enjoy extensive diffusion. (NEDO)

  6. Hierarchical Ni-Co layered double hydroxide nanosheets on functionalized 3D-RGO films for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liyang; Sui, Yanwei; Qi, Jiqiu; Chang, Yuan; He, Yezeng; Meng, Qingkun; Wei, Fuxiang; Sun, Zhi; Jin, Yunxue

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, ultrathin reduced graphene oxide films on nickel foam were fabricated via a facile dip-coating method combined with thermal reduction. Hierarchical Ni-Co layered double hydroxide nanosheets with network structure were electrodeposited on the ultrathin reduced graphene oxide films in a simple three-electrode system. The thickness of Ni-Co layered double hydroxide nanosheets can be controlled through adjusting the deposition temperature. The as-prepared electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 1454.2 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. An asymmetric supercapacitor device was designed with the as-prepared composites as positive electrode material and Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide as negative electrode material. This device could be operated in a working voltage range of 0-1.8 V in 1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, delivering a high energy density of 56.4 W h kg-1 at a power density of 882.5 W kg-1. One supercapacitor can power two LEDs with rated voltage of 1.8-2.0 V. After 10,000 consecutive charge-discharge tests at 10 A g-1, this asymmetric supercapacitor revealed an excellent cycle life with 98.3% specific capacitance retention. These excellent electrochemical performances make it become one of most promising candidates for high energy supercapacitor device.

  7. Capacity of 50Ti-47Ni-3Cu composite to convert heat energy to mechanical work under cyclic measurement of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, S.P.; Kuz'min, S.L.; Likhachev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The TiNiCu alloy with a shape memory which may be used as a working medium for the martensite engine converting heat energy to mechanical one is studied for its energy characteristics. Mechanical characteristics of the material are studied under torsion of cylindrical specimens of stressed thermocycling through temperature intervals of martensite transformations. It is established that the shape memory and transformation ductility effects determining serviceability and power of the martensite enginem vary gradually with the number of heat changes reaching saturation after 10-15 thermocycles, The heating-and-cooling stress dependence of deformations due to the shape memory and transformation ductility effects also varied with the number of heat changes, Cooling conditions under stress of 50 MPa and heating conditions under 200 MPa and above proved to be most optimal. Serviceability of the engine made of the TiNiCu alloy exceeds 10 MJ/m 3 and its power reaches 10 5 MW m -3 under operation frequency of 10 3 Hz

  8. Nanostructure analysis of friction welded Pd-Ni-P/Pd-Cu-Ni-P metallic glass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, T.; Shoji, S.; Kawamura, Y.; Hono, K.

    2005-01-01

    Friction welded Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 /Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass interface has been characterized by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy. The interface is fully amorphous with a gradual compositional change of Cu and Ni in the range of 30 nm. By annealing above T g , the interdiffusion of Cu and Ni progressed in the supercooled liquid region, and the crystallization occurred from the Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 glass

  9. Effects of incident cluster size, substrate temperature, and incident energy on bombardment of Ni clusters onto Cu (0 0 1) surface studied using molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shiang-Jiun; Wu, Cheng-Da; Fang, Te-Hua; Chen, Guan-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The bombardment process of a Ni cluster onto a Cu (0 0 1) surface is studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the tight-binding second-moment approximation (TB-SMA) many-body potential. The effects of incident cluster size, substrate temperature, and incident energy are evaluated in terms of molecular trajectories, kinetic energy, stress, self-diffusion coefficient, and sputtering yield. The simulation results clearly show that the penetration depth and Cu surface damage increase with increasing incident cluster size for a given incident energy per atom. The self-diffusion coefficient and the penetration depth of a cluster significantly increase with increasing substrate temperature. An incident cluster can be scattered into molecules or atoms that become embedded in the surface after incidence. When the incident energy is increased, the number of volcano-like defects and the penetration depth increase. A high sputtering yield can be obtained by increasing the incident energy at high temperature. The sputtering yield significantly increases with cluster size when the incident energy is above 5 eV/atom.

  10. Density functional theory study of the interfacial properties of Ni/Ni3Si eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuhong; Wen, Zhiqin; Hou, Hua; Guo, Wei; Han, Peide

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the heterogeneous nucleation potential of α-Ni grains on Ni 3 Si particles in Ni-Ni 3 Si eutectic alloy, the work of adhesion (W ad ), fracture toughness (G), interfacial energy (γ i ), and electronic structure of the index (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) Ni/Ni 3 Si interfaces with two different cohesive manners are investigated using first-principles method based on density functional theory. Results indicate that the center site stacking sequence (OM) is preferable to continue the natural stacking sequence of bulk Ni and Ni 3 Si. Since OM stacking interfaces have larger W ad , G and γ i than that of the top site stacking (OT) interfaces. The Ni/Ni 3 Si (1 1 0) interface with OM stacking has the best mechanical properties. Therefore, the formation of this interface can improve the stability, ductility and fracture toughness of Ni-Ni 3 Si eutectic alloy. The calculated interfacial energy of Ni/Ni 3 Si (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) interfaces with OM stacking proves the excellent nucleation potency of Ni 3 Si particles for α-Ni phase from thermodynamic considerations. Besides, the electronic structure and chemical bonding of (1 1 0) interface with OM stacking are also discussed.

  11. Reports on 1981 result of Sunshine Project. Research on conditioning required for industrialization of new energy technology (summary); 1981 nendo shin energy gijutsu kigyoka ni hitsuyona joken seibi ni kansuru chosa kenkyu. Yoyakuhen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    In order to decide measures for introducing new energy to the society, the work starts from the investigation of the present state of energy demand, examining feasibility of introducing new energy into the state, and then assuming concretely the circumstances in which new energy is brought into the society to some extent. In the subject research, with 1990 set as a target year, the following examinations are carried out for the purpose of estimating the state of introducing new energy to the Japanese society at such point in time. (a) Feasibility is studied of substituting with new energy on oil users' part at present, with an estimate made on the state of new energy introduction in fiscal 1990. (b) An energy flow analysis is made for the purpose of checking interrelation between the total energy demand structure in Japan and the quantity of introducing new energy as of 1990. (c) On the basis of these results, current various energy-related laws and regulations are reviewed, with policies examined for introducing and promoting new energy. (d) On-site investigation is conducted on relationship with the energy policy of coal producing countries, in the case where a coal liquefaction plant is constructed in such countries and where overseas operations and imports of liquefied oil production are implemented. (NEDO)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on project for supporting the formation of energy/environmental technology verification project. International joint verification research project (Verification project relative to ignition and NOx reduction using plasma sub-burner in pulverized coal-fired furnace); 1999 nendo plasma sabubana ni yoru bifuntan nenshoro ni okeru chakka oyobi NO{sub x} teigen gijutsu ni kansuru jissho project seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project is executed through the cooperation of a Russian research institute, Akita Prefectural University, and the Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. In the development of a plasma sub-burner and the basic research for its verification, a pulverized coal burning plasma sub-burner is designed and fabricated, a basic burning experiment is conducted for the plasma sub-burner, and plasma stabilization in a pulverized coal flow is simulated. In the verification study of the ignition by the plasma sub-burner in a pulverized coal-fired furnace, it is found that the newly-developed plasma sub-burner satisfies the prescribed operating conditions in the system and that the ignition of pulverized coal takes place across the air ratio range of 0.5-1.5 when pulverized coal is fed to the sub-burner. It is also found that NOx is reduced a great deal when a plasma operating on an orifice gas of air or nitrogen is generated in a gas which contains NOx. (NEDO)

  13. Preparation of binder-free porous ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanoleafs using ZnO as pore forming agent displaying both high mass loading and excellent electrochemical energy storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Panpan; Miao, Chenxu; Cheng, Kui; Ye, Ke; Yin, Jinling; Cao, Dianxue; Wang, Guiling; Zhang, Xianfa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous Ni(OH) 2 nanoleaf is prepared by using ZnO as pore forming agent. • The mass loading of active material on binder-free Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode is as high as 10 mg. • The porous Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode displays high specific capacitance of 1142C g −1 . - Abstract: Ni(OH) 2 has been reported widely as one of the most promising supercapactior electrode materials due to its high specific capacitance, yet which were only based on low mass loading. Thus, it is desirable to promote supercapacitor performance for high mass loading Ni(OH) 2 through optimizing microstructure. In this work, we first prepared crossed ultrathin Ni(OH) 2 /ZnO nanoleafs directly grown on nickel foam via hydrothermal method, and then we produced pores on the nanoleafs by dissolving ZnO in alkaline solution. Definitely, this unique structure design for high mass loading binder-free Ni(OH) 2 electrode could benefit the penetration of electrolyte and the transportation of electrons, efficiently improving the supercapacitor performance. The obtained porous Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode exhibits a mass specific capacity of 1142C g −1 based on 10 mg active materials, equating to a areal specific capaciy of 11.4C cm −2 , and pleasant cycling stability with retention of 85% of initial capacity after 10000 charge-discharge cycles. The fabricated asymmetric device shows a high energy density of 42 Wh kg −1 (4.73 mWh cm −3 ) at power density of 105 W kg −1 (17 mW cm −3 ). These results demonstrate the optimized structure makes the high mass loading binder-free Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode could also display excellent supercapacitor performance.

  14. The effect of the addition of the elements Ni, Zn and Co in a composite AlTiO{sub 2} obtained by high-energy milling and sintering process; Efeito da adicao dos elementos Ni, Zn ou Co no composito AlTiO{sub 2} obtido por moagem de alta energia e sinterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, C.O. de; Coelho, R.E.; Conrado, L.C.; Nascimento, C.S.; Teixeira, C.A.; Mendonca, E.S., E-mail: cristiane.olv.carvalho@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), BA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The present work use aluminum scrap with addition of TiO{sub 2}, Ni, Zn or Co to preparation and characterization of nanocomposites. The aluminum were cut and subjected to high energy milling for 2 hours at 1200rpm. The obtained powder was added to TiO{sub 2}, Ni, Zn or Co in a nominal composition 97Al-2TiO{sub 2}-1X (X = Ni, Zn or Co) (weight %) and again, the mixture was subjected to milling for 1 hour at 1000rpm. Grinding powders were hot pressed in the closed die and then removed; the compressed were sintered at 950°C in a tubular furnace N{sub 2} passing atmosphere. The samples obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM images showed a very refined microstructure and an aluminum matrix without porosity. (author)

  15. Effects of Electrodeposition Mode and Deposition Cycle on the Electrochemical Performance of MnO2-NiO Composite Electrodes for High-Energy-Density Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusi; Majid, S R

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured network-like MnO2-NiO composite electrodes were electrodeposited onto stainless steel substrates via different electrodeposition modes, such as chronopotentiometry, chronoamperometry, and cyclic voltammetry, and then subjected to heat treatment at 300°C for metal oxide conversion. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the crystalline natures and morphologies of the deposited films. The electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge tests. The results revealed that the electrochemical performance of the as-obtained composite electrodes depended on the electrodeposition mode. The electrochemical properties of MnO2-NiO composite electrodes prepared using cyclic voltammetry exhibited the highest capacitance values and were most influenced by the deposition cycle number. The optimum specific capacitance was 3509 Fg-1 with energy and power densities of 1322 Wh kg-1 and 110.5 kW kg-1, respectively, at a current density of 20 Ag-1 in a mixed KOH/K3Fe(CN)6 electrolyte.

  16. Effects of Electrodeposition Mode and Deposition Cycle on the Electrochemical Performance of MnO2-NiO Composite Electrodes for High-Energy-Density Supercapacitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusi

    Full Text Available Nanostructured network-like MnO2-NiO composite electrodes were electrodeposited onto stainless steel substrates via different electrodeposition modes, such as chronopotentiometry, chronoamperometry, and cyclic voltammetry, and then subjected to heat treatment at 300°C for metal oxide conversion. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the crystalline natures and morphologies of the deposited films. The electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge tests. The results revealed that the electrochemical performance of the as-obtained composite electrodes depended on the electrodeposition mode. The electrochemical properties of MnO2-NiO composite electrodes prepared using cyclic voltammetry exhibited the highest capacitance values and were most influenced by the deposition cycle number. The optimum specific capacitance was 3509 Fg-1 with energy and power densities of 1322 Wh kg-1 and 110.5 kW kg-1, respectively, at a current density of 20 Ag-1 in a mixed KOH/K3Fe(CN6 electrolyte.

  17. FY 1998 result report. Study of a total system for the development of superconductor power application technology (Feasibility study of commercialization of superconductivity technology and study of the introductory effect. Future superconductivity technology development in Japan); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Chodendo denryoku oyo gijutsu kaihatsu total system nado no kenkyu chodendo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kanosei oyobi donyu kokanado no chosa (Nippon ni okeru chodendo gijutsu kaihatsu no kongo no hokosei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    As a part of the New Sunshine Project, 'an R and D project on superconductor power application technology,' an examinational study was made as a mini project to clarify the developmental course for commercialization of superconductor technology. The superconductor technology is being watched with interest as a technology in the 21st century. In the application to the electric power/energy field, in particular, expected are the energy saving effect by high operation efficiency, excellent environmentality, developmental potentiality of new equipment/system by the application of ferromagnetism, etc. Accordingly, the paper analytically arranged the needs of superconductor devices in Japan and abroad and the technology seeds corresponding to the needs, and prepared the developmental subjects of superconductor technology. These developmental steps and the mutual relationship were expressed in an R and D framework. At the same time, as to the superconductivity, a survey outlined the projects carried out in each government office in Japan. The future developmental course was indicated, and proposals were made on the equipment/system as object which are the subjects for urgent development for commercialization. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1998 result report. Study of a total system for the development of superconductor power application technology (Feasibility study of commercialization of superconductivity technology and study of the introductory effect. Future superconductivity technology development in Japan); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Chodendo denryoku oyo gijutsu kaihatsu total system nado no kenkyu chodendo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kanosei oyobi donyu kokanado no chosa (Nippon ni okeru chodendo gijutsu kaihatsu no kongo no hokosei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    As a part of the New Sunshine Project, 'an R and D project on superconductor power application technology,' an examinational study was made as a mini project to clarify the developmental course for commercialization of superconductor technology. The superconductor technology is being watched with interest as a technology in the 21st century. In the application to the electric power/energy field, in particular, expected are the energy saving effect by high operation efficiency, excellent environmentality, developmental potentiality of new equipment/system by the application of ferromagnetism, etc. Accordingly, the paper analytically arranged the needs of superconductor devices in Japan and abroad and the technology seeds corresponding to the needs, and prepared the developmental subjects of superconductor technology. These developmental steps and the mutual relationship were expressed in an R and D framework. At the same time, as to the superconductivity, a survey outlined the projects carried out in each government office in Japan. The future developmental course was indicated, and proposals were made on the equipment/system as object which are the subjects for urgent development for commercialization. (NEDO)

  19. Important role of projectile excitation in 16O+60Ni and 16O+27Al scattering at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Cappuzzello, F.; Lubian, J.; Cavallaro, M.; Linares, R.; Carbone, D.; Agodi, C.; Foti, A.; Tudisco, S.; Wang, J. S.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Hussein, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    The elastic scattering angular distribution of the 16O+60Ni system at 260 MeV was measured in the range of the Rutherford cross section down to seven orders of magnitude. The cross sections of the lowest 2+ and 3- inelastic states of the target were also measured over several orders of magnitude. Coupled-channel (CC) calculations were performed and are shown to be compatible with the whole set of data only when including the excitation of the projectile and when the deformations of the imaginary part of the nuclear optical potential are taken into account. Similar results were obtained when the procedure is applied to the existing data on 16O+27Al elastic and inelastic scattering at 100 and 280 MeV. An analysis in terms of dynamical polarization potentials (DPP) indicates the major role of coupled-channel effects in the overlapping surface region of the colliding nuclei.

  20. The effect of the addition of the elements Ni, Zn and Co in a composite AlTiO2 obtained by high-energy milling and sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.O. de; Coelho, R.E.; Conrado, L.C.; Nascimento, C.S.; Teixeira, C.A.; Mendonca, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    The present work use aluminum scrap with addition of TiO 2 , Ni, Zn or Co to preparation and characterization of nanocomposites. The aluminum were cut and subjected to high energy milling for 2 hours at 1200rpm. The obtained powder was added to TiO 2 , Ni, Zn or Co in a nominal composition 97Al-2TiO 2 -1X (X = Ni, Zn or Co) (weight %) and again, the mixture was subjected to milling for 1 hour at 1000rpm. Grinding powders were hot pressed in the closed die and then removed; the compressed were sintered at 950°C in a tubular furnace N 2 passing atmosphere. The samples obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM images showed a very refined microstructure and an aluminum matrix without porosity. (author)

  1. Self-diffusion on (100), (110), and (111) surfaces of Ni and Cu: A detailed study of prefactors and activation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku'rpick, Ulrike

    2001-01-01

    We calculate activation barriers and prefactors for diffusion via hopping on (100), (110), and (111) surfaces of Ni and Cu. The calculations reveal that, when activation barriers decrease there is also a decrease in the prefactors such that the changes in both quantities partly compensate for each other with respect to the diffusivities. Thermodynamic functions which contribute to the prefactors are calculated from local vibrational density of states, showing that mainly entropy contributions control the prefactors. Our method allows one to trace the obtained values back to vibrational properties of the adatoms in both the minimum-energy and transition-state configurations, and enables a physical understanding of why prefactors have certain values

  2. Study of the pressure-time-temperature transformation of amorphous La6Ni5Al89 by the energy dispersive method for phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, B.; Rossi-Albertini, V.; Sikorski, M.

    2005-01-01

    An energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method to observe phase transitions is applied to follow the crystallization of an amorphous alloy (La6Ni5Al89) in isothermal conditions. In this way, the diffraction-based configurational entropy (DCE) of the system undergoing the phase transformations...... was measured and the curves describing the transitions, qualitatively equivalent to a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, could be drawn. Finally, the analysis of such curves allowed calculation of some points of the alloy pressure-time-temperature transformation (PTTT) diagram. More...... importantly, the present work shows that the DCE method can be successfully applied even when DSC can no longer be used. As a consequence, regions of the phase diagram that could not be reached up to now become accessible, opening the way to the study of transition phenomena under extreme conditions....

  3. Fiscal 1998 research report. Research on energy conversion technology using biomass resources; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Biomass shigen wo genryo to suru energy henkan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility study was made on construction of the new energy production system by thermochemical conversion or combination of thermochemical and biological conversions of agricultural, fishery and organic waste system biomass resources. This report first outlines types and characteristics of biomass over the world, proposes the classification method of biomass from the viewpoint of biomass energy use, and shows the introduction scenario of biomass energy. The energy potential is calculated of agricultural waste, forestry waste and animal waste as the most promising biomass energy resources, and the biomass energy potential of energy plantation is estimated. The present and future of biochemical energy conversion technologies are viewed. The present and future of thermochemical energy conversion technologies are also viewed. Through evaluation of every conversion technology, the difference in feature between each conversion technology was clarified, and the major issues for further R and D were showed. (NEDO)

  4. How to tackle energy saving and load leveling. Energy saving towards 2000 and measures for the coming winter (energy-saving activities by California`s SCE, demand side management activities); Sho energy fuka heijunka ni do torikumuka. Seireki 2000 nen ni muketa sho energy to konto no shoene taisaku, Kashu SCE no sho energy (DSM katsudo wo saguru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, S. [The Energy Conservation Center Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Tokyo Electric Power has realized a peak shift of 5% for the maximum power demand by various measures to cope with increasing power demand and differential rate by time zone, including expansion of the differential rate system and heat-storage systems. Some of more notable recent techniques are eco-ice and eco-vendor systems, the former storing ice in the heat-storage tanks and the latter strongly cooling vending machines during nighttime. The NAS battery system is being developed as the new technique for load leveling. The energy-related advisory organ for Minister of International Trade and Industry asks each industrial unit to save at least 1% of power on the annual average as the energy-saving measure towards 2000. The energy-saving measures promoted by the government for the coming winter are controlled release of wastes, efficient use of power, setting room temperature at 19{degree}C or lower and voluntarily refrain from commuting by cars. The US power industry is abandoning the concept of DSM in the midst of deregulation and increased competition, and cutting budgets for new energy development. California`s SCE is promoting energy-saving through expanded use of high-efficiency motors, accurate grasp of customers` needs and publicity activities through internet systems. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Reports on 1981 result of Sunshine Project. Research on conditioning required for industrialization of new energy technology; 1981 nendo shin energy gijutsu kigyoka ni hitsuyona joken seibi ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This research was intended to establish foundation for the coming new energy era, by clarifying all interfering elements and taking counter measures, in further spreading and promoting the new phase of new energy technology development under the Sunshine Project. With the public section as the main body, studies were made in the technological aspect as well as the legal/institutional aspects, and also an investigation was conducted of the cases of introducing new energy from overseas. In the subject research, with 1990 set as the target year, the following examinations were carried out for the purpose of concretely estimating the situation of introducing new energy into the society in Japan at such point in time. The examinations were to study the feasibility of substitution with new energy in fiscal 1990 on the present level of oil consumption; to extract problems on the basis of the results and examining a policy of introducing and promoting new energy; and, to investigate on the spot, as a case study in building a coal liquefaction plant in a coal production area overseas, a relation with the energy policy of the producing country in implementing the overseas operation and importation of liquefied oil so produced, etc. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1997 report on the research study for preparation of NEDO`s vision. Biomass energy; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (NEDO vision sakutei ni muketa chosa kenkyu). Biomass energy ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research study was made on the current usage, technological development and future subjects of biomass energy. The current use of biomass energy over the world estimated to be nearly a billion t/y oil equivalent. This value is estimated to be only a part of a pure primary biomass yield of 73 billion t/y oil equivalent showing a large supply potential. The evaluation result of a biomass energy potential in the world by GLUE (Global Land Use and Energy Model) considering worldwide biomass flow and competition of land use showed that no change of land use form in advanced areas is predicted, and no production of new biomass energy from forests in advancing areas is also expected. Production of biomass energy from farm products is promising in advanced areas, while the potential of biomass residue is high in advancing areas showing the possibility of energy development. Development of new biotechnologies such as molecular control of bio-production functions is expected to increase biomass resources. 76 refs., 26 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on separated targets of {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn and {sup 208}Pb using the Saclay fixed-energy cyclotron; Sections efficaces differentielles elastiques et inelastiques obtenues par diffusion de particules {alpha} de 44 MeV sur des cibles de {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn et {sup 208}Pb au cyclotron a energie fixe de saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruge, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de physique nucleaire, service de physique nucleaire a moyenne energie

    1967-01-01

    This report contains elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn and Pb enriched targets. (author) [French] Ce rapport contient les tableaux des sections efficaces differentielles obtenues par diffusion elastique et inelastique des particules {alpha} de 44 MeV, fournies par le cyclotron a energie fixe de Saclay, sur des cibles d'isotopes separes de Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn et Pb. (auteur)

  8. Energy-filtered environmental transmission electron microscopy for the assessment of solid-gas reactions at elevated temperature: NiO/YSZ-H2 as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach, which is based on the analysis of sequences of images recorded using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and can be used to assess the reaction of a solid with a gas at elevated temperature, is illustrated for the reduction of a NiO/ceramic solid oxide fuel cell ano...

  9. Dissipation and accumulation of energy during plastic deformation of Armco -iron and 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel irradiated by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toktogulova, D.; Maksimkin, O.; Gusev, M.; Garner, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Much attention is currently being paid in the fusion materials community to modeling of radiation damage and its consequences in structural alloys on mechanical properties. Such activities are best guided with experimental data on the fundamental microstructural and thermodynamic processes involved. This report addresses such fundamental concerns. During plastic deformation of metals some fraction of the externally-applied mechanical energy is converted into heat and is partially accumulated in the form of crystal lattice defects. The thermal release arises from gliding dislocations, their various interactions, their annihilation etc. With respect to irradiated material, one might expect additional heat release caused by interactions of dislocation and radiation-induced defects. To explore this possibility flat mini-tensile specimens of Armco-iron and 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel, both in the annealed condition, were irradiated in the range 2x10 18 to 1.3x10 20 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV) in the WWR-K reactor at T≤350 K. Mechanical tests of both irradiated and non-irradiated specimens were conducted at room temperature in a facility that was a combination of a Calvet calorimeter and a micro-tensile device. This allows simultaneous measurement of mechanical properties and thermodynamic parameters such as deformation work, dissipated heat and latent energy during deformation. The authors derived the kinetics of changes in thermodynamic characteristics versus the deformation level. As the neutron fluence rises, the material's capability to accumulate energy appears to be declining. For example, 12Cr18Ni10Ti irradiated to 1.3x10 20 n/cm 2 did not show any energy accumulation under deformation. In Armco-iron at 1.4x10 19 n/cm 2 the heat release considerably exceeded the deformation work value. The authors assume that such effects might be related with annihilation of point defects and their complexes introduced during irradiation. To test this

  10. Study on the detached house plan using of a maximum natural energy. Part 1; Shizen energy fukugo riyo no keikaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, I; Mino, M; Miyata, T; Okawa, M [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The geographical position or environment is set on the assumption that the natural energy of a detached house is used in a hybrid state. Moreover, the energy consumption of the house and the natural energy supply obtained from the geographical position were compared and investigated. As a result, the energy consumption is 10,617 kWh, and the energy supply is 8,236 kWh. About 78% of the whole consumption can be theoretically made from natural energy. The energy supply is calculated on the low side during prediction. Therefore, an increase in the energy supply is expected by installing a solar collector based on solar energy, expanding the solar panel area, and increasing the number of wind mills. However, this energy is partially lost via an inverter while it is supplied to the general domestic equipment. At the six main points in Tokyo and its districts, the adaptability of natural energy used based on the regional characteristics is investigated presently and the installation of a system is examined. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Basic survey on practical application of innovative energy technologies; 1999 nendo kakushinteki energy gijutsu no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kiso chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This survey aims to verify whether recoverable energies can bear the important role of energy source in place of fossil fuels, to probe into problems that may arise in the process of recoverable energy introduction, and to compile suggestions about measures toward their smooth introduction, these by working out an 'ultralong-term world energy supply and demand outlook' valid up to 2100. Various measures to deal with global warming are analyzed by simulation. The study is not to predict what is in store but to metrically describe and present choices and possibilities for the future with a theoretical consistency based on various factors including economic growth, population, demand for energy, magnitude of fossil energy resources, and feasibility and cost of recoverable energies. This study implies that there is not a single, determining policy for solving the global warming problem and that it is important to cope with the problem by resorting to combinations of various means. (NEDO)

  12. Formation of secondary products in water purification. ; Toxicological evaluation of mutagenic chlorination by-products during drinking water treatment. Josui shori ni okeru fukuseiseibutsu. ; Josui shori ni okeru hen'i genseibusshitsu no dokusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamuro, K [Setsunan Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sayato, Y [Setsunan Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1993-12-10

    The biological effects of acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, etc. of chlorination by-products detected in drinking water in Japan are discussed. The biological effects of representative chlorination by-products such as trihalomethane, haloacetic acid, haloaldehyde, haloacetonitrile, chlorophenol, chloropicrin, etc. as well as the evaluation of mutagenicity in drinking water purification process, for which Ames Salmonella/microsome assay is used for safety evaluation of drinking water, are discussed. The extent of the contribution of mutagenicity of chlorination disinfection by-products to the mutagenicity of drinking water is investigated. It must be admitted that biological evaluation of the safety of water quality is impossible currently by using only the known chemical substances contained in drinking water. The effects of chlorination and ozone treatment which are often applied to drinking water treatment are different each other. 58 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. 3D seismic survey in Honjo, Akita. Problems and struggles in acquisition and processing; Akitaken Honjo koku ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa. Genba sagyo to data shori ni okeru mondaiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imahori, S; Kotera, Y; Nakanishi, T [Japan Energy Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Honjo mining area where investigations are conducted is hilly and has a complicated terrain with gas pipes buried in the ground just under the access road disabling the proper positioning of shock-generating large excavators or vibrators. Auger`s shallow hole shooting method is used in this survey to execute blastings at 639 points. In this method using charge depths of 4m, different from the conventional method using deeper charge depths (20-25m), surface waves prevail in the shot records giving rise to a new problem of removing them in the stage of data processing. The 2D filter that is a powerful tool in 2D data processing is not available in a 3D-survey where the tracing intervals are irregular in the shot records. In the effort of this time, a window length as a parameter in the direction of time is specified, and the F-X dip filtering method is employed in which any event that linearly continues beyond a certain number of traces in the said window is eliminated as a linear noise. It is recommended that the weighting function be changed in the direction of space since surface wave velocities are different at different locations. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Report for fiscal 2001 investigations on energy saving assistance institutions in different countries; 2001 nendo kakkoku no sho energy shien seido ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Taking up China, India, Indonesia and Thailand as the object, investigations were performed on political financing measures that can be used for installing energy saving facilities, and on applicable preferential taxation systems that are applied in each country. Indonesia has no aid measures such as subsidies and political financing directly purposed for energy conservation. Import duty exemption is applied for the purpose of promoting investments. Three kinds of funds are available through IFCT to implement fund aid to protect the environment. Energy saving fund has been established as an energy saving policy to provide subsidies. Energy saving machineries recognized by the investment committee are exempted from the import duties. India has no political financing measures directly purposed for energy conservation. Its preferential taxation system for energy conservation includes the 100% accelerated amortization system for energy saving machineries and facilities, and the preferential import duty system. In China, the financing from the China National Development Bank is considered utilizable in installing energy saving facilities. The country has no aid measures in the taxation system, but fund aid and subsidy by supplementing interest are provided. (NEDO)

  15. Thermal capture cross section for 58Ni (n,γ)59 Ni reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, A.W.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The 58 Ni total thermal capture cross section was determined by suming the partial cross sections calculated for the primary transitions of the reaction 58 Ni (n,γ) 59 Ni. The primary transitions energies and intensities were determined from the 58 Ni thermal neutrons prompt gamma capture gamma rays spectrum in the 3.7 to 9.3 MeV region. The obtained value for the total cross section was 4.52 + 0.10b. (author) [pt

  16. Electrochemical preparation and characteristics of Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} composite coatings as electrode materials for hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Gang; Li Ning; Dai Changsong; Zhou Derui

    2004-02-15

    Electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} composite electrodes prepared by electrochemical codeposition technique was evaluated. The relationship between the current density for hydrogen evolution reaction and the amount of LaNi{sub 5} particles in Ni-Co baths is like the well-known 'volcano plot'. The Surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} coatings were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetic parameters were determined from electrochemical steady-state Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology in 1 M NaOH solution. The values obtained for the apparent energies of activation are 32.48, 46.29 and 57.03 kJ mol{sup -1} for the Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5}, Ni-Co and Ni electrodes, respectively. The hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} proceeds via Volmer-Tafel reaction route with the mixed rate determining characteristics. The composite coating Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} is catalytically more active than Ni and Ni-Co electrodes due to the increase in its real surface areas and the decrease in the apparent free energy of activation caused by the electrocatalytic synergistic effect of the Ni-Co alloys and the hydrogen storage intermetallic particles on the electrode surface.

  17. Electrochemical preparation and characteristics of Ni-Co-LaNi5 composite coatings as electrode materials for hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang; Li Ning; Dai Changsong; Zhou Derui

    2004-01-01

    Electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 composite electrodes prepared by electrochemical codeposition technique was evaluated. The relationship between the current density for hydrogen evolution reaction and the amount of LaNi 5 particles in Ni-Co baths is like the well-known 'volcano plot'. The Surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Co-LaNi 5 coatings were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetic parameters were determined from electrochemical steady-state Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology in 1 M NaOH solution. The values obtained for the apparent energies of activation are 32.48, 46.29 and 57.03 kJ mol -1 for the Ni-Co-LaNi 5 , Ni-Co and Ni electrodes, respectively. The hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 proceeds via Volmer-Tafel reaction route with the mixed rate determining characteristics. The composite coating Ni-Co-LaNi 5 is catalytically more active than Ni and Ni-Co electrodes due to the increase in its real surface areas and the decrease in the apparent free energy of activation caused by the electrocatalytic synergistic effect of the Ni-Co alloys and the hydrogen storage intermetallic particles on the electrode surface

  18. FY 1999 achievement report on the supporting project to form energy/environmental technology verification project - International joint verification research project. Research on the waste-fueled power system using gases emitted from the sanitary landfill in Samarkand city; 1999 nendo Samarkand shi ni okeru umetate gas wo riyoshita gomi hatsuden system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In Samarkand city, Uzbekistan, solid waste materials are treated in the sanitary landfill. However, requests were made from the Minister of Communal Services for the construction of power system as a part of the effective waste utilization and the study of the integrated waste collection system enabling the construction of a power system. There is only one waste dumping site in Samarkand city. That started to be used in the beginning of the 1970s. That was planned to be closed in 2000, but is now planned to used till 2005. Therefore, it is urgent to reduce the volume of waste. The incineration of waste is the most suitable for it. In the study of a power system by using waste effectively, it is important to efficiently recover the methane gas emitted from the waste dumping site, to study the adoption of the repowering system using the combustion gas of methane gas for increasing the generated output of waste-fueled power generation facilities, and to heighten the low power generation efficiency. This study includes the survey of the waste discharge amount/composition/heating value, collection of the data on waste collection, and sampling/analysis of gases emitted from the dumping site. The paper reported on the proposals. (NEDO)

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on project for supporting the formation of energy/environmental technology verification project. International joint verification research project (Study on an optimum heat and electricity supply system using a solar pond); 1999 nendo solar pond ni okeru saiteki netsuden kyokyu system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report covers the outcome of survey and research jointly conducted by a Russian research organization and a Japanese committee of experts. Concerning the present trend and the future outlook of the solar pond technology across the world, feasibility studies of Australia, America, Malaysia, Italy, etc., are presented. It is reported that a solar pond may be able to compete with other profitable power generation systems in terms of cost if advantageous siting conditions are available; that solar ponds are already in presence in Israel, America, Australia, India, etc.; but that none of them is commercially active on a large scale. In the evaluation of solar pond feasibility, various findings are obtained on solar pond performance characteristics through the examination of solar pond operating data supplied from the University of Texas, America. The findings are used in the evaluation of the siting cost in case one is to be installed in Russia and Japan. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1999 research report. Support project for formation of the energy and environment technology demonstration project (International joint demonstration research). FS study on construction of wind-farms in Sakhalin and Kurile Islands; 1999 nendo Sakhalin, Chishima retto ni okeru wind farm kensetsu no tame no FS kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For Sakhalin Electric Power's plan for coal fuel saving and stable power supply by introducing wind power generation for Sakhalin island in great difficulty, this research surveys its feasibility from the viewpoint of wind condition estimation, power system and wind turbine facility. The research result showed 3 promising candidate power generation sites with a sufficient profitability in Sakhalin island. In particular, 2 sites among them have excellent conditions from the viewpoint of traffic, transport and construction, and because these sites require only a small investment, earlier start of construction at these sites is expected. Since Kurile Islands and the Far East area also have excellent wind conditions, their wind resources are very promising. For total estimated wind power generation of 56MW, power system interconnection is possible with the existing substation facilities without any technical problem. Protective measures against the cold for wind turbine facilities are also possible by excellent technology of European suppliers. (NEDO)

  1. Evaporation residue cross sections for the {sup 64}Ni + {sup 144,154}Sm reaction -- Energy dissipation in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Davids, C.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The fission hindrance of hot nuclei was deduced recently from an enhanced emission of GDR {gamma} rays, neutrons and charged particles prior to scission of heavy nuclei. In the most recent experiments addressing this topic, namely new measurements of the pre-scission {gamma} rays and evaporation residues from the {sup 32}S + {sup 184}W reaction, a rather sharp transition from negligible to full one-body dissipation occurs over the excitation energy region E{sub exc} = 60-100 MeV. However, the cross section does not appear to level out or start to decline again at the upper end of the energy range as expected in this interpretation. It is therefore clearly desirable to extend the excitation energy range to look for such an effect in order to either corroborate or refute this interpretation.

  2. The high surface energy of NiO {110} facets incorporated into TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres by etching Ti plate for enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Cui, Hongzhi, E-mail: cuihongzhi1965@163.com; Song, Xiaojie; Wei, Na; Tian, Jian, E-mail: jiantian@sdust.edu.cn

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • NiO/TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres were fabricated by etching Ti plate. • The incorporated NiO nanoparticles exposed high surface energy {110} facets. • The p–n junction catalysts improved photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity. • Using this synthesis strategy, other mixed semiconducting metal oxide microspheres. - Abstract: We present a rational design for the controllable synthesis of NiO/TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres (NTHMs) with Ti plate via a one-pot template-free synthesis strategy. Specifically, to enhance the formation of hollow microspheres, part of the titanium source is provided by the Ti plate. The hollow spherical NiO/TiO{sub 2} particles possess unique microstructural characteristics, namely, a higher specific surface area (∼65.82 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), a larger mesoporous structure (∼7.79 nm), and hierarchical nanoarchitectures connected with mesopores within the shell (monodispersed size of ∼1 μm and shell thickness of ∼80 nm). In addition, as a cocatalyst for improved catalytic activity, the incorporated NiO nanoparticles with exposed high surface energy {110} facets displayed an outstanding performance. It has been proven that this facile nanostructure possesses remarkably high photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities. The main mechanism for enhancement of photocatalytic activity is attributed to the construction of p-n junctions with an inner electric field between TiO{sub 2} and NiO, which can dramatically enhance the separation efficiency of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. This strategy could be applied to fabricate mixed metal oxide hollow microspheres toward the photoelectrochemical catalysis.

  3. Microstructural and magnetic study of ferrites Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sintered by microwave energy; Estudo microestrutral e magnetico de ferritas Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sinterizadas por energia de micro-ondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, V.C.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: veronicacristhina@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Cornejo, D.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    The study of the processing of Ni-Zn ferrite is of extreme importance to improve its magnetic properties, as they are directly influenced by the final microstructure of the material. This study evaluated the influence of exposure time in the sintering of Ni-Zn ferrite phase by microwave energy, and its subsequent microstructural characterization, and magnetic. The samples of Ni-Zn ferrite were sintered using microwave energy at a temperature of 1200 °C and an exposure time of 10, 20 and 30 minutes, respectively. Then were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and magnetic measurements. With the results, it was observed that all samples obtained from the formation Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase with all high intensity peaks. It was possible to obtain a nanostructure with maximum saturation magnetization of 71 emu / g for the sample sintered in longer exposure time. (author)

  4. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method; Gokusenso jishin hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S; Muraoka, S; Kaida, Y; Takahashi, T [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To effectively use the very shallow seismic reflection for active fault survey, a method has been investigated by which fault structures can be appropriately reconstructed from the fault information detected in the original records. The first step of reconstructing the fault system from the travel time reflection curve was to grasp an outline of fault structure from the patterns of travel time curve observed in the original record. For the very shallow seismic reflection method, especially, the low velocity layers in a shallow part succeeding from the ground surface made the issue complicated. Then, the travel time reflection curves were calculated in the case of existing several horizontal reflection surfaces in the surface layer. The constant values, mean velocities to the depth at individual reflection surfaces were used for the approximation of velocities. The outline of fault structure was grasped from the observation of original record. Then, the structure was reconstructed from the travel time curves. When the mean velocity in the medium was known, reconstruction of the feature of reflection surfaces from the travel time curves could be determined by simple mapping. When the mean velocity was unknown, it was calculated using the reciprocal travel time from the common reflection surface for individual reflection surfaces. 7 figs.

  5. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  6. Phosphorus and nitrogen removal in waste water at small factory. Shokibo jigyosho ni okeru haisuichu no rin chisso shori gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-05-25

    For the purpose of preventing closed waters from eutrophicating, COD regulations and nitrogen and phosphorus waste water regulations are executed in Japan, but practically applicable techniques for this purpose are a few. Concerning technology for removing nitrogen and phosphorus in waste water, this paper describes the actual situation of two industries, electroplating and alumite processing, and applicable techniques. Among various nitrogen removal methods, the biological treatment method has been used practically in many cases and is applicable to practical use. While there are many kinds of physical and chemical treatment methods, applicable methods are limited. In removing nitrogen, the coagulating sedimentation method with Ca salt, Al salt and Fe salt is effective generally for orthophosphate. At electroplating factories, various forms of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds are used as plating chemicals. In treating waste water containing phosphorus, the coagulating sedimentation method is used most frequently. The oxidation + coagulating sedimentation method, the autolysis + oxidation coagulation method, and the evaporation method are effected, though the examples of their implementation are small in number. 15 tabs.

  7. Fresh Vegetables in the food service Industry its purchasing system; Gaishoku sangyo ni okeru seisen seikabutsu no chotatsu shisutemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, K. [Food Service Industry Survey and Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-05

    The environment which surrounds production, distribution, consumption of vegetables changes. A demand for the business a household economy demand of vegetables stagnates by the increase of eating out and lunches demand in the food consumption as a long-term tendency, and the tendency as vigorousness continues. In addition, a demand for domestic organic and special cultivation vegetables from the increase of the healthy and safe orientation of the consumer heightens. In this paper, what kind of new movement occurs in environmental change which surrounds these vegetables is arranged. (NEDO)

  8. Roles of major organizations in EC for decision making. EC no ishi kettei ni okeru shuyo kikan no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper considers authorization powers held by the major organizations in the EC, with the Maastricht Treaty kept in mind. One of the objectives of establishing the EC is to harmonize and develop the economic activities in the community on the whole, and promote making closer the relations among the member nations. The EC's supernationality has two aspects: finances (using financial sources from externally common tariffs as the EC's independent financial resources) and legislations (member nations delegating their own powers to the international organization). Organizations involving in the EC legislations are the European Assembly, the board of ministers, and the EC Committee. The Assembly has deciding powers at high levels on the EC budget decision, as well as vetoing power on the budget. The board of ministers is provided with deciding powers to assure achievement of the objectives defined in the official requirements. The Committee has a supernational character that each committee member can act independently free from being subjected to orders from his or her native country. Practically, however, the authorization relationship among the organizations has confrontations over the interests of the organizations and member nations. There have been such movements in this situation as the Luxemburg compromises, actions at the agricultural ministers meeting, and preparation of the unified European protocol. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T; Kusunose, K; Cho, A; Tosha, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T; Yamada, F [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Magnetic constraints of basement structure offshore of western Kyushu, Japan; Kyushu seiho kaiiki ni okeru jiki ijo no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S; Nakatsuka, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the results from the qualitative analysis of magnetic anomalies offshore of western Kyushu and from an analysis by a three-dimensional two-layer model inversion. The analysis ranged from Kyushu on the east to Jeju Island on the west and from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on the north to Tanegashima and Yakushima Islands on the south, namely, the area of 580km from east to west and 580km from south to north. The analytical data used was Magnetic Anomaly Map of Asia (GSJ and CCOP, 1994). In the qualitative analysis, a pseudogravity anomaly map and a pole gravity anomaly map were prepared from the total magnetic force anomaly map by means of a frequency filter operation. As a result, it was noted that two distinctive magnetic high belts existed in the margin of the Tunghai Shelf, extending from the sea area to the west of the Nansei Islands continuously to NNE, and being distributed transversely through the Goto sedimentary basin. Additionally, in the inversion analysis, it was demonstrated that the magnetic basement became shallow at the margin of the Tunghai Shelf north of latitude 31 degrees north, extending nearly in the NNE direction through west of the Goto Islands, west of Tsushima Island, and continuing to the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Inoue, J; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  12. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Results of cultivation experiment at clean farm (vegetable plant). 1. Clean farm (yasai kojo) ni okeru saibai jikken kekka. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaishi, T; Kawagishi, K; Matsuzaki, O; Nakahara, M [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1991-03-31

    This paper reports a summary of the facilities in an experimental plant constructed by the Kyushu Electric Power Company in 1988, and a result of experiments on cultivating salad and lettuce. The plant has environmentally controlled cultivating rooms of solar beam combined type and totally artificial light type, each having a floor area of 50 m {sup 2}, disposed with cultivating stages divided into three divisions of seedling culture, growth, and forced culture, nutritious liguid feeding devices of circulation type, and air conditioning equipment. The paper describes results of the tests aimed at realizing an increase in yield and profit, an optimum cultivating system, and economic facilities at the vegetable plant. Included in the tests are that (a) four kinds of salads and five kinds lettuce were selected for cultivation to decide most suitable kinds, based on literature survey and preliminary experiments; (b) varying the environmental conditions for the culture, such as temperature, radiating condition, concentration of the nutritious liquid, and concentration of carbon dioxide, conditions optimum or suitable for the plant growth were selected; (c) the plant was compared with glass green houses with respect to the required cultivating period of time, vitamin C content and color tones of the products; (d) the solar beam combined type room and the totally artificial light rooms were compared with respect to power consumption and heat capacity that passes through the cultivation room walls, and the latter was concluded being superior in economics and stability. 12 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. On-line sensor technology for food manufacturing industry. Shokuhin bun prime ya ni okeru on-line sensor gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiya, K. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    This paper introduced the sensor technology for food manufacturing industry. If sugar concentration in main raw material is too high in the amino acid fermentation, control of the concentration is required because fungi growth is inhibited. A controlling method for sugar concentration was developed by using the correlation between consumption of NH {sub 3} for pH adjustment and sugar consumption in place of conventional analyzing method and was introduced in the gulutamic acid fermantation. BOD sensor was developed to enable the selective measurement of organic substances which can be processed by organisms, and measuring time was shortened from previous five days to 30 minutes. Since many organics absorb infrared ray, near infrared analysis is suitable for food analysis and on-line analysis has high possibility. When this method is applied to measure moisture in fishes and meats, continuous measurement can be made nondestructively and without contacting, and further the precision is {plus minus} 0.1%. Simultaneous multi-composition analyses are carried out by continuous spectrum and near infrared method using higher rate scanning. Sensor development for taste and smell has started. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 refs.

  15. Treatability evaluation of membrane technique by virus. Maku shori ni okeru shorisei hyoka to shite no virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Research Lab. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-10

    Concerning a high level treating method of regeneration of sewage water, there are methods of coagulation/precipitation, sand filtering and ozone treatment in addition to the conventional active sludge method. However, none of these methods are perfect from the viewpoint of virus. A film treating method to remove micro-organisms in water is twofold, i.e., microfiltration and reverse osmosis. For such filter treatments, polio virus is most suited as an experimental index for conducting an assessment of the treating ability of viruses. The reasons are as follows: 1. It is the smallest virus among the viruses which are mixed in the water systems. 2. Polio virus is always detected in the study of actual conditions of the viruses contained in the sewage waters. 3. It involves less danger in handling because there are vaccines which are made less poisonous. 4. Separation and quantification of viruses is easily conducted by means of cultured cells. 8 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  16. Studies on reactivity of coal surfaces at low temperature; Teion ni okeru sekitan hyomen no hannosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn reactivity of coal at its surface, surfaces of oxidized coal samples were investigated. Miike coal was oxidized by using {sup 18}O2 in a closed loop system. As the reaction progresses, proportion of CO2 including isotopes increased rapidly as a result of oxidation of CO sites existing in the coal and the newly generated C{sup 18}O sites. The oxidizing reaction progressed via oxygen adsorbing sites generated near the surface, and oxygen containing groups. An FT-IR analysis estimated the depth of the oxidized layer to be 10{mu}m or less from particle surface. The oxidized coal was pulverized to see its surface condition. Functional groups introduced by the oxidation enter into the vicinity of the surface in a form to desorb as CO. CO2 is trapped in inner pores. The coal surface was observed by using an atomic force microscope. No observable openings in the pore structure were discerned on the surface before the oxidation, and the structure agrees with a closed pore model. Surface image oxidized in-situ by oxygen for one hour had slight roundness, which led to a supposition of structural change, and changes in the functional group and adsorption species. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Change of unit skeletons during an artificial coalification; Jinko sekitanka katei ni okeru tan`i kokkaku kozo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y.; Hayamizu, K. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to obtain knowledge about formation and growth of condensed ring structure in a coalification process, discussions were given on product skeleton structure by using hydrogenation and hydrocracking of heated cellulose. In underwater heating of cellulose, reaction of dehydration has occurred at 200{degree}C or lower, that of decarbonation at 250{degree}C or higher, and that of demethanizing at 300{degree}C, resulting in production of a dark-brown coal-like substance. The substance has lower H/C value and higher O/C value than coal. As the underwater heating temperature rises, the hydrogenation reactivity of the heated substance decreases, and so does the ratio of conversion into toluene solubles. These phenomena are related to strength of cross-linking bond between unit skeleton structures. A substance heated at an underwater heating temperature of 200{degree}C turns toluene-soluble almost completely even during the hydrogenation reaction (350{degree}C for 2 hours), but the soluble product decreases at underwater heating temperatures of 250 and 300{degree}C. However, soluble product of more than 90% was obtained when hydrocracking (at 425{degree}C for one hour) was performed. The toluene-soluble product in the heated substance is only 50% when the underwater heating temperature reaches 350{degree}C even if the hydrocracking is carried out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  18. R and D contract management systems in the USA; Beikoku ni okeru R and D contract kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    Outlined herein are the US Government's R and D contract management, which is considered to have greatly contributed to promotion of innovation in the USA. The procedures for the R and D contracts are managed through the mechanisms of the (government procurement), following the FAR (Federal Acquisition Regulations) that govern the government procurement rules. The procedural flow includes planning, public announcement of inviting the application documents, examination of the applications, negotiations, granting the fund, project management, suspension of the project and completion of the project. The audition sometimes takes several years to complete. The staff managing the individual contract is fairly specialized, and a team consisting of several professionals is responsible for each project. The substantial lifetime training systems the contract officers can receive are established. The alternative contract system encourages the applications from consortiums, and private enterprises frequently tie up with academic organizations to apply for the funds. Granting the funds to consortiums have many advantages, e.g., cost sharing and technological transfer. (NEDO)

  19. Introduction of research and development in Image Information Science Laboratory; Image joho kagaku kenkyusho ni okeru kenkyu kaihatsu no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-10

    This paper introduces research and development at the Image Information Science Laboratory. This is a joint industry-university research institution for the purpose of making a computer recognize human non-language information, expressing and transmitting it, with the research conducted at two centers, Kanto and Kansai. The following studies are being made at the Kansai research center: man/machine interface making natural communication possible between a man and a machine, with emphasis placed on visual information; sensing technology for measuring human activity, technology for analyzing/forming human sensitivity, and technology of expression; technology by which a work is done by a computer in place of a man and reproduced on the computer, with the skill transferred to a man; and development of a spatial expression media system such as a three-dimensional display device. The Tokyo research center is participating in the following projects: committee for promoting joint industry-university research and development of virtual reality (VR); joint industry-university research, development and implementation project of advanced VR; survey on physiological psychological effect in VR system and the like; and research and development of human media. (NEDO)

  20. Improvement of vehicle stability in cornering on uneven road; Akuro senkaiji ni okeru sharyo no anzensei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, K; Harada, M; Harada, H [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The active control of vehicle suspensions and rear wheel steering systems in turning on uneven roads is analyzed by means of LQR control theory, assuming that cornering forces depend on tire normal loads in addition to tire slip angles. The authors quantitatively investigated the effectiveness of the integrated control of the active suspension and the rear wheel steering, comparing the contributions of each individual system. Furthermore, in this paper, the role of the chassis control and driver control are studied in order to improve the stability of vehicle motion disturbed by the road surface. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S; Ukawa, H [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K; Kitagawa, A [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Measurement improvements of heat flux probes for internal combustion engine; Nainen kikan ni okeru netsuryusokukei no kaihatsu to kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, H; Tasaka, H [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In heat flux measurement in engines, material properties of a heat flux probe and numerical prediction of those influence have been discussed rather than practical measurement accuracy. This study featured the process for the quantitative examination of heat flux probes. Although the process required direct comparison among all the probes and additional measurements in a constant volume bomb, precision of heat flux measurement was greatly improved so that the essential characteristics of heat transfer in engines can be detected. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Status of the superconductive Maglev program in the United States; Amerika ni okeru chodendo jiki fujo tetsudo keikaku no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaki, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-07-25

    In the United States, high speed transportation plan was approved in 1965, and research and development of the superconductive magnetically levitated system (Maglev) became active. Although research and development for design, construction, and test for 500km/h Maglev were started in 1974, the federal government ordered to stop in 1975 all the development projects of high speed transportation traffic systems, and the activity slowed down very much as compared with those in Japan, Germany, and other countries. In 1990, the National Maglev Initiative (NMI) project was established. The feature which is different from those of Japanese and German systems is 0.16g and larger acceleration, which allows to shorten the transit time between stations. Development plan for Maglev prototype was approved officially in November, 1991. Features of levitation, guidance, propulsion as well as the carriage lineup of the 4 systems conceptually designed in the NMI project are introduced. 22 refs., 4 figs., 57 tabs.

  4. Impedance frequency characteristics of the MAGLEV power feeding circuit; Jiki fujoshiki tetsudo ni okeru kidenkei no inpidansu shuhasu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, S [Numazu College of Technology, Shizuoka (Japan); Ajiki, K [Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-09-20

    In connection with the impedance frequency characteristics of the coils for propulsion and the power feeding circuit of the magnetically levitated train (MAGLEV), the inverted L circuit and T circuit as equivalent circuits for the coil for propulsion and for the power feeding, respectively, are proposed and analyzed. The simulated result and the result of measurement reported by now are in good agreement, the measured values and calculated values being almost equal in both the characteristics of the coils for propulsion and those of the power feeding circuit. The validity of the two equivalent circuits are clarified, and the frequency characteristics are verified theoretically. The impedance frequency characteristics of the coils for propulsion which are peculiar to MAGLEV are investigated with the power feeding circuit consisting of the power feeding line and propulsion coils. Lastly, simulation is carried out for the coils for propulsion with several hundred propulsion coils and for the power feeding system assuming the commercial line. As a result, it is found that the antiresonant frequencies are decreased to about one tenth in both of the characteristics. 11 refs., 18 figs.

  5. Technology for emission control in internal combustion engines; Kakushu nainen kikan ni okeru hai gas joka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Described herein are emission control technology and exhaust gas cleaning measures for internal combustion engines. Gas turbines burn relatively high-quality fuels, such as natural gas, kerosene, diesel oil and gas oil, where the major concerns are to reduce NOx and dust emissions. The NOx abatement techniques fall into two general categories; wet processes which inject water or steam, and dry processes which depend on improved combustion. Power generation and cogeneration which burn natural gas adopt lean, premixed combustion and two-stage combustion as the major approaches. Low-speed, large-size diesel engines, which realize very high thermal efficiency, discharge high concentrations of NOx. Delayed fuel injection timing is the most easy NOx abatement technique to meet the related regulations, but is accompanied by decreased fuel economy. Use of water-emulsified fuel, water layer injection and multi-port injection can reduce NOx emissions without decreasing fuel economy, depending on optimization methods adopted. Automobile gasoline engines are required to further clean exhaust gases by catalystic systems. 9 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Trend of advanced technology of micromachines in the USA; Beikoku ni okeru micro machine sentan gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In this research, the data of advanced technology of micromachines in the USA have been searched, collected, and arranged from the US patent information, technical journal information, and newspaper and general journal information. According to demand, the main undertaking information was interviewed from well-informed persons. The data were compiled as advanced technology trend of micromachines in the USA. Sensors are remarkably predominant in the elemental technology. There are also important topics in the fields of actuators, motors, lenses, devices, and structures. On the other hand, materials, etchings, packages, motive powers, and softwares are also important elemental technology in spite of their less information. From the viewpoint of usage, detection systems are remarkably predominant. Then, robots, processing systems, optics, analysis systems, motive power systems, medical systems, and acoustic systems are also important. From the viewpoint of industrial sector, the environmental items are predominant. Automobiles, medical treatments, and information communications follow the above. When new relationships to the secondary usage and tertiary usage are not found, it would be rather hard to express such a technology development trend more clearly.

  7. Earthquake resistant measures of existing structures by TRTA; Eidan chikatetsu ni okeru kisetsu doboku kozobutsu no taishin taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, N.

    1997-08-10

    Seismic countermeasures for the existing structures are introduced on the main item: reinforcement of open-cut tunnel RC center pillars as well as on reinforcement of rigid frame viaduct pillars and installation of a device for prevention of viaduct falling. First, for reinforcing open-cut tunnel center pillars, design was devised so as to be suitable to construction environment in the subway yard. Important reinforcement materials are steel and filling materials; SS and a self-leveling material for building construction were chosen. The following construction work procedures are explained based on the actual construction: removal of interior materials of existing pillars and measurement of the actual size, high pressure water washing, steel plate fabrication, plate delivery to the yard, installation of steel plates, filler filling, painting. Next, on reinforcement of viaduct pillars on the ground, the reinforcement design concept is basically same as in the open-cut tunnel. Points of difference in design and construction are explained. On the countermeasure for prevention of viaduct falling for girder bridges without the falling prevention, countermeasure investigation and design work or installation work are being carried out. Seismic resistance evaluation and design of existing bridges, and construction work are explained. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Microbiological indicators for evaluating treatability on water purification process. Josui shori ni okeru shorisei hyoka kara mita biseibutsu shihyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, H [Kanagawa Prefectural Government Public Enterprise Egency Water Works Bureau, Kanagawa (Japan). Tanigahara Purification Plant

    1990-08-10

    This report describes the historical procedure of a bacterial test for a certain respective bacteria, and also describes the removal of micro-organisms by a water treatment and treatment with disinfectants. The disinfection is made mainly on basis of foreign literature. This is because there exist few literature published in Japan. In a good sense, this is because of the Japanese habit of drinking raw water which has contributed to high level of facilities and the maintenance. If seen from a different viewpoint, the prsent concern is concentrated to a contamination of the underground water by organic solvent and the counter measure against such minute quantity of organic chemicals as trihalomethane and the agricultural chemicals in the golf courses. From the consumers {prime} standpoint, these are of the level of problems that only one affected person increases per year for 100,000 inhabitants even if they continue to drink such drinking waters continuously through their life years. The reality is that it is remote from the realities in life. 37 refs., 9 tabs.

  9. Problems in green improvement projects in recent city planning. Kinnen no toshi keikaku ni okeru ryokuchi keikaku eno kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funabiki, T. (Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-08-06

    The present city plans are questioned on the formation of a good city environment, improvement of mansion/building supply, due to the new city problems on the Tokyo concentration and re-increase of the land value recently. Based on the discussion of the central city planning council, various improvement of the system were made by government. As a structure plan of the city, the green area plan that the balance between the urban land use and the national land use is distributed, must be included. As the problem of the green area plan on the system of city plan, this paper explained the distinguish between city area and city adjustment area, the green master plan about the green area preservation in long time, the green area system corresponded to the policy for realizing the plan of preserving the green area mainly, and the park work and green area policy corresponded to the policy for realizing the plan of creating the green area.

  10. Performance of miniature electromagnetic pump at liquid nitrogen temperature; Kogata deji ponpu no ekitai chiso ondo ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, K.; Herai, T. [Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Though it cools the radiant heat shield board of superconducting magnet for levitation system railway by the liquid nitrogen, the piping on the shield board must be made to circulate the refrigerant in order to maintain the large area, which covers superconducting coil at the uniform temperature. Though as a circulating pump, it had developed thermal pumps using the heater and systems using natural circulation, etc. until now, it examined circulation performance of liquid nitrogen using the electromagnetic pump that here, it was small, and that to do the operation is sure. (NEDO)

  11. Ignition processes in the refuse bed of a refuse incineration plant. Gomi shokyakuro ni okeru gomi sonai no chakka katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goromaru, T; Onishi, K; Iwakawa, N; Yoshikuni, N [Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka, (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    The ignition process was studied in this paper, which was particularly connected with the drying process of refuse in the statical characteristics of refuse incinerators. Because of variety in refuse forms to be supplied to the incinerators, a physical model was composed, assuming that refuse was the layers of piled up refuse elements with uniform forms, and the ignition curves of the layers were drawn on the basis of the above model after a mathematical model was formed. The upper part of the curves was altered so that it suits to actual endothermic and heat velocity distribution on the assumption of temperature distribution in the incinerators at their inlet side. No particular alteration was made in their middle part, then the ignition curves were changed to almost straight lines inclined downward. Unburnt and refuse under firing were wrapped by ash and uncombustibles, so the lower part of the curves was only studied as a imaginary solid model by the two methods of finite element method and simple analytical one, and conversion was made into equivalent reduction in combustion temperature. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Consideration on characteristics of faults distributed at around Fujigawa river mouth; Fujigawa kako shuhen ni okeru danso kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashita, A; Misawa, Y [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    From the sonic prospecting on the ground, it was confirmed that faults distributed in the inner part of Suruga Bay extend near the Fujigawa river mouth. While, faults in the sea bottom were found by the sonic prospecting using a single air-gun. However, continuity of faults running from the land to the sea has not been reported. This paper describes the continuity of Fujigawa fault system running from the land to the sea around Fujigawa river mouth along the subduction zone of Philippine Sea Plate using single air-gun seismic reflection records. Locations of the faults can be expressed as fracture information of linearment obtained from the satellite remote sensing images, which agreed well with those found by the Active Fault Research Association. As a result of the image processing, they agreed distinctly with the topography of Fujigawa fault system. Thus, much more accurate analysis can be performed by comparing the regional information by the remote sensing with the sonic seismic reflection profiles. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method. Part 3. Migration; Gokusenso hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 3. Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S; Muraoka, S; Takahashi, T [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning the analysis of data obtained by the seismic reflection method, migration in the very shallow layer is discussed. When the dip angle of the reflection plane involved is disclosed by DMO conversion, the amount of migration (travelling sideways) can be calculated by use of simple geometrical formulas though on the presumption that the sector velocity is constant. Categorized into this technique are such methods as DMO conversion migration, direct dip migration, F-K method, and finite difference method. This means that waveforms are not damaged by migration processing although elongation occurs due to time base conversion. When it is taken into account that waveform distortion is generally grave in the migration related methods widely in use, this feature has to be said valuable in holding information on faults. This is especially advantageous in the very shallow layer because the amount of migration is proportionally larger when the level is deeper and, in addition, migration processing is useful when it is necessary to know more accurately the character of the fault plane. 8 figs.

  14. Water monitoring and its information management system in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu monitoring to joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, H.

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the water monitoring system (WMS) in China applied mainly to surface water and operated within the competence of the Environmental Protection Agency. The WMS consists of a national water monitoring network and a water information system that monitors surface water periodically. The WMS comprises water monitoring stations classified from class 1 to class 4, which are located in 2,222 locations. Stations from class 1 to class 3 are operated by using computers, but class 4 stations are still incapable to use floppy disks to perform information transmission. When an information management system is completed at the China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center being constructed by gratis assistance from the Japanese Government, transmission of water quality data will become possible by means of the cable line system in addition to the table system and the floppy system. The water quality data are published to general people in the forms of Chinese gazette for the environmental conditions, the environment yearbook, and the reports on environmental quality. However, the more important is to publish more publications to make people aware of the actual state of water pollution and have them cooperate in environment preservation. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Hydrogenolysis reactions characteristics of deashed coal under low temperature; Teionka ni okeru dakkai shoritan no suisoka bunkai hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal liquefaction, the effect of inorganic minerals on liquefaction reactivity and the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment on organic molecular structure of coals were studied by demineralization of low-rank coals in HCl or HF solution. In experiment, Taiheiyo coal specimen was deashed in HCl solution at 25-70{degree}C for 6 hours while agitating, and in addition, deashed in HF solution. Hydrogenolysis of the deashed coal specimen was conducted using tetralin or methylnaphthalene as solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 1.96MPa at reaction temperature of 693K for 60min. The experimental results are as follows. The ash content of Taiheiyo coal hardly offers catalysis in hydrogenolysis reaction. Carboxyl group increases in demineralization of coal because of breakage of bridged bonds. Organic structure of coal changes by demineralization in dense HF solution. Change in organic structure of coal by demineralization in dense HF solution is dependent on treatment temperature. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Analysis of flame propagation phenomenon in simplified stratified charge conditions; Tanjunkasareta sojo kyukiba ni okeru kaen denpa gensho no kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyoshi, Y; Morikawa, H [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kamimoto, T [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Since the local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration inside the cylinder affects the combustion characteristics, a basic research on combustion phenomenon in stratified charge conditions is required. The authors have made experiments with a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge field by using a removable partition, to obtain the combustion characteristics. Also, numerical calculations are made using some combustion models. As a result, the important feature that the combustion speed is faster in stratified condition than in homogeneous condition can be predicted by the two-step reaction model. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Analysis of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S; Harada, a; Miyamoto, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K

    1997-10-01

    Premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) makes it possible to achieve low NOx emission. It is an important factor to make the homogeneous spray formation for PREDIC. In this paper presents I the effect of the spray dispersion on emission characteristic were analyzed with the spray observation and engine test. Pintle type nozzle, which has different feature from orifice type nozzle, are used to form the hollow cone spray. As a result, the pintle type nozzle having grooves to generate the swirl flow, makes the reduced penetration in comparison with the hole nozzle under low ambient gas pressure. And it could improve THC, CO emissions at low NOx emission condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Power feeding to terminal devices in optical subscriber network; Hikari fuaiba tsushin ni okeru tanmatsu kiki eno kyuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, M

    1998-09-01

    This paper outlines present state of the feeding system in the light access system in consideration of backup in case of home power failure. In the optical communication, equipment with bilateral conversion function for light and electricity has to be installed both on communication service side and home side. Outline of the light access system and equipment requiring backup are shown. The following items are explained: main types of the light access system, such as FTTC (fiber to the curb), FTTP (fiber to the pole), FTTH (fiber to the home) and HFC (hybrid fiber coax), and the feeding system; problems on feeding system for the light access system. Key elements of ONU (optical network unit) for FTTH and construction of the ONU power source are illustrated. The ONU power source is composed of a backup power supply unit and main body supply unit. Backup power is indispensable to the ONU and analog telephones: output is supplied by the backup batteries in power failure. For miniaturization of the backup power source, power supply circuits and backup batteries have to be miniaturized simultaneously. History of miniaturization is explained on the experimental models. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Possibility of EV with solar cells on the new traffic system; Shinkotsu system ni okeru solar car no kanosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Kojima, S [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A possibility of a new traffic system was studied for a solar car which is light in weight, small in size and low in speed (cruising speed: 20 km/h) and does not need so much power because of the use for short distance. In the new traffic system, people travel short distance in city by solar car, and use trains for travel between cities. By installing solar cells on roofs, etc. of houses and buildings such as garages around stations, power needed for solar car and incidentally required can be supplied. Assuming the short distance transportation, the car is for one person with a height of luggage space of 70cm, mean length of 165cm, and floor height of 50cm above the ground. In case that the power generation by solar cells (256.5W) is at maximum with no shading during travel on conditions of load weight of 10kg, personnel weight of 70kg, and total weight of 250kg, it was found that solar cells can supply 89% of the required output under test road travel at speed of 20 km/h. A viability of the solar car proposed here is great. A possibility at the time of mode road travel is also studied. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Equalizing effect of the fluctuation in areal irradiance; Chiikinai ni okeru shugo nissha no hendo yokusei koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minowa, J; Kurokawa, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Otani, K; Tsuda, I; Sakuta, K [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Aggravation in electric power quality is concerned because of irregular output power caused by a large number of photovoltaic power generation systems connected with the power grids. However, averaging of the irregularity may be expected in a wide area due to time-based shift in cloud movements. In order to identify this effect, insolation data were measured in terms of planes at multiple points in the city of Tsukuba to discuss the fluctuation equalizing effect. The system is composed of nine instruments to measure insolation plane characteristics, nine terminal station units, and a base station unit. The insolation data express the horizontal plane insolation intensity at a sampling interval of one minute. Insolation fluctuation (standard deviation of insolation fluctuation components) was defined as an index of the insolation fluctuation. Based on the index, an averaging effect when the photovoltaic systems are installed in a number of locations was considered by using statistic estimation. As a result, the averaging effect was obtained even in an area with a radius of several kilometers. In addition, the measurement data revealed that there is an upper limit in the effect depending on the number of system installation. It was also made clear that the data are affected by distances to connect the photovoltaic power generation systems with each other and by climatic conditions. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Water quality and water pollution sources in Poyang lake, China; Poyang ko ni okeru suishitsu chosa to odakugen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M. [Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the current status of water quality and pollution sources in Poyang Lake in China. The lake is located in Chianghsi Province of China, and a largest fresh water lake in China that flows out into the Yangtze river. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides and faces the Yangtze on one side, whereas the plains formed by the lake and the rivers flowing in extends in the center of the basin. The plains around the lake has the city of Nanchang, the capital of the province, the city of Jiujiang (both cities have a population of about 4 million, respectively), and four other cities with a size of one million people including Jingdezhen. Water supply system in the basin is used in a 37% area of the urban areas, and no sewage facilities of whatsoever are available as of 1991. The lake has COD of about 3 mg{times}1/l. No severe pollution by organic matters is seen. While the T-P concentration is at a high level, PO4-P is low. Majority of phosphorus flowing into the basin exists in the form trapped in soil particles. In order to maintain the current water quality in the future, waste water treatment is required in the basin. Construction of an oxidation pond in the vast land exposed during the drought period is a measure that can be tackled relatively easily. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H; Matsuo, T [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y; Imanishi, H [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  3. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K; Kano, N; Yokokura, T; Kiguchi, T; Yokota, T; Matsushima, J [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Accuracy of FEM 3-D modeling in the electromagnetic methods; Denjiho ni okeru FEM 3 jigen modeling no seido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Analytical methods considering 3-D resistivity distribution, in particular, finite element method (FEM) were studied to improve the reliability of electromagnetic exploration. Integral equation, difference calculus, FEM and hybrid method are generally used as computational 3-D modeling method. FEM is widely used in various fields because FEM can easily handle complicated shapes and boundaries. However, in electromagnetic method, the assumption of continuous electric field is pointed out as important problem. The normal (orthogonal) component of current density should be continuous at the boundary between media with different conductivities, while this means that the normal component of electric field is discontinuous. In FEM, this means that current channeling is not properly considered, resulting in poor accuracy. Unless this problem is solved, FEM modeling is not practical. As one of the solutions, it is promising to specifically incorporate interior boundary conditions into element equation. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Relation between frequency of seismic wave and resolution of tomography; Danseiha tomography kaiseki ni okeru shuhasu to bunkaino no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, M; Watanabe, T; Ashida, Y; Sassa, K [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With regard to the elastic wave exploration, discussions have been given on the relationship between frequency and resolution in P-wave velocity tomography using the initial travel time. The discussions were carried out by using a new analysis method which incorporates the concept of Fresnel volume into tomography analysis. The following two arrangements were used in the calculation: a cross hole arrangement, in which seismic source and vibration receiving points were arranged so as to surround the three directions of a region extending 250 m in the horizontal direction and 500 m in the vertical direction, and observation is performed between two wells, and a permeation VSP arrangement in which the seismic source is installed on the ground surface and receiving points installed in wells. Restructuring was performed on the velocity structure by using a total of 819 observation travel times. This method has derived results of the restructuring according to frequencies of the seismic source used for the exploration. The resolution shown in the result of the restructuring has become higher as elastic waves with higher frequency are used, and the size of the structure identified from the restructuring result has decreased. This fact reveals that sufficient considerations must be given on frequencies of elastic waves used according to size of objects to be explored. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Yellowstone National Park, USA; Beikoku Yellowstone kokuritsu koen ni okeru genchi jikaritsu sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S [Geol